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  1. Association of Overweight with Food Portion Size among Adults of São Paulo - Brazil.

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    Jaqueline Lopes Pereira

    Full Text Available Although studies show that portion size affects energy intake, few have demonstrated a link between portion size and weight status, especially in free-living populations. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between food portion sizes and overweight in a representative population of adults of São Paulo, Brazil.Cross-sectional population-based study with 1005 adults from São Paulo, Brazil. Dietary data were obtained from two 24-hour recalls. Reported foods were classified into groups and energy contribution, prevalence of consumers and portion sizes were calculated. Individuals were classified according to BMI in with and without overweight. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between food portion sizes and being overweight.The most consumed food groups were: beans, breads/rolls, coffee/tea, milk, rice, and sugar. Rice, red meat, breads/rolls, and white meat were the groups with the highest percentage of contribution to total energy intake. Butter/margarine, toasts/biscuits, sugar, and cakes were the groups with the highest energy density. After adjustment for confounding variables, overweight was associated with larger portions of pizza (OR = 1.052; p = 0.048, red meat (OR = 1.025; p = 0.043, rice (OR = 1.033; p<0.001, salted snacks (OR = 1.078; p = 0.022, and soft drinks (OR = 1.016; p = 0.007.Larger portions of few food groups with different energy densities were associated with being overweight, suggesting that overweight may be related to the consumption of larger portion sizes of a series of food groups, not a food group alone. Additionally, we highlight the importance of considering underreporting as a confounding factor in these associations.

  2. Factors associated with overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Juliana Melo Teruel Biagi CAMARGO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess overweight/obesity of elementary schoolchildren in Campinas , São Paulo , Brazil, and its association with parental nutritional status, children's food consumption, food preferences, and level of physical activity, and familial socioeconomic status. Methods This case-control study included 509 schoolchildren aged 7 to 10 years. Body mass index Z-score was used to determine nutritional status, defining cases (>+1 Z-score and controls (³-2 ?+1 Z-score. To address association with overweight/obesity, a conceptual model was established and used for multiple analysis, performed by logistic regression. Results The children had an overweight/obesity frequency of 39.5%. Multiple analysis adjusted for socioeconomic level showed that overweight/obese children were more likely to eat at the mall (1.55; 95%CI=1.00-2.40, have overweight and obese parents (OR=1.71; 95%CI=1.08-2.71 and OR=3.55; 95%CI=2.18-5.80 respectively, report use of passive school transport (OR=1.57; 95%CI=1.04-2.36, and consume chicken nuggets on 3 or more days per week (OR=3.03; 95%CI=1.32-6.95. Conclusion These results support the urgent need of strategies to reduce overweight/obesity and promote its prevention in schoolchildren. Moreover, intervention studies involving parents and addressing environmental factors are important for the development of effective programs.

  3. Breast cancer mortality and associated factors in São Paulo State, Brazil: an ecological analysis.

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    Diniz, Carmen Simone Grilo; Pellini, Alessandra Cristina Guedes; Ribeiro, Adeylson Guimarães; Tedardi, Marcello Vannucci; Miranda, Marina Jorge de; Touso, Michelle Mosna; Baquero, Oswaldo Santos; Santos, Patrícia Carlos Dos; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2017-08-23

    Identify the factors associated with the age-standardised breast cancer mortality rate in the municipalities of State of São Paulo (SSP), Brazil, in the period from 2006 to 2012. Ecological study of the breast cancer mortality rate standardised by age, as the dependent variable, having each of the 645 municipalities in the SSP as the unit of analysis. The female resident population aged 15 years or older, by age group and municipality, in 2009 (mid-term), obtained from public dataset (Informatics Department of the Unified Health System). Women 15 years or older who died of breast cancer in the SSP were selected for the calculation of the breast cancer mortality rate, according to the municipality and age group, from 2006 to 2012. Mortality rates for each municipality calculated by the direct standardisation method, using the age structure of the population of SSP in 2009 as the standard. In the final linear regression model, breast cancer mortality, in the municipal level, was directly associated with rates of nulliparity (p<0.0001), mammography (p<0.0001) and private healthcare (p=0.006). The findings that mammography ratio was associated, in the municipal level, with increased mortality add to the evidence of a probable overestimation of benefits and underestimation of risks associated with this form of screening. The same paradoxical trend of increased mortality with screening was found in recent individual-level studies, indicating the need to expand informed choice for patients, primary prevention actions and individualised screening. Additional studies should be conducted to explore if there is a causality link in this association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Breast cancer mortality and associated factors in São Paulo State, Brazil: an ecological analysis

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    Diniz, Carmen Simone Grilo; Pellini, Alessandra Cristina Guedes; Ribeiro, Adeylson Guimarães; Tedardi, Marcello Vannucci; de Miranda, Marina Jorge; Touso, Michelle Mosna; Baquero, Oswaldo Santos; dos Santos, Patrícia Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Objective Identify the factors associated with the age-standardised breast cancer mortality rate in the municipalities of State of São Paulo (SSP), Brazil, in the period from 2006 to 2012. Design Ecological study of the breast cancer mortality rate standardised by age, as the dependent variable, having each of the 645 municipalities in the SSP as the unit of analysis. Settings The female resident population aged 15 years or older, by age group and municipality, in 2009 (mid-term), obtained from public dataset (Informatics Department of the Unified Health System). Participants Women 15 years or older who died of breast cancer in the SSP were selected for the calculation of the breast cancer mortality rate, according to the municipality and age group, from 2006 to 2012. Main outcome measures Mortality rates for each municipality calculated by the direct standardisation method, using the age structure of the population of SSP in 2009 as the standard. Results In the final linear regression model, breast cancer mortality, in the municipal level, was directly associated with rates of nulliparity (p<0.0001), mammography (p<0.0001) and private healthcare (p=0.006). Conclusions The findings that mammography ratio was associated, in the municipal level, with increased mortality add to the evidence of a probable overestimation of benefits and underestimation of risks associated with this form of screening. The same paradoxical trend of increased mortality with screening was found in recent individual-level studies, indicating the need to expand informed choice for patients, primary prevention actions and individualised screening. Additional studies should be conducted to explore if there is a causality link in this association. PMID:28838894

  5. Factors associated with added sugars intake among adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Colucci, Ana Carolina A; Cesar, Chester L G; Marchioni, Dirce M L; Fisberg, Regina M

    2012-08-01

    To measure added sugars intake among adolescents and describe its demographic, socioeconomic, and nutritional status determinants. The study was conducted based on a household survey carried out between March and December 2003. Food intake was assessed through 24-hour food recalls, and an adjustment approach was applied using external variance estimates derived from 195 adolescents of the same age in 2007. Population-based cross-sectional study, city of São Paulo, Brazil. Seven hundred and ninety-three male (n = 410) and female (n = 383) adolescents aged 10-19 years. MEASURE OF OUTCOME: Foods with greater contributions toward the added sugars intake were identified. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed, with calories from added sugars as the dependent continuous variable and the remaining factors (socioeconomic, demographic, lifestyle, household condition, and food intake) as independent variables. The average contribution of added sugars to total energy value was 12.28% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 11.87-12.70) with no statistically significant sex difference (p > 0.05). Soft drinks were a major source of added sugars among the adolescents (34.2% among males and 32.0% among females), followed by sugars (sucrose and honey) and chocolate powder (around 11%). In the multiple linear regression analysis, the head of household's education level and calories from protein, fats, and carbohydrates other than sugars had an independent effect on added sugars intake. This study showed that the percentage contribution of added sugars to energy intake among adolescents in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, was above the current recommended levels. Socioeconomic condition (represented by the head of the household's education level) and macronutrient intake were shown to be determinants of sugars intake.

  6. Factors associated with time free of oral candidiasis in children living with HIV/AIDS, São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Konstantyner, Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira; Silva, Aline Medeiros da; Tanaka, Luana Fiengo; Marques, Heloísa Helena de Sousa; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira

    2013-11-01

    In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children treated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005), severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p < 0.001), anemia (HR = 3.3; p < 0.001), malnutrition (HR = 2.6; p = 0.004), hospitalization (HR = 2.2; p < 0.001), monotherapy (HR = 0.5; p = 0.006), dual therapy (HR = 0.3; p < 0.001) and triple therapy/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HR = 0.1; p < 0.001). The method analyzed in the present study proved useful for the investigation of recurrent events in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

  7. Factors associated with time free of oral candidiasis in children living with HIV/AIDS, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Thais Claudia Roma de Oliveira Konstantyner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, recurrence of thrush is common in children living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with time spent free of oral candidiasis using survival analysis for recurrent events. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 287 children treated between 1985 and 2009 at a reference center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The Prentice, Williams and Peterson model for recurrent events was used for the investigation of factors associated with the time free of oral candidiasis. The following factors were associated with the time patients were free of oral candidiasis: moderate immunodepression (HR = 2.5; p = 0.005, severe immunodepression (HR = 3.5; p < 0.001, anemia (HR = 3.3; p < 0.001, malnutrition (HR = 2.6; p = 0.004, hospitalization (HR = 2.2; p < 0.001, monotherapy (HR = 0.5; p = 0.006, dual therapy (HR = 0.3; p < 0.001 and triple therapy/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HR = 0.1; p < 0.001. The method analyzed in the present study proved useful for the investigation of recurrent events in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

  8. REGIONAL OUTCROPS WITH DIDACTIC INTEREST AND SEDIMENTARY FACIES ASSOCIATION OF THE ITARARÉ GROUP AT SÃO PAULO (BRAZIL

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    Sérgio Bergamaschi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to locate and identify the outcrops considered iconic and valuable as references, not only from the point of view of Cultural or Didactic Tourism, but also in paleoenvironmental reconstruction studies, based on the lithologies that comprise the Itararé Group, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. This work also intends to relate these sites to outcrops of sedimentary facies, in an area located at south of Itu and Porto Feliz, and north of Sorocaba. The Itararé Group lies within the Paraná Basin (Paleozoic, and is composed by sedimentary sequences associated with the record of the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation event that occurred in the Gondwana supercontinent. This work is based on observations of outcrops in a macro- and mesoscopic scale, considering the characterization of external and internal aspects of the layer, the stratigraphic sequence in the outcrop, and the continuity of the layers within the mapped area. The study area has outcrops where the evidences of glaciomarine deposits predominate. Sedimentary sequences deposited in a subaquatic low-energy environment, as well as episodic deposits, in which relatively more energetic phases alternated with low hydrodynamic conditions are well-developed in the study area. There are also fluvio-deltaic environmental occurrences related to sea level oscillations linked with glacier advances and receding.

  9. Inatividade física e fatores associados em adultos, São Paulo, Brasil Physical inactivity and associated factors in adults, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Luane Margarete Zanchetta

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar prevalências de inatividade física e fatores associados, e exercícios e esportes praticados segundo escolaridade em 2.050 adultos de 18 a 59 anos de idade - Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal de base populacional com amostra estratificada e em múltiplos estágios. A inatividade física global foi aferida pelo International Physical Activity questionary - IPAQ short version, e por questão sobre prática regular de atividade física no lazer. A análise dos dados levou em conta o desenho amostral. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de inatividade física no lazer foi maior entre as mulheres. Já a inatividade física pelo IPAQ foi maior entre os homens. Modelos de regressão múltipla de Poisson indicaram, nos homens, menor inatividade física pelo IPAQ nos solteiros e separados, estudantes e aqueles que não possuíam carro. A inatividade física no lazer foi maior nos homens acima de 40 anos e com menor escolaridade ou apenas estudantes. A inatividade física pelo IPAQ, nas mulheres, foi mais prevalente entre as com maior escolaridade, ocupações menos qualificadas e viúvas; a inatividade física no lazer diminuiu com o aumento da idade e da escolaridade. Entre as modalidades praticadas no lazer, a caminhada foi a mais prevalente nas mulheres e o futebol nos homens. A maioria das modalidades foi diretamente associada à escolaridade; aproximadamente 25% dos indivíduos com mais de 12 anos de estudo praticava caminhada. CONCLUSÕES: Estes resultados sugerem que intervenções e políticas públicas de promoção da atividade física devem considerar diferenças socioeconômicas, de gênero, bem como as modalidades e o contexto em que a atividade física é praticada.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the prevalence of overall and leisure time physical inactivity and associated factors and types of exercises or sports modalities according to schooling in 2,050 adults from 18 to 59 years of age - state of São Paulo

  10. Blood lead and cadmium levels in preschool children and associated risk factors in São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro; Silva, Júlia Prestes da Rocha; Silva, Agnes Soares da; Souza, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira; Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Barbosa, Fernando; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves

    2018-05-18

    In Brazil, there are scarce data on lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination, especially for more vulnerable populations such as preschool children. In this paper, we answer two questions: (1) What are the exposure levels of lead and cadmium in preschool children, in Sao Paulo, Brazil? and (2) What are the risk factors associated with this exposure? This cross-sectional study included 50 day care centers (DCCs), totaling 2463 children aged 1-4 years. Venous blood samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. Questionnaires were administered to the parents. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between blood lead levels (BLLs) and blood cadmium levels (BCLs) and potential risk factors. The geometric mean for BLLs was 2.16 μg/dL (95% CI: 2.10-2.22 μg/dL), and the 97.5th percentile was 13.9 μg/dL (95% CI: 10.0-17.3 μg/dL). For cadmium exposure, the geometric mean for BCLs was 0.48 μg/L (95% CI: 0.47-0.50 μg/L), and the 95th percentile was 2.57 μg/L (95% CI: 2.26-2.75 μg/L). The DCCs' geographic region was associated with high BLLs and BCLs, indicating hot spots for lead and cadmium exposures. In addition, it was found that the higher the vehicles flow, the higher were the BLLs in children. Red lead in household gates was also an important risk factor for lead exposure. Comparing these results with the findings of the Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals by CDC-2013, it was found that in Brazilian preschool children the BLLs are almost three times higher (97.5th percentile) and the BCLs are almost twelve times higher (95th percentile) than those in U.S. children. This information is essential to formulate public health policies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Citrus huanglongbing in São Paulo State, Brazil: PCR detection of the 'Candidatus' Liberibacter species associated with the disease.

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    do Carmo Teixeira, Diva; Luc Danet, Jean; Eveillard, Sandrine; Cristina Martins, Elaine; de Jesus Junior, Waldir Cintra; Takao Yamamoto, Pedro; Aparecido Lopes, Silvio; Beozzo Bassanezi, Renato; Juliano Ayres, Antonio; Saillard, Colette; Bové, Joseph Marie

    2005-06-01

    Symptoms of huanglongbing (HLB), one of the most serious diseases of citrus in Asia and Africa, have been noticed in March 2004 in the Araraquara region of São Paulo State, Brazil. HLB has not been reported previously from America. The causal HLB bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter africanus in Africa and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus in Asia, can be detected in symptomatic citrus leaves by PCR amplification of their 16S rDNA with previously described primers. When this technique was applied to 43 symptomatic leaf samples from the Araraquara region, all PCR reactions were negative. This suggested that a new pathogen, not detected by the above primers, could be involved in HLB in the State of São Paulo. Indeed, by using universal primers for amplification of bacterial 16S rDNA, a new liberibacter species, Candidatus Liberibacter americanus, has recently been identified. Specific primers for PCR amplification of the 16S rDNA of Ca. L. americanus have been selected. Using these primers, the new liberibacter could be detected in 214 symptomatic leaf samples tested. The leaves of two additional samples were infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, and two further samples contained both Ca. L. americanus and Ca. L. asiaticus. The samples came from 47 farms in 35 municipalities. The psyllid vector of Ca. L. asiaticus, Diaphorina citri, is established in South, Central, and North America (Florida and Texas). Ca. L. americanus could be detected by PCR in several batches of D. citri psyllids collected on symptomatic sweet orange trees infected with Ca. L. americanus, strongly suggesting that D. citri is the vector of Ca. L. americanus. The results reported here confirm the presence of HLB in the State of São Paulo. Ca. L. americanus is the most widely distributed pathogen.

  12. Rollout of community-based family health strategy (programa de saude de familia) is associated with large reductions in neonatal mortality in São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Brentani, Alexandra; Grisi, Sandra Josefina Ferraz Ellero; Taniguchi, Mauro T; Ferrer, Ana Paula Scoleze; de Moraes Bourroul, Maria Lúcia; Fink, Günther

    2016-12-01

    Several recent studies suggest that Brazil's Estratégia Saude de Familia (Family Health Strategy-FHS) has contributed to declines in mortality at the national and regional level. Comparatively little is known whether this approach is effective in urban populations with relatively easy access to health services. To use detailed medical data collected as part of São Paulo's Western Region project to examine whether the FHS program had an impact on child health in São Paulo, Brazil. No associations were found between FHS and birth weight (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.93-1.29), gestational length (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.83-1.15) or stillbirth (OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.75-3.03). FHS eligibility was associated with a 42% reduction in the odds of child mortality (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34, 0.91), with largest effect sizes for the early neonatal period (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04-0.79). Community based health delivery platforms may be a highly effective way to reduce neonatal mortality in urban areas of low and middle income countries, even when access to general health services is almost universal.

  13. Use, access, and equity in health care services in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Monteiro, C.N. (Camila Nascimento); M.A. Beenackers (Marielle); Goldbaum, M. (Moisés); Barros, M.B.A. (Marilisa Berti de Azevedo); Gianini, R.J. (Reinaldo José); Cesar, C.L.G. (Chester Luiz Galvão); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe study analyzed how socioeconomic factors are associated with seeking, access, use, and quality of health care services in São Paulo, Brazil. Data were obtained from two household health surveys in São Paulo. We used logistic regression to analyze associations between socioeconomic

  14. Association of ecstasy seizure rates with district Human Development Index in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil, from 2000 to 2007

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    Silvio Fernandes Lapachinske

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze whether ecstasy consumption is associated with the socioeconomic status in the Municipality of São Paulo, Brazil, from 2000 to 2007. We used an official, reliable and unbiased source supplied by the Department of Narcotics of the State of São Paulo (Denarc database and the Human Development Index of the districts (HDId where the seizures occurred. A Spearman correlation test between the average number of ecstasy seizures per million of inhabitants with the HDId was used. There were 190 seizures (totaling 47,934 tablets spread out in 53 of the 96 districts and 51.6% were concentrated in only 8 districts. The higher rates of ecstasy seizures were directly associated with districts with high HDId that confirmed the association of ecstasy consumption with the socioeconomic status. Itaim-Bibi, Jardim Paulista and Moema were the top three districts with the highest HDId. In these districts, the number of tablets per seizure ranged from as few units to thousands, revealing that not only consumption but also traffic coexist at the same place. Districts with many nightclubs can also influence the incidence of seizures. This knowledge can be useful to help the police from other Brazilian cities to combat ecstasy trafficking.

  15. Dietary BCAA Intake Is Associated with Demographic, Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Factors in Residents of São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Pallottini, Ana Carolina; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Vieira, Diva Aliete Dos Santos; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2017-05-02

    Identifying which risk groups have a higher intake of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) is important for the planning of public policies. This study was undertaken to investigate BCAA consumption, the foods contributing to that consumption and their association with demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Data from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based survey ( n = 1662; age range 12-97 years), were used. Dietary intake was measured using 24-h dietary recalls. Baseline characteristics were collected. Associations between BCAA intake and demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were determined using linear regression. Total BCAA intake was 217.14 mg/kg·day (Leu: 97.16 mg/kg·day; Ile: 56.44 mg/kg·day; Val: 63.54 mg/kg·day). BCAA intake was negatively associated with female sex in adolescents and adult groups, with no white race in adolescents, and with former smoker status in adults. Conversely, BCAA was positively associated with household per capita income in adolescents and adults. No associations were observed in the older adults group. Main food contributors to BCAA were unprocessed red meat, unprocessed poultry, bread and toast, beans and rice. Adolescents and adults were the most vulnerable to having their BCCA intake influenced by demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors.

  16. Dietary BCAA Intake Is Associated with Demographic, Socioeconomic and Lifestyle Factors in Residents of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ana Carolina Pallottini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying which risk groups have a higher intake of branched chain amino acids (BCAA is important for the planning of public policies. This study was undertaken to investigate BCAA consumption, the foods contributing to that consumption and their association with demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. Methods: Data from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based survey (n = 1662; age range 12–97 years, were used. Dietary intake was measured using 24-h dietary recalls. Baseline characteristics were collected. Associations between BCAA intake and demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors were determined using linear regression. Results: Total BCAA intake was 217.14 mg/kg·day (Leu: 97.16 mg/kg·day; Ile: 56.44 mg/kg·day; Val: 63.54 mg/kg·day. BCAA intake was negatively associated with female sex in adolescents and adult groups, with no white race in adolescents, and with former smoker status in adults. Conversely, BCAA was positively associated with household per capita income in adolescents and adults. No associations were observed in the older adults group. Main food contributors to BCAA were unprocessed red meat, unprocessed poultry, bread and toast, beans and rice. Conclusions: Adolescents and adults were the most vulnerable to having their BCCA intake influenced by demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors.

  17. Factors associated with undernourishment among people 20 years old or over with HIV/AIDS, attending public health services in the São Paulo municipality, Brazil.

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    Bassichetto, Katia Cristina; Bergamaschi, Denise Pimentel; Garcia, Vania Regina Salles; Veras, Maria Amélia de Sousa Mascena

    2014-12-01

    The study evaluated the nutritional status of 629 people living with HIV/AIDS attended at 12 specialized services of São Paulo's Municipal Health Department, Brazil. Data were obtained from medical records and through interviews during nutritional consultation. We used the classification criteria established by World Health Organization to assess malnourished individuals, a BMI health care of individuals at nutritional risk.

  18. Bayesian spatial models of the association between interpersonal violence, animal abuse and social vulnerability in São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Baquero, Oswaldo Santos; Ferreira, Fernando; Robis, Marcelo; Neto, José Soares Ferreira; Onell, Jason Ardila

    2018-04-01

    Animal abuse adversely affects animal health and welfare and has been associated with interpersonal violence in studies of individuals. However, if that association also depends on sociocultural contexts and can be detected on a geographic scale, a wider source of data can be used to identify risk areas to support the surveillance of both types of violence. In this study, we evaluated the association between interpersonal violence notifications, animal abuse notifications and an index of social vulnerability in São Paulo City, on a geographic scale, using Bayesian spatial models. The social vulnerability index was a risk factor for the number of interpersonal violence notifications and presented a dose-response pattern. The number of animal abuse notifications was also a risk factor for the number of interpersonal violence notifications, even after controlling for the social vulnerability index. The incorporation of spatial effects produced marked improvements in model performance metrics and allowed the identification of excess risk clusters. Geographical data on notifications on either animal abuse or interpersonal violence should be considered incitement for investigations and interventions of both types of violence. We suggest that notifications of animal abuse be based on an explicit definition and classification, as well as on objective measurements that allow a better understanding of the species and type of abuse involved, the animal health consequences, and the context in which they occurred. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rollout of community-based family health strategy (programa de saude de familia is associated with large reductions in neonatal mortality in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Alexandra Brentani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Several recent studies suggest that Brazil’s Estratégia Saude de Familia (Family Health Strategy-FHS has contributed to declines in mortality at the national and regional level. Comparatively little is known whether this approach is effective in urban populations with relatively easy access to health services. Objectives: To use detailed medical data collected as part of São Paulo’s Western Region project to examine whether the FHS program had an impact on child health in São Paulo, Brazil. Results: No associations were found between FHS and birth weight (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.93–1.29, gestational length (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.83–1.15 or stillbirth (OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.75–3.03. FHS eligibility was associated with a 42% reduction in the odds of child mortality (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34, 0.91, with largest effect sizes for the early neonatal period (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04–0.79. Conclusions: Community based health delivery platforms may be a highly effective way to reduce neonatal mortality in urban areas of low and middle income countries, even when access to general health services is almost universal. Keywords: Infant mortality, Estratégia saude de familia, Family health strategy, Progama de saude de familia, Brazil, Community-based programs

  20. Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associated with briophytes in Brotas, State of São Paulo, Brazil Naididae (Annelida, Oligochaeta associadas a briófitas em Brotas, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

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    Guilherme Rossi Gorni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Mosses and liverworts can be colonized by various invertebrates, including fresh water oligochaete worms. However, little information is available on the habits and habitats of this oligochaetes in Brazil. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the occurrence of naidids in mosses, as well as to broaden the knowledge about the habitats of these oligochaetes. Sampling of bryophytes adhered to rock substrates in the rapids of the Jacaré Pepira River (municipality of Brotas, São Paulo, Brazil and to a vertical rock wall of a waterfall near the river revealed 191 Naididae individuals of the species Naiscommunis Piguet, 1906, Pristinellajenkinae (Stephenson, 1931 and Pristinellamenoni (Aiyer, 1929. We believe this to be the first record of naidids associated with mosses in Brazil.Musgos e hepáticas podem ser colonizados por diversos invertebrados, incluindo os vermes Oligochaeta. Contudo, existe pouca informação na literatura brasielira sobre os hábitos e hábitats destes oligoquetos. Portanto, o presente trabalho foi realizado para examinar a ocorrência de naidídeos em musgos, bem como aumentar o conhecimento dos habitats destes anelídeos. A coleta de briófitas aderidas a substratos rochosos nas corredeiras do Rio Jacaré Pepira (Brotas-SP e à parede rochosa vertical de uma cachoeira localizada nas proximidades do referido rio revelou 191 indivíduos de três espécies de Naididae: Naiscommunis Piguet, 1906, Pristinellajenkinae (Stephenson, 1931 e Pristinellamenoni (Aiyer, 1929. Acredita-se que este seja o primeiro registro de Naididae vivendo em briófitas no Brasil.

  1. Prevalence of Family Violence and Associated Factors Among In-School Adolescents in São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

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    Ralo, Janaina Maria; Schor, Neia; Tavares, Carlos Mendes; Silva, Valter

    2016-05-01

    Family violence is a social and public health issue across the world for many populations and affects many different types of people, for example, children, women, and vulnerable adults. Adolescents are one of the main victims of this important phenomenon. This article estimates the prevalence of family violence in adolescents and associated factors. The study was carried out in 2012 with a probability and representative sample of 656 adolescents aged between 11 and 17 years who were enrolled at public schools located in the extreme South of the city of São Paulo. The association was tested by the proportion test, Pearson's chi-square or Fischer's exact test, and Poisson regression adjusted by robust variance estimation, considering a level of significance of 5%. Among adolescents, 38.9% reported having been victims of family violence. Women were victimized with higher frequency (44.1%). The factors associated with prevalence of family violence were being of the female sex (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.20, 1.80]) and living only with the father (PR = 1.52; 95% CI = [1.11, 2.08]). The prevalence of adolescents who were victims of family violence is high; however, special attention must be paid to women and adolescents who live only with their father-they were established, in this study, as a risk group. Epidemiological studies of this nature are important to reveal the reality of family violence and to aid the construction of intersectoral public policies to promote health, prevent violence, and foster a peaceful culture. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. [Factors associated with condom use and knowledge about STD/AIDS among teenagers in public and private schools in São Paulo, Brazil].

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    Martins, Laura B Motta; da Costa-Paiva, Lúcia Helena S; Osis, Maria José D; de Sousa, Maria Helena; Pinto-Neto, Aarão M; Tadini, Valdir

    2006-02-01

    This study aimed to compare knowledge about STD/AIDS and identify the factors associated with adequate knowledge and consistent use of male condoms in teenagers from public and private schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We selected 1,594 adolescents ranging 12 to 19 years of age in 13 public schools and 5 private schools to complete a questionnaire on knowledge of STD/AIDS and use of male condoms. Prevalence ratios were computed with a 95% confidence interval. The score on STD knowledge used a cutoff point corresponding to 50% of correct answers. Statistical tests were chi-square and Poisson multiple regression. Consistent use of male condoms was 60% in private and 57.1% in public schools (p > 0.05) and was associated with male gender and lower socioeconomic status. Female gender, higher schooling, enrollment in private school, Caucasian race, and being single were associated with higher knowledge of STDs. Teenagers from public and private schools have adequate knowledge of STD prevention, however this does not include the adoption of effective prevention. Educational programs and STD/AIDS awareness-raising should be expanded in order to minimize vulnerability.

  3. Prevalence and factors associated to back pain in adults from the northeast of São Paulo, Brazil: a population-based study

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    Alberto De Vitta

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Back pain has become a serious public health problem. Objective: To determine the prevalence of back pain in a population-based sample of subjects over 20 years old living in the city of Bauru (São Paulo, Brazil and to analyze the associations to variables- sociodemographic, ergonomic and lifestyle-related - and to morbidity. Methods: a cross-sectional study which evaluated 600 adults over 20 years old, both gender and living in the city. We used a structured protocol and the Nordic questionnaire. Also, we developed a descriptive analysis, bivariate and multivariate by binary logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of back pain was of 50.3% (CI 46.3 to 54.3, since 42.3% (CI 36.9 to 48.0 in men and 57.6% (CI 51.9 to 63.0 in women, with statistical significant difference (p = 0.001. Different variables remained in final models when assessed by gender. For male to be widowed and divorced and smoking habits and, for women to be widowed and divorced, to work in seated position and to perform occupational activities that demand carrying and lifting weight. Conclusion: We verified high prevalence in back pain in the population of Bauru and high association to widowed/divorced in both gender, with women performing occupational activities usually or always in seated position, those who carry or lift weight in work and men who smoke.

  4. [Prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and associated factors: a population-based study in São Paulo, Brazil, 2008-2009].

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    Sousa, Clóvis Arlindo de; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Carandina, Luana; Goldbaum, Moisés; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of self-reported leisure-time physical activity and related factors in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, 2008-2009. A population- based cross-sectional study interviewed 2,691 individuals of both sexes, 12 years or older. A two-stage cluster (census tract, household) random sample provided data using home interviews in 2008 and 2009. Leisure-time physical activity was measured with IPAQ, long version. Complex sample-adjusted descriptive statistics provided prevalence estimates, chi-square tests screened associations, and prevalence ratios (PR) expressed effects. Multiple Poisson regression was used to ascertain adjusted effects, and design effects were calculated. Of the interviewees, 16.4% (95%CI: 14.3-18.7) reported leisure-time physical activity. The findings indicate the importance of encouraging leisure-time physical activity, which was associated with male sex, higher income, younger age (12 to 29 years), not smoking, and not reporting frequent fatigue.

  5. Bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae, Nycteribiidae parasitic on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera at Parque Estadual da Cantareira, São Paulo, Brazil: parasitism rates and host-parasite associations

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    Patrícia Beloto Bertola

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 443 bat flies belonging to the families Nycteribiidae and Strelidae, were collected on 22 species of bats (Molossidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae from Parque Estadual da Cantareira (São Paulo, Brazil, between January, 2000 and January, 2001. Eighteen new occurrences of bat flies were recorded on Anoura geoffroyi (Anastrebla caudiferae, Glossophaga soricina (A. caudiferae, Sturnira lilium (Trichobius phyllostomae, T. furmani, and Paraeuctenodes similis, Artibeus lituratus (A. caudiferae, A. fimbriatus (Megistopoda proxima, A. obscurus (Metelasmus pseudopterus, Myotis nigricans (M. proxima, M. aranea, Paratrichobius longicrus, M. ruber (Anatrichobius passosi, Joblingia sp., M. levis (A. passosi, M. albescens (A. passosi, Basilia andersoni, and Histiotus velatus (M. aranea. Seven new occurrences were recorded for the state of São Paulo, increasing the range for T. tiptoni, T. furmani, M. proxima, Aspidoptera falcata, A. caudiferae, A. modestini and B. andersoni. The relationships between parasitism and host sex, reproductive stage, age hyperparasitism by fungi are discussed.

  6. Factors associated with undernourishment among people 20 years old or over with HIV/AIDS, attending public health services in the São Paulo municipality, Brazil

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    Katia Cristina Bassichetto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the nutritional status of 629 people living with HIV/AIDS attended at 12 specialized services of São Paulo's Municipal Health Department, Brazil. Data were obtained from medical records and through interviews during nutritional consultation. We used the classification criteria established by World Health Organization to assess malnourished individuals, a BMI < 18.5kg/m2. The prevalence of malnutrition in people with AIDS is 3.12 times that observed among people with HIV, and among people with co-infection it is 3.41 times that obtained among people without co-infection. This indicates how these conditions can harm the maintenance of the nutritional status, and shows that they demand a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon, as well as the development of strategies to improve the health care of individuals at nutritional risk.

  7. Environmental radioactive monitoring in Itu, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring of a region near to a radioactive materials deposit in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are presented. The radioactive materials are uranium and thorium hydroxides from monazite processing. The temporal variation of 226 Ra was determined in the superficial and underground water, showing no increase for the former and a maximum concentration of 0,306 Bq/L for the latter. 21 figs., 17 tabs

  8. Prevalence of chronic spinal pain and identification of associated factors in a sample of the population of São Paulo, Brazil: cross-sectional study.

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    Depintor, Jidiene Dylese Presecatan; Bracher, Eduardo Sawaya Botelho; Cabral, Dayane Maia Costa; Eluf-Neto, José

    2016-01-01

    Chronic spinal pain, especially low-back pain and neck pain, is a leading cause of years of life with disability. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic spinal pain among individuals aged 15 years or older and to identify the factors associated with it. Cross-sectional epidemiological study on a sample of the population of the city of São Paulo. Participants were selected using random probabilistic sampling and data were collected via face-to-face interviews. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), EuroQol-5D, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Fagerström test for nicotine dependence and Brazilian economic classification criteria were used. A total of 826 participants were interviewed. The estimated prevalence of chronic spinal pain was 22% (95% confidence interval, CI: 19.3-25.0%). The factors independently associated with chronic spinal pain were: female sex, age 30 years or older, schooling level of four years or less, symptoms compatible with anxiety and high physical exertion during the main occupation. Quality of life and self-rated health scores were significantly worse among individuals with chronic spinal pain. The prevalence of chronic spinal pain in this segment of the population of São Paulo was 22.0%. The factors independently associated with chronic pain were: female sex, age 30 years or older, low education, symptoms compatible with anxiety and physical exertion during the main occupation.

  9. Fatores associados ao consumo de frutas, legumes e verduras em adultos da cidade de São Paulo Factores asociados al consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras en adultos de la ciudad de São Paulo (Sureste de Brasil Factors associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adults of the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

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    Iramaia Campos Ribeiro Figueiredo

    2008-10-01

    teléfono, totalizando 1.267 mujeres y 855 hombres. La frecuencia del consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras fue medida por medio de una guía con preguntas cortas y simples. En la evaluación de los factores asociados al consumo, se realizó análisis de regresión linear multivariada y jerarquizada, con variables sociodemográficas en el primer nivel jerárquico, de comportamiento en el segundo y relacionadas con el patrón de alimentación en el tercer nivel. RESULTADOS: La frecuencia de consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras fue mayor entre las mujeres. En los dos sexos se verificó que la frecuencia de consumo aumentaba con la edad y la escolaridad del individuo. Entre las mujeres que informaron haber realizado dieta el año anterior hubo mayor consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras. El consumo de alimentos que indican un patrón de consumo no saludable como azúcares y grasas se mostró inversamente asociado al consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras en los dos sexos. CONCLUSIONES: El consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras de la población adulta residente en Sao Paulo fue mayor entre las mujeres, estando influenciado por la edad, la escolaridad y la dieta.OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of fruit and vegetable intake by adults and to assess factors associated with this frequency. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, carried out between October and December 2003 in the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Telephone interviews were conducted on a probabilistic sample of the adult population (>18 years living in the city of Sao Paulo and with access to land telephone lines, totaling 1,267 women and 855 men. Frequency of fruit and vegetable intake was obtained by means of a questionnaire containing short, simple questions. Association of different factors with fruit and vegetable intake was assessed by multivariate linear regression using a hierarchic model with sociodemographic variables in the first hierarchical level, behavioral variables in the

  10. Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8 antibodies in women from São Paulo, Brazil: association with behavioral factors and Kaposi's sarcoma

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    Caterino-de-Araujo Adele

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the spread of AIDS, many HIV-infected women have been diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS, especially in Africa. Since the discovery of a novel herpesvirus as the causative agent of KS (human herpesvirus 8 - HHV-8 several seroepidemiological studies have been conducted to identify groups at risk for KS. The risk for women in Brazil has not been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched for HHV-8 antibodies in sera obtained from a bank made up of samples from 3 groups of individuals: Group I: 163 HIV-1-infected women attended at an ambulatory clinic in 1994; Group II: 108 children born to HIV-1-infected mothers from 1990 to 1992, their antibodies reflected maternal infection, and Group III: 630 HIV-1-seronegative, healthy women. In-house immunofluorescence and Western-Blot assays based on the BCBL-1 cell line were used to detect anti-latent and anti-lytic HHV-8 antibodies. RESULTS: Group I had an overall frequency of antibodies of 8.6%, with a 1.2% frequency of anti-latent antibodies and an 8.0% frequency of anti-lytic antibodies. Similar results were detected in Group II, i.e., no cases with anti-latent antibodies and a 7.4% frequency of anti-lytic antibodies. In contrast, prevalences of 1.1% anti-latent antibodies and 0.3% anti-lytic antibodies were observed in Group III. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiologic pattern of HHV-8 in women from São Paulo varies according to behavioral factors, with emphasis on the sexual and blood routes of virus transmission/acquisition. Although HHV-8 anti-lytic antibodies were found in HIV-1-infected women, no case of KS was detected. Protective factors against KS are probably related to gender and/or to antiretroviral therapies introduced in Brazil since 1994.

  11. [Health education in Brazil: from Paulo Freire to today].

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    Masselli, Maria Cecilia; Vieira, Carla Maria; Oliveira, Nayara L S; Smeke, Elizabeth L M

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the experience of Brazil in the area of health education integrated in popular education movements. More specifically, the paper discusses the link between health education and popular education, focusing in particular on the work of Paulo Freire. Anti-slavery movements, protest movements against social inequalities and the reconstruction of democracy after the end of the military dictatorship (1965-1984) provided fertile ground for a dynamic process of change--a process illustrated by the creation of the Unified Health System. These developments occurred in a context of social change and unrest. Since then, other actors and other forms of action have emerged, though creativity and popular empowerment remain central to the process of change. However, in popular education, nothing is set in stone and new issues have emerged, as Paulo Freire had predicted. The point is to recognize that popular education applied to health, or rather integrating health, is constantly changing and developing.

  12. Dipterofauna Associated with Sus scrofa Linné, 1758, Carcasses in Urban and Coastal Regions of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Maria Luiza Cavallari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadaverous entomofauna successions vary according to the region, environment, and climate, and such differences may occur within the same country due to seasonal variations. The present study aimed to analyze and compare the dipterofauna that visit or colonize carcasses in the urban and coastal areas of São Paulo, Brazil, during summer and winter seasons. Four swine (Sus scrofa Linné, 1758 carcasses of approximately 12 kg were used. The animals were previously euthanized and then placed in metal cages covered with a flight intercept trap (Shannon, modified. In total, 10,495 flies from 39 families were collected, with 15 species belonging to the Calliphoridae family, 14 species belonging to the Fanniidae family, 43 species belonging to the Muscidae family, and 22 species belonging to the Sarcophagidae family. Flies from these four families visited all carcasses; however, they did not show the highest visitation frequencies in all of the trials. Species variations occurred between the experiments that were performed at different locations and in different seasons. Furthermore, difference in the number of insects attracted to each stage of decomposition was observed. In addition to the four families highlighted above, the families Phoridae, Sepsidae, Otitidae, and Piophilidae were observed in all carcasses.

  13. Risk factors associated with the transmissionof Brazilian spotted fever in the Piracicaba river basin, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Celso Eduardo de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is a disease transmitted by ticks for which the etiological agent is Rickettsia rickettsii. The present essay evaluates the risk factors associated with the transmission of cases of BSF in the time period between 2003 and 2013 in the Piracicaba river basin, state of São Paulo. METHODS : This essay presents a retrospective study to identify the factors associated with the transmission of cases of BSF among all suspected cases identified by the System for Epidemiological Surveillance of São Paulo (CVE. After the description of temporal distribution (onset of symptoms and the environmental and demographic variations of the confirmed and discarded cases, a multiple logistic regression model was applied. RESULTS : We searched 569 probable locations of infection (PLI with 210 (37% confirmed cases of BSF and 359 (63% discarded cases. The associated variables for the confirmation of BSF in the multiple logistic model using a confidence interval (CI of 95% were age (OR = 1.025 CI: 1.015-1.035, the presence of Amblyomma sculptum in the environment (OR = 1.629 CI: 1.097-2.439, the collection of ticks from horses (OR = 1.939 CI: 0.999-3.764, the presence of capybaras (OR = 1.467 CI: 1.009-2.138, an urban environment (OR = 1.515 CI: 1.036-2.231, and the existence of a dirty pasture (OR = 1.759 CI: 1.028-3.003. CONCLUSIONS : The factors associated with the confirmation of BSF cases included an urban environment, age, presence of the A. sculptum vector, the collection of ticks from horses, the presence of a capybara population, and a dirty pasture environment.

  14. Evaluating the quality of outbreak reports on health care-associated infections in São Paulo, Brazil, during 2000-2010 using the ORION statement findings and recommendations.

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    Maciel, Amanda Luiz Pires; de Assis, Denise Brandão; Madalosso, Geraldine; Padoveze, Maria Clara

    2014-04-01

    The standard of outbreak reports must be improved to a level where they are robust enough to properly influence preventive strategies. We aimed to verify compliance with mandatory outbreak notification, describing epidemiologic characteristics and management, and evaluating the quality of outbreak reports on health care-associated infections in São Paulo State, Brazil. A systematic search was carried out on PubMed, the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database, Embase, Outbreak Database, the Annals of Brazilian Conferences on Healthcare-Associated Infection Prevention and Infectious Diseases, and reports from the São Paulo State Hospital Infection Division. The quality of reports was evaluated according to the Outbreak Reports and Intervention studies of Nosocomial Infection (ORION) statement guidelines. A total of 87 outbreak reports were identified; however, only 15 outbreaks (17.2%) were reported to the São Paulo State Hospital Infection Division. Bloodstream infection and neonatal intensive care units were mostly implicated (23% and 19.5%, respectively). Quality, evaluated according to ORION statement recommendations, was generally poor. The ORION categories of Background, Objectives, Participants, Setting, Infection-Related Outcomes, and Generality were properly described in 32.2%, 74.7%, 2.3%, 46%, 2.3%, and 12.6% of reports, respectively. Interventions and Culture-Typing were described with details in 51.9% and 55.2% of outbreak reports, respectively. Our findings pointed out the need for strategies to improve competence in outbreak reports, and the ORION statement guidelines may help in this matter. Efforts to promote confidence and consequent compliance with mandatory notification of outbreak reports are essential. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Consumo infantil de alimentos industrializados e renda familiar na cidade de São Paulo Association of children's consumption of processed foods and family income in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rita de Cássia de Aquino

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever o consumo infantil de alimentos industrializados e a relação com a renda familiar per capita, com base em inquérito domiciliar. MÉTODOS: O consumo alimentar de uma amostra probabilística da população infantil residente na cidade de São Paulo, entre zero e 59 meses de idade (n=718, foi estudado em 1995/1996 por meio de inquérito recordatório de 24h. Analisou-se a relação entre o consumo de 24 alimentos industrializados e a renda familiar per capita, distribuída em quartis. RESULTADOS: O consumo de açúcar foi maior entre as crianças de menor renda, enquanto achocolatados, chocolates, iogurte, leite em pó modificado e refrigerantes foram mais consumidos por crianças de maior renda familiar per capita (pOBJECTIVE: To describe children's consumption of processed foods and its relationship with per capita family income based on a household survey. METHODS: Food consumption was studied in a statistical sample of 718 children living in the city of São Paulo in the period 1995-1996. A 24-hour dietary recall was used. Data regarding the association of children's consumption of 24 processed foods and per capita family income (arranged in quartiles was analyzed. RESULTS: Consumption of sugar was higher among children of low income families whereas the consumption of chocolate powder, chocolate, yogurt, infant formula and soft drinks was higher among children of high income families (p< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that per capita family income affects the consumption of some processed foods.

  16. Prevalence of chronic spinal pain and identification of associated factors in a sample of the population of São Paulo, Brazil: cross-sectional study

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    Jidiene Dylese Presecatan Depintor

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic spinal pain, especially low-back pain and neck pain, is a leading cause of years of life with disability. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of chronic spinal pain among individuals aged 15 years or older and to identify the factors associated with it. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional epidemiological study on a sample of the population of the city of São Paulo. METHOD: Participants were selected using random probabilistic sampling and data were collected via face-to-face interviews. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, EuroQol-5D, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, Fagerström test for nicotine dependence and Brazilian economic classification criteria were used. RESULTS: A total of 826 participants were interviewed. The estimated prevalence of chronic spinal pain was 22% (95% confidence interval, CI: 19.3-25.0%. The factors independently associated with chronic spinal pain were: female sex, age 30 years or older, schooling level of four years or less, symptoms compatible with anxiety and high physical exertion during the main occupation. Quality of life and self-rated health scores were significantly worse among individuals with chronic spinal pain. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of chronic spinal pain in this segment of the population of São Paulo was 22.0%. The factors independently associated with chronic pain were: female sex, age 30 years or older, low education, symptoms compatible with anxiety and physical exertion during the main occupation.

  17. Alcohol and drug involvement in motorcycle driver injuries in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil: Analysis of crash culpability and other associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Heraclito Barbosa; Andreuccetti, Gabriel; Rezende, Marcelo Rosa; Bernini, Celso; Silva, Jorge Santos; Leyton, Vilma; D'Andréa Greve, Julia Maria

    2016-05-01

    Earlier studies have already identified that a greater proportion of injured drivers are under the effects of illicit drugs than alcohol in Brazil, but the crash risk attributable to each substance is still unknown. Injured motorcycle drivers who were involved in traffic accidents in the West Zone of the city of Sao Paulo were recruited for a cross-sectional study based on crash culpability analysis. Alcohol and drug positivity among drivers was evaluated according to their responsibility for the crash. Culpability ratios were generated based on the proportion of drivers who were deemed culpable in relation to those considered not culpable according to the use of drugs and alcohol. Of the 273 drivers recruited, 10.6% tested positive for alcohol. Among those who were also tested for drugs (n=232), 20.3% had consumed either alcohol and/or other drugs, 15.5% of whom were positive only for drugs other than alcohol, specifically cannabis and cocaine. Drivers who tested positive for alcohol were significantly less likely to possess a valid driver's license and to report driving professionally, whereas those who had consumed only drugs were more likely to drive professionally. The culpability ratio estimated for alcohol-positive drivers was three times higher than that for alcohol-free drivers, showing a superior ratio than drivers who had consumed only drugs other than alcohol, who presented a 1.7 times higher culpability ratio than drug-free drivers. Substance use was overrepresented among culpable motorcycle drivers, with alcohol showing a greater contribution to crash culpability than other drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Causas básicas e associadas de morte por Aids, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 1998 Aids as underlying and associated causes of death, State of S. Paulo, Brazil, 1998

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    Augusto Hasiak Santo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever o padrão da mortalidade devida a Aids segundo causas básica e associadas de morte no Estado de São Paulo, em 1998. MÉTODOS: Os dados sobre a mortalidade e a população residente no Estado de São Paulo, SP, para 1998, foram obtidos na Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados (Seade. As causas de morte foram codificadas pelas disposições da Décima Revisão da Classificação Estatística Internacional de Doenças e Problemas Relacionados à Saúde. Os registros de Aids como causa básica e associada de morte foram recuperados e revistos. RESULTADOS: A Aids foi a causa básica em 4.619 mortes, correspondendo à décima causa (2,0% e ao coeficiente de mortalidade de 13,1 por 100.000 habitantes. As razões das mortes e os respectivos coeficientes entre homens e mulheres foram de 2,4 e 2,5. A Aids foi a segunda causa entre os homens de 20 a 34 anos de idade e entre as mulheres de 25 a 34. A idade média ao morrer entre as mulheres (34,1±12,2 anos foi estatisticamente menor que a dos homens (36,4±10,7 anos -- pOBJECTIVES: To describe the Aids mortality according to its underlying and associated causes of death in the State of S. Paulo in 1998. METHODS: Mortality and population data for 1998 were obtained from the State Data Analysis System Department (Fundação Sistema Estadual de Análise de Dados - Seade. Causes of death were coded according to the Tenth Revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. RESULTS: Aids was the underlying cause in 4,619 deaths, corresponding to the 10th leading cause of death (2.0% and a mortality rate of 13.1/100,000 population. Male/female death ratio and rate ratios were respectively 2.4 and 2.5. Aids was the second leading cause of death among men aged 20--34 and women aged 25--34 years. Median age at death for women (34.1±12.2 years old was lower than men (36.4±10.7 years old -- p<0,001. The main associated causes of Aids

  19. Fatores associados ao sedentarismo no lazer em idosos, Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil Variables associated with sedentary leisure time in the elderly in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Maria Paula do Amaral Zaitune

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer a prevalência de sedentários no lazer (que referem não praticar nenhum exercício físico no lazer ao menos uma vez por semana em idosos de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, segundo fatores demográficos e sócio-econômicos, outros comportamentos relacionados à saúde e à presença de morbidades. Trata-se de um estudo transversal, de base populacional, com amostragem em múltiplos estágios. A análise dos dados levou em conta o desenho amostral. A prevalência de sedentários foi 70,9%, sendo que as razões de prevalências foram significativamente maiores que um para os idosos de menor renda (1,31: 1,11-1,55, tabagistas (1,39: 1,23-1,57, com transtorno mental comum (1,20: 1,04-1,39 e do sexo feminino (1,16: 1,00-1,35. A prevalência de caminhada foi 23,5%, seguida por ginástica ou musculação (3,8% e por natação ou hidroginástica (3,6%. Os resultados apontam para a necessidade do desenvolvimento de ações globais com respeito aos comportamentos relacionados à saúde. Atenção especial deve ser dada aos idosos do sexo feminino, àqueles com transtorno mental comum e aos de menor nível sócio-econômico a fim de garantir eqüidade em relação às práticas de promoção da saúde.The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of sedentary leisure time (no type of leisure-time exercise once a week or more among the elderly in the city of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, according to demographic and socioeconomic factors, other health-related behaviors, and the presence of morbidity. This was a population-based cross-sectional study with multiple-stage sampling. Data analysis considered the sample design. Prevalence of sedentary leisure time was 70.9%, and the prevalence ratio was significantly higher than 1.0 for the elderly with lower socioeconomic status (1.31: 1.11-1.55, smokers (1.39: 1.23-1.57, those with common mental disorders (1.20: 1.04-1.39, and females (1.16: 1

  20. Associated factors for higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and reference values derived from general population of São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen Silvia; Sakuma, Alice Momoyo; De Capitani, Eduardo Mello; Umbelino de Freitas, Clarice; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves; Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Human activities are associated with emissions of various metals into the environment, among which the heavy metals lead and cadmium stand out, as they pose a risk to human life even at low concentrations. Thus, accurate knowledge of the levels of these metals exhibited by the overall population, including children, is important. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentrations of lead and cadmium in the blood of adults, adolescents and children residing in the city of São Paulo, assess factors associated with higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and to establish reference values for this population. The study sample consisted of 669 adults over 20 years old, 264 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old and 391 children under 11 years old from both genders. The samples were collected at the end of 2007 and during 2008 in different city zones. Higher blood lead concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence and age. The blood cadmium concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, consumption of distilled beverages and age. The reference values of lead and cadmium established for adults above 20 years old were 33 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively, for adolescents (12 to 19 years old) were 31 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively and for children under 11 years old were 29 μg/L and 0.2 μg/L, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the exposure levels of the investigated population to lead and cadmium are low. - Highlights: • The exposure of population of São Paulo city to lead and cadmium is low. • Pb level was associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence, age. • Cd level was associated with gender, smoking, distilled beverages, age. • RV for Pb in blood for children and adolescents were 29 and 31 μg/L, respectively. • RV for Cd in blood for children and adolescents were 0.2 and 0.6 μg/L, respectively.

  1. Associated factors for higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and reference values derived from general population of São Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Carmen Silvia, E-mail: carmkira@ial.sp.gov.br [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Centro de Materiais de Referência, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 355, São Paulo, SP CEP 01246-000 (Brazil); Sakuma, Alice Momoyo [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Centro de Materiais de Referência, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 355, São Paulo, SP CEP 01246-000 (Brazil); De Capitani, Eduardo Mello [Universidade Estadual de Campinas — UNICAMP, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Departamento de Clínica Médica, Centro de Controle de Intoxicações (Brazil); Umbelino de Freitas, Clarice [Secretaria de Estado da Saúde/SP, Coordenadoria de Controle de Doenças (Brazil); Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves [Universidade de São Paulo, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Departamento de Epidemiologia (Brazil); Gouveia, Nelson [Universidade de São Paulo — USP, Faculdade de Medicina, Departamento de Medicina Preventiva (Brazil)

    2016-02-01

    Human activities are associated with emissions of various metals into the environment, among which the heavy metals lead and cadmium stand out, as they pose a risk to human life even at low concentrations. Thus, accurate knowledge of the levels of these metals exhibited by the overall population, including children, is important. The aim of this study was to estimate the concentrations of lead and cadmium in the blood of adults, adolescents and children residing in the city of São Paulo, assess factors associated with higher lead and cadmium blood levels, and to establish reference values for this population. The study sample consisted of 669 adults over 20 years old, 264 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old and 391 children under 11 years old from both genders. The samples were collected at the end of 2007 and during 2008 in different city zones. Higher blood lead concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence and age. The blood cadmium concentration was significantly associated with gender, smoking, consumption of distilled beverages and age. The reference values of lead and cadmium established for adults above 20 years old were 33 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively, for adolescents (12 to 19 years old) were 31 μg/L and 0.6 μg/L, respectively and for children under 11 years old were 29 μg/L and 0.2 μg/L, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the exposure levels of the investigated population to lead and cadmium are low. - Highlights: • The exposure of population of São Paulo city to lead and cadmium is low. • Pb level was associated with gender, smoking, offal intake, area of residence, age. • Cd level was associated with gender, smoking, distilled beverages, age. • RV for Pb in blood for children and adolescents were 29 and 31 μg/L, respectively. • RV for Cd in blood for children and adolescents were 0.2 and 0.6 μg/L, respectively.

  2. Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense associado ao superbrotamento do hibisco (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. no Estado de São Paulo Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense associated with hibiscus witches' broom in the State of São Paulo-Brazil

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    Eliane Gonçalves da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de hibisco com superbrotamento e definhamento seguido de morte têm sido observadas nos municípios de São Paulo, Campinas e Piracicaba. Como os sintomas são sugestivos daqueles induzidos por fitoplasmas, o presente trabalho buscou identificar o possível fitoplasma associado com a doença. Assim, 14 plantas sintomáticas de hibisco foram coletadas em Piracicaba (SP e submetidas ao PCR duplo com os primers P1/Tint-R16F2n/R2 e ao exame em microscópio eletrônico de transmissão. A identificação foi realizada por análise de RFLP com as enzimas de restrição BfaI, DraI, HaeIII, HhaI, HpaII, MboI, MseI, RsaI e TaqI. Testes de transmissão foram conduzidos com enxertia de ramos e uso de Cuscuta subinclusa. Os resultados de nested-PCR revelaram a presença consistente de fitoplasmas em todas as plantas sintomáticas e foram confirmados pela observação de corpúsculos pleomórficos no floema, através da microscopia eletrônica. A análise de RFLP mostrou que o fitoplasma encontrado em hibisco pertence ao grupo 16SrXV, o mesmo grupo do Candidatus Phytoplasma brasiliense. O fitoplasma foi transmitido de planta doente para sadia, tanto pela enxertia como pela C. subinclusa, demonstrando ser o agente do superbrotamento do hibisco.Ornamental hibiscus have been affected by shoot proliferation and decline followed by death in several cities in São Paulo State, especially São Paulo, Campinas and Piracicaba. As the symptoms are suggestives of those induced by phytoplasmas, the present work aimed to identify the possible phytoplasma associated with the disease. Fourteen symptomatic hibiscus were sampled in Piracicaba, submitted to nested-PCR with the primers P1/Tint-R16F2n/R2 and processed by transmission electron microscopy. The identification was made by RFLP analyses with the restriction enzymes BfaI, DraI, HaeIII, HhaI, HpaII, MboI, MseI, RsaI, and TaqI. Transmission assays were performed by grafting and Cuscuta subinclusa. The presence

  3. Fatores associados à assistência pré-natal entre mulheres de baixa renda no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Factors associated with pre-natal care among low income women, State of S.Paulo, Brazil

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    Maria José Duarte Osis

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados resultados de pesquisa que avaliou o Programa de Assistência Integral à Saúde da Mulher (PAISM, realizada em 1988, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram entrevistadas 3.703 mulheres de baixa renda que tinham entre 15 e 49 anos de idade, utilizando um questionário estruturado e pré-testado. Os resultados referem-se às 669 mulheres grávidas durante 1987 ou 1988 que responderam às questões sobre assistência pré-natal, parto e puerpério. Foi analisada a associação entre algumas de suas características sociodemográficas e comparecimento às consultas pré-natais, a idade gestacional em que foi feita a primeira consulta e o número total de consultas. Os resultados mostraram associação entre características sociodemográficas e comparecimento ao pré-natal. A maior percentagem de grávidas que fizeram pré-natal tinham mais que o primeiro grau de escolaridade. Foi maior a proporção de mulheres que começaram o pré-natal até o terceiro mês de gravidez entre aquelas que não tinham filho vivo (74%, que viviam com um companheiro (70%, que tinham mais que o primeiro grau de escolaridade (88% e as que moravam no interior do Estado (71%.This paper presents the results of a study carried out in 1988 in the State of S. Paulo, with the purpose of evaluating the Program for Women's Integral Health Care. A total of 3.703 low income women of 15-49 years of age were interviewed using a structured, pre-tested form. The data in this paper relate to 669 women who had been pregnant during 1987 or 1988 and who were asked about pre-natal, delivery and post-partum care. The association between some of their socio-demographic characteristics and the pre-natal care received, months pregnant at the time of first visit and total number of visits, were analysed. Results showed an association between socio-economic characteristics and pre-natal care received. The greatest percentage of pregnant women who had had pre-natal care was

  4. Metals in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticianelli, Regina B.; Ribeiro, Andreza P.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.; Nammoura-Neto, Georges M.; Silva, Nathalia C.

    2009-01-01

    Sao Paulo is the largest city in Brazil with about 19 millions of inhabitants in the metropolitan area, more than 8 million motor vehicles and strong industrial activity at the metropolitan region, which are responsible for increasing pollution in the region. Nevertheless, there is little information on metal contents in the metropolitan region soils, which would be very useful as a fingerprint of the environmental pollution. The present study aimed to determine As, Ba, Co, Cr, Sb and Zn concentrations in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic downtown Sao Paulo city: Consolacao/Reboucas Avenues; 23 de Maio Avenue and Tiradentes Avenue, to assess their possible sources and potential environmental impact. The analytical technique employed was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The results show metal concentration levels higher than the values reference values for soils of Sao Paulo, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State Sao Paulo (CETESB) guidelines. As, Ba and Zn showed concentration levels above the Intervention Values in some points, indicating direct or indirect potential risks to human health. The traffic related element Ba, Sb and Zn presented concentrations above the Prevention Values in points with high density traffic and may be associated to vehicular emissions. (author)

  5. Investigating environmental determinants of diet, physical activity, and overweight among adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Patricia Constante; Duran, Ana Clara; Sarti, Flávia Mori; Lock, Karen

    2011-06-01

    There is worldwide recognition that the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity-related health problems is rapidly increasing in low- and middle-income countries. Environmental determinants of obesity are likely to differ between countries, particularly in those undergoing rapid socioeconomic and nutrition transitions such as Brazil. This study aims to describe some built environment and local food environment variables and to explore their association with the overweight rate and diet and physical activity area-level aggregated indicators of adults living in the city of Sao Paulo, the largest city in Brazil. This formative study includes an ecological analysis of environmental factors associated with overweight across 31 submunicipalities of the city of Sao Paulo using statistical and spatial analyses. Average prevalence of overweight was 41.69% (95% confidence interval 38.74, 44.64), ranging from 27.14% to 60.75% across the submunicipalities. There was a wide geographical variation of both individual diet and physical activity, and indicators of food and built environments, favoring wealthier areas. After controlling for area socioeconomic status, there was a positive correlation between regular fruits and vegetables (FV) intake and density of FV specialized food markets (r = 0.497; p fast-food restaurant density and overweight prevalence was found. A negative association between overweight prevalence and density of parks and public sport facilities was seen (r = -0.527; p food access and health inequalities.

  6. Fatores associados à prática de atividade física global e de lazer em idosos: Inquérito de Saúde no Estado de São Paulo (ISA-SP, Brasil Factors associated with global and leisure-time physical activity in the elderly: a health survey in São Paulo (ISA-SP, Brazil

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    Maria Paula do Amaral Zaitune

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo foi medir a prevalência e os fatores associados à prática de atividade física global e de lazer em idosos (60 anos e mais. Estudo transversal de base populacional, com amostragem em múltiplos estágios que envolveu 1.950 idosos, residentes em áreas do Estado de São Paulo. A prevalência de atividade física global (avaliada pela versão curta do Questionário Internacional de Atividade Física - QIAF foi de 73,9% e no lazer de 28,4%. Os resultados apontam para diferenças entre os fatores associados à atividade física global e no lazer. Os segmentos sociais mais vulneráveis ao sedentarismo global e, em especial ao sedentarismo no contexto de lazer, devem ser os alvos preferenciais das políticas de saúde que buscam a promoção de estilos de vida mais saudáveis.The purpose of this study was to measure the prevalence of global and leisure-time physical activity and associated factors in the elderly. This was a population-based cross-sectional study covering a multiple-stage sample of 1,950 subjects 60 years or older living in areas of São Paulo State, Brazil. Prevalence of global physical activity (assessed through the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire - IPAQ was 73.9%, and prevalence of leisure-time physical activity was 28.4%. The results highlight the differences between factors associated with global and leisure-time physical activities. The social groups most prone to overall sedentary lifestyle and especially to lack of leisure-time physical activity should be the main targets of health policies aimed at promoting healthier lifestyles.

  7. Vegetarianism and Eating Disorder Risk Behavior in Adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil

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    Camilla CP Estima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate eating disorders risk behaviors and unhealthy weight control practices among adolescents who consider themselves as vegetarians and those who are omnivorous.Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 technical schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample included 1167 adolescents (51% female, aged 14 to 19 (mean age, 16. Adolescents stated whether they  were currently vegetarian, and the sample was dichotomized as vegetarian and non-vegetarian. The two groups were compared as regards weight status, eating disorder risk behavior, unhealthy weight control methods and the perception of healthy eating.Results: About 4% of the sample was currently vegetarian, most of them female (70.8%, and females were 2.89 times more likely to be vegetarian than males. No relationship was found between the vegetarian status and unhealthy weight control behavior; however the vegetarian group considered their diet to be healthier than the non-vegetarian group (P=.04.Conclusions: The frequency of vegetarianism, as well the frequency of eating disorder risk behaviors had no association in this adolescent sample from São Paulo, Brazil.

  8. Compulsive sexual behavior and psychopathology among treatment-seeking men in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanavino, Marco de Tubino; Ventuneac, Ana; Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar; Tavares, Hermano; do Amaral, Maria Luiza Sant'ana; Messina, Bruna; dos Reis, Sirlene Caramello; Martins, João Paulo Lian Branco; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2013-10-30

    This study examined compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) and psychopathology in a treatment-seeking sample of men in São Paulo, Brazil. Eighty-six men (26% gay, 17% bisexual, 57% heterosexual) who met diagnostic criteria for excessive sexual drive and sexual addiction completed assessments consisting of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders-Clinical Version (segment for Impulse Control Disorder), Sexual Compulsivity Scale (SCS), and questions about problematic CSB. The average SCS score for our sample was above the cut-off score reported in other studies, and 72% of the sample presented at least one Axis I psychiatric diagnosis. There were no differences among gay, bisexual, and heterosexual men on SCS scores and psychiatric conditions, but gay and bisexual men were more likely than heterosexual men to report casual sex and sex with multiple casual partners as problematic behaviors. SCS scores were associated with psychiatric co-morbidities, mood disorder, and suicide risk, but diagnosis of a mood disorder predicted higher SCS scores in a regression analysis. The study provides important data on the mental health needs of men with CSB in São Paulo, Brazil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dislipidemias e alguns fatores de risco associados em uma população periférica da Região Metropolitana de São Paulo, SP - Brasil. um estudo piloto Lipemic disorders and some associated risk factors in a population on the outs kirts of Greater S. Paulo, SP, Brazil

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    Ignez Salas Martins

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se levantamento da prevalência de dislipidemias e alguns fatores de risco (hipertensão, obesidade e alcoolismo, em uma população típica da periferia do Município de São Paulo, SP (Brasil. A prevalência de um ou mais fatores de risco foi maior do que 50% em todos os grupos etários. No que concerne às dislipidemias propriamente ditas, foi de aproximadamente 49%, 58% e 57% nos grupos etários de 20 a 39 anos, 40 a 59 anos e 60 anos e mais, respectivamente. A dislipidemia mais freqüente foi devido a baixos níveis de HDL-colesterol, principalmente nos mais jovens, entre 29 e 39 anos. Nos outros dois grupos etários houve prevalência maior de "outras dislipidemias". A obesidade isolada ou associada foi o fator de risco mais relevante na população estudada. Levanta-se a hipótese de que as dislipidemias podem constituir-se em grave problema de Saúde Pública nas populações periféricas da cidade de São Paulo.A survey of the prevalence of lipemic disorders and some risk factors associated with them (obesity, hypertension and alcoholism, in a representative sample of the population of 20 years of age and over in a locality typical of the peripheral zone of the Greater S. Paulo Region, Brazil, both in terms of the poverty of the population and with regard to the lack of public sources such as sewage, transport and housing, is undertaken. The following results were obtained: a the prevalence of one risk factor was of about 55%, and of two or more associated risk factors was of approximately 9% in the age group from 20 to 39. There was found to be a prevalence of about 51% and 57%, respectively of two or more associated risk factors for the age groups from 40 to 59 and 60 years of age and over; b the prevalence of lipemic disorders proper was of about 49%, 58% and 57% respectively, for the age groups of 20 to 39, 40 to 59 and 60 years of age and over. In these cases the most prevalent risk factors among men were alcoholism and

  10. Feline sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis: an emerging animal infection in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Hildebrando; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Dias, Maria Adelaide Galvão; da Silva, Elisabete Aparecida; Bernardi, Fernanda; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires

    2014-11-19

    Sporotrichosis is a mycotic infectious disease that is generally acquired by traumatic inoculation of contaminated materials especially from plant debris or through bites and scratches from diseased animals, such as domestic cats. It affects the skin, lymphatic system, and other organs in the warm-blooded host. Etiological agents are embedded in the plant-associated order Ophiostomatales. With essential differences between possible outbreak sources and ecological niche, host-environment interactions are classic determinants of risk factors for disease acquisition. Sporotrichosis outbreaks with zoonotic transmission, such as those that are ongoing in southern and southeastern Brazil, have highlighted the threat of cross-species pathogen transmission. Sporothrix brasiliensis has emerged as a human threat owing to the intimate contact pattern between diseased cats and humans in endemic areas. We describe the recent emergence of feline sporotrichosis in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, with an overwhelming occurrence of S. brasiliensis as the etiological agent. A phylogenetic and a haplotype approach were used to investigate the origin of this epidemic and the impact of feline transmission on genetic diversity. During the last 3-year period, 163 cases of feline sporotrichosis were reported in São Paulo with proven S. brasiliensis culture. The haplotype diversity of feline S. brasiliensis isolates revealed the expansion of a clonal population with low genetic diversity. Haplotype analysis confirmed that isolates from São Paulo shared the haplotype originated in the long-lasting outbreak of cat-transmitted sporotrichosis in Rio de Janeiro, which differed from the haplotype circulating in the Rio Grande do Sul epidemic. The fast spread of sporotrichosis in a short period of time highlights the potential for outbreaks and suggests that the mycosis may affect an urban population with a high concentration of susceptible felines. The feline sporotrichosis

  11. Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Karina Camasmie Abe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological research suggests that air pollution may cause chronic diseases, as well as exacerbation of related pathologies such as cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates air pollution scenarios considering a Health Impact Assessment approach in São Paulo, Brazil. We have analyzed abatement scenarios of Particulate Matter (PM with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10, <2.5 μm (PM2.5 and ozone concentrations and the health effects on respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the period from 2009 to 2011 through the APHEKOM tool, as well as the associated health costs. Considering World Health Organization (WHO standards of PM2.5 (10 μg/m3, São Paulo would avoid more than 5012 premature deaths (equivalent to 266,486 life years’ gain and save US$15.1 billion annually. If São Paulo could even diminish the mean of PM2.5 by 5 μg/m3, nearly 1724 deaths would be avoided, resulting in a gain of US$ 4.96 billion annually. Reduced levels of PM10, PM2.5 and ozone could save lives and an impressive amount of money in a country where economic resources are scarce. Moreover, the reduced levels of air pollution would also lower the demand for hospital care, since hospitalizations would diminish. In this sense, Brazil should urgently adopt WHO air pollution standards in order to improve the quality of life of its population.

  12. The Monitoring Of Thunderstorm In Sao Paulo's Urban Areas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, R. B.; Pereira, A.; Beneti, C.; Jusevicius, M.; Kawano, M.; Bianchi, R.; Bellodi, M.

    2005-12-01

    A monitoring of thunderstorm in urban areas occurred in the vicinity of Sao Bernardo do Campo, Sao Paulo from November 2004 to March 2005. Eight thunderstorms were monitored by local electric field, video camera, Brazilian Lightning Location Network (RINDAT) and weather radar. The most of these thunderstorms were associated with the local convection and cold front. Some of these events presented floods in the vicinity of Sao Bernardo and in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP) being associated with local sea breeze circulation and the heat island effect. The convectives cells exceeding 100km x 100 km of area, actives between 2 and 3 hours. The local electric field identified the electrification stage of thunderstorms, high transients of lightning and total lightning rate of above 10 flashes per minute. About 29.5 thousands of cloud-to-ground lightning flashes were analyzed . From the total set of CG flashes analyzed, about 94 percent were negative strokes and presented average peak current of above 25kA, common for this region. Some lightning images were obtained by video camera and compared with transients of lightning and lightning detection network data. The most of these transients of lightning presented continuing current duration between 100ms and 200ms. A CG lightning occurred on 25th February was visually observed 3.5km from FEI campus, Sao Bernardo do Campo. This lightning presented negative polarity and estimed peak current of above 30kA. A spider was visually observed over FEI Campus at 17th March. No transients of lightning and recording by lightning location network were found.

  13. Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and associated factors: the PLATINO Study in São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência de doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica e fatores associados: Estudo PLATINO em São Paulo, Brasil

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    Ana Maria Baptista Menezes

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is now a major public health concern; deaths attributable to COPD in Latin America have increased by 65.0% in the last decade. This study was aimed at evaluating COPD prevalence and associated factors in adults (> 40 years living in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil. The study is part of the Proyecto Latinoamericano de Investigación en Obstrucción Pulmonar (The PLATINO Project, a multi-center survey on COPD burden in Latin America, with São Paulo as the first center where the project has been carried out. A population-based sample was selected in multiple stages. Spirometry tests were performed in each subject pre- and post-bronchodilator and COPD was mainly defined as the ratio of forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity below 70.0% (fixed ratio definition. Other spirometric criteria were also used for the diagnosis of COPD. COPD prevalence was 15.8% (95%CI: 13.5-18.1 using the fixed ratio definition. COPD was positively associated with age and smoking and inversely with body mass index. Utilization of different COPD spirometry criteria resulted in different percentages of COPD, but similar associated factors.A doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica (DPOC é hoje um grande desafio para a saúde pública; as mortes atribuídas a DPOC na América Latina aumentaram 65,0% na última década. Avaliou-se a prevalência de DPOC e fatores associados em uma população adulta (> 40 anos da grande área metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil. Esse estudo faz parte do Proyecto Latinoamericano de Investigación en Obstrucción Pulmonar (Projeto PLATINO, um estudo multicêntrico sobre DPOC em grandes cidades da América Latina, tendo sido São Paulo o primeiro centro onde o projeto se realizou. O estudo foi transversal de base populacional e amostragem em múltiplos estágios. Os indivíduos realizaram espirometria, e DPOC foi basicamente definida como a razão entre o volume expiratório forçado em

  14. Diet quality and associated factors among elementary school students of the Adventist school system in the Southwest region of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Hazel Yvette Fuentes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: evaluar la asociación entre la dieta y factores socioeconómicos y demográficos entre los estudiantes de la escuela primaria. Métodos: Un estudio transseccional que involucra una muestra aleatoria de 256 niños de ambos sexos, de seis a once años, del primero a quinto grado de siete escuelas adventistas ubicados en la región suroeste de Sao Paulo. Estas escuelas inscriben estudiantes sin importar su religión. Datos demográficos y socioeconómicos se obtuvieron a partir de un cuestionario autoadministrado, llevado a casa y completado por el padre o responsable del niño. La calidad de la dieta se evaluó mediante el índice de ALES. Se calcularon las odds ratio brutas y ajustadas y se utilizó la regresión logística para el análisis de las variables. Resultados: De la muestra, 33,2% tuvo una puntuación pobre en el índice ALES y el 66,8% obtuvo una buena puntuación. No hubo diferencias significativas entre la calidad de la dieta y las siguientes variables: edad, nivel socioeconómico, educación maternal, jefe de la familia, trabajo materno fuera del hogar, lactancia materna exclusiva hasta los 6 meses, y el origen de las meriendas escolares. Las variables que se mantuvieron asociadas a una dieta de buena calidad fueron: ser del sexo femenino (OR = 0.53; 95% IC, 0.30-0.92 y ser Adventista (OR = 2.52; 95% IC, 1.10-5.78. Conclusión: Los factores asociados con la buena calidad de la dieta fueron el sexo y la religion.

  15. Milk microbiological profile of four dairy farms from São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Adna Crisleia Rodrigues Monção; Juliana Rodrigues Pozzi Arcaro; Thiago Pereira Motta; Lívia Castelani; Thamires Martins; Adriana Frizzarin; Heloisa de Azevedo; Cláudia Rodrigues Pozzi

    2012-01-01

    The concern in milk quality, milk production, and in animals’ welfare is in constant increase. Mastitis is recognized as the main disease affecting dairy animals because of changing in milk composition and reduction in milk production. In Brazil, the highest incidence of mastitis is related to infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in milk produced by 60 cows from four dairy farms (15 cows/farm) located at Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Milk sa...

  16. Utilização de medicamentos e fatores associados: um estudo de base populacional no Município de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil Use of medication and associated factors: a population-based study in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Karen Sarmento Costa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a prevalência da utilização de medicamentos segundo variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas e de comportamentos relacionados à saúde, identificando fatores associados ao uso por meio de estudo transversal de base populacional, com 941 pessoas de 18 anos ou mais residentes em Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil. A amostragem foi realizada em múltiplos estágios, estratificada e por conglomerados. Utilizou-se o teste qui-quadrado, foram estimadas as razões de prevalência ajustadas por sexo e idade e os respectivos IC95%. Desenvolveu-se modelo de regressão múltipla de Poisson ficando associados ao uso: sexo feminino, idade de 40 anos e mais, morbidade referida nos últimos 15 dias e número de doenças crônicas. Os medicamentos mais consumidos foram para os sistemas cardiovascular e nervoso, e os fitoterápicos. A prevalência de uso de medicamentos em Campinas encontrou-se inferior à maioria dos estudos. Por meio de inquéritos de saúde locais espera-se conhecer o perfil de uso dos medicamentos pela população e garantir intervenções mais direcionadas para a Política de Assistência Farmacêutica.This article analyzes prevalence rates in the use of medication according to demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related behavioral variables through a population-based cross-sectional study of individuals 18 years and older (n=941 in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The study used multistage sampling, both stratified and cluster. Chi-square test was performed, and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated by gender and age, both with 95% confidence intervals. A Poisson multiple regression model was developed, and the following factors were associated with use of medication: female gender, age 40 and over, reported illness in the previous two weeks, and number of chronic diseases. The most widely consumed drugs were for the cardiovascular and nervous systems, besides herbal remedies. Prevalence of medication in

  17. Fatores associados à internação hospitalar de crianças menores de cinco anos, São Paulo, SP Factors associated to hospitalization of children under five years of age, Brazil

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    Jozana do Rosário de Moura Caetano

    2002-06-01

    years of age. METHODS: A data set derived from a cross-sectional study on health conditions of children under five years of age in the city of Embu, a county located in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, was used. The inclusion criteria were one child per family (random selection. The exclusion criteria were missing data on any study variable. The sample size was 893 children. Data was collected using household interviews with mother or caretaker. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression models to identify factors associated with hospitalization. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Sixty-five (7.7% children were hospitalized. Of them, 41.5% were admitted with a respiratory tract disease, mainly due to an ARI (27.7 %. Factors associated to hospitalization included: low birth weight; perinatal problems; chronic illness; death of a sibling under the age of five; grandmother as day caretaker; living in overcrowded places, and mother's higher educational level.

  18. Entomological investigation of a sylvatic yellow fever area in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Neves, Vera L F de; Poletto, Daniela W; Rodas, Lílian A C; Pachioli, Márcio L; Cardoso, Rubens P; Scandar, Sirle A S; Sampaio, Susy M P; Koyanagui, Paulo H; Botti, Mauricio V; Mucci, Luis F; Gomes, Almério de C

    2005-01-01

    Following reports of two autochthonous cases of sylvatic yellow fever in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2000, entomological surveys were conducted with the objective of verifying the occurrence of vector species in forest environments close to or associated with riparian areas located in the western and northwestern regions of the State. Culicidae were captured in 39 sites distributed in four regions. Haemagogus leucocelaenus and Aedes albopictus were the most abundant species and were captured in all the regions studied. H. leucocelaenus was the most abundant species in the municipalities of Santa Albertina and Ouroeste, where the two cases of sylvatic yellow fever had been reported. Mosquitoes from the janthinomys/capricornii group were only found at eight sites in the São José do Rio Preto region, while Sabethes chloropterus was found at one site in Ribeirão Preto. H. leucocelaenus showed its capacity to adapt to a secondary and degraded environment. Our results indicate a wide receptive area for yellow fever transmission in the State of São Paulo, with particular emphasis on the possibility of H. leucocelaenus being involved in the maintenance of this sylvatic focus of the disease.

  19. Acne vulgaris: prevalence and clinical forms in adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagatin, Ediléia; Timpano, Denise Lourenço; Guadanhim, Lilia Ramos dos Santos; Nogueira, Vanessa Mussupapo Andraus; Terzian, Luiz Roberto; Steiner, Denise; Florez, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Acne is a common disease in adolescents, but there are no epidemiological data for acne in Brazil. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence and degree of acne in adolescents from Sao Paulo and study socio-demographic factors, family history and lifestyle, associated with the disease. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 452 adolescents aged between 10 and 17 (mean=13.3 years), students from elementary and high school, examined by 3 independent evaluators. RESULTS 62.4% were female, 85.8% white and 6.4% were aged 14. The prevalence was 96.0% and increased with age - all students over 14 had acne. The most prevalent form of acne was comedonal (61.1%), followed by mild (30.6%) and moderate (7.6%) papular-pustular, which affected mostly the face (97.5%). About half of the adolescents reported family history for acne in mother or father, and 20.6% reported previous treatment for acne. There was a higher chance of presenting non-comedonal acne with increased age (pacne in adolescents varies widely due to the clinical features and diagnostic methods used. Adolescents whose brothers/sisters had acne (OR=1.7-p=0.027) and those over 13 (OR=8.3-pacne. CONCLUSION This study showed high prevalence of acne in adolescents from Sao Paulo, predominantly the comedonal form on the face, with a higher chance of presenting non-comedonal acne with increased age. PMID:24937816

  20. Prevalence and populations of Listeria monocytogenes in meat products retailed in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Yoshida, Júlia T U; Franco, Bernadette D G de Melo

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the prevalence of the populations and serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes in 552 refrigerated samples of ground beef, chicken leg, hot dog, and pork sausage collected in supermarkets in the city of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, between May 2008 and July 2009. The supermarkets were selected after stratification by geographical region and by random draw. Tests for presence and enumeration of L. monocytogenes were based on ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd.1:2004 and ISO 11290-2:1998 methods, respectively. Listeria spp. were detected in 469 (85.0%) of the studied meat products. The most frequently isolated species was L. innocua (64.1%), followed by L. monocytogenes (48.7%), L. welshimeri (13.4%), L. seeligeri (7.1%), L. ivanovii (0.2%), and L. grayi subspecies murrayi (0.2%). L. monocytogenes was detected in 269 (48.7%) samples, with highest prevalence in ground beef (59.4%) followed by chicken legs (58.0%), pork sausages (39.8%), and hot dogs (37.7%). The populations were Prevalence of serotypes varied according to the type of meat product. These data are relevant for estimating the risks of listeriosis associated with consumption of meat products in Sao Paulo, and for establishing science-based intervention strategies aimed at reducing these risks, especially for pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals.

  1. Aquatic macroinvertebrates associated with Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth and relationships with abiotic factors in marginal lentic ecosystems (São Paulo, Brazil

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    CV. Silva

    Full Text Available Marginal lakes are characterised by their having high biological diversity due to the presence of aquatic macrophytes in their coastal zones, providing habitats for refuge and food for animal community members. Among the fauna components associated with macrophytes, aquatic macroinvertebrates are important because they are an energy source for predators and fish. In six lakes and two different seasons (March and August 2009, the ecological attributes of aquatic macroinvertebrate community associated with Eichhornia azurea were compared and the controlling environmental factors were identified. Since the attributes of macroinvertebrate community are strictly associated with abiotic variables of each distinct habitat, our hypothesis was that each site associated with the same floating aquatic macrophyte (E. azurea should have a typical composition and density of organisms. We identified 50 taxa of macroinvertebrates, with greater taxa richness for aquatic insects (37 taxa divided into eight orders; the order Diptera being the most abundant in the two study periods. On the other hand, higher values of total taxa richness were recorded in August. Dissolved oxygen and pH presented the greatest number of significant positive correlations with the different taxa. The animals most frequently collected in the six lakes in March and August 2009 were Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Hydrachnidae, Conchostraca, Ostracoda, Noteridae, Ceratopogonidae, Chironomidae, Culicidae, Caenidae, Pleidae, Aeshnidae, Libellulidae, Coenagrionidae and Nematoda. Only densities of Trichoptera, Ostracoda and Conchostraca presented the highest significant differences between lakes in both study periods and considering the composition of macroinvertebrates no significant differences were registered for macroinvertebrate composition.

  2. Chemical characterization of organic particulate matter from on-road traffic in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyama, Beatriz Sayuri; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Herckes, Pierre; Dusek, Ulrike; Rockmann, Thomas; Holzinger, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    This study reports emission of organic particulate matter by light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on three different fuel types: gasoline with 25% ethanol (called gasohol, E25), hydrated ethanol (E100), and diesel (with 5%

  3. Chemical characterization of organic particulate matter from on-road traffic in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyama, Beatriz Sayuri; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Herckes, Pierre; Dusek, Ulrike; Rockmann, Thomas; Holzinger, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    This study reports emission of organic particulate matter by light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on three different fuel types: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol, E25), hydrated ethanol (E100), and diesel (with 5 %

  4. The bacterial meningitis score to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis in children from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekitarian Filho, Eduardo; Horita, Sérgio Massaru; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Alves, Anna Cláudia Dominguez; Nigrovic, Lise E

    2013-09-01

    In a retrospective cohort of 494 children with meningitis in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the Bacterial Meningitis Score identified all the children with bacterial meningitis (sensitivity 100%, 95% confidence interval: 92-100% and negative predictive value 100%, 95% confidence interval: 98-100%). Addition of cerebrospinal fluid lactate to the score did not improve clinical prediction rule performance.

  5. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii with a worldwide distribution. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies in bats from São Paulo city, Brazil. A total of 616 serum samples were collected from 22 species of bats. Anti-T. gon...

  6. Control and instrumentation system of the Zero Power Reactor at IEA, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peluso, M.A.V.; Matsuda, K.; Hukai, R.

    1974-01-01

    The control and instrumentation system of the Zero Power Reactor at the IEA (Institute of Atomic Energy - Sao Paulo, Brazil) is described. Technical specifications of the main items of equipment are presented in a general way. Information is also given on the connection between the system described and the electrical supply system of the IEA reactor physics laboratory [pt

  7. Statistical annual by energy in the municipalities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil - 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document has as objective the compilation and dissemination of the consumption data corresponding of the main energetics used in the municipalities of Sao Paulo State, Brazil in the year of 2006. The considered energetics are: electric energy, natural gas, petroleum derivatives; hydrated alcohol and biodiesel

  8. Adequacy of antenatal care and its relationship with low birth weight in Botucatu, Sao Paulo, Brazil: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Cátia Regina Branco da [UNESP; Louzada Strufaldi, Maria Wany; Carvalho, Lidia Raquel de [UNESP; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini [UNESP

    2014-01-01

    Background: Birth weight reflects gestational conditions and development during the fetal period. Low birth weight (LBW) may be associated with antenatal care (ANC) adequacy and quality. the purpose of this study was to analyze ANC adequacy and its relationship with LBW in the Unified Health System in Brazil.Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, 2004 to 2008. Data were collected from secondary sources (the Live Birth Certificate), and primary sources (the...

  9. Dynamic Regression Model for Evaluating the Association Between Atmospheric Conditions and Deaths due to Respiratory Diseases in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla dos Santos Gomes

    Full Text Available Abstract The article reports the modeling of mortality due to respiratory diseases emanating from atmospheric conditions, capturing significant associations and verifying the ability of stochastic modeling to predict deaths arising from the relationship between weather conditions and air pollution. The statistical methods used in the analysis were cross-correlation and pre-whitening, in addition to dynamic regression modeling combining the dynamics of time series and the effect of explanatory variables. The results show there are significant associations between mortality and sulfur dioxide, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, and autoregressive structure. The cross-correlations captured significant lags between atmospheric variables and deaths, of two months for SO2 and relative humidity, eleven months for PM10, seven months for O3, and eight months for air temperature and the cross-correlation without lag with NO2. With CO variables, precipitation and atmospheric pressure, cross-correlations were not detected. Stochastic modeling showed that deaths due to respiratory diseases can be predicted from the combination of meteorological and air pollution variables, especially considering the existing trend and seasonality.

  10. Exposure to maltreatment and urban violence in children working on the streets in São Paulo, Brazil: factors associated with street work

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    Andrea F. Mello

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantitatively study the exposure to childhood maltreatment and urban violence in children from families with at least one child working on the streets and to investigate the relationship between these factors and street work. Methods: Families who participated in a nongovernmental organization (NGO program to eliminate child labor were included. Data concerning sociodemographic characteristics, punishment methods used in the family environment against the children, five types of abuse and neglect perpetrated by the caregivers, urban violence exposure and family functioning were collected. Results: The sample included 126 children who were working on the streets and 65 siblings who were not working on the streets. Caregivers reported high levels of severe physical punishment. The children reported high levels of abuse and neglect, and high levels of urban violence exposure. The families showed a predominance of dysfunctional and unsatisfactory relationships. A multiple logistic regression model showed that age older than 12 years and severe physical punishment at home were associated with street work. Conclusion: Interventions to decrease the risk of child street work should be family-focused and should aim to reduce violence in the family environment.

  11. Location study of thermoelectric in Sao Paulo's State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadigas, Eliane Aparecida F.A.; Reis, Lineu Belico dos

    1999-01-01

    The article presents the results of studies developed to identify, locate and order thermoelectric generation options through costs increasing. This evaluation considered just options of Sao Paulo, a Brazilian state. The used methodology and the main parameters and variables which influence in the projects economic activity are introduced in the article. A software denominated SAEGET was also used

  12. Socioeconomic inequalities in dental health services in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Camila Nascimento; Beenackers, Mariëlle A; Goldbaum, Moisés; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2016-12-07

    Access to, and use of, dental health services in Brazil have improved since 2003. The increase of private health care plans and the implementation of the "Smiling Brazil" Program, the largest public oral health care program in the world, could have influenced this increase in access. However, we do not yet know if inequalities in the use of dental health services persist after the improvement in access. The aims of this study are to analyze socioeconomic differences for dental health service use between 2003 and 2008 in São Paulo and to examine changes in these associations since the implementation of the Smiling Brazil program in 2003. Data was obtained via two household health surveys (ISA-Capital 2003 and ISA-Capital 2008) which investigated living conditions, lifestyle, health status and use of health care services. Logistic regression was used to analyze associations between socioeconomic factors and dental services use. Additionally, trends from 2003 to 2008 regarding socioeconomic characteristics and dental health service use were explored. Overall, dental health service use increased between 2003 and 2008 and was at both time points more common among those who had higher income, better education, better housing conditions, private health care plans and were Caucasian. Inequalities in use of dental health care did not decrease over time. Among the reasons for not seeking dental care, not having teeth and financial difficulty were more common in lower socioeconomic groups, while thinking it was unnecessary was more common in higher socioeconomic groups. The Brazilian oral health policy is still in a period of expansion and seems to have contributed slightly to increased dental health service use, but has not influenced socioeconomic inequalities in the use of these services. Acquiring deeper knowledge about inequalities in dental health service use will contribute to better understanding of potential barriers to reducing them.

  13. Modifiable risk factors for overweight and obesity in children and adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil

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    Codogno Jamile S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazil is currently experiencing a nutrition transition: the displacement of traditional diets with foods high in saturated fat, sodium, and cholesterol and an increase in sedentary lifestyles. Despite these trends, our understanding of child obesity in Brazil is limited. Thus, the aims of this study were (1 to investigate the current prevalence of overweight and obesity in a large sample of children and adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil, and (2 to identify the lifestyle behaviors associated with an increased risk of obesity in young Brazilians. Methods A total of 3,397 children and adolescents (1,596 male aged 7-18 years were randomly selected from 22 schools in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were classified as normal weight, overweight, or obese based on international age- and sex-specific body mass index thresholds. Selected sociodemographic, physical activity, and nutrition behaviors were assessed via questionnaire. Results Overall, 19.4% of boys and 16.1% of girls were overweight while 8.9% and 4.3% were obese. Two-way analysis of variance revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was significantly higher in boys and in younger children when compared to girls and older children, respectively (P Conclusions Our results show that obesity in São Paulo children and adolescents has reached a level equivalent to that seen in many developed countries. We have also identified three key modifiable factors related to obesity that may be appropriate targets for future intervention in Brazilian youth: transport mode to school, computer usage, and breakfast consumption.

  14. [Traffic related air pollution and population health: a review about São Paulo (SP), Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toledo, Giovana Iara Ferreira Moser; Nardocci, Adelaide Cássia

    2011-09-01

    Air pollution is an important problem for São Paulo city and vehicles are the main source. About 11 million people are exposed to this pollution. To examine studies realized about air pollution and its effects on health of the population of São Paulo (Brazil) and methods of assessing exposure to pollution related to traffic. We performed a literature review using the keywords "air pollution", "São Paulo", and traffic-related air pollution. As results were obtained several studies that found relation between air pollution in São Paulo and respiratory and cardiovascular problems, fetal growth, increased mortality and hospitalizations, particularly in children and elderly people. In order to estimate the exposure, most of these studies consider the isotropic distribution of pollutants throughout the area, what prevents the evaluation of and the influence of traffic. Several methods have been used to analyze the air traffic exposure, which can be used isolated or combined. It is believed that the combination of models used to calculate pollutant concentrations to methods of georeferencing is the most appropriate approach for similar studies in São Paulo. The advantages of these methods are the ability to identify priority areas and situations, obtaining detailed information for adoption of public policies or measures, and to simulate different scenarios. The application of these methods in studies at São Paulo depends on the improvement of input data, air quality meteorological monitoring net enhancement and data of traffic volume.

  15. The rising pet market: hotels for cats and dogs in São Paulo city (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Afonso; Lorena Berdasco; Thais Medeiros; Mirian Rejowski

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on Hotels for dogs and cats in São Paulo city. Characteristics and tendencies are analyzed aiming to contribute to applied studies on the subject. It begins by bringing general data on pet market in the world and on hotels for pets in Brazil. Pets hosting is assessed through registers on the subject and interviews with managers of that kind of hotels, as well as with pet owners living in the southern part of São Paulo city. It could be stated that pet hosting is a rising ma...

  16. Basic and ultrabasic coastal dykes adjacent to the Sao Sebastiao Channel (North coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garda, Gianna Maria; Schorscher, Johann Hans Daniel

    1996-01-01

    The portions of the Precambrian Costeiro Complex adjacent to the Sao Sebastiao Channel (Sao Paulo State, Brazil) are crosscut by mafic dykes of basic to intermediate composition, lamprophyres and trachytes. The former have been correlated with the basalts of the Parana Basin, while the lamprophyres are expressions of an alkaline magmatism different from the one that happened approximately 80 Ma ago in the Sao Sebastiao, Buzios, Vitoria and Montao de Trigo islands, where more acid terms predominate with associated trachytes and rare phonolites. The basic-ultrabasic lamprophyric magmatism is widespread along the Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro coasts; they are independent from and most likely older than the stocks and alkaline massifs. (author)

  17. Associação entre prevalência de laqueadura tubária e características sócio-demográficas de mulheres e seus companheiros no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Association of prevalence of tubal ligation and sociodemographic characteristics of women and their partners in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Faúndes

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil tem uma alta prevalência de laqueadura tubária. Alguns setores da sociedade acreditam que essa alta prevalência estaria indicando um controle da natalidade dissimulado, que visa diminuir a fecundidade nas camadas mais pobres da população. O objetivo deste trabalho é contribuir para a compreensão das possíveis diferenças sócio-econômicas quanto à prática da laqueadura. Para este fim, analisamos uma base de dados com 1.335 mulheres com idade de 15 a 49 anos, obtida entre mulheres de nível sócio-econômico médio-baixo ou baixo, em duas regiões do Estado de São Paulo, no ano de 1991. Os resultados mostraram uma aparentemente maior prevalência de laqueadura entre as mulheres com menor nível educacional e também entre as que moravam em habitação de boa qualidade. Entretanto, ao controlar por idade, essas associações desapareceram, sugerindo que se deviam apenas a menor escolaridade e maiores recursos das mulheres de maior idade, sendo este último o fator mais fortemente associado à prevalência de laqueadura. Discute-se a complexidade das relações entre nível sócio-econômico e ligadura tubária, incluindo a diferença sócio-econômica na prevalência de cesárea, intimamente ligada à esterilização feminina.Brazil has a high prevalence of tubal ligation. The hypothesis that it indicates undercover birth control efforts specifically addressed to the poorest sector of Brazilian society has been raised. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether there are differences in rates of tubal ligation depending on socioeconomic status. Data were gathered from interviews with 1335 women 15-49 years of age, of low or lower-middle socioeconomic status, carried out in 1991 in two regions of the State of São Paulo. The results showed an apparently higher prevalence of tubal ligation among women with less schooling,, but also among those living in better housing. However, after controlling for women's age, these

  18. Fatores associados ao uso de preservativo masculino e ao conhecimento sobre DST/AIDS em adolescentes de escolas públicas e privadas do Município de São Paulo, Brasil Factors associated with condom use and knowledge about STD/AIDS among teenagers in public and private schools in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura B. Motta Martins

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Comparar o conhecimento sobre DST/AIDS e avaliar fatores associados ao conhecimento adequado e ao uso consistente do preservativo masculino, em adolescentes de escolas públicas e privadas do Município de São Paulo. Participaram 1.594 adolescentes entre 12 e 19 anos, de 13 escolas públicas e 5 privadas, que responderam um questionário sobre DST/AIDS e uso de preservativo. Calcularam-se as razões de prevalência com intervalo de confiança de 95%. O escore de conhecimento sobre DST teve o ponto de corte equivalendo a 50% de acerto. Os testes estatísticos foram qui-quadrado e Wilcoxon-Gehan. Realizou-se regressão múltipla de Poisson. O uso consistente de preservativo foi 60% nas escolas privadas e 57,1% nas públicas (p > 0,05 e esteve associado ao sexo masculino e menor nível sócio-econômico. O sexo feminino, maior escolaridade, escola privada, cor branca e estado marital solteiro associaram-se ao maior conhecimento sobre DST. Os adolescentes de escola pública e privada apresentam conhecimento adequado sobre prevenção de DST, entretanto esse conhecimento não determina adoção de atitudes efetivas de prevenção. Programas de conscientização sobre DST/AIDS devem ser ampliados visando minimizar as vulnerabilidades.This study aimed to compare knowledge about STD/AIDS and identify the factors associated with adequate knowledge and consistent use of male condoms in teenagers from public and private schools in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. We selected 1,594 adolescents ranging 12 to 19 years of age in 13 public schools and 5 private schools to complete a questionnaire on knowledge of STD/AIDS and use of male condoms. Prevalence ratios were computed with a 95% confidence interval. The score on STD knowledge used a cutoff point corresponding to 50% of correct answers. Statistical tests were chi-square and Poisson multiple regression. Consistent use of male condoms was 60% in private and 57.1% in public schools (p > 0.05 and was

  19. Prevalência de sobrepeso e fatores associados em crianças ingressantes no ensino fundamental em um município da região metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil Overweight, obesity and associated factors in first grade schoolchildren in a city of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Lenise Mondini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou a prevalência de sobrepeso e sua associação com fatores sócio-ambientais em crianças ingressantes na primeira série do ensino público fundamental do Município de Cajamar, São Paulo, Brasil, em 2005. Sobrepeso foi definido pelo índice de massa corporal, segundo sexo e idade. As variáveis sócio-ambientais foram obtidas por meio de questionário aplicado junto às mães das crianças (58,6%. Associação entre sobrepeso e variáveis independentes foi verificada mediante técnica de regressão de Poisson. A prevalência de sobrepeso foi de 17%. Obesidade materna (RP = 3,54; IC: 2,16-5,80, freqüência elevada de consumo de alimentos "não saudáveis" (RP = 2,12; IC: 1,30-3,45, assistir à televisão por mais de quatro horas/dia (RP = 2,08; IC: 1,03-4,20 e disponibilidade domiciliar per capita de óleo (cerca de três colheres sopa/dia (RP = 1,52; IC: 1,01-2,31 apresentaram-se como fatores independentes associados ao excesso de peso infantil. O ambiente familiar apresentou forte influência sobre a condição de sobrepeso em escolares ingressantes no ensino fundamental. Ações de prevenção e controle do sobrepeso deveriam envolver a instituição escolar e também os pais ou responsáveis pelas crianças.This study assessed the prevalence of overweight in public school first graders and the association between overweight and socio-environmental factors in a city in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil. Children enrolling in public school first grade in Cajamar in 2005 were assessed. Overweight was defined according to body mass index, by gender and age. Socio-environmental information was obtained using a questionnaire applied to 58.6% of the children's mothers. Poisson regression models were used to evaluate associations between overweight in schoolchildren and socio-environmental variables. Seventeen percent of the children were overweight. Factors associated with overweight were: mother's obesity (PR = 3

  20. Origin and evolution of the Pirituba aluminous calc-alkalic magma, state of Sao Paulo, SE Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernick, Eberhard

    1999-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the Late Proterozoic calc-alkalic Pirituba magmatism near the city of Sao Paulo, State of Sao Paulo, SE Brazil, are presented and discussed on the basis of geological, petrographic, mineralogical, chemical (rocks and minerals), isotopic and zircon typology data. (author)

  1. Perceptions of Animal Experimentation: A Longitudinal Survey with Veterinary Students in Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Gisele F.; Melo, Guilherme D.; Perri, Silvia H. V.; Fernandes, Fernando V.; Moraes, Olívia C.; Souza, Milena S.; Grano, Fernanda G.; Silva, José E. S.; Nunes, Cáris M.

    2017-01-01

    Animal experimentation is a controversial topic, especially among the general public and the scientific community. Thirty-eight undergraduate students attending the College of Veterinary Medicine--São Paulo State University in the municipality of Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, were followed up between 2008 and 2011 and were asked to complete an…

  2. Analysis of the prevalence of and factors associated with urinary incontinence among elderly people in the Municipality of São Paulo, Brazil: SABE Study (Health, Wellbeing and Aging Análise da prevalência e fatores associados à incontinência urinária entre idosos do Município de São Paulo, Brasil: Estudo SABE (Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tadeu Nunes Tamanini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the prevalence of urinary incontinence among elderly people living in São Paulo, Brazil and their associated risk factors. The Pan-American Health Organization and World Health Organization coordinated a multicenter study named Health, Wellbeing and Aging (SABE Study in elderly people (over 60 years old living in seven countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. In Brazil, the study was carried out in São Paulo in the year 2000. The total Brazilian sample included 2,143 people. The prevalence of self reported urinary incontinence was 11.8% among men and 26.2% for women. It was verified that among those reporting urinary incontinence, 37% also reported stroke and 34% depression. It was found that the greater the dependence that the elderly people presented, the greater the prevalence of urinary incontinence. The associated factors found were depression (odds ratio = 2.49, female (2.42, advanced age (2.35, important functional limitation (2.01. Urinary incontinence is a highly prevalent symptom among the elderly population of the municipality of São Paulo, especially among women. The adoption of preventive measures can reduce the negative effects of urinary incontinence.Investigar a prevalência de incontinência urinária entre idosos de São Paulo, Brasil, e fatores associados e de risco. A Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde e a Organização Mundial da Saúde coordenaram estudo multicêntrico denominado Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (Estudo SABE em pessoas idosas (60 anos ou mais que vivem em sete países da América Latina e Caribe. No Brasil, o estudo populacional foi realizado no Município de São Paulo no ano 2000. A amostra total brasileira foi de 2.143 pessoas. A prevalência da incontinência urinária auto-referida foi de 11,8% entre homens e 26,2% entre mulheres. Verificou-se que entre aqueles que relataram incontinência urinária, 37% também relataram acidente vascular cerebral e 34%, depress

  3. Internações e óbitos e sua relação com a poluição atmosférica em São Paulo, 1993 a 1997 Hospital admissions and mortality: association with air pollution in São Paulo, Brazil, 1993 to 1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Freitas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar efeitos de curto prazo da poluição atmosférica na morbidade respiratória de menores de 15 anos e na mortalidade de idosos. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram analisadas as contagens diárias de admissões hospitalares, de menores de 15 anos e de mortes de idosos (>64 anos no período de 1993 a 1997, em relação às variações diárias de poluentes atmosféricos (PM10, CO, O3. Foi utilizada para análise a regressão de Poisson em modelos aditivos generalizados. Os modelos foram ajustados para efeitos da tendência temporal, sazonalidade, dias da semana, fatores meteorológicos e autocorrelação. RESULTADOS: Variações do 10° ao 90° percentil dos poluentes foi significativamente associada com o aumento de admissões por doenças respiratórias em menores de 15 anos para PM10 (%RR=10,0, CO (%RR=6,1 e O3 (%RR=2,5. Associação similar foi encontrada para mortalidade em idosos e PM10 (%RR=8,1 e CO (%RR=7,9. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados encontrados são coerentes com os estudos que apontam associação entre variações de curto prazo dos poluentes atmosféricos e incremento na morbidade e mortalidade nos grandes centros urbanos.OBJECTIVE: To investigate short-term effects of air pollution on respiratory morbidity of children under 15 and elderly mortality. METHODS: The study was carried out in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Daily hospital admissions due to respiratory conditions in children under 15 and mortality of adults over 64 years of age were obtained for the period ranging from 1993 to 1997. Daily levels of PM10, CO and O3 were collected for the same period. Poisson regression analysis was used in generalized additive models, which were adjusted for temporal trends, seasonality, day of the week, temperature and relative humidity as well as serial autocorrelation. RESULTS: A 10th to 90th percentile variation of pollutants was significantly associated with respiratory admissions

  4. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Expedito JA Luna

    Full Text Available With the urbanisation of the population in developing countries and the process of globalisation, Chagas has become an emerging disease in the urban areas of endemic and non-endemic countries. In 2006, it was estimated that the prevalence of Chagas disease among the general Bolivian population was 6.8%. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among Bolivian immigrants living in São Paulo, Brazil. This study had a sample of 633 volunteers who were randomly selected from the clientele of primary care units located in the central districts of São Paulo, Brazil. Infection was detected by two different ELISA assays with epimastigote antigens, followed by an immunoblot with trypomastigote antigens as a confirmatory test. The prevalence of the infection was 4.4%. Risk factors independently associated with the infection were: a history of rural jobs in Bolivia, knowledge of the vector involved in transmission, and having relatives with Chagas disease. Brazil has successfully eliminated household vector transmission of T. cruzi, as well as its transmission by blood transfusion. The arrival of infected immigrants represents an additional challenge to primary care clinics to manage chronic Chagas disease, its vertical transmission, and the blood derivatives and organ transplant programs.

  5. Ethnicity and cutaneous melanoma in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olinda C Luiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogeneous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe-Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03-8.77, Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41-8.57, a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05-8.93, or ≥ 2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06-7.47; eye color-light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14-3.84 and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22-9.58; pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21-6.49; no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03-9.22; and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03-3.19. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants.

  6. Ethnicity and Cutaneous Melanoma in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, Olinda C.; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Gonçalves, Fernanda T.; Francisco, Guilherme; Festa-Neto, Cyro; Sanches, José Antonio; Gattas, Gilka J. F.; Chammas, Roger; Eluf-Neto, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last century the incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased worldwide, a trend that has also been observed in Brazil. The identified risk factors for melanoma include the pattern of sun exposure, family history, and certain phenotypic features. In addition, the incidence of melanoma might be influenced by ethnicity. Like many countries, Brazil has high immigration rates and consequently a heterogenous population. However, Brazil is unique among such countries in that the ethnic heterogeneity of its population is primarily attributable to admixture. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of European ethnicity to the risk of cutaneous melanoma in Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a hospital-based case-control study in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We evaluated 424 hospitalized patients (202 melanoma patients and 222 control patients) regarding phenotypic features, sun exposure, and number of grandparents born in Europe. Through multivariate logistic regression analysis, we found the following variables to be independently associated with melanoma: grandparents born in Europe—Spain (OR = 3.01, 95% CI: 1.03–8.77), Italy (OR = 3.47, 95% CI: 1.41–8.57), a Germanic/Slavic country (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.05–8.93), or ≥2 European countries (OR = 2.82, 95% CI: 1.06–7.47); eye color—light brown (OR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.14–3.84) and green/blue (OR = 4.62; 95% CI 2.22–9.58); pigmented lesion removal (OR = 3.78; 95% CI: 2.21–6.49); no lifetime sunscreen use (OR = 3.08; 95% CI: 1.03–9.22); and lifetime severe sunburn (OR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.03–3.19). Conclusions Our results indicate that European ancestry is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. Such risk appears to be related not only to skin type, eye color, and tanning capacity but also to others specific characteristics of European populations introduced in the New World by European immigrants. PMID:22558444

  7. Abundância e sazonalidade de histerídeos (Coleoptera associados ao esterco de granja aviária da Região Nordeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Abundance and seasonality of Histeridae (Coleoptera associated to brooding hen excrement in the northeast region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welber Daniel Zanetti Lopes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Programas que visam o controle biológico precisam ser embasados principalmente em liberações de predadores e parasitóides para tentar minimizar efeitos adversos para o ambiente. Os coleópteros da família Histeridae como predam larvas de dípteros sinantrópicos podem auxiliar no controle das moscas que se desenvolvem em fezes acumuladas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar um levantamento das espécies de histerídeos em granja avícola no município de São João da Boa Vista, estado de São Paulo, verificar seu padrão sazonal de ocorrência e investigar possíveis associações entre as mesmas. As coletas foram realizadas de janeiro de 2001 a dezembro de 2002, utilizando-se dois métodos de coleta (armadilhas de solo e o funil de Berlese - Tullgren. As espécies de histerídeos encontradas foram: Euspilostus modestus, Euspilostus (Hesperosaprinus spp., Carcinops troglodytes e Hololepta quadridentata. O número de cada espécie diferiu entre os métodos utilizados. Na armadilha de solo, E. modestus correspondeu a 87,01% do número total de indivíduos capturados, enquanto que no funil, C. troglodytes obteve maior destaque (84,38%. E. modestus e H. quadridentata apresentaram padrões de variação mensal positivamente correlacionada com a precipitação pluviométrica (PPrograms for biological control are usually based on the release of predators and parasites so that no hazard is posed to the natural environment. Coleoptera of the Histeridae family feed on the larvae of synantropic diptera, enabling their use in the control of such flies. The objective of this work was to carry out a survey of the Histeridae species present at a poultry house situated in the city of São João da Boa Vista, state of São Paulo, Brazil, aiming to describe their seasonality and the possible associations between the adult specimens. Samples were collected from the poultry houses from January 2001 to December 2002, using two collection methods: soil

  8. Epidemiological aspects of centipede (Scolopendromorphae: Chilopoda bites registered in Greater S. Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Knysak

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The lack of basic knowledge on venomous arthropods and the benignity of the clinical manifestations contribute to the centipede bite victims' not being taken to a treatment reference center, leading to underestimation of the number of cases and minimizing the possibility of a broader epidemiological view. An inventory of the centipede bite occurrences in Greater S. Paulo, Brazil, and the therapeutic methods employed, by the main Brazilian medical center for the notification of poisoning by venomous animals, is presented. METHOD: All patient cards of the period 1980-1989 have been checked as to place, month and time of occurrence; sex, age, affected part of the body, signs and symptoms have been observed, as well as the therapeutic methods employed. The centipedes that caused the accidents were identified at the Arthropods Laboratory. RESULTS: It was registered 216 accidents, with a 69% predominance of the Greater S. Paulo and in only 63% of the cases (136 was the agent brought in by the victim for identification. The genera most frequently represented were Cryptops (58%, Otostigmus (33% and Scolopendra (4%. Of the 136 cases, 87% showed erythema, edema, hemorrhage, burns, cephalalgia, and intense pain. There was a predominance of accidents in the warm rainy season, in the morning and for females between 21 and 60 years of age. Hands and feet were the parts of the body most affected. The benign evolution of the clinical picture (54% made therapeutical treatment unnecessary. Only the victims of Scolopendra and Otostigmus (46% were medicated with anesthetics (51%, analgesics (25%, antihistamines and cortisone (24%. CONCLUSION: The reproductive period of the centipedes, associated with their sinanthropic habits, contributes to the greater incidence of accidents in urban areas in the warm rainy season. Only patients bitten by Scolopendra and Otostigmus require therapeutical treatment.

  9. Hepatitis A antibodies in two socioeconomically distinct populations of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Claudio Sergio Pannuti

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the prevalence of antibody against hepatitis A in two socioeconomically distinct populations of a developing country, 540 serum specimens from children and adults living in São Paulo, Brazil, were tested for IgG anti HAV by a commercial radioimunoassay (Havab, Abbott Laboratories. The prevalence of anti-HAV in low socioeconomic level subjects was 75.0% in children 2-11 years old and 100.0% in adults, whereas in middle socioeconomic level significantly lower prevalences were observed (40.3% in chidren 2-11 years old and 91.9% in adults. Voluntary blood donors of middle socioeconomic level showed a prevalence of 90.4%. These data suggest that hepatitis A infection remains a highly endemic disease in São Paulo, Brazil.

  10. Fatores associados ao consumo de frutas, legumes e verduras em adultos da cidade de São Paulo Factores asociados al consumo de frutas, legumbres y verduras en adultos de la ciudad de São Paulo (Sureste de Brasil) Factors associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adults of the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Iramaia Campos Ribeiro Figueiredo; Patricia Constante Jaime; Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever a freqüência de consumo de frutas, legumes e verduras por adultos e analisar os fatores associados ao seu consumo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado entre outubro e dezembro de 2003 no município de São Paulo (SP). Foram realizadas entrevistas telefônicas em amostra probabilística da população adulta (>18 anos) residente em domicílios servidos por linhas fixas de telefone, totalizando 1.267 mulheres e 855 homens. A freqüência do consumo de frutas, legumes e verduras foi...

  11. Environmental radioactive monitoring in Itu, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Monitoramento de radioatividade ambiental no municipio de Itu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-01-01

    The results of the environmental monitoring of a region near to a radioactive materials deposit in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are presented. The radioactive materials are uranium and thorium hydroxides from monazite processing. The temporal variation of {sup 226} Ra was determined in the superficial and underground water, showing no increase for the former and a maximum concentration of 0,306 Bq/L for the latter. 21 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. [a Monitoring System For Work-related Accidents In Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil].

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade Gouveia; de Medeiros, Maria Angélica Tavares; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira; Bragantini, Clarice Aparecida; Varolla, Antenor J; Celso, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on the development of a work accident monitoring system in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil, with the following characteristics: information feeding the system is obtained in real time directly from accident treatment centers; the system has universal monitoring, covering all work-related accidents in Piracicaba, regardless of the nature of the worker's employment conditions, place of work, or place of residence; health surveillance and promotion of health initiatives ar...

  13. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2008. Calendar year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regionalized and environmental information. It covers the period of 1994 to 2007 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy

  14. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2009. Calendar year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regional and environmental information. It covers the period of 1995 to 2008 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy

  15. Arsenic in terrestrial invertebrates from riparian areas of the Piracicaba River Basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.J.; Magalhaes, M.R.L.; Santos, M.L.O.; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. de; Fonseca, F.Y.

    2017-01-01

    There is no information on arsenic distribution in terrestrial invertebrates from riparian forests of urban and rural areas in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the As levels in invertebrates from riverine forests of the Piracicaba River Basin, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using the instrumental neutron activation analysis, k 0 -comparator method. After correction of mass fractions, values higher than 0.10 mg kg -1 were quantified in invertebrates from both urban and agricultural areas. An unexpected As mass fraction of 13 mg kg -1 obtained in the Coleopteran pest Macrodactylus pumilio indicated resistance to As-containing-pesticides. (author)

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ricardo Augusto Dias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was carried out between May and November 2011 to investigate the epidemiological situation of bovine tuberculosis (bTB in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The state was divided into seven regions. Three hundred farms from each region, with reproductive activity, were randomly chosen and included as primary sample units. A fixed number of bovine females, older than 2 years of age, were randomly selected and tested, using the comparative cervical tuberculin test. An epidemiological questionnaire based survey was conducted in the selected farms. Our results show that in the state of São Paulo, the apparent prevalence of positive farms was 9% (95% confidence interval, 95% CI = 7.8 – 10.5%. The prevalence in the individual regions varied between 3.5% (95% CI = 1.7 ? 6.8% and 13.9% (95% CI = 10.2 – 18.8%. The apparent prevalence of positive animals in the state was 1.3% (95% CI = 0.9 – 1.7% and varied from 0.3% (95% CI = 0.2 – 0.6% to 2.5% (95% CI = 1.4 – 4.5% in the regions. The risk factors associated with tuberculosis in the state were (i number of adult females in a herd is ? 24 (Odds ratio, OR = 1.91, 95% CI = 1.32 – 2.75, (ii type of farm enterprise (dairy: OR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.40 – 5.21; mixed: OR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.08 – 3.82, (iii milking process (milking parlor: OR = 4.12, 95% CI = 1.46 – 11.64; portable milking machine: OR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.42 – 6.09, and (iv pasture sharing (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.07 – 2.33. The state of São Paulo should implement a structured surveillance system to detect and mitigate the disease. Further, an efficient animal health education program, which encourages the farmers to test replacement animals for bTB prior to introduction in their herds and to avoid pasture sharing with farms of unknown sanitary conditions should also be implemented.

  17. Hospitalization flow in the public and private systems in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness.RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients.CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

  18. Planktic Cyanobacteria from Sao Paulo State, Brazil: Chroococcales

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sant'Anna, C. L.; Azevedo, M. T. P.; Senna, P. A. C.; Komárek, Jiří; Komárková, Jaroslava

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2004), s. 213-227 ISSN 0100-8404 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : taxonomy * Brazil * Chroococcales Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  19. Spatial distribution of trace elements in topsoils adjacent to main avenues of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Andreza P.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Nammoura-Neto, Georges M.; Silva, Natalia C.; Ticianelli, Regina B.; Camargo, Sonia P.; Enzweiler, Jacinta

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the concentration and distribution of Ba, Cu, Mo, Pb, S, Zn and Zr in soils collected along two main avenues (Pinheiros River Highway and Tiete River Highway) with high traffic density in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, are presented, and their possible sources are discussed. These elements are strongly considered as contaminants originated from vehicular emissions. The analytical technique employed was XRF. The data set was evaluated by a t test for independent samples (group: avenues) at a 0.05 significance level. According to t test, the average contents obtained from Pinheiros River Highways are significantly different than the Tiete River, except for Mo. Multivariate statistic approaches (Pearson Correlation, Cluster and Factorial Analysis - FA) were adopted for data treatment. FA identified two main factors which accounted for about 86% of the total variance. The behavior of Ba, Cu, Pb, S and Zn were explained by the Factor 1. This indicates that the elements may have similar sources, probably related to gas emissions escaping from the vehicle fuel system. Factor 2 included Mo and Zr, suggesting their origin in the sample soils may be associated with the deterioration process of some device in the vehicular engine system or may be associated with the chemical composition of the urban soil analyzed. (author)

  20. Radiation protection in radiology services in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senise, Paulo H.; Silva, Ezequiel; Ruzene, Anderson A.; Braga, Adriano C.; Spirgatis, Armim; Medeiros, Regina B.

    2013-01-01

    The FIDI company providing service to local health care system is responsible for managing part of the services diagnostic imaging of Sao Paulo in the South and Southeast ( 60 % ), Eastern ( 20 % ) and Midwest (20 %), Brazil. The generation of images in the municipal net is performed in conventional manner. Since 2009 works a maintenance associated with the verification of the performance of radiological equipment (annual) and processing (monthly) one. In 2008, on the occasion of the agreement between the city hall and FIDI, conditions were evaluated for radiological protection in 52 care units of the municipality. Were carried out verification tests of performance in conventional equipment, mammographic and tomographic equipment, in 138 and 71 analog processors, according to current legislation. In 2008 , 33 % of the devices had technical problems that prevented its operation. Currently only 3.4 % of the 91 are in radiological equipment maintenance. In 2008 the majority of radiological equipment had more than 10 years of manufacturing, while today fixed equipment have been replaced by new ones and therefore the use of mammography and generally have 2 to 3 years of manufacture . Currently the 31 processors are operative in 2008, 28 % were out of order. The replacement of most of the equipment associated with program quality and preventive/corrective maintenance has kept the service in accordance with the law. (author)

  1. Health risks due to pre-harvesting sugarcane burning in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leticia de Souza Paraiso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available After 2003, a new period of expansion of the sugarcane culture began in Brazil. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw is an agricultural practice that, despite the nuisance for the population and pollution generated, still persisted in over 70% of the municipalities of São Paulo State in 2010. In order to study the distribution of this risk factor, an ecological epidemiological study was conducted associating the rates of deaths and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases, for each municipality in the State, with the exposure to the pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane straw. A Bayesian multivariate regression model, controlled for the possible effects of socioeconomic and climate (temperature, humidity, and rainfall variations, has been used. The effect on health was measured by the standardized mortality and morbidity ratio. The measures of exposure to the pre-harvesting burning used were: percentage of the area of sugarcane harvested with burning, average levels of aerosol, and number of outbreaks of burning. The autocorrelation between data was controlled using a neighborhood matrix. It was observed that the increase in the number of outbreaks of burning was significantly associated with higher rates of hospital admissions for respiratory disease in children under five years old. Pre-harvesting burning of sugarcane effectively imposes risk to population health and therefore it should be eliminated.

  2. Freqüência e variáveis associadas ao aleitamento materno em crianças com até 12 meses de idade no município de Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil Frequency and associated variables to breastfeeding among infant up to 12 months of age in Araçatuba, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemre Adas Saliba

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a prevalência do aleitamento materno em crianças assistidas em Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brasil; verificar a associação com variáveis materno-infantis e o conhecimento das mães sobre a relação da amamentação com saúde bucal. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal. Os dados foram coletados durante a Campanha Nacional de Vacinação, em 2005. Foram entrevistadas 100 mães de crianças com até 12 meses de idade. A freqüência do aleitamento foi estimada por meio da análise de sobrevivência, e foram realizadas análises estatísticas para verificação da associação entre aleitamento e variáveis independentes. RESULTADOS: a prevalência do aleitamento aos 6 e 12 meses foi de 22,2% (exclusivo e 65% (total. A duração mediana da amamentação exclusiva foi de 3,65 meses. As variáveis associadas ao desmame foram uso de mamadeira (χ2=9,537; p=0,002 e chupeta (χ2= 14,667; p=0,001. Poucas mães (33 demonstraram saber a influência do aleitamento sobre a saúde bucal de seus filhos, sendo o cirurgião-dentista o profissional mais citado como responsável por essa informação. CONCLUSÕES: a prevalência da amamentação foi satisfatória, porém foram baixas as taxas de aleitamento exclusivo, e como fatores determinantes destacaram-se o uso de mamadeiras e chupetas associado ao desmame. É dever de órgãos governamentais, meios de comunicação e profissionais de saúde compactuarem ações efetivas em prol do aleitamento.OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the prevalence of breastfeeding among infants receiving care in Araçatuba, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil; to assess associated variables relating to mother and child and the mother's knowledge regarding the relationship between breastfeeding and oral health. METHODS: cross-sectional study. Data was collected during the National Immunization Campaign, in 2005. One hundred mothers of children up to 12 months of age were interviewed. The frequency of breastfeeding was estimated

  3. Rhizopogon (Rhizopogonaceae: hypogeous fungi in exotic plantations from the State of São Paulo, Brazil Rhizopogon (Rhizopogonaceae: fungos hipógeos em plantações exóticas no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuri Goulart Baseia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey on the genus Rhizopogon, associated with roots of exotic trees in State of São Paulo (Brazil, was undertaken from January /1999 to September/2000. Three species were identified: R. luteolus Fr., R. roseolus Corda sensu A. H. Smith and R. rubescens Tul. This is the first report of R. luteolus and R. roseolus from Brazil.Um estudo sobre o gênero Rhizopogon, associado com raízes de árvores exóticas no Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, foi realizado de Janeiro/1999 até Setembro/2000. Três espécies foram identificadas: R. luteolus Fr., R. roseolus Corda sensu A. H. Smith e R. rubescens Tul. Este é o primeiro registro de R.. luteolus e R.. roseolus para o Brasil.

  4. A novel association between Rhodnius neglectus and the Livistona australis palm tree in an urban center foreshadowing the risk of Chagas disease transmission by vectorial invasions in Monte Alto City, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Danila B; Almeida, Carlos E; Rocha, Cláudia S; Gardim, Sueli; Mendonça, Vagner J; Ribeiro, Aline R; Alves, Zulimar C P V T; Ruellas, Kellem T; Vedoveli, Alan; da Rosa, João A

    2014-02-01

    After several public notifications of domiciliary invasions, palm trees were investigated in downtown Monte Alto City, São Paulo State, Brazil, in proximity to the city hall building, the main church, condominiums and marketing establishments. One hundred seventy four palm trees of 10 species were investigated, in which 72 specimens of Rhodnius neglectus, a potential Chagas disease vector, were captured via manual methods. All insects were collected from dead leaves, organic debris and bird nests in the only three Livistona australis palm trees in the central park square. This was the first record of R. neglectus colonizing this palm species. Although no Trypanosoma cruzi was found by abdominal compression followed by light microscopy, the poor nutritional status of the bugs hampered the examination of gut contents for parasite detection. Furthermore, the central crowns of the trees, which shelter bats (Chiroptera: Mammalia), could not be carefully searched for insects due to difficult access. This new finding highlights the sudden alteration in insect behavior, probably as a result of man's interference. This report aims to warn those involved in the health system about this new threat, justifying detailed research of the area to evaluate the magnitude of this emerging public health issue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. EVALUATION OF SCENARIOS OF AIR POLLUTANTS EMISSIONS BY THE AIRPORT EXPANSION AND ASSOCIATED INFRASTRUCTURE - CASE STUDY OF THE EXTENSION OF VIRACOPOS AIRPORT AT CAMPINAS, SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia H.G. Coelho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the airport segment faces environmental externalities especially related to the increase in emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs from combustion of fossil fuels by the aircraft engine, by the machinery for the maintenance of the planes and also by the vehicles used for passengers connections (private cars, taxicabs or public transportation system. In this scope, the current work presents the case study of the expansion of the Viracopos International Airport at Campinas – São Paulo, Brazil. To evaluate that, the methodology of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC was implemented to estimate the emissions of GHGs by aircraft for the years 2008 (before expansion, 2012 (current picture and 2018 (future scenario observing the changes in demand for passengers and cargo transportation. To evaluate the emissions from the vehicles it was used the AIMSUN microsimulation software to estimate emissions in the years 2012 and to simulate sensitivity scenarios for the year 2018. It was found that the inventory of CO2 emissions for both types of transports considered for the Viracopos airport showed similar orders of magnitude, what can be inferred about the equivalent contribution of these two modes on emissions of GHGs for the study area. These results may serve as a basis for establishing emission management plans of air pollutants by the competent organizations and to propose more targeted and effective measures to reduce the GHG emissions by these sources.

  6. Alguns aspectos da mortalidade entre japoneses e seus descendentes residentes no município de São Paulo, Brasil Some aspects of mortality in Japanese and their descendants in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Sabina Léa Davidson Gotlieb

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available São analisadas algumas características da mortalidade entre imigrantes japoneses e seus descendentes residentes no município de São Paulo, comparando-as com a população do Japão e geral do município de São Paulo. Os imigrantes japoneses e seus descendentes apresentam padrão de mortalidade de nível intermediário entre o do local de origem e o de destino, aproximando-se mais do nível de saúde do Japão. A mortalidade infantil entre os descendentes dos imigrantes, nascidos no município de São Paulo, é bem inferior à do município de São Paulo. O risco de morrer por lesões vasculares que afetam o sistema nervoso central é mais alto no Japão. Por outro lado, o risco de morrer por doenças cardíacas é muito mais alto no município de São Paulo. Os imigrantes japoneses apresentam-se num nível intermediário de mortalidade pelas causas acima referidas. Tal fato sugere atuação de fatores ambientais, levando os imigrantes a adquirirem padrão de mortalidade do local de destino.Some mortality characteristics of Japanese immigrants and their descendants living in the city of S. Paulo, Brazil, are analysed. Comparison between these characteristics and those among the populations of Japan and the city of S. Paulo has been made. The Japanese immigrants and their descendants have an intermediate pattern of mortality ranking between the pattern of Japan and the S. Paulo one, being closer to the former. The infant mortality rate among the Japanese born in S. Paulo is much lower than the S. Paulo rate. The death rate for vascular lesions affecting the Central Nervous System is higher in Japan. On the other hand, the death rate for diseases of the heart (except rheumatic heart disease is much higher in S. Paulo. The association of a low death rate for diseases of the heart with a high death rate for vascular lesions affecting the Central Nervous System is observed. The Japanese immigrants tend to occupy an intermediate mortality level

  7. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Nogueira, C.A.; Saiki, M.; Milian, F.M.; Domingos, M.

    2007-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source. - This paper is the first work on the use of biomonitors to assess metal pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the biggest city in Latin America

  8. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br; Nogueira, C.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Saiki, M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Milian, F.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187, Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Domingos, M. [Instituto de Botanica, Av. Miguel Stefano No. 3687, CEP 04301-012, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-01-15

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source. - This paper is the first work on the use of biomonitors to assess metal pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, the biggest city in Latin America.

  9. Epstein-Barr virus infection and gastric carcinoma in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    L.F. Lopes

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a ubiquitous herpesvirus, and most people have serological evidence of previous viral infection at adult age. EBV is associated with infectious mononucleosis and human cancers, including some lymphomas and gastric carcinomas. Although EBV was first reported in lymphoepithelioma-like gastric carcinoma, the virus was also found in conventional adenocarcinomas. In the present study, 53 gastric carcinomas diagnosed in São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated for EBV infection by non-isotopic in situ hybridization with a biotinylated probe (Biotin-AGACACCGTCCTCACCACCC GGGACTTGTA directed to the viral transcript EBER-I, which is actively expressed in EBV latently infected cells. EBV infection was found in 6 of 53 (11.32% gastric carcinomas, mostly from male patients (66.7%, with a mean age of 59 years old. Most EBV-positive tumors were in gastric antrum. Two EBV-positive tumors (33.3% were conventional adenocarcinomas, whereas four (66.7% were classified as lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas. EBV infection in gastric carcinomas was reported elsewhere in frequencies that range from 5.6% (Korea up to 18% (Germany. In Brazil, a previous work found EBV infection in 4 of 80 (5% gastric carcinomas, whereas another study found 4.7 and 11.2% of EBV-positive gastric carcinomas of Brazilians of Japanese origin or not, respectively. In the present study, the frequency of EBV-positive gastric carcinomas is similar to that reported in other series, and the clinicopathologic characteristics of these EBV-positive tumors are in agreement with the data in the literature.

  10. Prevalência de atividade física no lazer e fatores associados: estudo de base populacional em São Paulo, Brasil, 2008-2009 Prevalencia de actividad física durante el tiempo libre y factores asociados: estudio de base poblacional en São Paulo, Brasil, 2008-2009 Prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and associated factors: a population-based study in São Paulo, Brazil, 2008-2009

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    Clóvis Arlindo de Sousa

    2013-02-01

    en el ocio. Los hallazgos de este trabajo apuntan la importancia de incentivar la actividad física en el ocio, asociada al sexo masculino, mayor renta, edades más jóvenes entre 12 y 29 años, no fumar e informar no sentirse cansado(a frecuentemente.The purpose of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of self-reported leisure-time physical activity and related factors in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, 2008-2009. A population- based cross-sectional study interviewed 2,691 individuals of both sexes, 12 years or older. A two-stage cluster (census tract, household random sample provided data using home interviews in 2008 and 2009. Leisure-time physical activity was measured with IPAQ, long version. Complex sample-adjusted descriptive statistics provided prevalence estimates, chi-square tests screened associations, and prevalence ratios (PR expressed effects. Multiple Poisson regression was used to ascertain adjusted effects, and design effects were calculated. Of the interviewees, 16.4% (95%CI: 14.3-18.7 reported leisure-time physical activity. The findings indicate the importance of encouraging leisure-time physical activity, which was associated with male sex, higher income, younger age (12 to 29 years, not smoking, and not reporting frequent fatigue.

  11. Incidence of self-reported hearing loss and associated risk factors among the elderly in São Paulo, Brazil: the SABE survey La incidencia de pérdida de la audición auto-reportada entre los ancianos en São Paulo, Brasil, y factores asociados: Estudio SABE Incidência de deficiência auditiva referida em idosos no Município de São Paulo, Brasil, e fatores associados: Estudo SABE

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    Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira Duarte

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the incidence of self-reported hearing loss among the elderly in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, and identify associated risk factors. A longitudinal study based on a representative sample of individuals aged 60 years and over interviewed in 2000 was conducted in 2006. The sample was obtained in two stages using the cluster sampling method, adopting the criterion distribution proportional to size, and replacement with probability proportional to population for subjects aged 75 years and over. Statistical analysis was performed using the likelihood ratio test to compare survival curves based on the Cox regression model. A total of 765 individuals were interviewed. The hearing loss incidence rate was 28.9/1,000 persons/year and proportional incidence was 17.4%. Associated risk factors were being aged 80 years and over, being male, having an occupation related to agricultural, industrial or maintenance sectors and having osteoporosis. Steps must be taken to reduce incidence by ameliorating the risks identified, particularly those related to occupational noise and specific diseases, notably osteoporosis.El objetivo fue estimar la incidencia de pérdida de audición auto-reportada por ancianos en São Paulo, Brasil, y factores de riesgo asociados. Se realizó estudio longitudinal en 2006, con base en la población de 60 años o más entrevistada en el año 2000. La muestra se obtuvo por el método de muestreo por conglomerados en dos etapas, según el criterio de reparto proporcional a su tamaño, y la sustitución con una probabilidad proporcional a la población, para los sujetos de 75 años o más. El análisis estadístico se realizó mediante la prueba de razón de verosimilitud para la igualdad de las curvas de supervivencia y regresión de Cox. Se entrevistaron 765 ancianos, con una tasa de incidencia de pérdida de audición auto-reportada de 28,9/1.000 personas-año y una proporción de 17,4%. Los factores de

  12. Atmospheric alcohols and aldehydes concentrations measured in Osaka, Japan and in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ha Thi-Hoang; Takenaka, Norimichi; Bandow, Hiroshi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Oliva, S.T. de; Botelho, M.M.; Tavares, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of alcohol fuel has received much attention since the 1980s. In Brazil, ethanol-fuelled vehicles have been currently used on a large scale. This paper reports the atmospheric methanol and isoproponal concentrations which were measured from May to December 1997, in Osaka, Japan, where alcohol fuel was not used and from 3 to 9 February 1998 in Sao Paulo, Brazil, where ethanol was used. The alcohols were determined by the alkyl nitrite formation reaction using gas chromatography (GC-ECD) analysis. The concentration of atmospheric alcohols, especially ethanol, measured in Sao Paulo were significantly higher than those in Osaka. In Osaka, the average concentrations of atmospheric methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol were 5.8 ± 3.8, 8.2 ± 4.6, and 7.2 ± 5.9ppbv, respectively. The average ambient levels of methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol measured in Sao Paulo were 34.1± 9.2, 176.3 ± 38.1, and 44.2 ± 13.7ppbv, respectively. The ambient levels of aldehydes, which were expected to be high due to the use of alcohol fuel, were also measured at these sampling sites. The atmospheric formaldehyde average measured in Osaka was 1.9± 0.9ppbv, and the average acetaldehyde concentration was 1.5 ± 0.8ppbv. The atmospheric formaldehyde and acetaldehyde average concentrations measured in Sao Paulo were 5.0 ± 2.8 and 5.4 ± 2.8ppbv, respectively. The C 2 H 5 OH/CH 3 OH and CH 3 CHO/HCHO were compared between the two measurement sites and elsewhere in the world, which have already been reported in the literature. Due to the use of ethanol-fuelled vehicles, these ratios, especially C-2H 5 OH/CH 3 OH, are much higher in Brazil than those measured elsewhere in the world. (Author)

  13. Associação forética entre larvas de Rheotanytarsus (Chironomidae, Tanytarsini e adultos de Elmidae (Coleoptera, coletados em córregos no Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão, São Paulo, Brasil Phoretic association between larvae of Rheotanytarsus and adult of Coleoptera, collected from State Park Campos do Jordão, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Melissa O. Segura

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta nota registra a ocorrência de foresia entre larvas de Rheotanytarsus Thienemann & Bause, 1913 (Chironomidae, Tanytarsini e adultos de Hexacylloepus Hinton, 1940 e Microcylloepus Hinton, 1935 (Coleoptera, Elmidae. Os exemplares foram obtidos em córregos no Parque Estadual de Campos de Jordão, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil.This note reports phoresy between larvae of Rheotanytarsus Thienemann & Bause, 1913 (Chironominae, Tanytarsini and adult of Hexacylloepus Hinton, 1940 and Microcylloepus Hinton, 1935 (Coleoptera, Elmidae. The specimens had been collected in streams from State Park Campos do Jordão, São Paulo State, Brazil.

  14. Equine pythiosis: Report of 28 cases from São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Marcos Jun Watanabe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pythiosis is a granulomatous lesion of the skin and subcutaneous tissues caused by Pythium insidiosum, a microorganism belonging to the Stramenopila Kingdom and the Oomycetes Class. The pathogen is commonly found in water environments, mainly in tropical areas of the world. Twenty eight cases of equine pythiosis were presented at the Large Animal Surgery Department of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, São Paulo State University, Brazil in six years. Among the 28 animals, 13 presented distal lesions on the limbs, with four being immediately euthanized and seven dying due to loss of body condition leading to cachexia. The horses presented with one or more wounds in the body, distributed as follows: limbs (13 distal, four proximal, abdominal region (7, thoracic region (1, pectoral region (1, lumbar region (1, nasal region (1 and prepuce (1. The diagnosis was made by the association of the macroscopic aspects of the lesions with the histopathology, isolation of the pathogen and/or nested-PCR. Treatments included surgical removal of the lesion (16, potassium iodide 67 mg kg-1 PO sid (23, intravenous regional perfusion with 50 mg of amphotericin B (6 and immunotherapy (8. Pythiosis is a disease that develops quickly, but its diagnosis is time-consuming; therefore, establishing an early treatment with special attention to the involvement of distal regions of the limbs is important.

  15. Epidemiological Evaluation of Notifications of Environmental Events in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Telma de Cassia dos Santos Nery

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urbanization across the globe, combined with an increased use of chemicals in various regions, contributes to several environmental events that influence environmental health. Measures that identify environmental factors and events should be introduced to facilitate epidemiological investigations by health services. The Brazilian Ministry of Health published a new list of notifiable diseases on 25 January 2011 and introduced environmental events as a new category of notifiable occurrences. The Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, created an online notification system that highlights “environmental events”, such as exposure to chemical contaminants, drinking water with contaminants outside of the recommended range, contaminated air, and natural or anthropogenic disasters. This paper analyzed 300 notifications received between May 2011 and May 2012. It reports the number of notifications with event classifications and analyzes the events relating to accidents with chemical substances. This paper describes the characteristics of the accidents that involved chemical substances, methods used, types of substances, exposed population, and measures adopted. The online notification of environmental events increases the analysis of the main events associated with diseases related to environmental chemicals; thus, it facilitates the adoption of public policies to prevent environmental health problems.

  16. Demographic characteristics of owned dogs and cats of Votorantim, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Santos Baquero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A two-stage cluster sample design was used to estimate population parameters of dogs and cats of the urban area of Votorantim, São Paulo State, Brazil, to support the planning and implementation of population management programs for companion animals. For dogs, the total and density estimates were 27,241 dogs (95% confidence interval [CI]=23,903-30,578 and 951 dogs km-2 (95% CI=835-1,068, respectively. For cats, these estimates were 5,579 cats (95% CI=3,595-7,562 and 195 cats km-2 (95% CI=126-264. Cost was the most prevalent reason for not sterilizing the animals (33%, 95% CI=23%-44%, Deff=6.1. The percentage of interviewees that expressed reasons for abandoning their animals was equal to 9 (95% CI=5-13, Deff=2.1. Other estimates were obtained, including indirect estimates of abandonment. The estimates associated with abandonment suggest that the prevalence of this phenomenon can significantly affect population dynamics. Distribution of dogs per household can be used to construct hypothetical populations and to validate estimation procedures. The estimates generated allow parameterizing mathematical models and constructing population management indicators

  17. Schistosomiasis mansoni in Bananal (State of São Paulo, Brazil: II. Intermediate hosts

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    Horacio Manuel Santana Teles

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available We conducted monthly snail captures in Bananal, State of São Paulo, Brazil, between March 1998 and February 2001, to identify Schistosoma mansoni vectors, estimate seasonal population changes, and delimit foci. We also evaluated the impact of improvements in city water supply and basic sanitation facilities. We identified 28,651 vector specimens, 28,438 as Biomphalaria tenagophila, 49 of them (0.2% infected with S. mansoni, and 213 as B. straminea, none of the latter infected. Vectors predominated in water bodies having some vegetation along their banks. Neither population density nor local vegetation could be linked to vector infection. We found the first infected snails in 1998 (from March to May. Further captures of infected snails ocurred, without exception, from July to December, when rainfall was least. Irrespective of season, overall temperature ranged from 16.5ºC to 21ºC; pH values, from 6.0 to 6.8. Neither factor was associated with snail population density. Frequent contact of people with the river result from wading across it, extracting sand from its bottom, fishing, washing animals, etc. Despite a marked reduction in contamination, cercaria shedding persists. Whatever the location along its urban course, contact with river Bananal, particularly of the unprotected skin, entails risks of infection.

  18. 77 FR 18215 - U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil, August 30...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Education Mission to Brazil; Brasilia, Rio de Janeiro and S[atilde]o Paulo, Brazil, August 30-September 6, 2012 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Department of...

  19. Status of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) as a pest of coconut in the state of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, D C; de Moraes, G J; Dias, C T S

    2012-08-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, is one of the main pests of coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of the coconut mite and other mites on coconut palms in the state of São Paulo and to estimate the possible role of predatory mites in the control of this pest. The effect of cultivated genotypes and sampling dates on the mite populations was also estimated. We sampled attached fruits, leaflets, inflorescences, and fallen fruits. The coconut mite was the main phytophagous mite found on attached and fallen fruits, with average densities of 110.0 and 20.5 mites per fruit, respectively. The prevalent predatory mites on attached and fallen fruits were Proctolaelaps bulbosus Moraes, Reis & Gondim Jr. and Proctolaelaps bickleyi (Bram), both Melicharidae. On leaflets, the tenuipalpids Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijsks) and Tenuipalpus coyacus De Leon and the tetranychid Oligonychus modestus (Banks) were the predominant phytophagous mites. On both leaflets and inflorescences, the predominant predatory mites belonged to the Phytoseiidae. Neoseiulus baraki (Athias-Henriot) and Neoseiulus paspalivorus (De Leon), predators widely associated with the coconut mite in northeastern Brazil and several other countries, were not found. The low densities of the coconut mite in São Paulo could be related to prevailing climatic conditions, scarcity of coconut plantations (hampering the dispersion of the coconut mite between fields), and to the fact that some of the genotypes cultivated in the region are unfavorable for its development.

  20. Cycling in São Paulo, Brazil (1997–2012: Correlates, time trends and health consequences

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    Thiago Hérick Sá

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to describe cyclists and cycling trips, and to explore correlates, time trends and health consequences of cycling in São Paulo, Brazil from 1997 to 2012. Cross-sectional analysis using repeated São Paulo Household Travel Surveys (HTS. At all time periods cycling was a minority travel mode in São Paulo (1174 people with cycling trips out of 214,719 people. Poisson regressions for individual correlates were estimated using the entire 2012 HTS sample. Men were six times more likely to cycle than women. We found rates of bicycle use rising over time among the richest quartile but total cycling rates dropped from 1997 to 2012 due to decreasing rates among the poor. Harms from air pollution would negate benefits from physical activity through cycling only at 1997 air pollution levels and at very high cycling levels (≥9 h of cycling per day. Exposure-based road injury risk decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 0.76 to 0.56 cyclist deaths per 1000 person-hours travelled. Policies to reduce spatial segregation, measures to tackle air pollution, improvements in dedicated cycling infrastructure, and integrating the bicycle with the public transport system in neighborhoods of all income levels could make cycling safer and prevent more individuals from abandoning the cycling mode in São Paulo.

  1. Radioactivity in soils of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromoto, Goro; Peres, Ana C.; Taddei, Maria H. Tirolo; Soares, Marcio R.; Alleoni, Luis R. Ferracciu

    2008-01-01

    Full text: For proper management of soil and groundwater quality, background levels of toxic elements in a given ecosystem must be known. The main aim of the present study is to perform a radioactive characterization of representative soils from the Sao Paulo State, in order to determine background levels for some selected radionuclides, which could be used as a quality reference value. Soil types and sampling places were chosen according to their representativeness and spatial distribution in the State geological formations, taking also into account their nearness to large urban areas. Thirty samples were collected in areas presenting low antrophic perturbation - native vegetation or ancient reforestation -, minimizing the chances that selected areas could have sustained antrophic effects in recent past. Activity concentration of U-nat, Th-nat, 228 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 137 Cs and 40 K were evaluated and correlated with soil mineralogical characteristics. The samples were measured by means of passive gamma spectrometry and spectrophotometry, employing Arsenazo III. Results showed a wide variation on background levels for natural radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series, and very low concentration of 137 Cs from radioactive fallout, ranging from -1 for U-nat, 8 to 82 Bq.kg -1 for Th-nat, 4.8 to 120 Bq.kg -1 for 228 Th, 3.3 to 97.6 Bq.kg -1 for 228 Ra, 1.0 to 61.8 Bq.kg -1 for 226 Ra, -1 for 210 Pb, 0.8 to 4.1 Bq.kg -1 for 137 Cs and 15.3 to 516 Bq.kg -1 for 40 K. No significant correlation could be observed between the clay, silt and sand content in the samples and the respective activity concentration of the radionuclides. (author)

  2. Temperature, air pollution, and mortality from myocardial infarction in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Sharovsky R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in daily mortality from myocardial infarction has been observed in association with meteorological factors and air pollution in several cities in the world, mainly in the northern hemisphere. The objective of the present study was to analyze the independent effects of environmental variables on daily counts of death from myocardial infarction in a subtropical region in South America. We used the robust Poisson regression to investigate associations between weather (temperature, humidity and barometric pressure, air pollution (sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and inhalable particulate, and the daily death counts attributed to myocardial infarction in the city of São Paulo in Brazil, where 12,007 fatal events were observed from 1996 to 1998. The model was adjusted in a linear fashion for relative humidity and day-of-week, while nonparametric smoothing factors were used for seasonal trend and temperature. We found a significant association of daily temperature with deaths due to myocardial infarction (P < 0.001, with the lowest mortality being observed at temperatures between 21.6 and 22.6ºC. Relative humidity appeared to exert a protective effect. Sulfur dioxide concentrations correlated linearly with myocardial infarction deaths, increasing the number of fatal events by 3.4% (relative risk of 1.03; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-1.05 for each 10 µg/m³ increase. In conclusion, this study provides evidence of important associations between daily temperature and air pollution and mortality from myocardial infarction in a subtropical region, even after a comprehensive control for confounding factors.

  3. Air Pollution and Deaths among Elderly Residents of São Paulo, Brazil: An Analysis of Mortality Displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Amine Farias; Hoek, Gerard; Brunekreef, Bert; Ponce de Leon, Antônio C M

    2017-03-01

    Evaluation of short-term mortality displacement is essential to accurately estimate the impact of short-term air pollution exposure on public health. We quantified mortality displacement by estimating single-day lag effects and cumulative effects of air pollutants on mortality using distributed lag models. We performed a daily time series of nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality among elderly residents of São Paulo, Brazil, between 2000 and 2011. Effects of particulate matter smaller than 10 μm (PM 10 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and carbon monoxide (CO) were estimated in Poisson generalized additive models. Single-day lag effects of air pollutant exposure were estimated for 0-, 1- and 2-day lags. Distributed lag models with lags of 0-10, 0-20 and 0-30 days were used to assess mortality displacement and potential cumulative exposure effects. PM 10 , NO 2 and CO were significantly associated with nonaccidental and cause-specific deaths in both single-day lag and cumulative lag models. Cumulative effect estimates for 0-10 days were larger than estimates for single-day lags. Cumulative effect estimates for 0-30 days were essentially zero for nonaccidental and circulatory deaths but remained elevated for respiratory and cancer deaths. We found evidence of mortality displacement within 30 days for nonaccidental and circulatory deaths in elderly residents of São Paulo. We did not find evidence of mortality displacement within 30 days for respiratory or cancer deaths. Citation: Costa AF, Hoek G, Brunekreef B, Ponce de Leon AC. 2017. Air pollution and deaths among elderly residents of São Paulo, Brazil: an analysis of mortality displacement. Environ Health Perspect 125:349-354; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP98.

  4. Use of doxycycline for leptospirosis after high-risk exposure in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Claudio R. GONSALEZ

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical trial pilot study, double-blinded, randomized, and controlled with a placebo to assess the effectiveness of oral doxycycline (200 mg, single dose in preventing leptospirosis after high exposure to potentially contamined water was performed in São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Confirmed cases were defined as those with leptospira IgM antibody and symptoms; asymptomatic cases were those presenting with IgM antibodies but no symptoms; and suspected cases were individuals with symptoms but no IgM antibody. Forty subjects were given doxycycline and 42 were given placebo. In the drug-treated group there were 2 confirmed cases, 11 asymptomatic cases, and 6 suspected cases. In the placebo group there were 5 confirmed, 6 symptomatic, and 5 suspected cases. Even though we found a protective association of doxycycline for confirmed leptospirosis cases (RR = 2.3 and seroconversion only (RR = 2.0, the association was not statistically significant because of the small number of individuals enrolled in this pilot study. We observed that the 22% of the volunteers already had IgM antibodies to leptospirosis at the first sampling. Finally, the attack rate to confirmed, asymptomatic, and suspected cases of Leptospirosis was 8.5%, 22%, and 13%, respectively, in this population.Um ensaio clínico, duplo-cego, ao acaso, e controlado com placebo para aferir a eficácia da doxiciclina (200 mg, dose única em prevenir leptospirose após exposição de alto risco com água potencialmente contaminada foi realizado em São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Casos confirmados foram definidos como aqueles que apresentavam anticorpos IgM anti-Leptospira e sintomas; casos assintomáticos eram aqueles que apresentavam somente anticorpo IgM, casos suspeitos apresentavam sintomas, porém sem anticorpo IgM. 40 indivíduos tomaram doxaciclina e 42 tomaram placebo. No grupo tratado houve 2 casos confirmados, 11 assintomáticos e 6 casos suspeitos. No grupo placebo houve 5 casos confirmados, 6

  5. Nota sobre leishmaniose tegumentar no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Cutaneous leishmaniasis at the South Coastal region of the S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a existência de área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar na região Sul do litoral do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Descrevem-se 17 casos a maioria dos quais foram diagnosticados parasitologicamente. As características observadas permitem supor a possibilidade de transmissão intradomiciliar.An endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the South Coastal region of S. Paulo State, Brazil, is reported. Seventeen cases were found and diagnostic was made mainly through parasitologic evidences. Probability of local intradomiciliary transmission is suspected.

  6. The rising pet market: hotels for cats and dogs in São Paulo city (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Afonso

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Hotels for dogs and cats in São Paulo city. Characteristics and tendencies are analyzed aiming to contribute to applied studies on the subject. It begins by bringing general data on pet market in the world and on hotels for pets in Brazil. Pets hosting is assessed through registers on the subject and interviews with managers of that kind of hotels, as well as with pet owners living in the southern part of São Paulo city. It could be stated that pet hosting is a rising market for two segments: a exclusive pet hosting and b shared hosting (people with their pets. Hotel products and services for pets mean both broadening of the hospitality concept, and diversification. It means also new professionals are needed at managerial and operational levels to attend pet owners´ expectations and pets comfort themselves.

  7. Mortality from asthma in the state of S. Paulo, Brazil (1970-1992

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    Paulo Andrade Lotufo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Mortality from asthma has shown important variations over time in several countries. In Brazil, a mortality study performed in the 60s, covering the cities of S.Paulo and Ribeirão Preto, and other ten cities showed that S.Paulo presented the lowest death rate from asthma among of them all. It was decided to study the time trends of deaths from asthma and from the whole set of respiratory diseases from 1970 to 1992, in the population aged 15-34 yrs. old in the State of S.Paulo, as well as to compare them with those of other countries. Asthma mortality rates during the 23 years of observation since 1975, showed an oscillatory declining pattern with a peak of deaths in the initial years. The linearization of the curve allows the calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient that was significantly negative, suggesting a decline in the mortality over this period, mainly in the 5-9 yrs. old and 30-34 yrs. old strata. The segmentation of data between the period of ICD-9, 1970 to 1978, and of ICD-9, 1979 and subsequent years, shows that there is stability within each period, in all age-groups, except for that of 5-9 yr. olds between 1970-1978. Comparing the rates of the population aged 15-34 yrs. old for the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, with trends observed in 14 other countries, an intermediate pattern for the first triennial period (1970-1972 as well as for the subsequent triennial periods, emerges. A prevalence study of asthma, a follow up program meant for using emergency rooms and a surveillance of deaths due to all respiratory diseases and specifically to asthma are strongly recommended.

  8. Flood hazards analysis based on changes of hydrodynamic processes in fluvial systems of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simas, Iury; Rodrigues, Cleide

    2016-04-01

    The metropolis of Sao Paulo, with its 7940 Km² and over 20 million inhabitants, is increasingly being consolidated with disregard for the dynamics of its fluvial systems and natural limitations imposed by fluvial terraces, floodplains and slopes. Events such as floods and flash floods became particularly persistent mainly in socially and environmentally vulnerable areas. The Aricanduva River basin was selected as the ideal area for the development of the flood hazard analysis since it presents the main geological and geomorphological features found in the urban site. According to studies carried out by Anthropic Geomorphology approach in São Paulo, to study this phenomenon is necessary to take into account the original hydromorphological systems and its functional conditions, as well as in which dimensions the Anthropic factor changes the balance between the main variables of surface processes. Considering those principles, an alternative model of geographical data was proposed and enabled to identify the role of different driving forces in terms of spatial conditioning of certain flood events. Spatial relationships between different variables, such as anthropogenic and original morphology, were analyzed for that purpose in addition to climate data. The surface hydrodynamic tendency spatial model conceived for this study takes as key variables: 1- The land use present at the observed date combined with the predominant lithological group, represented by a value ranging 0-100, based on indexes of the National Soil Conservation Service (NSCS-USA) and the Hydraulic Technology Center Foundation (FCTH-Brazil) to determine the resulting balance of runoff/infiltration. 2- The original slope, applying thresholds from which it's possible to determine greater tendency for runoff (in percents). 3- The minimal features of relief, combining the curvature of surface in plant and profile. Those three key variables were combined in a Geographic Information System in a series of

  9. Access to Street Markets and Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables by Adolescents Living in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Breno Souza; Barrozo, Ligia Vizeu; Goldbaum, Moisés; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Alves, Maria Cecilia Goi Porto

    2018-01-01

    Food environment and income act as determinants of diet, and consequently, of the consumption of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption, income, and street market density in adolescents living in São Paulo, Brazil. Data from 521 adolescents (12 to 19 years) participating in the 2015 Health Survey of São Paulo were used. Buffers (500, 1000, and 1500 m) were drawn around the households and the street markets were counted in each zone. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between fruit and vegetable consumption, income, and street market density. The main results showed that the presence of a street market in the zone closest to the households (500 m) was associated with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR: 1.73; CI 95% 1.01–3.00). Higher family income was associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables for models of 500 m buffer (OR: 2.56; CI 95% 1.47–4.45), 1000 m (OR: 2.30; CI 95% 1.33–3.96), and 1500 m (OR: 2.32; CI 95% 1.35–4.00). These results support the implementation of public policies that jointly consider income and the availability of street markets or healthy food environments. PMID:29538324

  10. Prevalência de excesso de peso e seus fatores associados em adolescentes da rede de ensino público de Piracicaba, São Paulo Prevalencia de exceso de peso y sus factores asociados en adolescentes de la red de enseñanza pública de Piracicaba, São Paulo (Brasil Prevalence of overweight and associated factors in adolescents from public schools of Piracicaba city, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Verzinhasse Peres

    2012-01-01

    de consumo de carbohidrato (OR ajustada 0,28 y la etapa de aceleración/ápice del crecimiento (OR ajustada 0,37 CONCLUSIONES: Los hallazgos del presente estudio evidencian que la prevalencia de exceso de peso en los adolescentes es preocupante. La etapa de aceleración/ápice del crecimiento y el alto consumo de carbohidrato fueron relacionados como factores protectores al exceso de peso entre las muchachas. Se sugiere además que este último factor sea analizado con cautela, una vez que tal asociación no fue observada en otros estudios.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of excess weight and the factors associated with its occurrence in adolescents enrolled at public schools in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 269 adolescents of both sexes aged 10 to 14 years. Questionnaires were administered to collect data on dietary intake, sexual maturity, physical activity level and demographic characteristics. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of excess weight was 35.7% for the boys and 26.2% for the girls. Factors significantly associated with excess weight were only identified for the girls, among whom it was found that being in the 2nd tertile for carbohydrate intake (adjusted Odds Ratio [OR]: 0.28 and the accelerating/peak growth phase (adjusted OR: 0.37 were protective factors against excess weight . CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study reveal a worrying prevalence of excess weight among the adolescents studied. The accelerating/peak growth phase and high carbohydrate intake were identified as protective factors against excess weight for the girls. It is, however, suggested that the second of these be treated with caution since this link has not been detected in other studies.

  11. [Chagas disease Control Program in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: serological and entomological aspects of primary school-children surveys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Maria Esther de; Silva, Rubens Antonio da; Wanderley, Dalva Marli Valério; Barata, José Maria Soares

    2011-01-01

    Two serological surveys were carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of measures put into effect in the State of São Paulo (Brazil) to control Chagas disease vectors. The first one, during the period from 1968 to 1970; the complement fixation reaction was performed on serum samples from school-children resident in all municipalities of the State of São Paulo, with the exception of the Greater São Paulo. The second one, annually, from 1973 to 1983, involving school-children resident in municipalities with high trypanosomiasis prevalence values; the indirect immuno-fluorescence test was performed on filter paper total blood eluates. Data on the occurrence of triatomines and their infection with Trypanosoma cruzi in each municipality formed the basis of insight into the epidemiological situation associated with the school-children's dates of birth. Most positive serological results, as well as the highest proportion of autochthonous cases associated with Triatoma infestans were observed in the region of Sorocaba until the early 1970s, while the proportions of both autochthonous and imported cases were kept in equilibrium elsewhere. It has been inferred that as recently as 1974, vectorial transmission of Chagas disease could still be observed in the State of São Paulo. We emphasize that, even rather lacking in coverage, no seropositive cases have been observed in people inhabiting the regions included in the Control Program for the State of São Paulo and now aged less than 15 years.

  12. Landscape, Environmental and Social Predictors of Hantavirus Risk in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Ribeiro Prist

    Full Text Available Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS is a disease caused by Hantavirus, which are negative-sense RNA viruses in the family Bunyaviridae that are highly virulent to humans. Numerous factors modify risk of Hantavirus transmission and consequent HPS risk. Human-driven landscape change can foster transmission risk by increasing numbers of habitat generalist rodent species that serve as the principal reservoir host. Climate can also affect rodent population dynamics and Hantavirus survival, and a number of social factors can influence probability of HPS transmission to humans. Evaluating contributions of these factors to HPS risk may enable predictions of future outbreaks, and is critical to development of effective public health strategies. Here we rely on a Bayesian model to quantify associations between annual HPS incidence across the state of São Paulo, Brazil (1993-2012 and climate variables (annual precipitation, annual mean temperature, landscape structure metrics (proportion of native habitat cover, number of forest fragments, proportion of area planted with sugarcane, and social factors (number of men older than 14 years and Human Development Index. We built separate models for the main two biomes of the state (cerrado and Atlantic forest. In both biomes Hantavirus risk increased with proportion of land cultivated for sugarcane and HDI, but proportion of forest cover, annual mean temperature, and population at risk also showed positive relationships in the Atlantic forest. Our analysis provides the first evidence that social, landscape, and climate factors are associated with HPS incidence in the Neotropics. Our risk map can be used to support the adoption of preventive measures and optimize the allocation of resources to avoid disease propagation, especially in municipalities that show medium to high HPS risk (> 5% of risk, and aimed at sugarcane workers, minimizing the risk of future HPS outbreaks.

  13. Phurcalite and others secondary uranium minerals from Perus, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atencio, D.

    1991-01-01

    Phurcalite has been found filling fractures in the tourmaline-bearing granitic pegmatite of Perus, in the north-west part of Sao Paulo city, Brazil. It forms aggregates of radiating euhedral crystals up to 5 mm in length. The crystals are bright yellow, transparent and display vitreous to adamantine lustre. Its streak is pale yellow. Phurcalite is brittle, with a conchoidal fracture, and non-fluorescent. The crystal structure of phurcalite has been solves by single-crystal x-ray diffraction methods and refined to R = 3.8% using 2065 observed [I > 3σ(I)] reflections. The structure consists of [(U O 2 ) 3 O 2 (P O 4 ) 2 4n- ] n layers, parallel to (010), connected by Ca 2+ ions and H 2 O. The coordination polyhedra are: for U(1) hexagonal bi pyramid; for U(2) and U(3) pentagonal bi pyramids; for Ca(4) and Ca(5) capped trigonal prism and triangulated dodecahedron, respectively; and for P(6) and P(7) tetrahedra. As a consequence of this work, the molecular formula of phurcalite previously reported as Ca 2 (U O 2 ) 3 (P O 4 ) 2 (OH) 4 .4 H 2 O must be changed to Ca 2 (U O 2 ) 3 O 2 (P O 4 ) 2 .7 H 2 O. Other secondary uranium minerals associated with Perus phurcalite are autunite, torbernite, meta-autunite, meta-torbernite, chernikovite, meta-uranocircite I, phosphuranylite, uranophane-alpha, uranophane-beta, haiweeite, barian week site and perhaps also bassetite, meta-tyuyamunite and meta-haiweeite. Opal, tridymite, cristobalite, secondary quartz, saponite and rhodochrosite occur associated to the uranium minerals. (author)

  14. Sanitary surveillance of ionizing radiations use in health services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldred, Martha Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula; Goncalves Junior, Nelson

    1997-01-01

    An evaluation of the Sanitarian Surveillance actions developed at Sao Paulo State, Brazil, concerning the control of ionizing radiation is presented. Aspects such as technical standards, inspection forms, assessment and quality assurance programs, in the fields of medical and dental radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine are discussed. A program is also introduced for sample monitoring of these instruments. A set of protocol with criteria to be used in quality assurance programs, including equipment and procedures is presented. Participation of several societies of specialists and consumer defense organizations in the elaboration of technical regulations has contributed to concrete adoption by health care services

  15. Environmental impact from pollutant action in the Billings Reservoir in Sao Paulo metropolitan area - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, S.; Braghin, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    The ELETROPAULO Electricity from Sao Paulo S/A covers 74 municipal district of the State with electric power, signifying 26% of the energy consumed in Brazil. This paper presents problems with the aquatic plants proliferation and the methods used for their control in the ELETROPAULO hydraulic system, compound by generators plants, channels and reservoirs. The main consequences of their evolution and the advantage and disadvantage of the used methods are mentioned. These plant proliferation cause damages for the neighbour population, with some social and sanitary re flexion, and for the Company operation. Considerations for an improvement of the control methods are also cited. (C.G.C.). 1 fig

  16. Shield calculation of project for instrument calibration integrated laboratory of IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Gustavo A.S.J.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2009-01-01

    This work performed the shield calculation of the future rooms walls of the five X-ray equipment of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, which will be constructed in project of laboratory enlargement. The obtained results by application of a calculation methodology from an international regulation have shown that the largest thickness of shielding (25.7 cm of concrete or 7.1 mm of lead) will be of the wall which will receive the primary beam of the equipment with a 320 kV voltage. The cost/benefit analysis indicated the concrete as the best material option for the shielding

  17. [Teenage pregnancy rates and socioeconomic characteristics of municipalities in São Paulo State, Southeast Brazil: a spatial analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi; Roza, Daiane Leite da; Caccia-Bava, Maria do Carmo Gullaci Guimarães; Achcar, Jorge Alberto; Dal-Fabbro, Amaury Lelis

    2011-05-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a common public health problem worldwide. The objective of this ecological study was to investigate the spatial association between teenage pregnancy rates and socioeconomic characteristics of municipalities in São Paulo State, Southeast Brazil. We used a Bayesian model with a spatial distribution following a conditional autoregressive (CAR) form based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We used data from the Live Birth Information System (SINASC) and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Early pregnancy was more frequent in municipalities with lower per capital gross domestic product (GDP), higher poverty rate, smaller population, lower human development index (HDI), and a higher percentage of individuals with State social vulnerability index of 5 or 6 (more vulnerable). The study demonstrates a significant association between teenage pregnancy and socioeconomic indicators.

  18. [Tuberculosis among city jail inmates in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Helenice Bosco; Cardoso, Janaina Corrêa

    2004-03-01

    To describe the incidence of tuberculosis among inmates of the municipal prison system in the city of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1993 through 2000. A retrospective study was carried out of the number of cases of tuberculosis that were notified among inmates over the study period. This involved reviewing data from a total of 4,293 inmates who were held in the four prisons that comprise Campinas' municipal prison system. Data were obtained from the tuberculosis database belonging to the Department of Social and Preventive Medicine of the School of Medical Sciences at the State University of Campinas. The incidence of tuberculosis peaked in 1994 (1,397.62 cases per 100,000) and was lowest in 1999 (559.04 cases per 100,000). Most cases of tuberculosis occurred in inmates in the 25 to 34 year age group (62.6%). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was the disease most commonly associated with tuberculosis (49.9%), which was most often pulmonary in type (91.9%), with positive sputum smears in 70.3% of the inmates tested. Most inmates had not received treatment before (75.4%). The treatment dropout rate reached 49%, and a cure was achieved in only 20.8% of the cases notified over the study period. The incidence of tuberculosis observed in this study was moderate when compared to incidence rates found in other studies of prison inmates, but this could be due to underreporting. The frequency of treatment failure noted was low, since patients who were treated under supervision showed good adherence and were cured in the majority of cases. However, the high treatment dropout rate seen in the study is alarming because it could facilitate the spread of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to the community at large. Controlling tuberculosis among prison inmates should be part of routine interventions aimed at eliminating this disease from the community and at preventing resistance to antituberculosis therapy.

  19. Validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire for adults of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selem, Soraya Sant'Ana de Castro; Carvalho, Aline Martins de; Verly-Junior, Eliseu; Carlos, Jackeline Venâncio; Teixeira, Juliana Araujo; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2014-12-01

    To assess the validity and reproducibility of a food frequency questionnaire developed for estimating the food consumption of adults in São Paulo, Brazil, based population study. A sample of individuals aged above 20 years, of both genders, living in São Paulo, was used for the validation study (n = 77) and reproducibility study (n = 74) of the food frequency questionnaire. To verify the validity and reproducibility of energy and 19 nutrients were applied two food frequency questionnaires (60 items) and three 24-hour dietary recalls (24HR - reference method). The validity was verified by Spearman correlation coefficient (crude and de-attenuated) and weighted Kappa, and reproducibility by intraclass correlation coefficients and weighted kappa. In analyzes of validity de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.21 (carbohydrate) to 0.74 (energy), and weighted kappa exceeded 0.40 for 30% of the nutrients. Polyunsaturated fat and folate did not show significant correlation and weighted kappa. In reproducibility correlation coefficients ranged from 0.36 (polyunsaturated fat) to 0.69 (calcium), and weighted kappa exceeded 0.40 for 80% of the nutrients. The food frequency questionnaire analyzed has good validity and reproducibility for estimating the food consumption of adults in São Paulo compared to the reference method, so it is an appropriate instrument to be used in epidemiological studies on similar populations. Estimates of polyunsaturated fat and folate should be interpreted with caution.

  20. A phytoplasma closely related to the pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasma (16Sr IX) is associated with citrus huanglongbing symptoms in the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, D C; Wulff, N A; Martins, E C; Kitajima, E W; Bassanezi, R; Ayres, A J; Eveillard, S; Saillard, C; Bové, J M

    2008-09-01

    In February 2007, sweet orange trees with characteristic symptoms of huanglongbing (HLB) were encountered in a region of São Paulo state (SPs) hitherto free of HLB. These trees tested negative for the three liberibacter species associated with HLB. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product from symptomatic fruit columella DNA amplifications with universal primers fD1/rP1 was cloned and sequenced. The corresponding agent was found to have highest 16S rDNA sequence identity (99%) with the pigeon pea witches'-broom phytoplasma of group 16Sr IX. Sequences of PCR products obtained with phytoplasma 16S rDNA primer pairs fU5/rU3, fU5/P7 confirm these results. With two primers D7f2/D7r2 designed based on the 16S rDNA sequence of the cloned DNA fragment, positive amplifications were obtained from more than one hundred samples including symptomatic fruits and blotchy mottle leaves. Samples positive for phytoplasmas were negative for liberibacters, except for four samples, which were positive for both the phytoplasma and 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'. The phytoplasma was detected by electron microscopy in the sieve tubes of midribs from symptomatic leaves. These results show that a phytoplasma of group IX is associated with citrus HLB symptoms in northern, central, and southern SPs. This phytoplasma has very probably been transmitted to citrus from an external source of inoculum, but the putative insect vector is not yet known.

  1. Energy balance of Sao Paulo state, Brazil 2008. Calendar year 2007; Balanco energetico do Estado de Sao Paulo 2008. Ano base 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presents the consolidated annual energy balances and also tables and graphics which detailed the evolution and the present status of offer and demand of each energy resources used by Sao Paulo, Brazil, economy and regionalized and environmental information. It covers the period of 1994 to 2007 and includes energy fluxes of the energy primary and secondary resources, from the production to the final consumption of the main sectors of the state economy.

  2. Exercise of essential competencies for midwifery care by nurses in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narchi, Nadia Zanon

    2011-02-01

    GENERAL OBJECTIVE: to analyse the exercise of essential competencies for midwifery care by nurses and/or midwives in the public health system of São Paulo (eastern zone), Brazil. to develop a profile of the public health institutions and of the nurses and/or midwives who care for women before, during and following childbirth; to identify the activities performed in providing such care, as well as their frequency; and to specify the possible obstacles or difficulties encountered by them when exercising their competencies. a descriptive and exploratory research design, using a quantitative approach. the study was conducted in all public health services of São Paulo (eastern zone), Brazil, namely 59 basic health-care units and six hospitals, during the period of October 2006-December 2007. the study population consisted of 272 nurses and/or midwives who provide care for pregnant women and newborns at the primary health-care units and maternity hospitals of the public health system. Participants comprised 100% of hospital nurse coordinators (n=6), 61% of hospital maternity nursing and/or midwifery staff (n=62) and 64% (n=204) of nursing and/or midwifery staff working at primary health-care units. the data collection was based on a single form given to the coordinators and two questionnaires, one handed out to antenatal and postnatal nursing and/or midwifery staff and another handed out to labour and birth nursing and/or midwifery staff. The results showed that nurses and/or midwives providing care for women during pregnancy, labour, birth and the postnatal period did not put the essential competencies for midwifery care into practice, because they encountered institutional barriers and personal resistance, and lacked protocols based on best practice and on the exercise of essential competencies needed for effective midwifery care. the model of care in the public health services of São Paulo (eastern zone) is based much more on hierarchical positions than on

  3. New multilocus sequence typing of MRSA in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Carmo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An increased incidence of nosocomial and community-acquired infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has been observed worldwide. The molecular characterization of MRSA has played an important role in demonstrating the existence of internationally disseminated clones. The use of molecular biology methods in the surveillance programs has enabled the tracking of MRSA spread within and among hospitals. These data are useful to alert nosocomial infection control programs about the potential introduction of these epidemic clones in their areas. Four MRSA blood culture isolates from patients hospitalized at two hospitals in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed; one of them was community acquired. The isolates were characterized as SCCmec, mecA and PVL by PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE profile and molecular sequence typing (MLST genotyping. The isolates presented type IV SCCmec, and none proved to be positive for PVL. The isolates showed a PFGE profile similar to the pediatric clone. MLST genotyping demonstrated that the isolates belonged to clonal complex 5 (CC5, showing a new yqiL allele gene, resulting in a new sequence typing (ST (1176. Our results showed that strains of MRSA carrying a new ST are emerging in community and nosocomial infections, including bacteremia, in São Paulo, Brazil.

  4. Radiation protection in radiology services in the municipality of Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil; Protecao radiologica nos servicos de radiologia do Municipio de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senise, Paulo H.; Silva, Ezequiel; Ruzene, Anderson A.; Braga, Adriano C.; Spirgatis, Armim, E-mail: paulo.senise@fidi.org.br, E-mail: ezequieI.siIva@fidi.org.br, E-mail: anderson.ruzene@fidi.org.br, E-mail: adriano.braga@fidi.org.br, E-mail: armim.spirgatis@fidi.org.br [Fundacao lnstituto de Pesquisa e Estudo de Diagnostico por Imagem (FIDI), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, Regina B., E-mail: regina.bitelli@fidi.org.br [Instituto de Pesquisa e Ensino em Medicina Diagnostica e Terapeutica (IPmed), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-10-01

    The FIDI company providing service to local health care system is responsible for managing part of the services diagnostic imaging of Sao Paulo in the South and Southeast ( 60 % ), Eastern ( 20 % ) and Midwest (20 %), Brazil. The generation of images in the municipal net is performed in conventional manner. Since 2009 works a maintenance associated with the verification of the performance of radiological equipment (annual) and processing (monthly) one. In 2008, on the occasion of the agreement between the city hall and FIDI, conditions were evaluated for radiological protection in 52 care units of the municipality. Were carried out verification tests of performance in conventional equipment, mammographic and tomographic equipment, in 138 and 71 analog processors, according to current legislation. In 2008 , 33 % of the devices had technical problems that prevented its operation. Currently only 3.4 % of the 91 are in radiological equipment maintenance. In 2008 the majority of radiological equipment had more than 10 years of manufacturing, while today fixed equipment have been replaced by new ones and therefore the use of mammography and generally have 2 to 3 years of manufacture . Currently the 31 processors are operative in 2008, 28 % were out of order. The replacement of most of the equipment associated with program quality and preventive/corrective maintenance has kept the service in accordance with the law. (author)

  5. Does public transportation improve the accessibility of primary dental care in São Paulo, Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Aidan; Martins Rocha, Carla; Kruger, Estie; Tennant, Marc

    2018-06-01

    Advances in geospatial technologies have recognized the role of geographic distance as a barrier to healthcare accessibility. Frequent transportation is supposed to buffer issues with distance, while infrequent services impede the uptake of care. The role of public transportation on the accessibility of health care-including oral health care-is not well elucidated in the context of megacities, such as the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil. This study aimed to compare the supply of public transportation to primary dental clinics and the population between advantaged and disadvantaged areas in São Paulo city. A total of 4101 primary dental clinics in São Paulo city were identified and geocoded. Geographic coordinates were also retrieved for the 19 242 bus stops, 56 commuter rail stations and 64 rapid transit stations. Clinic locations and transport points were integrated with the city's 19 128 constituent census tracts-each containing sociodemographic data on the 11 252 204 residents-using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Almost all clinics were located within 0.5 km of public transportation. Half of all clinics were within 0.5 km of high-frequency transport points, and three-quarters were within 1 km. Likewise, 99% of the population resided within 0.5 km of any public transportation. However, only 22% were within 0.5 km of high-frequency options, and half were within 1 km. Those within 0.5 km of high-frequency points had higher average monthly household incomes and lower illiteracy rates, with lower proportions of children and ethnic minorities, and higher proportions of older people. Clinics and populations in sociodemographically disadvantaged tracts have poorer public transportation links in São Paulo city. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Hospitalizações por causas respiratórias e cardiovasculares associadas à contaminação atmosférica no Município de São Paulo, Brasil Respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations associated with air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gouveia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A constatação de que os atuais níveis de poluição atmosférica são suficientes para causar danos à saúde torna imprescindível a definição de processos reguladores para a qualidade do ar. Este estudo analisa a associação entre exposição à poluição atmosférica e internações hospitalares no Município de São Paulo, Brasil, visando subsidiar a elaboração de medidas para redução dos riscos à saúde. Realizou-se um estudo ecológico de séries temporais, analisando hospitalizações por causas respiratórias e cardiovasculares em crianças e idosos em relação aos níveis diários observados de poluentes, por meio de modelos aditivos generalizados em regressão de Poison. Todos os poluentes, com exceção do ozônio, apresentaram associação significante com internações respiratórias e cardiovasculares. Um aumento de 10µg/m³ no nível de material particulado inalável associa-se ao incremento de 4,6% nas internações por asma em crianças, de 4,3% por doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica em idosos e de 1,5% por doença isquêmica do coração também em idosos. Essas associações entre aumento no nível de poluentes na atmosfera e o aumento de hospitalizações estão de acordo com a literatura nacional e internacional sobre o assunto e indicam que os níveis atuais de contaminação do ar no Município de São Paulo têm impacto na saúde de sua população.The recognition that current air pollution levels cause harmful health effects makes the definition of the air quality regulatory process imperative. This study examines the association between exposure to air pollution and hospital admissions in the city of São Paulo, aiming to support the development of measures to reduce such health risks. The authors conducted an ecological time series study of hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in children and the elderly in relation to daily air pollution levels, using generalized additive

  7. Problems of small hydroelectric power plants - SHP: the example of Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Problematica de desenvolvimento das pequenas centrais hidreletricas-PCH: o exemplo do Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matajs, R.R. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia; Fabrizy, M.P. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents a survey of the small hydroelectric potential in the State of Sao Paulo - Brazil. Three projections will be presented as as attempt to show the possible participation of the SHP in a sort, medium and long term, in the State of Sao Paulo energetic matrix.

  8. Challenges in modern biomarker discovery--17th HUPO BPP workshop: May 24-25, 2012, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröttrup, Bernd; Esselmann, Hermann; May, Caroline; Schrötter, Andreas; Woitalla, Dirk; Heinsen, Helmut; Marcus, Katrin; Wiltfang, Jens; Meyer, Helmut E; Grinberg, Lea T; Park, Young Mok

    2013-01-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 17(th) workshop in Sao Paulo, Brazil, on May 24 and 25, 2012. The focus was on the progress on the Human Brain Proteome Atlas as well as ideas, strategies and methodological aspects in clinical neuroproteomics. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. IN SITU density measurements oozy bottom of the access channel to the port of Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, P.S.P.

    1988-09-01

    The density of the bottom sediment of the access channel to the port of Santos, Sao Paulo, Brazil was measured. The in situ measurements aimed at verifying the use for navigation purposes of the layers with densities equal to or smaller than 1200 kg/m 3 . (F.E.). 3 refs, 55 figs, 3 tabs

  10. First occurrence of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) in the Rio Tietê watershed (São Paulo State, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, D C; Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Medeiros, G R; Luzia, A P; Tundisi, J G

    2008-11-01

    This paper describes the recent expansion of the geographical distribution of Limnoperna fortunei (Dunker, 1857) in the Tietê River watershed, São Paulo State, Brazil. Estimations related to the velocity of invasion and its causes are presented. Ecological implications related to biodiversity and possible changes in the food chain are discussed.

  11. Access to medication in the Public Health System and equity: populational health surveys in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Camila Nascimento; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; Cesar, Chester Luiz Galvão; Goldbaum, Moisés

    2016-03-01

    Since 2003, the access to medication has been increasing in Brazil and particularly in São Paulo. The present study aimed to analyze the access to medication obtained in the public sector and the socioeconomic differences in this access in 2003 and 2008. Also, we explored the difference in access to medication from 2003 to 2008. Data were obtained from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys from São Paulo, Brazil (ISA-Capital 2003 and ISA-Capital 2008). Concentration curve and concentration index were calculated to analyze the associations between socioeconomic factors and access to medication in the public sector. Additionally, the differences between 2003 and 2008 regarding socioeconomic characteristics and access to medication were studied. Access to medication was 89.55% in 2003 and 92.99% in 2008, and the proportion of access to medication did not change in the period. Access in the public sector increased from 26.40% in 2003 to 48.55% in 2008 and there was a decrease in the concentration index between 2003 and 2008 in access to medication in the public sector. The findings indicate an expansion of Brazilian Unified Health System (Sistema Único de Saúde ) users, with the inclusion of people of higher socioeconomic position in the public sector. As the SUS gives more support to people of lower socioeconomic position in terms of medication provision, the SUS tends to equity. Nevertheless, universal coverage for medication and equity in access to medication in the public sector are still challenges for the Brazilian public health system.

  12. Retrospective seroepidemiological analysis of patients with suspicion of paracoccidioidomycosis in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    CM Kamikawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM in the Brazilian state of São Paulo was evaluated in a retrospective study using secondary data from serological analyses, carried out by double immunodiffusion assay of patients with PCM suspicion, from January 1999 to May 2010. Sixty percent of 10,176 patients, from 239 cities, were serologically reactive to P. brasiliensis. The cities that showed the most serological reactivity among patients were São João da Boa Vista (85%, Piracicaba (75%, Sorocaba (73%, Campinas (72% and São Paulo (62%. São Paulo state has an area of 248,209.4 km²; the climate is tropical and sub-tropical with annual temperatures between 18 and 24ºC, high rainfall (900 to 1800 mm/year, rainy summers and mild winters. It also features large areas composed of acidic soils, and is one of the greatest contributors to Brazilian agricultural production and, separately, the largest producer of orange juice and, the ninth greatest producer of soy and sugar cane and the fourth largest coffee producer. We suggest that the climatic characteristics associated with soil type and development of primary activities can contribute to the endemic potential of PCM in São Paulo state.

  13. Characterization of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in São Paulo city, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Natália H; Melo, Fernando Af; Santos, Adolfo Cb; Pandolfi, José Rc; Almeida, Elisabete A; Cardoso, Rosilene F; Berghs, Henri; David, Suzana; Johansen, Faber K; Espanha, Lívia G; Leite, Sergio Ra; Leite, Clarice Qf

    2011-07-29

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in São Paulo, Brazil, which is the most populous and one of the most cosmopolitan cities in South America. To characterize the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the population of this city, the genotyping techniques of spoligotyping and MIRU were applied to 93 isolates collected in two consecutive years from 93 different tuberculosis patients residing in São Paulo city and attending the Clemente Ferreira Institute (the reference clinic for the treatment of tuberculosis). Spoligotyping generated 53 different spoligotype patterns. Fifty-one isolates (54.8%) were grouped into 13 spoligotyping clusters. Seventy- two strains (77.4%) showed spoligotypes described in the international databases (SpolDB4, SITVIT), and 21 (22.6%) showed unidentified patterns. The most frequent spoligotype families were Latin American Mediterranean (LAM) (26 isolates), followed by the T family (24 isolates) and Haarlem (H) (11 isolates), which together accounted for 65.4% of all the isolates. These three families represent the major genotypes found in Africa, Central America, South America and Europe. Six Spoligo-International-types (designated SITs by the database) comprised 51.8% (37/72) of all the identified spoligotypes (SIT53, SIT50, SIT42, SIT60, SIT17 and SIT1). Other SITs found in this study indicated the great genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis, reflecting the remarkable ethnic diversity of São Paulo city inhabitants. The MIRU technique was more discriminatory and did not identify any genetic clusters with 100% similarity among the 93 isolates. The allelic analysis showed that MIRU loci 26, 40, 23 and 10 were the most discriminatory. When MIRU and spoligotyping techniques were combined, all isolates grouped in the 13 spoligotyping clusters were separated. Our data indicated the genomic stability of over 50% of spoligotypes identified in São Paulo and the great genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis isolates in the remaining

  14. Characterization of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in São Paulo city, Brazil

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    Espanha Lívia G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis is a major health problem in São Paulo, Brazil, which is the most populous and one of the most cosmopolitan cities in South America. To characterize the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the population of this city, the genotyping techniques of spoligotyping and MIRU were applied to 93 isolates collected in two consecutive years from 93 different tuberculosis patients residing in São Paulo city and attending the Clemente Ferreira Institute (the reference clinic for the treatment of tuberculosis. Findings Spoligotyping generated 53 different spoligotype patterns. Fifty-one isolates (54.8% were grouped into 13 spoligotyping clusters. Seventy- two strains (77.4% showed spoligotypes described in the international databases (SpolDB4, SITVIT, and 21 (22.6% showed unidentified patterns. The most frequent spoligotype families were Latin American Mediterranean (LAM (26 isolates, followed by the T family (24 isolates and Haarlem (H (11 isolates, which together accounted for 65.4% of all the isolates. These three families represent the major genotypes found in Africa, Central America, South America and Europe. Six Spoligo-International-types (designated SITs by the database comprised 51.8% (37/72 of all the identified spoligotypes (SIT53, SIT50, SIT42, SIT60, SIT17 and SIT1. Other SITs found in this study indicated the great genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis, reflecting the remarkable ethnic diversity of São Paulo city inhabitants. The MIRU technique was more discriminatory and did not identify any genetic clusters with 100% similarity among the 93 isolates. The allelic analysis showed that MIRU loci 26, 40, 23 and 10 were the most discriminatory. When MIRU and spoligotyping techniques were combined, all isolates grouped in the 13 spoligotyping clusters were separated. Conclusions Our data indicated the genomic stability of over 50% of spoligotypes identified in São Paulo and the great genetic

  15. Leishmaniose visceral adquirida no Estado de São Paulo (Brasil A case of visceral leishmaniasis contracted in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Vicente Amato Neto

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi descrita a notificação de um caso de leishmaniose visceral em uma criança com dois anos de idade, tendo sempre residido em Capão Redondo, localidade situada na Grande São Paulo (Brasil. Apesar de transmissão congênita ou por transfusão de sangue ter sido cogitada, é provável que a infecção tenha decorrido de mecanismo habitual, consubstanciando ocorrência autóctone relativa do Estado de São Paulo.A case of visceral leishmaniasis in a two-year-old child who has always lived in Capão Redondo, situated in Greater S. Paulo (Brazil, was reported. Although congenital transmission or blood transfusion were considered, it is probable that the infection originated in the usual mechanism, thus constituting an autochthonous occurrence in the State of S. Paulo. The State Health Department was notified of the case in order that it could be investigated and necessary measures taken.

  16. Detection of natural occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats in Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Roberta P. Duarte

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats in the area surrounding the city of Araçatuba municipality, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Fecal samples from 129 cats were collected by rectal flush technique. It was compared two diagnosis methods, direct examination of feces and PCR. The presence of T. foetus DNA was verified using PCR by amplification of 347-bp fragment from the primers TFR3 and TFR4 and amplicons of positive cases were sequenced. Statistical analyses were performed investigating the associations between T. foetus infection with gender, age, breed, presence of diarrhea and/or history of diarrhea, previous treatment, lifestyle, origin, environment, and co-infection. T. foetus was observed in one sample (n=129 by direct microscopic examination of feces while PCR was positive in five samples (3.9%. Giardia species and Cryptosporidium species co-infection was also observed. Statistical analyses showed no significant associations between T. foetus infection and all listed factors, although most positive cats were asymptomatic and lived in multi-cat household. The isolates of T. foetus showed 100% identical sequences with other T. foetus isolates from cats around the world. So, the occurrence of T. foetus was confirmed in cats in Araçatuba city (Brazil. This parasite must be considered as a differential diagnosis in cats with diarrhea and also in asymptomatic carriers as source of infection in multi-cat environments.

  17. Associação entre mortalidade e estado marital: uma análise para idosos residentes no Município de São Paulo, Brasil, Estudo SABE, 2000 e 2006 Asociación entre el estado civil y la mortalidad: un análisis de los ancianos residentes en São Paulo, Brasil, el Estudio SABE, 2000 y 2006 Association between marital status and mortality among elderly residents in São Paulo City, Brazil, SABE Study, 2000 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeda A. O. Duarte

    2013-03-01

    una mejor comprensión de los factores asociados con la supervivencia de los ancianos, además de apoyar las políticas de salud dirigidas a este contingente de población.This study aimed to analyze the association between mortality and marital status in the elderly population (60 years and older in São Paulo, Brazil. The authors used data from the SABE Study (Health, Well-Being, and Aging from 2000 and 2006. Statistical analysis used Poisson regression, considering variation in time of mortality risk. The mortality rate among single elderly males was 61% higher than among married men. Separation or divorce and widowhood increased the odds of death in elderly women (separated/divorced women and widows showed mortality rates 82% and 35% higher, respectively, than married women. It is hoped that the current study will improve our understanding of factors associated with survival in the elderly, in addition to supporting health policies for this population group.

  18. Distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis chemotype populations in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Claudio; Colla-Jacques, Fernanda E; Hamilton, James G C; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Shaw, Jeffrey J

    2015-03-01

    American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is an emerging disease in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Its geographical expansion and the increase in the number of human cases has been linked to dispersion of Lutzomyia longipalpis into urban areas. To produce more accurate risk maps we investigated the geographic distribution and routes of expansion of the disease as well as chemotype populations of the vector. A database, containing the annual records of municipalities which had notified human and canine AVL cases as well as the presence of the vector, was compiled. The chemotypes of L. longipalpis populations from municipalities in different regions of São Paulo State were determined by Coupled Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry. From 1997 to June 2014, L. longipalpis has been reported in 166 municipalities, 148 of them in the Western region. A total of 106 municipalities were identified with transmission and 99 were located in the Western region, where all 2,204 autochthonous human cases occurred. Both the vector and the occurrence of human cases have expanded in a South-easterly direction, from the Western to central region, and from there, a further expansion to the North and the South. The (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of L. longipalpis is widely distributed in the Western region and the cembrene-1 population is restricted to the Eastern region. The maps in the present study show that there are two distinct epidemiological patterns of AVL in São Paulo State and that the expansion of human and canine AVL cases through the Western region has followed the same dispersion route of only one of the two species of the L. longipalpis complex, (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B. Entomological vigilance based on the routes of dispersion and identification of the chemotype population could be used to identify at-risk areas and consequently define the priorities for control measures.

  19. Prevalence of equine Piroplasmosis and its association with tick infestation in the State of São Paulo, Brazil Prevalência da Piroplasmose equina e sua associação com infestação por carrapatos no Estado de São Paulo

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    Claudia E. Kerber

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples were collected from 582 horses from 40 stud farms in the State of São Paulo and tick (Acari: Ixodidae infestations were evaluated on them. Serum samples were subjected to the complement fixation test (CFT and a competitive inhibition ELISA (cELISA for Babesia caballi and Theileria equi. Logistic regression analyses were performed to construct multivariate models that could explain the dependent variable (horses positive for B. caballi or T. equi as a function of the independent variables (presence or abundance of each one of the tick species found on the farms. A higher overall prevalence of B. caballi (54.1% than of T. equi (21.6% was found by the two tests. The ticks Dermacentor nitens Neumann, 1897, Amblyomma cajennense (Fabricius, 1787 and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887 were present on horses on 38 (95%, 20 (50%, and 4 (10% farms, respectively. Infestations by D. nitens were statistically associated with B. caballi-positive horses on the farms by either the CFT or cELISA. Infestations by A. cajennense were statistically associated with T. equi-positive horses on the farms by either CFT or cELISA.Amostras de soro sanguineo foram coletadas de 582 equinos de 40 haras no estado de São Paulo, onde as infestações por carrapatos foram avaliadas nos animais. Os soros foram testados por reação de fixação do complemento (RFC e ELISA competitivo por inibição (cELISA com antígenos de Babesia caballi e Theileria equi. Análises de regressão logística foram realizadas para construir modelos multivariados que pudessem explicar as variáveis dependentes (equinos positivos para B. caballi ou T. equi em função de variáveis independentes (presença e abundância de cada uma das espécies de carrapatos encontradas nos equinos dos haras. Em geral, os dois testes sorológicos indicaram uma prevalência maior para B. caballi (54,1% do que para T. equi (21,6%. Os carrapatos Dermacentor nitens Neumann, 1897

  20. Identification of Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-I Subtypes Using Restrited Fragment Length Polymorphism in a Cohort of Asymptomatic Carriers and Patients with HTLV-I-associated Myelopathy/tropical Spastic Paraparesis from São Paulo, Brazil

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    Segurado Aluisio AC

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Although human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I exhibits high genetic stability, as compared to other RNA viruses and particularly to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, genotypic subtypes of this human retrovirus have been characterized in isolates from diverse geographical areas. These are currently believed not to be associated with different pathogenetic outcomes of infection. The present study aimed at characterizing genotypic subtypes of viral isolates from 70 HTLV-I-infected individuals from São Paulo, Brazil, including 42 asymptomatic carriers and 28 patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP, using restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis of long terminal repeat (LTR HTLV-I proviral DNA sequences. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysates were amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR and amplicons submitted to enzymatic digestion using a panel of endonucleases. Among HTLV-I asymptomatic carriers, viral cosmopolitan subtypes A, B, C and E were identified in 73.8%, 7.1%, 7.1% and 12% of tested samples, respectively, whereas among HAM/TSP patients, cosmopolitan A (89.3%, cosmopolitan C (7.1% and cosmopolitan E (3.6% subtypes were detected. HTLV-I subtypes were not statistically significant associated with patients' clinical status. We also conclude that RFLP analysis is a suitable tool for descriptive studies on the molecular epidemiology of HTLV-I infections in our environment.

  1. Crucibulum laeve (Huds. Kambly in cerrado vegetation of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Iuri Goulart Baseia

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare lignicolous gasteroid fungus of the tropics, Crucibulum laeve (Huds. Kambly is recorded for the first time from State of São Paulo and for de second time from Brazil, growing on decaying wood, occasionally on other plant debris, on soil under cerrado vegetation. Macro and microscopic features were described from fresh and dried basidiocarps using the traditional methods for Gasteromycetes. The substrate and the taxonomic characteristics agree closely with the literature consulted.Crucibulum laeve (Huds. Kambly, um raro gasteromicete lignícolo nos tropicos, é registrado pela primeira vez para o Estado de São Paulo e pela segunda vez para o Brasil, crescendo sobre madeira em decomposição e ocasionalmente sobre outros fragmentos de plantas em solo, sob vegetação de cerrado. É dada a descrição das características macro e microscópicas a partir de basidiocarpos frescos e secos, usando a metodologia tradicional para estudos de Gasteromycetes. O substrato e as características taxonômicas concordam com a literatura consultada.

  2. Black Carbon, Aerosol optical depth and Angstrom Exponent in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R. M.; Perez-Martinez, P. J.; Andrade, M. D. F.

    2017-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a major absorber of solar radiation, and its impact on the radiative balance is therefore considered important. Fossil fuel combustion processes and biomass burning result in the emission of BC. Black carbon is being monitored since 2014 with a Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer-MAAP (5012; Thermo Scientific) in the East Zone of São Paulo, Brazil. São Paulo Metropolitan Area with more than 19 million inhabitants, 7 million vehicles, has high concentrations of air pollutants, especially in the winter. Vehicles can be considered the principal source of particles emitted to the atmosphere. Concentration of the pollutant had an average of 1.95 ug.m-3 ± 2.06 and a maximum value of 19.93 ug.m-3. These large variations were due to meteorological effects and to the influence of anthropogenic activities, since samples were collected close to important highways. Winds coming from the East part predominate. Higher concentrations were found in the winter months (June, July and August). Optical data from AERONET (Aerosol Optical Depth-AOD 550 nm and Angstrom Exponent 440-675 nm) were related to BC concentrations for the period from August, 2016. Average values of AOD at 500 nm and Angstrom Parameter (440-675nm) were 0.16±0.11 and 1.44±0.23, respectively. Higher BC concentrations were related to lower Angstrom values.

  3. Isolation of Leptospira borgpetersenii in synanthropic Didelphis albiventris in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Felipe Jorge da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a waterborne disease and, therefore, stands out for the possibility of environmental contamination, the cross transmission between domestic and wild animals and humans. Opossum species are important reservoirs of this disease making them potential pathogen spreaders. Aiming to verify the presence of Leptospira spp. and the antibodies against Leptospira spp. in the Campus of São Paulo State University, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo, Brazil, freeliving wild life opossum (Didelphis albiventris were captured for blood and urine sampling. Serological analysis was performed Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT. Aliquots of urine were seeded in media Ellinghausen-McCullough- Johnson-Harris (EMJH and Fletcher without antibiotics. The samples in which there was growth of leptospires were forwarded to the Leptospirosis Laboratory of the Institute of Pathobiology in the National Institute of Agricultural Technology, Buenos Aires, Argentina and were genotyped using Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA. Of the 15 analyzed animals, nine (60.0% were reactant to Patoc serovar. The pathogenic specie Leptospira borgpetersenii was isolated and identified in three Didelphis albiventris. The isolation findings of pathogenic specie Leptopsira borgpetersenii in the urine culture of three Didelphis albiventris in a university campus are a major discovery in the area of preventive veterinary medicine and public health and open a discussion about the important role of free-living wild animals as reservoirs of this agent to domestic animals and humans, a condition that serves as a warning for the improvement of health practices.

  4. The use of Tillandsia usneoides L. as bioindicator of air pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Alcala, A.L.; Ticianelli, R.B.; Saiki, M.; Domingos, M.

    2004-01-01

    Epiphytic bromeliad Tillandsia usneoides was used as a biomonitor of metal atmospheric pollution in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed for 8 weeks in 10 sites of the city and in a control site. The data obtained showed that the control site presented lower concentration for most elements analyzed and the highest concentrations of Na, Cl, Br, K. The highest concentrations of Zn, Cu and V were observed in stations submitted to industrial and vehicular sources. The results obtained for rare earth elements, Al, Fe, Mg, Mn, Rb and Sc indicate mineral dust origin. The elements Ba, As and Sb presented higher values in stations near streets with heavy traffic. (author)

  5. [Challenges in primary health care: the experience in Vila Mariana District, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villela, Wilza Vieira; Araújo, Eliane Cardoso de; Ribeiro, Sandra Aparecida; Cuginotti, Aloísio Punhagui; Hayana, Eliana Tiemi; Brito, Francisco Carlos de; Ramos, Luiz Roberto

    2009-06-01

    This article presents the results of a case study aimed at identifying challenges for the delivery of primary health care in a health district in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, considering comprehensiveness as a central device for organizing work at this level of care. Five units in the district's primary care network were studied. We collected the data by observing work routines and flows, conducting interviews with managers and health professionals from different backgrounds, and through focus groups with family health teams. The analysis shows a mismatch between users' characteristics and their presumed needs and the heterogeneity of the health professionals' perceptions concerning their work. Lack of staff and time and difficulties with referrals were the main problems identified by interviewees.

  6. The first canine visceral leishmaniasis outbreak in Campinas, State of São Paulo Southeastern Brazil

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    Andrea Paula Bruno von Zuben

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Early detection of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL outbreak in animals is crucial for controlling this disease in non-endemic areas. Methods Epidemiological surveillance (2009-2012 was performed in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Results In 2009, Leishmania chagasi was positively identified in four dogs. Entomological research and three serological studies (2010-2012 were undertaken as monitoring measures; these approaches revealed a moderate prevalence of Leishmania present in 4% of the canine population. Nyssomyia whitmani and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the predominant species identified. Conclusions Detection of an AVL outbreak in dogs in an area with an evolving natural landscape containing sand flies is crucial for control programs.

  7. Reproduction of a fish assemblage in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil

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    LM. Gomiero

    Full Text Available Fish reproductions were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira basins in the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça River, Lapa Stream, Passa-Cinco River, and Corumbataí River; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá Stream, Jacaré-Pepira River, and Água Branca Stream. A total of 12 bimonthly samples were made. Fish equipment included gill nets, purse seines, sieves, and traps. The main objective of this study was to characterize the fish assemblage regarding their reproductive biology and to compare these reproductive traits between both river basins. Most individuals with gonads in stage C (mature and in stage D (empty gonads were captured in the spring and summer. Multiple spawn and parental care were common strategies, which guaranteed offspring survivorship in unstable conditions.

  8. Ichthyofauna diversity in a protected area in the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil

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    L. M. Gomiero

    Full Text Available The study site is located in an environmentally protected area known as an "APA" in São Pedro and Analândia, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, whose watercourses are under strong anthropogenic pressure. Two basins were studied (sub-basin of the Corumbataí River and basin of the Jacaré-pepira River with the purpose of characterizing the ichthyofauna of various streams, comparing fish diversity among assemblages. The Passa-cinco River showed the highest diversity (H', and the Jaccard and Morisita-Horn indices showed low similarity among sites and between the basins. Diversity was correlated with the number of available habitats and with the environmental conditions.

  9. [A monitoring system for work-related accidents in Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Vilela, Rodolfo Andrade Gouveia; de Medeiros, Maria Angélica Tavares; Gonçalves, Cláudia Giglio de Oliveira; Bragantini, Clarice Aparecida; Varolla, Antenor J; Celso, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The authors report on the development of a work accident monitoring system in Piracicaba, São Paulo State, Brazil, with the following characteristics: information feeding the system is obtained in real time directly from accident treatment centers; the system has universal monitoring, covering all work-related accidents in Piracicaba, regardless of the nature of the worker's employment conditions, place of work, or place of residence; health surveillance and promotion of health initiatives are triggered by identification of sentinel events; spatial distribution analysis of work-related accidents is a basic tool in designing accident awareness strategies and accident prevention policies. The system was implemented in November 2003 and by October 2004 had identified 5,320 work-related accidents, or a 3.8% annual proportional incidence of work-related accidents in the municipal area. We illustrate spatial analysis of registered work-related accidents and present a detailed investigation of one example of a serious accident.

  10. Enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in agricultural soils of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Papini Solange

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the effect of repeated applications on enhanced degradation of metalaxyl in two different agricultural soils used for cultivation of orange and lemon from Casa Branca and Itapetininga districts of São Paulo State, Brazil. Soil samples were collected from areas repeatedly treated with commercial ridomil 50GR for six successive years, and from other areas never exposed to this fungicide. At the laboratory, soil samples received a 14C-metalaxyl solution and its degradation was studied through radiometric techniques to measure biomineralization and recovery of extractable- and soil-bound products. Enhanced degradation was verified only in one soil, although partial degradation and mineralization of the fungicide were detected in both soils. The different rates and patterns of metalaxyl degradation in the soils were probably due to their different physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.

  11. Compliance with technical standards for radiological protection at radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eduardo, Maria Bernadete de Paula; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh

    2004-01-01

    Radiation therapy services provide essential therapeutic procedures for cancer, one of the main causes of population morbidity and mortality. Despite their importance in the health system and their potential risks due to the use of ionizing radiation, there are few studies on such services. We evaluated compliance with technical standards for radiological protection in radiation therapy services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Forty-nine services were studied in 2000 through interviews with technical staff. Typologies of performance profiles focusing on structure and process variables were constructed and services compared. Important differences were observed in the services' positions in the health care system, level of complexity, and geographic distribution, with better average performance in structural conditions but very inadequate performance in patient protection, indicating the need for more effective health surveillance. (author)

  12. A longitudinal study of mortality and air pollution for São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botter, Denise A; Jørgensen, Bent; Peres, Antonieta A Q

    2002-09-01

    We study the effects of various air-pollution variables on the daily death counts for people over 65 years in São Paulo, Brazil, from 1991 to 1993, controlling for meteorological variables. We use a state space model where the air-pollution variables enter via the latent process, and the meteorological variables via the observation equation. The latent process represents the potential mortality due to air pollution, and is estimated by Kalman filter techniques. The effect of air pollution on mortality is found to be a function of the variation in the sulphur dioxide level for the previous 3 days, whereas the other air-pollution variables (total suspended particulates, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone) are not significant when sulphur dioxide is in the equation. There are significant effects of humidity and up to lag 3 of temperature, and a significant seasonal variation.

  13. Do Childhood Adversities Predict Suicidality? Findings from the General Population of the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Bruno Mendonça Coêlho

    Full Text Available Childhood adversities have been associated with a number of medical and psychiatric outcomes. However, the reported effects that specific childhood adversities have on suicidality vary across studies.This was a cross-sectional, stratified, multistage area probability investigation of a general population in Brazil, designated the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey. The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied in 5037 individuals ≥ 18 years of age, in order to assess 12 different adversities occurring during childhood and/or adolescence, as well as to look for associations between those adversities and subsequent suicidality in different age strata.Over half of the respondents reported at least one childhood adversity. Only physical abuse was consistently associated with suicide attempts in all subsequent life stages (OR = 2.1. Among adults 20-29 years of age, the likelihood of a suicide attempt was correlated with parental divorce, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with prior sexual abuse. Among adults over 30 years of age, physical illness and economic adversity emerged as relevant childhood adversities associated with suicide attempts, whereas sexual abuse, family violence, and economic adversity were associated with suicidal ideation.Childhood adversities, especially physical abuse, are likely associated with unfavorable consequences in subsequent years. For suicidality across a lifespan, the role of different childhood adversities must be examined independently.

  14. Does the reproductive season account for more records of birds in a marked seasonal climate landscape in the state of São Paulo, Brazil?

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    Vagner Cavarzere

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigators have reported that birds from temperate regions are more detectable during their breeding seasons, which should be used to adequately survey avifaunas. In the state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, the rainiest months of the year are usually associated with a peak in the reproduction of birds. To test the hypothesis that birds are equally detectable throughout the year, I conducted transect counts of birds in a predominantly open Cerrado landscape in São Paulo during 2005 and 2006. There was no significant difference in the number of species or individuals between breeding (rainy and nonbreeding (dry seasons; 24% of the species with > 50 contacts was likely to be recorded more often in a particular season. Unlike temperate regions, where vocal behavior plays an important role in detections of birds during and after reproductive seasons, my results suggest that Cerrado birds may be evenly detected throughout the year.

  15. Os abortos no atendimento hospitalar do Estado de São Paulo, 1995 Hospitalizations by abortion, 1995 - S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Sara Romera Sorrentino

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Embora o aborto provocado no Brasil seja importante problema de saúde, é difícil conhecer a exata medida de sua ocorrência, em função da ilegalidade dessa prática. Com a disponibilidade das informações sobre as hospitalizações pelo Ministério da Saúde, tornou-se possível conhecer, ainda que de forma incompleta, o quadro dos abortos atendidos na rede hospitalar do SUS. O objetivo do estudo foi conhecer as 53.861 internações com diagnóstico de aborto entre mulheres de 10 a 49 anos na rede hospitalar conveniada com o SUS no Estado de São Paulo no ano de 1995, segundo o tipo do aborto, idade e local de residência. As internações de mulheres em idade reprodutiva no Estado de São Paulo, em 1995, representaram 37,8% do total das hospitalizações pagas pelo SUS, sendo que dessas 59,6% foram por questões ligadas à gravidez, parto e puerpério, dentre as quais os abortos representam cerca de 10%. Sua distribuição nas regiões da Grande São Paulo e Interior do Estado mostra que é maior a proporção aborto/parto entre as mulheres da Grande São Paulo do que do Interior (127,4 abortos a cada 1.000 partos na Grande São Paulo contra 90,9 no Interior. O tipo de aborto mais freqüente foi o aborto espontâneo (57,4% e a distribuição por idade mostra uma concentração entre os 20 e 29 anos, além de revelar que cerca de 20% deles ocorreram em adolescentes com menos de 19 anos.Despite the importance of the issue of abortion in Brazil, it is difficult to know the exact extent of the problem owing to the fact that it is an illegal practice. Information about hospitalizations from the Ministry of Health has helped an admittedly incomplete understanding of the situation with regard to abortions carried out in the SUS (Unified Health System hospital network. The objective of the study was to investigate the 53,861 hospitalizations diagnosed as abortion among women from 10 to 49 years of age in hospitals affiliated to SUS in the state

  16. Phurcalite and others secondary uranium minerals from Perus, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Furcalita e outros minerais uraniferos secundarios de Perus, Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atencio, D

    1992-12-31

    Phurcalite has been found filling fractures in the tourmaline-bearing granitic pegmatite of Perus, in the north-west part of Sao Paulo city, Brazil. It forms aggregates of radiating euhedral crystals up to 5 mm in length. The crystals are bright yellow, transparent and display vitreous to adamantine lustre. Its streak is pale yellow. Phurcalite is brittle, with a conchoidal fracture, and non-fluorescent. The crystal structure of phurcalite has been solves by single-crystal x-ray diffraction methods and refined to R = 3.8% using 2065 observed [I > 3{sigma}(I)] reflections. The structure consists of [(U O{sub 2}){sub 3} O{sub 2} (P O{sub 4}){sub 2} {sup 4n-}]{sub n} layers, parallel to (010), connected by Ca{sup 2+} ions and H{sub 2} O. The coordination polyhedra are: for U(1) hexagonal bi pyramid; for U(2) and U(3) pentagonal bi pyramids; for Ca(4) and Ca(5) capped trigonal prism and triangulated dodecahedron, respectively; and for P(6) and P(7) tetrahedra. As a consequence of this work, the molecular formula of phurcalite previously reported as Ca{sub 2} (U O{sub 2}){sub 3} (P O{sub 4}){sub 2} (OH){sub 4}.4 H{sub 2} O must be changed to Ca{sub 2} (U O{sub 2}){sub 3} O{sub 2} (P O{sub 4}){sub 2}.7 H{sub 2} O. Other secondary uranium minerals associated with Perus phurcalite are autunite, torbernite, meta-autunite, meta-torbernite, chernikovite, meta-uranocircite I, phosphuranylite, uranophane-alpha, uranophane-beta, haiweeite, barian week site and perhaps also bassetite, meta-tyuyamunite and meta-haiweeite. Opal, tridymite, cristobalite, secondary quartz, saponite and rhodochrosite occur associated to the uranium minerals. (author).

  17. Historical evolution of sources identification by means of Receptor Modeling in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R. M.; Andrade, M. D. F.; Marien, Y., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    The atmospheric aerosols sources have been identified in Sao Paulo since the 80´s with the use of receptor models. The Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP) is a megacity with a population of 21 million, corresponding to more than 11% of the total population of Brazil. The first results for the identification of sources of particles were obtained with the application of Absolute Principal Component Analysis, Factor Analysis and Chemical Mass Balance. More recently the Positive Matrix Factorization has been used in combination with the other receptor models. With the improvement of the aerosol composition analytical determination (more elements and better resolution) the source identification has became more accurate. But, in spite of that, the main sources are the same for fine particles: vehicular emission, secondary formation and biomass burning. The large amount of biofuels used in the MASP makes this region an important example of the atmospheric chemistry of fossil fuel and biofuel emissions. The 7 million vehicles can run on gasohol, ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% gasoline) and biodiesel (mostly for trucks and buses). We have considered the Black Carbon as the tracer for diesel engines and biomass burning, being this last source associated not only with burning of sugar cane plantation and forest fires, but also with wood and charcoal used in restaurant and domestic cooking and residues burning. The responsibility of the vehicular emission to the fine particles has been maintained in approximately 50% of the mass. The soil resuspension was associated with 8% of the fine particles origin. We are presenting the data obtained from experiments performed from 1983 to 2014, not continuously and mainly performed in the winter time. It is a long period of data that is going to be considered. The previous results obtained with the application of PCA were compared to that obtained with PMF applied to the historical data collected at MASP, showing the evolution of the

  18. Bovine leukaemia virus genotypes 5 and 6 are circulating in cattle from the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Lilian; Carrillo Gaeta, Natália; Araújo, Jansen; Matsumiya Thomazelli, Luciano; Harakawa, Ricardo; Ikuno, Alice A; Hiromi Okuda, Liria; de Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela

    2017-12-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a silent disease caused by a retrovirus [bovine leukaemia virus (BLV)]. BLV is classified into almost 10 genotypes that are distributed in several countries. The present research aimed to describe two BLV gp51 env sequences of strains detected in the state of São Paulo, Brazil and perform a phylogenetic analysis to compare them to other BLV gp51 env sequences of strains around the world. Two bovines from different herds were admitted to the Bovine and Small Ruminant Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Brazil. In both, lymphosarcoma was detected and the presence of BLV was confirmed by nested PCR. The neighbour-joining algorithm distance method was used to genotype the BLV sequences by phylogenetic reconstruction, and the maximum likelihood method was used for the phylogenetic reconstruction. The phylogeny estimates were calculated by performing 1000 bootstrap replicates. Analysis of the partial envelope glycoprotein (env) gene sequences from two isolates (25 and 31) revealed two different genotypes of BLV. Isolate 25 clustered with ten genotype 6 isolates from Brazil, Argentina, Thailand and Paraguay. On the other hand, isolate 31 clustered with two genotype 5 isolates (one was also from São Paulo and one was from Costa Rica). The detected genotypes corroborate the results of previous studies conducted in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The prediction of amino acids showed substitutions, particularly between positions 136 and 150 in 11 out of 13 sequences analysed, including sequences from GenBank. BLV is still important in Brazil and this research should be continued.

  19. Milk microbiological profile of four dairy farms from São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Adna Crisleia Rodrigues Monção

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern in milk quality, milk production, and in animals’ welfare is in constant increase. Mastitis is recognized as the main disease affecting dairy animals because of changing in milk composition and reduction in milk production. In Brazil, the highest incidence of mastitis is related to infectious agents. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of pathogenic microorganisms in milk produced by 60 cows from four dairy farms (15 cows/farm located at Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Milk samples from each teat were collected fortnight in sterile tubes, previously identified, during two months. In each herd 240 samples were obtained, except on the farm A, where an extra collection was done, in a total amount of 300 samples. On the farm A, the sampling was done in a period of transition between the dry and rainy season. On the farm B, samples were collected mostly in the season of high temperatures. On the farm C the collections were made over a period of heat and humidity. On the farm D, on a period of warmer temperatures and reduced rainfall. The isolation and identification of microorganisms were conducted at Laboratory of Milk Quality from Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, São Paulo, Brazil. Aliquots of 100 mL of milk were grown on plates with 5% sheep blood agar. After incubation, they were used for the production of catalase and Gram stain. Gram positive and catalase positive samples were classified as Corynebacterium spp. (Coryne.. Gram positive cocci and catalase negative samples were classified as Streptococcus spp. (Strepto.. Milk were then proceeded to coagulase test in rabbit plasma. Gram-positive cocci, catalase positive and coagulase-negative were classified as Staphylococcus coagulase-negative (SCN. Gram positive, catalase positive and coagulase positive samples were subsequently subjected to biochemical tests: mannitol salt agar, maltose, trehalose, and acetoin production. Strains that were positive for these tests were

  20. U, TH and lanthanides in street soils of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticianelli, R.B.; Ribeiro, A.P.; Figueiredo, A.M.G.; Zanh, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    The study of lanthanide distribution in urban environments has become of interest over the last years, due to the increased industrial use of these elements. Sao Paulo is the 6th largest metropolitan region of the world, with about 20 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, more than 9 million motor vehicles and intense industrial activity. There is little information on U, Th, and lanthanide contents in urban soils, and there are as of yet no reference values for these elements in soils of Sao Paulo city. The present study aimed to determine U, Th and lanthanide concentrations in soils adjacent to avenues of highly dense traffic downtown in Sao Paulo city, to assess their possible sources and potential environmental impacts. The analytical technique employed was Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Th and U levels ranged from 4.0 to 37.0 mg kg -1 and from 1.6 to 18.7 mg kg -1 , respectively. These values are higher than literature values for U and Th in Brazilian superficial soils. The results obtained for the lanthanides indicate enrichment in La and Ce. However, a possible anthropogenic source should be investigated since high background values of these elements may be associated to the natural geological composition of the soils. (author)

  1. Detection of porcine circovirus genotypes 2a and 2b in aborted foetuses from infected swine herds in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    de Castro Alessandra MMG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 has been associated with several disease complexes, including reproductive failure. The aim of this study was to identify the subtypes of PCV2 that are associated with reproductive failure in pigs from the State of São Paulo, Brazil and to investigate co-infections with other infectious organisms. Findings Samples of 168 aborted foetuses or mummified foetuses from five farrow-to-finish swine farms known to be infected with PCV2 and located in the State of São Paulo were tested for PCV2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Positive samples were additionally tested for porcine parvovirus (PPV, Leptospira spp. and Brucella spp. by PCR. PCV2 was detected in 18 of the samples (10.7%. PPV, Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp were found in 2, 10 and 0 cases, respectively. Eleven PCV2 strains were sequenced and determined to be either genotype 2a (n = 1 or 2b (n = 10. Conclusions The findings indicate that the frequency of PCV2 infections in aborted porcine foetuses from the State of São Paulo is rather low (10.7% and that co-infection with other pathogens is common and may be involved in PCV2 associated reproductive failure. No repeatable, characteristic amino acid motifs for regions of the PCV2 capsid protein seemed to be associated with abortion in sows.

  2. Satisfaction with the use of contraceptive methods among women from primary health care services in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ana Luiza Vilela Borges

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to assess satisfaction with the use of contraceptive methods among women attending primary health care services in São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: crosssectional study conducted with a sample of 668 women aged 1849 years, who were enrolled in 38 primary health care facilities in São Paulo city, Brazil, in 2015. Exclusion criteria were no sexual initiation, use of irreversible contraceptive methods for more than five years, pregnancy and no contraceptive method use. Data were analyzed using chisquare and multivariate logistic regression. Results: in general, women were satisfied with current contraceptive method (78.7%. The higher percentage of satisfaction was observed among IUD users (94.7%, and female and male sterilization users (93.5% and 91.7%, respectively. Withdrawal users were less satisfied (52.9%. Contraceptive method itself was the only factor associated with satisfaction. Barrier or traditional method users were less likely to be satisfied with their contraceptive methods than irreversible method users. Conclusions: long acting contraceptive method and irreversible method users were more satisfied with their contraceptive methods. Efforts should be undertaken in order to make these contraceptives available and accessible in primary health care facilities in Brazil.

  3. Epidemiologia do câncer do esôfago em São Paulo, Brasil Epidemiology of cancer of the oesophagus in S. Paulo, Brazil

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    Antonio Pedro Mirra

    1982-02-01

    Full Text Available São examinados aspectos da incidência de câncer do esôfago para residentes no município de São Paulo, (Brasil, no ano de 1975. Dados coletados pelo Registro de Câncer mostram um coeficiente de 6,4 e 1,3 por cem mil homens e mulheres, respectivamente; quando padronizados pela "população mundial" os coeficientes são 9,2 e 2,0 por cem mil. As taxas do sexo masculino mostram que São Paulo está a um nível de risco maior do que outras três cidades brasileiras, com dados conhecidos, Fortaleza, Recife e Rio de Janeiro; no sexo feminino não há evidências de diferenças, a não ser possivelmente em relação a Fortaleza. As curvas de incidência específica segundo idade e sexo concordam com o padrão descrito por Higginson e Muir; valores para a inclinação do 1nI (incidência específica por idade nas idades 35 a 75 foram 5,7 para o sexo masculino e 4,4 para o feminino, ajustando-se uma linha reta. Os nativos de São Paulo apresentam uma menor incidência do que os nascidos fora da cidade; para as duas categorias de imigrantes brasileiros residentes de São Paulo, as incidências para homens são consistentemente altas. As razões masculino-feminino de incidência apresentam regularidade nos grupos brasileiros; entre os estrangeiros as razões são maiores.Aspects of the incidente of cancer of the oesophagus in residents of the city of S. Paulo, Brazil, for 1975, are examined. Data collected by the Cancer Registry yield a rate of 6.4/100,000 and 1.3/100,000 for males and females, respectively; when adjusted to the «world-population» the rates are 9.2/100,000 and 2.0/100,000. Male rates put S. Paulo at higher risk than three other Brazilian cities with known data, namely Fortaleza, Recife and Rio de Janeiro; for females there is no strong indication of differences, except in the case of Fortaleza. The specific age-sex incidence curves conform well to the pattern described by Higginson and Muir; values for the curves of 1nI (age

  4. Viral type characterization and clinical aspects of canine parvovirus in naturally infected dogs in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Kyssia Monteiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Since the first isolation of canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2 in late 70’s new virus types as CPV-2a and CPV-2b have been emerged and becoming prevalent in natural canine population and more recently, a third subtype was identified , CPV-2c. The main purpose of this study was to detect and characterize canine parvovirus currently present in Central-West region of São Paulo state, in Brazil. Fecal samples were collected of vaccinated and non-vaccinated dogs, clinically suspected of having CPV infection brought to the Infectious Diseases Service, Veterinary Hospital of FMVZ-UNESP. All samples (n=30 were screening for canine parvovirus through hemagglutination test and those resulting as positive (n=20 were submitted to PCR and the products were subsequently sequenced for subtype characterization. Results were tested for association with age, hematological values, viral hemagglutination titers in the feces, vaccination status and survival. Leukopenia was found in all animals, death occurred in 30% of unvaccinated dogs and in 42% of vaccinated ones. In a total of 20 positive sequenced samples, 18 were classified as CPV-2b, one as CPV-2c, and one as CPV-2a, being CPV2a and CPV2c detected in unvaccinated puppies. Compared to the reference samples amino acid change at position 426 in those circling virus was identified. The study results demonstrate the predominance of CPV-2b and the presence of CPV-2a and CPV-2c in naturally infected, vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs in in São Paulo region.

  5. The influence of atmospheric particles on the elemental content of vegetables in urban gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato-Lourenco, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Tiana Carla Lopes; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Saiki, Mitiko; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Mauad, Thais

    2016-09-01

    Although urban horticulture provides multiple benefits to society, the extent to which these vegetables are contaminated by the absorption of chemical elements derived from atmospheric deposition is unclear. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of air pollution on leafy vegetables in community gardens of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Vegetable seedlings of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (collard greens) and Spinacia oleracea (spinach) obtained in a non-polluted rural area and growing in vessels containing standard uncontaminated soil were exposed for three consecutive periods of 30, 60 and 90 days in 10 community gardens in Sao Paulo and in one control site. The concentrations of 17 chemical elements (traffic-related elements and those essential to plant biology) were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Tillandsia usneoides L. specimens were used as air plant biomonitors. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr and Pb found in vegetables were compared to the recommended values for consumption. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to cluster the elemental concentrations, and Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) were employed to evaluate the association of the factor scores from each PCA component with variables such as local weather, traffic burden and vertical barriers adjacent to the gardens. We found significant differences in the elemental concentrations of the vegetables in the different community gardens. These differences were related to the overall traffic burden, vertical obstacles and local weather. The Pb and Cd concentrations in both vegetables exceeded the limit values for consumption after 60 days of exposure. A strong correlation was observed between the concentration of traffic-related elements in vegetables and in Tillandsia usneoides L. An exposure response was observed between traffic burden and traffic-derived particles absorbed in the vegetables. Traffic-derived air pollution directly influences the absorption of

  6. Obesity among children attending elementary public schools in São Paulo, Brazil: a case--control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabela da Costa, Ribeiro; Taddei, José Augusto A C; Colugnatti, Fernando

    2003-10-01

    To describe obesity among students of public schools in São Paulo and to identify risk factors for this nutritional and physical activity disorder. Case-control study of obese and non-obese schoolchildren to study risk factors for obesity. Anthropometric survey including 2519 children attending eight elementary public schools in São Paulo, Brazil. Schoolchildren aged 7-10 years, of whom 223 were obese (cases; weight-for-height greater than or equal to two standard deviations (>or=2SD) above the median of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference population) and 223 were eutrophic (controls; weight-for-height +/-1SD from NCHS median). Parents or guardians of the 446 cases and controls were interviewed about the children's eating behaviours and habits. The prevalence of obesity (weight-for-height >or=2SD) in the surveyed population was 10.5%. A logistic regression model fitted to the case-control dataset showed that obesity was positively associated with the following factors: birth weight >or=3500 g (odds ratio (OR) 1.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.78), child's appetite at meals (OR 3.81, 95% CI 2.49-5.83), watching television for 4 h per day or longer (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.32-3.24), mother's schooling >4 years (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.25-2.75) and parents' body mass index >or=30 kg x m(-2) (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.43-4.37). The explanatory multivariate model points to preventive measures that would encourage knowledge of the children and their guardians in relation to a balanced diet and a less sedentary lifestyle, such as reducing television viewing. Schoolchildren with a birth weight of 3500 g or more or whose parents are obese should receive special attention in the prevention of obesity.

  7. Visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil: spatial and space-time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardim, Marisa Furtado Mozini; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Chiaravalloti, Francisco

    2016-08-11

    To perform both space and space-time evaluations of visceral leishmaniasis in humans in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The population considered in the study comprised autochthonous cases of visceral leishmaniasis and deaths resulting from it in Sao Paulo, between 1999 and 2013. The analysis considered the western region of the state as its studied area. Thematic maps were created to show visceral leishmaniasis dissemination in humans in the municipality. Spatial analysis tools Kernel and Kernel ratio were used to respectively obtain the distribution of cases and deaths and the distribution of incidence and mortality. Scan statistics were used in order to identify spatial and space-time clusters of cases and deaths. The visceral leishmaniasis cases in humans, during the studied period, were observed to occur in the western portion of Sao Paulo, and their territorial extension mainly followed the eastbound course of the Marechal Rondon highway. The incidences were characterized as two sequences of concentric ellipses of decreasing intensities. The first and more intense one was found to have its epicenter in the municipality of Castilho (where the Marechal Rondon highway crosses the border of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and the second one in Bauru. Mortality was found to have a similar behavior to incidence. The spatial and space-time clusters of cases were observed to coincide with the two areas of highest incidence. Both the space-time clusters identified, even without coinciding in time, were started three years after the human cases were detected and had the same duration, that is, six years. The expansion of visceral leishmaniasis in Sao Paulo has been taking place in an eastbound direction, focusing on the role of highways, especially Marechal Rondon, in this process. The space-time analysis detected the disease occurred in cycles, in different spaces and time periods. These meetings, if considered, may contribute to the adoption of actions that aim to

  8. Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Rogéria I. R. Lara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality of Pelecinus polyturator (Drury (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil. A survey of the parasitoid wasp Pelecinus polyturator (Drury, 1773 (Hymenoptera, Pelecinidae was carried out with five Malaise traps/area in five areas in the Atlantic Rainforest of São Paulo State, Brazil, between November 2009 and October 2010. The sampling effort in each locality amounted to 1,825 trap-days. Data were obtained from a total of 317 exemplars of P. polyturator, corresponding to 108 females and 209 males. The average sex ratio of the studied population was 0.52. The highest occurrence of P. polyturator was observed between November and March with frequency peak in January; about 95% of the specimens studied were captured at altitudes close to 1,000 m above sea level.

  9. Outbreaks of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in common bean and castor bean in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Edson Luiz Lopes Baldin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, increasing populations of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae have been observed in cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and castor bean (Ricinus communis L. at the Lageado Experimental Farm, belonging to the FCA/UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil. Defoliations around 80% and 50% were observed in the common bean cv. Pérola and castor bean cv. IAC-2028, respectively. Samples of individuals (caterpillars and pupae were collected in the field, and kept in laboratory until adult emergence aiming to confirm the species. These are new observations for common bean in São Paulo State and, in the case of castor bean, unpublished in Brazil. It suggests that C. includens has adapted to attack other agricultural crops, demanding attention of common bean and castor bean producers.

  10. Factors influencing HPV vaccine delivery by healthcare professionals at public health posts in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Downing, Daniella; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Baker, Misha L; Dias De Oliveira Chiang, Ellen; Villa, Luisa L; Eluf Neto, Jose; Evans, Dabney P; Bednarczyk, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    To assess the association between Brazilian healthcare providers' characteristics and their knowledge, perceptions, and practices regarding the HPV vaccine. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at five public health posts in São Paulo between July 28 and August 8, 2014. Healthcare professionals directly involved in patient care were asked to complete a written survey. Factors associated with routine verification of HPV vaccination status were evaluated using Poisson regression. Among 200 participants included, 74 (38.5%) reported never and 70 (36.5%) reported always asking about HPV immunization status. Doctors were significantly less likely to report always asking than were community health agents (5/39 [12.8%] vs 32/60 [53.3%]; adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 0.25 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.91]). Knowledge about the correct dosing schedule was associated with always rather than never verifying vaccination status (aPR 2.46 [95% CI 1.06-5.70]). Knowledge and attitude played secondary roles in influencing HPV vaccine verification. Community health agents were crucial for vaccine promotion; continued education and support of this group is essential for the sustained success of HPV immunization efforts in Brazil. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  11. The impact of antipsychotic polytherapy costs in the public health care in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzouk, Denise; Kayo, Monica; Sousa, Aglaé; Gregorio, Guilherme; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Cardoso, Andrea Alves; Mari, Jair de Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Guidelines for the treatment of psychoses recommend antipsychotic monotherapy. However, the rate of antipsychotic polytherapy has increased over the last decade, reaching up to 60% in some settings. Studies evaluating the costs and impact of antipsychotic polytherapy in the health system are scarce. To estimate the costs of antipsychotic polytherapy and its impact on public health costs in a sample of subjects with psychotic disorders living in residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional study that used a bottom-up approach for collecting costs data in a public health provider's perspective. Subjects with psychosis living in 20 fully-staffed residential facilities in the city of Sao Paulo were assessed for clinical and psychosocial profile, severity of symptoms, quality of life, use of health services and pharmacological treatment. The impact of polytherapy on total direct costs was evaluated. 147 subjects were included, 134 used antipsychotics regularly and 38% were in use of antipsychotic polytherapy. There were no significant differences in clinical and psychosocial characteristics between polytherapy and monotherapy groups. Four variables explained 30% of direct costs: the number of antipsychotics, location of the residential facility, time living in the facility and use of olanzapine. The costs of antipsychotics corresponded to 94.4% of the total psychotropic costs and to 49.5% of all health services use when excluding accommodation costs. Olanzapine costs corresponded to 51% of all psychotropic costs. Antipsychotic polytherapy is a huge economic burden to public health service, despite the lack of evidence supporting this practice. Great variations on antipsychotic costs explicit the need of establishing protocols for rational antipsychotic prescriptions and consequently optimising resource allocation. Cost-effectiveness studies are necessary to estimate the best value for money among antipsychotics, especially in low and middle

  12. Historical accumulation of Trace elements in sediment cores from Tiete river, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, S.; Rocha, F.; Baumgardt, D.; Martins, L.; Silva, P.; Favaro, D. [IPEN-CNEN (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Tiete River, with 1100 km of extension, is one of the most economically important river of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil and throughout its length can be found reservoirs formed by damming its waters. This river is considered one of the most polluted rivers in the world, especially when it passes through the city of Sao Paulo. As a result of pollution observed since the 1950's, a project was established with the aim of evaluating the historic concentration of the trace elements As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn (mg.kg{sup -1}), in sediment cores dated by {sup 210}Pb method, sampled is several points of the river, since its source in Salesopolis up the mouth, on the Parana River. This work presents the results obtained by the trace elements above determined in two sediment cores collected in reservoirs in the city of Salesopolis and Pirapora do Bom Jesus. The analytical techniques used for the analysis were instrumental neutron activation analysis and gross beta measurement, respectively. The results obtained for the elements Br, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Nd, Sb, Sm, Th and U are higher than the values of Upper Continental Crust and the sedimentation rate obtained for the reservoir in Salesopolis, 1.53 cm.y{sup -1}, suggest silting processes. The enrichment factor and the geo-accumulation index were used to assess the presence of anthropogenic sources of pollution. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  13. Mercury and selenium accumulation assessment in fish most consumed by Cubatao Community, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Curcho, Michel R.S.M.; Fonseca, Barbara C.; Nascimento, Soraia M., E-mail: lufarias2@yahoo.com.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao de Neutrons; Kunioshi, Leonardo; Braga, Elisabete S., E-mail: edsbraga@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos nos Oceanos (LABNUT)

    2009-07-01

    High correlation between mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in fish organs is well known. In the present study, 58 fish samples of five fish species most commonly consumed by the Cubatao city population, Sao Paulo State, Brazil were analyzed. The Cubatao Estuary, located in southeastern Sao Paulo State, is an economically important area suffering severe environmental water quality problems due to industrial wastes, domestic sewage and solid residues. The waters of the bay suffer the impact of the immense industrial complex of Cubatao. In this study, Hg concentration in muscle, liver and kidney tissues and Se concentration in liver tissue from three predatory fish species: Macrodon ancylodon (Pescada), Menticirrhus americanus (Perna de Moca) and Micropogonias furnieri (Corvina) and two planctivorous species: Mugil liza (Tainha) and Sardella braziliensis (Sardinha) were determined. Mercury determination was performed using Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV AAS) and selenium by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The muscle-Hg concentration variation (wet weight) was: (8 to 40 mug kg{sup -1}) - Sardinha; (12 to 62 mug kg{sup -1}) - Pescada; (3 to 23 mug kg{sup -1}) - Tainha; (43 to 184 mug kg{sup -1}) - Perna de Moca and (41 to 348 mug kg{sup -1}) - Corvina. The general concentration ranges of the analyzed elements in all species studied were (dry weight): muscle-Hg (13 to 1512 mug kg{sup -1}); liver-Hg (21 to 1804 mug kg{sup -1}); kidney-Hg 47 to 9912 mug kg{sup -1}) and liver-Se (2.10 to 43.00 mg kg{sup -1}). Se concentrations were higher than those of Hg in the liver. (author)

  14. Pb-210 deposition measured in rainfall in Sao Paulo, SP-Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damatto, Sandra R.; Frujuele, Jonatan V.; Souza, Joseilton M.; Santos, Levi F., E-mail: damatto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Radiometria Ambiental

    2013-07-01

    Pb-210 (T{sub 1/2} = 22.3 y), a natural radionuclide from U-238 serie can be found in the atmosphere, as a product of {sup 222}Rn decay that emanates from the ground, where its atoms become rapidly fixed to aerosols and return to the earth as dry fallout or are washed out in the rain. This natural radionuclide has been widely used as an atmospheric tracer, to determine the aerosol residence time as well as chronometers in the environment. Pb-210 was measured during a period of two years, 2011 to 2013, in samples of rainfall in all the rainy events that occurred at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN) campus (23 deg 33’59.24” S - 46 deg 44’15.63” O at 760 m above sea level) which is located in the city of Sao Paulo, in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Pb-210 concentration was measured in a total of 123 rainy events by beta gross counting in a low background gas flow proportional detector, after radiochemistry procedure. The results obtained were correlated to seasons and rainfall. The concentrations of {sup 210}Pb in rainfall varied from the minimum detectable activity, 4.9 mBq L{sup -1} to 1408± 43 mBq L{sup -1}. The highest concentrations were obtained in the months of winter and the lowest in summer. The monthly depositional flux of {sup 210}Pb, varied from 4.03 Bq m{sup -2} month{sup -1} to 46.4 Bq m{sup -2} month{sup -1}presenting a strong correlation with the amount of precipitation and hence showing seasonal trends. (author)

  15. Mercury and selenium accumulation assessment in fish most consumed by Cubatao Community, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Curcho, Michel R.S.M.; Fonseca, Barbara C.; Nascimento, Soraia M.

    2009-01-01

    High correlation between mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in fish organs is well known. In the present study, 58 fish samples of five fish species most commonly consumed by the Cubatao city population, Sao Paulo State, Brazil were analyzed. The Cubatao Estuary, located in southeastern Sao Paulo State, is an economically important area suffering severe environmental water quality problems due to industrial wastes, domestic sewage and solid residues. The waters of the bay suffer the impact of the immense industrial complex of Cubatao. In this study, Hg concentration in muscle, liver and kidney tissues and Se concentration in liver tissue from three predatory fish species: Macrodon ancylodon (Pescada), Menticirrhus americanus (Perna de Moca) and Micropogonias furnieri (Corvina) and two planctivorous species: Mugil liza (Tainha) and Sardella braziliensis (Sardinha) were determined. Mercury determination was performed using Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV AAS) and selenium by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). The muscle-Hg concentration variation (wet weight) was: (8 to 40 μg kg -1 ) - Sardinha; (12 to 62 μg kg -1 ) - Pescada; (3 to 23 μg kg -1 ) - Tainha; (43 to 184 μg kg -1 ) - Perna de Moca and (41 to 348 μg kg -1 ) - Corvina. The general concentration ranges of the analyzed elements in all species studied were (dry weight): muscle-Hg (13 to 1512 μg kg -1 ); liver-Hg (21 to 1804 μg kg -1 ); kidney-Hg 47 to 9912 μg kg -1 ) and liver-Se (2.10 to 43.00 mg kg -1 ). Se concentrations were higher than those of Hg in the liver. (author)

  16. Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis epidemic in São Paulo State, Brazil, 2011

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    Norma H. Medina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC infection is highly contagious and can lead to explosive epidemics. In early February 2011, the Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance of the State of São Paulo Health Secretariat (SES-SP in Brazil received reports of conjunctivitis outbreaks from rural areas of the state that subsequently spread statewide. This report describes that AHC epidemic and its etiologic agent. Data from the Ministry of Health Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SinanNet and the SES-SP epidemiologic surveillance system for conjunctivitis, developed to detect outbreaks, confirm the etiologic agent, and carry out control measures, were analyzed. Eye (conjunctival swab samples were taken from patients with clinical presentation of viral conjunctivitis to perform viral laboratory diagnosis. A total of 1 067 981 conjunctivitis cases were reported to the surveillance system for 2011; there was an increase in the number of cases in epidemiologic weeks 6–26 (summer season versus previous years. Most cases occurred in the metropolitan region of Greater São Paulo. Of 93 collected samples, 57 tested positive for coxsackievirus-A24 (CV-A24, based on virus isolation in tissue-culture cell lines, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and enterovirus sequencing of RT-PCR. The data analysis showed that the fast-spreading etiologic agent of the AHC epidemic that occurred in the summer of 2011 was CV-A24. The AHC epidemic was due to an enterovirus that occurred sporadically, spread rapidly and with great magnitude, and had substantial socioeconomic impact due to the high level of absenteeism at work and school.

  17. Fatal toxoplasmosis in a southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) from São Paulo state, Brazil: Pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Stéfanie Vanessa; Pena, Hilda F J; Talebi, Mauricio G; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Kanamura, Cristina T; Diaz-Delgado, Josué; Gennari, Solange M; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2018-04-01

    We report the pathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular features of fatal acute systemic toxoplasmosis in an adult, female, free-living southern muriqui (Brachyteles arachnoides) from São Paulo state, Brazil. PCR-RFLP genotyping analysis identified the #21 genotype of Toxoplasma gondii. This represents the first report of acute toxoplasmosis involving this genotype in humans and animals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Dose absorbed in x-rays toraxicas executed in hospitals of the city of Sao Paulo Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.B.; Yoshimura, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    With the objective of evaluating the contribution of radiography exams in the dose received by the population of the city of Sao Paulo (Brazil), we made mensurations of the doses absorbed in toraxicas x-rays (projections PA and LAT) taken in several teams of rays X used in hospitals. The work is supplemented with demography data and the knowledge of the quantity of exams executed in each team

  19. Giardiasis as zoonosis: between proof of principle and paradigm in the Northwestern region of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cardoso Caseca Volotão

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In order to evaluate the potential zoonotic transmission of Giardia duodenalis, isolates from humans and dogs in the Northwestern region of the São Paulo State, Brazil were characterized based on the β-giardin gene. METHODS: The samples were analyzed by sequencing of the Nested-PCR products. RESULTS: The A1 and A2 subgenotypes were detected in human and dogs. Cysts of assemblage B, C and D have not been found in any isolates studied. CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with the view that giardiasis in the largest endemic region of the Brazil should not be seen as a single entity.

  20. High prevalence of enteroparasites in children from Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Elizabete Pagotti da Fonseca

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and possible associated factors. Method: Cross-sectional epidemiological study of 962 children (3-12-years from an area within the scope of a basic health unit in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected by home interviews and three-sample stool analysis and evaluated with the chi-square and Fisher's exact tests (p<0.05. Results: The prevalence of intestinal parasites was significantly high (57.5%. Giardia lamblia was the most prevalent (50.8%, followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (17.8%, Entamoeba histolytica, Hymenolepis nana, Entamoeba coli and Enterobius vermiculares (5.6-7.3% and other parasites of lower prevalence, such as Schistosoma japonicum (1% and Schistosoma mansoni (0.5%. No statistically significant associations were detected between prevalence and the risk factors analyzed. Conclusion: Since the area presents good conditions of environmental sanitation, health education programs should be implemented that emphasize hygiene procedures for the hands and for food and water to be consumed by the population.

  1. Air pollution and mortality in São Paulo, Brazil: Effects of multiple pollutants and analysis of susceptible populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Mercedes A; Son, Jiyoung; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Gouveia, Nelson; Bell, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    Health impacts of air pollution may differ depending on sex, education, socioeconomic status (SES), location at time of death, and other factors. In São Paulo, Brazil, questions remain regarding roles of individual and community characteristics. We estimate susceptibility to air pollution based on individual characteristics, residential SES, and location at time of death (May 1996-December 2010). Exposures for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) were estimated using ambient monitors. Time-stratified case-crossover analysis was used with individual-level health data. Increased risk of non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality were associated with all pollutants (P effect estimates for those with > 11 years education were lower than estimates for those with 0 years education for NO2, SO2, and CO (1.66% (95% confidence interval: 0.23%, 3.08%); 1.51% (0.51%, 2.51%); and 2.82% (0.23%, 5.35%), respectively). PM10 cardiovascular mortality effects were (3.74% (0.044%, 7.30%)) lower for the high education group (> 11 years) compared with the no education group. Positive, significant associations between pollutants and mortality were observed for in-hospital deaths, but evidence of differences in air pollution-related mortality risk by location at time of death was not strong.

  2. Tabagismo, abandono do fumo e os otorrinolaringologistas do estado de São Paulo Smoking, smoking cessation and otorhinolaryngologists in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aracy Pereira Silveira Balbani

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Os otorrinolaringologistas estão diretamente envolvidos no diagnóstico e tratamento de doenças provocadas pelo cigarro, incluindo o câncer das vias aéreas superiores. É importante que os especialistas estejam capacitados a tratar o tabagismo e a dependência da nicotina. Também se sabe que há fumantes entre os próprios médicos. OBJETIVO: Pesquisar as opiniões e condutas de otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo frente ao tabagismo e à dependência química da nicotina, e avaliar o hábito tabagístico dos especialistas. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Corte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados aleatoriamente 600 otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo. A esses especialistas foi enviado, em março de 2005, por correio, um questionário padrão. Foram analisadas as respostas recebidas no período de março a maio de 2005. RESULTADOS: Foram recebidas 209 respostas. Nestas, 97 profissionais (46,4% avaliaram sua familiaridade com os meios de tratamento da dependência de nicotina como regular e 60 (28,7% como insatisfatória. Dos participantes do estudo, 144 (68,9% nunca fumaram, 50 (23,9% são ex-fumantes, nove (4,3% são fumantes ocasionais e seis (2,9% são fumantes. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de tabagistas na amostra de 209 otorrinolaringologistas do Estado de São Paulo foi de 7,1%.Otorhinolaryngologists are directly involved in the diagnosis and management of smoking related diseases, including upper airway malignancy. It is important that the specialists have skills to treat smoking and nicotine dependence. It is also known that there are smokers amongst doctors. AIM: To assess the opinions and practices of the otorhinolaryngologists of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, concerning smoking and nicotine dependence, and evaluation of smoking habits of the specialists. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We randomly selected 600 otorhinolaryngologists of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A survey was mailed to

  3. Thyroid Cancer Incidence Patterns in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and the U.S. SEER Program, 1997–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Gila; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Ron, Elaine; Devesa, Susan S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer incidence has risen steadily over the last few decades in most of the developed world, but information on incidence trends in developing countries is limited. Sao Paulo, Brazil, has one of the highest rates of thyroid cancer worldwide, higher than in the United States. We examined thyroid cancer incidence patterns using data from the Sao Paulo Cancer Registry (SPCR) in Brazil and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) program in the United States. Methods Data on thyroid cancer cases diagnosed during 1997–2008 were obtained from SPCR (n=15,892) and SEER (n=42,717). Age-adjusted and age-specific rates were calculated by sex and histology and temporal patterns were compared between the two populations. Results Overall incidence rates increased over time in both populations and were higher in Sao Paulo than in the United States among females (SPCR/SEER incidence rate ratio [IRR]=1.65) and males (IRR=1.23). Papillary was the most common histology in both populations, followed by follicular and medullary carcinomas. Incidence rates by histology were consistently higher in Sao Paulo than in the United States, with the greatest differences for follicular (IRR=2.44) and medullary (IRR=3.29) carcinomas among females. The overall female/male IRR was higher in Sao Paulo (IRR=4.17) than in SEER (IRR=3.10) and did not change over time. Papillary rates rose over time more rapidly in Sao Paulo (annual percentage change=10.3% among females and 9.6% among males) than in the United States (6.9% and 5.7%, respectively). Regardless of sex, rates rose faster among younger people (8 among both Sao Paulo males and females, in contrast to increases from 9 to 12 and from 6 to 7 among U.S.males and females, respectively. Conclusions Increased diagnostic activity may be contributing to the notable rise in incidence, mainly for papillary type, in both populations, but it is not likely to be the only reason. Differences in

  4. Variability of HIV-1 genomes among children and adolescents from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Sabri Saeed Sanabani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic variability is a major feature of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 and considered the key factor to frustrating efforts to halt the virus epidemic. In this study, we aimed to investigate the genetic variability of HIV-1 strains among children and adolescents born from 1992 to 2009 in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODOLOGY: Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were collected from 51 HIV-1-positive children and adolescents on ART followed between September 1992 and July 2009. After extraction, the genetic materials were used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR to amplify the viral near full length genomes (NFLGs from 5 overlapped fragments. NFLGs and partial amplicons were directly sequenced and data were phylogenetically inferred. RESULTS: Of the 51 samples studied, the NFLGs and partial fragments of HIV-1 from 42 PBMCs and 25 plasma were successfully subtyped. Results based on proviral DNA revealed that 22 (52.4% patients were infected with subtype B, 16 (38.1% were infected with BF1 mosaic variants and 4 (9.5% were infected with sub-subtype F1. All the BF1 recombinants were unique and distinct from any previously identified unique or circulating recombinant forms in South America. Evidence of dual infections was detected in 3 patients coinfected with the same or distinct HIV-1 subtypes. Ten of the 31 (32.2% and 12 of the 21 (57.1% subjects with recovered proviral and plasma, respectively, protease sequences were infected with major mutants resistant to protease inhibitors. The V3 sequences of 14 patients with available sequences from PBMC/or plasma were predicted to be R5-tropic virus except for two patients who harbored an X4 strain. CONCLUSIONS: The high proportion of HIV-1 BF1 recombinant, coinfection rate and vertical transmission in Brazil merits urgent attention and effective measures to reduce the transmission of HIV among spouses and sex partners.

  5. Prevalence of celiac disease among blood donors in São Paulo: the most populated city in Brazil

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    Marília Lage Alencar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease is a permanent enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten, which leads to an immunemediated inflammation of the small intestine mucosa. The prevalence of celiac disease varies among different nations and ethnic backgrounds, and its diversity is determined by genetic and environmental factors. São Paulo city is one of the largest cities in the world, with a vast population and an important history of internal migratory flow from other Brazilian regions, as well as immigration from other, primarily European, countries, resulting in significant miscegenation. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of adults with undiagnosed celiac disease among blood donors of São Paulo by collecting information on the ancestry of the population studied. METHODS: The prevalence of celiac disease was assessed by screening for positive IgA transglutaminase and IgA endomysium antibodies in 4,000 donors (volunteers in the Fundação Pró-Sangue Blood Center of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. The antibody-positive subjects were asked to undergo a small bowel biopsy. RESULTS: Of the 4,000 subjects, twenty-four had positive tests, although both antibody tests were not always concordant. For example, ten subjects were positive for IgA tissue transglutaminase only. In twenty-one positive patients, duodenal biopsies were performed, and the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed in fourteen patients (Marsh criteria modified by Oberhuber. In this group, 67% claimed to have European ancestry, mainly from Italy, Portugal and Spain. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of celiac disease is at least 1:286 among supposedly healthy blood bank volunteers in São Paulo, Brazil.

  6. Local Climate Zones Classification to Urban Planning in the Mega City of São Paulo - SP, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves Santos, Rafael; Saraiva Lopes, António Manuel; Prata-Shimomura, Alessandra

    2017-04-01

    Local Climate Zones Classification to Urban Planning in the Mega city of São Paulo - SP, Brazil Tropical megacities have presented a strong trend in growing urban. Urban management in megacities has as one of the biggest challenges is the lack of integration of urban climate and urban planning to promote ecologically smart cities. Local Climatic Zones (LCZs) are considered as important and recognized tool for urban climate management. Classes are local in scale, climatic in nature, and zonal in representation. They can be understood as regions of uniform surface cover, structure, material and human activity that have to a unique climate response. As an initial tool to promote urban climate planning, LCZs represent a simple composition of different land coverages (buildings, vegetation, soils, rock, roads and water). LCZs are divided in 17 classes, they are based on surface cover (built fraction, soil moisture, albedo), surface structure (sky view factor, roughness height) and cultural activity (anthropogenic heat flux). The aim of this study is the application of the LCZs classification system in the megacity of São Paulo, Brazil. Located at a latitude of 23° 21' and longitude 46° 44' near to the Tropic of Capricorn, presenting humid subtropical climate (Cfa) with diversified topographies. The megacity of São Paulo currently concentrates 11.890.000 inhabitants is characterized by large urban conglomerates with impermeable surfaces and high verticalization, having as result high urban heat island intensity. The result indicates predominance in urban zones of Compact low-rise, Compact Mid-rise, Compact High-rise and Open Low-rise. Non-urban regions are mainly covered by dense vegetation and water. The LCZs classification system promotes significant advantages for climate sensitive urban planning in the megacity of São Paulo. They offers new perspectives to the management of temperature and urban ventilation and allows the formulation of urban planning

  7. YELLOW FEVER PREVENTION STRATEGIES AWARENESS AMONG HIV-INFECTED PATIENTS IN SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

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    Vivian Iida Avelino-Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vaccination is the main preventive strategy against Yellow Fever (YF, which is a public health concern in Brazil. However, HIV-infected patients might have insufficient knowledge regarding YF, YF prevention, and vaccines in general. Methods: In this questionnaire-based study, data from 158 HIV-infected individuals were addressed in three distinct outpatient clinics in São Paulo. Information was collected on demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as patients' knowledge of vaccines, YF and YF preventive strategies. In addition, individual YF vaccine recommendations and vaccine status were investigated. Results: Although most participants adequately ascertain the vaccine as the main prevention strategy against YF, few participants were aware of the severity and lack of specific treatment for YF. Discrepancy in YF vaccine (patients who should have taken the vaccine, but did not was observed in 18.8% of participants. Conclusion: YF is an important and preventable public health concern, and these results demonstrate that more information is necessary for the HIV-infected population.

  8. Metal distribution in sediment cores from Sao Paulo State Coast, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Paulo S.C.; Damatto, Sandra R.; Maldonado, Caio; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Mazzilli, Barbara P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Sediment core study in the total fraction. → Elementary composition of sediment for dredged sediment regulation. → Multivariate analysis for determination of basal level of sediment composition. → Importance of the determination of local reference values for sediment studies. - Abstract: Ten sediment core samples with lengths ranging from 35 to 100 cm were collected in the Baixada Santista region and analyzed to determine As, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Rb, Sb, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earths (Sc, Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) level concentrations using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The studied region is located in the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State and is comprised of a densely urbanized area, the largest industrial complex of the country, with a predominance of petrochemical and fertilizer plants. It is also home to Brazil's most important and busiest port. The conclusions found that the As, La, Sm, Ne, Ce, Eu, Hf, Ta, Th, and U elements have a high background level in the region and that Fe and Zn were the main indicators of anthropogenic contribution in the sediments.

  9. Suitability of Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' for biomonitoring ozone in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant'Anna, Silvia M.R.; Esposito, Marisia P.; Domingos, Marisa; Souza, Silvia R.

    2008-01-01

    Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is a widely used sensitive bioindicator for ambient ozone, but it is rarely used in tropical countries. Our goal was to determine the suitability of this plant for biomonitoring ozone in the city of Sao Paulo by evaluating the relationships between leaf necroses and ozone under field conditions and measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidants in plants exposed to different concentrations of ozone in closed chambers. While a weak linear relationship between leaf injury and ozone concentrations (R 2 = 0.10) was determined in the field, a strong linear relationship was observed in the chamber experiments. Maximum leaf injury was observed in plants submitted to 40 ppb, which coincided with a significant decrease in fluorescence and total ascorbic acid. The relationship between leaf damage observed in the field and ozone was improved when the concentrations were limited to 40 ppb (R 2 = 0.28). - Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is suitable for indicating low ozone levels in Brazil

  10. Evaluation of mercury, selenium and methylmercury in fish consumed by Santos Bay communities, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: lufarias@usp.br; Azevedo, Juliana de S.; Braga, Elisabete S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico. Lab. de Nutrientes, Micronutrientes e Tracos no Mar (LABNUT)]. E-mail: juliana@io.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    In the present study, mercury and selenium levels were evaluated in fish tissues and fish organs in the Santos Bay, Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. Santos Bay waters are polluted by the large industrial complex of Cubatao. The estuary system filters part of this pollution before it reaches the Bay. Mercury and methylmercury determination were performed using Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) and selenium determination by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Methodology validation for the determination of these elements was carried out by means of reference materials analyses. There was no significant correlation between mercury and selenium concentrations (n = 17, (r2 ) R2 = 0.3482, p = 0.1709) in Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo)- Ariidae family and Centropomus sp. (robalo)- Centropomidae family livers. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in muscle from carnivorous species: Ariidae Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo), Scianidae Steliffer rastifer (cangoa) and Scianidae Paralonchurus brasiliensis (maria-luiza) were determined and discussed. Total mercury concentration in Ariidae Catharops spixii livers presented the highest Hg level (7.6 mg kg-1). Although the Santos Bay is less contaminated than the inner section of its estuary system (Cubatao), it presents signs of environmental impact. (author)

  11. Evaluation of pesticide residues in oranges from São Paulo, Brazil

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    Viviane Emi NAKANO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides in “PERA” orange samples (N = 57 from São Paulo City, Brazil were assessed and the pesticide intake contribution was estimated for chronic risk assessment. Seventy-six pesticides were evaluated by the gas chromatography multi-residue method, including isomers and metabolites (4.332 determinations. The mean recoveries at the limit of quantification level were in the range of 72-115% and the relative standard deviation for five replicate samples was 1-11%. The limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.005 to 0.4 mg.kg−1 and from 0.01 to 0.8 mg.kg−1, respectively. Pesticides were found in 42.1% of the samples at levels ranging from 0.06 to 2.9 mg.kg−1. Of the contaminated samples, 3.5% contained residues (bifenthrin and clofentezine above the maximum residue level and 12.3% contained unauthorized pesticides (azinphos-ethyl, parathion, myclobutanil, profenofos, and fenitrothion. The estimated risk characterization for orange intake by adults and children, respectively, ranged from 0.04 to 6.6% and from 0.1 to 26.5% of the acceptable daily intake. The detection of irregular residues emphasizes the need for better implementation of Good Agriculture Practices and greater control of formulated products. Other pesticides surveyed did not pose a health risk due to consumption.

  12. Prevalence of malocclusion in schoolchildren in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Cassiano Arashiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and types of malocclusion in schoolchildren in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.Method: Six hundred and sixty schoolchildren at three schools in the municipality of Campinas were examined. The age bracket ranged from 6.5 up to18.1 years (mean ± s.d. = 12.2 ± 2.3 years The intraoral clinical exams were performed by four duly trained and calibrated dentists, consisted of visual inspection using only disposable wooden spatulas and millimetric probes, performed in rooms provided by the schools, with good conditions of visibility and natural lighting. The criteria adopted for classifying normal and malocclusion were those stipulated by Andrews1, Angle2 and Maia3. Results: The data obtained indicated that there was no statistically significant difference between the genders. Malocclusion was found in 87.4% of the schoolchildren examined, in agreement with the majority of Brazilian and International studies. Class I malocclusion was the most prevalent (39.7% among the schoolchildren examined, followed by Class II, with 36% of the cases, and there was higher prevalence of Class II division 1 (22.7% in comparison with Class II division 2 (13.3%. Class III malocclusion was present in 11.7% of the sample.Conclusion: There is high prevalence of malocclusion, irrespective of gender, in the studied population of schoolchildren. The most prevalent malocclusion was Class I, followed by Class I division 1.

  13. Perception of the value of generic drugs in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Elene Paltrinieri Nardi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of opinion-leaders, patients and their accompanying family members or carers about generic drugs. Three groups of participants were surveyed: (i 50 customers while they were visiting commercial pharmacies located in São Paulo city, Brazil, (ii 25 patients and 25 companions while they were waiting at the university outpatient clinic, and (iii 50 healthcare opinion-leaders from government, hospitals, health plans, academia, and pharmaceutical companies. The questions explored socio-demographic characteristics and perceptions regarding value attributes of generic drugs compared to brand name drugs. Respondents had an average age of 52 years and 53% were women. Respondents believed generic drugs to be cheaper than brand name drugs (97%, and 31% thought generic drugs to be less effective than brand name drugs. Also, generic drugs were perceived by 54% of respondents to be as safe as brand name drugs and 74% would prefer brand name drugs if there was no price difference. In conclusion, multiple factors may contribute to the decision to buy generic drugs; among these, perceived effectiveness, safety and price appear to be the most important factors.

  14. Perception of the value of generic drugs in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Elene Paltrinieri; Ferraz, Marcos Bosi

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the perceptions of opinion-leaders, patients and their accompanying family members or carers about generic drugs. Three groups of participants were surveyed: (i) 50 customers while they were visiting commercial pharmacies located in São Paulo city, Brazil, (ii) 25 patients and 25 companions while they were waiting at the university outpatient clinic, and (iii) 50 healthcare opinion-leaders from government, hospitals, health plans, academia, and pharmaceutical companies. The questions explored socio-demographic characteristics and perceptions regarding value attributes of generic drugs compared to brand name drugs. Respondents had an average age of 52 years and 53% were women. Respondents believed generic drugs to be cheaper than brand name drugs (97%), and 31% thought generic drugs to be less effective than brand name drugs. Also, generic drugs were perceived by 54% of respondents to be as safe as brand name drugs and 74% would prefer brand name drugs if there was no price difference. In conclusion, multiple factors may contribute to the decision to buy generic drugs; among these, perceived effectiveness, safety and price appear to be the most important factors.

  15. Gamma ionization of Phagicola longa (Trematoda:Heterophyidae) in Mugilidae (pisces) in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, S.A.; Wiendl, F.M.; Almeida Dias, E.R.; Arthur, V.; Daniotti, C.

    1993-01-01

    The mullet (Mugilidae) is a fish caught in large quantities in brackish and marine waters of the southern Brazilian coast, which in consequence of its raw consumption as ''sashimi'', a typical Japanese dish, has led to ten cases of human infection by Phagicola longa in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The mullet acts as a second intermediate host for the parasite, as in human heterophyiasis in the Near and Far East. In order to control these infections under commercial storage conditions and in raw consumption, the radiolysis of P. longa was studied in three mullet species - the silver mullet (Mugil curema), the grey mullet (M. platanus) and the ''paratipema'' (Mugil sp.) -subjected to ionization ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 kGy (2.21 kGy/h). It was observed that 1.0 and 2.0 kGy caused a motility decrease in silver mullet parasites from 100% to 15% and 17%, and that doses of 4.0 and 10.0 kGy caused metacercaria inviability. The parasite motility decreased in the grey mullet treated with doses of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 kGy, from 56% to 31%, 9%, 18% and 5%, respectively, 4.0 kGy tending to be the control dose for P. Longa. This dose also controls other metacercaria found in the ''parati-pema'', without changing the odor, color or appearance of the treated mullet. (author)

  16. Use of psychotherapy in a representative adult community sample in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Sergio L.; Fillenbaum, Gerda G.; da Silva, Paula Freitas R.; Peluso, Erica T.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the use of psychotherapy to treat common mental disorders in a major city in a middle income country. Data come from in-home interviews with a stratified random sample of 2,000 community residents age 18–65 in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The information obtained included sociodemographic characteristics; psychotropic drugs; mental status; and lifetime, previous 12 months, and current use of psychotherapy. Logistic regression was used to examine determinants of use of psychotherapy. Of the sample, 22.7% met General Health Questionnaire-12 criteria for common mental disorders. Lifetime, previous 12 months, and current use of psychotherapy were reported by 14.6%, 4.6%, and 2.3% of the sample respectively. Users were typically women, more educated, higher income, not married, unemployed, with common mental disorders. Further analysis found that 47% (with higher education and income) paid out-of-pocket, and 53% used psychotropic medication. Psychotherapy does not appear to be the preferred treatment for common mental disorders. PMID:25118139

  17. Fee - fishing operation evaluation at Nothwest São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Lopes Ruy Bessa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fee-fishing operations developed recently in Brazilian agricultural scenery in a rather disordered manner. This study, carried out at the northwest region of São Paulo State, Brazil, focuses on the productive performance of fee-fishing system. Several visits were made monthly to nine fee-fishing establishments, for six months. A questionnaire by owners targeting 13 indicators of the operation's productive performance. Data were submitted to multivariate analysis (MANOVA, principal component analysis (PCA and cluster analysis. MANOVA indicated significant differences between the fee-fishing operations. The PCA analyses indicated, from the higher coefficient eigenvectors, three attributes for the lakes, such as productive system, fishery management and operational administration. The cluster analyses classified the fishing lakes in four groups. The indicators angler frequency (AF, stocking density (SD, stocking biomass (SB, total capture (TC and capture/lake/day (CLD, which are part of the attribute productive system, were the most important indicators of "fee-fishing" operations performance in this study.

  18. Sperm characteristics in a sample of healthy adolescents in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Marcos Mitsuyoshi Mori

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents preliminary data from a prospective investigation in a sample of healthy 14-17-year-old students from a technical school in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Ninety-six Tanner stage 5 and thirty-one Tanner stage 4 adolescents were evaluated: testicular volume was measured using a Prader orchidometer, and semen analysis was performed according to standard procedures. Median testicular volume was 20.0ml among Tanner 5 students and 15.0ml in Tanner 4 students in both the right and left testes. No significant differences were found in sperm volume or motility. Median concentration was 66.0 million/ml for Tanner 5 and 47.0 million/ml for Tanner 4 subjects. Morphological patterns showed abnormal forms in 81.9% of Tanner 5 and 93.6% of Tanner 4 adolescents. Oligospermia (sperm concentration < 5 million/ml was observed in 7.3% of Tanner stage 5 and 12.9% of Tanner stage 4 individuals. Azoospermia was observed in 3 students (1.8%, with counts less than 1.0 in 8 students (4.8%. The authors discuss the observed results, analyzing the potential implications arising from biological development and potential environmental exposures.

  19. Prevalence and counts of Salmonella spp. in minimally processed vegetables in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Ana, Anderson S; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria Teresa; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2011-09-01

    Minimally processed vegetables (MPV) may be important vehicles of Salmonella spp. and cause disease. This study aimed at detecting and enumerating Salmonella spp. in MPV marketed in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 512 samples of MPV packages collected in retail stores were tested for Salmonella spp. and total coliforms and Escherichia coli as indication of the hygienic status. Salmonella spp. was detected in four samples, two using the detection method and two using the counting method, where the results were 8.8 × 10(2) CFU/g and 2.4 × 10(2) CFU/g. The serovars were Salmonella Typhimurium (three samples) and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica O:47:z4,z23:- (one sample). Fourteen samples (2.7%) presented counts of E. coli above the maximum limit established by the Brazilian regulation for MPV (10(2) CFU/g). Therefore, tightened surveillance and effective intervention strategies are necessary in order to address consumers and governments concerns on safety of MPV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution of Th-232 and Th-228 in Santos and Sao Vicente Estuary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.S.C.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Av. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Caixa Postal 05508-000, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: Pscsilva@ipen.br

    2004-07-01

    In the last decades considerable attention has been given to technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry. Santos Basin, located in Southwest Brazil, Sao Paulo State, comprising Santos and Sao Vicente estuarine system, is considered the most important industrial region of the country. Among the industrial activities present, phosphate fertilizer plants are responsible for the production of 69 millions tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates radionuclides of the natural series originally present in the phosphate rock used as raw material. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impact of such activities in the sediments of the estuarine system. {sup 232} Th and {sup 228} Th concentrations in Santos and San Vicente estuary sediments were determined by Neutron activation analysis and Gamma spectrometry, respectively. {sup 232} Th concentration ranged from 6.5 to 198 Bq kg{sup -1} with mean value of 57 {+-} 39 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 42 samples. {sup 228} Th content varied from 12 to 110 Bq kg{sup -1} with a mean value of 74 {+-} 23 Bq kg{sup -1}, for 18 samples. It can be seen that the amount of {sup 232} Th is higher in the rivers close to the phosphogypsum piles, at least five points were identified as being affected by anthropogenic factor. (Author)

  1. Animal-assisted therapy in early childhood schools in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda O. Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract: Since ancient times, humans and animals have interacted for different purposes. Animal Assisted Therapy (AAT is used for the assistance and treatment in humans and educational projects where animals are used as co-therapists or co-educators. The use of animals facilitates the process of teaching and learning, and stimulates physical and therapeutic activities. So that knowledge on AAT could be expanded, current study analyzes the opinion of people directly involved in education on AAT implementation as an educational model in early childhood schools in São Paulo, Brazil. Questionnaires were handed out to 10 pedagogical coordinators, 32 teachers, 23 parents and 26 children aged 3-6 years. Results revealed that AAT is not well-known for most interviewees, including pedagogical coordinators, teachers and parents. However, interviewees believe in the benefits of child-pet interactions and are favorable to the implementation of AATs in schools. Projects should be interdisciplinary and must involve professionals from other areas, such as psychologists and veterinarians. Regarding the educational model, interviewees believe in the innovation capacity of AAT and in the possibilities of interdisciplinarity among teachers in the use of animals. Research also demonstrated that children like and support the use of animals in the school.

  2. Water quality in four reservoirs of the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Denise Amazonas Pires

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: This paper describes some limnological variables of four reservoirs with different trophic status (Billings, Guarapiranga, Jundiaí and Paiva Castro of the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil, aiming to characterize the water quality in these reservoirs. Methods Water sampling occurred between October 2011 and September 2012, on subsurface, at the pelagic compartment. Physical and chemical characteristics of water were evaluated, and the Trophic State Index (TSI was calculated. Multivariate Principal Components Analysis (PCA was used to ordinate sampling sites and periods in relation to environmental data. Results Two reservoirs were classified as eutrophic (Billings and Guarapiranga, one as mesotrophic (Jundiaí and one as oligotrophic (Paiva Castro. The highest concentrations of total phosphorus, nitrogen and chlorophyll a were recorded in the eutrophic reservoirs. The lowest values of dissolved oxygen concentration were registered at Guarapiranga reservoir. Residence time in Paiva Castro reservoir was very low (one day; on the other hand, the highest value was recorded in Billings reservoir: 428 days.

  3. Metallic elements distribution in drainage sediments of the Parque Estadual de Anchieta - Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton; Figueiredo, Ana Maria Graciano; Sigolo, Joel Barbujiani

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of the geochemical behavior of metals in river sediments from Parque Estadual da Ilha Anchieta which is located in the north coast of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The Anchieta Island presents many natural ecosystems well preserved without anthropogenic contamination. The sediments were collected in two different points in one of the main rivers of the island. Samples were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analyses (INAA) which permits the quantification of total concentration of metals (Ba, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe Hf, Rb, Sc, Ta and Zn), rare earth elements (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb e Yb), actinides (U and Th) and non metals (As, Br and Sb). Elemental content in the samples had remained relatively constant along the deep of the sample and the changes seemed to be well correlated with the size of the particles in the samples. The precision and the accuracy of the results were evaluated by the analysis of two geological reference materials and data obtained were in good agreement with recommended values. The values obtained for the analyzed elements can be considered the natural concentration of those elements, since Parque Estadual da Ilha Anchieta is preserved from anthropogenic impact. (author)

  4. Distribution of Th-232 and Th-228 in Santos and Sao Vicente Estuary, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.S.C.; Mazzilli, B.P.; Favaro, D.I.T.

    2004-01-01

    In the last decades considerable attention has been given to technologically enhanced natural occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Within this frame, of particular concern is the phosphate fertilizer industry. Santos Basin, located in Southwest Brazil, Sao Paulo State, comprising Santos and Sao Vicente estuarine system, is considered the most important industrial region of the country. Among the industrial activities present, phosphate fertilizer plants are responsible for the production of 69 millions tons of phosphogypsum waste, which is stockpiled in the surrounding environment. This waste concentrates radionuclides of the natural series originally present in the phosphate rock used as raw material. This study aims to evaluate the environmental impact of such activities in the sediments of the estuarine system. 232 Th and 228 Th concentrations in Santos and San Vicente estuary sediments were determined by Neutron activation analysis and Gamma spectrometry, respectively. 232 Th concentration ranged from 6.5 to 198 Bq kg -1 with mean value of 57 ± 39 Bq kg -1 , for 42 samples. 228 Th content varied from 12 to 110 Bq kg -1 with a mean value of 74 ± 23 Bq kg -1 , for 18 samples. It can be seen that the amount of 232 Th is higher in the rivers close to the phosphogypsum piles, at least five points were identified as being affected by anthropogenic factor. (Author)

  5. Evaluation of mercury, selenium and methylmercury in fish consumed by Santos Bay communities, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Luciana A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Azevedo, Juliana de S.; Braga, Elisabete S.

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, mercury and selenium levels were evaluated in fish tissues and fish organs in the Santos Bay, Sao Paulo State, southeastern Brazil. Santos Bay waters are polluted by the large industrial complex of Cubatao. The estuary system filters part of this pollution before it reaches the Bay. Mercury and methylmercury determination were performed using Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) and selenium determination by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Methodology validation for the determination of these elements was carried out by means of reference materials analyses. There was no significant correlation between mercury and selenium concentrations (n = 17, (r2 ) R2 = 0.3482, p = 0.1709) in Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo)- Ariidae family and Centropomus sp. (robalo)- Centropomidae family livers. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations in muscle from carnivorous species: Ariidae Cathorops spixii (bagre amarelo), Scianidae Steliffer rastifer (cangoa) and Scianidae Paralonchurus brasiliensis (maria-luiza) were determined and discussed. Total mercury concentration in Ariidae Catharops spixii livers presented the highest Hg level (7.6 mg kg-1). Although the Santos Bay is less contaminated than the inner section of its estuary system (Cubatao), it presents signs of environmental impact. (author)

  6. Frequency of gastrointestinal parasites in cats seen at the University of São Paulo Veterinary Hospital, Brazil

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    Solange Maria Gennari

    Full Text Available Abstract The frequency of gastrointestinal infections in 502 cats seen at the Veterinary Hospital of the University of São Paulo, SP, Brazil, between 2005 and 2014, was measured. The samples were analyzed using methods of flotation and sedimentation. The results were compared with those from studies published previously using fecal samples from the same hospital at different times. Associations between the frequency of positivity for each parasite and age, breed, sex, diarrhea and use of anthelmintic were investigated (chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests. A partitioned chi-square test was used to compare different periods. Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., Cystoisospora spp. and Sarcocystis spp. were the most common parasites, followed by Toxocara cati and Ancylostoma spp. Cryptosporidium spp. presented higher frequency in young cats and Sarcocystis spp. with the presence of diarrhea (p < 0.05. Results from this study with previous periods showed that the frequencies of Cryptosporidium spp., Cystoisospora spp. and T. cati were lower (p < 0.05 than those observed in previous periods. The frequencies of Giardia spp. and Ancylostoma spp. were similar to the results found in the preceding period and lower than the values found for the other periods (p < 0.05. The reasons for these changes should be investigated.

  7. Prevalence of Toxocara infection in schoolchildren from the Butantã region, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Jussara MS Alderete

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans syndrome by Toxocara affects mainly children between 2 and 5 years of age, it is generally asymptomatic, and the seroprevalence varies from 3 to 86% in different countries. A total of 399 schoolchildren from 14 public schools of the Butantã region, São Paulo city, Brazil, were evaluated by Toxocara serology (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Epidemiological data to the Toxocara infection obtained from a protocol were submitted to multiple logistic regression analysis for a risk profile definition. Blood was collected on filter paper by finger puncture, with all samples tested in duplicate. Considering titers > 1/160 as positive, the seroprevalence obtained was 38.8%. Among infected children, the mean age was 9.4 years, with a similar distribution between genders. A significant association was observed with the presence of onychophagia, residence with a dirty backyard, living in a slum, previous wheezing episodes, school attended, and family income (p 5 minimum salaries represented a protective factor, although of low relevance. Toxocara eggs were found in at least one of the soil samples obtained from five schools, with high prevalence of Toxocara infections, indicating the frequent soil contamination by this agent.

  8. Chemical Analysis of Suspected Unrecorded Alcoholic Beverages from the States of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Giuseppina; Soares Neto, Julino Assunção Rodrigues; de Araujo Carlini, Elisaldo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Our study analyzed 152 samples of alcoholic beverages collected from the states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais, Brazil, using gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The methanol content varied from 20 to 180 ppm in 28 samples, and the limit of the accepted level of 200 ppm was exceeded in only one sample. High content of cyanide derivatives and ethyl carbamate, above the accepted level of 150 ppb, was observed in 109 samples. Carbonyl compounds were also observed in 111 samples, showing hydroxy 2-propanone, 4-methyl-4-hepten-3-one, furfural, and 2-hydroxyethylcarbamate as main constituents. Copper was found at concentrations above 5 ppm in 26 samples; the maximum value observed was 28 ppm. This work evaluated the human health risk associated with the poor quality of suspected unrecorded alcohols beverages.

  9. An ergonomic approach to reorganize parking inspection agents' work productivity, health and safety in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, R M A; Lancman, S; Trudel, L; Jardim, T A; Sznelwar, L I; Santos, M C; Freeman, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The Traffic Engineering Company of the City of São Paulo (Brazil) observed a decrease in productivity, and an increase in sick leave, accidents and psychological distress among their parking inspection agents. To document this situation, qualitative research was undertaken to obtain an in-depth comprehension of work activity. Workers, managers and health and safety professionals contributed to the documentation of the problem and to the proposal of possible solutions. Ergonomic work analysis focusing on real work activity, as well as interviews with individual or groups of stakeholders, were conducted. This research revealed that political-economic factors gradually contributed to: 1) an increasing work load; 2) growing fatigue throughout the day, increasing the workers' vulnerability to incidents and accidents and their tendency to react inappropriately to violence experienced on the street; and 3) excessive individual responsibility to manage dangerous situations. Recommendations to ameliorate the situation are proposed. These suggestions are discussed in terms of feasibility given the impact of macro social factors upon micro work activity, and the associated potential expansion of the ergonomist's role.

  10. Vertical displacement during late-collisional escape tectonics (Brasiliano Orogeny) in the Ribeira Belt, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackspacher, P. C.; Godoy, A. M.

    1999-07-01

    During the Brasiliano-Pan-African Orogeny, West Gondwana formed by collisional processes around the São Francisco-Congo Craton. The Ribeira belt, in southeastern Brazil, resulted from northwestward collision (650-600 Ma), followed by large-scale northeast-southwest dextral strike-slip shear movements related to late-collisional escape tectonics ( ca 600 Ma). In São Paulo State, three groups, also interpreted as terranes, are recognised in the Ribeira Belt, the Embu, Itapira and São Roque Groups. The Embu and Itapira Groups are formed of sillimanite-gneisses, schists and migmatites intruded by Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline granitoids, all thrusted northwestward. The São Roque Group is composed of metasediments and metavolcanics in greenschist-facies. Its deformation indicates a transpressional regime associated with tectonic escape. Sub-alkaline granites were emplaced in shallow levels during this regime. Microstructural studies along the Itu, Moreiras and Taxaquara Shear Zones demonstrate the coexistence of horizontal and vertical displacement components during the transpressional regime. The vertical component is regarded as responsible for the lateral juxtaposition of different crustal levels.

  11. Consumo de leite de vaca e anemia na infância no Município de São Paulo Cow's milk consumption and childhood anemia in the city of São Paulo, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bertazzi Levy-Costa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência de consumo de leite de vaca sobre o risco de anemia em menores de cinco anos. MÉTODOS: Estudou-se amostra domiciliar de menores de cinco anos do Município de São Paulo (n=584 em 1995 e 1996. O diagnóstico de anemia (hemoglobina OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the consumption of cow's milk on the risk of anemia during childhood in the city of São Paulo. METHODS: We have studied a probabilistic sample (n=584 of underfive children living in the city of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil, between 1995 and 1996. Anemia (hemoglobin <11g/dl was diagnosed using capillary blood obtained by fingertip puncture. The cow's milk content and the density of heme and nonheme iron in the child's diet were obtained using 24-hour recall questionnaires. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to study the association between cow's milk content in the diet and hemoglobin concentration or risk of anemia, and included statistical control for potential confounders (age, sex, birthweight, presence of intestinal parasites, family income, and mother's schooling. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia was 45.2% and the mean contribution of milk to the total caloric content of the children's diets was 22.0%. The association between milk consumption and risk of anemia remained significant, even after considering the dilutive effect of milk consumption on the density of iron in the diet, thus indicating a possible inhibitor effect of milk on the absorption of the iron present in the other foods ingested by the child. CONCLUSIONS: The relative participation of cow's milk in the child's diet showed a significant positive association with risk of anemia in children between ages six and 60 months, regardless of the density of iron in the diet.

  12. Evaluation of the air quality benefits of the subway system in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cacilda Bastos Pereira da; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Amato-Lourenço, Luis Fernando; Rodrigues-Silva, Fernando; Miraglia, Simone Georges El Khouri

    2012-06-30

    Air pollution is a severe problem in major urban areas due to increasing numbers of vehicles, reduced road capacity and few investments in public transportation, especially in developing countries. Public transportation has a special role in avoiding congestion and consequent environmental and health impacts but is considered expensive. The objective of this paper was to analyze the benefits of the São Paulo subway in terms of the air pollution in the city through strikes events, analyzing both the health outcomes and the related economic burden. For the strike events, increases in air pollutant concentrations during the strike day was observed when compared to a similar day in terms of day of the week and meteorological conditions. Increases in mortality were also observed and the associated economic burden calculated. Despite the elevated construction and operation costs of the subway, when environment and social values are considered, cost-benefit analysis results would indicate a worthwhile investment. The consideration of these aspects is essential to sustainable transportation analyses, and in the case of the São Paulo subway, our analysis clearly demonstrated the important role of this system in the city's environmental, social and economic attributes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Nutritional status of Guarani indigenous children in the States of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Carla Tatiana Garcia; Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Coimbra, Carlos E A

    2014-03-01

    This article reports the results of a nutritional survey among Guarani indigenous children < 5 years of age in the States of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, Brazil. Prevalence rates for malnutrition according to various anthropometric indices were 50.4% (low stature-for-age), 7.9% (low weight-for-age), and 0.8% (low weight-for-stature). Prevalence of stunting in Guarani children was 96% higher than for indigenous children in Brazil as a whole (25.7%) and 7.2 times that in children from the general population (7%). Prevalence of anemia was 65.2%, 3.1 times higher than in non-indigenous children (20.9%). The study highlights the high prevalence of chronic undernutrition and anemia in Guarani children and calls attention to serious inequalities in health and nutrition that affect indigenous children in Brazil.

  14. Unified costs for the rural electrification in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil; Custos unificados para a eletrificacao rural em Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Selles; Kurahassi, Luiz Fernando; Pazzini, Luiz Henrique Alves; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro; Pelegrini, Marcelo Aparecido [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: kurahass@pea.usp.br

    2000-07-01

    The Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Economico e Social - BNDES, a Brazilian bank for the economic and social development - worried about the high connections costs practiced by the energy utilities, made some demands to the Sao Paulo State Government, Brazil to become the agent backer of the rural electrification 'Luz da Terra' program. Two of them was the elaboration and adoption of an unified technical norm privileging the adoption of simplified systems of electric energy distribution and an only system of costs establishment compatible with the goals of low medium connection costs for the state. A model of costs establishment was elaborated through the medium prices of market materials and labor activities whose values were more significant in the final composition of the projects. The model was accepted by the utilities participants of the program as a pattern to establish a reference cost for each project to be executed. The advantage of an unified system is that it allows to each project of grid extension to have its costs of materials and labor activities estimated in the same base, independent of the company involved. In spite of not having been adopted by all the utilities ones, the adoption of an unified system and the establishment of reference costs was essential for the control of rural distribution grids prices in the Sao Paulo State. (author)

  15. Observações sobre os mosquitos Culex da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Observations on Culex mosquitoes of S. Paulo City, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados obtidos na coleta de mosquitos do gênero Culex na área urbana da cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram empregadas armadilhas luminosas automáticas tipo "New Jersey 50". Os resultados revelaram a presença de outras populações representadas principalmente por Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus e C. bidens as quais, em conjunto, chegaram algumas vezes a sobrepujar a de Culex pipiens fatigans. O maior rendimento foi obtido em áreas com abastecimento de água mas sem rede de esgotos. As coletas intradomiciliares revelaram franca predominância de C. pipiens fatigans.With the use of New Jersey-50 light traps, a survey of Culex mosquitoes was made in the urban área of São Paulo City, Brazil. Beside Culex pipiens fatigans several other species were found, mainly represented by Culex chidesteri, C. dolosus and C. bidens. The combined incidence of these three populations follows nearly the fatigans one and frequently exceeding it. The most high levels of density were found at areas with water treatment but without sewage disposal. Domiciliary collections showed great Culex pipiens fatigans predominancy.

  16. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton

    2006-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  17. HIV-1 subtypes among intravenous drug users from two neighboring cities in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    M.A.A. Rossini

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in two neighboring cities located near the epicenter of the HIV-1 epidemics in Brazil (Santos and São Paulo, we investigated 83 HIV-1 strains obtained from samples collected in 1995 from intravenous drug users. The V3 through V5 region of the envelope of gp 120 was analyzed by heteroduplex mobility analysis. Of the 95 samples, 12 (12.6% were PCR negative (6 samples from each group; low DNA concentration was the reason for non-amplification in half of these cases. Of the 42 typed cases from São Paulo, 34 (81%, 95% confidence limits 74.9 to 87.0% were B and 8 (19%, 95% confidence limits 12.9 to 25.0% were F, whereas of the 41 typed cases from Santos, 39 (95%, 95% confidence limits 91.6 to 98.4% were B and 2 (5%, 95% confidence limits 1.6 to 8.4% were C. We therefore confirm the relationship between clade F and intravenous drug use in São Paulo, and the presence of clade C in Santos. The fact that different genetic subtypes of HIV-1 are co-circulating indicates a need for continuous surveillance for these subtypes as well as for recombinant viruses in Brazil.

  18. Occurrence of plastic particles in procellariiforms, south of São Paulo state (Brazil

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    Edison Barbieri

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Seabirds ingest plastic particles floating on the surface of the world's oceans. The birds can ingest plastic particles that they mistakenly identify as prey items. Alternatively, plastics can be taken up in the stomach contents of prey species. Plastic is often passed from parents to chicks in regurgitated food. In this study, individual petrels and albatrosses brought in by the tide onto Ilha Comprida beach between January 2000 and December 2002 were collected. Ilha Comprida, a barrier island in southern São Paulo, Brazil, was traversed by car along a transect of 70 kilometers. A total of 110 birds of 10 species were collected and 64.54% had plastic particles in their stomach. Frequencies of occurrence were Macronectes giganteus (64.28%, Thalassarche melanophrys (73.07%, Thalassarche chlororhinchos (44.44%, Puffinus puffinus (85.71%, Puffinus gravis (7.41%, Puffinus griseus (63.63%, Fumarus glacialoides (33.33%, Daption capensis (75%, Pachyptila belcheri (33.33%, Procellaria aequinoctialis (25%. These results demonstrated the extent of contamination with plastic and the possible harmful effects on seabirds.As aves marinhas ingerem partículas plásticas que ficam flutuando na superfície dos oceanos. Estes animais podem ingerir as partículas plásticas confundindo com as presas. Alternativamente os plásticos podem vir de presas, as quais os contêm em seus estômagos. Os plásticos podem ainda, serem passados dos pais para os ninhegos, quando regurgitam o alimento. Neste trabalho foram coletados indivíduos de petréis e albatrozes ao longo da praia da Ilha Comprida entre janeiro de 2000 a dezembro de 2002. Para tanto a Ilha Comprida, uma ilha de barreira situada no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, foi percorrida de carro ao longo de um transecção de 70 quilômetros.Foram coletados 110 indivíduos de aves de 10 espécies, das quais 64.54% continham partículas plásticas em seus estômagos. As Freqüências de ocorrências foram

  19. Traffic-related air quality trends in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martínez, Pedro José; de Fátima Andrade, María.; de Miranda, Regina Maura

    2015-06-01

    The urban population of South America has grown at 1.05%/yr, greater urbanization increasing problems related to air pollution. In most large cities in South America, there has been no continuous long-term measurement of regulated pollutants. One exception is São Paulo, Brazil, where an air quality monitoring network has been in place since the 1970s. In this paper, we used an air quality-based approach to determine pollutant trends for emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), ozone (O3), and coarse particulate matter (PM10), mostly from mobile sources, in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo for the 2000-2013 period. Mobile sources included light-duty vehicles (LDVs, comprising gasoline- or ethanol-powered cars and motorcycles) and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs, comprising diesel-powered trucks and buses). Pollutant concentrations for mobile source emissions were measured and correlated with fuel sales by the emission factors. Over the 2000-2013 period, concentrations of NOx, CO, and PM10 decreased by 0.65, 0.37, and 0.71% month-1, respectively, whereas sales of gasoline, ethanol, and diesel increased by 0.26, 1.96, and 0.38% month-1, respectively. LDVs were the major mobile source of CO, whereas LDVs were the major source of NOx and PM10. Increases in fuel sales and in the corresponding traffic volume were partially offset by decreases in pollutant concentrations. Between 2000 and 2013, there was a sharp (-5 ppb month-1) decrease in the concentrations of LDV-emitted CO, together with (less dramatic) decreases in the concentrations of HDV-emitted NOx and PM10 (-0.25 and -0.09 ppb month-1, respectively). Variability was greater for HDV-emitted NOx and PM10 (R = -0.47 and -0.41, respectively) than for LDV-emitted CO (R = -0.72). We draw the following conclusions: the observed concentrations of LDV-emitted CO decreased at a sharper rate than did those of HDV-emitted NOx and PM10; mobile source contributions to O3 formation varied significantly, LDVs

  20. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Guarapiranga reservoir, Alto Tiete Basin, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Guilherme Moura

    2011-01-01

    The Guarapiranga Reservoir, located in Sao Paulo metropolitan region, Brazil, is responsible for supplying about 20% of the entire population's water needs of this region or approximately 3.7 million people. However, this system has shown significant degradation in water quality, due to untreated domestic sewage and industrial effluents. In this study sediment samples were collected at five points along the reservoir and total concentration of some major (Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Hg, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Tb, Th, U, V and Zn) and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sm, Tb and Yb) elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). By inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) the concentrations of Al, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Ti, V e Zn were determined after digestion procedure following US EPA 3051 methodology. The concentrations of metals Cd and Pb were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and total Hg by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Methodology validation according to precision and accuracy was performed by reference materials analyses for the three different analytical techniques used. Multielemental results obtained by INAA were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite), Upper Continental Crust (UCC) and soil from Guarapiranga park values. The Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geo accumulation Index (Igeo) were also evaluated for these data. Metal concentration results by ICP OES and AAS in the samples were compared to the TEL and PEL oriented values established by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment and also adopted by CETESB (Environmental Protection Agency of the Sao Paulo State). The results were also compared to regional reference values (VRR) of limnic sediments from the Alto Tiete Basin. From these data an assessment of metal and trace element accumulated in the sediments from the

  1. Indoor Particulate Matter in Houses of Elderly in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalin, B.; Goncalves, F. T.; Fornaro, A.

    2015-12-01

    Environmental Company of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), Brazil, is responsible for particulate matter measurements (PM) in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP). However, there are few works with indoor measures for MASP. Therefore, the aim of this work is to investigate the PM in households in the MASP. The chosen households were there are aged people over 60 years old. The measurements were sampled during 24 hours using a Personal Cascade Impactor (SKC Cat No. 225-370), which the following aerodynamic diameters: 10.0 - 2.5 (A); 1.0 - 2.5 (B); 0.50 - 1.0 (C); 0.25 - 0.50 (D), and < 0.25 μm (E). Together the impactor, there is a Leland Legacy pump (SKC Cat No. 100-3002) with a flow of 9L/min. It was analyzed 56 households with average values of PM10 and PM2.5 of 30.7 and 23.4 μg/m3, respectively. On average, 76% of PM10 consists of PM2.5, percentage higher than the outdoor environment (60% - CETESB), and 43% of the PM2.5 consists of PM smaller than 0.25 μm. Among all households, there was no exceedance of thresholds national standards PM10 (120 μg/m3) and PM2.5 (60 μg/m3). However, 10.7% of residences exceeded the PM10 threshold of the World Health Organization (50 μg/m3) and 39.2% for PM2.5 (20 μg/m3). The cluster analysis grouped the measures in the houses in four profiles. In three of them were greater amount of mass in ultrafine particles (E), followed by coarse particles (A) with the minimum in C level. The maximum in E may be due to the high contribution vehicular and secondary aerosol outdoor environment. The secondary maximum in A may be due to particles ressuspension and also arising from outdoors. These three groups differ only by the amount of PM measured in the households; they represent high, medium and low PM concentrations. The fourth group has average concentrations, but it presents a different profile because its maximum is in the D rather than E. All data will be analyzed concerning the possible sources.

  2. Increasing trends of sleep complaints in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo; Pires, Maria Laura Nogueira; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Taddei, Jose Augusto; Benedito-Silva, Ana Amelia; Pompeia, Celine; Tufik, Sergio

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of sleep habits and complaints and to estimate the secular trends through three population-based surveys carried out in 1987, 1995, and 2007 in the general adult population of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Surveys were performed using the same three-stage cluster-sampling technique in three consecutive decades to obtain representative samples of the inhabitants of Sao Paulo with respect to gender, age (20-80 years), and socio-economic status. Sample sizes were 1000 volunteers in 1987 and 1995 surveys and 1101 in a 2007 survey. In each survey, the UNIFESP Sleep Questionnaire was administered face-to-face in each household selected. For 1987, 1995, and 2007, respectively, difficulty initiating sleep (weighted frequency %; 95% CI) [(13.9; 11.9-16.2), (19.15; 16.8-21.6), and (25.0; 22.5-27.8)], difficulty maintaining sleep [(15.8; 13.7-18.2), (27.6; 24.9-30.4), and (36.5; 33.5-39.5)], and early morning awakening [(10.6; 8.8-12.7), (14.2; 12.2-16.5), and (26.7; 24-29.6)] increased in the general population over time, mostly in women. Habitual snoring was the most commonly reported complaint across decades and was more prevalent in men. There was no statistically significant difference in snoring complaints between 1987 (21.5; 19.1-24.2) and 1995 (19.0; 16.7-21.6), but a significant increase was noted in 2007 (41.7; 38.6-44.8). Nightmares, bruxism, leg cramps, and somnambulism complaints were significantly higher in 2007 compared to 1987 and 1995. All were more frequent in women. This is the first study comparing sleep complaints in probabilistic population-based samples from the same metropolitan area, using the same methodology across three consecutive decades. Clear trends of increasing sleep complaints were observed, which increased faster between 1995 and 2007 than from 1987 to 1995. These secular trends should be considered a relevant public health issue and support the need for development of health care and

  3. Relationship between Black Carbon and heavy traffic in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R. M.; Perez-Martinez, P.; Ribeiro, F. N. D.; Andrade, M. D. F.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols play an important role in air quality, human health and global climate change. Black Carbon (BC) can be considered the most efficient light absorber in the visible spectrum and is mainly found in the fine fraction of aerosol. Typically is emitted by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels related to traffic, industrial processes and biomass burning. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) with more than 19 million inhabitants, 7 million vehicles, as well as the major industrial and technological park of the country, has high concentrations of air pollutants, especially in the winter and vehicles are considered the principal source of particles emitted to the atmosphere. Since November 2014, Black Carbon and PM2.5 are being monitored using a MAAP (Multi Angle Absorption Photometer) Thermo 5012 and a Dust Trak DRX-8533 TSI in the East Campus of University of São Paulo, close to important highways and also to the largest airport of Brazil (Guarulhos Airport). Average BC concentration was 1.7 μg/m3 with some peaks above 17.0 μg/m3 and for PM2.5 average was 10.2 μg/m3. Particle concentrations reached values greater than the air quality standard (60 μg/m3) in the winter months. Winds coming from the East direction predominate. Traffic restrictions to heavy duty vehicles in the road-rings next to the sampling site during some hours of the day are the responsible for the daily BC and PM2.5 behavior (figure below), where high concentrations occur early in the morning and late at night, when heavy diesel vehicles are released for transit. Seasonal variations are different for BC and PM2.5 due to local sources of BC and meteorological conditions that have more influence on the particles. The weekly variation indicates that concentrations are lower on Sundays and higher from Tuesday to Thursday. Emission factors for BC were calculated based on traffic information.

  4. Correlates of substance use during adolescent pregnancy in São Paulo, Brazil Correlatos do uso de substâncias durante a gravidez na adolescência em São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Bessa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of cocaine and marijuana use during adolescent pregnancy in São Paulo-SP, Brazil, with psychiatric disorders, social status and sexual history. METHOD: One thousand pregnant adolescents were assessed by using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and sociodemographic and socio-economic questionnaire at the obstetric center of a public hospital in São Paulo. Hair samples were collected for analysis. RESULTS: The following data were associated with cocaine and/or marijuana use during the third trimester of the pregnancy: being younger than 14 years of age, having a history of more than 3 sexual partners, and having psychiatric disorders, specifically, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and somatoform disorder. CONCLUSION: In early adolescence pregnancy, having 3 or more sexual partners in life for this population is significantly associated with the use of cocaine or marijuana during gestation. This association suggests that specific intervention programs should target these young women.OBJETIVO: Investigar, numa população de gestantes adolescentes de uma maternidade pública de São Paulo-SP, Brasil, a associação entre o consumo de cocaína e maconha durante a gravidez com distúrbios psiquiátricos, status social e história sexual. MÉTODO: Mil adolescentes grávidas foram avaliadas por meio do Composite International Diagnostic Interview e de um questionário sociodemográfico e socioeconômico no centro obstétrico de um hospital público de São Paulo. Destas, foi colhida amostra para análise de fios de cabelo. RESULTADOS: Os seguintes dados foram associados com o uso de cocaína e/ou maconha durante o terceiro trimestre de gravidez: ter menos de 14 anos, ter história de mais do que três parceiros sexuais e ter transtornos psiquiátricos, em especial, transtorno afetivo bipolar, transtorno do estresse pós-traumático e transtorno somatoforme. CONCLUSÃO: Na popula

  5. Cross-sectional study on the weight and length of infants in the interior of the State of São Paulo, Brazil: associations with sociodemographic variables and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Laura Delbue Bernardi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Increasing obesity is starting to occur among Brazilians. The aim of this study was to investigate the weight and length of children under two years of age in relation to sociodemographic variables and according to whether they were breastfed. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional randomized study conducted in 2004-2005, based on the declaration of live births (SINASC in Campinas, Brazil. METHODS: 2,857 mothers of newborns were interviewed and answered a questionnaire seeking socioeconomic and breastfeeding information. The newborns' weights and lengths were measured at the end of the interviews and the body mass index was calculated. Percentiles ( 85 and Z-scores ( +1 were used for classification based on the new growth charts recommended by WHO (2006. The log-rank test, multiple linear regression and binomial test (Z were used. The statistical significance level used was 5%. RESULTS: The predominant social level was class C. The median for exclusive breastfeeding was 90 days; 61.25% of the children were between P15 and P85 for body mass index and 61.12% for length, respectively. Children whose mothers studied for nine to eleven years and children whose mothers were unemployed presented lower weight. Children whose mothers worked in health-related professions presented lower length when correlated with breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: The breastfeeding, maternal schooling and maternal occupation levels had an influence on nutrition status and indicated that obesity is occurring in early childhood among the infants living in the municipality.

  6. Cross-sectional study on the weight and length of infants in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil: associations with sociodemographic variables and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Julia Laura Delbue; Jordão, Regina Esteves; Barros Filho, Antônio de Azevedo

    2009-07-01

    Increasing obesity is starting to occur among Brazilians. The aim of this study was to investigate the weight and length of children under two years of age in relation to sociodemographic variables and according to whether they were breastfed. Cross-sectional randomized study conducted in 2004-2005, based on the declaration of live births (SINASC) in Campinas, Brazil. 2,857 mothers of newborns were interviewed and answered a questionnaire seeking socioeconomic and breastfeeding information. The newborns' weights and lengths were measured at the end of the interviews and the body mass index was calculated. Percentiles ( 85) and Z-scores ( +1) were used for classification based on the new growth charts recommended by WHO (2006). The log-rank test, multiple linear regression and binomial test (Z) were used. The statistical significance level used was 5%. The predominant social level was class C. The median for exclusive breastfeeding was 90 days; 61.25% of the children were between P15 and P85 for body mass index and 61.12% for length, respectively. Children whose mothers studied for nine to eleven years and children whose mothers were unemployed presented lower weight. Children whose mothers worked in health-related professions presented lower length when correlated with breastfeeding. The breastfeeding, maternal schooling and maternal occupation levels had an influence on nutrition status and indicated that obesity is occurring in early childhood among the infants living in the municipality.

  7. Fungal diversity in deep-sea sediments associated with asphalt seeps at the Sao Paulo Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Yuriko; Miura, Toshiko; Nishi, Shinro; Lima, Andre O.; Nakayama, Cristina; Pellizari, Vivian H.; Fujikura, Katsunori

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the fungal diversity in a total of 20 deep-sea sediment samples (of which 14 samples were associated with natural asphalt seeps and 6 samples were not associated) collected from two different sites at the Sao Paulo Plateau off Brazil by Ion Torrent PGM targeting ITS region of ribosomal RNA. Our results suggest that diverse fungi (113 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on clustering at 97% sequence similarity assigned into 9 classes and 31 genus) are present in deep-sea sediment samples collected at the Sao Paulo Plateau, dominated by Ascomycota (74.3%), followed by Basidiomycota (11.5%), unidentified fungi (7.1%), and sequences with no affiliation to any organisms in the public database (7.1%). However, it was revealed that only three species, namely Penicillium sp., Cadophora malorum and Rhodosporidium diobovatum, were dominant, with the majority of OTUs remaining a minor community. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in major fungal community structure between the asphalt seep and non-asphalt seep sites, despite the presence of mass hydrocarbon deposits and the high amount of macro organisms surrounding the asphalt seeps. However, there were some differences in the minor fungal communities, with possible asphalt degrading fungi present specifically in the asphalt seep sites. In contrast, some differences were found between the two different sampling sites. Classification of OTUs revealed that only 47 (41.6%) fungal OTUs exhibited >97% sequence similarity, in comparison with pre-existing ITS sequences in public databases, indicating that a majority of deep-sea inhabiting fungal taxa still remain undescribed. Although our knowledge on fungi and their role in deep-sea environments is still limited and scarce, this study increases our understanding of fungal diversity and community structure in deep-sea environments.

  8. Natural radionuclides and 137Cs in commercialized edible mushrooms in Sao Paulo-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Lilian Pavanelli de

    2008-01-01

    Artificial and natural radionuclides are commonly found in several compartments of the earth's crust. Some mushroom species have a high capacity to absorb radionuclides and toxic elements from the soil. Diet is considered as one of the main routes of radioactive contamination. Therefore, radioactivity measurements in the environment and in food are extremely important to monitor the radiation levels that human can be exposed to either directly or indirectly. Environmental bio monitoring has demonstrated that diverse organisms such as crustaceans, fish and mushrooms are useful when evaluating both the contamination and the quality of the ecosystems. There are actually several radionuclides that can be accumulated in mushrooms, including 40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 238 U. There are few studies in the Southern hemisphere countries, on the natural and artificial radioactivity levels in mushrooms. The present study evaluated 40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 238 U in commercialized edible mushrooms in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The edible mushroom samples were acquired in different commercial establishments in the Sao Paulo metropolitan region, specifically in Municipal Markets. Some samples were acquired directly from producers located in the cities of Mogi das Cruzes, Mirandopolis, Suzano and Juquitiba. About 400g were collected for each edible mushroom species, which included Agaricus sp, Pleurotus sp and Lentinula sp species. All the samples were prepared and stored in polyethylene bottles for approximately 35 days, so that secular equilibrium could be established before counting. The 40 K, 137 Cs, 232 Th and 238 U gamma activities were measured by gamma spectrometry. The equipment consisted of a Hyper pure Germanium detector connected to an electronic system. The detector efficiency was obtained from measurements of reference materials: IAEA-300, IAEA-327 and IAEA-375. The results for the specific activities in edible mushrooms samples ranged fi-om 461 to 1535 Bq kg -1

  9. Impact of climate changes on the Santos Harbor, São Paulo State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Alfredini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Santos Harbor Area (SHA in Sao Paulo Coastline (Brazil is the most important marine cargo transfer terminal in the Southern Hemisphere. A long term relative tidal level variability assessment shows a consistent response to relative sea level rise. A wave data base Wave Watch III was compared with a long term wave data-base generated by the ERA40-ECMWF (2003, both local validated. The current bed level of SHA Outer Channel is -15.00 m (Chart Datum or, in abbreviation, CD, maintained by dredging. According to the cargo throughput forecast, in 2025, the Access Channel will have to be deepened to level of -17.00 m. The feasibility of that choice is discussed from a technical, economical and conceptual navigation point of view in that context. A data set found from a scale model of the whole area of Santos Bay, Estuary and nearby beaches, showed the impact of maritime climate changes upon the coastal area. In the previous researches developed by the authors, it was demonstrated that the wave climate, the tides and tidal currents affect harbor and coastal structures maintenance, beaches stability, tidal inlet, sediment transport, saline intrusion and wetlands. Considering the increasing of the sea hazards and the high values of the infrastructures in that coastline, it is necessary to mitigate the risks. Hence, based on the results obtained by the authors, are highlighted guidelines strategies suggested for Access Channels dimensions, wharves free-board, jetties dimensions, dredging rates, rigid and flexible littoral defenses and land protection against flooding (including wetlands.

  10. Gamma ionization of Phagicola longa (Trematoda:Heterophyidae) in Mugilidae (pisces) in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antunes, S.A.; Wiendl, F.M.; Almeida Dias, E.R.; Arthur, V.; Daniotti, C. (Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil))

    The mullet (Mugilidae) is a fish caught in large quantities in brackish and marine waters of the southern Brazilian coast, which in consequence of its raw consumption as ''sashimi'', a typical Japanese dish, has led to ten cases of human infection by Phagicola longa in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The mullet acts as a second intermediate host for the parasite, as in human heterophyiasis in the Near and Far East. In order to control these infections under commercial storage conditions and in raw consumption, the radiolysis of P. longa was studied in three mullet species - the silver mullet (Mugil curema), the grey mullet (M. platanus) and the ''paratipema'' (Mugil sp.) -subjected to ionization ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 kGy (2.21 kGy/h). It was observed that 1.0 and 2.0 kGy caused a motility decrease in silver mullet parasites from 100% to 15% and 17%, and that doses of 4.0 and 10.0 kGy caused metacercaria inviability. The parasite motility decreased in the grey mullet treated with doses of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 kGy, from 56% to 31%, 9%, 18% and 5%, respectively, 4.0 kGy tending to be the control dose for P. Longa. This dose also controls other metacercaria found in the ''parati-pema'', without changing the odor, color or appearance of the treated mullet. (author).

  11. Assessment of land use in protected areas of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iori, P.; da Silva, R. B.; Dias Junior, M. S.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    It is of universal knowledge that the soil, a basic natural resource, is renewable only if conserved or used correctly(Primavesi, 2002). It is salient for Araújo et al. (2007) that the establishment of index of soil quality is an important tool in the functions of control, supervision and monitoring of areas for environmental protection. The objective of this study was to compare the quality of the soil by means of a comparative diagram in different soil uses in permanent preservation areas (APP). The study was conducted in areas near the Ribeira de Iguape river in the city of Registro - São Paulo - Brazil, belonging to the Atlantic Forest domain, a Haplic Cambisol. The following uses of the soil had been evaluated: a) banana culture (CBAN) without agricultural traffic of machines; b) degraded pasture (PDEG) with extensive system predominantly Brachiaria decumbens L. c) use silvopastoral (MPIs), consisted in a kills with a traffic free for the animals, and d) native vegetation (MNAT), proposed in this study as a reference area.The following physical indicators were analyzed: bulk density (BD), total soil porosity (TP), macroporosity (Ma), microporosity (Mi), water dispersible clay (ADA), flocculation index (FI), preconsolidation pressure (PP), soil shear strength (SS), soil resistance to penetration (RP). To construct the comparative diagram the values for each attribute of the soil in each land use were related to the values of the native forest. It was feasible to use the comparative model in the qualitative evaluation of soil use, allowing separate environments under different uses. According to the comparative diagram of banana culture is the use that most negatively impacts the physical and mechanical soil due to the smaller size of the lower polygon.

  12. Variability of apparently homogeneous soilscapes in São Paulo state, Brazil: I. spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. van Den Berg

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatial variability of strongly weathered soils under sugarcane and soybean/wheat rotation was quantitatively assessed on 33 fields in two regions in São Paulo State, Brazil: Araras (15 fields with sugarcane and Assis (11 fields with sugarcane and seven fields with soybean/wheat rotation. Statistical methods used were: nested analysis of variance (for 11 fields, semivariance analysis and analysis of variance within and between fields. Spatial levels from 50 m to several km were analyzed. Results are discussed with reference to a previously published study carried out in the surroundings of Passo Fundo (RS. Similar variability patterns were found for clay content, organic C content and cation exchange capacity. The fields studied are quite homogeneous with respect to these relatively stable soil characteristics. Spatial variability of other characteristics (resin extractable P, pH, base- and Al-saturation and also soil colour, varies with region and, or land use management. Soil management for sugarcane seems to have induced modifications to greater depths than for soybean/wheat rotation. Surface layers of soils under soybean/wheat present relatively little variation, apparently as a result of very intensive soil management. The major part of within-field variation occurs at short distances (< 50 m in all study areas. Hence, little extra information would be gained by increasing sampling density from, say, 1/km² to 1/50 m². For many purposes, the soils in the study regions can be mapped with the same observation density, but residual variance will not be the same in all areas. Bulk sampling may help to reveal spatial patterns between 50 and 1.000 m.

  13. Prevalence of mental disorders among prisoners in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Sergio Baxter Andreoli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in the prison population in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Through stratified random sampling, 1.192 men and 617 women prisoners were evaluated for the presence of psychiatric disorders by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, 2.1 version, according to definitions and criteria of International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10. The prevalence estimates of mental disorders and their respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated and adjusted for sample design through complex sample analysis. RESULTS: Lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates differed between genders. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of any mental disorder was, respectively, 68.9% and 39.2% among women, and 56.1% and 22.1% among men. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of anxious-phobic disorders was, respectively, 50% and 27.7% among women and 35.3% and 13.6% among men, of affective disorders was 40% and 21% among women and 20.8% and 9.9% among men, and of drug-related disorders was 25.2% and 1.6% among women and 26.5% and 1.3% among men. For severe mental disorders (psychotic, bipolar disorders, and severe depression, the lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates were, respectively, 25.8% and 14.7% among women, and 12.3% and 6.3% among men. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first large-scale epidemiological study performed with the prison population in Brazil, revealed high rates of psychiatric disorders among men and women. Many similarities, as well as some differences, were found between our results and those of studies conducted in other countries. The differences observed are more likely due to the peculiarities of the prison systems in each country than to the diagnostic criteria adopted in the studies. This fact reinforces the importance of conducting such studies as part of planning and development of appropriate policies for the particular mental health needs of specific prison populations.

  14. Modern foraminiferal facies in a subtropical estuarine channel, Bertioga, São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, P.P.B.; Eichler, B.B.; De Miranda, L. B.; Rodrigues, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    Numerical analyses of modern foraminiferal abundance and environmental data from the Bertioga Channel (Sa??o Paulo, Brazil) reveal multiple biofacies within an overall paralic setting. Despite its fisheries, mariculture and attraction to tourists, the environmental state of Bertioga Channel remains poorly studied. The present investigation is an attempt to partly fill this gap; the parameters examined include depth, salinity, temperature, organic carbon, sulfur content and bottom sediment type. Muddy sediments with high organic carbon content derived from land drainage are found in the inner parts of the channel, whereas sandy sediment dominates the areas adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean. In the eastern entrance to the channel, sandy sediment contain species of Rotaliida from Facies 1 (including Elphidium discoidale, Elphidium poeyanum, Hanzawaia boueana, Pararotalia cananeiaensis and Nonionella atlantica), reflecting normal marine salinity. Sediments with high percentages of silt and clay in polyhaline and eurybaline environments of the eastern part and Itapanhau?? River contain Facies 2, which includes Ammonia beccarii and Pararotalia cananeiaensis. In the western entrance and central, western and eastern parts, where salinities vary from 18 to 30 psu and the sediments contain both low and high organic carbon, the foraminifera from Facies 3 are dominated by Quinqueloculina milletti, Arenoparrella mexicana, Pararotalia cananeiaensis, Ammonia beccarii, Buliminella elegantissima, Elphidium sp., Elphidium excavatum, Elphidium gunteri and Elphidium poeyanum. In mesohaline and polyhaline waters of the central part, the organic-carbon-rich silt and clay contain Facies 4, which includes Ammonia beccarii, Pararotalia cananeiaensis, Elphidium excavatum and Elphidium sp. Most of organic-carbon-enriched, silty-clay substrates that are subject to the highest fresh-water discharge and high bottom temperatures support two different assemblages: one of mostly Rotaliina and the

  15. Assessment of medical waste management at a primary health-care center in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, A.M.M., E-mail: anamariainforme@hotmail.com [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo 715, Sao Paulo 01246-904 (Brazil); Guenther, W.M.R. [Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo 715, Sao Paulo 01246-904 (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Assessment of medical waste management at health-care center before/after intervention. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Qualitative and quantitative results of medical waste management plan are presented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adjustments to comply with regulation were adopted and reduction of waste was observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method applied could be useful for similar establishments. - Abstract: According to the Brazilian law, implementation of a Medical Waste Management Plan (MWMP) in health-care units is mandatory, but as far as we know evaluation of such implementation has not taken place yet. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the improvements deriving from the implementation of a MWMP in a Primary Health-care Center (PHC) located in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The method proposed for evaluation compares the first situation prevailing at this PHC with the situation 1 year after implementation of the MWMP, thus allowing verification of the evolution of the PHC performance. For prior and post-diagnosis, the method was based on: (1) application of a tool (check list) which considered all legal requirements in force; (2) quantification of solid waste subdivided into three categories: infectious waste and sharp devices, recyclable materials and non-recyclable waste; and (3) identification of non-conformity practices. Lack of knowledge on the pertinent legislation by health workers has contributed to non-conformity instances. The legal requirements in force in Brazil today gave origin to a tool (check list) which was utilized in the management of medical waste at the health-care unit studied. This tool resulted into an adequate and simple instrument, required a low investment, allowed collecting data to feed indicators and also conquered the participation of the unit whole staff. Several non-conformities identified in the first diagnosis could be corrected by the instrument utilized

  16. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1997-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Acid rain: a case study at the Universidade de Sao Paulo campus, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Chuva acida: estudo de caso no campus USP/SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Patricia

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena called acid rain is considered, by many researchers, one of the most serious environmental problem. This work has the aim of showing, in a theoretical and practical study, the problems caused by the atmospheric-pollutant emission, through natural or anthropogenic sources. In a period of 1 year (nov/94-nov/95), it was realized a practical work on rainwater, which consisted of collecting and, afterwards, analysing some physical and chemical parameters of this water, such as acidity, ionic concentrations, etc, with the purpose of characterizing the rainwater in Cidade Universitaria (SP, Brazil). After ending the practical part, it was possible to observe a 1,236.71 mm/y pluviosity, characterized by rainy summer and dry winter. The chemical-constituent-concentration analysis show us the predominance of SO{sup 2-}{sub 4} and Ca{sup 2+}, and a continental-origin water). The region of sao Paulo (Brazil), site of this study, is one of the largest metropolitan and industrialized areas of the world, which includes 18 million people, beside to an enormous industrial and vehicular complex. The acidity in the rain water is a complex problem and it must be treated by a range of disciplines to have a better comprehension of the cause/effects of the acid rain. (author) 96 refs., 28 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Prevalence and sociodemographic characteristics of women with induced abortion in a population sample of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Goulart Souza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims at estimating the prevalence of women with induced abortion among women of childbearing age (15-49 years who had any previous pregnancy, in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in the last quarter of 2008, and identifying the sociodemographic characteristics (SC associated with it. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out. The dependent variable was dichotomized as: no abortion and induced abortion. The independent variables were: age, paid work/activity, familial monthly income, schooling, marital status, contraceptive use and number of live births. Statistical analysis was performed using log-binomial regression models with approximation of Poisson to estimate the prevalance ratios (PR. Results: Of all women with any previous pregnancy (n = 683, 4.5% (n = 31 reported induced abortion. The final multivariate model showed that having now between 40 and 44 years (PR = 2.76, p = 0.0043, being single (PR = 2.79, p = 0.0159, having 5 or more live births (PR = 3.97, p = 0.0013, current oral contraception or IUD use (PR = 2.70, p = 0.454 and using a "non effective" (or of low efficacy contraceptive method (PR = 4.18, p = 0.0009 were sociodemographic characteristics associated with induced abortion in this population. Conclusions: Induced abortion seems to be used to limit fertility, more precisely after having reached the desired number of children. The inadequate use or non-use of effective contraceptive methods, and / or the use of contraceptives " non effective", exposed also the women to the risk of unintended pregnancies and, therefore, induced abortions. In addition, when faced with a pregnancy, single women were more likely to have an abortion than married women.

  19. Study of operational conditions in medical radiodiagnostic services - ionizing radiation surveillance program in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldred, Marta Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula; Carvalho, Marisa Lima

    1996-01-01

    A radiation surveillance program was created in Sao Paulo State (Brazil) in 1994 to identify the risks in health care services. A total number of 259 centres were visited and 411 radiodiagnostic rooms were inspected. During the survey an 'inspection form' of 32 items was filled in. Analysis of the answers classified 24% of services as high risk, 22% of rooms showed irregular installations, 25% of X-ray equipment presented problems and 22% of personnel used inadequate procedures. Additional and regular surveys were programmed for the services considered of high risk in order to reduce it

  20. Evolution of the Cubatão urban mangrove in São Paulo State (Brazil) over space and time

    OpenAIRE

    Flandroy, J.; Cunha-Lignon, M.; Dahdouh-Guebas, F.

    2009-01-01

    With 120,000 inhabitants and an area of 140km2 Cubatão (São Paulo State, Brazil) qualifies as an urban area. The mangrove of this coastal area occupies 136,538m2 but only 40% is in good condition. Many anthropogenic activities cause pollution, but despite these environmental impacts, the region is important for its biodiversity. The aim of this research is to study the evolution of the urban mangrove forest in Cubatão between 1962 and 2008.Imagery of 1962, 1994 and 2008 was used to detect the...

  1. Evaluation of serum trace element, biochemical and hematological data of a healthy elderly group residing in Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Sumita, N.M.; Jaluul, O.; Jacob-Filho, W.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, blood serum trace elements, biochemical and hematological parameters were obtained to assess the health status of an elderly population residing in Sao Paulo city, SP, Brazil. Results obtained showed that more than 93% of the studied individuals presented most of the serum trace element concentrations and of the hematological and biochemical data within the reference values used in clinical laboratories. However, the percentage of elderly presenting recommended low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations was low (70%). The study indicated positive correlation between the concentrations of Zn and LDL-cholesterol (p<0.06). (author)

  2. Human toxocariasis: incidence among residents in the outskirts of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaruma Filho Francisco

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of estimating the incidence of infection by Toxocara among residents in the outskirts of Campinas (State of São Paulo, Brazil two serological surveys, using ELISA anti-Toxocara tests, were performed in January 1999 and January 2000, involving, respectively, 138 and 115 individuals, 75 of which examined in both occasions. Among this group 67 individuals did not show the presence of anti-Toxocara antibodies in 1999, and 12 presented seroconversion in the second survey, revealing an annual incidence rate of 17.9%.

  3. Fish, Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira river basins, São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gomiero, Leandro; Braga, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    Fish were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira) subjected to strong human pressure, in the interior of the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça river, Lapa stream, Passa-Cinco river, and Corumbataí river; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá stream, Jacaré-Pepira river, and Água Branca stream. A total of 4,050 specimens belonging to 48 species and 13 families were caught and analyzed....

  4. Fish, Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira river basins, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga, F. M. S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish were studied in two river basins (Corumbataí and Jacaré-Pepira subjected to strong human pressure, in the interior of the State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In the Corumbataí basin, four sites were sampled: Cabeça river, Lapa stream, Passa-Cinco river, and Corumbataí river; in the Jacaré-Pepira basin, three sites were sampled: Tamanduá stream, Jacaré-Pepira river, and Água Branca stream. A total of 4,050 specimens belonging to 48 species and 13 families were caught and analyzed.

  5. Type specimens of Hymenoptera deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (excluding Aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena C. Onody

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper lists the type specimens of Hymenoptera, excluding Aculeata, deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. We record all labels contents and also additional information from MZSP registers, published material, and other available sources. High resolution photographs of holotypes, lectotypes and syntypes are available through links to Specimage - the image database of The Ohio State University, where they are archived. The collection comprises a total of 332 type-specimens (32 holotypes, 266 paratypes, 12 syntypes, 20 paralectotypes and two lectotypes of eight superfamilies, 18 families, 31 subfamilies, 43 genera and 83 species.

  6. Fish, Ribeirão do Feijão Basin, São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Souza, A. T.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ribeirão do Feijão Basin is the main water supplier for the municipality of São Carlos, in the state of SãoPaulo, Brazil. Field work was carried out from February to November 2005, using sieves, casting nets, and drag nets. Atotal of 7,286 specimens of fish were collected, belonging to 30 species, 13 families and six orders. The richest orderwas Characiformes with 14 species, followed by Siluriformes with seven.

  7. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, A M G; Nogueira, C A; Saiki, M; Milian, F M; Domingos, M

    2007-01-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad plant able to absorb water and nutrients directly from the air. For this reason this species was selected to carry out a monitoring study of air pollution in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. Five consecutive transplantation experiments (8 weeks each) were performed in 10 sites of the city, submitted to different sources of air pollution (industrial, vehicular), using plants collected from an unpolluted area. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Traffic-related elements such as Zn and Ba presented high concentrations in exposure sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and may be associated to vehicular sources. For Zn and Co the highest contents were related to industrial zones and can be associated to the presence of anthropogenic emission sources. The rare earth elements, Fe and Rb, probably have soil particles as main source.

  8. Parasitic arthropods of some wild rodents from Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossi David Eduardo Paolinetti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the associations between three species of rodents in the Atlantic forest and their parasitic arthropods was undertaken at the Juréia-Itatins Ecological Station, located in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from March 1989 to February 1990. Individuals of three species, Oryzomys russatus, Proechimys iheringi and Nectomys squamipes were captured and examined for ectoparasites. Eleven species of parasitic arthropods were found, including four species of insects and seven of Acari. Parasitism intensity, phenology, and rainfall were positively correlated with the abundance of the ectoparasites and their hosts. The most abundant host was O. russatus (Muridae: Sigmodontinae, and the most common parasite on it was the laelapid mite Gigantolaelaps oudemansi. The cuterebrid Metacuterebra apicalis caused myiasis in O. russatus. A mutualistic association between the staphylinid beetle Amblyopinus sp. and its host P. iheringi (Echimyidae was observed. The few N. squamipes captured had small numbers of ectoparasites.

  9. The Epidemiological Importance of Bats in the Transmission of Rabies to Dogs and Cats in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, Between 2005 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, J G; de Souza, D N; Oliveira, R N; Carnieli, P; Batista, H B C R; Pereira, P M C; Achkar, S M; Macedo, C I

    2017-09-01

    In Brazil, rabies control in dogs and cats was pioneered by the state of São Paulo with the adoption of the Pan American Health Organization recommendations for prophylaxis and control, which led to a reduction in rabies cases from 1994 onwards. As a result of these measures, the rabies virus (RABV) genetic lineage associated with dogs has not been found in the state since 1998, and all the cases in domestic animals reported since then have been caused by bat-associated lineages of RABV. In the light of this, this study sought to investigate rabies cases in dogs and cats in the state of São Paulo between 2005 and 2014 and identify the associated transmission cycles by characterizing the RABV lineages responsible for these cases. Nine samples from dogs (n = 5) and from cats (n = 4) were collected between 2005 and 2014. The tenth animal, a rabid cat, was analysed by a different laboratory. The N gene nucleotide sequences obtained were analysed with the neighbor-joining algorithm and Kimura 2-parameter model using the MEGA 6 program. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the genetic lineages identified in all the samples were those circulating in Brazilian bats. The findings of this study demonstrate that bats play an important role in the transmission of rabies to domestic animals in São Paulo state and that emphasis should be placed on the implementation of public policies to support surveillance of chiropterans for rabies. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. A characterization of ecosystem services, drivers and values of two watersheds in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Periotto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The evaluation of ecosystem services is a tool to raise awareness about benefits of ecosystem functions for human well-being. In Brazil, few studies and reports assess ecosystem services in a watershed context. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap by assessing ecosystem services of Jacaré-Guaçu and Jacaré-Pepira Watersheds (São Paulo State, Brazil in a temporal scale of 10 years. Land cover and uses’ capacity to provide ecosystem services and drivers were assessed as a result of mapping these areas. Economic values were estimated based on literature information. Results showed that cultivated and managed terrestrial areas stands out over other areas and then, regulation and maintenance services are reduced in these areas. Wetlands and natural vegetation, with smaller areas, are important for the supply of regulation and maintenance services of both watersheds and economic values indicate the magnitude of degradation or maintenance/restoration.

  11. Serologic survey for hantavirus infections among wild animals in rural areas of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMANO-LIEBER Nicolina Silvana

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A serosurvey was conducted in wild animals captured close to two areas where hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS occurred in São Paulo State, Brazil. Serum samples from a total of 43 mammals were tested for antibodies reactive with Sin Nombre (SN hantavirus using a strip immunoblot assay. RNAs from the blood clots of the positive samples were submitted to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Two rodents of the genus Oligoryzomys were positive for hantavirus antibodies. These animals were captured in the Iguape region and represented 16.7% (2/12 of the sera from rodents and 100.0% (2/2 of the Oligoryzomys captured in that area. RT-PCR failed to amplify any viral cDNA. These results are in agreement with other data that suggest that members of this genus are important reservoirs of hantaviruses in Brazil.

  12. Chemical Characterization of Submicron Aerosol Particles in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira De Brito, J.; Rizzo, L. V.; Godoy, J.; Godoy, M. L.; de Assunção, J. V.; Alves, N. D.; Artaxo, P.

    2013-12-01

    Megacities, large urban conglomerates with a population of 10 million or more inhabitants, are increasingly receiving attention as strong pollution hotspots with significant global impact. The emissions from such large centers in both the developed and developing parts of the world are strongly impacted by the transportation sector. The São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA), located in the Southeast of Brazil, is a megacity with a population of 18 million people and 7 million vehicles, many of which fuelled by a considerably amount of anhydrous ethanol. Such fleet is considered a unique case of large scale biofuel usage worldwide. Despite the large impact on human health and atmospheric chemistry/dynamics, many uncertainties are found in terms of gas and particulate matter emissions from vehicles and their atmospheric reactivity, e.g. secondary organic aerosol formation. In order to better understand aerosol life cycle on such environment, a suite of instruments for gas and particulate matter characterization has been deployed in two sampling sites within the SPMA, including an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM). The instrumentation was deployed at the rooftop of a 45m high building in the University of São Paulo during winter/spring 2012. The site is located roughly 6km downwind of the city center with little influence from local sources. The second site is located in a downtown area, sampling at the top floor of the Public Health Faculty, approximately 10m above ground. The instrumentation was deployed at the Downtown site during summer/fall 2013. The average non-refractory submicron aerosol concentration at the University site was 6.7 μg m-3, being organics the most abundant specie (70%), followed by NO3 (12%), NH4 (8%), SO4 (8%) and Chl (2%). At the Downtown site, average aerosol concentration was 15.1 μg m-3, with Organics composing 65% of the mass, followed by NH4 (12%), NO3 (11%), SO4 (11%) and Chl (1%). The analysis of specific fragmentation

  13. Cetacean records along São Paulo state coast, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos César de Oliveira Santos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The São Paulo state (SP coast (23º18'S, 44º42'W; 25º14'S, 48º01'W is of approximately 600 km in length, bordering the Western Atlantic Ocean, in southeastern Brazil. Cetacean sightings and strandings have long been observed throughout this area. Scattered data from scientific publications, skeletal remains in museums, photographs and articles from newspaper files, universities and aquaria have been organised and updated since 1993. Field investigations on strandings and sightings have also been conducted. A total of 29 cetacean species have been recorded, including 7 baleen whales (Mysticeti and 22 toothed whales (Odontoceti, as follows: Balaenoptera physalus, B. borealis, B. edeni, B. acutorostrata, B. bonaerensis, Megaptera novaeangliae, Eubalaena australis, Physeter macrocephalus, Kogia breviceps, K. sima, Berardius arnuxii, Mesoplodon europaeus, M. mirus, Ziphius cavirostris, Orcinus orca, Feresa attenuata, Globicephala melas, G. macrorhynchus, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus capensis, Lagenodelphis hosei, Steno bredanensis, Tursiops truncatus, Stenella frontalis, S. longirostris, S. coeruleoalba, Lissodelphis peronii, Sotalia guianensis and Pontoporia blainvillei. Several species have been observed only once and include strays from their areas of common distribution, as well as species with known preferences for offshore distribution. Others, such as P. blainvillei and S. guianensis, are common coastal dwellers year-round. Z. cavirostris, P. crassidens and L. hosei are reported for the first time on the SP coast.A costa do Estado de São Paulo (SP (23º18'S, 44º42'O; 25º14'S, 48º01'O apresenta aproximadamente 600 km de extensão voltada para o Oceano Atlântico Ocidental no sudeste do Brasil. Registros de encalhes e de avistamentos de cetáceos vêm sendo realizados ao longo desse litoral. Desde 1993, dados obtidos em literatura científica, material osteológico encontrado em museus, fotografias e artigos de arquivos de jornais

  14. Methodology to evaluate the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes: application in a metropolitan region of Campinas, Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Metodologia para avaliacao da energia associada ao residuo solido industrial: aplicacao a regiao metropolitada de Campinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Tereza Rosana Orrico [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Teixeira, Egle Novaes [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo; Silva, Ennio Peres da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico. Lab. de Hidrogenio

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this work is to the application of a methodology to evaluate the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes in the metropolitan region of Campinas. The methodological route proposed is: the characterization of the research area and the production/management of the industrial solid wastes; the energetic classification and the qualitative/quantitative research of the energy associated to the industrial solid wastes; and, the valuation of the applicability of the energetic utilization mechanisms proposed to the region. This methodology when applied at the Campinas metropolitan region proved to be valid and it resulted in a synthetically presentation of the social and environmental reality of the industrial sector and the destination of the wastes, as well as it indicated the potentialities related to the energetic utilization of the industrial solid waste in the region. With the obtained results it was shown the importance of the the production and the destination of the industrial solid wastes in the Campinas metropolitan region , and the meaning, in terms of electric potency, of the values of the energy associated to the wastes with a known factor of energetic conversion shown in the researched sample. (author)

  15. Chemical elements in Leucaena leucocephala leaves of riparian zones of the municipality of Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Elvis J. de; Fernandes, Elisabete A.N.; Lira, Marcelo G.; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Camilli, Leandro

    2017-01-01

    The species Leucaena leucocephala can be found in several riparian ecosystems, acting as one of the main invasive and harmful species for the forest restoration of the permanent preservation areas. It has also been studied for the phytoremediation of some chemical elements, due to their potential accumulation of chemical substances. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the accumulation of chemical elements in leaves of Leucaena leucocephala trees by Instrumental Neutronic Activation Analysis - INAA. Samples of leaves were collected in eight samples from riverside areas of the Piracicaba Municipality, São Paulo, Brazil, during the dry and rainy season. After collection, washing with water and drying in a forced circulation oven, the samples were comminuted and encapsulated in polyethylene capsules and subjected to a thermal neutron flux of 10 13 cm -2 s -1 for 8 hours in the Nuclear Research Reactor IEA-R1 of IPEN / CNEN. Thermal neutron flux monitoring was performed by Ni-Cr alloy fragments with known concentrations of the chemical monitors elements. After measurements of radioactivity induced by HPGe detectors, the concentrations of the chemical elements were calculated by the k0 method using the Quantu computer program. Certified reference materials were also analyzed for quality assurance of the analytical procedure. The results indicated high concentrations of La and lanthanoids (Ce, Eu, Sm, Tb and Yb) in leaves of L. leucocephala in both periods analyzed. It was possible to observe a decrease in the concentrations of the chemical elements in the rainy season, probably associated to the washing of the geological material deposited on the leaves of the trees by the rains, except for K, Mo, Rb, Sb and Zn, whose values remained or increased in the leaves collected during the rainy season. Considering the constant leaf production, L. leucocephala can greatly affect the cycling of chemical elements due to its accumulation capacity demonstrated by this

  16. Socio-Environmental and Hematological Profile of Landfill Residents (São Jorge Landfill–Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Vivianni Palmeira Wanderley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We are experiencing an unprecedented urbanization process that, alongside physical, social and economic developments, has been having a significant impact on a population’s health. Due to the increase in pollution, violence and poverty, our modern cities no longer ensure a good quality of life so they become unhealthy environments. This study aims to assess the effect of social, environmental and economic factors on the hematologic profile of residents of Santo André’s landfill. In particular, we will assess the effect of social, economic, and environmental factors on current and potential disease markers obtained from hematological tests. The research method is the observational type, from a retrospective cohort, and by convenience sampling in Santo André in the Greater ABC (municipalities of Santo André, São Bernardo do Campo and São Caetano do Sul, southeast part of the Greater São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil. The study determined a socio-environmental profile and the hematologic diseases screening related to a close location to the landfill. The disease manifests itself within a broad spectrum of symptoms that causes changes in blood count parameters. The objective of this work is to show that there is an association between social, environmental and economic factors and a variety of serious disease outcomes that may be detected from blood screening. A causal study of the effect of living near the landfill on these disease outcomes would be a very expensive and time-consuming study. This work we believe is sufficient for public health officials to consider policy and attempt remediation of the effects of living near a landfill.

  17. BF integrase genes of HIV-1 circulating in São Paulo, Brazil, with a recurrent recombination region.

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    Atila Iamarino

    Full Text Available Although some studies have shown diversity in HIV integrase (IN genes, none has focused particularly on the gene evolving in epidemics in the context of recombination. The IN gene in 157 HIV-1 integrase inhibitor-naïve patients from the São Paulo State, Brazil, were sequenced tallying 128 of subtype B (23 of which were found in non-B genomes, 17 of subtype F (8 of which were found in recombinant genomes, 11 integrases were BF recombinants, and 1 from subtype C. Crucially, we found that 4 BF recombinant viruses shared a recurrent recombination breakpoint region between positions 4900 and 4924 (relative to the HXB2 that includes 2 gRNA loops, where the RT may stutter. Since these recombinants had independent phylogenetic origin, we argue that these results suggest a possible recombination hotspot not observed so far in BF CRF in particular, or in any other HIV-1 CRF in general. Additionally, 40% of the drug-naïve and 45% of the drug-treated patients had at least 1 raltegravir (RAL or elvitegravir (EVG resistance-associated amino acid change, but no major resistance mutations were found, in line with other studies. Importantly, V151I was the most common minor resistance mutation among B, F, and BF IN genes. Most codon sites of the IN genes had higher rates of synonymous substitutions (dS indicative of a strong negative selection. Nevertheless, several codon sites mainly in the subtype B were found under positive selection. Consequently, we observed a higher genetic diversity in the B portions of the mosaics, possibly due to the more recent introduction of subtype F on top of an ongoing subtype B epidemics and a fast spread of subtype F alleles among the B population.

  18. Occurrence of Ancylostoma in dogs, cats and public places from Andradina city, São Paulo state, Brazil

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    Willian Marinho Dourado Coelho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and intensity of Ancylostoma spp. in 33 dogs and 52 cats by means of coproparasitological examinations and parasitological necropsy, and assess the presence of contaminated feces with eggs of that parasite in public places of Andradina Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. Willis-Mollay and Sedimentation methods indicated Ancylostoma spp. eggs in 87.8% (29/33 dogs and 94.2% (49/52 cats. The species A. caninum and A. braziliense were found in 63.6% (21/33 and 30.3% (10/33 of dogs, respectively. Considering cats, 67.3% (35/52 were parasitized by A. braziliense, 21.1% (11/52 by A. caninum, and 9.6% (5/52 by A. tubaeforme. Forty-two canine fecal samples were collected from public environments, including 23 squares/gardens and 19 streets/sidewalks. Positive samples for Ancylostoma spp. accounted for 64.3% (27/42; squares/gardens had 60.9% (14/23 positive samples, and streets and sidewalks, 68.4% (13/19. No association was observed between the number of Ancylostoma spp parasites and age, sex and breed of the animals and also the ratio of EPG counts and the parasitic intensity observed at necropsy (p > 0.05. Based on the high occurrence of hookworm in dogs and cats in this study, the treatment with anti helminthics are needed even in those animals with negative stool tests, besides adopting control of the number of animals in public places, in order to decrease the likelihood of environmental contamination, since this parasite represents a potential hazard to human and animal health.

  19. Prevalência de sobrepeso e obesidade e fatores associados em adolescentes na região centro-oeste do estado de São Paulo (SP, Brasil Prevalence of overweight and obesity, and associated factors in adolescents, at the central west area of the state São Paulo (SP, Brazil

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    Sílvia Helena de Carvalho Sales-Peres

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a relação entre o Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC e o índice CPOD em 207 adolescentes de 12 anos, de 8 escolas públicas e particulares da região centro-oeste do estado de São Paulo. A amostra foi constituída por 380 adolescentes aos 12 anos, de ambos os gêneros, sendo examinados 207. Utilizou-se o índice CPOD, IMC para peso, medida de estatura, e aplicou-se questionário sobre hábitos alimentares, características antropométricas e atividade física. Quanto ao peso corpóreo, 55,93% apresentaram normal (G4, 35,59% de baixo peso (G3, 8,47% de pré-obesos (G2, nas escolas particulares. Nas públicas, 52,03% apresentaram normal, baixo peso 41,22%, pré-obesos 4,73% e obesos (G1 2,03%; não houve diferença significativa (p=0,45. Verificou-se que o CPOD nas escolas públicas foi 2,16 e nas particulares, 0,23 (pThe aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between the Body Mass Index (BMI and the DMFT index, in 207 adolescents aged 12 years old, from 8 public and private schools of the central west area of São Paulo State. From a sample of 380 12 year-old adolescents, both genders, 207 were examined. We used the index DMFT, CBI for weight, measured of stature and applied a questionnaire about alimentary habits, characteristic anthropometrics and physical activity. Regarding body weight, 55.93% was normal, 35.59% had low weight, and 8.47% were pre-obese in private schools. In the public schools, 52.03% had normal weight, 41.22% had low weight, 4.73% were pre-obese and 2.03% were obese, without significant difference (p=0.45. The DMFT of public schools was 2.16, compared to 0.23 in private schools (p<0.05, with 39.2% of caries-free individuals in public schools and 88.1% in private schools. There was no correlation between the increase in BMI and the increase in DMFT. There was negative correlation between socioeconomic conditions and dental caries. It was concluded that, even though the pre-obese and obese

  20. The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil

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    Carlos Ribeiro Vilela

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The invasive spotted-wing Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae has been found in the city of São Paulo (Brazil. Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura, 1931, the cherry fly or spotted-wing Drosophila, a pest species from the Oriental and southeastern Palaearctic regions belonging to the melanogaster group, invaded the Nearctic and western countries of the Palaearctic regions late last decade (2008 and, more recently (2013, the southern Brazilian states of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina. Early in 2014 it was reared from blueberries produced in São Joaquim, state of Santa Catarina, that were bought at a São Paulo city grocery store. Despite being a cold-adapted species, after having arrived to the southeastern state of São Paulo, this invasive fly will probably expand its territory to other Brazilian states and South American countries through trade of cultivated soft skin small fruits, such as blueberries and strawberries, as well as naturally through the use of small wild fruits as breeding sites.

  1. Preliminary report on management of neonatal jaundice in maternity clinics of São Paulo city, Brazil

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    Fernando Bastos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia remains aproblem because it can lead to sequelae in both children and adults. Theobjective of this study was to evaluate how neonatal jaundice is treatedin maternity hospitals in the city of São Paulo. Methods: Prospective andtransversal study on maternity hospitals in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Aquestionnaire was applied to doctors working at neonatal wards withinmaternity hospitals in the city of São Paulo, divided into public (n = 6 andprivate maternity clinics (n = 18. The results obtained from the differentitems of the questionnaire were then compared. Statistical analysis wasperformed using the Student’s t test, chi-square test and Mann-Whitneytest when appropriate, and a p value < 0.005 was considered significant.Results: There were no significant differences between the two typesof maternity hospitals in relation to the treatment method for neonataljaundice. However, among private maternities there were some that didnot have written guidelines (5/17 and those that performed exchangetransfusion (3/18. Teaching was significantly more present amongpublic (100% than private maternity hospitals (17.6%. The mean serumbilirubin levels to initiate treatment did not show significant differencesbetween the two types of maternities. Some clinical practices in use bymaternity hospitals are not evidence based. Conclusions: The presentdata were considered preliminary and showed that further research inthe area is required and if our findings are confirmed, indicate the needfor continuous medical education on the part of health professionals incharge of newborns.

  2. Drug consumption among medical students in São Paulo, Brazil: influences of gender and academic year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lucio Garcia de; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Wagner, Gabriela Arantes; Ponce, Julio de Carvalho; Malbergier, André; Stempliuk, Vladimir de Andrade; Andrade, Arthur Guerra de

    2009-09-01

    To analyze alcohol, tobacco and other drug use among medical students. Over a five-year period (1996-2001), we evaluated 457 students at the Universidade de São Paulo School of Medicine, located in São Paulo, Brazil. The students participated by filling out an anonymous questionnaire on drug use (lifetime, previous 12 months and previous 30 days). The influence that gender and academic year have on drug use was also analyzed. During the study period, there was an increase in the use of illicit drugs, especially inhalants and amphetamines, among the medical students evaluated. Drug use (except that of marijuana and inhalants) was comparable between the genders, and academic year was an important influencing factor. Increased inhalant use was observed among the medical students, especially among males and students in the early undergraduate years. This is suggestive of a specific behavioral pattern among medical students. Our findings corroborate those of previous studies. Inhalant use is on the rise among medical students at the Universidade de São Paulo School of Medicine. Because of the negative health effects of illicit drug use, further studies are needed in order to deepen the understanding of this phenomenon and to facilitate the development of preventive measures.

  3. Mental disorders in megacities: findings from the Sao Paulo megacity mental health survey, Brazil.

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    Laura Helena Andrade

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: World population growth is projected to be concentrated in megacities, with increases in social inequality and urbanization-associated stress. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA provides a forewarning of the burden of mental disorders in urban settings in developing world. The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, severity, and treatment of recently active DSM-IV mental disorders. We examined socio-demographic correlates, aspects of urban living such as internal migration, exposure to violence, and neighborhood-level social deprivation with 12-month mental disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS: A representative cross-sectional household sample of 5,037 adults was interviewed face-to-face using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI, to generate diagnoses of DSM-IV mental disorders within 12 months of interview, disorder severity, and treatment. Administrative data on neighborhood social deprivation were gathered. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate individual and contextual correlates of disorders, severity, and treatment. Around thirty percent of respondents reported a 12-month disorder, with an even distribution across severity levels. Anxiety disorders were the most common disorders (affecting 19.9%, followed by mood (11%, impulse-control (4.3%, and substance use (3.6% disorders. Exposure to crime was associated with all four types of disorder. Migrants had low prevalence of all four types compared to stable residents. High urbanicity was associated with impulse-control disorders and high social deprivation with substance use disorders. Vulnerable subgroups were observed: women and migrant men living in most deprived areas. Only one-third of serious cases had received treatment in the previous year. DISCUSSION: Adults living in São Paulo megacity had prevalence of mental disorders at greater levels than similar surveys conducted in other areas of the world. Integration of mental health promotion

  4. Mental Disorders in Megacities: Findings from the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Laura Helena; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Andreoni, Solange; Silveira, Camila Magalhães; Alexandrino-Silva, Clovis; Siu, Erica Rosanna; Nishimura, Raphael; Anthony, James C.; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Kessler, Ronald C.; Viana, Maria Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Background World population growth is projected to be concentrated in megacities, with increases in social inequality and urbanization-associated stress. São Paulo Metropolitan Area (SPMA) provides a forewarning of the burden of mental disorders in urban settings in developing world. The aim of this study is to estimate prevalence, severity, and treatment of recently active DSM-IV mental disorders. We examined socio-demographic correlates, aspects of urban living such as internal migration, exposure to violence, and neighborhood-level social deprivation with 12-month mental disorders. Methods and Results A representative cross-sectional household sample of 5,037 adults was interviewed face-to-face using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), to generate diagnoses of DSM-IV mental disorders within 12 months of interview, disorder severity, and treatment. Administrative data on neighborhood social deprivation were gathered. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate individual and contextual correlates of disorders, severity, and treatment. Around thirty percent of respondents reported a 12-month disorder, with an even distribution across severity levels. Anxiety disorders were the most common disorders (affecting 19.9%), followed by mood (11%), impulse-control (4.3%), and substance use (3.6%) disorders. Exposure to crime was associated with all four types of disorder. Migrants had low prevalence of all four types compared to stable residents. High urbanicity was associated with impulse-control disorders and high social deprivation with substance use disorders. Vulnerable subgroups were observed: women and migrant men living in most deprived areas. Only one-third of serious cases had received treatment in the previous year. Discussion Adults living in São Paulo megacity had prevalence of mental disorders at greater levels than similar surveys conducted in other areas of the world. Integration of mental health promotion and care into the

  5. [Work accidents in Brazil. A study in São Paulo state, Brazil, the Botucatu region, using the causal tree method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, M C; Almeida, I M

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses, within the prevailing Brazilian situation, the possibility of applying "causal tree" (CT) method in investigating occupational accidents by safety personnel in the public health services and workers' unions. The method was developed during the seventies in France, for use by plant safety personnel. The authors used this method in Botucatu, state of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to investigate 40 serious occupational accidents that occurred in industrial plants during the second half of 1993, that had been registered by social security. In these cases, the predominance of situations in which the lack of safety measures were identified by inspection indicates that in most instances, the use of CT is unnecessary. However, the authors discuss its use by safety personnel from the public health services and workers' unions to investigate certain accidents to contribute to the knowledge base and help overcome the cultural based guilt which, in Brazil, has turned the victim into the person responsible for the accident.

  6. Risk factors for atherosclerosis in students of a private university in São Paulo - Brazil

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    Rabelo Lísia Marcílio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize the risk profile for atherosclerosis (AS in adolescents and young adults of a private university in São Paulo. METHODS: Clinical, nutritional, and laboratory parameters were evaluated in 209 students of both genders aged 17 to 25 years. In addition to determination of the lipid profile, the association of its abnormal values with other risk factors for AS was also investigated. RESULTS: Increased levels of total cholesterol, LDL-C and triglycerides (TG were observed in 9.1%, 7.6% and 16.3% of the students, respectively, and decreased levels of HDL-C in 8.6% of them. Prevalence of the remaining risk factors analyzed was elevated: sedentary life style (78.9%; high intake of total fat (77.5%; high cholesterol intake (35.9%; smoking, hypertension (15.8% and obesity (7.2%. There was an association between elevated LDL-C and TG levels and sedentary life style and body mass index. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of risk factors for AS in young individuals draws attention to the need for adopting preventive plans.

  7. Long-term decomposition of sugarcane harvest residues in Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortes, Caio; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze; Vitti, Andre Cesar

    2012-01-01

    Crop residues returned to the soil are important to preserve fertility and sustainability. This research addressed the long-term decomposition of sugarcane post-harvest residues (trash) under reduced tillage, therefore field renewal was performed with herbicide followed by subsoiling and ratoons were deprived of interrow scarification. The trial was conducted in the northern Sao Paulo State, Brazil during four consecutive crops (2005–2008) where litter bags containing 15 N-labeled trash were disposed in the field attempting to simulate two distinct situations: the previous crop trash (PCT) or residues incorporated in the field after tillage, and post-harvest trash (PHT) or the remains of plant-cane harvest. Decomposition rates regarding dry matter (DM), carbon (C), root growth, plant nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S), lignin (LIG) cellulose (CEL) and hemicellulose (HCEL) contents were assessed for PCT (2005 ndash;2008) and for PHT (2006–2008). There were significant reductions on DM and C:N ratio due to C losses and root growth within the litter bags over time. The DM from PCT and PHT decreased 96% and 73% after four and three crops, respectively, and the higher nutrients release were found for K, Ca and N. The LIG, CEL and HCEL concentrations in PCT decreased 60%, 29%, 70% after four crops and 47%, 35%, 70% from PHT after three crops, respectively. Trash decomposition was driven mainly by residues biochemical composition, root growth within the trash blanket and the climatic conditions during the crop cycles. -- Highlights: ► Degradation of sugarcane previous or post-harvest trash (PCT or PHT) was evaluated. ► Dry matter and C decreased due to microbial and root growth within trash blankets. ► C:N ratio of PCT linearly decreased 23% per year during four consecutive crops. ► Lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose concentration averagely declined 54, 41 and 70%. ► PCT and PHT are long-term sources of C, K, Ca and N to the soil-plant system.

  8. Antifouling activity of seaweed extracts from Guarujá, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Heloisa Elias Medeiros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine biofouling historically constitutes one of the major constraints faced by mankind in its oceanic activities. The search for alternatives to TBT-based antifouling paints has led several researchers to focus efforts in the development of environmentally friendly natural compounds. This work has contributed with this search, testing the antifouling potential of crude organic extracts from four seaweed species collected at Praia Branca, Guarujá district, São Paulo, Brazil. Throughout laboratory antifouling assays in which the attachment of a common fouling organism, the brown mussel Perna perna, was employed, antifouling activity (p A incrustação biológica constitui, historicamente, um dos maiores problemas encontrados pelo homem em suas atividades no mar. A busca por alternativas a tintas antiincrustantes contendo tributilestanho (TBT tem levado diversos pesquisadores a concentrar esforços no desenvolvimento de substâncias naturais menos danosas à biota marinha. Este trabalho procurou contribuir com essa busca, testando o potencial antiincrustante de quatro diferentes espécies de macroalgas da Praia Branca, município de Guarujá, SP. Através de testes antiincrustantes em laboratório utilizando a fixação de um organismo incrustante comum, o mexilhão Perna perna, foi constatado que os extratos de Jania rubens (Rhodophyta, Cryptonemiales e Bryothamnion seaforthii (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales, à concentração natural, apresentaram atividade antiincrustante significativa (p < 0,05, enquanto Dictyopteris delicatula (Phaeophyta, Dictyotales e Heterosiphonia gibbesii (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales não demonstraram eficiência na inibição da fixação de bissos do molusco. Das algas que indicaram potencial atividade contra a incrustação, J. rubens apresentou melhor desempenho em relação a B. seaforthii. Futuras investigações em campo serão necessárias para a obtenção de resultados que possam refletir melhor as condições naturais

  9. An educational process to strengthen primary care nursing practices in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, A M; Fracolli, L A

    2007-12-01

    To describe the experience of a registered nurse (RN) training process related to the Family Health Program (FHP) developed in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The FHP is a national, government strategy to restructure primary care services. It focuses on the family in order to understand its physical and social structure in regards to the health-illness process. In the FHP, the RN is a member of a team with the same number as medical doctors - an unprecedented situation. The FHP requires a discussion of the RNs' practice, by qualifying and empowering them with tools and knowledge. The training process was based on Freire's approach founded on critical pedagogy in order to address the fundamental problem of inequalities in health. The first phase included workshops and the second one included a course. The workshops identified the following problems related to the RN's work: lack of tools to identify the population's needs; overload of work due to the accumulation of management and assistance activities; difficulties regarding teamwork; lack of tools to evaluate the impact of nursing interventions; lack of tools to improve the participation of the community. The course was organized to tackle these problems under five thematic headings. The RN's training process allowed the group to reflect deeply on its work. This experience led to the need for the construction of tools to intervene in the reality, mainly against social exclusion, rescuing and adapting of the knowledge accumulated in the healthcare practice, identifying settings which demand institutional solutions and engaging the RN in research groups in order to develop projects according to the complexity of the primary care services. The application of the concept of equity in the health sector represented a reaction against the processes of social exclusion, starting from performance at a local level to become a reality in the accomplishments achieved by the Brazilian National Health System. This training

  10. [Shoes stitched, workers unstitched: a study on working and health conditions among women factory workers in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazeres, Taísa Junqueira; Navarro, Vera Lucia

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to analyze associations between working conditions and health problems reported by women workers assigned to mechanical stitching in the footwear industry in Franca, São Paulo State, Brazil. The qualitative study's theory and methodology were based on historical and dialectical materialism and combined sociological and ethnographic research techniques. Data were collected with taped interviews, focusing on the workers' life and work stories, systematic observation of the work process, consultation of historical documents, and imagistic production. Analysis of the data revealed the effects of work in mechanical stitching on the health of women workers employed in the factory and at home, who experience precarious labor conditions involving workday intensification and extension, preset production targets, job insecurity, and unhealthy workplaces.

  11. Lições para a história das ciências no Brasil: Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo Lessons for the history of science in Brazil: São Paulo's Pasteur Institute

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    Maria Alice Rosa Ribeiro

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende mostrar a importância e o papel do Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo (1903-16 no desenvolvimento da ciência microbiológica no Brasil e no surgimento da indústria farmacêutica de capital nacional.The article highlights the role played by São Paulo's Pasteur Institute (1903-16 in the development of microbiological science in Brazil and in the emergence of a pharmaceutical industry owned by Brazilian capital.

  12. Novos encontros de flebotomíneos no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, com especial referência à Lutzomyia longipalpis New finding of Phlebotominae in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, with special reference to Lutzomyia longipalpis

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o encontro de várias espécies de Phleboteminae, no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, até agora raramente ou mesmo não assinaladas nessa região. São registrados novos achados de Lutzomyia longipalpis e fornecidos alguns dados sobre as circunstâncias desses encontros.New records on Phlebotominae in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, are reported. Special attention is dedicated to Lutzomyia longipalpis. Several behavioural aspects of these observations were recorded.

  13. Crescimento urbano e doença: a esquistossomose no município de São Paulo (Brasil Urban growth and disease: schistosomiasis in the municipality of S. Paulo (Brazil

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    Luiz Jacintho da Silva

    1985-02-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se mostrar o papel da evolução urbana da cidade de São Paulo (Brasil, no surgimento das condições propícias para o estabelecimento da transmissão da esquistossomose que no Sudeste brasileiro é usualmente considerada como conseqüência do processo migratório Nordeste-Sudeste. Nas análises dos determinantes da distribuição da esquistossomose em São Paulo (Brasil, importância desmesurada tem sido atribuída ao processo migratório. O processo de expansão da doença no município de São Paulo é exemplo de uma instância em que o padrão de urbanização foi fator mais relevante do que a migração. A ocupação dos fundos de vale, a partir, do final da década de 1950, pela urbanização desordenada de São Paulo, criou condições ecológicas para o estabelecimento de focos de transmissão de esquistossomose, o que, até então, não era possível, pois a urbanização se verificava exclusivamente nas áreas mais elevadas. Sem a mudança do padrão de urbanização, a esquistossomose não teria se estabelecido no município de São Paulo, não obstante a intensa migração.The role of the urban development of the city of S. Paulo (Brazil is presented, in this study, in the light of the appearance of condition favorable to the establishment of the transmission of schistosomiasis in southeastern Brazil which is usually seen as a consequence of migration from the Northeast where the disease in endemic. Studies of the distribution of schistosomiasis in S. Paulo have given an exaggerated importance to migration. The spread of the disease in the municipality of S. Paulo (Brazil is an example of a situation where the pattern of urban growth has been more relevant than migration. The occupation of the lowlands from the late 1950's onwards brought about the conditions for the establishment of disease foci. Up to then this was not possible for urbanization occurred exclusively in more elevated areas. Without a shift in the pattern

  14. Reproduction and management of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus (Crustacea, Brachyura, Ucididae) at Iguape, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Bruno S; Borges, Roberto P; Hattori, Gustavo Y; Pinheiro, Marcelo A A

    2014-09-01

    The mangrove crab Ucides cordatus is one of the most exploited crustaceans in Brazil. The present study investigated the breeding season of this species and the period of the "andada" phenomenon, when the crabs are active outside their burrows and perform agonistic behaviors. Furthermore related them to environmental factors, in a mangrove on the coast of Brazil, with inferences about management of this crab. The crabs reproduced from October through February. The "andada" occurred from November through February, with typical characteristics in the first two months, during the full and new moon periods, and was influenced positively by the air and soil temperature, luminosity, and tidal amplitude, and negatively by salinity. Based on the results of the present study, the period when the "andada" occurs in other parts of Brazil could be defined, which will aid in managing this fishery. For Iguape, state of São Paulo, Brazil, we suggest a legal off-season for both sexes in December or during the full and new moon, including January.

  15. Living conditions and access to health services by Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Cássio Silveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious, and the supply of health services from the public primary care system.

  16. Living conditions and access to health services by Bolivian immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Cássio; Carneiro Junior, Nivaldo; Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos Sampaio de Almeida; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas

    2013-10-01

    Bolivian immigrants in Brazil experience serious social problems: precarious work conditions, lack of documents and insufficient access to health services. The study aimed to investigate inequalities in living conditions and access to health services among Bolivian immigrants living in the central area of São Paulo, Brazil, using a cross-sectional design and semi-structured interviews with 183 adults. According to the data, the immigrants tend to remain in Brazil, thus resulting in an aging process in the group. Per capita income increases the longer the immigrants stay in the country. The majority have secondary schooling. Work status does not vary according to time since arrival in Brazil. The immigrants work and live in garment sweatshops and speak their original languages. Social networks are based on ties with family and friends. Access to health services shows increasing inclusion in primary care. The authors conclude that the immigrants' social exclusion is decreasing due to greater access to documentation, work (although precarious), and the supply of health services from the public primary care system.

  17. Incidence of Leptospirosis infection in the East Zone of Sao Paulo City, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a zoonosis which is spread through contamined running water. This contaminations is seriously affected by the flooding which occurs in the area surrounding the Aricanduva river. The transmission of the disease results mainly from the contact of water with soil contaminated by the urine of infected animals. We aimed to conduct an epidemiological survey on Leptospirosis cases in Sao Paulo East Zone area. Method The analysis conducted in this study was based on data collected from the health authorities of that region close the Aricanduva river between 2007 and 2008 years, which give the rates of confirmed cases, mortality and death from human Leptospirosis. Other information concerned with the relationships among rainfall index, points of flooding and incidence of Leptospirosis. Results We observed a direct and important water contamination. Records of flooding points and dates of the reported cases in the region showed a direct relationship from which the period of higher rainfall also recorded an increase in cases. The annual record of the city and the region and rainfall regions also presented correlation. Conclusion The association between the indices of flooding and Leptospirosis cases indicates that preventive measures are necessary to avoid exposing the community. PMID:23672682

  18. Tuberculose no sistema prisional de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil Tuberculosis among city jail inmates in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Helenice Bosco de Oliveira

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a situação da tuberculose nas prisões da Cidade de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo retrospectivo dos casos notificados de tuberculose em presidiários no período de 1993 a 2000. Foram avaliados dados de 4 293 detentos dos quatro presídios que constituem o complexo penitenciário da região. Foram utilizadas informações do banco de dados em tuberculose do Departamento de Medicina Preventiva e Social da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP. RESULTADOS: Observou-se um pico de incidência da tuberculose em 1994 (1 397,62 notificações em 100 000 indivíduos. A menor taxa foi observada em 1999 (559,04. Predominou a faixa etária de 25 a 34 anos (62,6% e a AIDS como doença associada (49,9%. A forma preponderante de tuberculose foi a pulmonar (91,9%, com baciloscopia de escarro positiva em 70,3%. A maioria dos presidiários não tinha realizado tratamentos prévios (75,4%. O abandono de tratamento chegou a 49%. Houve cura em apenas 20,8% dos casos no período estudado. CONCLUSÕES: A incidência intermediária de tuberculose observada neste estudo pode estar relacionada à subnotificação. A freqüência de falência do tratamento ainda é baixa. No entanto, o abandono, como fator que facilita a propagação de micobactérias resistentes na comunidade, causa preocupação. O controle da tuberculose nas prisões deveria ser parte rotineira das intervenções direcionadas a eliminar a doença na comunidade e a prevenir a resistência às drogas antituberculose.OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence of tuberculosis among inmates of the municipal prison system in the city of Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1993 through 2000. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out of the number of cases of tuberculosis that were notified among inmates over the study period. This involved reviewing data from a total of 4 293 inmates who were held

  19. Viability and molecular authentication of Coccidioides spp. isolates from the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo culture collection, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti,Sarah Desirée Barbosa; Vidal,Mônica Scarpelli Martinelli; Sousa,Maria da Glória Teixeira de; Del Negro,Gilda Maria Barbaro

    2013-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is an emerging fungal disease in Brazil; adequate maintenance and authentication of Coccidioides isolates are essential for research into genetic diversity of the environmental organisms, as well as for understanding the human disease. Seventeen Coccidioides isolates maintained under mineral oil since 1975 in the Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo (IMTSP) culture collection, Brazil, were evaluated with respect to their viability, morphological characteristics and g...

  20. The mental health of Korean immigrants in São Paulo, Brazil Saúde mental dos imigrantes coreanos em São Paulo, Brasil

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    Sam Kang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the frequency of lifetime mental disorders among Korean immigrants in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Snowball sampling with multiple focuses was used to recruit Korean immigrants older than 18 years and living in São Paulo. A total of 324 Korean immigrants were selected and their mental status was evaluated using a structured interview, namely the Portuguese or the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1. The diagnoses of mental disorders were made according to the ICD-10. The frequency of any lifetime psychiatric disorder was 41.9%. The frequencies of main disorders were: anxiety disorder, 13% (post-traumatic stress disorder, 9.6%; mood disorder, 8.6%; somatoform disorders, 7.4%; dissociative disorder, 4.9%; psychotic disorder, 4.3%; eating disorder, 0.6%; any substance (tobacco, alcohol, drugs use disorder, 23.1%. The frequency of any psychiatric disorder except alcohol and tobacco use disorders was 26.2%. Korean immigrants have more psychiatric disorders than the Korean population in Korea, particularly post-traumatic stress disorder, and almost the same rate as the Brazilian population. Mental health authorities should promote a healthier integration and the development of culturally sensitive mental health programs for Korean immigrants.Este estudo verificou a freqüência de transtornos psiquiátricos em uma comunidade de imigrantes coreanos na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil. A amostragem snowball com vários focos foi utilizada para contatar os imigrantes coreanos, acima de 18 anos e residentes em São Paulo. Foram selecionados 324 sujeitos, cuja saúde mental foi avaliada por meio de uma entrevista estruturada, Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1, nas versões em português e coreano. Foi utilizado o critério de diagnóstico CID-10. A freqüência de algum diagnóstico psiquiátrico na vida foi de 41,9%. As freqüências de principais diagnósticos na vida foram

  1. A sazonalidade do tromboembolismo venoso no clima subtropical de São Paulo Seasonal variation of venous thromboembolism in the subtropical climate of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Daniela Kleinfelder

    2009-03-01

    is known about such interference in our latitude. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether there are seasonal variations in venous thromboembolism in a hospital-based population in São Paulo, Brazil, which has subtropical climate. METHODS: Medical records of patients admitted to Hospital da Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo with the diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary thromboembolism were reviewed from January 1996 to October 2003. Cases were grouped in trimesters (first trimester = January, February and March; second trimester = April, May and June; third trimester = July, August and September; fourth trimester = October, November and December. They were also grouped as to warm and cold months, according to mean temperature (warm months = October through April; cold months = May through September. RESULTS: A total of 955 cases of venous thromboembolism were found during the study period. The ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis, showing no significant difference in the occurrence of venous thromboembolism considering the four trimesters. Separate analysis of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism incidence showed no differences either. Comparing warm and cold months, there was an increased incidence of deep venous thrombosis during warm months (p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney test. CONCLUSION: Venous thromboembolism is not clearly related to climatic variations. The influence of climate and temperature on blood coagulability is poorly understood and needs to be further studied.

  2. Suicide rates and income in São Paulo and Brazil: a temporal and spatial epidemiologic analysis from 1996 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Daniel H; Brunoni, Andre R; Benseñor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2012-08-28

    In a classical study, Durkheim noted a direct relation between suicide rates and wealth in the XIX century France. Since that time, several studies have verified this relationship. It is known that suicide rates are associated with income, although the direction of this association varies worldwide. Brazil presents a heterogeneous distribution of income and suicide across its territory; however, evaluation for an association between these variables has shown mixed results. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between suicide rates and income in Brazil, State of São Paulo (SP), and City of SP, considering geographical area and temporal trends. Data were extracted from the National and State official statistics departments. Three socioeconomic areas were considered according to income, from the wealthiest (area 1) to the poorest (area 3). We also considered three regions: country-wide (27 Brazilian States and 558 Brazilian micro-regions), state-wide (645 counties of SP State), and city-wide (96 districts of SP city). Relative risks (RR) were calculated among areas 1, 2, and 3 for all regions, in a cross-sectional approach. Then, we used Joinpoint analysis to explore the temporal trends of suicide rates and SaTScan to investigate geographical clusters of high/low suicide rates across the territory. Suicide rates in Brazil, the State of SP, and the city of SP were 6.2, 6.6, and 5.4 per 100,000, respectively. Taking suicide rates of the poorest area (3) as reference, the RR for the wealthiest area was 1.64, 0.88, and 1.65 for Brazil, State of SP, and city of SP, respectively (p for trend <0.05 for all analyses). Spatial cluster of high suicide rates were identified at Brazilian southern (RR = 2.37), state of SP western (RR = 1.32), and city of SP central (RR = 1.65) regions. A direct association between income and suicide were found for Brazil (OR = 2.59) and the city of SP (OR = 1.07), and an inverse association for the state of SP (OR = 0

  3. Prevalência de defeitos de fechamento de tubo neural no Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo Prevalence of neural tube defects in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Luiz Fernando C. Nascimento

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural no Vale do Paraíba paulista e identificar possíveis fatores maternos e neonatais associados a tais defeitos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se um estudo transversal com dados secundários obtidos na Secretaria Estadual da Saúde referentes aos nascimentos ocorridos em 2004 no Vale do Paraíba paulista, que compreende 35 municípios e conta com população de 2 milhões de habitantes. Anencefalia, encefalocele e espina bífida (mielocele e mielomeningocele foram considerados defeitos de fechamento do tubo neural. As variáveis maternas foram: idade, escolaridade, cor da pele, número de consultas no pré-natal, número de filhos vivos e relato de óbito fetal prévio. As variáveis relativas ao recém-nascido foram: peso, idade gestacional e escore de Apgar. Realizou-se comparação das médias por meio do teste t de Student e obtiveram-se os valores das razões de chance com intervalos de confiança de 95%. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 33.653 nascidos vivos. Trinta e oito recém-nascidos com o defeito foram encontrados (1,13/1.000 nascidos vivos, sendo 23 casos de espina bífida. Houve associação com baixo peso ao nascimento, prematuridade e menores escores de Apgar de cinco minutos. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência desta anomalia foi inferior à de outros estudos nacionais e sua presença esteve associada ao baixo peso, à prematuridade e à baixa vitalidade ao nascer.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of neural tube defects in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify possible maternal and neonatal variables associated with these defects. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used secondary records of the Health Department of São Paulo State related live births during 2004 in Vale do Paraíba, São Paulo, Brazil. This region has 35 cities and 2 million inhabitants. Anencephaly, encephalocele and spina bifida (myelocele and myelomeningocele were considered as neural tube

  4. The Preparation for the Equivalence Examinations, First and Second Levels in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil: Traditional Means and Educational Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Bernardete A.

    1988-01-01

    Yearly in Sao Paulo (Brazil), official external examinations allow students outside the regular school system to obtain a certificate of education equivalent to grade 8 or 11. A television program that prepares candidates for the examinations and other forms of preparation are compared, using data collected for three years. (TJH)

  5. Viability evaluation of the reading system by CCD for application at the Fricke xylenol gel dosimetry developed by IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangueira, Thyago Fressatti; Dias, Daniel Menezes; Campos, Leticia Lucente

    2009-01-01

    The use of chambers with coupled charge devices - CCD, is already used by research centres for the dose evaluation applying the Fricke xylenol gel dosemeter. This work evaluates the application of this optical reading technique for the FXG developed at the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil

  6. A Long Journey from Childhood to Senility: The 23rd HUPO BPP Workshop: 16-17 April 2015, São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magraoui, Fouzi El; Schrötter, Andreas; Heinsen, Helmut; Leite, Renata; Park, Young Mok; Meyer, Helmut E; Grinberg, Lea T

    2015-09-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 23rd workshop in São Paulo, Brazil, April 16-17, 2015. The focus of the spring workshop was on strategies and predictive therapies concerning neurodegenerative diseases. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Catalogue of Lygistorrhinidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) types housed in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Sarah Siqueira; Falaschi, Rafaela Lopes; Lamas, Carlos josÉ Einicker

    2018-04-20

    This paper provides a catalogue of the type specimens of Lygistorrhinidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) held in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP). Label information and type condition of the six type specimens (three holotypes and three paratypes) of four species are provided, along with high resolution images of the types and their labels.

  8. First description of necrosis in leaves and pseudo-bulbs of Oncidium orchids caused by Burkholderia gladioli in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    A necrosis of orchid leaves and pseudobulbs was observed in a commercial orchid nursery in Mogi das Cruzes, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The symptoms were water-soaked, brown lesions that can develop into large areas of necrosis that extend throughout the entire plant, ultimately causing death. Bacteria were...

  9. Lidar observation campaign of sugar cane fires and industrial emissions in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landulfo, E.; Jorge, Maria Paulete M. P.; Held, Gerhard; Guardani, Roberto; Steffens, Juliana; dos Anjos F. Pinto, Sergio; Andre, Iara R.; Garcia, Gilberto; Lopes, F. J. S.; Mariano, Glauber L.; da Costa, Renata F.; Rodrigues, Patricia F.

    2010-10-01

    Brazil has an important role in the biomass burning, with the detection of approximately 100,000 burning spots in a single year (2007). Most of these spots occur in the southern part of the Amazon basin during the dry season (from August to november) and these emissions reach the southeast of the country, a highly populated region and with serious urban air pollution problems. With the growing demand on biofuels, sugarcane is considerably expanding in the state of Sao Paulo, being a strong contributor to the bad air quality in this region. In the state of Sao Paulo, the main land use are pasture and sugarcane crop, that covers around 50% and 10% of the total area, respectively. Despite the aerosol from sugarcane burning having reduced atmospheric residence time, from a few days to some weeks, they might get together with those aerosol which spread over long distances (hundreds to thousands of kilometers). In the period of June through February 2010 a LIDAR observation campaign was carried in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in order to observe and characterize optically the aerosols from two distinct sources, namely, sugar cane biomass burning and industrial emissions. For this purpose 2 LIDAR systems were available, one mobile and the other placed in a laboratory, both working in the visible (532 nm) and additionally the mobile system had a Raman channel available (607 nm). Also this campaign counted with a SODAR, a meteorological RADAR specially set up to detect aerosol "echoes" and gas-particle analyzers. To guarantee a good regional coverage 4 distinct sites were available to deploy the instruments, 2 in the near field of biomass burning activities (Rio Claro and Bauru), one for industrial emissions (Cubatao) and others from urban sources (Sao Paulo). The whole campaign provide the equivalent of 30 days of measurements which allowed us to get aerosol optical properties such as backscattering/extinction coefficients, scatter and LIDAR ratios, those were used to

  10. Energy balance of Sao Paulo State, Brazil 2012. Calendar year 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The document presents the consolidated annual energy balances, which encompasses: Executive Summary; Participation of the Sao Paulo's Electric Energy in the National Context; Overview Energy Mix of the State of Sao Paulo; Final Consumption by Source; Final Consumption by Sectors in 2011; Contents of the Energy Balance for the State of Sao Paulo; Methodology; Summary of the period in analysis; Supply and Demand of energy by source; External trade of energy; Energy imports and export; Transformation center balances; Energy and Economy and Resources and energy Reserves. In this 2012 edition, we highlight the growth of gasoline consumption at the expense of ethanol, compared with previous years. The fall harvest of cane sugar and federal policies aimed at artificially support the price of gasoline are some of the factors that led to the fall in competitiveness of ethanol. Nowadays, it is up to the government to create policies to stimulate the supply of renewable fuels to replace fossil fuels. (author)

  11. Ecological parameters of the (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of the Lutzomyia longipalpis complex in a visceral leishmaniasis area in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis-Ovallos, Fredy; Casanova, Claudio; Sevá, Anaiá da Paixão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2017-05-30

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important public health challenge in Brazil because of the high number of human and canine cases reported annually. Leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of VL and Lutzomyia longipalpis is its main vector. However, evidence suggests that this taxon constitutes a species complex. In Sao Paulo state, there are two populations of Lu. longipalpis, each secreting distinct pheromones, (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B and Cembrene 1; both have been associated with different patterns of VL transmission. The aim of the present study was to investigate the temporal distribution and natural infection of the (S)-9-methylgermacrene-B population of the Lu. longipalpis complex in a highly VL endemic area of Sao Paulo state to obtain information that may contribute to the surveillance of this zoonosis and to the planning of preventive and control measures. The study was carried out in Panorama municipality, Sao Paulo State. Captures were made during 24 months in seven domiciles. The relation between sand fly abundance and climatic variables, temperature and humidity, was analyzed and natural infection by Leishmania spp. in sand fly females was investigated by nested PCR. A total of 4120 sand flies, with predominance of Lu. longipalpis (97.2%) were captured. The highest averages of sand flies/night/trap occurred in the rainy season (November-March) and a positive, significant correlation between sand fly abundance and the temperature and humidity 20 days before the capture days was found. Leishmania infantum DNA was detected in three out of 250 pools of females analyzed, giving an estimated minimum infection rate of 1.2%. The identification of the climatic association between the high abundance of the vector in this highly endemic VL focus constitutes a fundamental point for evaluating future vector and dog control measures and this information increases the data of VL foci in Sao Paulo state that could contribute to the public health authorities

  12. Ocorrência de astrovírus humanos na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil Occurrence of human astrovirus in S. Paulo City, Brazil

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    Klaus Eberhard Stewien

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram detectados astrovírus humanos durante estudo longitudinal de 13 meses sobre a incidência de vírus diarréicos em 146 crianças menores de 2 anos de idade, hospitalizadas em clínica pediátrica de um hospital universitário, na cidade de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Das 67 crianças internadas com diarréia aguda, 3% foram positivas para astrovírus, por ocasião de sua admissão, pelo Ensaio Imunoenzimático Monoclonal Amplificado (ASTROVIRUS BIOTIN-AVIDIN ELISA, CDC, USA. As 79 crianças sem diarréia, admitidas durante o mesmo período por outra causa (controles, foram negativas para astrovírus, por ocasião de seu internamento. Entretanto, 4,8% do total de crianças hospitalizadas sofreram infecções por astrovírus durante sua permanência no hospital. Este é o primeiro estudo sobre a ocorrência de astrovírus humanos no Brasil, que assim participam significativamente na etiologia da gastroenterite infantil em nosso meio.Human astrovirus was detected during a 13-month longitudinal study of the incidence of diarrhoea viruses among hospitalized children (<2 years of age in a pediatric clinic of the city of S. Paulo (University Hospital. Serial fecal samples (intervals of 4 days were collected from 146 children with and without acute diarrhoea at admission and during their stay in the hospital. Two (3% of the 67 children with diarrhoea were positive at admission to the clinic by the highly sensitive ASTROVIRUS BIOTIN-AVIDIN ELISA, using CDC monoclonal antibodies (MAb SE7. All 79 children without diarrhoea (controls were negative for astrovirus at admission. However, astrovirus was detected in 7 (4.8% of the 146 hospitalized children during their stay in the clinic. Three of the positives shed astroviruses in 2 successive stool samples. All children positive for astrovirus were negative for rotavirus, adenovirus and bacterial and parasitic enteric agents. This is the first study of the detection of human astrovirus in Brazil. Astrovirus

  13. Yellow fever epizootics in non-human primates, São Paulo state, Brazil, 2008-2009 Epizootias de febre amarela em primatas não humanos no estado de São Paulo, Brasil, 2008-2009

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    Eduardo Stramandinoli Moreno

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2000, the expansion of Sylvatic Yellow Fever (YF has been observed in the southeast of Brazil, being detected in areas considered silent for decades. Epizootics in non-human primates (NHPs are considered sentinel events for the detection of human cases. It is important to report epizootic events that could have impact on the conservation status of susceptible species. We describe the epizootics in NHPs, notified in state of São Paulo, Brazil, between September 2008 to August 2009. Ninety-one epizootic events, involving 147 animals, were reported in 36 counties. Samples were obtained from 65 animals (44.2%. Most of the epizootics (46.6% were reported between March and April, the same period during which human cases of YF occurred in the state. Biological samples were collected from animals found dead and were sent to Instituto Adolfo Lutz, in São Paulo. Two samples, collected in two counties without an indication for YF vaccination, were positive for the virus. Another 48 animals were associated with YF by clinical-epidemiological linkage with laboratory confirmed cases. Because the disease in human and NHPs occurred in the same period, the detection of the virus in NHPs did not work as sentinel, but aided in the delineation of new areas of risk.Desde 2000, vem sendo observada a expansão da febre amarela (FA no Sudeste do Brasil, sendo detectados casos em áreas consideradas silenciosas por décadas. Epizootias em primatas não humanos (NHPs são considerados eventos sentinela para a detecção de casos humanos. É importante relatar eventos epizoóticos que podem ter impacto sobre o estado de conservação de espécies sensíveis. Descrevemos as epizootias, notificadas em NHPs no estado de São Paulo, Brasil, entre setembro de 2008 a agosto de 2009. Noventa e um eventos epizoóticos, envolvendo 147 animais, foram notificados em 36 municípios. As amostras foram obtidas a partir de 65 animais (44,2%. A maioria das epizootias (46,6% foram

  14. Annual report 2007 - CPFL Energy - Light and Power Company from Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document presents the balance of the economic, social, environmental performance of the Sao Paulo Light and Power Company (CPFL), during the year of 2007 as follows: highlights of 2007; profile of the CPFL Energy group; corporative performance; strategy of the company; performance in 2007 (the best year of the company); social responsibility

  15. FAP Group Supervision: Reporting Educational Experiences at the University of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielenska, Regina Christina; Oshiro, Claudia Kami Bastos

    2012-01-01

    The present article describes and analyzes educational experiences related to the teaching of FAP for psychology graduate students and psychiatry residents at the University of Sao Paulo. The first experience involved psychology graduate students and includes an example of the shaping process occurring within the supervisor-supervisee…

  16. Leishmania mexicana in Didelphis marsupialis aurita in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    E. L. A. Yoshida

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi identificada pela primeira vez a presença de L. mexicana em Didelphis marsupialis aurita, no Estado de São Paulo — Município de Conchas, através de caracterização bioquímica.

  17. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. (Univ. of Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    1993-01-01

    Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Características do uso de métodos anticoncepcionais no Estado de São Paulo Aspects of anticontraception methods used on São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Elisabeth Meloni Vieira

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar dados coletados pela Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde, de 1996, sobre o uso de métodos anticoncepcionais no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Os dados obtidos foram analisados comparativamente com os do Brasil e com os de outra pesquisa similar realizada em 1986. Foi examinado o uso de métodos anticoncepcionais entre mulheres não-solteiras (casadas ou em coabitação, focalizando-se idade, número de filhos, escolaridade, idade na esterilização feminina e momento da esterilização. Para análise estatística, utilizaram-se o teste t-Student e o teste não-paramétrico de Kendall. RESULTADOS: Diferentemente do Brasil, houve estabilização dos índices de esterilização feminina no Estado de São Paulo no período estudado. Observou-se um mesmo padrão de uso de métodos no Brasil e em São Paulo: até os 30 anos, o método predominante foi a pílula; e, depois dos 30 anos, predominou a esterilização feminina, que aumenta com o número de filhos e diminui com a escolaridade. O uso de métodos masculinos aumentou nos últimos anos, sendo maior em São Paulo, que também apresenta maior diversidade no uso de métodos reversíveis. CONCLUSÕES: Apesar das diferenças, o uso predominante de apenas dois métodos anticoncepcionais, em São Paulo e no Brasil, reflete distorções na oferta do planejamento familiar e na saúde reprodutiva no contexto da nova regulamentação do planejamento familiar.OBJECTIVE: To analyze data on contraceptive use in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, collected by the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS conducted in 1996. METHODS: The study data were compared to 1986 DHS and 1996 data on the Brazilian population. Contraceptive use among married or cohabiting women was evaluated focusing on age, number of children, schooling, and age and timing of female sterilization. Statistical analysis was performed using Student t-test and Kendall's non-parametric test. RESULTS: Unlike data on

  19. Smectite in mangrove soils of the State of São Paulo, Brazil Esmectitas em solos de mangue no Estado de São Paulo

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    Valdomiro Severino de Souza-Júnior

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Smectitic clay minerals are frequently identified in mangrove soils, but there is little information about their types and origins. Besides their importance in the agronomical and geotechnical areas, smectites play an important environmental role by adsorbing nutrients, organic pollutants and heavy metals. Smectites found in mangrove soils can be of marine or continental detrital origin, or of neoformation origin. Thus, the objective of this study was to identify the types of smectites present in the State of São Paulo mangrove soils (Brazil, and to relate them to their possible origins. Soil samples were taken in five mangroves along the State of Sao Paulo State coast line. The mineral composition of the clay fraction was identified by X-ray Diffractometry (XRD applying the Greene-Kelly test and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. Highlighting the peaks in the 3,560 cm-1 band and in the region near 798 and 820 cm-1, there was a predominance of nontronite in the soil at the Sítio Grande River, Pai Matos Island, Caranguejo Island and Itapanhaú River mangroves, and possibly a lower concentration of ferric montmorillonite in the Escuro River mangrove. Since the continental sediments in these environments are very poor in smectite, the origin of these minerals in the mangrove soils studied is related to sedimentation left by past marine transgressions, to neoformation processes, or yet to a combination of both origins.Minerais de argila esmectíticos são freqüentemente identificados em solos de manguezais, mas são escassas as informações sobre os tipos encontrados e suas origens. A despeito da importância para a agronomia e geotecnia, as esmectitas desempenham também importante papel no âmbito ambiental, atuando na adsorção de nutrientes, poluentes orgânicos e metais pesados. Esmectitas em solos de manguezais podem ser de origem detrítica, marinha ou continental, e também de neoformação. Assim, este estudo objetivou

  20. Preliminary analysis on the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes in geological formations of Sao Paulo state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Luis Antonio Terribile de

    1981-01-01

    Several studies show that deep geological formations are the most promising solution - technical and economical - for the safe disposal of the high-level radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry. In order to obtain the necessary information to assess on the use of geological sites in Brazil - for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste generated by the brazilian nuclear industry - a careful survey on the basalt and granite rocks of Sao Paulo State was made. The data obtained were evaluated according to guidelines established by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The favourable and unfavourable characteristics of the basalts, granites and their respective occurrence areas in the Sao Paulo state territory - as potential waste disposal sites - were analysed. This preliminary and regional characterization is not a conclusive study whether these two rocks types are definitively the most suitable geological formations for use as nuclear waste repository or not. It is the subsidy for a more detailed analysis. Other factors such as social, political and economical aspects, ecological effects, engineering geology, heat generation rate of the waste, type of radiation emitted and corrosive nature of the waste must also be taken into account. (author)

  1. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Walace A.A., E-mail: walace@usp.br [Setor de Analises Toxicologicas. CETESB, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: defavaro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao com Neutrons

    2011-07-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  2. List of documented bird species from the municipality of Ubatuba, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Simpson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although preliminary surveys have been conducted at the Atlantic Forest of Ubatuba, there is no list of documented bird records from this coastline municipality. To organize such a compilation, we searched the literature and a number of different sources for all documented records of birds from Ubatuba, state of São Paulo. We further carried out a 7-year non-systematic bird inventory in different regions and elevations to document the species within the municipality. The total number of documented bird species is 417, 11% of which are endemic to Brazil. Another 26% are Atlantic Forest endemics and as many as 60 species are under threat categories, including near-threatened birds, in the state. Some 49 species of 27 families are reported from the municipality but still lack documentation. Considering historical records, no species have extinguished from the municipality. Ubatuba is one of the most studied regions along Serra do Mar in São Paulo regarding its ornithology, but there are still high-elevational gaps that will yield significant additions of species to the area with increasing surveying efforts.

  3. Feasibility study on energy conservation at Sao Paulo state primary schools in the Federative Republic of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A feasibility study has been performed on the energy conservation project aimed at the future CDM in relation with energy consumption in the lighting equipment at the Sao Paulo state primary schools in the Federative Republic of Brazil. Out of about 5,500 primary schools existing in Sao Paulo, 3,414 schools were selected as the objects of the surveys and discussions. The present program intends to introduce energy saving facilities such as high-efficiency fluorescent lamps and controls for illuminating the primary schools to save the energies and reduce emission of the global warming gases. In this economy project, the owners do not need to make initial investments, wherein the required funds are taken care by conservation of electric power during the service contract period. If about 3,000 schools are selected as the object, a fund of about 2.3 billion yen will be required in total. Total energy conservation quantity during 15 years from 2002 to 2016 as achieved by this project will be 532,740 MWh, corresponding to 114,540 tons of crude oil. The effect of reducing the emission of global warming gases will be 110,949 t-CO2 during the same period of time. (NEDO)

  4. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Salto Grande reservoir, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Walace A.A.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.

    2011-01-01

    The Salto Grande Reservoir is used for electric generation, irrigation, fish farming, recreation and water supply for the region's cities. The reservoir belongs to the city of Americana, located in on the eastern region of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. It belongs to the Piracicaba River Hydrographic Basin, the second most important economic and populated region and one of the most polluted areas in the State. This basin is located in a highly industrialized and agricultural region. Due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities as well as sewage wastes the water and sediments of this reservoir and surroundings are extremely contaminated, mainly by metals, according to CETESB (Environmental Control Agency of the Sao Paulo State). In order to obtain better information about its sediment contamination the present study reports results of the concentration of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and rare earth (Ce, Eu, La, Lu, Nd, Sc, Sm, Tb and Yb)) elements in sediments and Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb concentration in sediments and water from the Salto Grande Reservoir. Multielementar analysis was carried out by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Multielemental concentrations in the sediment samples were compared to NASC (North American Shale Composite) values. The concentration values for metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were compared to the Canadian Council of Minister of the Environment (CCME) oriented values (TEL and PEL) and adopted by CETESB, (author)

  5. Meningococcal Disease Caused by Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup B Serotype 4 in São Paulo, Brazil, 1990 to 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacchi Claudio Tavares

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A large epidemic of serogroup B meningococcal disease (MD, has been occurring in greater São Paulo, Brazil, since 1988.21 A Cuban-produced vaccine, based on outer-membrane-protein (OMP from serogroup B: serotype 4: serosubtype P1.15 (B:4:P1.15 Neisseria meningitidis, was given to about 2.4 million children aged from 3 months to 6 years during 1989 and 1990. The administration of vaccine had little or no measurable effects on this outbreak. In order to detect clonal changes that could explain the continued increase in the incidence of disease after the vaccination, we serotyped isolates recovered between 1990 and 1996 from 834 patients with systemic disease. Strains B:4:P1.15, which was detected in the area as early as 1977, has been the most prevalent phenotype since 1988. These strains are still prevalent in the area and were responsible for about 68% of 834 serogroup B cases in the last 7 years. We analyzed 438 (52% of these strains by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLPs of rRNA genes (ribotyping. The most frequent pattern obtained was referred to as Rb1 (68%. We concluded that the same clone of B:4:P1.15-Rb1 strains was the most prevalent strain and responsible for the continued increase of incidence of serogroup B MD cases in greater São Paulo during the last 7 years in spite of the vaccination trial.

  6. Frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms of some immune response genes in a population sample from São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Campos de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphismsof a few immune response genes in a population sample from SãoPaulo City (SP, Brazil. Methods: Data on allele frequencies ofknown polymorphisms of innate and acquired immunity genes werepresented, the majority with proven impact on gene function. Datawere gathered from a sample of healthy individuals, non-HLA identicalsiblings of bone marrow transplant recipients from the Hospital dasClínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo,obtained between 1998 and 2005. The number of samples variedfor each single nucleotide polymorphism analyzed by polymerasechain reaction followed by restriction enzyme cleavage. Results:Allele and genotype distribution of 41 different gene polymorphisms,mostly cytokines, but also including other immune response genes,were presented. Conclusion: We believe that the data presentedhere can be of great value for case-control studies, to define whichpolymorphisms are present in biologically relevant frequencies and toassess targets for therapeutic intervention in polygenic diseases witha component of immune and inflammatory responses.

  7. Faunistic survey of sandstone caves from Altinópolis region, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Douglas Zeppelini Filho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of eight sandstone caves of the region of Altinópolis, (Serra Geral Arenitic Speleological province, São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil was surveyed. Our results improve the previous faunistic knowledge of the region, recording 15 new occurrences for Brazilian caves and 26 for Brazilian sandstone caves. The fauna is characterized by a large number of detritivores/omnivores such as crickets and cockroaches, and several predators like spiders and heteropterans in bat guano.A fauna de oito cavernas areníticas da região de Altinópolis (província espeleológica arenítica da Serra Geral, Estado de São Paulo, Sudeste do Brasil foi amostrada. Nossos resultados aumentaram o conhecimento faunístico prévio da região, com o registro de 15 novas ocorrências para cavernas brasileiras e 26 para cavernas brasileiras em arenito. A fauna é caracterizada por um grande número de detritívoros/carnívoros tais como grilos e baratas, diversos predadores tais como aranhas e heterópteros no guano de morcego.

  8. Education in nuclear science at IPEN - CNEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Advanced School of Nuclear Energy-EAEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semmler, R.; Catharino, M.G.M.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    2012-01-01

    EAEN (Advanced School of Nuclear Energy, 2010) is an annual school that consists of a week of activities in the area of Nuclear Physics, Radiochemistry and uses of Nuclear Energy for a public made of high school students. The EAEN project represents a pioneering program on science education and dissemination of knowledge, conducted by researchers and focused mainly on high school and scientific education for the population in general. The school's priority is to explore the failures and the lack of education in the dissemination of nuclear energy for high school students as well as to attract prospective students with great potential for graduate courses of IPEN and other institutions in Sao Paulo and in Brazil. (author)

  9. A survey of body practices and primary health care in a district of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara M. Carvalho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study surveyed the profile of people who did or did not take part in programs and activities in primary healthcare units in the Butantã district, the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The rationale for the study was the concept of body practice understood as a practice of health and care. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to 1090 individuals mostly middle-aged housewives. Only 5.78% of respondents were enrolled in some program and activities, mainly walking and stretching. There was a consensus between participants and non-participants on the importance of initiatives geared to care for the body and attention to health. The difficulties for having access to programs and the lack of options in the health public service were pointed out as the main obstacles for a greater involvement by local population.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild rodents and marsupials from the Atlantic Forest, state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Solange Maria Gennari

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that infects a large spectrum of warm-blooded animals, including humans. Small rodents and marsupials play an important role in the epidemiology of T. gondii because they are sources of infection for domestic and feral cats. Serum samples from 151 rodents and 48 marsupials, captured in the Atlantic Forest, São Paulo State, southeastern Brazil, were analyzed for the presence of T. gondii antibodies. Antibodies detected by the modified agglutination test (MAT ≥ 25 were found in 8.6% (13/151 of the rodents and 10.4% (5/48 of the marsupials, with titers ranging from 25 to 6400 and from 25 to 3200, respectively for the rodents and marsupials. Three of the eight species of rodents (Akodon spp., Oligoryzomys nigripesand Rattus norvegicus, and one from the four marsupial species (Didelphis aurita presented positive animals. T. gondii was described for the first time in the rodent Oligoryzomys nigripes.

  11. Bottom sediment transport by radioactive tracer techniques off a stretch of the southern coast from Sao Paulo State - Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomtempo, V.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results obtained with radioactive tracer techniques as applied to study sea-bottom sediments movements off a stretch of the southern coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, namely Praia do Una. Three injections of ground glass containing Iridium-192 were made and the behaviour of this material was tracked by special detection techniques, as it was acted upon by hydrodynamic agents, in two distinct periods of the year of 1982 (summer and winter). Measurement of hydrodynamic parameters was conducted simultaneously with tracer experiments. From the experiments with radioactive tracers, combined with other conventional studies, qualitative and quantitative conclusions could be drawn, as follows: waves are the prevailing agents in moving bottom sediments; during summer time, onshore and alongshore transport can be identified; during winter time, offshore and alongshore transport are present; for summer conditions, Massif transport rate was estimated to be 150 kg m -1 day -1 . (author). 2 refs, 3 figs

  12. Infection of Amblyomma ovale with Rickettsia species Atlantic rainforest in Serra do Mar, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; McIntosh, Douglas; Furusawa, Guilherme P; Flausino, Walter; Rozental, Tatiana; Lemos, Elba R S; Landulfo, Gabriel A; Faccini, João Luiz H

    2016-10-01

    Rickettsia rickettsii and Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, that is considered to represent a genetic variant of Rickettsia parkeri, are confirmed as being capable of infecting humans in Brazil. This study reports the detection and characterization, by PCR and nucleotide sequencing, of Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rain forest in Amblyomma ovale parasitizing a human, in ticks infesting dogs and in free-living ticks collected from the environment where the human infestation was recorded. The data contribute to our knowledge of infection rates in A. ovale with Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest and identified an additional location in the state of São Paulo populated with ticks infected with this emerging pathogen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk produced in dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Fagundes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in milk produced in 37 farms located in the regions of Ribeirão Preto and São Carlos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Two-hundred and eight samples of milk from individual cows showing subclinical mastitis, and 37 samples of bulk tank milk were analyzed. S. aureus strains were detected in 18 (7.3% milk samples: 14 (6.7% from samples of individual cows, and 4 (10.8% from bulk tank milk. Two individual milk samples (14.3% and two bulk milk samples contained enterotoxigenic S. aureus. PFGE analysis revealed the genetic heterogeneity of the strains isolated from raw milk, which presented to 13 S. aureus patterns. Results confirmed the potential transmission of staphylococcal food poisoning to consumers via milk of cows affected by subclinical mastitis, mainly when raw milk is ingested.

  14. [The sexual behavior of adolescents in some schools in the city of Embu, São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brêtas, José Roberto da Silva; Ohara, Conceição Vieira da Silva; Jardim, Dulcilene Pereira

    2008-12-01

    It is a descriptive, qualitative study aimed at identifying some aspects related to teenagers' sexual behavior. The subjects of the study were 920 adolescents aged 10 to 19, who were attending primary and secondary schools in the region of Santo Eduardo, municipality of Embu, São Paulo, Brazil. The data were collected through a questionnaire with 28 structured questions. The results show that 77% of adolescents liked their bodies, 71% looked for information about sexuality, and 35% thought their parents were the primary source of information; 26% of them said they had an active sexual life, 79% had had the first sexual intercourse at the age of 14 or younger, and 81% used condoms. The results of the study emphasize the importance of providing sexual guidance for adolescents in order to encourage prevention attitudes.

  15. Surtos populacionais de Bemisia tabaci no estado de São Paulo Outbreaks of Bemisia tabaci in the São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Lourenção

    1994-01-01

    : Aleyrodidae infesting vegetables and ornamental plants in some localities of São Paulo State, Brazil, has been observed. High densities of this insect were verified on tomato, broccoli, egg-plant and squash; in some cases, tomato and squash presented the whitefly-related disorders named tomato irregular repening and squash silverleaf. Weeds, mainly Sida rhombifolia L., Sonchus oleraceus L., Solanum viarum Dun. and Ipomoea acuminata Roem. & Schult., showed high whitefly colonization. At the Holambra county intensive colonizations were recorded on or-namental plants, mainly Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. and Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. (poinsettia. Daily insecticide applications did not reduce the insect infestations. Other crops, such as bean and cotton, were also infested. The disorders and type of infestations are similar to what has been observed in the U.S.A. In this country, the ability of certain populations of B. tabaci to induce the silverleaf disorder of squash and to colonize poinsettia intensely, among other characteristics, has been used to distinguish the "poinsettia strain" or "B strain". However, based on genomic and crossing/mating behavior studies, some investigators have considered that these two strains represent different species. In view of the similarity of the infestations and disorders that are occurring in the U.S.A., and more recently in São Paulo State, it is very likely that the "B strain" (or the new species has been introduced in Brazil.

  16. Chemical characterization of organic particulate matter from on-road traffic in São Paulo, Brazil

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    B. S. Oyama

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reports emission of organic particulate matter by light-duty vehicles (LDVs and heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, where vehicles run on three different fuel types: gasoline with 25 % ethanol (called gasohol, E25, hydrated ethanol (E100, and diesel (with 5 % biodiesel. The experiments were performed at two tunnels: Jânio Quadros (TJQ, where 99 % of the vehicles are LDVs, and RodoAnel Mário Covas (TRA, where up to 30 % of the fleet are HDVs. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 samples were collected on quartz filters in May and July 2011 at TJQ and TRA, respectively. The samples were analyzed by thermal-desorption proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (TD-PTR-MS and by thermal–optical transmittance (TOT. Emission factors (EFs for organic aerosol (OA and organic carbon (OC were calculated for the HDV and the LDV fleet. We found that HDVs emitted more PM2.5 than LDVs, with OC EFs of 108 and 523 mg kg−1 burned fuel for LDVs and HDVs, respectively. More than 700 ions were identified by TD-PTR-MS and the EF profiles obtained from HDVs and LDVs exhibited distinct features. Unique organic tracers for gasoline, biodiesel, and tire wear have been tentatively identified. nitrogen-containing compounds contributed around 20 % to the EF values for both types of vehicles, possibly associated with incomplete fuel burning or fast secondary production. Additionally, 70 and 65 % of the emitted mass (i.e. the OA originates from oxygenated compounds from LDVs and HDVs, respectively. This may be a consequence of the high oxygen content of the fuel. On the other hand, additional oxygenation may occur during fuel combustion. The high fractions of nitrogen- and oxygen-containing compounds show that chemical processing close to the engine / tailpipe region is an important factor influencing primary OA emission. The thermal-desorption analysis showed that HDVs emitted compounds with higher volatility, and with

  17. Use of psychotropic medications in São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil: pattern of healthcare provision to general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanha, Angela Maria; Siu, Erica Rosanna; Milhorança, Igor André; Viana, Maria Carmen; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Andrade, Laura Helena

    2015-11-01

    We estimate the proportion of psychotropic medication use (PMU) among adults in São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil. We investigated whether socio-demographic factors, comorbidity, and disease severity influence PMU among individuals with psychiatric disorders. Data are from the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, a cross-sectional, population-based study, the Brazilian branch of the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Trained lay interviewers face-to-face assessed psychiatric disorders and PMU through the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Respondents were asked about use of healthcare service and prescribed medications for mental disorders in the previous year. Information on PMU was collected for 2935 adult residents in the area and among those with disorders who received treatment. Around 6% of respondents reported PMU in the past year: hypnotics or sedatives were used by 3.7% and antidepressants by 3.5%. Among individuals with 12-month disorders, only 14% reported past year PMU. Gender, age, education, income, occupational status, comorbidity, and severity were significant predictors for PMU. Among those with 12-month DSM-IV disorders who obtained treatment in healthcare settings, almost 40% received medication only. Among those treated in specialty mental health service, around 23% received combination of medication and psychotherapy. Our study has pointed out that the recent trend of access to mental healthcare in Brazil depicts unmet needs, characterized by a low prevalence of PMU among individuals with psychiatric disorders. Policies that improve appropriate access to prescribed drugs for those most in need are urgent public health priority. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Air quality status and trends over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo, Brazil as a result of emission control policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Vanessa Silveira Barreto; Freitas, Edmilson Dias; Martins, Leila Droprinchinski; Martins, Jorge Alberto; Mazzoli, Caroline Rosario; Andrade, Maria de Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Air pollutants concentrations shows benefits of Brazil's emission control policies. • Reduction in concentrations were due to vehicular emission control program. • SO 2 concentration reduction was due to a decrease in sulphur content used in fuels. • Monthly, weekly and diurnal cycle averages indicate the effects of vehicle emissions. - Abstract: Fourteen years of regulated air pollutants concentrations were analyzed in order to characterize the benefits of Brazil's emission control policies on air quality conditions and to evaluate the temporal patterns between 1996 and 2009 over the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP). MASP includes one of the largest cities in the world (São Paulo) and its light-duty vehicular fleet has a very important characteristic in that it uses, on a large scale, fuels such as ethanol derived from sugar cane and compressed natural gas. Nowadays, ethanol makes up more than 50% of the fuel used in Brazil. The frequent episodes with high ozone and PM 10 concentration values in the MASP are mostly associated with vehicular emissions – primary emission of particles and gases enrolled in ozone photochemical production and formation of secondary fine particles. Although the fleet has increased at a substantial rate, annual mean values show a diminishing tendency for all pollutants except for ozone, which presents no significant tendency. This diminishing tendency in the analyzed period is due to the vehicular emission control program established by the Brazilian Government in 1986, called PROCONVE (Program for the Control of Vehicular Emission). Monthly mean values, as expected, show higher concentrations of all pollutants except for ozone during wintertime. The diurnal cycle of the pollutants in most of the stations shows two peaks, associated with rush hours, except for ozone, whose peak follows the maximum radiation incidence. Secondary (nocturnal) ozone concentration maxima were sometimes verified around

  19. Socioeconomic inequalities in dental health services in Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2003-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Monteiro (Camila); M.A. Beenackers (Marielle); Goldbaum, M. (Moisés); De Azevedo Barros, M.B. (Marilisa Berti); Gianini, R.J. (Reinaldo José); Cesar, C.L.G. (Chester Luiz Galvão); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background:__ Access to, and use of, dental health services in Brazil have improved since 2003. The increase of private health care plans and the implementation of the "Smiling Brazil" Program, the largest public oral health care program in the world, could have influenced this

  20. Fatores de risco associados à mortalidade infantil em duas áreas da região metropolitana de São Paulo (Brasil, 1984-1985: proposta de instrumentos preditivos Risk factors associated with infant mortality in two municipalities of the metropolitan area of S.Paulo (Brazil, 1984-1985: proposal for a predictive scoring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chester L. G. Cesar

    1990-08-01

    consistes of children under one year of life, whose deaths had been registered during the years 1984 and 1985 and whose parents lived in Cotia and Vargem Grande Paulista (149 cases. The control group was a probabilistic sample of 216 children born in 1984, which survived the first year of life and whose parents lived in the same area. All the mothers were interviewed by means of a questionnaire for the identification of independent variables associated with infant death. The statistically associated variables were grouped in four scales: to be used, respectively, in the antenatal period, prior to delivery and in the neonatal and post-neonatal periods. The variables were weighted in the scales according to the values of the odds ratio, and they have different cut points, each one having its own sensibility, specificity and predictive value.

  1. Biomonitoring of the atmospheric pollution using lichens in the metropolitan area of Sao Paulo city, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Fuga, A.; Alves, E.R.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.; Marcelli, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    The atmospheric pollution of Sao Paulo city is a serious problem due to the expansion of industrial area, increasing number of vehicles and population density. This work presents results obtained in the analysis of lichens collected in different sites of Sao Paulo city and in non-polluted areas of Atlantic Forest. Concentrations of twenty elements were determined in Canoparmelia texanaspecies and comparisons were made between the results obtained in lichens from different sites. High concentrations of the elements As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Sb and Zn were found for samples collected in sites located near industries and petrochemical plant. Br and Sb concentrations were also high in lichens from sites affected by vehicular emissions. (author)

  2. BOTHROPS JARARACUSSU: A NEW RECORD FOR THE MUNICIPALITY OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silara Fatima Batista

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bothrops jararacussu is a terrestrial snake, predominantly nocturnal, and mainly found in forested areas. Our objective was to provide the first record of B.jararacussu for the municipality of São Paulo, in the highland of Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (PESM, Núcleo Curucutu. The register ocurred through monthly samplings in the Núcleo Curucutu, during one year. The specimen was found in a transitional area of Atlantic upper montane forest and Pinus sp. reforestation. It represents a new altitude record (>800m in a well-preserved area, reiterating the importance of this park for the maintenance of biodiversity in this municipality and evinces the region potential to house rare species in São Paulo highland.

  3. Studies of osteoporosis in urban residents of Sao Paulo, Brazil, using isotope related techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borelli, A.

    2000-01-01

    This project is aimed at defining the peak of bone mass in an urban population chosen randomly on account of the great miscegenation in Sao Paulo. It is quite important to know the peak of bone mass and the factors that would interfere in the amount of bone formed as they are valuable guides for future plans of osteoporosis prevention. In our previous meeting it was decided to increase the number of individuals studied from 210 to 350 and proceed with the evaluation of patient information according with the questionnaire proposed. In this report it is presented the results on bone mineral density of lumbar L1-L4 and neck of femur in the total of 350 patients (175 women and 175 men). The complete data, as well as the information obtained from the questionnaire will be sent in the future reports as programed in the meeting of Sao Paulo

  4. Analysis of landscapes of the south coast in São Paulo State (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Renê Lepiani; Oliveira, Regina Célia de

    2012-01-01

    The South Coast of São Paulo is structured in two main areas morphostructural: Atlantic Orogenic Belt and Cenozoic Sedimentary Basins. In this area are found various morphologies, that are in the form of trims topographic scarps, valleys carved, organization of major river network, the sharp convex tops in the Atlantic Forest domain extensive plain with the presence of unconsolidated deposits and important environmental systems, such as those related to mangroves. The landscape in which organ...

  5. Menopausa, hormônios, envelhecimento: discursos de mulheres que vivem em um bairro na periferia da cidade de São Paulo, estado de São Paulo, Brasil Menopause, hormones, aging: the discourse of women living on the outskirts of the city of São Paulo, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkis Trench

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar os discursos de mulheres usuárias de unidade básica de saúde da periferia da cidade de São Paulo, no estado de São Paulo, Brazil, sobre a menopausa para compreender os sentidos que elas atribuem a este evento. MÉTODOS: foram entrevistadas oito mulheres entre 44 e 75 anos, empregando-se a metodologia qualitativa na perspectiva do construcionismo social, de modo que os dados foram coletados por meio de observação participante, história de vida e entrevistas. RESULTADOs: nas mulheres estudadas, a menopausa é vivida de modo geral como um acontecimento inevitável, relacionado ao corpo e à vida, e é considerada uma entidade estranha, ou inimiga, que ataca as mulheres de maneira inesperada. CONCLUSÕES: nas mulheres estudadas os resultados indicam que este período deve ser percebido em seu caráter particular e relativo, não como sendo da ordem do universal ou como algo padronizado.OBJECTIVES: to analize the discourse regarding the menopause in women attending a health service unit on the outskirts of the city of São Paulo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in order to understand the meaning they attribute to this event. METHODS: eight women aged between 44 and 75 years were interviewed using qualitative methods and a social constructionist approach. The data were collected using participant observation, life histories and interviews. RESULTS: in the group of study the menopause is experienced by these women as an inevitable occurrence related to their bodies and lives and is also considered a strange inimical event that afflicts them unexpectedly. CONCLUSIONS: in ghe group of study the results indicate how important it is to approach the menopause is such a way that is viewed as something relative and particular to each individual, not as something universal and standardized.

  6. Days out-of-role due to common physical and mental health problems: Results from the Sao Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey, Brazil

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    Laura Helena Andrade

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relative importance of common physical and mental disorders with regard to the number of days out-of-role (DOR; number of days for which a person is completely unable to work or carry out normal activities because of health problems in a population-based sample of adults in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil. METHODS: The São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey was administered during face-to-face interviews with 2,942 adult household residents. The presence of 8 chronic physical disorders and 3 classes of mental disorders (mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders was assessed for the previous year along with the number of days in the previous month for which each respondent was completely unable to work or carry out normal daily activities due to health problems. Using multiple regression analysis, we examined the associations of the disorders and their comorbidities with the number of days out-of-role while controlling for socio-demographic variables. Both individual-level and population-level associations were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 13.1% of the respondents reported 1 or more days out-of-role in the previous month, with an annual median of 41.4 days out-of-role. The disorders considered in this study accounted for 71.7% of all DOR; the disorders that caused the greatest number of DOR at the individual-level were digestive (22.6, mood (19.9, substance use (15.0, chronic pain (16.5, and anxiety (14.0 disorders. The disorders associated with the highest population-attributable DOR were chronic pain (35.2%, mood (16.5%, and anxiety (15.0% disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Because pain, anxiety, and mood disorders have high effects at both the individual and societal levels, targeted interventions to reduce the impairments associated with these disorders have the highest potential to reduce the societal burdens of chronic illness in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area.

  7. Tropical Daoism: transplant of Daoism to Brazil through the Taoist Society of Brazil and the Taoist Society of São Paulo

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    Matheus Oliva da Costa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Daoism is a religion of Chinese origins that since the 19th century started to have contact with the Brazilian culture, beneath the Orientalism force.  Since the second half of the 20th century, we see a second wave of Daoism spread, albeit indirectly. In the 1970s the Wǔ family – Wu Jyh Cherng within them (Wǔ Zhìchéng – migrates from Taiwan to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In the 1990s, this Taiwanese naturalized Brazilian priest of the Way of the Celestial Masters founded the Daoist Society of Brazil (Sociedade Taoísta do Brasil - STB along Brazilians, and later the Daoist Society in São Paulo (Sociedade Taoísta SP - ST-SP, which is our object of study. The goal here was to analyze the Daoism transplantation process in Brazil through the STB and ST-SP. In addition to a systematization of the authors regarding the transplantation of religions theory, we were based on the theory of cultural hybridization, and a set of interpreters of Brazilian culture and Brazilian religion. We created the central hypothesis that in the STB and ST-SP the Daoism would be increasingly a hybrid result of the Brazilian religious matrix and an ideal model of Daoist linked to China. Methodologically, we conducted an extensive and constant literature review, and we refer to primary printed sources, virtual and audiovisual sources, participatory research, semi-structured interviews and informal conversations. With these data, we performed an analysis using the theoretical framework, which allowed us to confirm the central hypothesis. We also wove systematic contributions on: the presence and the type of Daoism entry in Brazil, identification of socio-historical phases of STB and ST-SP, and several observations about the process and results of transplantation of this Daoist group, such as the accommodation of the Brazilian religious demands on the liturgical rituals of these institutions.

  8. Ocorrência de Scapholeberis armata freyi Dumont & Pensaert (Crustácea, Anomopoda, Daphniidae no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Occurrence of Scapholeberis armata freyi Dumont & Pensaert (Crustácea, Anomopoda, Daphniidae in São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes M.A. Elmoor-Loureiro

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, Scapholeberis armata freyi Dumont & Pensaert, 1983 is registered in São Paulo State. The previously suggested occurrence of this species in Brazil is confirmed.

  9. The impact of temperature on mortality in a subtropical city: effects of cold, heat, and heat waves in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Young; Gouveia, Nelson; Bravo, Mercedes A.; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Bell, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how weather impacts health is critical, especially under a changing climate; however, relatively few studies have investigated subtropical regions. We examined how mortality in São Paulo, Brazil, is affected by cold, heat, and heat waves over 14.5 years (1996-2010). We used over-dispersed generalized linear modeling to estimate heat- and cold-related mortality, and Bayesian hierarchical modeling to estimate overall effects and modification by heat wave characteristics (intensity, duration, and timing in season). Stratified analyses were performed by cause of death and individual characteristics (sex, age, education, marital status, and place of death). Cold effects on mortality appeared higher than heat effects in this subtropical city with moderate climatic conditions. Heat was associated with respiratory mortality and cold with cardiovascular mortality. Risk of total mortality was 6.1 % (95 % confidence interval 4.7, 7.6 %) higher at the 99th percentile of temperature than the 90th percentile (heat effect) and 8.6 % (6.2, 11.1 %) higher at the 1st compared to the 10th percentile (cold effect). Risks were higher for females and those with no education for heat effect, and males for cold effect. Older persons, widows, and non-hospital deaths had higher mortality risks for heat and cold. Mortality during heat waves was higher than on non-heat wave days for total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality. Our findings indicate that mortality in São Paulo is associated with both cold and heat and that some subpopulations are more vulnerable.

  10. The impact of temperature on mortality in a subtropical city: effects of cold, heat, and heat waves in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Ji-Young; Gouveia, Nelson; Bravo, Mercedes A; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Bell, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how weather impacts health is critical, especially under a changing climate; however, relatively few studies have investigated subtropical regions. We examined how mortality in São Paulo, Brazil, is affected by cold, heat, and heat waves over 14.5 years (1996-2010). We used over-dispersed generalized linear modeling to estimate heat- and cold-related mortality, and Bayesian hierarchical modeling to estimate overall effects and modification by heat wave characteristics (intensity, duration, and timing in season). Stratified analyses were performed by cause of death and individual characteristics (sex, age, education, marital status, and place of death). Cold effects on mortality appeared higher than heat effects in this subtropical city with moderate climatic conditions. Heat was associated with respiratory mortality and cold with cardiovascular mortality. Risk of total mortality was 6.1% (95% confidence interval 4.7, 7.6%) higher at the 99th percentile of temperature than the 90th percentile (heat effect) and 8.6% (6.2, 11.1%) higher at the 1st compared to the 10th percentile (cold effect). Risks were higher for females and those with no education for heat effect, and males for cold effect. Older persons, widows, and non-hospital deaths had higher mortality risks for heat and cold. Mortality during heat waves was higher than on non-heat wave days for total, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality. Our findings indicate that mortality in São Paulo is associated with both cold and heat and that some subpopulations are more vulnerable.

  11. Study of seasonal variation biochemical parameters of rodents and lagomorphs from the Vivarium of the Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Marilda Osti Spinelli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Spinelli M.O., da Cruz R.J., de Godoy C.M.S.C., Motta M.C. & Damy S.B. [Study of seasonal variation biochemical parameters of rodents and lagomorphs from the Vivarium of the Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.] Estudo da variação sazonal dos parâmetros bioquímicos de roedores e lagomorfos do biotério da Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(2:219-225, 2014. Faculdade de Medicina, Divisão Técnica de Apoio ao Ensino e Pesquisa, Biotério Central, Avenida Doutor Arnaldo, 455, Cerqueira César, São Paulo, SP 01246-903, Brasil. E-mail: marilda@biot.fm.usp.br This work aimed to study the seasonal variation of the biochemical parameters of mice inbred BALB / c and C57BL / 6 mice, rats and rabbits New Zealand, the Vivarium of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo. Which is its clinical significance, assessing the analytes plasma ALT (alanine aminotransferase, AST (aspartate aminotransaminase, urea, urea-BUN (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, total cholesterol and fractions VLDL (very low density lipoprotein, HDL (high density lipoprotein and LDL (low density lipoprotein? The results showed an increase in concentrations of analytes, statistical significance, especially in summer. The hypotheses that causes nutritional, infectious, water stress or climatic variations did not affect them, suggesting that to assess the health status of colonies of laboratory animals, biochemical parameters must be considered within the range of variation expected for each colony under study.

  12. A combined method for evaluating radon and progeny in waters and its use at Guarani aquifer, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, D.M.; Mello, C.B.

    2006-01-01

    A combined method for evaluating radon ( 222 Rn) and progeny ( 214 Pb and 214 Bi) in water was developed by using inexpensive alpha scintillation counting and gamma ray spectrometry through NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. A groundwater sample collected at the Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif in Brazil was submitted to the technique in order to assure its applicability by comparing the volumetric activities by different methods. Similar volumetric activity was determined for 214 Pb and 214 Bi in the sample analyzed that is compatible with the expected condition of radioactive equilibrium between these nuclides. The combined method was successfully used to analyze groundwater samples from Guarani aquifer in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and the results of the measurements indicated that 214 Pb and 214 Bi provide useful information concerning the evaluation of the drinking water quality in terms of radiological aspects. This is because they are directly identified in the water samples, without the need of requiring the assumption of the establishment of the transient equilibrium condition with its parent 222 Rn

  13. A combined method for evaluating radon and progeny in waters and its use at Guarani aquifer, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonotto, D.M. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), IGCE-Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. E-mail: dbonotto@rc.unesp.br; Mello, C.B. [Departamento de Petrologia e Metalogenia, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), IGCE-Instituto de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas, Av. 24-A, No. 1515, C.P. 178, CEP 13506-900, Rio Claro, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    A combined method for evaluating radon ({sup 222}Rn) and progeny ({sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi) in water was developed by using inexpensive alpha scintillation counting and gamma ray spectrometry through NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors. A groundwater sample collected at the Pocos de Caldas alkaline massif in Brazil was submitted to the technique in order to assure its applicability by comparing the volumetric activities by different methods. Similar volumetric activity was determined for {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi in the sample analyzed that is compatible with the expected condition of radioactive equilibrium between these nuclides. The combined method was successfully used to analyze groundwater samples from Guarani aquifer in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and the results of the measurements indicated that {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi provide useful information concerning the evaluation of the drinking water quality in terms of radiological aspects. This is because they are directly identified in the water samples, without the need of requiring the assumption of the establishment of the transient equilibrium condition with its parent {sup 222}Rn.

  14. Radon and progeny (214Pb and 214Bi) in urban water-supply systems of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, Daniel Marcos; Padron-Armada, Priscilla Cardoso

    2008-01-01

    Many water-supply systems in South America utilize the waters of the Guarani aquifer at least as part of their networks. However, there is little present knowledge in Brazil of the factors affecting Rn presence in the water supplied for end-users, despite the economic importance of Guarani aquifer. 222 Rn analyzes of 162 water samples were performed at 8 municipalities in Sao Paulo State, Brazil, with the aim of investigating the major factors affecting its presence in solution. The 222 Rn activity concentration ranged from 0.04 up to 204.9 Bq/L, with three samples exceeding the World Health Organization maximum limit of 100 Bq/L. Aeration was confirmed as the most important factor for Rn release, as expected due to its gaseous nature. Accumulation in pipes and stratification in the water column were other significant factors explaining the data obtained in some circumstances. The Rn daughters 214 Pb and 214 Bi were also determined in a set of selected samples and their presence was directly related to the occurrence of Rn dissolved in water

  15. Soil-plant transfer models for metals to improve soil screening value guidelines valid for São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos-Araujo, Sabrina N; Swartjes, Frank A; Versluijs, Kees W; Moreno, Fabio Netto; Alleoni, Luís R F

    2017-11-07

    In Brazil, there is a lack of combined soil-plant data attempting to explain the influence of specific climate, soil conditions, and crop management on heavy metal uptake and accumulation by plants. As a consequence, soil-plant relationships to be used in risk assessments or for derivation of soil screening values are not available. Our objective in this study was to develop empirical soil-plant models for Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn, in order to derive appropriate soil screening values representative of humid tropical regions such as the state of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. Soil and plant samples from 25 vegetable species in the production areas of SP were collected. The concentrations of metals found in these soil samples were relatively low. Therefore, data from temperate regions were included in our study. The soil-plant relations derived had a good performance for SP conditions for 8 out of 10 combinations of metal and vegetable species. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) values for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in lettuce and for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in carrot were determined under three exposure scenarios at pH 5 and 6. The application of soil-plant models and the BCFs proposed in this study can be an important tool to derive national soil quality criteria. However, this methodological approach includes data assessed under different climatic conditions and soil types and need to be carefully considered.

  16. Thermochronology of the South American platform in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, through apatite fission tracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello Saenz, C.A.; Hadler Neto, J.C.; Iunes, P.J.; Guedes, S.; Hackspacher, P.C.; Ribeiro, L.F.B.; Paulo, S.R.; Osorio A, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The fission-track method (FTM) in apatite was applied to 45 samples collected in the Serra da Mantiqueira (Mantiqueira mountain range), the Serra do Mar (Mar mountain range), regions next to these mountain ranges and the coastal region between Ubatuba and Santos in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, to study the thermochronology of the South American Platform in southeast Brazil and its influence on Santos and Campos basins. The data presented in this work complement the previously presented data on the same region (Tello Saenz et al., 2003. J. S. Am. Earth Sci. 15, 765-774) with 31 new samples analyzed. The weighted mean of the corrected ages from high Mantiqueira (around 1000m), (121+/-6)Ma, coincides with the South Atlantic opening. The fact that its thermal history starts at a relatively low temperature (∼80 deg. C) suggests that the age of ∼120Ma would be the formation age of Serra da Mantiqueira due to a rapid pulse, in which tracks had no time to be retained at the closure temperature, that is ∼120 deg. C. The Serra do Mar presents a more complicated thermal history, with several reactivations indicated by the changes in the slope of its cooling curve. The thermal histories obtained in the regions next to these mountain ranges are compatible with the results mentioned above. The Santos Basin has unconformities that agree with changes in the slope thermal histories of the studied region

  17. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovronick, Noah; França, Daniela; Alonso, Marcelo; Almeida, Claudia; Longo, Karla; Freitas, Saulo; Rudorff, Bernardo; Wilkinson, Paul

    2016-07-11

    It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil's high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone was 3.0 μg/m³ and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol) scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline.

  18. Description of six autochthonous cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosed in Pedregulho (São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Regina de Abreu

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is an infectious disease of chronic, emerging and zoonotic nature that presents various degrees of severity. In Brazil, this illness is caused by Leishmania infantum (Leishmania chagasi, which is transmitted by the bite of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, and dogs are its main reservoir. Given the increasing spread of this disease across Brazil, the aim of this study was to report on six cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis, diagnosed in June 2013, in the city of Pedregulho, State of São Paulo, considered to be a non-endemic area and free of phlebotomine sand flies. The diagnosis was based on clinical signs of the patients and additional tests (serological and parasitological. It was concluded that the diagnosis of leishmaniasis is complex because the clinical signs are similar to other systemic diseases, thus justifying the importance of parasitological test of bone marrow, considered "gold standard", in the confirmation of the disease. In addition, the area was not, until now, considered risk place, despite notification.

  19. Epidemiological characterization of patients at a tuberculosis hospital in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Rodolpho Telarolli Junior

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize, from the epidemiological, demographic and social point of view, patients with tuberculosis hospitalized at a hospital in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Data sources were obtained from the hospital records of 114 patients who were discharged from the hospital in 2010. Of the 114 patients, 82.5% were men and 80% were between 20 and 49 years old. Only 16.7% were married or cohabiting; the remaining lived alone. In terms of schooling, 85.2% had completed elementary school, 9.7% of patients were homeless, and only 3.5% were working before being hospitalized. Hospitalization between 1 and 6 months (61% predominated, as well as the number of patients who were discharged because they were cured or discharged to continue their treatment on an outpatient basis. (69.4% The mortality rate among the patients was 7.9% and the co-morbidity of TB/HIV was 9.7%. Only one case was not of pulmonary tuberculosis and 5.3% were multidrug resistant. In relation to co-prevalence, alcoholism (71.0%, drug addiction (15.8%, and hepatitis C (12.3% predominate. The hospitalization of patients with tuberculosis has little to do with the disease; it is mainly associated with the lifestyles of the patients, such as the use of illicit drugs and alcohol, the absence of residency and other factors. Mortality was higher in this group of people compared to those who had received outpatient treatment. This situation can be addressed with an early diagnosis of the disease through the primary health care network.Keywords: Tuberculosis. Hospitalization. Risk Factors. Epidemiology. RESUMOCaracterização epidemiológica dos pacientes internados em um hospital de tuberculose do Estado de São Paulo, BrasilCaracterizar do ponto de vista epidemiológico, demográfico e social os doentes de tuberculose internados em 2010, e um hospital do Estado de São  Paulo, Brasil. A fonte de dados utilizada foram os prontuários hospitalares dos

  20. Consumo alimentar e excesso de peso de adolescentes de Piracicaba, São Paulo Food consumption and overweight in adolescents from Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Toral

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo avaliou o consumo alimentar e a prevalência de excesso de peso entre adolescentes de Piracicaba, São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional transversal com amostra representativa de adolescentes maiores de 10 anos de 11 escolas públicas de Piracicaba. Realizou-se auto-avaliação da maturação sexual por planilhas dos estágios de Tanner. Pelo Questionário de Freqüência Alimentar Semi-Quantitativo, investigou-se o consumo de energia, macronutrientes, frutas, hortaliças e doces. Foram aferidos peso e altura para avaliação do perfil antropométrico pelos percentis de Índice de Massa Corporal e índice de altura-para-idade. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados 390 adolescentes, com média de idade de 12,4 anos, sendo 46,4% meninos e 78,7% púberes. O consumo médio de energia foi de 3.645kcal (56,2%, 12,8% e 33,5% provenientes de carboidratos, proteínas e lipídios, respectivamente. Observou-se que 77,9% da amostra ingeria alto teor de gordura. O consumo médio de frutas, hortaliças e doces foi de 2,3, 2,4 e 4,5 porções diárias, respectivamente. Foi encontrado 21,0% de excesso de peso, 4,4% de baixo peso e 1,8% de déficit de altura-para-idade. CONCLUSÃO: Expressivo percentual de adolescentes apresentava reduzido consumo de frutas e hortaliças e consumo lipídico e de doces acima do recomendado, podendo haver relação com o elevado número de participantes com excesso de peso. Adolescentes devem ser alvo de programas que enfatizem a adoção de alimentação saudável, para diminuir risco e incidência de obesidade e prevenir futuros agravos à saúde.OBJECTIVE: This study assessed food consumption and prevalence of overweight among adolescents from Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional with a representative sample of adolescents older than 10 years of 11 public schools of Piracicaba. The maturation stage of the adolescents was determined by self-examination using Tanner images. Intakes

  1. Aedes aegypti entomological indices in an endemic area for dengue in Sao Paulo State, Brazil

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    Eliane A Favaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the most productive types of properties and containers for Aedes aegypti and the spatial distribution of entomological indices. METHODS: Between December 2006 and February 2007, the vector's immature forms were collected to obtain entomological indices in 9,875 properties in the Jaguare neighborhood of Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP, Southeastern Brazil. In March and April 2007, a questionnaire about the conditions and characteristics of properties was administered. Logistic regression was used to identify variables associated with the presence of pupae at the properties. Indices calculated per block were combined with a geo-referenced map, and thematic maps of these indices were obtained using statistical interpolation. RESULTS: The properties inspected had the following Ae. aegypti indices: Breteau Index = 18.9, 3.7 larvae and 0.42 pupae per property, 5.2 containers harboring Ae. aegypti per hectare, 100.0 larvae and 11.6 pupae per hectare, and 1.3 larvae and 0.15 pupae per inhabitant. The presence of yards, gardens and animals was associated with the presence of pupae. CONCLUSIONS: Specific types of properties and containers that simultaneously had low frequencies among those positive for the vector and high participation in the productivity of larvae and pupae were not identified. The use of indices including larval and pupal counts does not provide further information beyond that obtained from the traditional Stegomyia indices in locations with characteristics similar to those of São José do Rio Preto. The indices calculated per area were found to be more accurate for the spatial assessment of infestation. The Ae. aegypti infestation levels exhibited extensive spatial variation, indicating that the assessment of infestation in micro areas is needed.

  2. 77 FR 51759 - U.S. Medical Mission to Brazil; Sao Paulo, Brazil, May 21-24, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... equipment, emergency equipment, diagnostic, physiotherapy and orthopedic, healthcare information technology... as attendees from Europe, Asia and Africa. The Medical Trade Mission to Brazil is intended to include.... Brazilian health insurance companies are responsible for paying 99% of the costs related to home care...

  3. PALEOENVIRONMENTAL EVOLUTION OF THE ITARARÉ GROUP (PARANÁ BASIN IN THE REGIONS OF SALTO AND ITU, EAST OF SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Bergamaschi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Itararé Group represents the glacial record of Gondwana Continent in the intracratonic Paraná Basin, encompassing regions of Southern Brazil, Eastern Paraguay, Northeast Argentina and Northern Paraguay. Itararé Group is the thickest sedimentary package of Paraná Basin, and was deposited over 36 million years during the end of the Carboniferous and the beginning of the Permian. However, in relation to its paleoenvironmental evolution, it is generally understood that more research is necessary, in order to better understand the genesis of the Itararé Group in different places. The present work entailed mapping facies associations for the Itararé Group in the city of Salto, in São Paulo State, by identifying and classifying sedimentary facies that, in turn, were utilized to develop a paleoenvironmental evolution model. This model was based on geological mapping carried out over 125 km². Petrological and petrographic descriptions of 32 outcrops of Itararé Group also were studied. These results were compared with subsurface data obtained by Sistema de Informações de Águas Subterrâneas, Serviços Geológicos do Brasil (SIAGAS-CPRM; System Water Information Groundwater, Geological Survey of Brazil. Through lithofacies and petrographic analyses and making a comparison between five column sections, surface and subsurface data, a stratigraphic correlation model was established for the region. Through this model was possible to identify four facies associations, which, together, indicate how the paleoenvironmental evolution of the region occurred. The first three associations (A, B, C were interpreted as being formed in subaqueous environment, being related to sandy lobe systems, followed by the last association (D, pertaining to a fluvial system.

  4. Assessment of atmospheric metallic pollution in the metropolitan region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, employing Tillandsia usneoides L. as biomonitor; Avaliacao da poluicao atmosferica por metais na regiao metropolitana de Sao Paulo, Brasil, utilizando a bromelia Tillandsia usneoides L. como biomonitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Claudio Ailton

    2006-07-01

    Tillandsia usneoides L. is an epiphytic bromeliad that lives on trees or other kinds of inert substrates, absorbing water and nutrients directly from the environment without roots. Due to its morphological and physiological characteristics, this species accumulates the pollutants present in the atmosphere. In the present work, Tillandsia usneoides was used as a bio monitor of metal atmospheric pollution in Sao Paulo, Brazil, which is the biggest city in South America with a population of 18 million inhabitants and a strong industrial activity. The urban area is polluted by industrial emissions but, according to the Environmental Protection Agency of the State of Sao Paulo (CETESB), the governmental agency of air quality control, regularly occurring emissions from about 7.8 million motor vehicles provide the principal source of air pollution. The Tillandsia samples were collected from an unpolluted area and were exposed bimonthly in 10 sites of the city with different pollution levels and in a control site. After exposure, trace metals were analyzed in the plant by instrumental neutron activation analysis and ICP-MS (Pb, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb e V). The results of the investigation showed a notable concentration of Co and Ni in the plants exposed in an industrial area where there is a metal processing plant, which produces about 600 tons/year of Co and 16,000 tons/year of Ni. Copper and chromium were equally distributed in industrial regions and in sites near heavy traffic avenues, suggesting that these elements can be associated to both vehicular and industrial sources. A high accumulation of Cd in the plant exposed in industrial areas indicates industrial activities as the main source of this element. For Pb, no evident sources could be identified so far as it was spread evenly along the monitoring sites. Traffic-related elements such as Zn, Ba and Sb presented high concentrations in plants exposed in sites near to heavy traffic avenues (cars, buses and trucks) and

  5. Ionizing radiation population doses at Sao Paulo city, Brazil: open-pit gamma dose measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Raimundo Enoch Rodrigues

    2001-01-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation to the human beings are well known for high and intermediate doses. As far as low level) radiation doses are concerned, there is no consensus. In order to get a better understanding of such effects it is necessary to assess the low doses with better accuracy. In this work, it was made an estimate of the annual ambient dose equivalent (H * (10)) to which the people are exposed in the city of Sao Paulo. Until now there are no data about it available in the literature. For the purpose of this evaluation, a map with various routes covering the largest and more representative area of the city was designed. The choice of points for data collection was made taking into account mainly the occupancy of the region. A portable gamma spectrometry system was used. It furnishes the rate of H * (10) and the measured gamma spectrum (in the range from 50 to 1670 keV) in the place of interest. The measurements were performed in a short time interval, since the gamma radiation arrives from a great extent of soil. Each measurement was done 1 m above the soil during 300 s. The rates of H * (10) varied from 33.1 to 152.3 nSv.h -1 , net values, obtained after subtraction of the cosmic rays contribution. The standard deviation was 22 n Sv.h -1 for an average for the city of Sao Paulo of 96.1(24) nSv.h -1 . In addition, average values of H * (10) rates for the city Health Divisions were calculated. Those values are not statistically equivalent and the whole set of data could not be treated as one, as the statistical Student test indicated a non homogeneity of the group of data. Hence it is necessary the accomplishment of a more detailed survey in order to verify the origin of the discrepancy. The mean value of H * (10) rate obtained for the city of Sao Paulo as converted to effective dose. in order to be compared with other places results It could be noticed that the annual average of effective dose for the city of Sao Paulo, 0.522(13) mSv, is superior to

  6. The scientist as historian: Paulo Vanzolini and the origins of zoology in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Francisco Inácio; Sá, Magali Romero

    2011-12-01

    The Brazilian Paulo Vanzolini is one of the leading herpetologists worldwide. Besides his publications as a zoologist and his activities as a former museum curator and policymaker, Vanzolini pursued a long-life career as a musician and contributed to many different fields such as biostatistics, biogeography and the history of science. The paper analyzes his historical contributions to a key chapter of science in Southern America, the legacy of the so-called traveler naturalists. His analyses comprise major scientists such as Marcgrave, Spix, von Martius, Wied-Neuwied, Castelnau, and Agassiz, are informed by re-analyses of original sources and represent an invaluable repository of historical and scientific information.

  7. Precambrian continental crustal evolution of Southeastern Sao Paulo state - Brazil: based on isotopic evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassinari, C.C.G.

    1988-01-01

    The isotopic studies on granitic intrusions, orthogneissic rocks and migmatitic terranes in the Southeastern Sao Paulo are presented, indicating the age and the geochemical nature of the continental crust of this area. Approximately 300 Ar, Sr and Pb isotopic age determinations are included in this paper, categorized as to their reliability and significance. Looking for the continental crust growth related to the geological time, at the end of the lower Proterozoic, at least 85% of the continental crust has already accreted and differentiated. (C.G.C.)

  8. Faciologic characterization of coal beds in the Cerquilho region, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagalli, J.T.; Consoni, J.O.C.

    1984-01-01

    Since 1981, NUCLEBRAS, researches the Tubarao group in the state of Sao Paulo, in order to evaluate the uraniferous potential of carbonaceous sediments in the Parana Basin. This work discusses geologic information concerning the Cerquilho area, where, the faciologic and structural characterization of the coal beds (or seams) were analyzed, and the main targets for uranium concentration were identified. Such study was performed through detailed field observations, imagery and aerial photograph interpretation as well as well logging analysis. Results suggested that the uraniferous anomalies are controlled by fluvial channels cutting the coal beds, with periglacial influence. (Author) [pt

  9. Causes of death among people living with AIDS in the pre- and post-HAART Eras in the city of São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Carmen-Silvia Bruniera Domingues

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We examine the trend in causes of death among people living with AIDS in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, in the periods before and after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, and we investigate potential disparities across districts of residence. METHODS: Descriptive study of three periods: pre-HAART (1991-1996; early post-HAART (1997-1999; and late post-HAART (2000-2006. The data source was the São Paulo State STD/AIDS Program and São Paulo State Data Analysis Foundation. Causes of death were classified by the ICD-9 (1991-1995 and ICD-10 (1996-2006. We estimated age-adjusted mortality rates for leading underlying causes of death and described underlying and associated causes of death according to sociodemographic characteristics and area of residence. We used Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test to compare categorical variables. Areas of residence were categorized using a socioeconomic index. To analyze trends we apply generalized linear model with Poisson regression. RESULTS: We evaluated 32,808 AIDS-related deaths. Between the pre- and late post-HAART periods, the proportion of deaths whose underlying causes were non-AIDS-related diseases increased from 0.2% to 9.6% (p<0.001: from 0.01% to 1.67% (p<0.001 for cardiovascular diseases; 0.01% to 1.62% (p<0.001 for bacterial/unspecified pneumonia; and 0.03% to 1.46% (p<0.001 for non-AIDS-defining cancers. In the late post-HAART period, the most common associated causes of death were bacterial/unspecified pneumonia (35.94%, septicemia (33.46%, cardiovascular diseases (10.11% and liver diseases (8.0%; and common underlying causes, besides AIDS disease, included non-AIDS-defining cancers in high-income areas, cardiovascular diseases in middle-income areas and assault in low-income areas. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of HAART has shifted the mortality profile away from AIDS-related conditions, suggesting changes in the pattern of morbidity, but

  10. Decrease in mortality rate and hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction after the enactment of the smoking ban law in São Paulo city, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tania M O; Scholz, Jaqueline; de Masi, Eduardo; Nobre, Moacyr R C; Filho, Roberto Kalil

    2017-11-01

    Smoking restriction laws have spread worldwide during the last decade. Previous studies have shown a decline in the community rates of myocardial infarction after enactment of these laws. However, data are scarce about the Latin American population. In the first phase of this study, we reported the successful implementation of the law in São Paulo city, with a decrease in carbon monoxide rates in hospitality venues. To evaluate whether the 2009 implementation of a comprehensive smoking ban law in São Paulo city was associated with a reduction in rates of mortality and hospital admissions for myocardial infarction. We performed a time-series study of monthly rates of mortality and hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction from January 2005 to December 2010. The data were derived from DATASUS, the primary public health information system available in Brazil and from Mortality Information System (SIM). Adjustments and analyses were performed using the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with exogenous variables (ARIMAX) method modelled by environmental variables and atmospheric pollutants to evaluate the effect of smoking ban law in mortality and hospital admission rate. We also used Interrupted Time Series Analysis (ITSA) to make a comparison between the period pre and post smoking ban law. We observed a reduction in mortality rate (-11.9% in the first 17 months after the law) and in hospital admission rate (-5.4% in the first 3 months after the law) for myocardial infarction after the implementation of the smoking ban law. Hospital admissions and mortality rate for myocardial infarction were reduced in the first months after the comprehensive smoking ban law was implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Frequency of nutritional disorders and their risk factors among children attending 13 nurseries in São Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional study

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    Tulio Konstantyner

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Nutritional disorders are associated with health problems earlier in life. The objective here was to estimate the frequency of nutritional disorders and their risk factors among children. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in nurseries at 13 day-care centers in São Paulo, Brazil.METHODS: The mothers of 482 children were interviewed, with anthropometry on these children. Children whose anthropometric indices for weight and height were greater than two standard deviations were considered to have nutritional disorders.RESULTS: Children in families with lower per capita income (odds ratio [OR]: 2.25; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.08-4.67 and who presented neonatal risk (OR 8.08; 95% CI: 2.29-28.74, had incomplete vaccinations (OR 3.44; 95% CI: 1.15-10.31 or were male (OR 3.73; 95% CI: 1.63-8.56 were more likely to be malnourished. Children in families with lower per capita income were also less likely to be overnourished (OR 0.40; 95% CI: 0.19-0.88. Children who were exclusively breastfed for less than two months (OR 2.95; 95% CI: 1.35-6.44 or who were male (OR 2.18; 95% CI: 1.02-4.65 were also at greater risk of being overnourished. Children who presented neonatal risk (OR 3.41; 95% CI: 1.04-11.23, had incomplete vaccinations (OR 3.18; 95% CI: 1.307.76, or were male (OR 2.76; 95% CI: 1.56-4.90 were more likely to have a nutritional disorder.CONCLUSIONS: Nutritional disorders remain present in children attending nurseries in São Paulo. Actions should focus on boys, children who were exclusively breastfed for less than two months and those without up-to-date vaccinations.

  12. Testing pigs of non-technified rearing farms for serum antibodies against Taenia solium in a region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Gabriel A.M. Rossi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Taenia solium is a zoonotic tapeworm of great importance in developing countries, due to the occurrence of human taeniasis and cysticercosis. Pigs have an important role in the biological cycle of the parasite as intermediate hosts. The scientific literature has been describing risk factors associated with the occurrence of this disease that must be avoided in countries with poor sanitation, in order to reduce the exposure of swine to the parasite eggs. This research focused on testing pigs of non-technified rearing farms for serum antibodies against Taenia solium in the region of Jaboticabal municipality, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The found prevalence was 6.82% (CI 95% 4.18 - 9.45 at animal level and 28.87% (CI 95% 16.74 - 40.40 at herd level. These figures are probably associated with low technification adoption during animal rearing in the studied area, which increased the exposure of the animals to risk factors associated with the occurrence of Taenia solium complex. The results found based on serological evidences of swine cysticercosis in the studied region serves as a warning to public sanitary authorities to improve public health and control T. solium.

  13. Dengue and the risk of urban yellow fever reintroduction in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Massad Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose a mathematical method for the estimation of the Basic Reproduction Number, R0, of urban yellow fever in a dengue-infested area. METHODS: The method is based on the assumption that, as the same vector (Aedes aegypti causes both infections, all the quantities related to the mosquito, estimated from the initial phase of dengue epidemic, could be applied to yellow fever dynamics. It is demonstrated that R0 for yellow fever is, on average, 43% lower than that for dengue. This difference is due to the longer dengue viremia and its shorter extrinsic incubation period. RESULTS: In this study the analysis was expanded to the epidemiological situation of dengue in São Paulo in the year 2001. The total number of dengue cases increased from 3,582 in 2000 to 51,348 in 2001. It was then calculated R0 for yellow fever for every city which have shown R0 of dengue greater than 1. It was also estimated the total number of unprotected people living in highly risky areas for urban yellow fever. CONCLUSIONS: Currently there is a great number of non-vaccinated people living in Aedes aegypti infested area in the state of São Paulo.

  14. Estimates of Annual Soil Loss Rates in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Grasiela de Oliveira Rodrigues Medeiros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Soil is a natural resource that has been affected by human pressures beyond its renewal capacity. For this reason, large agricultural areas that were productive have been abandoned due to soil degradation, mainly caused by the erosion process. The objective of this study was to apply the Universal Soil Loss Equation to generate more recent estimates of soil loss rates for the state of São Paulo using a database with information from medium resolution (30 m. The results showed that many areas of the state have high (critical levels of soil degradation due to the predominance of consolidated human activities, especially in growing sugarcane and pasture use. The average estimated rate of soil loss is 30 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and 59 % of the area of the state (except for water bodies and urban areas had estimated rates above 12 Mg ha-1 yr-1, considered as the average tolerance limit in the literature. The average rates of soil loss in areas with annual agricultural crops, semi-perennial agricultural crops (sugarcane, and permanent agricultural crops were 118, 78, and 38 Mg ha-1 yr-1 respectively. The state of São Paulo requires attention to conservation of soil resources, since most soils led to estimates beyond the tolerance limit.

  15. Reemergence of yellow fever: detection of transmission in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, 2008

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    Eduardo Stramandinoli Moreno

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Following yellow fever virus (YFV isolation in monkeys from the São José do Rio Preto region and two fatal human autochthonous cases from the Ribeirão Preto region, State of São Paulo, Brazil, two expeditions for entomological research and eco-epidemiological evaluation were conducted. METHODS: A total of 577 samples from humans, 108 from monkeys and 3,049 mosquitoes were analyzed by one or more methods: virus isolation, ELISA-IgM, RT-PCR, histopathology and immunohistochemical. RESULTS: Of the 577 human samples, 531 were tested by ELISA-IgM, with 3 positives, and 235 were inoculated into mice and 199 in cell culture, resulting in one virus isolation. One sample was positive by histopathology and immunohistochemical. Using RT-PCR, 25 samples were processed with 4 positive reactions. A total of 108 specimens of monkeys were examined, 108 were inoculated into mice and 45 in cell culture. Four virus strains were isolated from Alouattacaraya. A total of 931 mosquitoes were captured in Sao Jose do Rio Preto and 2,118 in Ribeirão Preto and separated into batches. A single isolation of YFV was derived from a batch of 9 mosquitoes Psorophoraferox, collected in Urupês, Ribeirão Preto region. A serological survey was conducted with 128 samples from the municipalities of São Carlos, Rincão and Ribeirão Preto and 10 samples from contacts of patients from Ribeirão Preto. All samples were negative by ELISA-IgM for YFV. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the circulation of yellow fever, even though sporadic, in the Sao Paulo State and reinforce the importance of vaccination against yellow fever in areas considered at risk.

  16. Dispersal of Lutzomyia longipalpis and expansion of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis in São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Agda Maria; Vieira, Carolina Portugal; Dibo, Margareth Regina; Guirado, Marluci Monteiro; Rodas, Lilian Aparecida Colebrusco; Chiaravalloti-Neto, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a neglected disease, is a serious public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the sensitivity of Lutzomyia longipalpis and canine VL (CVL) autochthony early detection and describe the spatial and temporal dispersal of vector and expansion of VL in a Brazilian state. We obtained data on the leishmaniasis vector and VL cases in São Paulo State (SP), Brazil, from the Division of Endemic Disease Control and from the Epidemiological Surveillance Center of the São Paulo State Department of Health. Data were analyzed for 645 municipalities and 63 microregions and presented as thematic and flow maps. Following the verified presence of L. longipalpis in Araçatuba in 1997, the first autochthonous cases of canine VL (CVL) (1998) and of human VL (HVL) (1999) in São Paulo were reported, both in Araçatuba. From 1997 to 2014, the urban presence of the leishmaniasis vector was verified in 167 (25.9%) municipalities with cases of CVL reported in 108 (16.7%) and cases of HVL in 84 (13%). The sensitivities for vector presence early detection in relation to the identification of CVL and HVL autochthony were, respectively, equal to 76.4 and 92.5%. The sensitivity for CVL autochthony early detection in relation to the HVL autochthony identification was 75.8%. Vector dispersal and expansion of CVL and HVL were from the northwest to the southeast of the state, primarily flanking the Marechal Rondon highway at a constant rate of progression of 10, seven, and six new municipalities affected per year, respectively. We concluded that the sensitivity for vector presence and CVL autochthony presented reasonable accuracy and most of the time the vector presence and, specially, the CVL and HVL autochthony were identified in the main cities of the microregions of SP. Vector dispersal and expansion of VL started in 1997 near the state border of SP with the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. It has advanced

  17. Temporal evaluation of radiation detection system, used by the division of radiation protection of the Navy Technological Centre in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontijo, Rodrigo Modesto Gadelha; Acosta, Clarice de Freitas; Ikari, Andreza Iris R.; Ferreira, Marcio de Oliveira; Alves, Henrique da Silva; Duarte, Marcelo Antonio

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a temporal evaluation of the radiation detection system used by in division of radiation protection of the CTMSP, Sao Paulo, Brazil. About fifty efficiencies results of the system were compiled over the last two years for this purpose. Less than 1% of the standard deviation was found for both portable and fixed detectors, which indicates a significant stability of the detection system used in CTMSP over the period analyzed. (author)

  18. Review of experience gained in fabricating nuclear grade uranium and thorium compounds and their analytical quality control at the Instituto de Energia Atomica, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrao, A.; Franca Junior, J.M.; Ikuta, A.

    1977-01-01

    The main activities developed at 'Instituto de Energia Atomica' Sao Paulo, Brazil, on the recovery of uranium from ores, the purification of uranium and thorium raw concentrates and their transformation in nuclear grade compounds, are reviewed. The design and assemble of pilot facilities for ammonium diuranate (ADV) uranium tetrafluoride, uranium trioxide, uranium oxide microspheres, uranyl nitrate denitration, uranim hexafluoride and thorium compounds are discussed. The establishment of analytical procedures are emphasized [pt

  19. Rehearsal for Assessment of atmospheric optical Properties during biomass burning Events and Long-range transportation episodes at Metropolitan Area of São Paulo-Brazil (RAPEL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Fábio J. S.; Luis Guerrero-Rascado, Juan; Benavent-Oltra, Jose A.; Román, Roberto; Moreira, Gregori A.; Marques, Marcia T. A.; da Silva, Jonatan J.; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Artaxo, Paulo; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2018-04-01

    During the period of August-September 2016 an intensive campaign was carried out to assess aerosol properties in São Paulo-Brazil aiming to detect long-range aerosol transport events and to characterize the instrument regarding data quality. Aerosol optical properties retrieved by the GALION - LALINET SPU lidar station and collocated AERONET sunphotometer system are presented as extinction/ backscatter vertical profiles with microphysical products retrieved with GRASP inversion algorithm.

  20. Educational and sex differentials in life expectancies and disability-free life expectancies in São Paulo, Brazil, and urban areas in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram; Andrade, Flávia Cristina Drumond

    2013-08-01

    To estimate transition probabilities between disability states, total life expectancy, and the latter's decomposition into years spent disabled and disability-free by age, sex, and education among older adults in São Paulo, Brazil, and urban areas in Mexico. Applied a micro-simulation method (Interpolative Markov Chains) using longitudinal data. We found large between-country educational differences in incidence of and recovery from disability with higher rates in Mexico than in São Paulo, but no differences in mortality. Older adults in Mexico spent longer time being disability-free than in São Paulo for both levels of education. Males and females in São Paulo spent a larger fraction of their remaining life disabled at every age than their counterparts in urban areas in Mexico. There were educational differences in the prevalence of disability in São Paulo and urban areas in Mexico, and significant educational differences in disability incidence and recovery across sites.

  1. Molecular epidemiology of influenza A(H1N1PDM09 hemagglutinin gene circulating in São Paulo State , Brazil: 2016 anticipated influenza season

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    Katia Corrêa de Oliveira Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Compared to previous years, seasonal influenza activity commenced early in São Paulo State, Brazil, Southern hemisphere during the 2016 year. In order to investigate the genetic pattern of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 in the State of Sao Paulo a total of 479 respiratory samples, collected in January by Sentinel Surveillance Units, were screened by real-time RT-PCR. A total of 6 Influenza viruses A(H1N1pdm09 presenting ct values ≤ 30 were sequenced following phylogenetic analysis. The present study identified the circulation of the new 6B.1 subgroup (A/Sao Paulo/10-118/2016 and A/Sao Paulo/3032/2016. In addition, influenza A(H1N1pdm09 group 6B has also been identified during January in the State of Sao Paulo. Despite amino acid changes and changes in potential glycosylation motifs, 6B.1 viruses were well inhibited by the reference ferret antiserum against A/California/07/2009 virus, the A(H1N1pdm09 component of the vaccine for the 2016 influenza season.

  2. A cross-cultural comparison of eating behaviors and home food environmental factors in adolescents from São Paulo (Brazil) and Saint Paul-Minneapolis (US).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estima, Camilla C P; Bruening, Meg; Hannan, Peter J; Alvarenga, Marle S; Leal, Greisse V S; Philippi, Sonia T; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Describe cross-cultural differences in nutrition-related factors among adolescents from São Paulo, Brazil and St Paul-Minneapolis, US. Two large-population-based studies with cross-cultural comparisons. Twelve São Paulo and 10 St Paul-Minneapolis high schools in 2009-2010. A total of 1,148 adolescents from São Paulo and 1,632 adolescents from St Paul-Minneapolis. Meal consumption, family meals, fast-food consumption, and home food availability. Binomial regressions, weighted for age distributions and adjusted for gender, were used to compare identical measures from each sample. Generally, São Paulo adolescents reported healthier nutritional outcomes than St Paul-Minneapolis adolescents. São Paulo adolescents were 7 times less likely to report high fast-food consumption than St Paul-Minneapolis adolescents (P culture. Interventions are needed to encourage youth and their families to maintain these patterns. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Endometrium adenocarcinoma: last five years retrospective case at Hospital do Servidor Publico from Sao Paulo State, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millen, Eduardo Camargo; Blesa, Ana Cristina Poli; Silva, Fabiana Ruas Domingues da; Lopes, Luis Augusto Freire; Baracat, Fausto F.; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho; Lippi, Umberto Gazzi

    2003-01-01

    The present study is an institutional review of endometrial adenocarcinoma in patients of a public hospital for state civil servants in the city of Sao Paulo, the Francisco Morato de Oliveira Civil Servants Hospital, from January 1996 to October 2000. The following factors were considered: age of disease onset, age of menarche and menopause, number of pregnancies, use of hormone-replacement therapy, and associated morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension. The conclusion was that a history of menstrual disorders and vaginal bleeding in post-menopausal period, such as hypermenorraghia and endometrial thickness greater than four millimeters in post menopausal women, must be accurately investigated for endometrial neoplasia. (author)

  4. Effects of human trampling on a rocky shore fauna on the Sao Paulo coast, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M N; Rosso, S

    2009-11-01

    Increased tourist activity in coastal regions demands management strategies to reduce impacts on rocky shores. The highly populated coastal areas in southeastern Brazil are an example of degradation caused by development of industry and tourism. Among different shore impacts, trampling has been intensively studied, and may represent a significant source of stress for intertidal fauna. A randomised blocks design was applied to experimentally study the effects of two different trampling intensities on richness, diversity, density and biomass of the rocky shore fauna of Obuseiro beach, Guarujá, southeastern Brazil. Blocks were distributed in two portions of the intertidal zone, dominated respectively by Chthamalus bisinuatus (Cirripedia) and Isognomon bicolor (Bivalvia). Blocks were trampled over three months, simulating the vacation period in Brazil and were monitored for the following nine months. Results indicate that Chthamalus bisinuatus is vulnerable to trampling impacts. Richness, diversity and turn-over index tended to be higher in trampled plots four months after trampling ceased. In general, results agree with previous trampling studies, suggesting that even low intensities of trampling may cause some impact on intertidal communities. Management strategies should include isolation of sensitive areas, construction of boardwalks, visitor education and monitoring programmes. In Brazil, additional data obtained from experimental studies are necessary in order to achieve a better understanding of trampling impacts on rocky shore communities.

  5. Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA) - Sao Paulo, Brazil, - Annual report, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    The activities carried out at 'Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA) S.P., Brazil, in 1978 are related, such as : development of research on the use of radioisotopes in crop improvement and plant breeding, as well as in the improvement of animal production; works in collaboration with other entities; personnel formation and scientific exchange with other countries. (M.A.) [pt

  6. Oil sands from Sao Paulo State, Brazil and La Brea de Chumpi, Peru: a geologic perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramers, John W [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Santos, Paulo R. dos [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gianello, Pedro T [Petroleos del Peru, Lima (Peru)

    1987-12-31

    This work describes two `non-conventional` oil sands occurrences in Peru and Brazil. The study of such occurrences has pointed out the fact that oil sands are found in widely varying geological situations and that not all oil sands have origins similar to the supergiant `conventional` deposits in Canada and Venezuela. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  7. A new squamate lizard from the Upper Cretaceous Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Nava

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The record of non-mosasaur squamates (Reptilia, Squamata is sparse in the Cretaceus fossil record of Brazil and include six putative reports, three from the Aptian-Albian of the Araripe Basin (Tijubina pontei Bonfim-Júnior and Marques, Olindalacerta brasiliensis Evans and Yabumoto, and a lizard indet. and three from the Upper Cretaceous of the Bauru Group (Pristiguana brasiliensis Estes and Price, Anilioidae gen. et sp. indet., and Squamata gen. et sp. indet.. In this contribution, a new genus and species of lizard, Brasiliguana prudentis gen. et sp. nov., is described based on an isolated left maxilla with teeth. The material was discovered in an outcrop of the Upper Cretaceous Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group located in the proximity of Presidente Prudente Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. The new taxon is considered a basal non-Priscagamidae+Acrodonta iguanian based on the presence of a weakly inclined anterior margin of the maxillary nasal process and maxillary tooth shape and tooth implantation similar to that of iguanians rather than of other lizard groups (e.g. teiids. This finding significantly increases the squamate lizard diversity of South America, which is still poorly understood and sparsely represented in the fossil record.Os achados de escamados (Reptilia, Squamata são escassos no Cretáceo do Brasil, incluindo cinco registros pontuais, dois do Aptiano-Albiano da Bacia do Araripe (Tijubina pontei Bonfim-Júnior e Marques e Olindalacerta brasiliensis Evans e Yabumoto, e três do Cretáceo Superior do Grupo Bauru (Pristiguana brasiliensis Estes and Price, Anilioidae gen. et sp. indet., Squamata gen. et sp. indet.. Nesta contribuição apresentamos um novo gênero e espécie de lagarto, Brasiliguana prudentis, baseado numa maxila esquerda com dentição. O material provém de depósitos da Formação Adamantina aflorantes próximos a cidade de Presidente Prudente, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O novo táxon é considerado um

  8. Apolipoprotein E4 and Alzheimer's disease in São Paulo - Brazil Apolipoproteina E 4 e doença de Alzheimer em São Paulo - Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo P. Almeida

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Several recently published studies showed the existence of an association between the allele ε4 of the apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease (AD in developed countries. We examined this association in 55 patients with possible or probable AD and 56 elderly controls referred to outpatient clinics at the "Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo" and "Centro de Saúde Escola da Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo". The allele ε4 was significantly more frequent among patients than controls (20.9% vs 8.9%, p=0.038. Thirty-six percent of the cases presented with at least one allele ε4 compared with only 17.9% of the controls (p=0.027. The presence of at least one ε4 allele increased by 2.63 times the risk of subjects being diagnosed as suffering from AD. All three ε4ε4 patients were male and had a pre-senile onset of the disease. There was no significant difference between senile and pre-senile cases (41.9% vs 29.2%, p=0.326 nor between men and women (36.0% vs 36.7%, p=0.959 regarding their risk of being ε4. The age at onset of symptoms did not differ among the different genotype groups, although ε4ε4 cases showed a consistent trend for earlier onset. When only patients with the diagnosis of "probable AD" were included in the analysis (n=43, we observed that 22.1% of the alleles were e4, a rate that was significantly higher than the 8.9% of controls (p=0.024. This study supports the association between the presence of the ε4 allele and AD and extend this finding to Brazilian patients. Nonetheless, the presence of this allele is not necessary nor sufficient for the development of the disease and it is possible that its contribution to the pathogenesis of the disorder depends on the subject's ethnic group.Vários estudos publicados durante os últimos dois anos demonstraram a existência de uma forte associação entre o alelo ε4 da apolipoproteina E e a doença de Alzheimer (AD

  9. [Prevalence of common mental disorders in a population covered by the Family Health Program (QUALIS) in São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragno, Luciana; Goldbaum, Moisés; Gianini, Reinaldo José; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; César, Chester Luiz Galvão

    2006-08-01

    The prevalence of common mental disorders has increased in many countries. Cases are often not identified and adequately treated because traditional health care services are rarely prepared to deal with this problem. The Family Health Program (FHP) has been implemented in Brazil since 1995-1996 and provides a new primary health care model with the potential for better care for these patients. This study investigates common mental disorders prevalence according to FHP coverage and associated socio-demographic factors. A large health and health care survey was conducted from January to March 2001 in areas partly covered by the FHP in a peripheral area of the city of Sao Paulo and included common mental disorders screening in 2,337 individuals > 15 years of age. There was no significant difference in common mental disorders prevalence according to FHP. Common mental disorders prevalence was significantly higher among females (PR = 1.34), elderly (PR = 1.56), and individuals with lower income (PR = 2.64) or less schooling (PR = 2.83). Common mental disorders was associated with indicators of social disadvantage, implying the need to focus on specific health problems and risk groups to improve the impact of care.

  10. AIRPORT CONCESSIONS IN BRAZIL AND ITS INFLUENCES ON SERVICE QUALITY: THE CASES OF BRASÍLIA AND SÃO PAULO – GUARULHOS AIRPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Allis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the Brazilian air market has tripled in size, a result of economic expansion and the spread of the air travel culture, among others. As far as airport infrastructures are concerned, during the mega-events era (2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympics, the airport management sector started to receive greater investments from private and foreign companies. After 2012, a large array of improvements took place, in order to meet the demands associated with the mega-events, but also to tackle the increase of domestic air traffic. In this context, this paper aims to identify, describe and analyze the influences of the airport concession in Brazil on the quality of services perceived by the users (passengers. For that, an analysis of the reports of the aviation authorities is carried out. The airports of Guarulhos (São Paulo and Brasília (Federal District, among the first to be privatized, were selected as case studies. From this study, the mobility of global capital associated with airport management deserves to be highlighted, while the expertise of these large companies is expected to contribute to the increase in the quality of services in Brazilian airports - historically managed by public sector.

  11. Socioeconomic Determinants of Antibiotic Consumption in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: The Effect of Restricting Over-The-Counter Sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliemann, Breno S; Levin, Anna S; Moura, M Luísa; Boszczowski, Icaro; Lewis, James J

    2016-01-01

    Improper antibiotic use is one of the main drivers of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, increasing infectious diseases morbidity and mortality and raising costs of healthcare. The level of antibiotic consumption has been shown to vary according to socioeconomic determinants (SED) such as income and access to education. In many Latin American countries, antibiotics could be easily purchased without a medical prescription in private pharmacies before enforcement of restrictions on over-the-counter (OTC) sales in recent years. Brazil issued a law abolishing OTC sales in October 2010. This study seeks to find SED of antibiotic consumption in the Brazilian state of São Paulo (SSP) and to estimate the impact of the 2010 law. Data on all oral antibiotic sales having occurred in the private sector in SSP from 2008 to 2012 were pooled into the 645 municipalities of SSP. Linear regression was performed to estimate consumption levels that would have occurred in 2011 and 2012 if no law regulating OTC sales had been issued in 2010. These values were compared to actual observed levels, estimating the effect of this law. Linear regression was performed to find association of antibiotic consumption levels and of a greater effect of the law with municipality level data on SED obtained from a nationwide census. Oral antibiotic consumption in SSP rose from 8.44 defined daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID) in 2008 to 9.95 in 2010, and fell to 8.06 DID in 2012. Determinants of a higher consumption were higher human development index, percentage of urban population, density of private health establishments, life expectancy and percentage of females; lower illiteracy levels and lower percentage of population between 5 and 15 years old. A higher percentage of females was associated with a stronger effect of the law. SSP had similar antibiotic consumption levels as the whole country of Brazil, and they were effectively reduced by the policy.

  12. Primary production measurements at three reservoirs in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jureidini, P.; Chinez, S.J.; Agudo, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    Primary production measurements were carried out at three reservoirs in the state of Sao Paulo, Barra Bonita, Paiva Castro and Ponte nova using the 14 C technique. Meanwhile, several physical and chemical parameters of these water were also evaluated, in order to find out the limnological conditions of these reservoirs. Primary production rates ranged from 7,6mg C/m 3 d at Ponte Nova, to 247,2mg C/m 3 d at Barra Bonita. There seems to be god correlation between water quality data and primary production measurements. Regarding the results, it may be stated that the Barra Bonita reservoir has reached the eutrophic level, while the other two exibit mesotrophic levels. As a way of testing the water quality data collected was used in Churchill and Nicholas model, issuing results in agreement with those of the primary production measurements. (Author) [pt

  13. Isotopic and hydrochemical study of aquifers from Rio Claro District (Sao Paulo State, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonotto, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic and hydrochemical study was performed in three aquifers in Rio Claro city area, Sao Paulo State, to establish the chemical facies of the groundwaters and to evaluate the mechanisms of dissolution of the unstable isotope 234 U and 238 U. Mapped groundwater facies were: calcium-bicarbonate for Rio Claro Formation, sodium-nitrate-chloride for fractures in database and sodium-bicarbonate for Tubarao Group. The highest dissolved U contents were measured in groundwaters from the fractured diabase, however, the groundwaters from Tubarao Group showed the highest base-exchange index. Most of the results showed enhancement of 234 U in solution and the highest 234 U/ 238 U activity ratios were measured for groundwaters from Tubarao Group. (author). 33 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. Leaching of 14 C-endosulfan insecticide in soils from Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornisielo, V.L.; Costa, M.A.; Furlan, G.R.; Pinho, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    Leaching of 14 C-endosulfan insecticide was studied in soil columns for three soils of Sao Paulo State with different physical-chemical properties. A water flux of 0.41 ml/min., was established, simulating a pluviometric precipitation of 200 mm in 48 h. For all soils, an average of 78% of the total applied was retained in the first centimeters of the soil profile. As expected, the soil with the lowest soil organic matter and clay contents (sandy soil), was the soil with the largest amount of the insecticide leached. The higher the organic matter and the organic matter content of a soil, the higher its sorption and consequently there is less available in soil solution to be leached. In all soils, however, the amount of endosulfan found in the leachate was low, being 0.17% the maximum radioactivity measured. (author). 5 refs, 3 tabs

  15. Rock Rb-Sr ages from Bananal region - Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias Neto, C.M.; Tassinari, C.G.C.; Silva, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    New Rb-Sr whole rock isochron ages have been determined for the main lithological units that occur in Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States. These rocks belong to Serra do Mar domain. The purpose of this work is to characterize the sequence of the geological events as well as the possible relationship between the different rocks. The geochronological data suggest that the paragneisses and the basement rocks, represented by ortho gneisses nuclei, were generated under amphibolite conditions around 700 Ma. At the same time the leucogranites were generated by partial melting processes and injected into both gneiss types. Tarditectonic granitic magmatic activities took place within ductile shear zones. One of the granites, the Getulandia granite, yielded an age of 514 Ma, falling in the range of the late Brasiliano Cycle which extended into the Middle Cambrian. (author). 9 figs., 1 tab

  16. Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in dogs from Cotia county, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOPPERT Adriana Marques

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs sera samples collected from Cotia County, São Paulo were tested using indirect immunoenzymatic test (ELISA in order to study Lyme disease serology in dogs. ELISA method was standardized and G39/40 North American strain of Borrelia burgdorferi was used as antigen. Positive results were confirmed employing the Western blotting technique. Because of the possibility of cross-reactions, sera were also tested for different serological strains of Leptospira interrogans and L. biflexa using microscopic sera agglutination test. Twenty-three of 237 (9.7% serum samples were positive in the ELISA; 20 of them (86.9% were confirmed by the Western blotting, what suggests that Cotia may be a risk area for Lyme disease. Although 4 samples (1.7% were positive for Lyme disease and leptospirosis, no correlation was found between the results (X² = 0.725; p = 0.394 what suggests absence of serological cross reactivity.

  17. Inquérito parasitológico na CECAP, distrito-sede de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Parasitological survey at CECAP, Botucatu County, S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Ednir Salata

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo da prevalência de parasitas intestinais realizado em 370 indivíduos residentes na CECAP, distrito-sede de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, permitiu verificar que 41,62% encontravam-se infestados por uma ou mais espécies de parasitas intestinais. Foram encontrados os seguintes parasitas: Entamoeba histolytica 0,54%, E. coli 6,21%, I. butschlii 0,27%, Giardia lamblia 9,72%, Ancylostomidae 5,94%, Strongyloides stercoralis 6,75%, Trichuris trichiura 17,29%, Ascaris lumbricoides 7,56%, Enterobius vermicularis 3,78%, Hymenolepis nana 5,40% e Taenia sp. 1,62%. Apresentam-se dados sobre a distribuição dos parasitas em relação à idade e ao sexo dos indivíduos. O atributo cor não permite maiores considerações por serem os não brancos significantemente pouco numerosos. Dos indivíduos examinados, 25,67% apresentavam apenas uma espécie de parasita e entre as associações parasitárias mais freqüentes encontramos as de Ascaris lumbricoides - Trichuris trichiura e Trichuris trichiura - Giardia lamblia.A parasitological survey among 370 persons was carried out at CECAP, Botucatu County, S. Paulo State, Brazil. It was found that 41.62% of the examinated persons were infected with one or more species of intestinal parasites. The parasite's prevalence was: Entamoeba hystolytica 0.54%, E. coli 6.21%, I. butschlii 0.27%, Giardia lamblia 9.72%, Ancylostomidae 5.94%, Strongyloide stercoralis 6.75%, Trichuris trichiura 17.29%, Ascaris lumbricoides 7.56%, Enterobius vermicularis 3.78%, Hymenolepis nana 5.40% e Taenia sp. 1.62%. Tables are presented showing the distribution of the parasites according to age and sex. Race was not considered because the number of "not white" was significantly low. Of the examinated persons, 25.67% were infected with only one species of parasite and the parasitic associations most frequently found were Ascaris lumbricoides - Trichuris tricriura and Trichuris trichiura - Giardia lamblia.

  18. HUMAN CYCLOSPORIASIS DIAGNOSIS: REPORT OF A CASE IN SÃO PAULO, SP, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Otaviani Di Pietro Fernandes

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of the human cyclosporiasis is reported in São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Cyclospora cayetanensis has been identified in the feces of a patient by a modified Kinyoun staining method, with later sporulation in a solution of 2.5% potassium dichromate. The probability that this parasite is the eventual cause of gastrointestinal disturbances in the country was stimulated by this finding, which was arrived at by a simple technique. It had been kept in mind that the disease was expressing itself mainly among immunocompromised patients, whose number is increasing; especially in those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS, which is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV.É relatado o diagnóstico de ciclosporíase humana em São Paulo, SP, Brasil. Cyclospora cayetanensis foi encontrada nas fezes de um indivíduo através de exame pelo método de coloração de Kinyoun modificado, com posterior esporulação em dicromato de potássio a 2,5%. Esta verificação deve estimular a necessidade de considerar a ciclosporíase como eventual causa de distúrbios gastrointestinais no país, podendo ela ser reconhecida até mesmo por meio de técnica razoavelmente simples. Foi ainda lembrado que esta parasitose vem adquirindo expressividade sobretudo pelo fato de não raramente acometer imunodeprimidos, agora cada vez mais numerosos em especial como decorrência da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV, que causa a síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (AIDS.

  19. Neoproterozoic alkaline magmatism in Ilha do Cardoso, southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Werner; Basei, Miguel A.S.; Siga Junior, Oswaldo; Sato, Kei

    2001-01-01

    This work focuses on the geology and geochronology of rocks cropping out on Cardoso Island, on the southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State, close to the boundary with Parana State. The island, with an area of about 151 km 2 is a protected area administered by the Forest Institute of the Secretariat for the Environment of the State of Sao Paulo. It is mountainous, with a peak at 814 m, and is covered by dense Atlantic Forest vegetation. The island is made up mainly of an igneous complex with light grey leucocratic, inequigranular, medium to coarse-grained syenites. The Tres Irmaos Syenite (STI), composed of pyroxene, hornblende, and perthitic to mesoperthitic microcline, predominates has magmatic flow structures, and it cut by the pinkish grey, leucocratic medium-grained Cambriu alkali-feldspar granites (GC). Geochemical analysis of STI and GC demonstrate their metaluminous alkaline nature and late orogenic to anorogenic character. The bodies formed between 620 and 570 Ma according to U-Pb dating of zircons and cooled between 597 and 531 Ma (K-Ar in amphiboles). Whole rock Sm-Nd analyses yield Meso- and Paleoproterozoic TDM ages (1,500 - 2,200 Ma). A belt of low-grade metasedimentary rocks occurs in the northern part of the island. Quartz schist, quartz-mica schist and mica-quartz schist, often-containing andalusite and cordierite, predominate. Geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the sources of the metasediments were continental arc andesites of whose protoliths separated from the mantle between 1,800 and 2,200 Ma during the Paleoproterozoic. These metasediments probably continue on the continent in the Taquari region and extend southwards in narrow strips between the granitoids of the Paranagua Domain. (author)

  20. Rare earth elements, U and Th in tunnel dusts of SÃO Paulo City, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nory, Renata M.; Figueireido, Ana Maria G., E-mail: renata.nory@ipen.br, E-mail: anamaria@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    São Paulo is one of the most populated cities in the world, with about 20 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, more than 12 million motor vehicles and intense industrial activity. Given its importance as a major urban center in South America and the lack of information concerning urban dust composition, the present study aimed to determine rare earth elements (REEs), U and Th mass fractions in tunnel dust, collected in the Jânio Quadros Tunnel, and to assess their possible sources. The study of REEs distribution in urban environments has become of interest over the last decades, due to the increasing industrial use of these elements. The REEs, that are as common as the most familiar metals, are found in metallurgical additives, fluid cracking catalysts and automobile converter catalysts, among other applications. In this study, which employed Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) as analytical technique, the mass fractions of eight REEs were determined and normalized to the chondrite concentration values. The results showed that major concentrations were found for light REEs, following the sequence Ce > La > Nd > Sm > Yb > Eu > Tb > Lu. The pattern of the results pointed to a natural origin for these elements. Regarding U and Th concentrations, the results varied between 1.0 - 9.4 μg g{sup -1} and 3.3 - 35.9 μg g{sup -1}, respectively. Since there is almost no information about the concentration of these elements in this kind of matrix in São Paulo city, these data are important to support further investigations. (author)

  1. Occurrences of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples from domestic dogs in São Paulo, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Isabel Giuli da Silva Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Occurrences of gastrointestinal parasites were assessed in fecal samples from 3,099 dogs in the metropolitan region of São Paulo, SP, that were treated at the Veterinary Hospital of the University of São Paulo Veterinary School. The samples were analyzed using the flotation and centrifugal sedimentation methods. The results were compared with those from previous studies (at different times. The frequency of each parasite was correlated with the dogs’ ages, breeds and gender, as well as the occurrences of diarrhea and the use of anthelmintics, by means of the chi-square or Fisher exact test. Partitioned chi-square tests were used to compare occurrences of each parasite and the times analyzed. Out of the total number of samples, 20.5% were positive and 16.1% (102/635 of these presented more than one genus of parasites. Ancylostoma spp. (7.1% and Giardia spp. (5.5% were the most frequent helminths and protozoa, respectively. Ancylostoma spp. was associated (p<0.05 with age (over one year, mixed breeds, sex (male and no use of anthelmintics. Dogs under one year and mixed breeds were associated with occurrences of Toxocara canis; and younger dogs with Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Cystoisospora spp. Giardia spp. were also associated with dogs with a defined breed (p<0.05. All the parasites analyzed presented lower incidence in the last period analyzed than in the previous periods.

  2. Trends in aortic aneurysm- and dissection-related mortality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, 1985–2009: multiple-cause-of-death analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santo Augusto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aortic aneurysm and dissection are important causes of death in older people. Ruptured aneurysms show catastrophic fatality rates reaching near 80%. Few population-based mortality studies have been published in the world and none in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to use multiple-cause-of-death methodology in the analysis of mortality trends related to aortic aneurysm and dissection in the state of Sao Paulo, between 1985 and 2009. Methods We analyzed mortality data from the Sao Paulo State Data Analysis System, selecting all death certificates on which aortic aneurysm and dissection were listed as a cause-of-death. The variables sex, age, season of the year, and underlying, associated or total mentions of causes of death were studied using standardized mortality rates, proportions and historical trends. Statistical analyses were performed by chi-square goodness-of-fit and H Kruskal-Wallis tests, and variance analysis. The joinpoint regression model was used to evaluate changes in age-standardized rates trends. A p value less than 0.05 was regarded as significant. Results Over a 25-year period, there were 42,615 deaths related to aortic aneurysm and dissection, of which 36,088 (84.7% were identified as underlying cause and 6,527 (15.3% as an associated cause-of-death. Dissection and ruptured aneurysms were considered as an underlying cause of death in 93% of the deaths. For the entire period, a significant increased trend of age-standardized death rates was observed in men and women, while certain non-significant decreases occurred from 1996/2004 until 2009. Abdominal aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections prevailed among men and aortic dissections and aortic aneurysms of unspecified site among women. In 1985 and 2009 death rates ratios of men to women were respectively 2.86 and 2.19, corresponding to a difference decrease between rates of 23.4%. For aortic dissection, ruptured and non-ruptured aneurysms, the

  3. Mortalidade neonatal em Taubaté: um estudo caso-controle Neonatal mortality in Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Sampaio Paulucci

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar e quantificar os fatores de risco para óbito neonatal em Taubaté, São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo caso-controle com dados de nascidos vivos e de óbitos neonatais de Taubaté, em 2003, obtidos da Secretaria Estadual da Saúde de São Paulo. Os casos (óbitos neonatais e os controles (recém-nascidos nos mesmos dias daqueles que faleceram foram reunidos num banco por meio da técnica de linkage. As variáveis independentes foram: variáveis sociodemográficas e assistenciais (idade e escolaridade maternas, paridade, consultas no pré-natal, tipo de parto e relato de natimorto e variáveis biológicas (peso ao nascer, idade gestacional, escore de Apgar, presença de defeito congênito e sexo. Utilizou-se a regressão logística para identificar e quantificar os efeitos destas variáveis em relação ao óbito neonatal pelo programa SPSS 10.0. Foram introduzidas no modelo as variáveis que apresentaram pOBJECTIVE: To identify and to estimate the risk factors associated to neonatal mortality in Taubaté, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: This case-control study enrolled live births in the city of Taubaté during 2003. Live birth data and death records were obtained from São Paulo Health Department. Neonatal deaths were cases and babies born alive in the same day of cases were the controls. A single data file was created by linkage approach. Dependent variable was neonatal death. Independent variables were those related to socio-demographic characteristics and prenatal care (maternal age, years in school, parity, previous stillbirths, prenatal care, as well as the biological ones (birthweight, gender, gestational age, congenital defects and Apgar score. Logistic regression was used to identify and to estimate the risk factors associated to neonatal death. The variables with p<0.20 were introduced in the model and maintained if p<0.05, by SPSS 10.0. RESULTS: 392newborns with 34 neonatal deaths were studied. There were 198

  4. Shield calculation of project for instrument calibration integrated laboratory of IPEN-Sao Paulo, Brazil; Calculo das blindagens do projeto de um laboratorio integrado de calibracao de instrumentos no IPEN - Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Gustavo A.S.J.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: gustavaobarros@gmail.co, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work performed the shield calculation of the future rooms walls of the five X-ray equipment of the Instrument Calibration Laboratory of the IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil, which will be constructed in project of laboratory enlargement. The obtained results by application of a calculation methodology from an international regulation have shown that the largest thickness of shielding (25.7 cm of concrete or 7.1 mm of lead) will be of the wall which will receive the primary beam of the equipment with a 320 kV voltage. The cost/benefit analysis indicated the concrete as the best material option for the shielding

  5. Sanitary surveillance of ionizing radiations use in health services in Sao Paulo State, Brazil; O controle sanitario do uso das radiacoes ionizantes em servicos de saude no Estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldred, Martha Aurelia; Eduardo, Maria Bernardete de Paula; Goncalves Junior, Nelson [Secretaria de Estado da Saude de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Vigilancia Sanitaria

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of the Sanitarian Surveillance actions developed at Sao Paulo State, Brazil, concerning the control of ionizing radiation is presented. Aspects such as technical standards, inspection forms, assessment and quality assurance programs, in the fields of medical and dental radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine are discussed. A program is also introduced for sample monitoring of these instruments. A set of protocol with criteria to be used in quality assurance programs, including equipment and procedures is presented. Participation of several societies of specialists and consumer defense organizations in the elaboration of technical regulations has contributed to concrete adoption by health care services 19 refs.

  6. Characterization of the PROALCOOL in the State of Sao Paulo:, Brazil establishment of homogeneous groups of plants and distilleries; Caracterizacao do PROALCOOL no Estado de Sao Paulo: formacao de grupos homogeneos de usinas e destilarias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, L.C.; Hwa, C.M.F.; Andreoni, S.; Myiake, M.Y. [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    A methodology to stratify the ethanol plants operating in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in homogeneous groups is presented. This group was obtained by multivariate stratification techniques considering factors as scale of production, agricultural productivity, industrial efficiency and effective industrial capacity utilization. This methodology differs from those adopted by the Fundacao Getulio Vargas and the Organizacao dos Plantadores de Cana-Orplana who consider only one variable- the scale of production. The advantage of this multivariate stratification is that the result clusters reflect more accurately the differences among the existing distilleries. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Environmental impact from pollutant action in the Billings Reservoir in Sao Paulo metropolitan area - Brazil; Impacto ambiental decorrente da acao de poluentes no Reservatorio Billings na area metropolitana de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, S; Braghin, P L [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1990-12-31

    The ELETROPAULO Electricity from Sao Paulo S/A covers 74 municipal district of the State with electric power, signifying 26% of the energy consumed in Brazil. This paper presents problems with the aquatic plants proliferation and the methods used for their control in the ELETROPAULO hydraulic system, compound by generators plants, channels and reservoirs. The main consequences of their evolution and the advantage and disadvantage of the used methods are mentioned. These plant proliferation cause damages for the neighbour population, with some social and sanitary re flexion, and for the Company operation. Considerations for an improvement of the control methods are also cited. (C.G.C.). 1 fig.

  8. Occurrence of cocaine and benzoylecgonine in drinking and source water in the São Paulo State region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campestrini, Iolana; Jardim, Wilson F

    2017-01-15

    The occurrence of illicit drugs in natural waters (surface, source and drinking water) is of interest due to the poor sanitation coverage and the high consumption of drugs of abuse in Brazil. In addition, little is known about the effects of these compounds on aquatic organisms and human health. This work investigates the occurrence of cocaine (COC) and its major metabolite, benzoylecgonine (BE), in surface and drinking water collected in rivers from a populated geographic area in Brazil. Surface water samples were collected in 22 locations from 16 different rivers and one dam from São Paulo State, whereas drinking water samples were collected in 5 locations. Samples were collected during the dry and wet season. Among the 34 surface water samples analyzed, BE was detected above the LOD in 94%, while COC in 85%. BE concentrations ranged from 10ngL -1 to 1019ngL -1 and COC concentrations from 6ngL -1 to 62ngL -1 . In the drinking water samples analyzed, BE and COC were found in 100% of the samples analyzed. For BE, concentrations were found in the range from 10ngL -1 to 652ngL -1 , and COC was quantified in concentrations between 6 and 22ngL -1 . These concentrations are one of the highest found in urban surface waters and may pose some risk to aquatic species. However, no human health risk was identified using the Hazard Quotient. BE is proposed as a reliable indicator of sewage contamination in both source and drinking water. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Geochemical and stable isotopic evolution of the Guarani Aquifer System in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sracek, Ondra; Hirata, Ricardo

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to explain geochemical and stable isotopes trends in the Brazilian unit of the Guarani Aquifer System (Botucatu and Piramboia aquifers) in São Paulo State, Brazil. Trends of dissolved species concentrations and geochemical modeling indicated a significant role of cation exchange and dissolution of carbonates in downgradient evolution of groundwater chemistry. Loss of calcium by the exchange for sodium drives dissolution of carbonates and results in Na-HCO3 type of groundwater. The cation-exchange front moves downgradient at probably much slower rate compared to the velocity of groundwater flow and at present is located near to the cities of Sertãozinho and Águas de Santa Barbara (wells PZ-34 and PZ-148, respectively) in a shallow confined area, 50-70 km from the recharge zone. Part of the sodium probably enters the Guarani Aquifer System. together with chloride and sulfate from the underlying Piramboia Formation by diffusion related to the dissolution of evaporates like halite and gypsum. High concentrations of fluorine (up to 13.3 mg/L) can be explained by dissolution of mineral fluoride also driven by cation exchange. However, it is unclear if the dissolution takes place directly in the Guarani Aquifer System or in the overlying basaltic Serra Geral Formation. There is depletion in δ2H and δ18O values in groundwater downgradient. Values of δ13C(DIC) are enriched downgradient, indicating dissolution of calcite under closed system conditions. Values of δ13C(DIC) in deep geothermal wells are very high (>-6.0‰) and probably indicate isotopic exchange with carbonates with δ13C about -3.0‰. Future work should be based on evaluation of vertical fluxes and potential for penetration of contamination to the Guarani Aquifer System. Résumé. Cet article a pour objet d'expliquer l'évolution de la géochimie et des isotopes stables dans l'unité brésilienne du système aquifère du Guarani (aquifères de Botucatu et Piramboia), dans

  10. Analysis of lichen species for atmospheric pollution biomonitoring in the Santo Andre municipality, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiki, M.; Alves, E.R.; Marcelli, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied for the determination of trace elements in Canoparmelia texana species collected in nonpolluted areas of Atlantic Forest and in six sites of Santo Andre Municipality, SP, Brazil. Concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cs, Co, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, and Zn were determined and comparisons were made between the results obtained in lichens from different sites

  11. Aspectos estruturais e funcionais do apoio social de idosos do Município de São Paulo, Brasil Structural and functional aspects of social support for the elderly in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Etsuko da Costa Rosa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo descrever a distribuição das redes sociais e de apoio em idosos no Município de São Paulo, Brasil, por características sócio-econômicas e demográficas. Estudou-se amostra probabilística de 1.568 idosos (60 ou mais anos da cidade de São Paulo (inquérito sobre Saúde, Bem-estar e Envelhecimento - SABE, focalizando-se as dimensões estruturais e funcionais das redes sociais. Para a análise dos dados utilizou-se a regressão logística simples e múltipla. As melhores condições nas redes sociais foram observadas nos menores patamares de renda e as piores entre os mais velhos e os "não casados". Para as mulheres, as chances de estarem "não casadas" aumentaram significativamente quanto pior era o seu nível educacional. O "status de coabitação" foi o que mais influenciou o apoio funcional, onde "morar só" aumentou significativamente as chances de não ocorrerem as trocas sociais. Os modelos de regressão logística múltipla construídos separadamente por gênero sugerem que idade, estado civil, renda per capita e escolaridade estão associados com as redes sociais entre os idosos. No entanto, essas relações manifestam-se de modos desiguais entre gêneros e entre as características sócio-demográficas para as diferentes dimensões da rede social.This study aimed to describe the distribution of social support networks for the elderly in the City of São Paulo, Brazil, based on socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. A probability sample of 1,568 elderly persons (> 60 years was studied (SABE query, focusing on structural and functional dimensions of social networks. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. The best conditions in social networks were in the lowest income levels and the worst among older and unmarried people. For women, unmarried marital status was significantly associated with lower schooling. Cohabiting had the strongest influence on

  12. Autochthonous acute Chagas’ disease in São Paulo State, Brazil: Epidemiological aspects

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    Ricardo Mário de Carvalho CIARAVOLO

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the seventies the natural transmission of Chagas’ infection has been considered to be under control in the State of São Paulo and not even a case of American Trypanosomiasis, transmitted by triatomine bugs, has been detected by the epidemiological surveillance system. This situation justifies the report of a case of acute Chagas’ disease that occurred in a forest area considered free of domiciliary triatomines along the Southern seacoast of São Paulo State. In May, 1995 the presence of trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi had been diagnosed in a retired 57 year-old male patient, born and living in Santos (São Paulo State, complaining of fever, fatigue and malaise. The patient reported that 40 days before he had participated with 17 friends in a 7-day excursion in a forest area of the municipalities of Itanhaém and Peruíbe. During this period the group had been lodged in three houses located within the forest. Eight days after the end of the excursion the patient began to have fever, malaise and fatigue. During the next 31 days he had received medical care both as an inpatient and an outpatient, without any significant improvement. After the detection of T. cruzi trypomastigotes in his blood stream the patient began to be treated with benzonidazole in a hospital but died 8 days after the beginning of treatment. The epidemiological investigation carried out showed no signs of the presence of triatomine bugs in the three houses where the group had been lodged, or any indication of Chagas' infection in other excursionistsDoença de Chagas aguda no Estado de São Paulo: aspectos epidemiológicos Desde o início da década de 70 a transmissão natural da infecção chagásica é considerada sob controle e as ações de vigilância epidemiológica desde então desenvolvidas não têm detectado ocorrência de novos casos de tripanosomíase americana, transmitidos por triatomíneos, no Estado de São Paulo. Este fato

  13. Drinking patterns and alcohol use disorders in São Paulo, Brazil: the role of neighborhood social deprivation and socioeconomic status.

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    Camila Magalhães Silveira

    Full Text Available Research conducted in high-income countries has investigated influences of socioeconomic inequalities on drinking outcomes such as alcohol use disorders (AUD, however, associations between area-level neighborhood social deprivation (NSD and individual socioeconomic status with these outcomes have not been explored in Brazil. Thus, we investigated the role of these factors on drink-related outcomes in a Brazilian population, attending to male-female variations.A multi-stage area probability sample of adult household residents in the São Paulo Metropolitan Area was assessed using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI (n = 5,037. Estimation focused on prevalence and correlates of past-year alcohol disturbances [heavy drinking of lower frequency (HDLF, heavy drinking of higher frequency (HDHF, abuse, dependence, and DMS-5 AUD] among regular users (RU; odds ratio (OR were obtained.Higher NSD, measured as an area-level variable with individual level variables held constant, showed an excess odds for most alcohol disturbances analyzed. Prevalence estimates for HDLF and HDHF among RU were 9% and 20%, respectively, with excess odds in higher NSD areas; schooling (inverse association and low income were associated with male HDLF. The only individual-level association with female HDLF involved employment status. Prevalence estimates for abuse, dependence, and DSM-5 AUD among RU were 8%, 4%, and 8%, respectively, with excess odds of: dependence in higher NSD areas for males; abuse and AUD for females. Among RU, AUD was associated with unemployment, and low education with dependence and AUD.Regular alcohol users with alcohol-related disturbances are more likely to be found where area-level neighborhood characteristics reflect social disadvantage. Although we cannot draw inferences about causal influence, the associations are strong enough to warrant future longitudinal alcohol studies to explore causal mechanisms related to the

  14. Challenges for energy efficiency in the buildings sector in the Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Desafios para eficiencia energetica no setor de edificios no estado de Sao Paulo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, Maria Ines; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    2010-07-01

    The consumption of energy in the building sector accounts for more than one third of the total final electricity consumption in Sao Paulo State. Considering that, the development of policy measures aiming at the promotion of energy efficiency in the sector should be encouraged. Analysed data reveals the continuing rise of energy consumption resulting form the high number of new buildings and the rising standards of the population in consequence of economic development. Besides this, the retrofit of old buildings presents a huge potential for energy savings. The article analyses and suggests the use of Building Codes as a suitable policy instrument for the Sao Paulo Sate reality. (author)

  15. Detecting trends in 10-day rainfall amounts at five sites in the state ofSão Paulo, Brazil

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    Gabriel Constantino Blain

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The temporal distribution of the rainfall events within a crop growing season plays a crucial role on the crop yield. In this way, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the presence of climate trends in the 10-day rainfall totalsobtained from five weather stations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil (1951-2012.The autocorrelation function, the Run test and the Durbin-Watson test indicateda lack of significant serial correlation in theseseries. The wavelet analysis revealed no conclusive evidence of periodicities in the temporal variability of this variable. According to the Mann-Kendall test, most of the 10-day rainfall amounts obtained from the five weather stations shows no significant trends. However, for the locations of States Campinas, Pindorama and Ribeirão Preto, the significant decreasing trends observed during the 2nd and 3rd ten days of October suggests a possible change in the climatic patterns of these locations, which may be linked to a delay in the return of the rainy season.

  16. Oral cancer calibration and diagnosis among professionals from the public health in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, José Carlos; da Silva, Renato Pereira; Cortellazzi, Karine Laura; Vazquez, Fabiana de Lima; Marques, Regina Auxiliadora de Amorim; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Mialhe, Fábio Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer is a public health problem responsible for 13% of deaths worldwide in 2008 and screening programs can be useful to detect individuals more vulnerable to the disease, improving its prognosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate oral cancer calibration (in lux and in vivo methodologies) and diagnosis processes performed by dental surgeons (DSs) of the public health system in São Paulo, Brazil. Thirty-three oral cancer photographs were examined during in lux calibration, while 560 individuals were examined during in vivo calibration. Oral conditions were coded as "0 - sound tissues", "1 - buccal lesions without malignant potential" and "2 - buccal lesions with malignant potential". The final sample for oral cancer screening was composed of 336 individuals, age-range 40 years or older. Kappa values for interexaminer agreement were 0.67 and 0.45 for in lux and in vivo respectively. The accuracy of both methodologies was over 80%. Oral cancer screening revealed 48 healthy individuals, 273 oral lesions coded as "1" and 12 oral lesions coded as "2". In spite of the low reproducibility, the validity of the visual examination in oral cancer screening was satisfactory, showing its importance as part of preventive oral cancer programs and public health system campaigns.

  17. Largest case series of Latin American eyelid tumors over 13-Years from a single center in Sao Paulo, Brazil

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    Jéssica Carolinne Damasceno

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: Malignant lesions of the eyelid are the most common eye cancers. Although rarely lethal, late diagnosis can lead to serious visual morbidity. Definitive diagnosis of neoplastic lesions is pathological. Indications and types of eyelid lesions in a single high-volume ophthalmic reference center in Sao Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed. Methods: The surgical pathological reports of patients who underwent eye removal procedures between January 2000 and December 2012 were retrieved from the electronic database of the Ophthalmology Department and retrospectively reviewed. Data regarding the final anatomopathological diagnosis, sex, and age were analyzed via the χ2 test with Yates' correction. Results: Of the 1,113 eyelid tumors resected over the 13-year study period, 324 (29% lesions were malignant. The most prevalent lesions were basal cell, squamous cell, and sebaceous gland carcinomas. The median ages of patients (females, n=165, 51%; males, n=159, 49% with a diagnosis of basal cell, squamous cell, and sebaceous gland carcinomas were 65, 75, and 70 years, respectively. Conclusion: This is the largest retrospective cohort analysis of eyelid tumors in a Latin American population. These findings are in agreement with those from large centers in other countries and regions.

  18. Air Quality and Health Impacts of Future Ethanol Production and Use in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Noah Scovronick

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is often argued that liquid biofuels are cleaner than fossil fuels, and therefore better for human health, however, the evidence on this issue is still unclear. Brazil’s high uptake of ethanol and role as a major producer makes it the most appropriate case study to assess the merits of different biofuel policies. Accordingly, we modeled the impact on air quality and health of two future fuel scenarios in São Paulo State: a business-as-usual scenario where ethanol production and use proceeds according to government predictions and a counterfactual scenario where ethanol is frozen at 2010 levels and future transport fuel demand is met with gasoline. The population-weighted exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and ozone was 3.0 μg/m3 and 0.3 ppb lower, respectively, in 2020 in the scenario emphasizing gasoline compared with the business-as-usual (ethanol scenario. The lower exposure to both pollutants in the gasoline scenario would result in the population living 1100 additional life-years in the first year, and if sustained, would increase to 40,000 life-years in year 20 and continue to rise. Without additional measures to limit emissions, increasing the use of ethanol in Brazil could lead to higher air pollution-related population health burdens when compared to policy that prioritizes gasoline.

  19. Cadmium, lead, tin, total mercury, and methylmercury in canned tuna commercialised in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Esther Lima; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Milani, Raquel Fernanda

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this work was to determine levels of inorganic contaminants in 30 samples of five commercial brands of canned tuna, acquired on the local market in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, in the year of 2015. Total mercury and methylmercury (MeHg+) were determined by atomic absorption with thermal decomposition and amalgamation; and cadmium, lead, and tin were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Results indicated that 20% of the tuna samples surpassed limits determined by the Brazilian and European Commission legislation for cadmium; for lead, the maximum value found was 59 µg kg -1 and tin was not detected in any samples. The maximum values found for total Hg and MeHg+ were 261 and 258 µg kg -1 , respectively. As from the results obtained, it was estimated that the consumption of four cans per week (540 g) of tuna canned in water could surpass the provisional tolerable monthly intake for MeHg + by 100%.

  20. Quality of life and self-esteem of persons with paraplegia living in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanes, Leila; Carmagnani, Maria Isabel S; Ferreira, Lydia M

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the quality of life (QoL) and self-esteem of paraplegic persons. The sample consisted of 60 outpatients with traumatic paraplegia living in São Paulo, Brazil, from whom clinical and demographic data were obtained. QoL was assessed by the 36-item Short-Form (SF-36) health survey questionnaire, and self-esteem was measured by Rosenberg's Self-Esteem (RSE) scale. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test, analysis of variance and Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) test at a significance level of 5%. Participants were predominately men (86.7%) with a mean age of 32.9 (standard deviation [SD] = 9.47) years, low education level and low income. The SF-36 dimensions that received the lowest scores were physical functioning, role physical and role emotional. Cronbach's alpha for the SF-36 questionnaire was 0.80. A significant statistical difference was found between the presence of pressure ulcers and low scores on mental health (P = 0.001), as determined by Student's t-test. The mean self-esteem score was 8.35 and there was a significant statistical difference between low self-esteem scores and occupation (P = 0.008). Participants reported low QoL and self-esteem. The results provide background information that may be useful in the development of strategies to reduce the impact of spinal cord injury (SCI) on the life and health of persons with SCI, improving their QoL.

  1. Suitability of Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' for biomonitoring ozone in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sant' Anna, Silvia M.R.; Esposito, Marisia P.; Domingos, Marisa [Instituto de Botanica, Secao de Ecologia, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza, Silvia R. [Instituto de Botanica, Secao de Ecologia, Caixa Postal 3005, 01061-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: souzasrd@terra.com.br

    2008-01-15

    Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is a widely used sensitive bioindicator for ambient ozone, but it is rarely used in tropical countries. Our goal was to determine the suitability of this plant for biomonitoring ozone in the city of Sao Paulo by evaluating the relationships between leaf necroses and ozone under field conditions and measurements of chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidants in plants exposed to different concentrations of ozone in closed chambers. While a weak linear relationship between leaf injury and ozone concentrations (R{sup 2} = 0.10) was determined in the field, a strong linear relationship was observed in the chamber experiments. Maximum leaf injury was observed in plants submitted to 40 ppb, which coincided with a significant decrease in fluorescence and total ascorbic acid. The relationship between leaf damage observed in the field and ozone was improved when the concentrations were limited to 40 ppb (R{sup 2} = 0.28). - Nicotiana tabacum 'Bel W3' is suitable for indicating low ozone levels in Brazil.

  2. Frequency and characteristics of induced abortion among married and single women in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza e Silva, Rebeca de; Vieira, Elisabeth Meloni

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, aimed at estimating the frequency of induced abortion among women 15 to 49 years of age. The objective was to characterize the occurrence of induced abortion by comparing the ideal number of children, age, and contraceptive use between married and single women. Based on random sampling, 1,749 interviews were held, including 764 married women, 658 single women, and 327 with other marital status. The analysis included: mean number of abortions per woman by analysis of variance and proportions of abortions and pregnancy, using the chi-square test. The mean abortion rate for married women (45 per thousand) did not differ statistically from that of single women. However, the pregnancy rate was much lower in single women, and when single women became pregnant they used abortion more frequently; while fewer than 2% of pregnancies in married women ended in induced abortions, among single women the abortion rate exceeded 18%. Therefore, the priority in the reproductive health field should be to invest in the supply and dissemination of appropriate contraceptive methods for women's early sexually active life.

  3. HIV infection and related risk behaviours in a disadvantaged youth institution of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetta, D M; Strazza, L; Azevedo, R S; Carvalho, H B; Massad, E; Menezes, R X; Ferreira, D P; Burattini, M N

    1999-02-01

    In order to study the prevalence of HIV and related risky behaviours among disadvantaged youth, we interviewed and bled, between December 1994 and April 1995, 1122 young males and 93 young females who were serving time in FEBEM, a state institution that cares for homeless and offender youth of São Paulo, Brazil. Our questionnaire covered the following areas: sexual practices and use of illicit drugs; knowledge of HIV and STDs and their prevention; and myths and beliefs about AIDS. Seroprevalence of HIV was assessed and related with risk-taking behaviours by means of uni-, bi- and multivariate analysis. We found 2.6% of the males and 10.3% of the females to be positive to HIV. The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies resulted in 5.9% for males and 4.6% for females, respectively. The risk for parenterally transmitted HIV among the males was higher than that for sexually related transmission. The inverse relationship was found among the females.

  4. Evaluation of the trace elements and the total mercury concentration in fishes commercialized at the Cubatao city, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Barbara C.; Farias, Luciana A.; Curcho, Michel R.M.; Favaro, Debora I.T.; Braga, Elisabete S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the total Hg and the trace elements As, Br, Co, Cr and Rb concentrations in muscle of commercially important fishes at the Cubatao, Sao Paulo, Brazil, region. The following carnivore species were analysed: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), girl leg (Menticirrhus americanus), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), and plant eaters, sardine (Sardella braziliensis) and grey mullet (Mugil liza), representing a total of 58 samples. The analysed trace elements were determined through the neutron analysis activation (NAA) and total Hg, through the atomic absorption spectrometry with cold vapor generation (CV AAS). The analysed elements present a great concentration variation, not only among individuals of the same specie, but also among all the analysed species. The total Hg concentration were highly significant, with the predator species jew fish, girl leg and hake presenting concentrations larger than the non predator species sardine and grey mullet. Nevertheless, the content of total Hg remained bellow the limits established by the Brazilian legislation which is the 500 μg kg -1 for the non predator species, and the 1000 μg -1 for the predator species (humid weight)

  5. Sedimentation rates in Atibaia River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil, using 210Pb as geochronometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaris, T P P; Bonotto, D M

    2011-01-01

    The constant initial concentration (CIC) of unsupported/excess (210)Pb model was successfully used to assess (210)Pb data of nine sediment cores from Atibaia River basin, São Paulo State, Brazil. The (210)Pb-based apparent sediment mass accumulation rates ranged from 47.7 to 782.4 mg/cm(2)yr, whereas the average linear sedimentation rates between 0.16 and 1.32 cm/yr, which are compatible with the calculated sediment mass fluxes, i.e. a higher sediment mass accumulation rate yielded a higher linear sedimentation rate. The higher long-term based accumulation rate tended to be found in topographically softer regions. This occurs because the sediments are preferentially transported in topographically steeper regions instead of being deposited. Anthropic activities like deforestation possibly interfered with the natural/normal sedimentation processes, which increased in accordance with modifications on the channel drainage. The radionuclide geochronology as described in this paper allows determination of sedimentation rates that are compatible with values estimated elsewhere. The adoption of an appropriate factor generated from previous laboratory experiments resulted in a successful correction for the (222)Rn-loss from the sediments, bringing the estimate of the parent-supported (in-situ produced) (210)Pb to reliable values required by the CIC model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Survey of hepatitis B and C infection control: procedures at manicure and pedicure facilities in São Paulo, Brazil

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    Andréia Cristine Deneluz Schunck de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Bleeding due to the habit of removing the cuticles of the finger and toes nails, without appropriate sterilization of instruments can be an important factor of contamination by hepatitis B and C viruses. The objectives of this study were to verify the use of standards on biosafety in the routine work of manicurists and/or pedicurists located in São Paulo, Brazil; know the level of information they have about ways of transmission and prevention of hepatitis B and C; evaluate the degree of risk perception for accidental exposure to infectious agents; and to estimate the prevalence of serological markers of hepatitis B and C among them. This was descriptive, cross-sectional study that included a random sample of 100 manicurists and/or pedicurists working in beauty salons. We administered a questionnaire to obtain personal information about the characteristics of the participants, collected blood for hepatitis B and C serology and assessed the working environment. Adherence to the professional standards on biosafety has been inadequate, and we noted that only 5% used disposable gloves, none washed their hands, 93% did not previously cleaned their working material and only 7% used disposable materials. A low level of knowledge about the routes of transmission, prevention, standards of biosafety, and risk perception of the infectious agents in their professional activity was observed. One out of ten interviewed manicurist and/or pedicurist had serological markers of hepatitis B or C, with 8% of hepatitis B and 2% of hepatitis C

  7. Isolation of Leptospira santarosai, serovar guaricura from buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis in Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcellos Silvio A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In April 1998 urine samples from adult female buffaloes were collected in a farm located in Registro, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo State, Brazil. The urine samples obtained after furosemide injection were immediately transported to the laboratory in liquid modified EMJH medium and seeded, by the serial dilution technique, into Fletcher's or modified EMJH-0.2% agar, both of them with 5-fluorouracil 100mg/mL. The intraperitoneoum inoculation of 0.5 mL was also performed with each urine sample in young, adult hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. All samples seeded directly in culture medium were contaminated. The hamsters did not show any sign of disease and were killed at the 21st post inoculation day. At this time kidney cultures of these animals were performed and from one of them, one leptospira strain (M04-98 was isolated, identified as belonging to serogroup Sejroe by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT with a panel of 36 rabbit sera against serovars representative for the pathogenic serogroups. Subsequently, MAT was carried out with antisera against the 19 reference strains of serogroup Sejroe, revealing a close relationship with serovar guaricura. Afterwards the MAT was done with a panel of 18 monoclonal antibodies representative for serovars of serogroup Sejroe. The histogram closely resembled that of serovar guaricura. So Cross Agglutination Absorption Test (CAAT was carried out with the buffalo isolate and serovar guaricura, supporting the relationship between the buffalo isolate and serovar guaricura.

  8. Gamma ionization of Phagicola longa (Trematoda:Heterophyidae) in Mugilidae (pisces) in São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, S. A.; Wiendl, F. M.; Almeida Dias, E. R.; Arthur, V.; Daniotti, C.

    1993-07-01

    The mullet (Mugilidae) is a fish caught in large quantities in brackish and marine waters of the southern Brazilian coast, which in consequence of its raw consumption as "sashimi", a typical Japanese dish, has led to ten cases of human infection by Phagicola longa in São Paulo, Brazil. The mullet acts as a second intermediate host for the parasite, as in human heterophysiasis in the Near and Far East. In order to control these infections under commercial storage conditions and in raw consumption, the radiolysis of P. longa was studied in three mullet species-the silver mullet ( Mugil curema), the grey mullet ( M. platanus) and the "paratipema" ( Mugil sp.) - subjected to ionization ranging from 1.0 to 10.0 kGy (2.21 kGy/h). It was observed that 1.0 and 2.0 kGy caused a motility decrease in silver mullet parasites from 100% to 15% and 17%, and that doses of 4.0 and 10.0 kGy caused metacercaria inviability. The parasite motility decreased in the grey mullet treated with doses of 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 and 3.5 kGy, from 56% to 31%, 9%, 18% and 5%, respectively, 4.0 kGy tending to be the control dose for P. longa. This dose also controls other metacercaria found in the "parati-pema", without changing the odor, color or appearance of the treated mullet.

  9. Microbiological quality assessment of sand and water from three selected beaches of South Coast, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, K C; Hachich, E M; Sato, M I Z; Di Bari, M; Coelho, M C L S; Matté, M H; Lamparelli, C C; Razzolini, M T P

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the sanitary quality of water, and wet and dry sand from three beaches located in the South Coast region of São Paulo State, Brazil, selected taking into account the frequency of tourists and the water quality (good, fair and poor). Thirty-six water samples each of wet and dry sand and seawater were collected monthly over a period of one year and analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria (FIB: thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci), presumptive Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and dermatophytes. The results revealed FIB concentrations more elevated in dry sand followed by wet sand and water. P. aeruginosa and presumptive S. aureus were detected with a similar frequency in water and sand samples, but maximum concentrations and geometric means were higher in dry sand. C. albicans was detected only in water samples whereas the dermatophyte Microsporum sp. was isolated exclusively from dry and wet sand samples. This evaluation showed also that the environment had a significant influence on P. aeruginosa but not on presumptive S. aureus concentrations. According to threshold values proposed in the literature for E. coli and enterococci dry sand densities, none of the beaches would be considered of sufficient quality for recreational activities.

  10. Persistent organic pollutants in marine biota of São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Patrick S; Cipro, Caio V Z; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2013-09-15

    Remote islands, such as the São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (SPSPA), Brazil, are pristine areas. However, these locations are not exempt from the arrival of anthropogenic agents, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The present study aimed to determine the occurrence and distribution of POPs in the marine biota of the SPSPA. Sample extractions were performed using a microwave-assisted method. The predominant compounds were PCBs and DDTs, which respectively had mean wet weight concentrations of 62.23 and 9.23 ng g(-1) in the tropical two-wing flying fish (Exocoetus volitans), 78.66 and 6.81 ng g(-1) in the brown booby (Sula leucogaster) and 43.40 and 3.03 ng g(-1) in the red rock crab (Grapsus grapsus). Low levels of contaminants suggest a relative degree of isolation. Occurrence and distribution profiles of PCBs support long-range atmospheric transport as the main source of contamination and demonstrate the ubiquity of these pollutants in the marine environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Wet-bulb globe temperature index estimation using meteorological data from São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Maia, Paulo Alves; Ruas, Álvaro Cézar; Bitencourt, Daniel Pires

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that excessive heat exposure causes heat disorders and can lead to death in some situations. Evaluation of heat stress on workers performing indoor and outdoor activities is, nowadays, conducted worldwide by wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) index, which calculation parameters are dry-bulb, natural wet-bulb, and globe temperatures, which must be measured at the same time and in location where the worker is conducting his/her activities. However, for some activities performed in large outdoor areas such as those of agricultural ones, it is not feasible to measure directly those temperatures in all work periods and locations where there are workers. Taking this into account, this work aims to introduce a WBGT index estimation using atmospheric variables observed by automatic meteorological stations. In order to support our estimation method, we used, as a test-bed, data recorded in the State of São Paulo (SP), Brazil. By adding the cloudiness factor in the calculation through measurement of solar radiation, the algorithm proved to be as efficient as those mentioned in this work. It was found that this method is viable, with WBGT-estimated values obtained from meteorological data measured by stations with a distance of less than 80 km. This estimate can be used for monitoring heat stress in real time as well as to investigate heat-related disorders and agricultural work.

  12. Canine rabies epidemiology in Araçatuba and neighborhood, Northwestern São Paulo State - Brazil

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    Silva Luzia Helena Queiroz da

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological characteristics of canine rabies in the northwest region of São Paulo State (Araçatuba region, Brazil, from 1993 to 1997 are presented. Out of 1,984 dogs, a total of 351 (17.7% were positive for rabies diagnosis; 89% (312/351 of these occurred in urban areas and 85% (266/312 of the urban positive cases were among owned dogs. The mean age of the rabid dogs was 34 months and 61% were male. Aggressive behavior was observed in 77% of rabid dogs, followed by lack of coordination and paralysis (42% and 48% of these dogs were responsible biting people or other animals. Information about vaccination status was obtained from 182 records and 51% of rabid dogs were non-vaccinated. The number of unvaccinated rabid dogs indicates a low vaccination index and this factor added to the high dog/man ratio must have contributed to the canine rabies epizootic observed in the studied area.

  13. Salmonella spp. in meat-type quails (Coturnix coturnix coturnix in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    OC de Freitas Neto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study Salmonella spp. was surveyed in four flocks of meat-type quails reared in a farm that also had processing plant on site, located in the region of Bastos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Meconium samples of one-day-old quail chicks were collected from transport cardboard boxes. Cecal content was collected on days 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 of rearing. At 36 days of age, birds were slaughtered in the farm's processing plant, where two samples of water from the scalding and the chilling tanks and four carcasses per flock were collected. All samples were examined for Salmonella spp. using traditional bacteriological methods. Salmonella spp. was present in meconium samples of three flocks and in cecal feces of the four flocks. This bacterium was also isolated in the chiller water and in the carcasses of three of the evaluated flocks and in the scalding water of one flock. In this study, S. enterica subspecies enterica 4, 5, 12; S. Corvalis; S. Give; S. Lexington; S. Minnesota; S. Schwarzengrund; S. Rissen and S. Typhimurium were the eight serovars identified.

  14. Assessment of Copper and Zinc in Soils of a Vineyard Region in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Gláucia Cecília Gabrielli dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This soil acidification may increase the bioavailability of copper (Cu and zinc (Zn in soils. The objective of this study was to verify the concentrations of Cu and Zn in soils of a vineyard region, including sample acidification, to simulate acid rain. The study was developed in an area of vineyard cultivation, with an adjacent land having other crops grown, in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Soil samples were collected and GPS located under different uses and coverings. The extracted solutions used to determine the available Cu and Zn forms were diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA, pH 7.3, and calcium chloride 0.01 M. The total forms were obtained by HNO3 digestion. The amounts of Cu and Zn extracted using DTPA were considered high in most of the samples and were greater in the areas cultivated with vineyards that had received fungicide applications for several decades. The total forms were higher in vineyard soils. The amounts of Cu and Zn extracted using CaCl2 did not have good correlation with vineyards or with other metals' forms. The results confirmed that the soil was enriched with Cu and Zn due to the management of the vineyards with chemicals for several decades.

  15. Periodontal conditions in a 7-19-year-old student population in Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil, 1995

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    Dini Ercilia Leal

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose of this study was to assess the periodontal conditions and treatment needs in 7-19-year-old Brazilian school children and adolescents enrolled in the urban public schools in Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil, in 1995, to provide baseline data for monitoring changes in their periodontal status. A sample of 1,956 school children and adolescents aged 7 to 19 years was examined by two examiners previously calibrated using the CPITN (Community Pe riodontal Index of Treatment Needs. The results showed that bleeding was the most frequently observed periodontal condition in all age groups, with a mean of 3.0 sextants affected at age 15. The presence of calculus increased with age. In the 15-19-year age group, calculus and shallow pockets (3.5-5.5 mm were observed in 39.8 per cent and 1.6 per cent of the adolescents, respectively. In order to achieve the WHO oral health goal of no more than one sextant scoring GPITN 1 (bleeding or 2 (presence of dental calculus at age 15, priority should be focused on primary prevention programs to benefit the periodontal health of the majority.

  16. Metazoan parasites of Plagioscion squamosissimus, an invasive species in the Tietê River, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Ivan Moura Lapera

    Full Text Available Abstract This study focused on the characterization and analysis of communities and infra-communities of metazoan parasites of Plagioscion squamosissimus caught in Promissão Reservoir in the Tietê River in Borborema (21°39′58”S, 49°8′49”W, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Fifty adult specimens caught by professional fishermen in March 2015 were necropsied. The fish presented an average standard length of 25.2 ± 2.2 cm and average weight of 328.82 ± 89.03 g. A total of 5,227 specimens of metazoan parasites were collected: 2,880 (55.1% adult Diplectanum piscinarius (Monogenoidea: Diplectanidae and 2,347 (44.9% Austrodiplostomum compactum metacercariae (Digenea, Diplostomidae, both with 100% prevalence and mean abundance of 57.6 and 46.9, respectively. Parasite diversity was low (species richness = 2, with a Simpson index (D equal to 0.505, and low values of Brillouin (HB = 0.687 and Margalef diversity (I = 0.117 indices. Berger-Parker’s index of dominance (p = 0.551 indicated a slight dominance of the monogenean parasite D. piscinarius. There was a positive correlation, assessed by Pearson coefficient between parasite abundance of D. piscinarius and standard length (r = 0.43 and weight (r = 0.51 of hosts.

  17. The sarsaparilla market in the state of São Paulo (Brazil and the challenges of cultivation

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    Marli K.M. Soares

    Full Text Available This study aimed to present information about the sarsaparilla sold in establishments in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, assess the genetic diversity of Smilax brasiliensis Spreng., Smilacaceae, and examine the growing conditions and productivity of five species of Smilax. The amount of sarsaparilla sold per month at most pharmacies was 0.4 kg on average. Herbal stores and markets sold averages of 9 kg and 8 kg per month, respectively. The weight of the underground biomass of S. fluminensis (188.3 g is significantly higher than those of other species (28.3-79.6 g. The study demonstrated that high genetic diversity among the Smilax brasiliensis plants belonging to the CPQBA germplasm bank, which was confirmed by the results of the genotyping study that used a SSR marker on S. brasiliensis. The high consumption of sarsaparilla and the low yield of young plants cultivated from seeds with high genetic variability reinforce the need for further studies on the production of Smilax species.

  18. Socioeconomic inequalities and exposure to traffic-related air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Mateus Habermann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a leading public health concern. In addition, poor populations have been reported as showing increased exposure to such pollution. The current study thus aimed to evaluate the socioeconomic status of the population exposed to vehicle-related air pollution in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The study used data from the 2010 Census on head-of-household’s mean monthly income and the percentage of households connected to the sewage system. Exposure to air pollutants was estimated according to traffic density in the census tract plus a 200m surrounding buffer. The relationship between exposure and socioeconomic variables was analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Exposure increased with increasing socioeconomic status (p < 0.001. The population with the highest socioeconomic status lives in the most polluted areas of the city. However, place of residence alone is not capable of measuring exposure. The study suggests that future epidemiological studies include other indicators of vulnerability.

  19. Occurrence of Giardia intestinalis and Cryptosporidium sp. in wastewater samples from São Paulo State, Brazil, and Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Stanojlović, Francisco Miroslav; Aguiar, Bruna; Jara, Luis M; Sato, Maria Inês Zanoli; Guerrero, Juana Arzola; Hachich, Elayse; Matté, Glavur Rogério; Dropa, Milena; Matté, Maria Helena; de Araújo, Ronalda Silva

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of the study were to detect and genotype Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia intestinalis in wastewater samples obtained from five cities with high transit of people in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and at the entrance of a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Lima, Peru. Samples were collected and concentrated by centrifugation. The genomic DNA was extracted for molecular characterization by nested PCR for Cryptosporidium and double nested PCR for Giardia, followed by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. G. intestinalis was found in 63.6 % of the samples, and the human assemblages A and B were identified. Cryptosporidium sp. was found in 36.4 % of the samples, and the species were corresponding to Cryptosporidium hominis, Cryptosporidium cuniculus, and Cryptosporidium muris. Results revealed the presence of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium species and G. intestinalis human pathogenic assemblages. Molecular tools highlight the importance to map the genetic diversity of these parasites, as well as to detect their epidemiological circulation pathway in the environment.

  20. Control of parasitic infections among school children in the peri-urban area of Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil

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    Regina Coeli Cunha Dórea

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Tide prevalence of intestinal parasitosis ivas investigated in a primaiy school located in Rubiâo Júnior, a peri-urban district of Botucatu, São Paulo slate, Brazil, in order to assess the effect of treatment and practical measures of prophylaxis in the control of parasitic infections among 7-to- 18-year-old school children of a low socio-economic status. The first series of parasitological examinations included 219 school children, ef which 123 (56.1 % were found to be infected with one or more parasite species. Eighty- four children canying pathogenic parasites were submitted to various anti-parasitic treatment schedules. We re-evaluated 15 (89 % students after 4 to 6 months post- chemotherapy. The results indicate that the combination of treatment with prophylactic measures has been successful in the control of parasitic infections, since reinfection rates were generally low ( 73-1 % in children infected with most parasite species. The reasons for the apparent failure in the control of infections caused by Hymenolepis nana and Strongyloides stercoralis are discussed.

  1. Intimate partner violence among undergraduate students of two universities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Tânia Aldrighi Flake

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of violence in intimate relationships, suffered or perpetrated, was estimated among undergraduate students, be it physical, psychological and sexual, describing the overlap between them. This is an original study and there is scarce literature on this matter in Brazil. Men and women were investigated and some issues on gender violence were discussed. METHODS: The study is part of the multicenter survey "International Study of Violence in Dating - IDVS" conducted in 2002 - 2003, using its standardized instrument. A total of 362 students, from two universities in the state of São Paulo, one public and one private, answered the self-reported questionnaire, being 37% male and 63% female, mean age of 20 years old. Suffered and perpetrated intimate partner violence during life was examined. RESULTS: Among all interviewees, 75.9% suffered and 76.4% perpetrated some kind of violence throughout life. Psychological violence was the most prevalent type, followed by sexual violence, both suffered and perpetrated. The great superposition between suffered and perpetrated violence (83.9% reflects the reciprocity of aggression, with no observed difference between men and women. The results of this study are consistent with previous literature on dating violence, which shows high prevalence of suffered and perpetrated violence, besides reciprocity for both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: Intervention actions at this stage of intimate relationships may potentially impact on subsequent marital partnership situations.

  2. Climate change and future scenarios for palisade grass production in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    André Santana Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to analyze future scenarios for palisade grass yield subjected to climate change for the state of São Paulo, Brazil. An empirical crop model was used to estimate yields, according to growing degree-days adjusted by one drought attenuation factor. Climate data from 1963 to 2009 of 23 meteorological stations were used for current climate conditions. Downscaled outputs of two general circulation models were used to project future climate for the 2013-2040 and 2043-2070 periods, considering two contrasting scenarios of temperature and atmospheric CO2 concentration increase (high and low. Annual dry matter yield should be from 14 to 42% higher than the current one, depending on the evaluated scenario. Yield variation between seasons (seasonality and years is expected to increase. The increase of dry matter accumulation will be higher in the rainy season than in the dry season, and this result is more evident for soils with low-water storage capacity. The results varied significantly between regions (60%. Despite their higher climate potential, warmer regions will probably have a lower increase in future forage production.

  3. Selection and genetic gains for juvenile traits in progenies of Hevea in São Paulo State, Brazil

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    Paulo de Souza Gonçalves

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Five yield traits were investigated in three-year-old progenies from open-pollinated rubber trees [Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. ex Adr. de Juss Muell.-Arg.]. Twenty progenies were evaluated in a randomized, complete block design replicated three times using 10 plants per linear plot at the North Central Experimental Station in Pindorama, São Paulo State, Brazil. The characters evaluated included the average yield of rubber, growth vigor, bark thickness, total number of latex vessel rings and latex vessel size. Highly significant (p were 37%, 35%, 69%, 10% and 16%, respectively. Significant positive genotypic and phenotypic correlations were found between the yield of rubber and growth vigor (r g = 0.73, r p = 0.70, bark thickness (r g = 0.70**, r p = 0.75** and the total number of latex vessel rings (r g = 0.64, r p = 0.80. There was no relationship between yield and latex vessel size, growth vigor or total number of latex vessel rings. Based on these data, selecting the best two out of 20 progenies would result in a genetic gain of 12.3% and 6.8% for yield of rubber and growth vigor, respectively. The two best individual ortets within each progeny would result in a genetic gain of 27.7% and 9.1%, with a total gain of 40% and 16% for these two traits, respectively.

  4. Using Cluster Analysis and ICP-MS to Identify Groups of Ecstasy Tablets in Sao Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Camila; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Togni, Loraine Rezende; da Costa, José Luiz; Campiglia, Andres Dobal; Barbosa, Fernando; Barbosa, Rommel Melgaço

    2017-11-01

    The variations found in the elemental composition in ecstasy samples result in spectral profiles with useful information for data analysis, and cluster analysis of these profiles can help uncover different categories of the drug. We provide a cluster analysis of ecstasy tablets based on their elemental composition. Twenty-five elements were determined by ICP-MS in tablets apprehended by Sao Paulo's State Police, Brazil. We employ the K-means clustering algorithm along with C4.5 decision tree to help us interpret the clustering results. We found a better number of two clusters within the data, which can refer to the approximated number of sources of the drug which supply the cities of seizures. The C4.5 model was capable of differentiating the ecstasy samples from the two clusters with high prediction accuracy using the leave-one-out cross-validation. The model used only Nd, Ni, and Pb concentration values in the classification of the samples. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Epidemiological Profile and Treatment Outcomes in Young Adults (19-29 Years of Age) Treated for Cancer in a Tertiary Hospital in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Victor Hugo Fonseca; Ribeiro, Taynan Nunes; Chinen, Ludmilla T Domingos; Alves, Vanessa; Curado, Maria Paula; Fanelli, Marcello Ferretti

    2017-06-01

    Worldwide, the incidence of cancer in young adults (20-39 years) is increasing, and represents an important cause of mortality in this age group. A retrospective study was undertaken to provide information that may lead to improved treatment outcomes. Epidemiological, clinicopathological, treatment, and survival information were retrieved from the electronic database registry of a tertiary referral hospital in São Paulo, Brazil for patients 19-29 years of age diagnosed with cancer between January 2007 and December 2012. There were 960 patients with a median age at diagnosis of 26 years; female patients comprised 59.2%. A previous diagnosis of malignancy was present in 2.3%; 0.4% had malignant tumors that were radiation-associated; regular alcohol use was present in 10.4%; 9% of patients reported tobacco use; a family history of cancer was present in 41.7%. Malignant tumors included carcinomas (45.7%), germ cell and trophoblastic neoplasms (12.3%), and lymphomas (12.1%). Median follow-up was 47.7 months (range: 0.62-100.9 months) during which time 111 patients (13.5%) died. Carcinomas (n = 43, 38.7%), soft tissue sarcomas (n = 18, 16.2%), and leukemias (n = 10, 9.0%) were the most common causes of death. This study has shown that carcinomas represent the most common malignancy in adolescents and young adults referred to a tertiary cancer center in Brazil and are the most common cause of mortality. Because clinical outcome may be affected by multiple factors in this patient population, further global studies are needed to characterize this population and improve clinical care.

  6. First household survey on drug abuse in São Paulo, Brazil, 1999: principal findings

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    José Carlos Fernandes Galduróz

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: In order to establish prevention programs regarding psychotropic drug use that are adapted to specific populations it is, first of all, important to have data on the realities of such consumption. Single data points are not enough for drawing up a profile of society in relation to drugs. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this household survey was to determine the incidence of illegal drug, alcohol, tobacco and psychotropic medication use, and thus the number of persons dependent on drugs, alcohol and nicotine, and to evaluate their perception regarding how easy it is to obtain psychotropic drugs. TYPE OF STUDY: Epidemiological survey. SETTING: All of the 24 cities in the State of Sao Paulo with more 200,000 inhabitants participated in the study. METHOD: The sampling was constructed from weighted probabilistic stratified conglomerates obtained via two-stage selection. In each municipality sampled, census sectors (generally 200-300 households were first selected. Then, households and a respondent were selected to provide information from his/her point of view. The SAMHSA questionnaire (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Public Health was used, after translation and adaptation to Brazilian conditions. RESULTS: A total of 2,411 persons aged 12-65 years old were interviewed, of whom 39.9% weremen. Lifetime use of any psychotropic drug other than alcohol and tobacco was 11.6%: much less than in the U.S. (34.8%. The alcohol dependence rate was 6%, similar to findings from other countries. Marijuana was the illegal drug most cited as used daily (6.6%: a prevalence much lower than in the U.S. (32.0%. Inhalant use was next in frequency of use (2.7%: about 10 times less than in the United Kingdom (20%. Cocaine use (2.1% was about 5 times less than in the U.S. (10.6%. There was no report of heroin use, although there was a surprisingly high perception regarding the ease of obtaining heroin: 38.3% said it was

  7. Assessment of Consumer Exposure to Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Meat Products at Retail in the City of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristori, Christiane Asturiano; Rowlands, Ruth Estela Gravato; Martins, Cecília Geraldes; Barbosa, Maria Luisa; Dos Santos, Luis Fernando; Jakabi, Miyoko; de Melo Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy

    2017-08-01

    Meat products may be vehicles of bacterial pathogens to humans, and Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are the most relevant. The aim of this study was to generate data on prevalence of these three pathogens in 552 samples of meat products (hot dogs, pork sausages, raw ground beef, and raw chicken legs) sold at retail in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Salmonella spp. was detected in 5.8% (32/552) of samples, comprising pork sausages 62.5% (20/32) and chicken legs 37.5% (12/32). The counts of Salmonella spp. were low, ranging from Salmonella Typhimurium (28.1%), Salmonella I 4,[5],12:i:- (15.6%), Salmonella Enteritidis (12.5%), Salmonella Derby, and Salmonella Brandenburg (9.4%). Campylobacter spp. was detected in 33 samples (6.0%), comprising chicken legs (82%) and ground beef (18%). All samples were negative for STEC. These results suggest that meat products when subjected to inadequate cooking and/or cross-contamination with other products ready for consumption can lead to occurrence of outbreaks, highlighting the risks associated with them.

  8. Entomological surveillance, spatial distribution, and diversity of Culicidae (Diptera) immatures in a rural area of the Atlantic Forest biome, State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovezan, Rafael; Rosa, Stéfany Larissa; Rocha, Matheus Luca; de Azevedo, Thiago Salomão; Von Zuben, Cláudio José

    2013-12-01

    Because of the high adaptive capacity of mosquitoes, studies that focus on transitional environments become very important, such as those in rural areas, which are considered as bridges between wild diseases and human populations of urban areas. In this study, a survey of the existing species of mosquitoes was performed in an Atlantic Forest area of the city of Santa Bárbara d'Oeste, São Paulo state, Brazil, using traps for immatures and analyzing the frequency and distribution of these insects over the sampling months. Five mosquito species were found: Aedes albopictus (the most frequent species), Aedes aegypti, Aedes fluviatilis, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Toxorhynchites theobaldi. The 4,524 eggs collected in ovitraps showed the presence of the tribe Aedini. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus were identified after larval hatching in the laboratory, with different spatial distributions: the first of which coincides with the area of greatest diversity calculated using the Simpson index, while the second does not. The association of ecological analysis of spatial diversity with simple methods of data collection enables the identification of possible epidemiological risk situations and is a strategy that may be implemented to monitor ecological processes resulting from the interaction among different species of mosquitoes. © 2013 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  9. Influence of Topographic and Hydrographic Factors on the Spatial Distribution of Leptospirosis Disease in São Paulo County, Brazil: An Approach Using Geospatial Techniques and GIS Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M. C.; Ferreira, M. F. M.

    2016-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by Leptospira genus bacteria. Rodents, especially Rattus norvegicus, are the most frequent hosts of this microorganism in the cities. The human transmission occurs by contact with urine, blood or tissues of the rodent and contacting water or mud contaminated by rodent urine. Spatial patterns of concentration of leptospirosis are related to the multiple environmental and socioeconomic factors, like housing near flooding areas, domestic garbage disposal sites and high-density of peoples living in slums located near river channels. We used geospatial techniques and geographical information system (GIS) to analysing spatial relationship between the distribution of leptospirosis cases and distance from rivers, river density in the census sector and terrain slope factors, in Sao Paulo County, Brazil. To test this methodology we used a sample of 183 geocoded leptospirosis cases confirmed in 2007, ASTER GDEM2 data, hydrography and census sectors shapefiles. Our results showed that GIS and geospatial analysis techniques improved the mapping of the disease and permitted identify the spatial pattern of association between location of cases and spatial distribution of the environmental variables analyzed. This study showed also that leptospirosis cases might be more related to the census sectors located on higher river density areas and households situated at shorter distances from rivers. In the other hand, it was not possible to assert that slope terrain contributes significantly to the location of leptospirosis cases.

  10. Spatial distribution of trachoma cases in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, detected in 2006: defining key areas for improvement of health resources

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    Carlos Alberto Macharelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial behavior of the occurrence of trachoma cases detected in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2006 in order to use the information collected to set priority areas for optimization of health resources. Methods the trachoma cases identified in 2006 were georeferenced. The data evaluated were: schools where the trachoma cases studied, data from the 2000 Census, census tract, type of housing, water supply conditions, distribution of income and levels of education of household heads. In the Google Earth® software and TerraView® were made descriptive spatial analysis and estimates of the Kernel. Each area was studied by interpolation of the density surfaces exposing events to facilitate to recognize the clusters. Results Of the 66 cases detected, only one (1.5% was not a resident of the city's outskirts. A positive association was detected of trachoma cases and the percentage of heads of household with income below three minimum wages and schooling under eight years of education. Conclusions The recognition of the spatial distribution of trachoma cases coincided with the areas of greatest social inequality in Bauru City. The micro-areas identified are those that should be prioritized in the rationalization of health resources. There is the possibility of using the trachoma cases detected as an indicator of performance of micro priority health programs.

  11. Spatial distribution of trachoma cases in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, detected in 2006: defining key areas for improvement of health resources

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    Carlos Alberto Macharelli

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial behavior of the occurrence of trachoma cases detected in the City of Bauru, State of São Paulo, Brazil, in 2006 in order to use the information collected to set priority areas for optimization of health resources. Methods the trachoma cases identified in 2006 were georeferenced. The data evaluated were: schools where the trachoma cases studied, data from the 2000 Census, census tract, type of housing, water supply conditions, distribution of income and levels of education of household heads. In the Google Earth® software and TerraView® were made descriptive spatial analysis and estimates of the Kernel. Each area was studied by interpolation of the density surfaces exposing events to facilitate to recognize the clusters. Results Of the 66 cases detected, only one (1.5% was not a resident of the city's outskirts. A positive association was detected of trachoma cases and the percentage of heads of household with income below three minimum wages and schooling under eight years of education. Conclusions The recognition of the spatial distribution of trachoma cases coincided with the areas of greatest social inequality in Bauru City. The micro-areas identified are those that should be prioritized in the rationalization of health resources. There is the possibility of using the trachoma cases detected as an indicator of performance of micro priority health programs.

  12. The Sr:Ba:Rb ratio and zircon typology in granitoid complexes of Sao Paulo, Parana and Minas Gerais states (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernick, E.; Galembeck, T.M.B.; Artur, A.C.; Rigo Junior, L.; Weber-Diefenbach, K.

    1990-01-01

    Chemical (Sr: Ba: Rb) and zircon typology data from the Nazare Paulista, Mairipora/Cantareira, Cunhaporanga, Tres Corregos, Morungaba, Socorro, Itu, Graciosa and Serra Carambei granitoid complexes from the states of Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Parana (SE/S Brazil) are presented and discussed. By the zircon typology method these complexes are reffered, respectively, to the 2nd crustal, 3rd crustal/low temperature C-A, low temperature C-A, medium temperature C-A, medium/high temperature C-A, K-SA/Alkaline and alkaline serie which are considered as generated under increasing temperature associated with a progressive major participation of mantellic material. All these series, with the exception of the medium to high temperature calc-alkaline complexes Socorro and Morungaba whose chemical data come from several laboratories, display different positions and behaviour in the Sr: Ba: Rb diagram which reinforce the use of the zircon typology method in the study of granitoids. From the 2nd crustal serie up to the medium temperature C-A serie the complexes show a regular shift in their chemical composition which became progressively richer in Sr and depleted in Rb. The highly differentiades hypersolvus Serra do Carambei granite is strongly enriched in Rb and impoverish in Ba with respect to the Itu and the Graciosa complex which itself is slighly more depleted in Sr than the Itu granite. (author)

  13. Tobacco and alcohol use, sexual behavior and common mental disorders among military students at the Police Academy, São Paulo, Brazil. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Arlene de Maria; Benseñor, Isabela Martins

    2015-01-01

    The lifestyle of military personnel has been little studied in Brazil. This study evaluated the frequencies of tobacco and alcohol use, sexual behavior and mental health among military students. Cross-sectional study at the Police Academy, in São Paulo. Students answered a questionnaire about tobacco use, alcohol consumption, sexual behavior and common mental disorders (CMDs). To analyze associations among the frequencies of smoking and alcohol use, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and CMDs during the undergraduate years, we built a multinomial logistic regression model adjusted for age and sex. All 473 students were invited to participate and 430 (90.9%) agreed (10.5% were women). Most were white (76.6%), aged < 30 years, from the upper middle class (78.1%). The frequency of smoking was 6.5%, alcohol consumption 69.3%, STDs 14% and CMDs 15.6%. The use of condoms was low. Fourth-year students presented a lower odds ratio (OR) for STDs than the first-year students: 0.44 (95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.90). Third-year students presented a lower OR for CMDs than the first-year students. The frequencies of smoking and CMDs were low, while the frequency of alcohol consumption was similar to that of the Brazilian population. The use of condoms was low, in comparison with previous studies with similar samples. The results suggest that there was a certain degree of protection against CMDs and STDs during the undergraduate years.

  14. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of HTLV-II infection in São Paulo, Brazil: presence of Tropical Spastic Paraparesis/HTLV-Associated Myelopathy (TSP/HAM simile diagnosis in HIV-1-co-infected subjects Aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos da infecção pelo vírus linfotrópico de células T humanas do tipo 2 (HTLV-II em São Paulo, Brasil: presença de paraparesia espástica tropical/mielopatia associada ao HTLV em pacientes co-infectados pelo HIV-1

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    Maria Paulina Posada-Vergara

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the epidemiological and clinical features observed in solely HTLV-II-infected individuals were compared to those in patients co-infected with HIV-1. A total of 380 subjects attended at the HTLV Out-Patient Clinic in the Institute of Infectious Diseases "Emilio Ribas" (IIER, São Paulo, Brazil, were evaluated every 3-6 months for the last seven years by infectious disease specialists and neurologists. Using a testing algorithm that employs the enzyme immuno assay, Western Blot and polymerase chain reaction, it was found that 201 (53% were HTLV-I positive and 50 (13% were infected with HTLV-II. Thirty-seven (74% of the HTLV-II reactors were co-infected with HIV-1. Of the 13 (26% solely HTLV-II-infected subjects, urinary tract infection was diagnosed in three (23%, one case of skin vasculitis (8% and two cases of lumbar pain and erectile dysfunction (15%, but none myelopathy case was observed. Among 37 co-infected with HIV-1, four cases (10% presented with tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM simile. Two patients showed paraparesis as the initial symptom, two cases first presented with vesical and erectile disturbances, peripheral neuropathies were observed in other five patients (13%, and seven (19% patients showed some neurological signal or symptoms, most of them with lumbar pain (five cases. The results obtained suggest that neurological manifestations may be more frequent in HTLV-II/HIV-1-infected subjects than those infected with HTLV-II only.Neste estudo, as características epidemiológicas e clínicas observadas nos indivíduos infectados pelo HTLV-II foram comparadas com os pacientes co-infectados com HIV-1. Um total de 380 indivíduos atendidos na clínica do Ambulatório HTLV do Instituto de Infectologia "Emilio Ribas" (IIER, São Paulo, Brasil, foram avaliados a cada 3-6 meses nos últimos sete anos por especialistas em doenças infecciosas e neurologistas. Usando um algoritmo que emprega

  15. Health impact modelling of different travel patterns on physical activity, air pollution and road injuries for São Paulo, Brazil.

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    Sá, Thiago Hérick de; Tainio, Marko; Goodman, Anna; Edwards, Phil; Haines, Andy; Gouveia, Nelson; Monteiro, Carlos; Woodcock, James

    2017-11-01

    São Paulo city, Brazil, faces challenges caused by rapid urbanization. We illustrate how future travel patterns could lead to different health consequences in the city. We evaluated the health impacts of different travel pattern scenarios for the São Paulo adult population by comparing the travel patterns of São Paulo in 2012 with counterfactual scenarios in which the city adopted travel patterns of i) those living in the city's expanded centre; ii) London (2012); iii) a highly motorized São Paulo (SP California); and iv) a visionary São Paulo (SP 2040), with high levels of walking and cycling and low levels of car and motorcycle use. For each scenario we estimated changes in exposure to air pollution, road injury risk, and physical activity. Health outcomes were estimated using disability adjusted life years (DALYs) and premature deaths averted. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the main sources of uncertainty. We found considerable health gains in the SP 2040 scenario (total 63.6k DALYs avoided), with 4.7% of premature deaths from ischemic heart disease avoided from increases in physical activity alone. Conversely, we found substantial health losses in the scenario favouring private transport (SP California, total increase of 54.9k DALYs), with an increase in road traffic deaths and injuries among pedestrians and motorized vehicles. Parameters related to air pollution had the largest impact on uncertainty. Shifting travel patterns towards more sustainable transport can provide major health benefits in São Paulo. Reducing the uncertainties in the findings should be a priority for empirical and modelling research on the health impacts of such shifts. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Rickettsia infection in five areas of the state of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Maurício C Horta

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated rickettsial infection in animals, humans, ticks, and fleas collected in five areas of the state of São Paulo. Eight flea species (Adoratopsylla antiquorum antiquorum, Ctenocephalides felis felis, Polygenis atopus, Polygenis rimatus, Polygenis roberti roberti, Polygenis tripus, Rhopalopsyllus lugubris, and Rhopalopsyllus lutzi lutzi, and five tick species (Amblyomma aureolatum, Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma dubitatum, Ixodes loricatus, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were collected from dogs, cats, and opossums. Rickettsia felis was the only rickettsia found infecting fleas, whereas Rickettsia bellii was the only agent infecting ticks, but no animal or human blood was shown to contain rickettsial DNA. Testing animal and human sera by indirect immunofluorescence assay against four rickettsia antigens (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. fe