Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
his exclusion principle, the quantum theory was a mess. Moreover, it could ... This is a function of all the coordinates and 'internal variables' such as spin, of all the ... must remain basically the same (ie change by a phase factor at most) if we ...
Testing the Pauli Exclusion Principle for Electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marton, J; Berucci, C; Cargnelli, M; Ishiwatari, T; Bartalucci, S; Bragadireanu, M; Curceanu, C; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Vidal, A Romero; Scordo, A; Sirghi, D L; Bertolucci, S; Matteo, S Di; Egger, J-P; Laubenstein, M; Milotti, E
2013-01-01
One of the fundamental rules of nature and a pillar in the foundation of quantum theory and thus of modern physics is represented by the Pauli Exclusion Principle. We know that this principle is extremely well fulfilled due to many observations. Numerous experiments were performed to search for tiny violation of this rule in various systems. The experiment VIP at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory is searching for possible small violations of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons leading to forbidden X-ray transitions in copper atoms. VIP is aiming at a test of the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons with high accuracy, down to the level of 10 −29 – 10 −30 , thus improving the previous limit by 3–4 orders of magnitude. The experimental method, results obtained so far and new developments within VIP2 (follow-up experiment at Gran Sasso, in preparation) to further increase the precision by 2 orders of magnitude will be presented
On the surprising rigidity of the Pauli exclusion principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenberg, O.W.
1989-01-01
I review recent attempts to construct a local quantum field theory of small violations of the Pauli exclusion principle and suggest a qualitative reason for the surprising rigidity of the Pauli principle. I suggest that small violations can occur in our four-dimensional world as a consequence of the compactification of a higher-dimensional theory in which the exclusion principle is exactly valid. I briefly mention a recent experiment which places a severe limit on possible violations of the exclusion principle. (orig.)
The Pauli exclusion principle origin, verifications and applications
Kaplan, Ilya G
2017-01-01
This is the first scientific book devoted to the Pauli Exclusion Principle, which is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics and is permanently applied in chemistry, physics, molecular biology and in physical astronomy. However, while the principle has been studied for more than 90 years, rigorous theoretical foundations still have not been established and many unsolved problems remain. Following an introduction and historical survey, this book discusses the still unresolved questions around this fundamental principle. For instance, why, according to the Pauli Exclusion Principle, are only symmetric and antisymmetric permutation symmetries for identical particles realized, while the Schrödinger equation is satisfied by functions with any permutation symmetry? Chapter 3 covers possible answers to this, while chapter 4 presents effective and elegant methods for finding the Pauli-allowed states in atomic, molecular and nuclear spectroscopy. Chapter 5 discusses parastatistics and fractional statistics, dem...
Double-folding model including the Pauli exclusion principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gridnev, K.A.; Soubbotin, V.B.; Oertzen, W. von; Bohlen, H.G.; Vinas, X.
2002-01-01
A new method for incorporating the Pauli exclusion principle into the double-folding approach to the heavy-ion potential is proposed. The description of the exchange terms at the level of the semiclassical one-body density matrix is used. It is shown that, in order to take into account Pauli blocking properly, the density matrices of free isolated nuclei must be redefined. A solution to the self-consistent incorporation of Pauli blocking effects in the mean-field nucleus-nucleus potential is obtained in the Thomas-Fermi approximation
Testing the Pauli Exclusion Principle for electrons at LNGS
Shi, H.; Bertolucci, S.; Berucci, C.; Bragadireanu, A.M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Curceanu, C.; De Paolis, L.; Di Matteo, S.; d'Uffizi, A.; Egger, J.-P.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Marton, J.; Laubenstein, M.; Milotti, E.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Ponta, T.; Romero Vidal, A.; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Sirghi, D.L.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.
High-precision experiments have been done to test the Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) for electrons by searching for anomalous $K$-series X-rays from a Cu target supplied with electric current. With the highest sensitivity, the VIP (VIolation of Pauli Exclusion Principle) experiment set an upper limit at the level of $10^{-29}$ for the probability that an external electron captured by a Cu atom can make the transition from the 2$p$ state to a 1$s$ state already occupied by two electrons. In a follow-up experiment at Gran Sasso, we aim to increase the sensitivity by two orders of magnitude. We show proofs that the proposed improvement factor is realistic based on the results from recent performance tests of the detectors we did at Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (LNF).
Double folding model including the Pauli exclusion principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gridnev, K.A.; Soubbotin, V.B.; Oertzen, W. von; Bohlen, H.G.; Vinas, X.
2002-01-01
A new method to incorporate the Pauli principle into the double folding approach to the heavy ion potential is proposed. It is shown that in order to take into account the Pauli blocking a redefinition of the density matrices of the free isolated nuclei must be one. A solution to the self-consistent incorporation of the Pauli-blocking effects in the mean-field nucleus-nucleus potential is obtained in the Thomas-Fermi approximation [ru
Is the Pauli exclusion principle the origin of electron localisation?
Rincón, Luis; Torres, F. Javier; Almeida, Rafael
2018-03-01
In this work, we inquire into the origins of the electron localisation as obtained from the information content of the same-spin pair density, γσ, σ(r2∣r1). To this end, we consider systems of non-interacting and interacting identical Fermions contained in two simple 1D potential models: (1) an infinite potential well and (2) the Kronig-Penney periodic potential. The interparticle interaction is considered through the Hartree-Fock approximation as well as the configuration interaction expansion. Morover, the electron localisation is described through the Kullback-Leibler divergence between γσ, σ(r2∣r1) and its associated marginal probability. The results show that, as long as the adopted method properly includes the Pauli principle, the electronic localisation depends only modestly on the interparticle interaction. In view of the latter, one may conclude that the Pauli principle is the main responsible for the electron localisation.
Experimental Tests of Quantum Mechanics: Pauli Exclusion Principle and Spontaneous Collapse Models
Petrascu, Catalina Curceanu; Bragadireanu, Mario; Clozza, Alberto; Guaraldo, Carlo; Iliescu, Mihai; Rizzo, Alessandro; Vidal, Antonio Romero; Scordo, Alessandro; Sirghi, Diana Laura; Sirghi, Florin; Sperandio, Laura; Doce, Oton Vazquez; Bassi, Angelo; Donadi, Sandro; Milotti, Edoardo; Laubenstein, Matthias; Bertolucci, Sergio; Bragadireanu, Mario; Curceanu, Catalina; Pietreanu, Dorel; Ponta, Titus; Cargnelli, Michael; Ishiwatari, Tomoichi; Marton, Johann; Widmann, Eberhard; Zmeskal, Johann; Matteo, Sergio di; Egger, Jean Pierre
2014-01-01
The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP), as a consequence or the spin-statistics connection, is one of the basic principles of the modern physics. Being at the very basis of our understanding of matter, it spurs a lively debate on its possible limits, deeply rooted as it is in the very foundations of Quantum Field Theory. The VIP (VIolation of the Pauli exclusion principle) experiment is searching for a possible small violation of the PEP for electrons, using the method of searching for Pauli Exclusion Principle forbidden atomic transitions in copper. We describe the experimental method and the obtained results; we briefly present future plans to go beyond the actual limit by upgrading the experiment using vetoed new spectroscopic fast Silicon Drift Detectors. We also mention the possibility of using a similar experimental technique to search for possible X-rays generated in the spontaneous collapse models of quantum mechanics.
High sensitivity tests of the Pauli Exclusion Principle with VIP2
Marton, J; Bertolucci, S; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, M; Cargnelli, M; Curceanu, C; Clozza, A; Di Matteo, S; Egger, J-P; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Laubenstein, M; Milotti, E; Pichler, A; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Sperandio, L; Doce, O Vazquez; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J
2015-01-01
The Pauli Exclusion Principle is one of the most fundamental rules of nature and represents a pillar of modern physics. According to many observations the Pauli Exclusion Principle must be extremely well fulfilled. Nevertheless, numerous experimental investigations were performed to search for a small violation of this principle. The VIP experiment at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory searched for Pauli-forbidden X-ray transitions in copper atoms using the Ramberg-Snow method and obtained the best limit so far. The follow-up experiment VIP2 is designed to reach even higher sensitivity. It aims to improve the limit by VIP by orders of magnitude. The experimental method, comparison of different PEP tests based on different assumptions and the developments for VIP2 are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, M.; Janke, T.; Redmer, R.
1989-01-01
Within a model calculation the influence of the Pauli exclusion principle on the electrical conductivity of a fully ionized and degenerate hydrogen plasma is investigated. Basing on a quantum kinetic equation solved with the relaxation time ansatz, the electron-ion contribution to the resistivity is calculated. The thermodynamical T-matrix for electron-ion scattering processes is evaluated under special account for the Pauli blocking of the intermediate scattering states. The corresponding Bethe-Salpeter equation is solved analytically using a separable approximation of the statically screened potential. The Pauli exclusion principle has been found to give rise for a considerable enhancement of the transport cross section near the Fermi energy. Thus, degeneracy effects tend to diminish the electrical conductivity in the density-temperature region considered here. (author)
New experimental limit on Pauli exclusion principle violation by electrons (VIP experiment)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bartalucci, S [NFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Prascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044, Frascati (Italy); Bertolucci, S [NFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Prascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044, Frascati (Italy); Bragadireanu, M [NFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Prascati, C.P. 13, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044, Frascati (Italy)] (and others)
2007-05-15
The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) represents one of the basic principles of modern physics and, even if there are no compelling reasons to doubt its validity, it still spurs a lively debate, because an intuitive, elementary explanation is still missing, and because of its unique stand among the basic symmetries of physics. A new limit on the probability that PEP is violated by electrons was estabilished by the VIP (Violation of the Pauli exclusion principle) Collaboration, using the method of searching for PEP forbidden atomic transitions in copper. The preliminary value, 1/2{beta}{sup 2} < 4.5 x 10{sup -28}, represents an improvement of about two orders of magnitude of the previous limit. The goal of VIP is to push this limit at the level of 10{sup -30}.
Searches for the Violation of Pauli Exclusion Principle at LNGS in VIP(-2) experiment
Shi, H; Bertolucci, S; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, A M; Cargnelli, M; Clozza, A; Curceanu, C; De Paolis, L; Di Matteo, S; d'Uffizi, A; Egger, J P; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Marton, J; Laubenstein, M; Milotti, E; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Ponta, T; Vidal, A.Romero; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Sperandio, L; Vazquez Doce, O; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J
2016-01-01
The VIP (Violation of Pauli exclusion principle) experiment and its follow-up experiment VIP-2 at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) search for X-rays from Cu atomic states that are prohibited by the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP). The candidate events, if they exist, will originate from the transition of a $2p$ orbit electron to the ground state which is already occupied by two electrons. The present limit on the probability for PEP violation for electron is 4.7 $\\times10^{-29}$ set by the VIP experiment. With upgraded detectors for high precision X-ray spectroscopy, the VIP-2 experiment will improve the sensitivity by two orders of magnitude.
Application of photon detectors in the VIP2 experiment to test the Pauli Exclusion Principle
Pichler, A; Bazzi, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Berucci, C.; Bragadireanu, M.; Cargnelli, M.; Clozza, A.; Curceanu, C.; De Paolis, L.; Di Matteo, S.; D'Ufflzi, A.; Egger, J.P.; Guaraldo, C.; Iliescu, M.; Ishiwatari, T.; Laubenstein, M.; Marton, J.; Milotti, E.; Pietreanu, D.; Piscicchia, K.; Ponta, T.; Sbardella, E.; Scordo, A.; Shi, H.; Sirghi, D.; Sirghi, F.; Sperandio, L.; Vazquez-Doce, O.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.
2016-01-01
The Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) was introduced by the austrian physicist Wolfgang Pauli in 1925. Since then, several experiments have checked its validity. From 2006 until 2010, the VIP (VIolation of the Pauli Principle) experiment took data at the LNGS underground laboratory to test the PEP. This experiment looked for electronic 2p to 1s transitions in copper, where 2 electrons are in the 1s state before the transition happens. These transitions violate the PEP. The lack of detection of X-ray photons coming from these transitions resulted in a preliminary upper limit for the violation of the PEP of $4.7 \\times 10^{-29}$. Currently, the successor experiment VIP2 is under preparation. The main improvements are, on one side, the use of Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) as X-ray photon detectors. On the other side an active shielding is implemented, which consists of plastic scintillator bars read by Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs). The employment of these detectors will improve the upper limit for the violati...
Influence of the Pauli exclusion principle on scattering properties of cobosons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thilagam, A.
2015-01-01
We examine the influence of the Pauli exclusion principle on the scattering properties of composite bosons (cobosons) made of two fermions, such as the exciton quasiparticle. The scattering process incorporates boson–phonon interactions that arise due to lattice vibrations. Composite boson scattering rates increase with the entanglement between the two fermionic constituents, which comes with a large number of available single-fermion states. An important role is played by probabilities associated with accommodating an incoming boson among the remaining unoccupied Schmidt modes in the initial composite system. While due attention is given to bi-fermion bosons, the methodology is applicable to any composite boson made up of smaller boson fragments. Due to super-bunching in a system of multiple boson condensates such as bi-bosons, there is enhanced scattering associated with bosons occupying macroscopically occupied Schmidt modes, in contrast to the system of bi-fermion pairs
Giant Faraday effect due to Pauli exclusion principle in 3D topological insulators.
Paudel, Hari P; Leuenberger, Michael N
2014-02-26
Experiments using ARPES, which is based on the photoelectric effect, show that the surface states in 3D topological insulators (TI) are helical. Here we consider Weyl interface fermions due to band inversion in narrow-bandgap semiconductors, such as Pb1-xSnxTe. The positive and negative energy solutions can be identified by means of opposite helicity in terms of the spin helicity operator in 3D TI as ĥ(TI) = (1/ |p|_ |) β (σ|_ x p|_ ) · z^, where β is a Dirac matrix and z^ points perpendicular to the interface. Using the 3D Dirac equation and bandstructure calculations we show that the transitions between positive and negative energy solutions, giving rise to electron-hole pairs, obey strict optical selection rules. In order to demonstrate the consequences of these selection rules, we consider the Faraday effect due to the Pauli exclusion principle in a pump-probe setup using a 3D TI double interface of a PbTe/Pb₀.₃₁Sn₀.₆₉Te/PbTe heterostructure. For that we calculate the optical conductivity tensor of this heterostructure, which we use to solve Maxwell's equations. The Faraday rotation angle exhibits oscillations as a function of probe wavelength and thickness of the heterostructure. The maxima in the Faraday rotation angle are of the order of mrds.
Piscicchia, K; Bartalucci, S; Bassi, A; Bertolucci, S; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, A M; Cargnelli, M; Clozza, A; De Paolis, L; Di Matteo, S; Donadi, S; d'Uffizi, A; Egger, J-P; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Laubenstein, M; Marton, J; Milotti, E; Pietreanu, D; Ponta, T; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Sperandio, L; Doce, O Vazquez; Zmeskal, J
2015-01-01
The development of mathematically complete and consistent models solving the so-called "measurement problem", strongly renewed the interest of the scientific community for the foundations of quantum mechanics, among these the Dynamical Reduction Models posses the unique characteristic to be experimentally testable. In the first part of the paper an upper limit on the reduction rate parameter of such models will be obtained, based on the analysis of the X-ray spectrum emitted by an isolated slab of germanium and measured by the IGEX experiment. The second part of the paper is devoted to present the results of the VIP (Violation of the Pauli exclusion principle) experiment and to describe its recent upgrade. The VIP experiment established a limit on the probability that the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) is violated by electrons, using the very clean method of searching for PEP forbidden atomic transitions in copper.
Nesterov, V. O.
2018-06-01
In the framework of the energy density method with the use of the wave function of the two-center shell model, the influence of the simultaneous account for the Pauli exclusion principle and the monopole and quadrupole polarizations of nuclei on the nuclear part of the potential of their interaction by the example of the 40Ca +40Ca system is considered. The calculations performed in the framework of the adiabatic approximation show that the consideration of the Pauli exclusion principle and the polarization of nuclei, especially the quadrupole one, essentially affects the nucleus-nucleus interaction potential.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abgrall, N.; Bradley, A.W.; Chan, Y.D.; Mertens, S.; Poon, A.W.P. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Arnquist, I.J.; Hoppe, E.W.; Kouzes, R.T.; LaFerriere, B.D.; Orrell, J.L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Avignone, F.T. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Barabash, A.S.; Konovalov, S.I.; Yumatov, V. [National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bertrand, F.E.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Radford, D.C.; Varner, R.L.; White, B.R.; Yu, C.H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brudanin, V.; Shirchenko, M.; Vasilyev, S.; Yakushev, E.; Zhitnikov, I. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Busch, M. [Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Buuck, M.; Cuesta, C.; Detwiler, J.A.; Gruszko, J.; Guinn, I.S.; Leon, J.; Robertson, R.G.H. [University of Washington, Department of Physics, Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, Seattle, WA (United States); Caldwell, A.S.; Christofferson, C.D.; Dunagan, C.; Howard, S.; Suriano, A.M. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Chu, P.H.; Elliott, S.R.; Goett, J.; Massarczyk, R.; Rielage, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Efremenko, Yu. [University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, TN (United States); Ejiri, H. [Osaka University, Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan); Finnerty, P.S.; Gilliss, T.; Giovanetti, G.K.; Henning, R.; Howe, M.A.; MacMullin, J.; Meijer, S.J.; O' Shaughnessy, C.; Rager, J.; Shanks, B.; Trimble, J.E.; Vorren, K.; Xu, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); University of North Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Green, M.P. [North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); Guiseppe, V.E.; Tedeschi, D.; Wiseman, C. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Jasinski, B.R. [University of South Dakota, Department of Physics, Vermillion, SD (United States); Keeter, K.J. [Black Hills State University, Department of Physics, Spearfish, SD (United States); Kidd, M.F. [Tennessee Tech University, Cookeville, TN (United States); Martin, R.D. [Queen' s University, Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Kingston, ON (Canada); Romero-Romero, E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); University of Tennessee, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Knoxville, TN (United States); Vetter, K. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Wilkerson, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC (United States); University of North Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)
2016-11-15
A search for Pauli-exclusion-principle-violating K{sub α} electron transitions was performed using 89.5 kg-d of data collected with a p-type point contact high-purity germanium detector operated at the Kimballton Underground Research Facility. A lower limit on the transition lifetime of 5.8 x 10{sup 30} s at 90% C.L. was set by looking for a peak at 10.6 keV resulting from the X-ray and Auger electrons present following the transition. A similar analysis was done to look for the decay of atomic K-shell electrons into neutrinos, resulting in a lower limit of 6.8 x 10{sup 30} s at 90% C.L. It is estimated that the Majorana Demonstrator, a 44 kg array of p-type point contact detectors that will search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of {sup 76}Ge, could improve upon these exclusion limits by an order of magnitude after three years of operation. (orig.)
Is small violation of the Pauli principle possible?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ignatiev, A.Yu.; Kuzmin, V.A.
1987-02-01
The Pauli exclusion principle is one of the most fundamental laws of nature. Yet the experiment shows that many fundamental laws are in fact not absolute, but only approximate, i.e. are valid only to a certain accuracy. At present, however, there are no answers to the question: ''To what accuracy is the Pauli principle valid?'' This is so because there are no models capable of describing small deviations from the exclusion principle. In the present paper we consider the problem of constructing such models. We have constructed the simplest algebra of the creation and annihilation operators with a parameter β which incorporates the small violations of the Pauli principle (for β=0 the Pauli principle holds absolutely true). The commutation relations in this model prove to be trilinear. We then present a model Hamiltonian based on the constructed algebra which describes the Pauli principle violating transitions i.e. transitions of two identical particles into the same state with the probability suppressed by a factor of β 2 (notwithstanding the fact that the Hamiltonian itself does not contain any small parameters). (author). 8 refs
Generalized field quantization and the Pauli principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Govorkov, A.B.
1990-01-01
The work is an attempt to prove that the generalized Pauli principle (i.e. Fermi statistics) for the half-integer spin fields and the Bose statistics for the integer spin fields with allowance for the existence of internal gauge symmetries are consequences of more general assumptions of the local quantum field theory. 32 refs.; 1 tab
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sepehri, Alireza, E-mail: alireza.sepehri@uk.ac.ir [Faculty of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, P.O. Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-07-01
Recently, some authors (Cruz and Rojas, 2013 [1]) have constructed a Born–Infeld type action which may be written in terms of the Lovelock brane Lagrangians for a given dimension p. We reconsider their model in M-theory and study the process of birth and growth of nonlinear spinor and bosonic gravity during the construction of Mp-branes. Then, by application of this idea to BIonic system, we construct a BIonic superconductor in the background of nonlinear gravity. In this model, first, M0-branes link to each other and build an M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane connected by an M2-brane. M0-branes are zero dimensional objects that only scalars are attached to them. By constructing higher dimensional branes from M0-branes, gauge fields are produced. Also, if M0-branes don't link to each other completely, the symmetry of system is broken and fermions are created. The curvature produced by fermions has the opposite sign the curvature produced by gauge fields. Fermions on M5-branes and M2 plays the role of bridge between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M5's and nonlinear bosonic and spinor gravities are produced. By closing M5-branes towards each other, coupling of two identical fermions on two branes to each other causes that the square mass of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are created. For removing these tachyons, M5-branes compact, the sign of gravity between branes reverses, anti-gravity is produced which causes that branes and identical fermions get away from each other. This is the reason for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in Bionic system. Also, the spinor gravity vanishes and its energy builds a new M2 between M5-branes. We obtain the resistivity in this system and find that its value decreases by closing M5 branes to each other and shrinks to zero at colliding point of branes. This idea has different applications. For example, in cosmology, universes are located on M5-branes and M2-brane has the role of bridge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sepehri, Alireza
2016-01-01
Recently, some authors (Cruz and Rojas, 2013 [1]) have constructed a Born–Infeld type action which may be written in terms of the Lovelock brane Lagrangians for a given dimension p. We reconsider their model in M-theory and study the process of birth and growth of nonlinear spinor and bosonic gravity during the construction of Mp-branes. Then, by application of this idea to BIonic system, we construct a BIonic superconductor in the background of nonlinear gravity. In this model, first, M0-branes link to each other and build an M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane connected by an M2-brane. M0-branes are zero dimensional objects that only scalars are attached to them. By constructing higher dimensional branes from M0-branes, gauge fields are produced. Also, if M0-branes don't link to each other completely, the symmetry of system is broken and fermions are created. The curvature produced by fermions has the opposite sign the curvature produced by gauge fields. Fermions on M5-branes and M2 plays the role of bridge between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M5's and nonlinear bosonic and spinor gravities are produced. By closing M5-branes towards each other, coupling of two identical fermions on two branes to each other causes that the square mass of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are created. For removing these tachyons, M5-branes compact, the sign of gravity between branes reverses, anti-gravity is produced which causes that branes and identical fermions get away from each other. This is the reason for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in Bionic system. Also, the spinor gravity vanishes and its energy builds a new M2 between M5-branes. We obtain the resistivity in this system and find that its value decreases by closing M5 branes to each other and shrinks to zero at colliding point of branes. This idea has different applications. For example, in cosmology, universes are located on M5-branes and M2-brane has the role of bridge between
Sepehri, Alireza
2016-07-01
Recently, some authors (Cruz and Rojas, 2013 [1]) have constructed a Born-Infeld type action which may be written in terms of the Lovelock brane Lagrangians for a given dimension p. We reconsider their model in M-theory and study the process of birth and growth of nonlinear spinor and bosonic gravity during the construction of Mp-branes. Then, by application of this idea to BIonic system, we construct a BIonic superconductor in the background of nonlinear gravity. In this model, first, M0-branes link to each other and build an M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane connected by an M2-brane. M0-branes are zero dimensional objects that only scalars are attached to them. By constructing higher dimensional branes from M0-branes, gauge fields are produced. Also, if M0-branes don't link to each other completely, the symmetry of system is broken and fermions are created. The curvature produced by fermions has the opposite sign the curvature produced by gauge fields. Fermions on M5-branes and M2 plays the role of bridge between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M5's and nonlinear bosonic and spinor gravities are produced. By closing M5-branes towards each other, coupling of two identical fermions on two branes to each other causes that the square mass of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are created. For removing these tachyons, M5-branes compact, the sign of gravity between branes reverses, anti-gravity is produced which causes that branes and identical fermions get away from each other. This is the reason for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in Bionic system. Also, the spinor gravity vanishes and its energy builds a new M2 between M5-branes. We obtain the resistivity in this system and find that its value decreases by closing M5 branes to each other and shrinks to zero at colliding point of branes. This idea has different applications. For example, in cosmology, universes are located on M5-branes and M2-brane has the role of bridge between
Is weak violation of the Pauli principle possible?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ignat'ev, A.Yu.; Kuz'min, V.A.
1987-01-01
The question considered in the work is whether there are models which can account for small violation of the Pauli principle. A simple algebra is constructed for the creation-annihilation operators, which contains a parameter β and describe small violation of the Pauli principle (the Pauli principle is valid exactly for β=0). The commutation relations in this algebra are trilinear. A model is presented, basing upon this commutator algebra, which allows transitions violating the Pauli principle, their probability being suppressed by a factor of β 2 (even though the Hamiltonian does not contain small parameters)
Is a weak violation of the Pauli principle possible?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ignat'ev, A.Y.; Kuz'min, V.A.
1987-01-01
We examine models in which there is a weak violation of the Pauli principle. A simple algebra of creation and annihilation operators is constructed which contains a parameter β and describes a weak violation of the Pauli principle (when β = 0 the Pauli principle is satisfied exactly). The commutation relations in this algebra turn out to be trilinear. A model based on this algebra is described. It allows transitions in which the Pauli principle is violated, but the probability of these transitions is suppressed by the quantity β 2 (even though the interaction Hamiltonian does not contain small parameters)
Effect of the Pauli principle in elastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Picklesimer, A.; Thaler, R.M.
1981-01-01
The effect of imposition of the Pauli principle for two-fragment elastic nuclear scattering is examined. It is shown that the antisymmetrized problem can be cast into the Lippmann-Schwinger form with an effective interaction in which the effect of the Pauli principle is entirely absorbed into the effective interaction potential operator. This result enables the formalism to be developed in analogy with the unsymmetrized formulation. Central to the approach is the choice of the off-shell extension of the transition operator. Comparison is made with a previously proposed treatment based on a different off-shell extension. It is shown that both the antisymmetrized transition operator and the associated optical potential proposed herein are readily expressed as spectator expansions in which the effect of the Pauli principle among the active fermions is incorporated in a physically appealing fashion at each stage of the expansion
Influence of the Pauli principle on the one-quasiparticle states in odd spherical nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan Zuy Khuong
1980-01-01
The effect of the Pauli principle on the fragmentation of one-quasiparticle states in odd spherical nuclei is studied within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. It is shown that the Pauli principle influences considerably the position and structure of a few low-lying states. The fragmentation of one-quasiparticle states at intermediate and high excitation energies is slightly affected by the Pauli principle, and the calculations can be performed by taking the Pauli principle into account roughly. (author)
On surface clustering and Pauli principle effects in alpha decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holan, S.
1983-01-01
The importance of the correct description of nuclear surface region in alpha decay calculations is pointed out. A model is proposed takinq into account explicitly surface clustering and Pauli principle effects which are essential in this region. A method for solving the main integrodifferential equation of the model by using the oscillator shell basis and the Collatz method is worked out. The first numerical results are obtained for nonlocal potential of the atpha particle-daughter nucleus interaction
Approximated treatment of the Pauli principle effects in elastic collisons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schechter, H.
1984-08-01
Exact microscopic methods like the RGM (Resonanting Group Method) and the GCM (Generator Coordinate Method) and approximate methods like the OCM (Orthogonality Condition Model) are used to study the effects of Pauli Principle in α- 16 O elastic scattering. Using V2 and BL nucleon-nucleon interactions, nucleus-nucleus effective potentials are obtained from RGM 'exact' wave functions and also from an approximate method developed previoulsy. Using these potentials in the OCM Saito Equation phase-shifts are calculated for partial waves Λ = 0, 1, ... 11, in the energy range 0 [pt
Exclusion principle and indistinguishability of identical particles in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaplan, I.G.
1975-01-01
The relation between the Pauli exclusion principle and the principle of indistiguishability of identical particles in quantum mechanics is discussed. Using the density matrix determined for states with random permutational symmetry, it has been shown that the particle indistinguishability takes place only for onedimensional representations of the permutation group whereas in all states which are degenerated over permutations the particles are distinguishable. Thus it has been shown that the exclusion principle follows from that of indistinguishability of identical particles
Elaboration of the recently proposed test of Pauli's principle under strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ktorides, C.N.; Myung, H.C.; Santilli, R.M.
1980-01-01
The primary objective of this paper is to stimulate the experimental verification of the validity or invalidity of Pauli's principle under strong interactions. We first outline the most relevant steps in the evolution of the notion of particle. The spin as well as other intrinsic characteristics of extended, massive, particles under electromagnetic interactions at large distances might be subjected to a mutation under additional strong interactions at distances smaller than their charge radius. These dynamical effects can apparently be conjectured to account for the nonpointlike nature of the particles, their necessary state of penetration to activate the strong interactions, and the consequential emergence of broader forces which imply the breaking of the SU(2)-spin symmetry. We study a characterization of the mutated value of the spin via the transition from the associative enveloping algebra of SU(2) to a nonassociative Lie-admissible form. The departure from the original associative product then becomes directly representative of the breaking of the SU(2)-spin symmetry, the presence of forces more general than those derivable from a potential, and the mutated value of the spin. In turn, such a departure of the spin from conventional quantum-mechanical values implies the inapplicability of Pauli's exclusion principle under strong interactions, because, according to this hypothesis, particles that are fermions under long-range electromagnetic interactions are no longer fermions under these broader, short-range, forces. In nuclear physics possible deviations from Pauli's exclusion principle can at most be very small. These experimental data establish that, for the nuclei considered, nucleons are in a partial state of penetration of their charge volumes although of small statistical character
Pion-nucleus scatter and the Pauli principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dover, C.B.; Lemmer, R.H.
1976-01-01
A density expansion of the pion self-energy for pions in nuclear matter is reexamined. It is shown that a single hole-line expansion of the self-energy (i) is equivalent to using a strongly quenched πN scattering amplitude in the medium, and (ii) results in an inconsistent treatment of the virtual pions necessarily present in a field-theoretic description of the problem. Exchange of intermediate pions gives rise to nucleon-nucleon, as well as pion-nucleon scattering diagrams that both contribute to the pion self-energy in an essential way. The nucleon-nucleon scattering proceeds, for instance, via a one-pion-exchange potential that is, however, highly nonstatic for energy transfers between nucleons close to the incident energy. Such interactions are singled out automatically for special treatment in a field-theory approach to the problem, and should not be introduced in an ad hoc manner as part of an empirical NN interaction in nuclear matter. We evaluate the coherent and charge exchange contributions to the pion-nucleus optical potential, proportional to the total density and the neutron-proton density difference, respectively. The Pauli principle is found to provide a small correction to the coherent part, both in the hole-line and density expansion formalisms. However, the charge exchange part of the potential is almost completely damped at low energies in the hole-line expansion, while the inclusion of backward-going graphs (random-phase-approximation-type correlations) restores it to its value based on free space πN charge exchange amplitudes (i.e., no net Pauli effect)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khuong, C.Z.; Soloviev, V.G.; Voronov, V.V.
1981-01-01
The effect of the Pauli principle on the fragmentation of one-quasiparticle states in spherical nuclei is studied within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. It is shown that the Pauli principle influences considerably the position and structure of a few low-lying states, the fragmentation of one-quasiparticle states at intermediate and high excitation energies is slightly affected by the Pauli principle, and the calculations can be performed by taking the Pauli principle roughly into account. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin Fang; Chen Jisheng
2012-01-01
The finite-temperature Pauli paramagnetic susceptibility of a three-dimensional ideal anyon gas obeying Haldane fractional exclusion statistics is studied analytically. Different from the result of an ideal Fermi gas, the susceptibility of an ideal anyon gas depends on a statistical factor g in Haldane statistics model. The low-temperature and high-temperature behaviors of the susceptibility are investigated in detail. The Pauli paramagnetic susceptibility of the two-dimensional ideal anyons is also derived. It is found that the reciprocal of the susceptibility has the similar factorizable property which is exhibited in some thermodynamic quantities in two dimensions.
Violations of the Pauli principle and the interior of the sun
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Plaga, R.
1989-08-01
The consequences of a violation of the Pauli principle for the physics of the solar interior are explored. It is found that a bound state of two protons becomes possible. This leads to an increase in the rate of hydrogen burning in the sun. Because a very large cross section for this reaction is in clear contradiction with the theory of stellar structure when compared with observations of solar luminosity, radius and mechanical oscillations, stringent limits on a violation of the Pauli principle in the two nucleon system can be given. However, a very small violation of the Pauli principle in the two nucleon system might solve the longstanding solar neutrino problem. (orig.).
Taking into account of the Pauli principle in the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solov'ev, V.G.
1979-01-01
The effect of an exact account taken of the Pauli principle and correlations in ground states in calculations in the framework of the quasiparticle-phonon model of a nucleus has been studied. It is elucidated when it is possible to use the random phase approximation (RPA) and when the Pauli principle should be exactly taken into account. It has been shown that in the quasiparticle-phonon model of a nucleus one may perform calculations with a precise account of the Pauli principle. In most of the problems calculations can be carried out with RPA-phonons
On the checking of electric charge conservation law and the pauli principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okun', L.B.
1989-01-01
This is a short critical review of the attempts to check the accuracy with which are carried out in experiment the electric charge conservation law and the Pauli principle. The absence of the inwardly noncontradictory phenomenological theory is emphasized, which could describe the charge conservation and/or the Pauli principle violation. Under charge nonconservation longitudinal photons are of a principal importance. New suggestions concerning the principle Puli checking are discussed
Influence of Pauli principle and polarization on 16O + 16O interaction potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nesterov, V.A.
2012-01-01
In the work have studied the dependence of the interaction potential on taking into account the Pauli principle as well as monopole and quadrupole polarization within approaches based on the energy-density formalism and two-center shell model wave functions for 16 O + 16 O system. In the adiabatic approximation it is shown that the contribution of the Pauli principle and polarization in colliding nuclei radically changes the behavior of interaction potential
Effect of the Pauli principle on the nonrotational states in odd-A deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bastrukov, S.I.; Nesterenko, V.O.; Soloviev, V.G.
1982-01-01
The commutation relations between the quasiparticle and phonon operators are used to obtain the equations allowing a correct accounting of the Pauli principle for the description of the states of odd-A deformed nuclei. It is shown, that if in the quasiparticle plus phonon component the Pauli principle is not violated or is slightly violated, then a relevant vibrational state may exist in an odd-A deformed nucleus
Treatment of pauli exclusion operator in G-matrix calculations for hypernuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuo, T.T.S.; Hao, Jifa
1995-01-01
We discuss a matrix-inversion method for treating the Pauli exclusion operator Q in the hyperon-nucleon G-matrix equation for hypernuclei such as Λ 16 O. A model space consisted of shell-model wave functions is employed. We discuss that it is preferable to employ a free-particle spectrum for the intermediate states of the G matrix. This leads to the difficulty that the G-matrix intermediate states are plane waves and on this representation the Pauli operator Q has a rather complicated structure. A matrix-inversion method for over-coming this difficulty is examined. To implement this method it is necessary to employ a so-called n 3Λ truncation approximation. Numerical calculations using the Juelich B tilde and A tilde potentials have been performed to study the accuracy of this approximation. (author)
On inclusion of the Pauli principle in the quasi particle-phonon nuclear model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soloviev, V.G.
1979-01-01
The Pauli principle in odd-even, even-odd and even-even nuclei in the quasi particle-phonon nuclear model is considered. It is shown that the Pauli principle can excactly be taken into account. The exact and approximate secular equations are obtained for the wave function containing the one-quasi particle and quasi particle plus phonon components. The effect of the Pauli principle is discussed, when the wave function contains the one- and two-phonon components. In both the cases the poles are shifted in the secular equations and the quasi particle-phonon interaction terms are added. The number of quasi particles in the ground states is estimated. It is stated that in the majority of deformed nuclei the correlations in the ground states are small. It is shown that within the quasi particle-phonon nuclear model the calculations can be performed with the exact commutation relations
Binding and Pauli principle corrections in subthreshold pion-nucleus scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kam, J. de
1981-01-01
In this investigation I develop a three-body model for the single scattering optical potential in which the nucleon binding and the Pauli principle are accounted for. A unitarity pole approximation is used for the nucleon-core interaction. Calculations are presented for the π- 4 He elastic scattering cross sections at energies below the inelastic threshold and for the real part of the π- 4 He scattering length by solving the three-body equations. Off-shell kinematics and the Pauli principle are carefully taken into account. The binding correction and the Pauli principle correction each have an important effect on the differential cross sections and the scattering length. However, large cancellations occur between these two effects. I find an increase in the π- 4 He scattering length by 100%; an increase in the cross sections by 20-30% and shift of the minimum in π - - 4 He scattering to forward angles by 10 0 . (orig.)
Pauli principle role in the description of collective non-rotational states of deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solov'ev, V.G.; Shirikova, N.Yu.; Serdyukova, S.I.; Meliev, F.; Nesterenko, V.O.
1981-01-01
The Pauli principle role account for one-phonon and two- phonon states of even-even deformed nuclei sup(160, 164)Dy, sup(230, 232)Th, 154 Gd, 240 Pu, 238 U is performed. With account of isoscalar part of multipole-multipole interaction hamiltonian of a model and basic equations for energy and wave functions of one-phonon and two-phonon states are obtained. The results of calculations of centroids of energies of two-phonon states of the (lambda 1 μ 1 i 1 lambda 2 μ 2 i 2 ) type with and without the Pauli principle are tabulated. The calculations performed have shown that the energy centroids shift of collective two-phonon states with the Pauli-principle account is characteristic for all even-even deformed nuclei. In the authors opinion additional experimental investigations of 154 Cd, 164 Dy, 240 Pu two-phonon nuclei states to confirm theoretical results are necessary [ru
Influence of the Pauli principle on the two-phonon states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Djolos, R.V.; Molina, J.L.; Soloviev, V.G.
1979-01-01
It is shown that the commutation relations between quasiparticles forming phonons can correctly be taken into account within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. The case of the even-even deformed nuclei is studied. Exact and approximate secular equations are obtained. The corrections arising due to the Pauli principle are shown to be large for the two-phonon components of the wave functions, when the phonons are identical. The influence of the Pauli principle on the energies of the two-phonon states and radiative strength functions requires further investigation [ru
Taking into account for the Pauli principle in particle-vibrator model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knyaz'kov, O.M.
1985-01-01
To construct Hamiltonian of the particle interaction and phonons a semimicroscopic approach developed by the author earlier is used. At that the Pauli principle is taken account of in local formalism of density matrix. Analytical expressions permitting in a closed form to solve a task of taking account of the Pauli principle in the particle-vibrator model have been derived. Unlike a phenomenological approach form factors of inelastic transitions are determined with parameters of effective nucleon-nucleon forces, central and transition densities and contain no free parameters
Effect of Pauli principle accounting an the two-phonon states of spherical nuclej
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solov'ev, V.G.; Stoyanov, Ch.; Nikolaeva, R.
1983-01-01
The effect of account for the Pauli principle in two-phonon components of the wave functions on low-lying collective states of even-even spherical nuclei is investigated. The calculations are performed for sup(114, 116)Sn and sup(142, 144, 146, 148)Sm. The account of the Pauli principle is shown to exert a weak effect on the states with large one-phonon or two-phonon components. It is concluded that in some spherical nuclei sufficiently pure two-phonon states may exist
Pauli principle in the soft-photon approach to proton-proton bremsstrahlung
Liou, MK; Timmermans, R; Gibson, BF
1996-01-01
A relativistic and manifestly gauge-invariant soft-photon amplitude, which is consistent with the soft-photon theorem and satisfies the Pauli principle, is derived for the proton-proton bremsstrahlung process. This soft-photon amplitude is the first two-u-two-t special amplitude to satisfy all
Effect of the Pauli principle and channel coupling on the nuclear reactions, 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanada, Hiroyuki; Kaneko, Tsuneo; Nomoto, Morikazu
1976-01-01
The effect of the Pauli principle on nuclear reactions of a six-nucleon system is investigated in the presence of a breakup channel, by using the resonating group method (RGM). The microscopic treatment with full exchange effects for the t( 3 He, d) 4 He reaction is examined together with the 3 He-t and d- 4 He elastic scattering. It is shown that the exchange effects (especially owing to the Pauli principle) play an important role in the differential cross section in the backward region. The t( 3 He, d) 4 He reaction is examined by decomposing the reaction processes into three terms, that is, proton stripping, neutron pick-up and residual processes. The asymmetry of the angular distribution for the t( 3 He, d) 4 He reaction is also discussed. (auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barabash, A.S.
1989-01-01
Capabilities of modern radiation detectors for investigation into electron stability and possible violation of Pauli principle in atoms are discussed. For experimental searches of electron instability the following low-background devices are used: scintillation NaI-detectors, semiconducting detectors of enriched germanium, emission chamber, multisection proportional counter and low-temperature detectors. It is ascertained that using modern low-background devices applying the earlier enumerated detectors, it is possible to achieve sensitivity of the order of 10 24 -10 25 years for the electron lifetime relatively to its decay and Pauli principle violation in atoms. Experiments with sensitivity of ∼ 10 26 -10 27 can be realized in massive low-temperature detectors, developed for neutrino physics. 28 refs; 1 fig
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krolle, D.; Assenbaum, H.J.; Funck, C.; Langanke, K.
1987-01-01
The finite Pauli repulsion model of Walliser and Nakaichi-Maeda and the orthogonality condition model are two microscopically motivated potential models for the description of nuclear collisions which, however, differ from each other in the way they incorporate antisymmetrization effects into the nucleus-nucleus interaction. We have used α+α scattering at low energies as a tool to distinguish between the two different treatments of the Pauli principle. Both models are consistent with the presently available on-shell (elastic) and off-shell (bremsstrahlung) data. We suggest further measurements of α+α bremsstrahlung including the coplanar laboratory differential cross section in Harvard geometry at α-particle angles of around 27 0 and the γ-decay width of the 4 + resonance at E/sub c.m./ = 11.4 MeV, because in both cases the two models make significantly different predictions
Integral equations for composite-particle scattering taking the Pauli principle into account
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kukulin, V.I.; Neudatchin, V.G.; Pomerantsev, V.N.
1978-01-01
An approximate description of a system of three composite particles in terms of the Saito (Prog. Theor. Phys.; 41:705 (1969)) orthogonality condition model is proposed. The orthogonalising pseudopotential technique is used to derive a modified set of Fadde'ev equations where the two- and three-body exchanges due to the Pauli principle are included by orthogonalising to two-and three-body forbidden states. The scope of applicability of and the method for solving the derived equations are discussed briefly. (author)
Exact multiple scattering theory of two-nucleus collisions including the Pauli principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurvitz, S.A.
1981-01-01
Exact equations for two-nucleus scattering are derived in which the effects of the Pauli principle are fully included. Our method exploits a modified equation for the scattering of two identical nucleons, which is obtained at the beginning. Considering proton-nucleus scattering we found that the resulting amplitude has two components, one resembling a multiple scattering series for distinguishable particles, and the other a distorted (A-1) nucleon cluster exchange. For elastic pA scattering the multiple scattering amplitude is found in the form of an optical potential expansion. We show that the Kerman-McManus-Thaler theory of the optical potential could be easily modified to include the effects of antisymmetrization of the projectile with the target nucleons. Nucleus-nucleus scattering is studied first for distinguishable target and beam nucleus. Afterwards the Pauli principle is included, where only the case of deuteron-nucleus scattering is discussed in detail. The resulting amplitude has four components. Two of them correspond to modified multiple scattering expansions and the others are distorted (A-1)- and (A-2)- nucleon cluster exchange. The result for d-A scattering is extended to the general case of nucleus-nucleus scattering. The equations are simple to use and as such constitute an improvement over existing schemes
The role of the Pauli principle in three-cluster systems composed of identical clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lashko, Yu.A.; Filippov, G.F.
2009-01-01
Within the microscopic model based on the algebraic version of the resonating group method the role of the Pauli principle in the formation of continuum wave function of nuclear systems composed of three identical s-clusters has been investigated. Emphasis is placed upon the study of the exchange effects contained in the genuine three-cluster norm kernel. Three-fermion, three-boson, three-dineutron (3d ' ) and 3α systems are considered in detail. Simple analytical method of constructing the norm kernel for 3α system is suggested. The Pauli-allowed basis functions for the 3α and 3d ' systems are given in an explicit form and asymptotic behavior of these functions is established. Complete classification of the eigenfunctions and the eigenvalues of the 12 C norm kernel by the 8 Be=α+α eigenvalues has been given for the first time. Spectrum of the 12 C norm kernel is compared to that of the 5 H system.
Report of an INS two-day meeting on roles of Pauli principle in few-body problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamimura, M.
1993-02-01
This small INS meeting on 'Roles of Pauli Principle in Few-Body Systems' was held on Oct. 30-31, 1991. A lecture was given by Prof. V.I. Kukulin (Moscow State University) on new physics with the quark-based Moscow N-N potential for few-nucleon systems and on microscopic studies of multi-cluster systems. Seven other speakers gave talks on various roles of the Pauli principle in few-body systems, in multi-cluster systems and in heavy-ion reactions. (J.P.N.)
Pseudo-potential method for taking into account the Pauli principle in cluster systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krasnopol'skii, V.M.; Kukulin, V.I.
1975-01-01
In order to take account of the Pauli principle in cluster systems (such as 3α, α + α + n) a convenient method of renormalization of the cluster-cluster deep attractive potentials with forbidden states is suggested. The renormalization consists of adding projectors upon the occupied states with an infinite coupling constant to the initial deep potential which means that we pass to pseudo-potentials. The pseudo-potential approach in projecting upon the noneigenstates is shown to be equivalent to the orthogonality condition model of Saito et al. The orthogonality of the many-particle wave function to the forbidden states of each two-cluster sub-system is clearly demonstrated
Effects of Pauli's principle in the. cap alpha. - /sup 16/O elastic scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schechter, H; Canto, L F; Breitschaft, A M
1986-03-01
'Exact' microscopic methods like the RGM (Resonating Group Method) and the GCM (Generator Coordinate Method) and approximate methods like the OCM (Orthogonality Condition Model) are used to study the effects of Pauli's Principle in the ..cap alpha..-/sup 16/O elastic scattering. A method to derive 'exact' effective potentials for the OCM is introduced. These potentials, derived from RGM wave functions, make the OCM identical to the RGM and they have the advantage of being free from poles associated to the forbidden states. Numerical calculations are made with V2 and B1 nucleon-nucleon forces at energies in the range 0-30 MeV. The potentials and the resulting phase-shifts are compared to those obtained from the approximate method suggested by Friedrich and Canto. The problem of searching for local, state independent, potentials for the OCM is discussed.
Effect of the Pauli principle on the excited states of doubly-even deformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jolos, R.V.; Molina, J.L.; Soloviev, V.G.
1980-01-01
It is shown that the commutation relations between the quasiparticles forming phonons can correctly be taken into account within the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. The doubly-even deformed nuclei with the isoscalar and isovector multipole-multipole forces are studied. The exact and approximate secular equations are derived. It is shown that the two-phonon poles in the secular equation are shifted due to the Pauli principle. These shifts are large for the two identical collective phonons. In some cases pronounced shifts are found for the poles composed of a low-lying collective phonon and a collective phonon forming the giant resonance. In other cases the shifts are not large, as a rule. (orig.) 891 FKS/orig. 892 MB
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Govorkov, A.B.
1988-01-01
It is shown that the local quantum field theory of free fields allows only the generalizations of the conventional quantizations (corresponding to the Fermi and Bose statistics) that correspond to the para-Fermi and para-Bose statistics and does not permit ''small'' violation of the Pauli principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voronov, V.V.; Dang, N.D.
1984-01-01
the system of equations, enabling to calculate the energy and the structure of excited states, described by the wave function, containing one- and two-phon components was obtained in the framework of quasiparticlephonon model. The requirements of Pauli principle for two-phonon components and phonon correlation in the ground nucleus state are taken into account
The Strange Friendship of Pauli and Jung - When Physics Met Psychology
CERN. Geneva
2009-01-01
At a key time in his scientific development, Pauli was undergoing analysis by Jung. What can we learn about Pauli's discoveries of the exclusion principle and the CPT theorem, as well as his thoughts on non-conservation of parity, and his quest with Heisenberg for a unified field theory of elementary particles from Jung’s analysis of his dreams? A very different Pauli emerges, one at odds with esteemed colleagues such as Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg.
2002-01-01
The annual meeting of the Pauli Committee on 30 August will be enlivened this year by a celebration to mark the publication of : No Time to be Brief - A scientific biography of Wolfgang Pauli, by Charles P. Enz, Professor Emeritus of the University of Geneva.
Quantum correlations are tightly bound by the exclusivity principle.
Yan, Bin
2013-06-28
It is a fundamental problem in physics of what principle limits the correlations as predicted by our current description of nature, based on quantum mechanics. One possible explanation is the "global exclusivity" principle recently discussed in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 060402 (2013). In this work we show that this principle actually has a much stronger restriction on the probability distribution. We provide a tight constraint inequality imposed by this principle and prove that this principle singles out quantum correlations in scenarios represented by any graph. Our result implies that the exclusivity principle might be one of the fundamental principles of nature.
A biography of Wolfgang Ernest Pauli; La vie de Wolfgang Ernest Pauli
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boudenot, J.C. [Thales, 91 - Palaiseau (France)
2009-01-15
This article presents a short biography of Pauli in which we find the most important facts of his scientific career and some stunning sides of his personality. Pauli was born in 1900 in Vienna in an intellectual family. He was very soon interested in physics. At the age of 21 he published a relevant article on relativity, and the same year he presented a doctorate thesis on the quantum description of the H{sub 2}{sup +} molecular ion. As soon as 1925, Pauli discovered the exclusion principle (for which he will receive the Nobel prize in 1945), and was the first to calculate the energy levels of the hydrogen atom by using the Heisenberg formalism. In 1930, he suggested the existence of an unknown particle (the neutrino) to explain the continuous spectrum of the beta decay. In 1934, he found a link between the spin and the quantum statistics that is now called the spin-statistic theorem. Pauli died in december 1958 from a pancreas tumor. (A.C.)
Pauli and the spin-statistics theorem
Duck, Ian M
1997-01-01
This book makes broadly accessible an understandable proof of the infamous spin-statistics theorem. This widely known but little-understood theorem is intended to explain the fact that electrons obey the Pauli exclusion principle. This fact, in turn, explains the periodic table of the elements and their chemical properties. Therefore, this one simply stated fact is responsible for many of the principal features of our universe, from chemistry to solid state physics to nuclear physics to the life cycle of stars.In spite of its fundamental importance, it is only a slight exaggeration to say that
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Svarc, A.
1992-01-01
The origin of the broad structure in the ratio of the differential cross section at O o and 30 o CMS scattering angle in the pp→π + d process at the invariant mass of 2.41 GeV, which has been extracted using the world collection of experimental data as input, has been analysed. The observed pattern can be generated by a combination of the Pauli principle restrictions upon the helicity amplitudes, combined with their individual and smooth energy behaviour. No assertions regarding additional dibaryon dynamics can be made without accounting for the observed effect. A toy model is presented solely as an illustration. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen Dinh Dang; Voronov, V.V.
1983-01-01
A system of basic equations of the quasiparticle-phonon model is obtained for energies and a structure of excited states described by the wave functions containing one- and two-phonon components. The effects due to the Pauli principle for two-phonon components and the phonon ground state correlations of a spherical nucleus are taken here into account. The quantitative estimations of these effects are given by a simplified scheme. The relation between these equations with the results from other theoretical approaches is discussed
Effects of the Pauli suppression of the Born amplitude in a nuclear medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nutt, W.T.
1976-01-01
It is noted that the suppression of the Born term in the pion-nucleon interaction which is expected due to the action of the Pauli Exclusion Principle in a nuclear medium gives rise to a downward shift to the (3,3) resonance
Pauli and The Spin-Statistics Theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duck, Ian; Sudarshan, E.C.G.
1998-03-01
This book makes broadly accessible an understandable proof of the infamous spin-statistics theorem. This widely known but little-understood theorem is intended to explain the fact that electrons obey the Pauli exclusion principle. This fact, in turn, explains the periodic table of the elements and their chemical properties.Therefore, this one simply stated fact is responsible for many of the principal features of our universe, from chemistry to solid state physics to nuclear physics to the life cycle of stars.In spite of its fundamental importance, it is only a slight exaggeration to say that 'everyone knows the spin-statistics theorem, but no one understands it'. This book simplifies and clarifies the formal statements of the theorem, and also corrects the invariably flawed intuitive explanations which are frequently put forward. The book will be of interest to many practising physicists in all fields who have long been frustrated by the impenetrable discussions on the subject which have been available until now.It will also be accessible to students at an advanced undergraduate level as an introduction to modern physics based directly on the classical writings of the founders, including Pauli, Dirac, Heisenberg, Einstein and many others
Seth, Suman
In early 1925, Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958) published the paper for which he is now most famous and for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1945. The paper detailed what we now know as his "exclusion principle." This essay situates the work leading up to Pauli's principle within the traditions of the "Sommerfeld School," led by Munich University's renowned theorist and teacher, Arnold Sommerfeld (1868-1951). Offering a substantial corrective to previous accounts of the birth of quantum mechanics, which have tended to sideline Sommerfeld's work, it is suggested here that both the method and the content of Pauli's paper drew substantially on the work of the Sommerfeld School in the early 1920s. Part One describes Sommerfeld's turn away from a faith in the power of model-based (modellmässig) methods in his early career towards the use of a more phenomenological emphasis on empirical regularities (Gesetzmässigkeiten) during precisely the period that both Pauli and Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976), among others, were his students. Part two delineates the importance of Sommerfeld's phenomenology to Pauli's methods in the exclusion principle paper, a paper that also eschewed modellmässig approaches in favour of a stress on Gesetzmässigkeiten. In terms of content, a focus on Sommerfeld's work reveals the roots of Pauli's understanding of the fundamental Zweideutigkeit (ambiguity) involving the quantum number of electrons within the atom. The conclusion points to the significance of these results to an improved historical understanding of the origin of aspects of Heisenberg's 1925 paper on the "Quantum-theoretical Reformulation (Umdeutung) of Kinematical and Mechanical Relations."
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stapp, H.P.
1992-01-01
The role of subjective experience in physical theory is discussed, with particular attention to the later ideas of Wolfgang Pauli. These ideas appear to open the door to a unified framework for the development of science
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stapp, H.P.
1992-09-10
The role of subjective experience in physical theory is discussed, with particular attention to the later ideas of Wolfgang Pauli. These ideas appear to open the door to a unified framework for the development of science.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhalij, Alexander
2002-01-01
We classify (1+3)-dimensional Pauli equations for a spin-(1/2) particle interacting with the electro-magnetic field, that are solvable by the method of separation of variables. As a result, we obtain the 11 classes of vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field A(t,x(vector sign))=(A 0 (t,x(vector sign)), A(vector sign)(t,x(vector sign))) providing separability of the corresponding Pauli equations. It is established, in particular, that the necessary condition for the Pauli equation to be separable into second-order matrix ordinary differential equations is its equivalence to the system of two uncoupled Schroedinger equations. In addition, the magnetic field has to be independent of spatial variables. We prove that coordinate systems and the vector-potentials of the electro-magnetic field providing the separability of the corresponding Pauli equations coincide with those for the Schroedinger equations. Furthermore, an efficient algorithm for constructing all coordinate systems providing the separability of Pauli equation with a fixed vector-potential of the electro-magnetic field is developed. Finally, we describe all vector-potentials A(t,x(vector sign)) that (a) provide the separability of Pauli equation, (b) satisfy vacuum Maxwell equations without currents, and (c) describe non-zero magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sevilla, F J; Olivares-Quiroz, L
2012-01-01
In this work, we address the concept of the chemical potential μ in classical and quantum gases towards the calculation of the equation of state μ = μ(n, T) where n is the particle density and T the absolute temperature using the methods of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Two cases seldom discussed in elementary textbooks are presented with detailed calculations. The first one refers to the explicit calculation of μ for the interacting classical gas exemplified by van der Waals gas. For this purpose, we used the method described by van Kampen (1961 Physica 27 783). The second one refers to the calculation of μ for ideal quantum gases that obey a generalized Pauli's exclusion principle that leads to statistics that go beyond the Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac cases. The audience targeted in this work corresponds mainly to advanced undergraduates and graduate students in the physical-chemical sciences but it is not restricted to them. In regard of this, we have put a special emphasis on showing some additional details of calculations that usually do not appear explicitly in textbooks. (paper)
Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth
2017-01-01
This small but historically valuable collection was donated by Pauli’s widow who, with the help of friends including his former assistants Charles Enz and Victor Weisskopf, gathered together Pauli’s manuscripts and notes, and tracked down originals or copies of his many letters. His correspondence with Bohr, Heisenberg Einstein and others, discussing many of the new ideas in physics, has been published (link) and provides an invaluable resource for those interested in studying the development of 20th century science. Unlike the main CERN Archive, most items in the Pauli collection have been digitised and are available online.
Leon, Juan; Maccone, Lorenzo
2017-12-01
Schrödinger's equation says that the Hamiltonian is the generator of time translations. This seems to imply that any reasonable definition of time operator must be conjugate to the Hamiltonian. Then both time and energy must have the same spectrum since conjugate operators are unitarily equivalent. Clearly this is not always true: normal Hamiltonians have lower bounded spectrum and often only have discrete eigenvalues, whereas we typically desire that time can take any real value. Pauli concluded that constructing a general a time operator is impossible (although clearly it can be done in specific cases). Here we show how the Pauli argument fails when one uses an external system (a "clock") to track time, so that time arises as correlations between the system and the clock (conditional probability amplitudes framework). In this case, the time operator is conjugate to the clock Hamiltonian and not to the system Hamiltonian, but its eigenvalues still satisfy the Schrödinger equation for arbitrary system Hamiltonians.
Why the Central Dogma: on the nature of the great biological exclusion principle.
Koonin, Eugene V
2015-09-16
The Central Dogma of molecular biology posits that transfer of information from proteins back to nucleic acids does not occur in biological systems. I argue that the impossibility of reverse translation is indeed a major, physical exclusion principle that emerges due to the transition from the digital information carriers, nucleic acids, to analog information carriers, proteins, which involves irreversible suppression of the digital information.
Local exclusion principle for identical particles obeying intermediate and fractional statistics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lundholm, Douglas; Solovej, Jan Philip
2013-01-01
A local exclusion principle is observed for identical particles obeying intermediate and fractional exchange statistics in one and two dimensions, leading to bounds for the kinetic energy in terms of the density. This has implications for models of Lieb-Liniger and Calogero-Sutherland type...
A Theoretical Study of the Separation Principle in Size Exclusion Chromatography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Yanwei; Teraoka, Iwao; Hansen, Flemming Yssing
2010-01-01
as a function of the retention volume, results for both linear and branched polyethylene molecules lie nearly on the master curve determined by linear polystyrene standards. Our findings support the equilibrium thermodynamic separation principle in SEC. Since the mean span dimension is a purely geometric size......The principle of polymer separation in size exclusion chromatography (SEC) is studied based on a classical equilibrium partitioning theory. The task is to examine the correlation between the mean span dimension of polymer chains and their equilibrium partition coefficients with confining pores...
Competitive exclusion principle for SIS and SIR models with n strains
Bichara , Derdei; Iggidr , Abderrahman; Sallet , Gauthier
2012-01-01
We consider SIS and SIR models with standard mass action and varying population, with $n$ different pathogen strains of an infectious disease. We also consider the same models with vertical transmission. We prove that under generic conditions a competitive exclusion principle holds. To each strain a basic reproduction ratio can be associated. It corresponds to the case where only this strain exists. The basic reproduction ratio of the complete system is the maximum of each individual basic re...
Why the Central Dogma: on the nature of the great biological exclusion principle
Koonin, Eugene V.
2015-01-01
Abstract The Central Dogma of molecular biology posits that transfer of information from proteins back to nucleic acids does not occur in biological systems. I argue that the impossibility of reverse translation is indeed a major, physical exclusion principle that emerges due to the transition from the digital information carriers, nucleic acids, to analog information carriers, proteins, which involves irreversible suppression of the digital information. Reviewers This article was reviewed by...
Pauli correlations in heavy-ion collisions at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franco, V.; Nutt, W.T.
1977-01-01
The effects of short-range correlations on the Glauber expansion for nucleus-nucleus collisions are calculated using the Fermi gas model for nuclei. When the Pauli principle is neglected for collisions between heavy nuclei, calculation of the optical phase-shift function leads to non-unitary results and cross sections cannot be obtained. When Pauli correlations are included important cancellations in the optical phase-shift function are found which make possible the calculation of total and differential cross sections for heavy nuclei. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahn, K.
1983-01-01
In the present thesis we have studied the system 4 He-neutron-proton. Starting from the microscopic three-cluster model of the resonating group method the Hamiltonian of the optical fish-bone model is defined for the three cluster centers which contains effects from the Pauli principle of the whole six-nucleon system. Beside this microscopically founded Hamiltonian a second, purely phenomenologically defined Hamiltonian is applied, which is only fixed by the phase shifts of the systems neutron-proton and 4 He-nucleon. Both Hamiltonians are phase equivalent in the subsystems, i.e. the scattering waves of the subsystems differ only in the near-range. A comparison of the three-particle scattering observables of both approaches at the incident energies Esub(d)sup(lab) = 7.5 and 12 MeV shows surprisingly strong off-shell effects in the system 4 He-neutron-proton, the order of magnitude of which exceeds both in the elastic and in the breakup case widely the experimental measurement uncertainty. It means that in our system the near-range of the subsystem scattering waves and by this the kind of the reduction of the six-nucleon problem to a three-body problem play an important role. Furthermore we can in the case of the elastic reaction 4 He + deuteron -> 4 He + deuteron for the differential cross sections and the spherical analyzing powers in angular ranges, where the neglected Coulomb interaction should have only little influence, prove, that the microscopically foundes Hamiltonian leads to results which are more realistic than in the case of the phenomenological model. (orig./HSI) [de
The gravitational exclusion principle and null states in anti-de Sitter space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castro, Alejandra; Maloney, Alexander; Hartman, Thomas
2011-01-01
The holographic principle implies a vast reduction in the number of degrees of freedom of quantum gravity. This idea can be made precise in AdS 3 , where the the stringy or gravitational exclusion principle asserts that certain perturbative excitations are not present in the exact quantum spectrum. We show that this effect is visible directly in the bulk gravity theory: the norm of the offending linearized state is zero or negative. When the norm is negative, the theory is signalling its own breakdown as an effective field theory; this provides a perturbative bulk explanation for the stringy exclusion principle. When the norm vanishes the bulk state is null rather than physical. This implies that certain non-trivial diffeomorphisms must be regarded as gauge symmetries rather than spectrum-generating elements of the asymptotic symmetry group. This leads to subtle effects in the computation of one-loop determinants for Einstein gravity, higher spin theories and topologically massive gravity in AdS 3 . In particular, heat kernel methods do not capture the correct spectrum of a theory with null states. Communicated by S Ross
Generalized Pauli constraints in small atoms
Schilling, Christian; Altunbulak, Murat; Knecht, Stefan; Lopes, Alexandre; Whitfield, James D.; Christandl, Matthias; Gross, David; Reiher, Markus
2018-05-01
The natural occupation numbers of fermionic systems are subject to nontrivial constraints, which include and extend the original Pauli principle. A recent mathematical breakthrough has clarified their mathematical structure and has opened up the possibility of a systematic analysis. Early investigations have found evidence that these constraints are exactly saturated in several physically relevant systems, e.g., in a certain electronic state of the beryllium atom. It has been suggested that, in such cases, the constraints, rather than the details of the Hamiltonian, dictate the system's qualitative behavior. Here, we revisit this question with state-of-the-art numerical methods for small atoms. We find that the constraints are, in fact, not exactly saturated, but that they lie much closer to the surface defined by the constraints than the geometry of the problem would suggest. While the results seem incompatible with the statement that the generalized Pauli constraints drive the behavior of these systems, they suggest that the qualitatively correct wave-function expansions can in some systems already be obtained on the basis of a limited number of Slater determinants, which is in line with numerical evidence from quantum chemistry.
Wolfgang Pauli - a portrait. History of science
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischer, E.P.
2008-01-01
Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958) is named by his colleagues in the same breath with Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein, who named Pauli his ''mental son''. The history of science had neglected Pauli for a long time. The reason for this may be found in Pauli's attempts to capture the role of the unconscious in physics and the meaning of dreams in the creation of scientific pictures of the world. For Pauli a scientific method consisted in activating the unconscious and hoping that it would start up that specific type of ''painting viewing'' from which the terms can arise by which we express our understanding
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xing, Yong-Zhong, E-mail: yzxing@tsnu.edu.cn [Institute for the Fundamental Physics, Tianshui Normal University, Gansu, Tianshui 741000 (China); Zhang, H.F. [Institute for the Fundamental Physics, Tianshui Normal University, Gansu, Tianshui 741000 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Liu, Xiao-Bin [Institute for the Fundamental Physics, Tianshui Normal University, Gansu, Tianshui 741000 (China); Zheng, Yu-Ming [Institute for the Fundamental Physics, Tianshui Normal University, Gansu, Tianshui 741000 (China); China Institute of Atomic Energy, P.O. Box 275(18), Beijing 102413 (China)
2017-01-15
The dissipation phenomenon in the heavy-ion reaction at incident energy near Fermi energy is studied by simulating the reactions {sup 129}Xe + {sup 129}Sn and {sup 58}Ni + {sup 58}Ni with isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model (IQMD). The isotropy ratio in terms of transverse and longitudinal energies of the free protons emitted in the final states of these reactions is quantitatively analyzed to explore the in-medium correlation of the binary collisions. Comparison of the calculations with the experimental data recently released by INDRA collaboration exhibits that the ratio is very sensitive to the Pauli blocking effect in two-body collisions and Pauli exclusion principle is indispensable in the theoretical simulations for the heavy-ion reactions near the Fermi energy.
Pauli blocking and laser manipulation of the electron dynamics in atomic collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirchner, T.
2004-01-01
Full text: The dynamics of ion-atom collisions are governed primarily by the Coulomb interactions between the active electrons and the projectile and target nuclei. This contribution is devoted to the question whether and how other phenomena can modify the outcome of atomic scattering experiments. Firstly, the role of the Pauli exclusion principle on electronic transitions will be considered. Supported by experimental data it will be argued that Pauli blocking may have an important influence on electron transfer processes if collision systems with electrons on target and projectile in the initial channel are addressed [1]. Secondly, it will be discussed to which extent the electron dynamics can be modified and manipulated by an external interaction, namely by a suitable laser field [2]. The prototype scattering system He 2+ -H will be considered in the framework of the semiclassical approximation, i.e., projectile and laser interactions are described in terms of time-dependent external potentials which govern the quantum dynamics of the electron. The focus will be on slow collisions, in which electron transfer dominates, and on relatively short wavelengths such that both time dependent potentials vary on comparable time scales. A strong enhancement of laser-assisted electron transfer is found at collision energies below 1 keV/amu [3]. Its origin and its disappearance at higher energies as well as implications for planned experiments will be discussed
Pauli-Guersey symmetry in gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stern, J.
1983-05-01
Gauge theories with massless or massive fermions in a selfcontragredient representation exhibit global symmetries of Pauli-Guersey type. Some of them are broken spontaneously leading to a difermion Goldstone bosons. An example of a boson version of the Pauli-Guersey symmetry is provided by the Weinberg-Salam model in the limit THETAsub(w)→O
The influence of Pauli blocking effects on the properties of dense hydrogen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebeling, W; Blaschke, D; Redmer, R; Reinholz, H; Roepke, G
2009-01-01
We investigate the effects of Pauli blocking on the properties of hydrogen at high pressures, where recent experiments have shown a transition from insulating behavior to metal-like conductivity. Since the Pauli principle prevents multiple occupation of electron states (Pauli blocking), atomic states disintegrate subsequently at high densities (Mott effect). We calculate the energy shifts due to Pauli blocking and discuss the Mott effect solving an effective Schroedinger equation for strongly correlated systems. The ionization equilibrium is treated on the basis of a chemical approach. Results for the ionization equilibrium and the pressure in the region 4000 K < T < 20 000 K are presented. We show that the transition to a highly conducting state is softer than found in earlier work. A first-order phase transition is observed at T < 6450 K, but a diffuse transition appears still up to 20 000 K
Non Pauli-Fierz Massive Gravitons
Dvali, Gia; Redi, Michele
2008-01-01
We study general Lorentz invariant theories of massive gravitons. We show that, contrary to the standard lore, there exist consistent theories where the graviton mass term violates Pauli-Fierz structure. For theories where the graviton is a resonance this does not imply the existence of a scalar ghost if the deviation from Pauli-Fierz becomes sufficiently small at high energies. These types of mass terms are required by any consistent realization of the DGP model in higher dimension.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fischer, E.P.
2008-07-01
Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958) is named by his colleagues in the same breath with Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein, who named Pauli his ''mental son''. The history of science had neglected Pauli for a long time. The reason for this may be found in Pauli's attempts to capture the role of the unconscious in physics and the meaning of dreams in the creation of scientific pictures of the world. For Pauli a scientific method consisted in activating the unconscious and hoping that it would start up that specific type of ''painting viewing'' from which the terms can arise by which we express our understanding.
Non-Pauli-Fierz Massive Gravitons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvali, Gia; Pujolas, Oriol; Redi, Michele
2008-01-01
We study general Lorentz invariant theories of massive gravitons. We show that, contrary to the standard lore, there exist consistent theories where the graviton mass term violates Pauli-Fierz structure. For theories where the graviton is a resonance, this does not imply the existence of a scalar ghost if the deviation from a Pauli-Fierz structure becomes sufficiently small at high energies. These types of mass terms are required by any consistent realization of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model in higher dimension
The Pauli-Jung conjecture and its impact today
Fuchs, Christopher A
2014-01-01
Related to the key areas of Pauli''s and Jung''s joint interests, the book covers overlapping issues from the perspectives of physics, philosophy, and psychology. Of primary significance are epistemological questions connected to issues such as realism, measurement, observation, consciousness, and the unconscious. The contributions assess the extensive material that we have about Pauli''s and Jung''s ideas today, with particular respect to concrete research questions and projects based on and re...
Quantum capacity of Pauli channels with memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Peng; He Guangqiang; Lu Yuan; Zeng Guihua
2011-01-01
The amount of coherent quantum information that can be reliably transmitted down the memory Pauli channels with Markovian correlated noise is investigated. Two methods for evaluating the quantum capacity of the memory Pauli channels are proposed to try to trace the memory effect on the transmissions of quantum information. We show that the evaluation of quantum capacity can be reduced to the calculation of the initial memory state of each successive transmission. Furthermore, we derive quantum capacities of the memory phase flip channel, bit flip channel and bit-phase flip channel. Also, a lower bound of the quantum capacity of the memory depolarizing channel is obtained. An increase of the degree of memory of the channels has a positive effect on the increase of their quantum capacities.
Massive gravity and Fierz-Pauli theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blasi, Alberto; Maggiore, Nicola
2017-01-01
Linearized gravity is considered as an ordinary gauge field theory. This implies the need for gauge fixing in order to have well-defined propagators. Only after having achieved this, the most general mass term is added. The aim of this paper is to study of the degrees of freedom of the gauge fixed theory of linearized gravity with mass term. The main result is that, even outside the usual Fierz-Pauli constraint on the mass term, it is possible to choose a gauge fixing belonging to the Landau class, which leads to a massive theory of gravity with the five degrees of freedom of a spin-2 massive particle. (orig.)
Massive gravity and Fierz-Pauli theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blasi, Alberto [Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genova (Italy); Maggiore, Nicola [I.N.F.N.-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy)
2017-09-15
Linearized gravity is considered as an ordinary gauge field theory. This implies the need for gauge fixing in order to have well-defined propagators. Only after having achieved this, the most general mass term is added. The aim of this paper is to study of the degrees of freedom of the gauge fixed theory of linearized gravity with mass term. The main result is that, even outside the usual Fierz-Pauli constraint on the mass term, it is possible to choose a gauge fixing belonging to the Landau class, which leads to a massive theory of gravity with the five degrees of freedom of a spin-2 massive particle. (orig.)
Pauli-spin blockade in a vertical double quantum dot holding two to five electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kodera, T; Arakawa, Y; Tarucha, S; Ono, K; Amaha, S
2009-01-01
We use a vertical double quantum dot (QD) to study spin blockade (SB) for the two-to five-electron states. SB observed for the two- and four-electron states is both assigned to Pauli exclusion with formation of a spin triplet state, and lifted by singlet-triplet admixing due to fluctuating nuclear field. SB observed for the five-electron state is caused by combined Pauli effect and Hund's rule. We observe a hysteretic behavior of the SB leakage current for up and down sweep of magnetic field, and argue that SB and its lifting by hyperfine interaction are subtle with the spin configuration and modified depending on the inter-dot detuning and number of electrons.
The role of the Pauli principle in metastability exchange collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinard, M.; Laloe, F.
1980-01-01
In optical pumping experiments, metastability exchange collisions are used to transfer orientation, alignment, ... between different atomic levels. This article studies the effect of such collisions on the atom internal variables density operator by a method used in a previous publication for spin exchange collisions. The calculations are valid when the nuclei of the two atoms are distinguishable as well as when they are identical particles, wich allows a detailed discussion of nuclear identity effects (apparent magnetic field, etc...). Two cases are successively studied: no depolarization of the electronic angular momentum (He*-He collisions) and partial depolarization (Ne*-Ne collisions for example). The nuclear identity effects should be observable in low temperature optical pumping experiments with noble gases. In an Appendix, another particle identity effect is studied, which can be observed in atomic beam experiments: during the collision of two 3 He atoms, both in the ground state, the spin state of the atoms scattered in a particular direction can be changed by nuclear indistinguishability effects
Pauli and Jung the meeting of two great minds
Lindorff, David
2004-01-01
The pioneering work of Nobel prize-winning physicist Wolfgang Pauli led to developing the bombs that decimated Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Desperate over this outcome, Pauli sought help from the eminent depth psychologist, C. G. Jung. Their long correspondence provides the powerful and unique record of a mature scientist's inner journey. It also has had a tremendous impact on scientific and psychological thought ever since. Pauli and Jung is a lucid interpretation of Pauli's ideas and dreams that forcefully validates his belief in the inseparable union of science and spirituality. Far ahead of their time, Wolfgang Pauli and C. G. Jung both knew this union is essential for the future of humanity and the survival of the planet.
The Innermost Kernel Depth Psychology and Quantum Physics. Wolfgang Pauli's Dialogue with C.G Jung
Gieser, Suzanne
2005-01-01
"The Innermost Kernel" recounts the physicist and Nobel Laureate Wolfgang Pauli and his interest in Jungian psychology, philosophy and western world-view. It is also an exploration of the intellectual setting and context of Pauli's thinking, which has its starting point in the cultural and intellectual climate of fin-de-siècle Europe. As a contribution to the general history of quantum physics this study has a special focus on the psychological and philosophical issues discussed by physicists belonging to the Copenhagen school. The work is mainly based on the correspondence of the principle characters and explores some of the central issues discussed there, as for instance the subject-object relation, complementarity, the relation of conscious and unconscious, the process underlying concept-formation, the psychology of scientific discovery, the symbolic world of alchemy, the theories of archetypes and of synchronicity. Ultimately this book is about a remarkable scientist searching for a new understanding of ...
From Pauli Matrices to Quantum Ito Formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pautrat, Yan
2005-01-01
This paper answers important questions raised by the recent description, by Attal, of a robust and explicit method to approximate basic objects of quantum stochastic calculus on bosonic Fock space by analogues on the state space of quantum spin chains. The existence of that method justifies a detailed investigation of discrete-time quantum stochastic calculus. Here we fully define and study that theory and obtain in particular a discrete-time quantum Ito formula, which one can see as summarizing the commutation relations of Pauli matrices.An apparent flaw in that approximation method is the difference in the quantum Ito formulas, discrete and continuous, which suggests that the discrete quantum stochastic calculus differs fundamentally from the continuous one and is therefore not a suitable object to approximate subtle phenomena. We show that flaw is only apparent by proving that the continuous-time quantum Ito formula is actually a consequence of its discrete-time counterpart
Thermalization Time Bounds for Pauli Stabilizer Hamiltonians
Temme, Kristan
2017-03-01
We prove a general lower bound to the spectral gap of the Davies generator for Hamiltonians that can be written as the sum of commuting Pauli operators. These Hamiltonians, defined on the Hilbert space of N-qubits, serve as one of the most frequently considered candidates for a self-correcting quantum memory. A spectral gap bound on the Davies generator establishes an upper limit on the life time of such a quantum memory and can be used to estimate the time until the system relaxes to thermal equilibrium when brought into contact with a thermal heat bath. The bound can be shown to behave as {λ ≥ O(N^{-1} exp(-2β overline{ɛ}))}, where {overline{ɛ}} is a generalization of the well known energy barrier for logical operators. Particularly in the low temperature regime we expect this bound to provide the correct asymptotic scaling of the gap with the system size up to a factor of N -1. Furthermore, we discuss conditions and provide scenarios where this factor can be removed and a constant lower bound can be proven.
Nucleon effective mass effects on the Pauli-blocking function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pina, S.R. de; Mesa, J.; Deppman, A.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Duarte, S.B.; Oliveira, E.C. de; Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L.; Goncalves, M.; Paiva, E. de
2002-01-01
The effects of nucleon effective mass on the Pauli-blocking function are worked out. We have shown that such effects on the quasi-deuteron mechanism of photonuclear absorption are rather relevant. The Pauli-blocking function has been evaluated by applying a Monte Carlo calculation particularly suitable for simulation of intranuclear cascade processes of intermediate-energy nuclear reactions. The nucleon binding in the photonuclear absorption mechanism is taken into account accordingly. (author)
Nucleon effective mass effects on the Pauli-blocking function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pina, S.R. de; Mesa, J.; Deppman, A.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Goncalves, M.; Paiva, E. de
2002-05-01
The effects of nucleon effective mass on the Pauli-blocking function are worked out. We have shown that such effects on the quasi-deuteron mechanism of photonuclear absorption are rather relevant. The pauli-blocking function has been evaluated by applying a Monte Carlo calculation particularly suitable for simulation of intranuclear cascade process of intermediate-energy nuclear reactions. The nucleon binding in the photonuclear absorption mechanism is accordingly taken into account. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sander Van de Cruys
2015-04-01
Full Text Available In many magic tricks, magicians fool their audience by performing a mock action (a so-called “ruse”, which merely serves the purpose of providing a seemingly natural explanation for visible movements that are actually part of the secret move they want to hide from the audience. Here, we discuss a special magic ruse in which the action of secretly putting something somewhere is “explained away” by the mock action of fetching something from the same place, or vice versa. Interestingly, the psychological principles underlying the amazing potency and robustness of this technique seem to be very similar to the general perceptual principles underlying figure–ground perception and the assignment of border ownership. This analogy may be useful for exploring the possibility that this and similar magical effects involve immediate “unconscious inferences” about intentions more akin to perceptual processing than to explicit deliberations based on a reflective “theory” of mind.
Van de Cruys, Sander; Wagemans, Johan; Ekroll, Vebjørn
2015-04-01
In many magic tricks, magicians fool their audience by performing a mock action (a so-called "ruse"), which merely serves the purpose of providing a seemingly natural explanation for visible movements that are actually part of the secret move they want to hide from the audience. Here, we discuss a special magic ruse in which the action of secretly putting something somewhere is "explained away" by the mock action of fetching something from the same place, or vice versa . Interestingly, the psychological principles underlying the amazing potency and robustness of this technique seem to be very similar to the general perceptual principles underlying figure-ground perception and the assignment of border ownership. This analogy may be useful for exploring the possibility that this and similar magical effects involve immediate "unconscious inferences" about intentions more akin to perceptual processing than to explicit deliberations based on a reflective "theory" of mind.
Scattering theory of infrared divergent Pauli-Fierz Hamiltonians
Derezinski, J
2003-01-01
We consider in this paper the scattering theory of infrared divergent massless Pauli-Fierz Hamiltonians. We show that the CCR representations obtained from the asymptotic field contain so-called {\\em coherent sectors} describing an infinite number of asymptotically free bosons. We formulate some conjectures leading to mathematically well defined notion of {\\em inclusive and non-inclusive scattering cross-sections} for Pauli-Fierz Hamiltonians. Finally we give a general description of the scattering theory of QFT models in the presence of coherent sectors for the asymptotic CCR representations.
Maximilien Brice
2005-01-01
The 146 items - preprints by Born, Bohr, Heisenberg and others some with dedications to Pauli from the author - had been part of the personal library of the Nobel prize-winning physicist, Wolfgang Pauli.
Wolfgang Pauli at the 6th meeting of the Nobel Prize laureates
Franz Thorbecke, Lindau
1956-01-01
From left to right : ?, Max Born, Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt, ?, Otto Hahn, Wolfgang Pauli, Franca Pauli, Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, Isidor Isaac Rabi, and Leopold Ruzicka
Quantum theory as a description of robust experiments: Derivation of the Pauli equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Raedt, Hans [Department of Applied Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, NL-9747AG Groningen (Netherlands); Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Donker, Hylke C. [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Heyendaalseweg 135, NL-6525AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Michielsen, Kristel, E-mail: k.michielsen@fz-juelich.de [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)
2015-08-15
It is shown that the Pauli equation and the concept of spin naturally emerge from logical inference applied to experiments on a charged particle under the conditions that (i) space is homogeneous (ii) the observed events are logically independent, and (iii) the observed frequency distributions are robust with respect to small changes in the conditions under which the experiment is carried out. The derivation does not take recourse to concepts of quantum theory and is based on the same principles which have already been shown to lead to e.g. the Schrödinger equation and the probability distributions of pairs of particles in the singlet or triplet state. Application to Stern–Gerlach experiments with chargeless, magnetic particles, provides additional support for the thesis that quantum theory follows from logical inference applied to a well-defined class of experiments. - Highlights: • The Pauli equation is obtained through logical inference applied to robust experiments on a charged particle. • The concept of spin appears as an inference resulting from the treatment of two-valued data. • The same reasoning yields the quantum theoretical description of neutral magnetic particles. • Logical inference provides a framework to establish a bridge between objective knowledge gathered through experiments and their description in terms of concepts.
Symmetry Principles and Conservation Laws in Atomic and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
a relationship between position, velocity, and accelera- tion. .... tion, namely that the position q and velocity. : q specify ... statement of the `principle of extremum action'. The necessary .... of Pauli{Runge{Lenz vector which is the quantum ana-.
Pauli blocking and medium effects in nucleon knockout reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertulani, C. A.; De Conti, C.
2010-01-01
We study medium modifications of the nucleon-nucleon (NN) cross sections and their influence on the nucleon knockout reactions. Using the eikonal approximation, we compare the results obtained with free NN cross sections with those obtained with a purely geometrical treatment of Pauli blocking and with NN obtained with more elaborated Dirac-Bruecker methods. The medium effects are parametrized in terms of the baryon density. We focus on symmetric nuclear matter, although the geometrical Pauli blocking also allows for the treatment of asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that medium effects can change the nucleon knockout cross sections and momentum distributions up to 10% in the energy range E lab =50-300 MeV/nucleon. The effect is more evident in reactions involving halo nuclei.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burkardt, M.; Busch, R.
1991-02-01
We investigate the flavor asymmetry of the q bar q sea in a (uu)-proton for QCD 1+1 with SU(2)-color. The excess of bar u over bar d which apparently seems to be in conflict with the exclusion principle is explained by taking the color degrees of freedom into account. By computing color factors for the relevant perturbation theory diagrams we show that the non-abelian sea quarks behave effectively similar to abelian bosons. For the magnitude of the flavor asymmetry of the sea we predict scaling proportional to the ratio of the quark Compton wavelength to the proton radius. We show that the sign of the asymmetry in QCD 1+1 is different from the sign measured in 3+1 dimensions. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab
The re-enchantment of nature - Wolfgang Pauli's philosophy of quantum physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nair, Ranjit
1990-01-01
Pauli's dreamt of a new metaphysics that would eliminate the Cartesian divide between matter and spirit, and accomplish a re-enchantment of Nature. Pauli's vision it would appear, has not been widely shared, outside of the realms of popular science. It is not surprising that someone of Pauli's persuasion, like Laurikainen, should regard this neglect as the result of a conspiracy. In a more dispassionate light, it is appropriate to take Pauli's radical proposals as a measure of the profound sense of wonder he felt at the strange, shadowy world of the quantum where classical certitudes desert us. In attempting to delineate a metaphysics radically different from that underlying classical physics, Pauli took on a conceptual challenge of immense magnitude. This enterprise itself, regardless of its success or failure, offers testimony of Pauli's stature as a philosopher-physicist. (author). 31 refs
Pauli-Villars regularization in nonperturbative Hamiltonian approach on the light front
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malyshev, M. Yu., E-mail: mimalysh@yandex.ru; Paston, S. A.; Prokhvatilov, E. V.; Zubov, R. A.; Franke, V. A. [Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2016-01-22
The advantage of Pauli-Villars regularization in quantum field theory quantized on the light front is explained. Simple examples of scalar λφ{sup 4} field theory and Yukawa-type model are used. We give also an example of nonperturbative calculation in the theory with Pauli-Villars fields, using for that a model of anharmonic oscillator modified by inclusion of ghost variables playing the role similar to Pauli-Villars fields.
How electronic dynamics with Pauli exclusion produces Fermi-Dirac statistics.
Nguyen, Triet S; Nanguneri, Ravindra; Parkhill, John
2015-04-07
It is important that any dynamics method approaches the correct population distribution at long times. In this paper, we derive a one-body reduced density matrix dynamics for electrons in energetic contact with a bath. We obtain a remarkable equation of motion which shows that in order to reach equilibrium properly, rates of electron transitions depend on the density matrix. Even though the bath drives the electrons towards a Boltzmann distribution, hole blocking factors in our equation of motion cause the electronic populations to relax to a Fermi-Dirac distribution. These factors are an old concept, but we show how they can be derived with a combination of time-dependent perturbation theory and the extended normal ordering of Mukherjee and Kutzelnigg for a general electronic state. The resulting non-equilibrium kinetic equations generalize the usual Redfield theory to many-electron systems, while ensuring that the orbital occupations remain between zero and one. In numerical applications of our equations, we show that relaxation rates of molecules are not constant because of the blocking effect. Other applications to model atomic chains are also presented which highlight the importance of treating both dephasing and relaxation. Finally, we show how the bath localizes the electron density matrix.
How electronic dynamics with Pauli exclusion produces Fermi-Dirac statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen, Triet S.; Nanguneri, Ravindra; Parkhill, John
2015-01-01
It is important that any dynamics method approaches the correct population distribution at long times. In this paper, we derive a one-body reduced density matrix dynamics for electrons in energetic contact with a bath. We obtain a remarkable equation of motion which shows that in order to reach equilibrium properly, rates of electron transitions depend on the density matrix. Even though the bath drives the electrons towards a Boltzmann distribution, hole blocking factors in our equation of motion cause the electronic populations to relax to a Fermi-Dirac distribution. These factors are an old concept, but we show how they can be derived with a combination of time-dependent perturbation theory and the extended normal ordering of Mukherjee and Kutzelnigg for a general electronic state. The resulting non-equilibrium kinetic equations generalize the usual Redfield theory to many-electron systems, while ensuring that the orbital occupations remain between zero and one. In numerical applications of our equations, we show that relaxation rates of molecules are not constant because of the blocking effect. Other applications to model atomic chains are also presented which highlight the importance of treating both dephasing and relaxation. Finally, we show how the bath localizes the electron density matrix
The Pauli equation with differential operators for the spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kern, E.
1978-01-01
The spin operator s = (h/2) sigma in the Pauli equation fulfills the commutation relation of the angular momentum and leads to half-integer eigenvalues of the eigenfunctions for s. If one tries to express s by canonically conjugated operators PHI and π = ( /i)delta/deltaPHI the formal angular momentum term s = PHIxπ fails because it leads only to whole-integer eigenvalues. However, the modification of this term in the form s = 1/2(π+PHI(PHI π)+PHIxπ) leads to the required result. The eigenfunction system belonging to this differential operator s(PHI, π) consists of (2s + 1) spin eigenfunctions xim(PHI) which are given explicitly. They form a basis for the wave functions of a particle of spin s. Applying this formalism to particles with s = 1/2, agreement is reached with Pauli's spin theory. The function s(PHI, π) follows from the theory of rotating rigid bodies. The continuous spin-variable PHI = ( x, y, z) can be interpreted classically as a 'turning vector' which defines the orientation in space of a rigid body. PHI is the positioning coordinate of the rigid body or the spin coordinate of the particle in analogy to the cartesian coordinate x. The spin s is a vector fixed to the body. (orig.) [de
Collisional excitation of neon-like Ni XIX using the Breit–Pauli R ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Collision strength for the transition within the first five fine-structure levels in Ni XIX are calculated using the Breit–Pauli R-matrix method. Configuration inter- action wave functions are used to represent the target states included in the R-matrix expansion. The relativistic effects are incorporated in the Breit–Pauli ...
From convolutionless generalized master to Pauli master equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capek, V.
1995-01-01
The paper is a continuation of previous work within which it has been proved that time integrals of memory function (i.e. Markovian transfer rates from Pauli Master Equations, PME) in Time-Convolution Generalized Master Equations (TC-GME) for probabilities of finding a state of an asymmetric system interacting with a bath with a continuous spectrum are exactly zero, provided that no approximation is involved, irrespective of the usual finite-perturbation-order correspondence with the Golden Rule transition rates. In this paper, attention is paid to an alternative way of deriving the rigorous PME from the TCL-GME. Arguments are given in favor of the proposition that the long-time limit of coefficients in TCL-GME for the above probabilities, under the same assumption and presuming that this limit exists, is equal to zero. 11 refs
Spinor monopole harmonics and the Pauli spin equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, J.G.; Ferreira, P.L.
1982-01-01
In the framework of Wu and Yang theory of U(1) magnetic monopoles, two problems are revisited: (i) the binding of spin-0 monopole to a spin-1/2 particle possessing an arbitrary magnetic dipole moment, and (ii) the energy levels and properties of the electron-dyon system. In both problems, the spin-1/2 particle is assumed to obey the Pauli spin equation. Spin-orbit and other higher order terms are treated as a perturbation, in connection with the second mentioned problem. Wu and Yang's spinor monopole harmonics allow an elegant and simplified treatment of those problems. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained in older papers. (Author) [pt
Quark-Pauli effects in s-shell {Lambda} hypernuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nemura, Hidekatsu; Suzuki, Yasuyuki [Niigata Univ. (Japan)
1998-07-01
To make clear the differences between the singlet and triplet forces in {Lambda}N interaction, we investigate that how {Lambda}N interaction is concerned with the binding energies of s-shell {Lambda} hypernuclei, using through the effective forces. We shape the effective {Lambda}N potential to reproduce both the experimental binding energies of three- and four-body {Lambda} hypernuclei. It gives the maximal numbers of phase shift of the 31-32 and 19-20 (in degree) in the {Lambda}N scattering at {sup 1}S{sub 0} and {sup 3}S{sub 1} states, respectively. In the case of five-body system, {sub {Lambda}}{sup 5}He, we conclude that the quark Pauli effect is crucial. (author)
Atom and archetype the Pauli/Jung letters, 1932-1958
2001-01-01
Wolfgang Pauli, world-renowned physicist, turned to Carl Jung for help, setting a standing appointment for Mondays at noon. Thus bloomed an extraordinary intellectual conjunction. Eighty letters, written over twenty-six years, record that friendship, and are published here in English for the first time.Through the association of these two pioneering thinkers, developments in physics profoundly influenced the evolution of Jungian psychology. And many of Jung's abiding themes shaped how Pauli - and, through him, other physicists - understood the physical world. Atom and Archetype will appeal not only to those interested in the life of Pauli or Jung, but also to the educated general reader.
Suda, Tetsuji; Yoshihara, Mitsuyo; Nakamura, Yoshiyasu; Sekiguchi, Hironobu; Godai, Ten-I; Sugano, Nobuhiro; Tsuchida, Kazuhito; Shiozawa, Manabu; Sakuma, Yuji; Tsuchiya, Eiju; Kameda, Yoichi; Akaike, Makoto; Matsukuma, Shoichi; Miyagi, Yohei
2011-07-01
MDM4, a homolog of MDM2, is considered a key negative regulator of p53. Gene amplification of MDM4 has been identified in a variety of tumors. MDM2 or MDM4 gene amplification is only associated with the wild-type TP53 gene in retinoblastomas, thus the amplification of the two genes is mutually exclusive. Previously, we demonstrated that MDM2 amplification and TP53 alteration were not mutually exclusive in colorectal cancer, and we identified a subset of colorectal cancer patients without alterations in either the TP53 or the MDM2 gene. In this study, we investigated the gene amplification status of MDM4 in the same set of colorectal cancer cases. Unexpectedly, MDM4 amplification was rare, detected in only 1.4% (3 out of 211) of colorectal cancer cases. All the three gene-amplified tumors also harbored TP53-inactivating mutations. This contradicts the simple mutually exclusive relationship observed in retinoblastomas. Surprisingly, two of the three MDM4-amplified tumors also demonstrated MDM2 amplification. Paradoxically, the MDM4 protein levels were decreased in the tumor tissue of the gene-amplified cases compared with levels in the matched normal mucosa. We speculate that MDM4 might play a role in colorectal carcinogenesis that is not limited to negative regulation of p53 in combination with MDM2. The functional significance of MDM4 is still unclear and further studies are needed.
Breit–Pauli atomic structure calculations for Fe XI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aggarwal, Sunny; Singh, Jagjit; Mohan, Man
2013-01-01
Energy levels, oscillator strengths, and transition probabilities are calculated for the lowest-lying 165 energy levels of Fe XI using configuration-interaction wavefunctions. The calculations include all the major correlation effects. Relativistic effects are included in the Breit–Pauli approximation by adding mass-correction, Darwin, and spin–orbit interaction terms to the non-relativistic Hamiltonian. For comparison with the calculated ab initio energy levels, we have also calculated the energy levels by using the fully relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac–Fock method. The calculated results are in close agreement with the National Institute of Standards and Technology compilation and other available results. New results are predicted for many of the levels belonging to the 3s3p 4 3d and 3s3p 3 3d 2 configurations, which are very important in astrophysics, relevant, for example, to the recent observations by the Hinode spacecraft. We expect that our extensive calculations will be useful to experimentalists in identifying the fine structure levels in their future work
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1999-03-01
At the first Consultative Meeting of the Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention 1972) in 1975, the IAEA submitted to the Contracting Parties the provisional definition of high level wastes not suitable for dumping at sea and the recommendations concerning low level waste dumping, thus responding to the request of the Convention. The objective of this report is to respond to the request made by the Contracting Parties at their Nineteenth Consultative Meeting in 1997. It provides guidance for making judgements on whether the radiological concepts of exclusion, or exemption without further consideration, can be applied for materials planned to be dumped or whether a specific assessment is needed
Account of the Pauli principle in the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molina, Kh.L.
1980-01-01
The correlation effects in the ground states of even-even deformed nuclei on their one- and two-phonon states are studied in terms of the semimicroscopic nuclear theory. A secular equation for one-phonon excitations is derived, which take into account, in average, exact commutation relations between quasiparticle operators. It is demonstrated, that the account of the correlation in the ground state can significantly influence the values of the wave function two-phonon components
On the correspondence between quantum and classical variational principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruiz, D.E.; Dodin, I.Y.
2015-01-01
Classical variational principles can be deduced from quantum variational principles via formal reparameterization of the latter. It is shown that such reparameterization is possible without invoking any assumptions other than classicality and without appealing to dynamical equations. As examples, first principle variational formulations of classical point-particle and cold-fluid motion are derived from their quantum counterparts for Schrödinger, Pauli, and Klein–Gordon particles
Synchronicity - The Link Between Physics and Psyche, from Pauli and Jung to Chopra
Teodorani, M.
2006-07-01
This book, which is entirely dedicated to the mystery of "synchronicity", is divided into three parts: a) the joint research between analytic psychologist Carl Gustav Jung and quantum physicist Wolfgang Pauli; b) synchronicity mechanisms occurring in the microscopic (canonical quantum entanglement), mesoscopic and macroscopic scales; c) research and philosophy concerning synchronicity by MD Deepak Chopra.
Spectral properties of Pauli operators on the Poincare upper-half plane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inahama, Yuzuru; Shirai, Shin-ichi
2003-01-01
We investigate the essential spectrum of the Pauli operators (and the Dirac and the Schroedinger operators) with magnetic fields on the Poincare upper-half plane. The magnetic fields under consideration are asymptotically constant (which may be equal to zero), or diverge at infinity. Moreover, the Aharonov-Casher type result is also considered
Chronology protection and the stringy exclusion principle
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Raeymaekers, Joris; Van den Bleeken, D.; Vercnocke, B.
2011-01-01
Roč. 2011, č. 4 (2011), 1-41 ISSN 1126-6708 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP203/11/1388 Grant - others:EUROHORC and ESF(XE) EYI/07/E010 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : Wilson loop * conformal field theory * membrane model * AdS/CFT * Goedel spacetime * supersymmetry * domain wall * unitarity * causality violation Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 5.831, year: 2011 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FJHEP04%282011%29037
Reversible first-order transition in Pauli percolation
Maksymenko, Mykola; Moessner, Roderich; Shtengel, Kirill
2015-06-01
Percolation plays an important role in fields and phenomena as diverse as the study of social networks, the dynamics of epidemics, the robustness of electricity grids, conduction in disordered media, and geometric properties in statistical physics. We analyze a new percolation problem in which the first-order nature of an equilibrium percolation transition can be established analytically and verified numerically. The rules for this site percolation model are physical and very simple, requiring only the introduction of a weight W (n )=n +1 for a cluster of size n . This establishes that a discontinuous percolation transition can occur with qualitatively more local interactions than in all currently considered examples of explosive percolation; and that, unlike these, it can be reversible. This greatly extends both the applicability of such percolation models in principle and their reach in practice.
Higher covariant derivative Pauli-Villars regularization does not lead to a consistent QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin, C.P.; Ruiz Ruiz, F.
1994-01-01
We compute the beta function at one loop for Yang-Mills theory using as regulator the combination of higher covariant derivatives and Pauli-Villars determinants proposed by Faddeev and Slavnov. This regularization prescription has the appealing feature that it is manifestly gauge invariant and essentially four-dimensional. It happens however that the one-loop coefficient in the beta function that it yields is not -11/3, as it should be, but -23/6. The difference is due to unphysical logarithmic radiative corrections generated by the Pauli-Villars determinants on which the regularization method is based. This no-go result discards the prescription as a viable gauge invariant regularization, thus solving a long-standing open question in the literature. We also observe that the precsription can be modified so as to not generate unphysical logarithmic corrections, but at the expense of losing manifest gauge invariance. (orig.)
Optimal ancilla-free Pauli+V circuits for axial rotations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blass, Andreas; Bocharov, Alex; Gurevich, Yuri
2015-01-01
We address the problem of optimal representation of single-qubit rotations in a certain unitary basis consisting of the so-called V gates and Pauli matrices. The V matrices were proposed by Lubotsky, Philips, and Sarnak [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 40, 401–420 (1987)] as a purely geometric construct in 1987 and recently found applications in quantum computation. They allow for exceptionally simple quantum circuit synthesis algorithms based on quaternionic factorization. We adapt the deterministic-search technique initially proposed by Ross and Selinger to synthesize approximating Pauli+V circuits of optimal depth for single-qubit axial rotations. Our synthesis procedure based on simple SL 2 (ℤ) geometry is almost elementary
Optimal ancilla-free Pauli+V circuits for axial rotations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Blass, Andreas [Mathematics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1043 (United States); Bocharov, Alex; Gurevich, Yuri [Microsoft Research, Redmond, Washington 98052 (United States)
2015-12-15
We address the problem of optimal representation of single-qubit rotations in a certain unitary basis consisting of the so-called V gates and Pauli matrices. The V matrices were proposed by Lubotsky, Philips, and Sarnak [Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 40, 401–420 (1987)] as a purely geometric construct in 1987 and recently found applications in quantum computation. They allow for exceptionally simple quantum circuit synthesis algorithms based on quaternionic factorization. We adapt the deterministic-search technique initially proposed by Ross and Selinger to synthesize approximating Pauli+V circuits of optimal depth for single-qubit axial rotations. Our synthesis procedure based on simple SL{sub 2}(ℤ) geometry is almost elementary.
Higher covariant derivative Pauli-Villars regularization does not lead to a consistent QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, C P [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica; Ruiz Ruiz, F [Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica (NIKHEF), Amsterdam (Netherlands). Sectie H
1994-12-31
We compute the beta function at one loop for Yang-Mills theory using as regulator the combination of higher covariant derivatives and Pauli-Villars determinants proposed by Faddeev and Slavnov. This regularization prescription has the appealing feature that it is manifestly gauge invariant and essentially four-dimensional. It happens however that the one-loop coefficient in the beta function that it yields is not -11/3, as it should be, but -23/6. The difference is due to unphysical logarithmic radiative corrections generated by the Pauli-Villars determinants on which the regularization method is based. This no-go result discards the prescription as a viable gauge invariant regularization, thus solving a long-standing open question in the literature. We also observe that the precsription can be modified so as to not generate unphysical logarithmic corrections, but at the expense of losing manifest gauge invariance. (orig.).
Charting the Real Four-Qubit Pauli Group via Ovoids of a Hyperbolic Quadric of PG(7,2)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Saniga, M.; Levay, P.; Pracna, Petr
2012-01-01
Roč. 45, JUL 2012 (2012), s. 295304 ISSN 1751-8113 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Pauli group * structure * physical chemistry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.766, year: 2012
Theory of single quantum dot lasers: Pauli-blocking-enhanced anti-bunching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su, Yumian; Bimberg, Dieter; Carmele, Alexander; Richter, Marten; Knorr, Andreas; Lüdge, Kathy; Schöll, Eckehard
2011-01-01
We present a theoretical model to describe the dynamics of a single semiconductor quantum dot interacting with a microcavity system. The confined quantum dot levels are pumped electrically via a carrier reservoir. The investigated dynamics includes semiconductor-specific, reservoir-induced Pauli-blocking terms in the equations of the photon probability functions. This enables a direct study of the photon statistics of the quantum light emission in dependence on the different pumping rates
Standing together in troubled times unpublished letters by Pauli, Einstein, Franck and others
2017-01-01
This captivating book is a story of the friendship between a genius physicist Wolfgang Pauli and Charlotte Houtermans whose career in physics was not as glamorous. They met in the late 1920s in Germany, at the very onset of the quantum era and personally knew all the major players in the emergent quantum world that was very much part of central Europe: Germany, Austria, Hungary, Denmark and Switzerland. And Charlotte was a student at Göttingen that was right at the heart.Caught between two evils — Soviet Communism and German National Socialism — she would have probably perished if it were not for the brotherhood of physicists: Niels Bohr, Wolfgang Pauli, Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, Robert Oppenheimer and many other noted scientists who tried to save friends and colleagues (either leftist sympathizers or Jews) who were in mortal danger of being entrapped in a simmering pre-WWII Europe.Using newly discovered documents from the Houtermans family archive: twenty three Pauli's letters to Charlott...
Heisenberg (and Schrödinger, and Pauli) on hidden variables
Bacciagaluppi, Guido; Crull, Elise
In this paper, we discuss various aspects of Heisenberg's thought on hidden variables in the period 1927-1935. We also compare Heisenberg's approach to others current at the time, specifically that embodied by von Neumann's impossibility proof, but also views expressed mainly in correspondence by Pauli and by Schrödinger. We shall base ourselves mostly on published and unpublished materials that are known but little-studied, among others Heisenberg's own draft response to the EPR paper. Our aim will be not only to clarify Heisenberg's thought on the hidden-variables question, but in part also to clarify how this question was understood more generally at the time.
Collision strengths from ground levels of Ti XIII using relativistic-Breit-Pauli approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohan, M.; Hibbert, H.; Burke, P.G.; Keenan, F.
1998-09-01
The R-matrix method is used to calculate collision strengths from ground state to the first twenty-six fine structure levels of neon-like titanium by including the relativistic term coupling coefficients in the semi-Breit-Pauli approximation. Configuration interaction wave-functions are used to represent the first fifteen lowest LS-coupled target states in the R-matrix expansion. Results obtained are compared with other calculations. This is the first detailed calculation on this ion in which relativistic, exchange, channel couplings and short-range correlation effects are taken into account. (author)
THE PHENOMENON OF HALF-INTEGER SPIN, QUATERNIONS, AND PAULI MATRICES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
FERNANDO R. GONZÁLEZ DÍAZ
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the phenomenon of half-integer spin exemplification Paul AM Dirac made with a pair of scissors, an elastic cord and chair play. Four examples in which the same phenomenon appears and the algebraic structure of quaternions is related to one of the examples are described. Mathematical proof of the phenomenon using known topological and algebraic results are explained. The basic results of algebraic structures are described quaternions H , and an intrinsic relationship with the phenomenon half-integer spin and the Pauli matrices is established.
Wolfgang Pauli et l'arrière-plan de la physique
Bringuier, Eric
2003-01-01
"Wolfgang Pauli est l'une des figures scientifiques majeures du XXe siècle. Ses contributions sur la structure de l'atome ont été déterminantes pour l'établissement de la théorie quantique. Mais une grande partie de son activité fut aussi consacrée à une réflexion plus large sur les processus cognitifs. L'une de ses obsessions: trouver un langage commun pour décrire le monde physique et le monde psychique" (3 pages)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Finzel, Kati, E-mail: kati.finzel@liu.se [Linköpings University, IFM Department of Physics, 58183 Linköping (Sweden)
2016-01-21
The local conditions for the Pauli potential that are necessary in order to yield self-consistent electron densities from orbital-free calculations are investigated for approximations that are expressed with the help of a local position variable. It is shown that those local conditions also apply when the Pauli potential is given in terms of the electron density. An explicit formula for the Ne atom is given, preserving the local conditions during the iterative procedure. The resulting orbital-free electron density exhibits proper shell structure behavior and is in close agreement with the Kohn-Sham electron density. This study demonstrates that it is possible to obtain self-consistent orbital-free electron densities with proper atomic shell structure from simple one-point approximations for the Pauli potential at local density level.
Role of the pair potential for the saturation of generalized Pauli constraints
Legeza, Örs; Schilling, Christian
2018-05-01
The dependence of the (quasi-)saturation of the generalized Pauli constraints on the pair potential is studied for ground states of few-fermion systems. For this, we consider spinless fermions in one dimension which are harmonically confined and interact by pair potentials of the form | xi-xj|s with -1 ≤s ≤5 . We use the density matrix renormalization group approach and large orbital basis to achieve the convergence on more than ten digits of both the variational energy and the natural occupation numbers. Our results confirm that the conflict between energy minimization and fermionic exchange symmetry results in a universal and nontrivial quasisaturation of the generalized Pauli constraints (quasipinning), implying tremendous structural simplifications of the fermionic ground state for all s . Those numerically exact results are complemented by an analytical study based on a self-consistent perturbation theory which we develop for this purpose. The respective results for the weak-coupling regime eventually elucidate the singular behavior found for the specific values s =2 ,4 ,..., resulting in an extremely strong quasipinning.
On the effects of the two-body non-fine-structure operators of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Badnell, N.R.
1997-01-01
We have incorporated the two-body non-fine-structure operators of the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian, namely contact spin-spin, two-body Darwin and orbit-orbit, into the program AUTOSTRUCTURE. Illustrative results are presented, including some for reactions involving the process of autoionization. (author)
Supersymmetric Runge-Lenz-Pauli vector for Dirac vortex in topological insulators and graphene
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Chi-Ken; Herbut, Igor F
2011-01-01
The Dirac mass-vortex at the surface of a topological insulator or in graphene is considered. Within the linear approximation for the vortex amplitude's radial dependence, the spectrum is a series of degenerate bound states, which can be classified by a set of accidental SU(2) and supersymmetry generators (Herbut and Lu 2011 Phys. Rev. B 83 125412). Here we discuss further the properties and manifestations of the supersymmetry of the vortex Hamiltonian, and point out some interesting analogies with the Runge-Lenz-Pauli vector in the non-relativistic hydrogen atom. Symmetry-breaking effects due to a finite chemical potential and the Zeeman field are also analyzed. We find that a residual accidental degeneracy remains only in the special case of equal magnitudes of both terms; otherwise it is removed entirely.
Towards exact solutions of the non-linear Heisenberg-Pauli-Weyl spinor equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mielke, E.W.
1980-03-01
In ''color geometrodynamics'' fundamental spinor fields are assumed to obey a GL(2f,C) x GL(2c,C) gauge-invariant nonlinear spinor equation of the Heisenberg-Pauli-Weyl type. Quark confinement, assimilating a scheme of Salam and Strathdee, is (partially) mediated by the tensor ''gluons'' of strong gravity. This hypothesis is incorporated into the model by considering the nonlinear Dirac equation in a curved space-time of hadronic dimensions. Disregarding internal degrees of freedom, it is then feasible, for a particular background space-time, to obtain exact solutions of the spherical bound-state problem. Finally, these solutions are tentatively interpreted as droplet-type solitons and remarks on their interrelation with Wheeler's geon construction are made. (author)
Fault-tolerant quantum computing in the Pauli or Clifford frame with slow error diagnostics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher Chamberland
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We consider the problem of fault-tolerant quantum computation in the presence of slow error diagnostics, either caused by measurement latencies or slow decoding algorithms. Our scheme offers a few improvements over previously existing solutions, for instance it does not require active error correction and results in a reduced error-correction overhead when error diagnostics is much slower than the gate time. In addition, we adapt our protocol to cases where the underlying error correction strategy chooses the optimal correction amongst all Clifford gates instead of the usual Pauli gates. The resulting Clifford frame protocol is of independent interest as it can increase error thresholds and could find applications in other areas of quantum computation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kugler, W.
2007-01-15
Hard exclusive processes in high energy electron proton scattering offer the opportunity to get access to a new generation of parton distributions, the so-called generalized parton distributions (GPDs). This functions provide more detailed informations about the structure of the nucleon than the usual PDFs obtained from DIS. In this work we present a detailed analysis of exclusive processes, especially of hard exclusive meson production. We investigated the influence of exclusive produced mesons on the semi-inclusive production of mesons at fixed target experiments like HERMES. Further we give a detailed analysis of higher order corrections (NLO) for the exclusive production of mesons in a very broad range of kinematics. (orig.)
Brown, Richard Paul
This dissertation reviewed the development of Jung's dream theory and addresses the question as to whether or not Jung was influenced by the dreams of the Nobel Prize winning physicist, Wolfgang Pauli. Jung provided an extensive analysis of Pauli's dreams, which are contained in the lightly edited, unpublished transcripts of lectures delivered in 1936 and 1937. An archival and hermeneutic analysis of the texts reveals a staged process of individuation that Jung related to in many ways because of the parallels to his own personal journey toward individuation. A chronological history of the development of Jung's dream theory is presented, followed by a picture of the relationship between Jung and Pauli. Thereafter, a detailed summary of the seminar transcripts, one given on Bailey Island, Maine, and the other in New York City the following year, is offered with hermeneutic commentary. An analysis of the seminars found that Pauli's dreams did, in part, support Jung's theory. Specifically, while Jung was unable to meet the scientific demands for clear empirical evidence of his dream theory, he did offer his professional and non-professional audiences with a slightly less rigorous example of his dream theory in action, demonstrating that the process shared similarities across peoples, time, and cultures. Additionally, in Pauli he found a superior mind that had gone through the process of individuation in accordance with his theory and his own experience. During the course of research, reference to a document was found in the correspondence in the Jungian Archives in Zurich. This document entitled, "FAREWELL SPEECH, Given by Dr. C. G. Jung on the Occasion of a Dinner Given in His Honor by the Analytical Psychology Club of New York City October 26, 1937" and other related documents were subsequently uncovered in the sub-basement of the Kristine Mann Library in New York City. A synopsis of the discovery and description of the papers contained in the file are discussed in
Exclusion Bounds for Extended Anyons
Larson, Simon; Lundholm, Douglas
2018-01-01
We introduce a rigorous approach to the many-body spectral theory of extended anyons, that is quantum particles confined to two dimensions that interact via attached magnetic fluxes of finite extent. Our main results are many-body magnetic Hardy inequalities and local exclusion principles for these particles, leading to estimates for the ground-state energy of the anyon gas over the full range of the parameters. This brings out further non-trivial aspects in the dependence on the anyonic statistics parameter, and also gives improvements in the ideal (non-extended) case.
João Leão
2008-01-01
This paper examines the use of exclusive dealing agreements to prevent the entry of rival firms. An exclusive dealing agreement is a contract between a buyer and a seller where the buyer commits to buy a good exclusively from the seller. One main concern of the literature is to explain how an incumbent seller is able to persuade the buyers to sign an exclusive dealing agreement that deters the entry of a more efficient rival seller. We propose a new explanation when the buyers are downstream ...
Cosmological principles. II. Physical principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harrison, E.R.
1974-01-01
The discussion of cosmological principle covers the uniformity principle of the laws of physics, the gravitation and cognizability principles, and the Dirac creation, chaos, and bootstrap principles. (U.S.)
Densities of accessible final states for multi-step compound reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maoming De; Guo Hua
1993-01-01
The densities of accessible final states for calculations of multi-step compound reactions are derived. The Pauli exclusion principle is taken into account in the calculations. The results are compared with a previous author's results and the effect of the Pauli exclusion principle is investigated. (Author)
Anisotropic Pauli Spin Blockade of Holes in a GaAs Double Quantum Dot
Wang, Qingwen; Klochan, Oleh; Hung, Jo-Tzu; Culcer, Dimitrie; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David; Hamilton, Alex
Electrically defined semiconductor quantum dots are appealing systems for spin manipulation and quantum information processing. Thanks to the weak hyperfine interaction and the strong spin-orbit interaction, heavy-holes in GaAs are promising candidates for all-electrical spin manipulation. However, making stable quantum dots in GaAs has only become possible recently, mainly because of difficulties in device fabrication and device stability. Here we present electrical transport measurements of heavy-holes in a lateral double quantum dot based on a GaAs /AlxGa1 - x As heterostructure. We observe clear Pauli spin blockade and show that the lifting of the spin blockade by an external magnetic field is extremely anisotropic. Numerical calculations of heavy-hole transport through a double quantum dot in the presence of strong spin-orbit interaction demonstrate quantitative agreement with experimental results, which indicates that the observed anisotropy can be explained by the anisotropic hole g-factor and the surface Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling.
The two-fermion relativistic wave equations of Constraint Theory in the Pauli-Schroedinger form
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mourad, J.; Sazdjian, H.
1994-01-01
The two-fermion relativistic wave equations of Constraint Theory are reduced, after expressing the components of the 4x4 matrix wave function in terms of one of the 2x2 components, to a single equation of the Pauli-Schroedinger type, valid for all sectors of quantum numbers. The potentials that are present belong to the general classes of scalar, pseudoscalar and vector interactions and are calculable in perturbation theory from Feynman diagrams. In the limit when one of the masses becomes infinite, the equation reduces to the two-component form of the one-particle Dirac equation with external static potentials. The Hamiltonian, to order 1/c 2 , reproduces most of the known theoretical results obtained by other methods. The gauge invariance of the wave equation is checked, to that order, in the case of QED. The role of the c.m. energy dependence of the relativistic interquark confining potential is emphasized and the structure of the Hamiltonian, to order 1/c 2 , corresponding to confining scalar potentials, is displayed. (authors). 32 refs., 2 figs
Sparaciari, Carlo; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2013-01-01
We address measurement schemes where certain observables Xk are chosen at random within a set of nondegenerate isospectral observables and then measured on repeated preparations of a physical system. Each observable has a probability zk to be measured, with ∑kzk=1, and the statistics of this generalized measurement is described by a positive operator-valued measure. This kind of scheme is referred to as quantum roulettes, since each observable Xk is chosen at random, e.g., according to the fluctuating value of an external parameter. Here we focus on quantum roulettes for qubits involving the measurements of Pauli matrices, and we explicitly evaluate their canonical Naimark extensions, i.e., their implementation as indirect measurements involving an interaction scheme with a probe system. We thus provide a concrete model to realize the roulette without destroying the signal state, which can be measured again after the measurement or can be transmitted. Finally, we apply our results to the description of Stern-Gerlach-like experiments on a two-level system.
Leibfried, D.; Wineland, D. J.
2018-03-01
Effective spin-spin interactions between ? qubits enable the determination of the eigenvalue of an arbitrary Pauli product of dimension N with a constant, small number of multi-qubit gates that is independent of N and encodes the eigenvalue in the measurement basis states of an extra ancilla qubit. Such interactions are available whenever qubits can be coupled to a shared harmonic oscillator, a situation that can be realized in many physical qubit implementations. For example, suitable interactions have already been realized for up to 14 qubits in ion traps. It should be possible to implement stabilizer codes for quantum error correction with a constant number of multi-qubit gates, in contrast to typical constructions with a number of two-qubit gates that increases as a function of N. The special case of finding the parity of N qubits only requires a small number of operations that is independent of N. This compares favorably to algorithms for computing the parity on conventional machines, which implies a genuine quantum advantage.
Relating inclusive and exclusive meson photoproduction at large transverse momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, D.M.
1975-01-01
Inclusive and exclusive meson photoproduction at large transverse momentum are related by a local application of the correspondence principle of Bjorken and Kogut. The recent predictions for the inclusive process by Escobar are thus compared with wide angle exclusive data. The inclusive photoproduction of (rho 0 +ω) at large transverse momentum is discussed. (Auth.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
2017-01-01
Social exclusion anxiety is a term which builds on a social-psychological concept of human beings as existentially dependent on social embeddedness. This entry explores the concept in relation to bullying among children, which is a widespread and serious problem in schools and institutions. Social...... exclusion anxiety and longing for belonging are both central aspects of the affects and processes that enact and challenge social groups. Social exclusion anxiety should not be confused with ‘social phobia’, which is a concept within clinical psychology that focuses on the individual and refers to a phobic...... psychological condition. Social exclusion anxiety instead points to a distributed affect which circulates and smolders in all social groups. This is the result of an ever-present risk of someone being judged unworthy to belong to, or deemed not a legitimate participant in, a social group. Such anxiety may...
5 CFR 551.202 - General principles.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General principles. 551.202 Section 551... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Exemptions and Exclusions § 551.202 General principles. In all exemption determinations, the agency must observe the following principles: (a) Each employee is presumed to...
Advertisement without Ethical Principles?
Wojciech Słomski
2007-01-01
The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipientís consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It...
General Principles Governing Liability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reyners, P.
1998-01-01
This paper contains a brief review of the basic principles which govern the special regime of liability and compensation for nuclear damage originating on nuclear installations, in particular the strict and exclusive liability of the nuclear operator, the provision of a financial security to cover this liability and the limits applicable both in amount and in time. The paper also reviews the most important international agreements currently in force which constitute the foundation of this special regime. (author)
Hewitt, Paul G.
2004-01-01
Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…
Exclusive scattering off the deuteron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amrath, D.
2007-12-15
Exclusive processes are a special class of processes giving insight into the inner structure of hadrons. In this thesis we consider two exclusive processes and compute their total cross sections as well as the beam charge and beam polarization asymmetries for different kinematical constraints. These calculations o er the opportunity to get access to the nonperturbative GPDs. Theoretically they can be described with the help of models. The rst process we investigate contains a GPD of the pion, which is basically unknown so far. We include different models and make predictions for observables that could in principle be measured at HERMES at DESY and CLAS at JLab. The second process we consider is electron-deuteron scattering in the kinematical range where the deuteron breaks up into a proton and a neutron. This can be used to investigate the neutron, which cannot be taken as a target due to its lifetime of approximately 15 minutes. For the calculation of the electron-deuteron cross section we implement models for the proton and neutron GPDs. Once there are experimental data available our calculations are ready for comparison. (orig.)
Solving satisfiability using inclusion-exclusion
Zaleski, Anthony
2017-01-01
Using Maple, we implement a SAT solver based on the principle of inclusion-exclusion and the Bonferroni inequalities. Using randomly generated input, we investigate the performance of our solver as a function of the number of variables and number of clauses. We also test it against Maple's built-in tautology procedure. Finally, we implement the Lov\\'asz local lemma with Maple and discuss its applicability to SAT.
Breit-Pauli approximation for highly ionized beryllium-like ions Kr XXXIII, Mo XXXIX and W LXXI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glass, R.
1979-01-01
Oscillator strengths and transition probabilities were calculated for transitions between the 1s 2 2s 2 , 1s 2 2s 2p and 1s 2 2p 2 states, namely: 1S 0 /sup e/ → 1 P 1 0 ; 1 P 1 0 → 1 D 2 /sup e/; 1 P 1 0 → 1 S 0 /sup e/ and 3 P/sub J/ 0 → 3 P/sub J//sup e/. A common set of radial functions is used. It is found that for allowed transitions the one-electron relativistic operators are more important than the Breit-Pauli corrections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
March, N.H.
2008-08-01
In early work by the writer introducing the Pauli potential VP (r) into density functional theory, the relation of VP (r) to the, as yet unknown, single-particle kinetic energy density functional was emphasized. Here, because of ongoing experiments on ultracold atomic gases of fermions, an explicit expression for the first derivative of VP (r) for an arbitrary number of closed shells generated by harmonic confinement is derived in terms of the spherically symmetric particle density n(r) and the confining potential. (author)
Walczak, Marek
2016-01-01
I briefly introduce so-called central exclusive production. I mainly focus on the example analyses that have been performed in the CMS experiment at CERN. I conclude with ideas and perspectives for future work that will be done during Run 2 of the LHC. I pay special attention to the ultraperipheral collisions.
Ombuds' Corner: Social exclusion
Vincent Vuillemin
2012-01-01
In this special video edition of the Ombuds' Corner, Vincent Vuillemin takes a look at a social exclusion at CERN. Please note that the characters and situations appearing in this work are fictitious, and any resemblance to real persons or events is purely coincidental. Contact the Ombuds Early!
Annette Roest; Anne Marike Lokhorst; Cok Vrooman
2010-01-01
Original title: Sociale uitsluiting bij kinderen. Combating social exclusion of children is a subject that has received growing attention in Dutch government policy in recent years. To date, however, no analysis has been performed to ascertain the extent and origins of this phenomenon. This
Universal uncertainty principle in the measurement operator formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ozawa, Masanao
2005-01-01
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle has been understood to set a limitation on measurements; however, the long-standing mathematical formulation established by Heisenberg, Kennard, and Robertson does not allow such an interpretation. Recently, a new relation was found to give a universally valid relation between noise and disturbance in general quantum measurements, and it has become clear that the new relation plays a role of the first principle to derive various quantum limits on measurement and information processing in a unified treatment. This paper examines the above development on the noise-disturbance uncertainty principle in the model-independent approach based on the measurement operator formalism, which is widely accepted to describe a class of generalized measurements in the field of quantum information. We obtain explicit formulae for the noise and disturbance of measurements given by measurement operators, and show that projective measurements do not satisfy the Heisenberg-type noise-disturbance relation that is typical in the gamma-ray microscope thought experiments. We also show that the disturbance on a Pauli operator of a projective measurement of another Pauli operator constantly equals √2, and examine how this measurement violates the Heisenberg-type relation but satisfies the new noise-disturbance relation
The tree-alpha Faddeev calculation on 12C bound states with a Pauli correct alpha-alpha potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamada, Hiroyuki; Oryu, Shinsho
1986-01-01
The three-alpha model of 12 C is investigated by the Faddeev formalism with the UIM alpha-alpha potential, in which the Pauli effect between two-alpha system was taken into account adequately. The potential can reproduce the on- and off-shell effects of the alpha-alpha interaction by the rank-4 separable type for the S-wave, the rank-3 one for the D-wave, and the rank-2 one for the G-wave, in which two of the ranks in the S-wave, and one in the D-wave are prepared to eliminate the Pauli forbidden states. We obtained three even states J π = 0 + , 2 + , 4 + , and two odd states 1 - , 3 - , below the alpha- 8 Be(0 + g.s) threshold energy. The even parity states gain larger binding energies than those which have been obtained by former Faddeev calculation with the rank-1 Kukulin and Neudatchin (KN) potential. On the other hand, for the odd parity states, we obtained smaller binding energies than the former one. It is found that our Faddeev calculation with the UIM potential does not miss any important low-lying levels of 12 C, in which any spurious states do not appear. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, A.H.
1981-01-01
In this talk I concentrate on purely exclusive processes. In Sec. II form factors and exclusive decays of heavy quarkonium states will be discussed. In Sec. III elastic wide angle elastic scattering will be considered with emphasis placed on the energy dependence for a fixed angle. The x → 1 limit of structure functions is discussed in Sec. IV. This is a limit which matches on, in a rather complicated way, with transition form factors. In Sec. V the idea of intrinsic charm is considered, mostly from a conceptual viewpoint as to its definition and possible existence. In Sec. VI there is a brief discussion of calculations of matrix elements which occur in deeply inelastic scattering by use of a bag model. In Sec. VII wee parton cancellations and Sudakov corrections for μ-pair production are considered. Sec. VIII concerns soft particle production and the mutliplicity of hadrons in a jet. (orig./HSI)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Troy Jollimore
2008-02-01
Full Text Available Friendship and romantic love are, by their very nature, exclusive relationships. This paper suggests that we can better understand the nature of the exclusivity in question by understanding what is wrong with the view of practical reasoning I call the Comprehensive Surveyor View. The CSV claims that practical reasoning, in order to be rational, must be a process of choosing the best available alternative from a perspective that is as detached and objective as possible. But this view, while it means to be neutral between various value-bearers, in fact incorporates a bias against those value-bearers that can only be appreciated from a perspective that is not detached—that can only be appreciated, for instance, by agents who bear long-term commitments to the values in question. In the realm of personal relationships, such commitments tend to give rise to the sort of exclusivity that characterizes friendship and romantic love; they prevent the agent from being impartial between her beloved’s needs, interests, etc., and those of other persons. In such contexts, I suggest, needs and claims of other persons may be silenced in much the way that, as John McDowell has suggested, the temptations of immorality are silenced for the virtuous agent.
Voyage en Paulie-Laurencie, essai sur une construction narrative polyphonique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Approche analytique de la représentation latino-américaine textuelle et graphique dun voyageur bordelais du XIXe siècle, dans la revue Le Tour du Monde. Un récit qui fusionne temps et espaces à travers le prisme du regard dun Occidental satirique, rebelle et misanthrope. Cette traversée interocéanique aux confins de lhistoire, de lethnographie, des sciences en général et dune stratégie du montage hybride mi-fictionnel mi-réel, génère une poétique exotique et singulière. Une poétique qui puise à la mémoire aussi bien un infini renouveau quune amertume infinie. Lécriture dune errance recomposée devient alors cathartique dans la mise en scène de lego souffrant de Paul Marcoy poursuivant inlassablement la quête dune reconnaissance scientifique quon lui dénie certes, mais plus encore limpossible rencontre avec un moi se dérobant sans cesse. VIAJE EN PAULIE-LAURENCIE, ENSAYO SOBRE UNA CONSTRUCCIÓN NARRATIVA POLIFÓNICA. Estudio analítico de la representación latino-americana textual y gráfica de un viajero del siglo XIX oriundo de Burdeos, en la revista Le Tour du Monde. Un relato en que fusionan tiempos y espacios a través del prisma de la mirada satírica, rebelde y misantrópica de un occidental. Aquella travesía interoceánica que entrelaza historia, etnografía, ciencias en general mediante una estrategia del montaje híbrido entre ficción y realidad, genera una exótica y singular poética. Dicha poética, saca de la memoria tanto un renuevo como una amargura insondables e infinitos. La escritura de un vagabundeo recompuesto llega a ser catártica en la escenificación del ego doliente de Paul Marcoy que persigue incansablemente no sólo un reconocimiento científico, que se le niega sin lugar a dudas, sino también el imposible encuentro con un yo que sin cesar se le escapa. An analytical approach to the graphic and textual Latin-American perception of a nineteenth century traveller
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cooper, J.R.
2003-01-01
'Everyone in the world is exposed to radiation from natural and artificial sources. Any realistic system of radiological protection must have a clearly defined scope if it is not to apply to the whole of mankind's activities'. This quote, from ICRP Publication 60 (ICRP, 1991), remains apposite. The main tool for defining scope is the concept of exclusion: situations, sources or exposures that are excluded from the system of radiological protection are, to all intents and purposes, ignored. Sources and exposures that are not excluded are within the scope of the system of protection and by inference within regulatory systems implementing ICRP recommendations. These sources and exposures should be subject to appropriate authorization by the relevant regulatory authority. In order to avoid excessive regulatory procedures, however, provisions should be made for granting an exemption in cases where it is clear that regulatory provisions are unnecessary. Exemption is a regulatory tool intended to facilitate efficient use of regulatory resources. Nevertheless, the regulatory act of granting exemptions is, in itself, a form of authorization and the material or situation so exempted remains within the regulatory system. This distinction between exclusion and exemption is an important one. Historically, the concept of exclusion has been applied to sources or exposures that are essentially unamenable to control because of their widespread nature. The usually quoted examples are cosmic radiation at ground level and 40 K in the body. Clearly, many exposures from natural sources could fall into this category. The challenges are firstly to establish a sound basis for deciding which should be excluded and which should be controlled, and secondly to see if the concept could or should be applied to artificial sources and exposures. These two questions are the subject of this paper. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
2014-01-01
. The concepts I work with are the need for belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults. I develop a new definition of bullying, drawing upon Judith Butler’s (1999) concept of ‘abjection’ as well as Karen Barad’s concept of ‘intra-acting forces......’ (Barad 2007). My definition in this chapter contributed to the shorter definition of bullying in the Introduction (see page XX), but it is more fully developed here in relation to the types of mechanisms and processes involved. Barad’s term ‘intra-action’ helps draw attention to the mutually...
Social exclusion and education
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jokić Vesna
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Social exclusion is a process whereby certain individuals are pushed to the edge of society and prevented from participating fully by virtue of their poverty, or lack of basic competencies and lifelong learning opportunities or as a result of discrimination. This distances them from job, income and education opportunities as well as social and community networks and activities. Quality education (conditions and access/accessibility/availability is one of the factors that significantly influence the reduced social exclusion. In other words, education has is key role key role in ensuring social inclusion (equal opportunities and active social participation. At the same time, education and lifelong learning is established as the basis for achieving the goals of sustainable economic development (economy based on knowledge and to achieve social cohesion. Quality education is a prerequisite for progress, development and well-being of the community. Conditions and accessibility to education have become priorities of national reforms in most European countries. The subject of this paper is the educational structure of population of Serbia and the accessibility of education. The analysis covers the educational structure with regard to age, gender and type of settlement (city and other/villages settlements.
Synchronicité le rapport entre physique et psyché de Pauli et Jung à Chopra
Teodorani, Massimo
2015-01-01
De mystérieux événements synchrones semblent parsemer nos vies. Tandis qu'une pensée affleure, un fait, qui renferme toujours un sens profond dont le but est de conduire nos vies vers leur destin, se produit à l'improviste, dans un synchronisme parfait. L'objectif de ce livre est de démontrer que le phénomène de la « synchronicité » est depuis longtemps étudié, en particulier par les physiciens quantiques. Ces recherches plongent leurs racines dans l'alliance durable et harmonieuse entre le grand psychologue analytique Carl Gustav Jung et le physicien quantique Wolfgang Pauli.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horn, Paul R., E-mail: prhorn@berkeley.edu; Mao, Yuezhi; Head-Gordon, Martin, E-mail: mhg@cchem.berkeley.edu [Kenneth S. Pitzer Center for Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Chemical Sciences Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2016-03-21
In energy decomposition analysis of Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations, the so-called frozen (or pre-polarization) interaction energy contains contributions from permanent electrostatics, dispersion, and Pauli repulsion. The standard classical approach to separate them suffers from several well-known limitations. We introduce an alternative scheme that employs valid antisymmetric electronic wavefunctions throughout and is based on the identification of individual fragment contributions to the initial supersystem wavefunction as determined by an energetic optimality criterion. The density deformations identified with individual fragments upon formation of the initial supersystem wavefunction are analyzed along with the distance dependence of the new and classical terms for test cases that include the neon dimer, ammonia borane, water-Na{sup +}, water-Cl{sup −}, and the naphthalene dimer.
Spin structure of nucleon in QCD: inclusive and exclusive processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teryaev, O.V.
2001-01-01
There are two basically independent ways to describe the nucleon spin structure. One is related to quark and gluon spins and another one to their total angular momenta. The latter spin structure may be studied, in principle, in hard exclusive processes
Density profiles of the exclusive queuing process
Arita, Chikashi; Schadschneider, Andreas
2012-12-01
The exclusive queuing process (EQP) incorporates the exclusion principle into classic queuing models. It is characterized by, in addition to the entrance probability α and exit probability β, a third parameter: the hopping probability p. The EQP can be interpreted as an exclusion process of variable system length. Its phase diagram in the parameter space (α,β) is divided into a convergent phase and a divergent phase by a critical line which consists of a curved part and a straight part. Here we extend previous studies of this phase diagram. We identify subphases in the divergent phase, which can be distinguished by means of the shape of the density profile, and determine the velocity of the system length growth. This is done for EQPs with different update rules (parallel, backward sequential and continuous time). We also investigate the dynamics of the system length and the number of customers on the critical line. They are diffusive or subdiffusive with non-universal exponents that also depend on the update rules.
General principles of quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pauli, W.
1980-01-01
This book is a textbook for a course in quantum mechanics. Starting from the complementarity and the uncertainty principle Schroedingers equation is introduced together with the operator calculus. Then stationary states are treated as eigenvalue problems. Furthermore matrix mechanics are briefly discussed. Thereafter the theory of measurements is considered. Then as approximation methods perturbation theory and the WKB approximation are introduced. Then identical particles, spin, and the exclusion principle are discussed. There after the semiclassical theory of radiation and the relativistic one-particle problem are discussed. Finally an introduction is given into quantum electrodynamics. (HSI)
Moiseiwitsch, B L
2004-01-01
This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. A. Grinenko
2011-06-01
Full Text Available The offered material in the article is picked up so that the reader could have a complete representation about concept “safety”, intrinsic characteristics and formalization possibilities. Principles and possible strategy of safety are considered. A material of the article is destined for the experts who are taking up the problems of safety.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levine, R.B.; Stassi, J.; Karasick, D.
1985-04-01
Anterior displacement of the tibial tubercle is a well-accepted orthopedic procedure in the treatment of certain patellofemoral disorders. The radiologic appearance of surgical procedures utilizing the Maquet principle has not been described in the radiologic literature. Familiarity with the physiologic and biochemical basis for the procedure and its postoperative appearance is necessary for appropriate roentgenographic evaluation and the radiographic recognition of complications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wesson, P.S.
1979-01-01
The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8πGl 2 rho/c 2 , 8πGl 2 rho/c 4 , and 2 Gm/c 2 l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution
Generalized exclusion and Hopf algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yildiz, A
2002-01-01
We propose a generalized oscillator algebra at the roots of unity with generalized exclusion and we investigate the braided Hopf structure. We find that there are two solutions: these are the generalized exclusions of the bosonic and fermionic types. We also discuss the covariance properties of these oscillators
Evaluating Alternatives to Exclusive "He."
Todd-Mancillas, William R.
A study was conducted to determine the effects on reading comprehension of the use of the exclusive pronoun "he" and more or less contrived alternatives. Subjects, 358 students enrolled in an introduction to human communication at a large northeastern university, read three different forms of the same essay. One essay form exclusively used "he,"…
Behaviour of cross-sections for exclusive and inclusive processes at high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.; Petrov, V.A.
1976-11-01
The character of the functional dependence of the cross-sections for inclusive and exclusive reactions on the energy of colliding particles has been established on the basis of the principles of casuality, spectrality and unitarity
From Pauli's birthday to 'Confinement Resonances' – a potted history of Quantum Confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connerade, J P
2013-01-01
Quantum Confinement is in some sense a new subject. International meetings dedicated to Quantum Confinement have occurred only recently in Mexico City (the first in 2010 and the second, in September 2011). However, at least in principle, the subject has existed since a very long time. Surprisingly perhaps, it lay dormant for many years, for want of suitable experimental examples. However, when one looks carefully at its origin, it turns out to have a long and distinguished history. In fact, the problem of quantum confinement raises a number of very interesting issues concerning boundary conditions in elementary quantum mechanics and how they should be applied to real problems. Some of these issues were missed in the earliest papers, but are implicit in the structure of quantum mechanics, and lead to the notion of Confinement Resonances, the existence of which was predicted theoretically more than ten years ago. Although, for several reasons, these resonances remained elusive for a very long time, they have now been observed experimentally, which puts the whole subject in much better shape and, together with the advent of metallofullerenes, has contributed to its revival.
Maximiliem Brice
2006-01-01
Telegramme sent on June 14 1956 from physicists Fred Reines and Clyde Cowan to Wolfgang Pauli announcing the detection, for the first time, of neutrinos. The Physics Nobel Prize in 1995 was awarded to Reines for this discovery.
Rochette, Sophie; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael P.; Carroll, Malcolm S.; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel
2015-03-01
Silicon quantum dots are promising candidates for quantum information processing as spin qubits with long coherence time. We present electrical transport measurements on a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) double quantum dot (DQD). First, Coulomb diamonds measurements demonstrate the one-electron regime at a relatively high temperature of 1.5 K. Then, the 8 mK stability diagram shows Pauli spin blockade with a large singlet-triplet separation of approximatively 0.40 meV, pointing towards a strong lifting of the valley degeneracy. Finally, numerical simulations indicate that by integrating a micro-magnet to those devices, we could achieve fast spin rotations of the order of 30 ns. Those results are part of the recent body of work demonstrating the potential of Si MOS DQD as reliable and long-lived spin qubits that could be ultimately integrated into modern electronic facilities. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Theophilou, Iris; Lathiotakis, Nektarios N; Helbig, Nicole
2018-03-21
We investigate the structure of the one-body reduced density matrix of three electron systems, i.e., doublet and quadruplet spin configurations, corresponding to the smallest interacting system with an open-shell ground state. To this end, we use configuration interaction (CI) expansions of the exact wave function in Slater determinants built from natural orbitals in a finite dimensional Hilbert space. With the exception of maximally polarized systems, the natural orbitals of spin eigenstates are generally spin dependent, i.e., the spatial parts of the up and down natural orbitals form two different sets. A measure to quantify this spin dependence is introduced and it is shown that it varies by several orders of magnitude depending on the system. We also study the ordering issue of the spin-dependent occupation numbers which has practical implications in reduced density matrix functional theory minimization schemes, when generalized Pauli constraints (GPCs) are imposed and in the form of the CI expansion in terms of the natural orbitals. Finally, we discuss the aforementioned CI expansion when there are GPCs that are almost "pinned."
Theophilou, Iris; Lathiotakis, Nektarios N.; Helbig, Nicole
2018-03-01
We investigate the structure of the one-body reduced density matrix of three electron systems, i.e., doublet and quadruplet spin configurations, corresponding to the smallest interacting system with an open-shell ground state. To this end, we use configuration interaction (CI) expansions of the exact wave function in Slater determinants built from natural orbitals in a finite dimensional Hilbert space. With the exception of maximally polarized systems, the natural orbitals of spin eigenstates are generally spin dependent, i.e., the spatial parts of the up and down natural orbitals form two different sets. A measure to quantify this spin dependence is introduced and it is shown that it varies by several orders of magnitude depending on the system. We also study the ordering issue of the spin-dependent occupation numbers which has practical implications in reduced density matrix functional theory minimization schemes, when generalized Pauli constraints (GPCs) are imposed and in the form of the CI expansion in terms of the natural orbitals. Finally, we discuss the aforementioned CI expansion when there are GPCs that are almost "pinned."
Moral Judgments about Jewish-Arab Intergroup Exclusion: The Role of Cultural Identity and Contact
Brenick, Alaina; Killen, Melanie
2014-01-01
Prejudice and discrimination as justifications for social exclusion are often viewed as violations of the moral principles of welfare, justice, and equality, but intergroup exclusion can also often be viewed as a necessary and legitimate means to maintain group identity and cohesion (Rutland, Killen, & Abrams, 2010). The current study was…
Problems of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kholosha, V.Yi.
2014-01-01
The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone, aimed at the development of technologies, equipment and devices for radioactive waste management and ChNPP accident clean-up, at studying the composition and structure of the Exclusion zone soil activity solid bearers, form transformation of the fission products of fuel fallout radionuclide composition in the ChNPP near zone, the spatial distribution of radionuclides and other radioecological issues.. Much attention is paid to medical and biological aspects of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the workers of the Exclusion zone
Exclusive Rights and State Aid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard
2017-01-01
Exclusive rights are granted in order to regulate markets as one of several possible tools of public intervention. The article considers the role of State aid law in the regulation of exclusive rights. Whereas the right of Member States to organise markets as monopolies and the choice of provider...... are regulated by free movement rules and Article 106 TFEU, State aid law regulates the terms of the right to ensure that the beneficiary is not granted an economic advantage. Exclusive rights may be granted on various terms: for a payment, in combination with compensation or as compensation. The two former...... kinds of terms are regulated under State aid law which requires market terms. The granting of exclusive rights as compensation is analysed on the basis of the Eventech judgment, and it is found that when no financial transaction is included in the grant, it resembles a decision to organise a market...
Exclusive processes at Jefferson Lab
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
There is no clear guidance from theory as to the limits of the transition region; .... behavior in exclusive photoreactions with hadrons in the final state at large t may provide .... The planned medium acceptance detector (MAD) system in Hall A.
Central Exclusive Production at LHCb
INSPIRE-00106463
2015-01-01
Central Exclusive Production is a unique QCD process in which particles are produced via colourless propagators. Several results have been obtained at LHCb for the production of single charmonia, pairs of charmonia, and single bottomonia.
Wilkesman, Jeff; Kurz, Liliana
2017-01-01
Zymography, the detection, identification, and even quantification of enzyme activity fractionated by gel electrophoresis, has received increasing attention in the last years, as revealed by the number of articles published. A number of enzymes are routinely detected by zymography, especially with clinical interest. This introductory chapter reviews the major principles behind zymography. New advances of this method are basically focused towards two-dimensional zymography and transfer zymography as will be explained in the rest of the chapters. Some general considerations when performing the experiments are outlined as well as the major troubleshooting and safety issues necessary for correct development of the electrophoresis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, P.D.
1996-01-01
Some basic explanations are given of the principles underlying the nuclear fuel cycle, starting with the physics of atomic and nuclear structure and continuing with nuclear energy and reactors, fuel and waste management and finally a discussion of economics and the future. An important aspect of the fuel cycle concerns the possibility of ''closing the back end'' i.e. reprocessing the waste or unused fuel in order to re-use it in reactors of various kinds. The alternative, the ''oncethrough'' cycle, discards the discharged fuel completely. An interim measure involves the prolonged storage of highly radioactive waste fuel. (UK)
Central Exclusive Production at LHCb
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392425
2017-01-01
The LHCb detector, with its excellent momentum resolution and flexible trigger strategy, is ideally suited for measuring particles produced exclusively. In addition, a new system of forward shower counters has been installed upstream and downstream of the detector, and has been used to facilitate studies of Central Exclusive Production. Such measurements of integrated and differential cross-section in both Run 1 and Run 2 of the LHC, are summarised here.
Exclusive Territories and Manufacturers’ Collusion
Salvatore Piccolo; Markus Reisinger
2010-01-01
This paper highlights the rationale for exclusive territories in a model of repeated interaction between competing supply chains. We show that with observable contracts exclusive territories have two countervailing effects on manufacturers' incentives to sustain tacit collusion. First, granting local monopolies to retailers distributing a given brand softens inter- and intrabrand competition in a one-shot game. Hence, punishment profits are larger, thereby rendering deviation more profitable....
Exclusion statistics and integrable models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mashkevich, S.
1998-01-01
The definition of exclusion statistics, as given by Haldane, allows for a statistical interaction between distinguishable particles (multi-species statistics). The thermodynamic quantities for such statistics ca be evaluated exactly. The explicit expressions for the cluster coefficients are presented. Furthermore, single-species exclusion statistics is realized in one-dimensional integrable models. The interesting questions of generalizing this correspondence onto the higher-dimensional and the multi-species cases remain essentially open
Oscillator strengths and transition probabilities from the Breit–Pauli R-matrix method: Ne IV
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nahar, Sultana N., E-mail: nahar@astronomy.ohio-state.edu
2014-09-15
The atomic parameters–oscillator strengths, line strengths, radiative decay rates (A), and lifetimes–for fine structure transitions of electric dipole (E1) type for the astrophysically abundant ion Ne IV are presented. The results include 868 fine structure levels with n≤ 10, l≤ 9, and 1/2≤J≤ 19/2 of even and odd parities, and the corresponding 83,767 E1 transitions. The calculations were carried out using the relativistic Breit–Pauli R-matrix method in the close coupling approximation. The transitions have been identified spectroscopically using an algorithm based on quantum defect analysis and other criteria. The calculated energies agree with the 103 observed and identified energies to within 3% or better for most of the levels. Some larger differences are also noted. The A-values show good to fair agreement with the very limited number of available transitions in the table compiled by NIST, but show very good agreement with the latest published multi-configuration Hartree–Fock calculations. The present transitions should be useful for diagnostics as well as for precise and complete spectral modeling in the soft X-ray to infra-red regions of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. -- Highlights: •The first application of BPRM method for accurate E1 transitions in Ne IV is reported. •Amount of atomic data (n going up to 10) is complete for most practical applications. •The calculated energies are in very good agreement with most observed levels. •Very good agreement of A-values and lifetimes with other relativistic calculations. •The results should provide precise nebular abundances, chemical evolution etc.
Basic principles of forest fuel reduction treatments
James K. Agee; Carl N. Skinner
2005-01-01
Successful fire exclusion in the 20th century has created severe fire problems across the West. Not every forest is at risk of uncharacteristically severe wildfire, but drier forests are in need of active management to mitigate fire hazard. We summarize a set of simple principles important to address in fuel reduction treatments: reduction of surface fuels, increasing...
Women in Chernobyl Exclusion Zone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balashevska, Y.; Kireev, S.; Navalikhin, V.
2015-01-01
Today, 29 years after the Chernobyl accident, the Exclusion Zone still remains an areal unsealed radiation source of around 2600 km"2. It is not just a gigantic radioactive waste storage facility (the amount of radioactive waste accumulated within the Zone, except for the Shelter, is estimated at about 2.8 million m"3), but also a unique research and engineering platform for biologists, radiologists, chemists and physicists. Taking into account the amount of the radionuclides released during the accident, it becomes quite understood that the radiological environment in the Exclusion Zone is far from favorable. However, among the Exclusion Zone personnel who numbers 5000, there are female workers. The poster represents the results of the research performed among the female employees of the largest enterprise of the Exclusion Zone, “Chornobyl Spetskombinat”. The survey was performed with the view to knowing what makes women work in the most radioactively contaminated area in Europe, and what their role is, to revealing their fears and hopes, and to estimating the chances of the brave women of Chernobyl Exclusion Zone to succeed in their careers. (author)
RELIGIOUS EXCLUSIVITY AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTIONING.
Gegelashvili, M; Meca, A; Schwartz, S J
2015-01-01
In the present study we sought to clarify links between religious exclusivity, as form of intergroup favoritism, and indices of psychosocial functioning. The study of in group favoritism has generally been invoked within Social Identity Theory and related perspectives. However, there is a lack of literature regarding religious exclusivity from the standpoint of social identity. In particular, the ways in which religious exclusivity is linked with other dimensions of religious belief and practice, and with psychosocial functioning, among individuals from different religious backgrounds are not well understood. A sample of 8545 emerging-adult students from 30 U.S. universities completed special measures. Measure of religious exclusivity was developed and validated for this group. The results suggest that exclusivity appears as predictor for impaired psychosocial functioning, low self-esteem and low psychosocial well-being for individuals from organized faiths, as well as for those identifying as agnostic, atheist, or spiritual/nonreligious. These findings are discussed in terms of Social Identity Theory and Terror Management Theory (TMT).
Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1994-01-01
The collection reflects the results of researches and test-design activities in the exclusion area of the Chernobyl NPP directed to elaborate the equipment and devices for scientific researches and elimination of the accident after effects at the Chernobyl NPP and to study composition and structure of solid-phase bearers of the activity in the soil of the exclusion area, form transformation of decay products, radionuclide composition of the fuel precipitation in the nearest zone of the Chernobyl NPP. Special attention is paid to medical-biological problems of the accident after effects influence on flora, fauna and human health, labour conditions and sick rate of people working in the exclusion area
Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-01-01
The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health labour conditions and incidence of the people involved
Problems of Chornobyl Exclusion Zone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashparov, V.A.
2009-01-01
The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved.
Exclusion statistics and integrable models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mashkevich, S.
1998-01-01
The definition of exclusion statistics that was given by Haldane admits a 'statistical interaction' between distinguishable particles (multispecies statistics). For such statistics, thermodynamic quantities can be evaluated exactly; explicit expressions are presented here for cluster coefficients. Furthermore, single-species exclusion statistics is realized in one-dimensional integrable models of the Calogero-Sutherland type. The interesting questions of generalizing this correspondence to the higher-dimensional and the multispecies cases remain essentially open; however, our results provide some hints as to searches for the models in question
Exclusive processes in quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.
1981-06-01
Large momentum transfer exclusive processes and the short distance structure of hadronic wave functions can be systematically analyzed within the context of perturbative QCD. Predictions for meson form factors, two-photon processes γγ → M anti M, hadronic decays of heavy quark systems, and a number of other related QCD phenomena are reviewed
Exclusive meson production at COMPASS
Pochodzalla, Josef; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc; Pochodzalla, Josef; Mankiewicz, Lech; Moinester, Murray; Piller, Gunther; Sandacz, Andrzej; Vanderhaeghen, Marc
1999-01-01
We explore the feasibility to study exclusive meson production (EMP) in hard muon-proton scattering at the COMPASS experiment. These measurements constrain the off-forward parton distributions (OFPD's) of the proton, which are related to the quark orbital contribution to the proton spin.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogar, Ferenc; Bartha, Ferenc; Bartha, Ferenc A.; March, Norman H.
2011-01-01
Independently, in the mid-1980s, several groups proposed to bosonize the density-functional theory (DFT) for fermions by writing a Schroedinger equation for the density amplitude ρ(r) 1/2 , with ρ(r) as the ground-state electron density, the central tool of DFT. The resulting differential equation has the DFT one-body potential V(r) modified by an additive term V P (r) where P denotes Pauli. To gain insight into the form of the Pauli potential V P (r), here, we invoke the known Coulombic density, ρ ∞ (r) say, calculated analytically by Heilmann and Lieb (HL), by summation over the entire hydrogenic bound-state spectrum. We show that V P∞ (r) has simple limits for both r tends to infinity and r approaching zero. In particular, at large r, V P∞ (r) precisely cancels the attractive Coulomb potential -Ze 2 /r, leaving V(r)+V P∞ (r) of O(r -2 ) as r tends to infinity. The HL density ρ ∞ (r) is finally used numerically to display V P∞ (r) for all r values.
Advertisement without Ethical Principles?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wojciech Słomski
2007-10-01
Full Text Available The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipients consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It is not that the moral evil immanently underlines the advertisement, but it concerns the mechanisms which cause that the advertisement turns out to be effective. The only admissible form of the advertisement would be the reliable full information about the advantages and flaws of the concrete advertised product. The only admissible form of the advertisement would be the reliable full information about the advantages and defects of the concrete advertised product. The most serious difficulty connected with the ethical opinion of the advertisement is the fact that the advertisement is the indispensable link of the present economy, and everyone who accepts the free market and perceives the positives of the economic growth, should also accept the advertisement. The advertisement constitutes the element of the economic activity, so in consequence the responsibility first of all lies with enterprises for its far-reaching results.
Problems of Chernobyl exclusion zone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1996-01-01
The collection comprises the results of researches and design activity in the ChNPP exclusion zone with the aim to develop technology, equipment and instruments for RAW management and accident clean-up, studying of the composition and structure of the activity solid bearers in the soil of the exclusion zone and transformation of the radionuclides in the nearest zone of ChNPP. Much attention is paid to medical and biological problems of the accident influence on the flora, fauna and people's health, labour conditions and incidence of the people involved. The collection comprises the information for scientists, experts, postgraduates and students in gaged in ecology, radioecology, nuclear engineering, radiology, radiochemistry and radiobiology
Exclusive photoreactions on light nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maruyama, K.
1989-08-01
The mechanism of photon absorption on light nuclei in the Δ-resonance region is discussed. The present status of experimental results is briefly summarized. A recent data from 1.3-GeV Tokyo ES using a π sr spectrometer is introduced. Exclusive measurements of the photodisintegration of 3 He and 4 He may be a clear way to identify 2N, 3N and 4N absorptions. (author)
Gender, Marginalisation and Social Exclusion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
D. Munk, Martin
The paper is focused on the fact that marginalisation and social exclusion are gender-related in the EU. Even when boys and girls experience the same kinds of strain and social inheritance, they react socially different. Likewise women and men are marginalised in different ways. The differing...... access to the five ressources: cultural, financial, mental, social and powerrelated resources is highlighted. It is demonstrated how gender involves living in different realities, and requires different solutions to create equal possibilities....
The gauge principle vs. the equivalence principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gates, S.J. Jr.
1984-01-01
Within the context of field theory, it is argued that the role of the equivalence principle may be replaced by the principle of gauge invariance to provide a logical framework for theories of gravitation
Equivalence principles and electromagnetism
Ni, W.-T.
1977-01-01
The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.
Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Factors influencing knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding in Nyando ... The overall objective of this study was to determine factors influencing the ... EBF and its benefits), pre lacteal feeds and exclusive breastfeeding consistency.
Tartrazine exclusion for allergic asthma.
Ardern, K D; Ram, F S
2001-01-01
Tartrazine is the best known and one of the most commonly used food additives. Food colorants are also used in many medications as well as foods. There has been conflicting evidence as to whether tartrazine causes exacerbations of asthma with some studies finding a positive association especially in individuals with cross-sensitivity to aspirin. To assess the overall effect of tartrazine (exclusion or challenge) in the management of asthma. A search was carried out using the Cochrane Airways Group specialised register. Bibliographies of each RCT was searched for additional papers. Authors of identified RCTs were contacted for further information for their trials and details of other studies. RCTs of oral administration of tartrazine (as a challenge) versus placebo or dietary avoidance of tartrazine versus normal diet were considered. Studies which focused upon allergic asthma, were also included. Studies of tartrazine exclusion for other allergic conditions such as hay fever, allergic rhinitis and eczema were only considered if the results for subjects with asthma were separately identified. Trials could be in either adults or children with asthma or allergic asthma (e.g. sensitivity to aspirin or food items known to contain tartrazine). Study quality was assessed and data abstracted by two reviewers independently. Outcomes were analysed using RevMan 4.1.1. Ninety abstracts were found, of which 18 were potentially relevant. Six met the inclusion criteria, but only three presented results in a format that permitted analysis and none could be combined in a meta-analysis. In none of the studies did tartrazine challenge or avoidance in diet significantly alter asthma outcomes. Due to the paucity of available evidence, it is not possible to provide firm conclusions as to the effects of tartrazine on asthma control. However, the six RCTs that could be included in this review all arrived at the same conclusion. Routine tartrazine exclusion may not benefit most patients
Exclusive electroproduction of pion pairs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Warkentin, N.; Schaefer, A.; Diehl, M.; Ivanov, D. Yu.
2007-01-01
We investigate electroproduction of pion pairs on the nucleon in the framework of QCD factorization for hard exclusive processes. We extend previous analyses by taking the hard-scattering coefficients at next-to-leading order in α s . The dynamics of the produced pion pair is described by two-pion distribution amplitudes, for which we perform a detailed theoretical and phenomenological analysis. In particular, we obtain constraints on these quantities by comparing our results with measurements of angular observables that are sensitive to the interference between two-pion production in the isoscalar and isovector channels. (orig.)
Implementation of mutual exclusion in VHDL
Boersma, M.V.; Benders, L.P.M.; Stevens, M.P.J.; Wilsey, P.A.; Rhodes, D.
1994-01-01
In VHDL it is difficult to implement mutual exclusion at an abstract level since atomic actions are required. A local status model and an arbiter model are presented to achieve mutual exclusion in VHDL. Shared data, protected by a mutual exclusion mechanism, cannot be modelled as a simple, resolved
Surfactant-aided size exclusion chromatography
Horneman, D.A.; Wolbers, M.; Zomerdijk, M.; Ottens, M.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.; Wielen, van der L.A.M.
2004-01-01
The flexibility and selectivity of size exclusion chromatog. (SEC) for protein purifn. can be modified by adding non-ionic micelle-forming surfactants to the mobile phase. The micelles exclude proteins from a liq. phase similar to the exclusion effect of the polymer fibers of the size exclusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, C.
1991-01-01
A new method based on a maximal-decoupling variational principle is proposed to treat the Pauli-principle constraints for calculations of nuclear collective motion in a truncated boson space. The viability of the method is demonstrated through an application to the multipole form of boson Hamiltonians for the single-j and nondegenerate multi-j pairing interactions. While these boson Hamiltonians are Hermitian and contain only one- and two-boson terms, they are also the worst case for truncated boson-space calculations because they are not amenable to any boson truncations at all. By using auxiliary Hamiltonians optimally determined by the maximal-decoupling variational principle, however, truncations in the boson space become feasible and even yield reasonably accurate results. The method proposed here may thus be useful for doing realistic calculations of nuclear collective motion as well as for obtaining a viable interacting-boson-model type of boson Hamiltonian from the shell model
Implementation of exclusive truck facilities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fekpe, E. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States). Transportation Market Sector
2007-07-01
This paper discussed the issue of highway congestion, safety, and efficiency in freight movement on highways, with particular reference to the challenge of supporting increasing capacity demand from truck traffic. Innovative and practical solutions are needed to address the growing need for more efficient freight movement while maintaining acceptable levels of safety on highways. The concept of exclusive truck facilities (ETFs) is becoming an attractive option as a feasible strategy to help stabilize traffic flow, reduce congestion, improve safety, enhance transportation system management, improve access to freight facilities, and improve efficiency in freight movement along corridors of national importance. ETFs can either be truck only lanes or truckways. Passenger cars may not use ETFs. However, the use of ETFs could involve high costs of construction, maintenance, and acquisition of additional right of way. A cost-benefit analysis was performed for alternative ETF configurations under different traffic and site characteristics. A set of criteria was then proposed for identifying suitable locations for exclusive truck lanes. It was proposed that ETFs are economically feasible at locations with traffic volume of 100,000 vehicles per day or more and with a truck volume of at least 25 per cent of the traffic. In addition, the rate of truck-involved fatal crashes and level of service should be used to prioritize preliminary candidate locations that satisfy the traffic criteria. Consideration should also be given to the existence of freight terminals, ports, processing centers or regional distribution centres that are close to highways. 11 refs., 1 tab.
Abdel-Hafiez, M.; Brisbois, J.; Zhu, Z.; Adamski, A.; Hassen, A.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Silhanek, A. V.; Krellner, C.
2018-03-01
We report on magneto-optical imaging and the temperature dependency of the upper critical fields Hc2 c(T ) parallel to the c axis and Hc2 a b(T ) parallel to the a b plane in Ba2Ti2Fe2As4O single crystals. These data were inferred from the measurements of the temperature-dependent resistance in static magnetic fields up to 14 T and magnetoresistance in pulsed fields up to 60 T. Hc 2 values are found to be 52 and 50 T for H ∥a b and H ∥c , respectively. These values are 1.2-1.35 times larger than the weak-coupling Pauli paramagnetic limit (Hp˜1.84 Tc ), indicating that enhanced paramagnetic limiting is essential and this superconductor is unconventional. Our observations of strong bending in the Hc2 a b(T ) curves and a nearly isotropic maximum upper critical field Hc2 a b(0 ) ≈Hc2 c(0 ) support the presence of a strong Pauli paramagnetic effect. We show that the Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg (WHH) formula that includes the spin-orbit scattering can effectively describe the Hc2 a b(T ) curve, whereas Hc 2 deviates from the conventional WHH theoretical model without considering the spin paramagnetic effect for the H ∥c and H ∥a b directions. For H ∥c , a two-band model is required to fully reproduce the behavior of Hc 2, while for H ∥a b the spin paramagnetic effect is responsible for the behavior of Hc 2. The anisotropy of Hc 2 is close to 3 near Tc and decreases rapidly at lower temperatures.
Prenatal exclusion of Norrie's disease.
Redmond, R M; Graham, C A; Kelly, E D; Coleman, M; Nevin, N C
1992-01-01
We report on the use of DNA marker probes and linkage analysis to exclude Norrie's disease in the male fetus of a high risk carrier. There are no clinical markers in females carrying the Norrie's disease gene; thus DNA linkage analysis is an essential technique in the management of families 'at-risk' for this severe ophthalmic disease. The principles of DNA linkage are discussed.
Exclusive Breastfeeding Determinants in Breastfeeding Mother
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ika Mustika
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 month is very important for baby. The proportion of mothers who exclusively breastfeed their babies up to 6 months remains low. Factors influencing the exclusive breastfeeding namely sociodemograph factors , factors pre / post delivery , and psychosocial factors. This aims of this study to identify determinant factors of exclusive breastfeeding on mother. This research method is a systematic review , by analyzing the various studies on exclusive breastfeeding. There are 17 studies. The results obtained occupational factors most studied with significant results ( median OR = 1.265 . Psychosocial factors that have significant relationship is support of her husband (average OR = 4.716 and family support ( average OR = 1.770 . Conclusions : factors influencing the exclusive breastfeeding is occupational factor. Socialization and support from people nearby, health workers, and all parties is needed for exclusive breastfeeding for six months can be achieved.
Wave-particle duality and Bohr's complementarity principle in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, D.; Basu, A.N.; Sengupta, S.
1995-01-01
Interest on Bohr's complementarity principle has recently been revived particularly because of several thought experiments and some actually performed experiments to test the validity of mutual exclusiveness of wave and particle properties. A critical review of the situation is undertaken and it is pointed out that the problem with mutual exclusiveness arises because of some vagueness in the conventional formulation. An attempt is made to remove this vagueness by connecting the origin of mutual exclusiveness to some principles of quantum mechanics. Accordingly, it becomes obvious that to contradict complementarity principle without contradicting quantum mechanics would be impossible. Some of the recent experiments are critically analysed. (author). 31 refs., 3 ills
Specific heats of degenerate ideal gases
Caruso, Francisco; Oguri, Vitor; Silveira, Felipe
2017-01-01
From arguments based on Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Pauli's exclusion principle, the molar specific heats of degenerate ideal gases at low temperatures are estimated, giving rise to values consistent with the Nerst-Planck Principle (third law of Thermodynamics). The Bose-Einstein condensation phenomenon based on the behavior of specific heat of massive and non-relativistic boson gases is also presented.
Local Exclusion and Lieb-Thirring Inequalities for Intermediate and Fractional Statistics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lundholm, Douglas; Solovej, Jan Philip
2014-01-01
A local exclusion principle is observed for identical particles obeying intermediate/fractional exchange statistics in one and two dimensions, leading to bounds for the kinetic energy in terms of the density. This has implications for models of Lieb-Liniger and Calogero-Sutherland type, and implies...
31 CFR 19.640 - May a settlement include a voluntary exclusion?
2010-07-01
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a settlement include a voluntary exclusion? 19.640 Section 19.640 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment...
Exclusive Higgs production at the LHC
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dechambre, Alice [Universite de Liege, Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Allee du 6 aout, 17 - Bat. B5c, B-4000 Liege 1 - Sart-Tilman (Belgium); Staszewski, Rafal [IRFU/SPP, CEA-Saclay, bat. 141, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Henryk Niewodniczanski, Institute of Nuclear Physics - PAN, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Royon, Christophe [IRFU/SPP, CEA-Saclay, bat. 141, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)
2010-07-01
After a brief description of the models of exclusive diffractive Higgs production, we first evaluate the theoretical uncertainties that affect the calculation of exclusive cross section (jets, Higgs...). In addition, in view of the recent measurement of exclusive di-jet at CDF and the new implementation of the corresponding cross section in FPMC (Forward Physics Monte-Carlo), we developed an analysis strategy that can be used to narrow down these uncertainties with the help of early LHC measurement. (authors)
Negotiations and Exclusivity Contracts for Advertising
Anthony Dukes; Esther Gal–Or
2003-01-01
Exclusive advertising on a given media outlet is usually profitable for an advertiser because consumers are less aware of competing products. However, for such arrangements to exist, media must benefit as well. We examine conditions under which such exclusive advertising contracts benefit both advertisers and media outlets (referred to as ) by illustrating that exclusive equilibria arise in a theoretical model of the media, advertisers, and consumers who participate in both the product and me...
Inclusive education and social exclusion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Luisa Bissoto
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is critically examining assumptions underlying the Inclusive Education concept, arguing that this can only be effectively considered when understood in a broader context of social inclusion and exclusion. Methodologically, this article relies on international documents and bibliographic references about Inclusive Education, that have been chosen by systematize and characterize different social and educational inclusive practices, encouraging the elaboration of a general overview on this topic. The results of this analysis conclude that it is essential for Inclusive Education that educational institutions review their goals and reasons of social existence. In the concluding remarks it is argued that education is better understood as the act of encouraging and welcoming the efforts of individuals in their attempts to engage in social networking, which sustains life. This includes the acceptance of other reality interpretations and understanding that educational action cannot be restricted by the walls of institutions. It requires the participation of the whole community. Action perspectives likely to promote social inclusion and inclusive education are suggested.
Perturbative QCD and exclusive processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bennett, J.; Hawes, F.; Zhao, M.; Zyla, P.
1991-01-01
The authors discuss perturbation theory as applied to particle physics calculations. In particle physics one is generally interested in the scattering amplitude for a system going from some initial state to a final state. The intermediate state or states are unknown. To get the scattering amplitude it is necessary to sum the contributions from processes which pass through all possible intermediate states. Intermediate states involve the exchange of intermediate vector bosons between the particles, and with this interaction is associated a coupling constant α. Each additional boson exchange involves an additional contribution of α to the coupling. If α is less than 1, one can see that the relative contribution of higher order processes is less and less important as α falls. In QCD the gluons serve as the intermediate vector bosons exchanged by quarks and gluons, and the interaction constant is not really a constant, but depends upon the distance between the particles. At short distances the coupling is small, and one can assume perturbative expansions may converge rapidly. Exclusive scattering processes, as opposed to inclusive, are those in which all of the final state products are detected. The authors then discuss the application of perturbative QCD to the deuteron. The issues of chiral conservation and color transparancy are also discussed, in the scheme of large Q 2 interations, where perturbative QCD should be applicable
Exclusive processes in pp collisions in CMS
da Silveira, Gustavo G.; Collaboration, for the CMS
2013-01-01
We report the results on the searches of exclusive production of low- and high-mass pairs with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The analyses comprise the central exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma$ production, the exclusive two-photon production of dileptons, $e^{+}e^{-}$ and $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$, and the exclusive two-photon production of $W$ pairs in the asymmetric $e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ decay channel. No diphotons candidates are observed in data and ...
Radiation protection principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ismail Bahari
2007-01-01
The presentation outlines the aspects of radiation protection principles. It discussed the following subjects; radiation hazards and risk, the objectives of radiation protection, three principles of the system - justification of practice, optimization of protection and safety, dose limit
Principles of project management
1982-01-01
The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.
The certainty principle (review)
Arbatsky, D. A.
2006-01-01
The certainty principle (2005) allowed to conceptualize from the more fundamental grounds both the Heisenberg uncertainty principle (1927) and the Mandelshtam-Tamm relation (1945). In this review I give detailed explanation and discussion of the certainty principle, oriented to all physicists, both theorists and experimenters.
Quantum Action Principle with Generalized Uncertainty Principle
Gu, Jie
2013-01-01
One of the common features in all promising candidates of quantum gravity is the existence of a minimal length scale, which naturally emerges with a generalized uncertainty principle, or equivalently a modified commutation relation. Schwinger's quantum action principle was modified to incorporate this modification, and was applied to the calculation of the kernel of a free particle, partly recovering the result previously studied using path integral.
Dimensional cosmological principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chi, L.K.
1985-01-01
The dimensional cosmological principles proposed by Wesson require that the density, pressure, and mass of cosmological models be functions of the dimensionless variables which are themselves combinations of the gravitational constant, the speed of light, and the spacetime coordinates. The space coordinate is not the comoving coordinate. In this paper, the dimensional cosmological principle and the dimensional perfect cosmological principle are reformulated by using the comoving coordinate. The dimensional perfect cosmological principle is further modified to allow the possibility that mass creation may occur. Self-similar spacetimes are found to be models obeying the new dimensional cosmological principle
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusions. 1009.4 Section 1009.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) GENERAL POLICY FOR PRICING AND CHARGING FOR MATERIALS AND SERVICES SOLD BY DOE § 1009.4 Exclusions. This part shall not apply when the amount to be priced or charged is...
Fighting poverty and exclusion through social investment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kvist, Jon
The fight against poverty and social exclusion is at the heart of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. With more than 120 million people in the EU at risk of poverty or social exclusion, EU leaders have pledged to bring at least 20 million people out of poverty an...
2010-04-01
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusions. 1308.3... General Matters § 1308.3 Exclusions. (a) This part does not apply to any TVA contract which does not contain a disputes clause. (b) Except as otherwise specifically provided, this part does not apply to any...
Subspace exclusion zones for damage localization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bernal, Dionisio; Ulriksen, Martin Dalgaard
2018-01-01
, this is exploited in the context of structural damage localization to cast the Subspace Exclusion Zone (SEZ) scheme, which locates damage by reconstructing the captured field quantity shifts from analytical subspaces indexed by postulated boundaries, the so-called exclusion zones (EZs), in a model of the structure...
Biomechanics principles and practices
Peterson, Donald R
2014-01-01
Presents Current Principles and ApplicationsBiomedical engineering is considered to be the most expansive of all the engineering sciences. Its function involves the direct combination of core engineering sciences as well as knowledge of nonengineering disciplines such as biology and medicine. Drawing on material from the biomechanics section of The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition and utilizing the expert knowledge of respected published scientists in the application and research of biomechanics, Biomechanics: Principles and Practices discusses the latest principles and applicat
Dolan, Thomas James
2013-01-01
Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics
Database principles programming performance
O'Neil, Patrick
2014-01-01
Database: Principles Programming Performance provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of database systems. This book focuses on database programming and the relationships between principles, programming, and performance.Organized into 10 chapters, this book begins with an overview of database design principles and presents a comprehensive introduction to the concepts used by a DBA. This text then provides grounding in many abstract concepts of the relational model. Other chapters introduce SQL, describing its capabilities and covering the statements and functions of the programmi
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Walker, C. H
2012-01-01
"Now in its fourth edition, this exceptionally accessible text provides students with a multidisciplinary perspective and a grounding in the fundamental principles required for research in toxicology today...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blau, R.; Rosenberg, L.; Spruch, L.
1977-01-01
A minimum principle for the calculation of the scattering length, applicable when the ground-state wave function of the target system is known precisely, has been available for some time. When, as is almost always the case, the target wave function is imprecisely known, a minimum principle is available but the simple minimum principle noted above is not applicable. Further, as recent calculations show, numerical instabilities usually arise which severely limit the utility of even an ordinary variational approach. The difficulty, which can be traced to the appearance of singularities in the variational construction, is here removed through the introduction of a minimum principle, not for the true scattering length, but for one associated with a closely connected problem. This guarantees that no instability difficulties can arise as the trial scattering wave function and the trial target wave function are improved. The calculations are little different from those required when the target ground-state wave function is known, and, in fact, the original version of the minimum principle is recovered as the trial target wave function becomes exact. A careful discussion is given of the types of problems to which the method can be applied. In particular, the effects of the Pauli principle, and the existence of a finite number of composite bound states, can be accounted for
Robust Visual Tracking via Exclusive Context Modeling
Zhang, Tianzhu; Ghanem, Bernard; Liu, Si; Xu, Changsheng; Ahuja, Narendra
2015-01-01
appearances as linear combinations of dictionary templates that are updated dynamically. Learning the representation of each particle is formulated as an exclusive sparse representation problem, where the overall dictionary is composed of multiple {group
Exclusive hadronic processes and color transparency
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
It is known that at asymptotically large momentum transfer certain exclusive hadronic ... indicates that the Brodsky–Lepage factorization scheme fails, independent of ..... A basic feature of *-initiated reactions is that most events are knocked out.
Exclusion, exemption, clearance European Union approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janssens, A.
1997-01-01
The presentation overviews the following issues: Euratom Basic Safety Standards; administrative requirements; radiation protection of the population. Scope of the Standards: natural radiation sources; exclusion. Exemption; Clearance; Import of radioactive scrap metal
Exclusion of pneumothorax by radionuclide lung scan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, P.E.
1986-01-01
A case is reported in which ventilation lung imaging was useful in excluding a large pneumothorax. This technique may be helpful in patients with emphysema in whom exclusion of pneumothorax by radiographic criteria might be difficult
Imaging partons in exclusive scattering processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diehl, Markus
2012-06-15
The spatial distribution of partons in the proton can be probed in suitable exclusive scattering processes. I report on recent performance estimates for parton imaging at a proposed Electron-Ion Collider.
Nonlinear Cross-Diffusion with Size Exclusion
Burger, Martin; Di Francesco, Marco; Pietschmann, Jan-Frederik; Schlake, Bä rbel
2010-01-01
The aim of this paper is to investigate the mathematical properties of a continuum model for diffusion of multiple species incorporating size exclusion effects. The system for two species leads to nonlinear cross-diffusion terms with double
Definition of Exclusion Zones Using Seismic Data
Bartal, Y.; Villagran, M.; Ben Horin, Y.; Leonard, G.; Joswig, M.
- In verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), there is a motivation to be effective, efficient and economical and to prevent abuse of the right to conduct an On-site Inspection (OSI) in the territory of a challenged State Party. In particular, it is in the interest of a State Party to avoid irrelevant search in specific areas. In this study we propose several techniques to determine `exclusion zones', which are defined as areas where an event could not have possibly occurred. All techniques are based on simple ideas of arrival time differences between seismic stations and thus are less prone to modeling errors compared to standard event location methods. The techniques proposed are: angular sector exclusion based on a tripartite micro array, half-space exclusion based on a station pair, and closed area exclusion based on circumferential networks.
Exclusion, Violence, and Community Responses in Central ...
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
Personal
2015-05-13
May 13, 2015 ... similar conditions of social exclusion, different levels of violence can be explained because communities capacities to face violence. • Methodology: ... in El Salvador. • Mix of quantitative and qualitative techniques of research.
Exclusive processes at high momentum transfer
Radyushkin, Anatoly; Stoker, Paul
2002-01-01
This book focuses on the physics of exclusive processes at high momentum transfer and their description in terms of generalized parton distributions, perturbative QCD, and relativistic quark models. It covers recent developments in the field, both theoretical and experimental.
APPLYING THE PRINCIPLES OF ACCOUNTING IN
NAGY CRISTINA MIHAELA; SABĂU CRĂCIUN; ”Tibiscus” University of Timişoara, Faculty of Economic Science
2015-01-01
The application of accounting principles (accounting principle on accrual basis; principle of business continuity; method consistency principle; prudence principle; independence principle; the principle of separate valuation of assets and liabilities; intangibility principle; non-compensation principle; the principle of substance over form; the principle of threshold significance) to companies that are in bankruptcy procedure has a number of particularities. Thus, some principl...
Model of reversible vesicular transport with exclusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bressloff, Paul C; Karamched, Bhargav R
2016-01-01
A major question in neurobiology concerns the mechanics behind the motor-driven transport and delivery of vesicles to synaptic targets along the axon of a neuron. Experimental evidence suggests that the distribution of vesicles along the axon is relatively uniform and that vesicular delivery to synapses is reversible. A recent modeling study has made explicit the crucial role that reversibility in vesicular delivery to synapses plays in achieving uniformity in vesicle distribution, so called synaptic democracy (Bressloff et al 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 168101). In this paper we generalize the previous model by accounting for exclusion effects (hard-core repulsion) that may occur between molecular motor-cargo complexes (particles) moving along the same microtubule track. The resulting model takes the form of an exclusion process with four internal states, which distinguish between motile and stationary particles, and whether or not a particle is carrying vesicles. By applying a mean field approximation and an adiabatic approximation we reduce the system of ODEs describing the evolution of occupation numbers of the sites on a 1D lattice to a system of hydrodynamic equations in the continuum limit. We find that reversibility in vesicular delivery allows for synaptic democracy even in the presence of exclusion effects, although exclusion does exacerbate nonuniform distributions of vesicles in an axon when compared with a model without exclusion. We also uncover the relationship between our model and other models of exclusion processes with internal states. (paper)
Association between Exclusive Breastfeeding and Child Development
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ghaniyyatul Khudri
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Background: Child development highly correlates with child’s quality. The fastest child development period is during the first three years, also called golden period. This research was aimed to discover correlation between exclussive breastfeeding and child development in Cipacing Village Jatinangor, district of Sumedang. Methods: This research was conducted using cross-sectional method in thirteen Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Posyandu Cipacing Village in Jatinangor. One hundred and two children aged 12−24 months with their caregiver were recruited as respondents by using cluster sampling method. Hist ory of exclusive breastfeeding was assessed with questionnaire while child development status was assesed with Kuesioner Pra Skrining Perkembangan (KPSP in September 2013 after informed consent was obtained. Chi-square test analysis was performed to determine correlation between exclusive breastfeeding and child development status. Results: Overall, children in Cipacing Village had non-exclusive breastfeeding history (83.3%, and only 16.7% respondents had exclusive breastfeeding history. Meanwhile, 89.2% of children had normal development status, and 10.8% had delayed development status. Statistic analysis using chi-square test in the level of 95% confidence between exclusive breastfeeding and child development showed p=0.686 and odds ratio 2.133. Conclusions: There is no significant relationship between history of exclusive breastfeeding and child development status.
The genetic difference principle.
Farrelly, Colin
2004-01-01
In the newly emerging debates about genetics and justice three distinct principles have begun to emerge concerning what the distributive aim of genetic interventions should be. These principles are: genetic equality, a genetic decent minimum, and the genetic difference principle. In this paper, I examine the rationale of each of these principles and argue that genetic equality and a genetic decent minimum are ill-equipped to tackle what I call the currency problem and the problem of weight. The genetic difference principle is the most promising of the three principles and I develop this principle so that it takes seriously the concerns of just health care and distributive justice in general. Given the strains on public funds for other important social programmes, the costs of pursuing genetic interventions and the nature of genetic interventions, I conclude that a more lax interpretation of the genetic difference principle is appropriate. This interpretation stipulates that genetic inequalities should be arranged so that they are to the greatest reasonable benefit of the least advantaged. Such a proposal is consistent with prioritarianism and provides some practical guidance for non-ideal societies--that is, societies that do not have the endless amount of resources needed to satisfy every requirement of justice.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Unnikrishnan, C.S.
1994-01-01
Principle of equivalence was the fundamental guiding principle in the formulation of the general theory of relativity. What are its key elements? What are the empirical observations which establish it? What is its relevance to some new experiments? These questions are discussed in this article. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs
van Heerwaarden, A.E.; Kaas, R.
1992-01-01
A premium principle is derived, in which the loading for a risk is the reinsurance loading for an excess-of-loss cover. It is shown that the principle is well-behaved in the sense that it results in larger premiums for risks that are larger in stop-loss order or in stochastic dominance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fatmi, H.A.; Resconi, G.
1988-01-01
In 1954 while reviewing the theory of communication and cybernetics the late Professor Dennis Gabor presented a new mathematical principle for the design of advanced computers. During our work on these computers it was found that the Gabor formulation can be further advanced to include more recent developments in Lie algebras and geometric probability, giving rise to a new computing principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carr, B.J.
1982-01-01
The anthropic principle (the conjecture that certain features of the world are determined by the existence of Man) is discussed with the listing of the objections, and is stated that nearly all the constants of nature may be determined by the anthropic principle which does not give exact values for the constants but only their orders of magnitude. (J.T.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khoury, Justin; Parikh, Maulik
2009-01-01
Mach's principle is the proposition that inertial frames are determined by matter. We put forth and implement a precise correspondence between matter and geometry that realizes Mach's principle. Einstein's equations are not modified and no selection principle is applied to their solutions; Mach's principle is realized wholly within Einstein's general theory of relativity. The key insight is the observation that, in addition to bulk matter, one can also add boundary matter. Given a space-time, and thus the inertial frames, we can read off both boundary and bulk stress tensors, thereby relating matter and geometry. We consider some global conditions that are necessary for the space-time to be reconstructible, in principle, from bulk and boundary matter. Our framework is similar to that of the black hole membrane paradigm and, in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-times, is consistent with holographic duality.
Variational principles in physics
Basdevant, Jean-Louis
2007-01-01
Optimization under constraints is an essential part of everyday life. Indeed, we routinely solve problems by striking a balance between contradictory interests, individual desires and material contingencies. This notion of equilibrium was dear to thinkers of the enlightenment, as illustrated by Montesquieu’s famous formulation: "In all magistracies, the greatness of the power must be compensated by the brevity of the duration." Astonishingly, natural laws are guided by a similar principle. Variational principles have proven to be surprisingly fertile. For example, Fermat used variational methods to demonstrate that light follows the fastest route from one point to another, an idea which came to be known as Fermat’s principle, a cornerstone of geometrical optics. Variational Principles in Physics explains variational principles and charts their use throughout modern physics. The heart of the book is devoted to the analytical mechanics of Lagrange and Hamilton, the basic tools of any physicist. Prof. Basdev...
Surface Passivation by Quantum Exclusion Using Multiple Layers
Hoenk, Michael E. (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A semiconductor device has a multilayer doping to provide improved passivation by quantum exclusion. The multilayer doping includes at least two doped layers fabricated using MBE methods. The dopant sheet densities in the doped layers need not be the same, but in principle can be selected to be the same sheet densities or to be different sheet densities. The electrically active dopant sheet densities are quite high, reaching more than 1.times.10.sup.14 cm.sup.-2, and locally exceeding 10.sup.22 per cubic centimeter. It has been found that silicon detector devices that have two or more such dopant layers exhibit improved resistance to degradation by UV radiation, at least at wavelengths of 193 nm, as compared to conventional silicon p-on-n devices.
Improved self-exclusion program: preliminary results.
Tremblay, Nicole; Boutin, Claude; Ladouceur, Robert
2008-12-01
The gambling industry has offered self-exclusion programs for quite a long time. Such measures are designed to limit access to gaming opportunities and provide problem gamblers with the help they need to cease or limit their gambling behaviour. However, few studies have empirically evaluated these programs. This study has three objectives: (1) to observe the participation in an improved self-exclusion program that includes an initial voluntary evaluation, phone support, and a mandatory meeting, (2) to evaluate satisfaction and usefulness of this service as perceived by self-excluders, (3) to measure the preliminary impact of this improved program. One hundred sixteen self-excluders completed a questionnaire about their satisfaction and their perception of the usefulness during the mandatory meeting. Among those participants, 39 attended an initial meeting. Comparisons between data collected at the initial meeting and data taken at the final meeting were made for those 39 participants. Data showed that gamblers chose the improved self-exclusion program 75% of the time; 25% preferred to sign a regular self-exclusion contract. Among those who chose the improved service, 40% wanted an initial voluntary evaluation and 37% of these individuals actually attended that meeting. Seventy percent of gamblers came to the mandatory meeting, which was a required condition to end their self-exclusion. The majority of participants were satisfied with the improved self-exclusion service and perceived it as useful. Major improvements were observed between the final and the initial evaluation on time and money spent, consequences of gambling, DSM-IV score, and psychological distress. The applicability of an improved self-exclusion program is discussed and, as shown in our study, the inclusion of a final mandatory meeting might not be so repulsive for self-excluders. Future research directives are also proposed.
Limitations of Boltzmann's principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lavenda, B.H.
1995-01-01
The usual form of Boltzmann's principle assures that maximum entropy, or entropy reduction, occurs with maximum probability, implying a unimodal distribution. Boltzmann's principle cannot be applied to nonunimodal distributions, like the arcsine law, because the entropy may be concave only over a limited portion of the interval. The method of subordination shows that the arcsine distribution corresponds to a process with a single degree of freedom, thereby confirming the invalidation of Boltzmann's principle. The fractalization of time leads to a new distribution in which arcsine and Cauchy distributions can coexist simultaneously for nonintegral degrees of freedom between √2 and 2
Biomedical engineering principles
Ritter, Arthur B; Valdevit, Antonio; Ascione, Alfred N
2011-01-01
Introduction: Modeling of Physiological ProcessesCell Physiology and TransportPrinciples and Biomedical Applications of HemodynamicsA Systems Approach to PhysiologyThe Cardiovascular SystemBiomedical Signal ProcessingSignal Acquisition and ProcessingTechniques for Physiological Signal ProcessingExamples of Physiological Signal ProcessingPrinciples of BiomechanicsPractical Applications of BiomechanicsBiomaterialsPrinciples of Biomedical Capstone DesignUnmet Clinical NeedsEntrepreneurship: Reasons why Most Good Designs Never Get to MarketAn Engineering Solution in Search of a Biomedical Problem
Modern electronic maintenance principles
Garland, DJ
2013-01-01
Modern Electronic Maintenance Principles reviews the principles of maintaining modern, complex electronic equipment, with emphasis on preventive and corrective maintenance. Unfamiliar subjects such as the half-split method of fault location, functional diagrams, and fault finding guides are explained. This book consists of 12 chapters and begins by stressing the need for maintenance principles and discussing the problem of complexity as well as the requirements for a maintenance technician. The next chapter deals with the connection between reliability and maintenance and defines the terms fai
Pérez-Soba Díez del Corral, Juan José
2008-01-01
Bioethics emerges about the tecnological problems of acting in human life. Emerges also the problem of the moral limits determination, because they seem exterior of this practice. The Bioethics of Principles, take his rationality of the teleological thinking, and the autonomism. These divergence manifest the epistemological fragility and the great difficulty of hmoralñ thinking. This is evident in the determination of autonomy's principle, it has not the ethical content of Kant's propose. We need a new ethic rationality with a new refelxion of new Principles whose emerges of the basic ethic experiences.
Hill, Rodney
2013-01-01
Principles of Dynamics presents classical dynamics primarily as an exemplar of scientific theory and method. This book is divided into three major parts concerned with gravitational theory of planetary systems; general principles of the foundations of mechanics; and general motion of a rigid body. Some of the specific topics covered are Keplerian Laws of Planetary Motion; gravitational potential and potential energy; and fields of axisymmetric bodies. The principles of work and energy, fictitious body-forces, and inertial mass are also looked into. Other specific topics examined are kinematics
Hamilton's principle for beginners
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brun, J L
2007-01-01
I find that students have difficulty with Hamilton's principle, at least the first time they come into contact with it, and therefore it is worth designing some examples to help students grasp its complex meaning. This paper supplies the simplest example to consolidate the learning of the quoted principle: that of a free particle moving along a line. Next, students are challenged to add gravity to reinforce the argument and, finally, a two-dimensional motion in a vertical plane is considered. Furthermore these examples force us to be very clear about such an abstract principle
Developing principles of growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neergaard, Helle; Fleck, Emma
of the principles of growth among women-owned firms. Using an in-depth case study methodology, data was collected from women-owned firms in Denmark and Ireland, as these countries are similar in contextual terms, e.g. population and business composition, dominated by micro, small and medium-sized enterprises....... Extending on principles put forward in effectuation theory, we propose that women grow their firms according to five principles which enable women’s enterprises to survive in the face of crises such as the current financial world crisis....
''Follow that quark!'' (and other exclusive stories)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carroll, A.S.
1987-01-01
Quarks are considered to be the basic constituents of matter. In a series of recent experiments, Carroll studied exclusive reactions as a means of determining the interactions between quarks. Quantum Chromo-dynamics (QCD) is the modern theory of the interaction of quarks. This theory explains how quarks are held together via the strong interaction in particles known as hadrons. Hadrons consisting of three quarks are called baryons. Hadrons made up of a quark and an antiquark are called mesons. In his lecture, Carroll describes what happens when two hadrons collide and scatter to large angles. The violence of the collision causes the gluons that bind the quarks in a particular hadron to temporarily lose their grip on particular quarks. Quarks scramble toward renewed unity with other quarks, and they undergo rearrangement, which generally results in additional new particles. A two-body exclusive reaction has occurred when the same number of particles exist before and after the collisions. At large angles these exclusive reactions are very rare. The labels on the quarks known as flavor enable the experimenter to follow the history of individual quarks in detail during these exclusive reactions. Carroll describes the equipment used in the experiment to measure short distance, hard collisions at large angles. The collisions he discusses occur when a known beam of mesons or protons collide with a stationary proton target. Finally, Carroll summarizes what the experiments have shown from the study of exclusive reactions and what light some of their results shed on the theory of QCD
Reflections on Exclusion Dynamics in Education and Training in the Danish Context
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, John; Hjort-Madsen, Peder
2008-01-01
. The dominating rationality of the educational system favor certain cultural and social capitals and reproduces social inequality, but socially creative strategies / SCS can challenge the dominating principles. The conflicting principles and orientations of the Danish educational system are summarized in table 1...... (Table 1). The second part has focus on Lifelong Learning (LL) and present research on education and training of low-skilled women and men. In Denmark Lifelong Learning has been a key policy perspective with regard to preventing exclusion on the post-industrial labour market. The low-skilled groups...... - most at risk - and the problems they encounter will be presented and analyzed. Research on education and training considering the life experiences and needs of the participants will be presented as examples of socially creative strategies. The last part discusses exclusion of ethnic minorities...
Vaccinology: principles and practice
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Morrow, John
2012-01-01
... principles to implementation. This is an authoritative textbook that details a comprehensive and systematic approach to the science of vaccinology focusing on not only basic science, but the many stages required to commercialize...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moller-Nielsen, Thomas [University of Oxford (United Kingdom)
2014-07-01
Physicists and philosophers have long claimed that the symmetries of our physical theories - roughly speaking, those transformations which map solutions of the theory into solutions - can provide us with genuine insight into what the world is really like. According to this 'Invariance Principle', only those quantities which are invariant under a theory's symmetries should be taken to be physically real, while those quantities which vary under its symmetries should not. Physicists and philosophers, however, are generally divided (or, indeed, silent) when it comes to explaining how such a principle is to be justified. In this paper, I spell out some of the problems inherent in other theorists' attempts to justify this principle, and sketch my own proposed general schema for explaining how - and when - the Invariance Principle can indeed be used as a legitimate tool of metaphysical inference.
Principles of applied statistics
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Cox, D. R; Donnelly, Christl A
2011-01-01
.... David Cox and Christl Donnelly distil decades of scientific experience into usable principles for the successful application of statistics, showing how good statistical strategy shapes every stage of an investigation...
Minimum entropy production principle
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel
2013-01-01
Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle
Global ethics and principlism.
Gordon, John-Stewart
2011-09-01
This article examines the special relation between common morality and particular moralities in the four-principles approach and its use for global ethics. It is argued that the special dialectical relation between common morality and particular moralities is the key to bridging the gap between ethical universalism and relativism. The four-principles approach is a good model for a global bioethics by virtue of its ability to mediate successfully between universal demands and cultural diversity. The principle of autonomy (i.e., the idea of individual informed consent), however, does need to be revised so as to make it compatible with alternatives such as family- or community-informed consent. The upshot is that the contribution of the four-principles approach to global ethics lies in the so-called dialectical process and its power to deal with cross-cultural issues against the background of universal demands by joining them together.
Digital exclusion in higher education contexts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Pedersen, Mette Jun Lykkegaard
2016-01-01
The integration and adoption of digital technologies have enabled improvements in the quality of and inclusion in higher education. However, a significant proportion of the population has either remained or become digitally excluded. This systematic literature review elucidates the factors...... underlying the concepts of “digital exclusion” and the “digital divide” in higher education. The identified factors are grouped into three categories: social exclusion (i.e., low income, ICT-avoidance as the norm, lack of motivation and commitment, and physical or mental disability), digital exclusion (i.......e., lack of hardware devices and Internet services) and accessibility (which include the division between rural and urban areas, as well as disparities in ICT literacy and information literacy). These factors are multi-tiered and overlapping. Studies on the digital divide, digital exclusion, and barriers...
Exclusive vector meson production at HERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Szuba, Dorota [Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Collaboration: H1 Collaboration; ZEUS Collaboration
2013-04-15
The exclusive photoproduction of {Upsilon} has been studied with the ZEUS detector in ep collisions at HERA. The exponential slope, b, of the |t|-dependence of the cross section, where t is the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex, has been measured. This constitutes the first measurement of the |t|-dependence of the {gamma}p{yields}{Upsilon}p cross section. The differential crosssections as a function of t at lower energies of {gamma}p centre-of-mass has been studied in exclusive diffractive photoproduction of J/{psi} mesons with the H1 detector. The exclusive electroproduction of two pions has been measured by the ZEUS experiment. The two-pion invariant-mass distribution is interpreted in terms of the pion electromagnetic form factor, assuming that the studied mass range includes the contributions of the {rho}, {rho} Prime and . {rho}'' vector-meson states.
Exclusive vector meson production at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szuba, Dorota
2013-01-01
The exclusive photoproduction of Υ has been studied with the ZEUS detector in ep collisions at HERA. The exponential slope, b, of the |t|-dependence of the cross section, where t is the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex, has been measured. This constitutes the first measurement of the |t|-dependence of the γp→Υp cross section. The differential crosssections as a function of t at lower energies of γp centre-of-mass has been studied in exclusive diffractive photoproduction of J/ψ mesons with the H1 detector. The exclusive electroproduction of two pions has been measured by the ZEUS experiment. The two-pion invariant-mass distribution is interpreted in terms of the pion electromagnetic form factor, assuming that the studied mass range includes the contributions of the ρ, ρ′ and . ρ'' vector-meson states.
Microprocessors principles and applications
Debenham, Michael J
1979-01-01
Microprocessors: Principles and Applications deals with the principles and applications of microprocessors and covers topics ranging from computer architecture and programmed machines to microprocessor programming, support systems and software, and system design. A number of microprocessor applications are considered, including data processing, process control, and telephone switching. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a historical overview of computers and computing, followed by a discussion on computer architecture and programmed machines, paying particular attention to t
Electrical and electronic principles
Knight, S A
1991-01-01
Electrical and Electronic Principles, 2, Second Edition covers the syllabus requirements of BTEC Unit U86/329, including the principles of control systems and elements of data transmission. The book first tackles series and parallel circuits, electrical networks, and capacitors and capacitance. Discussions focus on flux density, electric force, permittivity, Kirchhoff's laws, superposition theorem, arrangement of resistors, internal resistance, and powers in a circuit. The text then takes a look at capacitors in circuit, magnetism and magnetization, electromagnetic induction, and alternating v
Microwave system engineering principles
Raff, Samuel J
1977-01-01
Microwave System Engineering Principles focuses on the calculus, differential equations, and transforms of microwave systems. This book discusses the basic nature and principles that can be derived from thermal noise; statistical concepts and binomial distribution; incoherent signal processing; basic properties of antennas; and beam widths and useful approximations. The fundamentals of propagation; LaPlace's Equation and Transmission Line (TEM) waves; interfaces between homogeneous media; modulation, bandwidth, and noise; and communications satellites are also deliberated in this text. This bo
Electrical and electronic principles
Knight, SA
1988-01-01
Electrical and Electronic Principles, 3 focuses on the principles involved in electrical and electronic circuits, including impedance, inductance, capacitance, and resistance.The book first deals with circuit elements and theorems, D.C. transients, and the series circuits of alternating current. Discussions focus on inductance and resistance in series, resistance and capacitance in series, power factor, impedance, circuit magnification, equation of charge, discharge of a capacitor, transfer of power, and decibels and attenuation. The manuscript then examines the parallel circuits of alternatin
Remark on Heisenberg's principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noguez, G.
1988-01-01
Application of Heisenberg's principle to inertial frame transformations allows a distinction between three commutative groups of reciprocal transformations along one direction: Galilean transformations, dual transformations, and Lorentz transformations. These are three conjugate groups and for a given direction, the related commutators are all proportional to one single conjugation transformation which compensates for uniform and rectilinear motions. The three transformation groups correspond to three complementary ways of measuring space-time as a whole. Heisenberg's Principle then gets another explanation [fr
Teenage pregnancy and exclusive breastfeeding rates.
Puapompong, Pawin; Raungrongmorakot, Kasem; Manolerdtewan, Wichian; Ketsuwan, Sukwadee; Wongin, Sinutchanan
2014-09-01
Teenage pregnancy is an important health issue globally and in Thailand Younger age mothers decide on the breastfeeding practices ofthe first 6-month. To find the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices of teenage mothers and compare them with the rates of 6-month exclusive breastfeeding practices in mothers who are 20 years of age or more. Three thousand five hundred sixty three normal, postpartum women, who delivered without complications at the HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center in the Nakhon Nayok Province between 2010 and2013 were included in this study. At the second daypostpartum, the data of latch scores and the data of the practice of exclusive breastfeeding were collected Telephone follow-ups on the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth postpartum days and at the second, fourth, and sixth month postpartum month were collected and used for exclusive breastfeeding data following discharge. Demographic data included the maternal age, parity, gestational age, marital status, occupation, religion, route ofdelivery, estimated blood loss, body mass index, nipple length, and the childs birth weight. The collected data was analyzed by the t-test, Chi-square, and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. The percentage of teenage pregnancies was at 14.8% (527 cases). On postpartum day 2, the percentage of latch scores of 8 or less was 66.4%. At the seventh, fourteenth, and forty-fifth day and at the second, fourth, and sixth months postpartum, the exclusive breastfeeding rates were 88.5, 78.5, 57.6, 43.1, 32.9, and27.0%, respectively. Comparison of the 6-month exclusive breastfeeding rates between teenage mothers and mothers 20 years ofage or older were not statistically significant (pteenage mothers was at 27.0% and had no significant differences from the rates of mothers 20 years of age or more.
Barriers to Exclusive Breastfeeding among Urban Mothers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lazina Sharmin
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Background: Breastfeeding is the unique source of nutrition and it plays an important role in the growth, development and survival of the infants. The initiation of breastfeeding within one hour and continuation of only breast milk up to six months ensure maximum benefits. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding in Bangladesh is 56% which is low. We designed this study to find out the factors influencing the duration of breastfeeding in Bangladeshi population. Objective: To study the factors influencing noncompliance to exclusive breastfeeding. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted in Dhaka Shishu Hospital during the period January to June 2011. It includes 125 infant (1–12 months-mother pairs randomly selected from the inpatient and outpatient departments of Dhaka Shishu Hospital. Mother-infant pairs were divided into two groups based on continuation of only breastfeeding up to six months. Outcomes were compared between two groups. Results: In this study exclusive breastfeeding was found in 27.2% and nonexclusive breastfeeding was in 72.8% cases. It was found that in most cases (40% termination of breastfeeding was at 3--4 months. The study revealed that insufficient milk production due to poor position and attachment, social factors such as influence of husband and other family members, joining to service etc act as barrier to exclusive breastfeeding. Mass media and advice from health professionals had a higher influence on lower rate of exclusive breastfeeding. Women who were multiparous, housewives were more likely to maintain optimal breastfeeding. Conclusion: The present study reveals some important factors contributing to low rate of exclusive breastfeeding in Bangladesh.
2013-09-11
... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Notice of Intent To Grant an Exclusive, Partially..., 2012 Entitled ''Tie-Down and Jack Fitting Assembly for Helicopter'' AGENCY: Department of the Army, [email protected]us.army.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The patent application relates to the aviation platforms...
Exclusive B Decays to Charmonium Final States
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrera, Barbara
2000-10-13
We report on exclusive decays of B mesons into final states containing charmonium using data collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage rings. The charmonium states considered here are J/{psi}, {psi}(2S), and {chi}{sub c1}. Branching fractions for several exclusive final states, a measurement of the decay amplitudes for the B{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi} K* decay, and measurements of the B{sup 0} and B{sup +} masses are presented. All of the results we present here are preliminary.
Exclusive hadronic and nuclear processes in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.
1985-12-01
Hadronic and nuclear processes are covered, in which all final particles are measured at large invariant masses compared with each other, i.e., large momentum transfer exclusive reactions. Hadronic wave functions in QCD and QCD sum rule constraints on hadron wave functions are discussed. The question of the range of applicability of the factorization formula and perturbation theory for exclusive processes is considered. Some consequences of quark and gluon degrees of freedom in nuclei are discussed which are outside the usual domain of traditional nuclear physics. 44 refs., 7 figs
Exclusion Statistics in Conformal Field Theory Spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoutens, K.
1997-01-01
We propose a new method for investigating the exclusion statistics of quasiparticles in conformal field theory (CFT) spectra. The method leads to one-particle distribution functions, which generalize the Fermi-Dirac distribution. For the simplest SU(n) invariant CFTs we find a generalization of Gentile parafermions, and we obtain new distributions for the simplest Z N -invariant CFTs. In special examples, our approach reproduces distributions based on 'fractional exclusion statistics' in the sense of Haldane. We comment on applications to fractional quantum Hall effect edge theories. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Exclusive breastfeedingand postnatal changes in maternal ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
To evaluate the impact of exclusive breastfeeding (EBFing) practice on maternal anthropometry during the first 6months of birth. Measurement of weight, height, triceps skin-fold thickness (TST), and mid-arm circumference (MAC) was carried out in a matched cohort of women practicing EBFing and those using other ...
Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding practices in Ethiopia ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Background: Despite the demonstrated benefits of breast milk, the prevalence of breastfeeding, in-particular exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), in many developing countries including Ethiopia is lower than the international recommendation of EBF for the first six months of life. Objective: To assess the practice of EBF and ...
2010-07-01
... treatment of domestic sewage in a treatment works. (i) Drinking water treatment sludge. This part does not... water or ground water used for drinking water. (j) Commercial and industrial septage. This part does not... DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.6 Exclusions. (a) Treatment processes. This part does...
Sexism and Permanent Exclusion from School
Carlile, Anna
2009-01-01
Focussing on narratives collected during a two year participant observation research project in the children's services department of an urban local authority, this article addresses the intersection between incidents of permanent exclusion from school and assumptions made on the basis of a young person's gender. The article considers gendered…
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Exclusive Breast ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Towards Exclusive Breast-Feeding At Jimma, Ethiopia. Teklebrhan Tema. Abstract. No abstract - Available on PDF. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.
Exclusive production of W pairs in CMS
INSPIRE-00002838
2014-01-01
We report the results on the search for exclusive production of $W$ pairs in the LHC with data collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid detector in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$~=~7~TeV. The analysis comprises the two-photon production of a $W$ pairs, ${pp\\to p\\,W^{+}W^{-}\\,p\\to p\\,\
Exclusive processes in pp collisions in CMS
Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil
2013-01-01
We report the results on the searches of exclusive production of low- and high-mass pairs with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The analyses comprise the central exclusive $\\gamma\\gamma$ production, the exclusive two-photon production of dileptons, $e^{+}e^{-}$ and $\\mu^{+}\\mu^{-}$, and the exclusive two-photon production of $W$ pairs in the asymmetric $e^{\\pm}\\mu^{\\mp}$ decay channel. No diphotons candidates are observed in data and an upper limit on the cross section is set to 1.18 pb with 95% confidence level for $E_{T}(\\gamma)>$ 5.5 GeV and $|\\eta(\\gamma)|$ 5.5 GeV and $|\\eta(e)|$ 11.5 GeV, $p_{\\textrm{T}}(\\mu)>$ 4 GeV and $|\\eta(\\mu)|$ 4 GeV, $|\\eta(\\mu)|$ 20 GeV. Moreover, the study of the tail of the dilepton transverse momentum distribution resulted in model-independent upper limits for the anomalous quartic gauge couplings, which are of the order of 10$^{-4}$.
Exclusive production of $W$ pairs in CMS
Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; CMS
2014-01-01
We report the results on the search for exclusive production of $W$ pairs in the LHC with data collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid detector in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$~=~7~TeV. The analysis comprises the two-photon production of a $W$ pairs, ${pp\\to p\\,W^{+}W^{-}\\,p\\to p\\,\
Starvation-free mutual exclusion with semaphores
Hesselink, Wim H.; IJbema, Mark
The standard implementation of mutual exclusion by means of a semaphore allows starvation of processes. Between 1979 and 1986, three algorithms were proposed that preclude starvation. These algorithms use a special kind of semaphore. We model this so-called buffered semaphore rigorously and provide
Deadlocks and dihomotopy in mutual exclusion models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Raussen, Martin
2005-01-01
spaces, the directed ($d$-spaces) of M.Grandis and the flows of P. Gaucher. All models invite to use or modify ideas from algebraic topology, notably homotopy. In specific semaphore models for mutual exclusion, we have developed methods and algorithms that can detect deadlocks and unsafe regions and give...
Counterfactual overdetermination vs. the causal exclusion problem.
Sparber, Georg
2005-01-01
This paper aims to show that a counterfactual approach to causation is not sufficient to provide a solution to the causal exclusion problem in the form of systematic overdetermination. Taking into account the truthmakers of causal counterfactuals provides a strong argument in favour of the identity of causes in situations of translevel, causation.
Factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding among mothers ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Conclusion: This study could help mothers, Ministry of Health and other nongovernmental organisations working with child health programmes, in likely interventions and supporting the ongoing child survival programmes, by taking appropriate steps in enhancing exclusive breastfeeding. As mothers attend antenatal and ...
46 CFR 504.4 - Categorical exclusions.
2010-10-01
... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.4 Categorical exclusions. (a) No environmental analyses need be undertaken or environmental... foreign country. (19) Action taken on special docket applications pursuant to § 502.271 of this chapter...
2010-01-01
... by the Department of Transportation; (d) Activities conducted under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of... ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.2 Exclusions. This part does not apply to: (a) Activities that are regulated through a license by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or a State under an Agreement with...
Testing the exclusivity effect in location memory.
Clark, Daniel P A; Dunn, Andrew K; Baguley, Thom
2013-01-01
There is growing literature exploring the possibility of parallel retrieval of location memories, although this literature focuses primarily on the speed of retrieval with little attention to the accuracy of location memory recall. Baguley, Lansdale, Lines, and Parkin (2006) found that when a person has two or more memories for an object's location, their recall accuracy suggests that only one representation can be retrieved at a time (exclusivity). This finding is counterintuitive given evidence of non-exclusive recall in the wider memory literature. The current experiment explored the exclusivity effect further and aimed to promote an alternative outcome (i.e., independence or superadditivity) by encouraging the participants to combine multiple representations of space at encoding or retrieval. This was encouraged by using anchor (points of reference) labels that could be combined to form a single strongly associated combination. It was hypothesised that the ability to combine the anchor labels would allow the two representations to be retrieved concurrently, generating higher levels of recall accuracy. The results demonstrate further support for the exclusivity hypothesis, showing no significant improvement in recall accuracy when there are multiple representations of a target object's location as compared to a single representation.
Bitcoin and Beyond: Exclusively Informational Money
Bergstra, J.A.; de Leeuw, K.
2013-01-01
The famous new money Bitcoin is classified as a technical informational money (TIM). Besides introducing the idea of a TIM, a more extreme notion of informational money will be developed: exclusively informational money (EXIM). The informational coins (INCOs) of an EXIM can be in control of an agent
Urban violence and exclusion in the DRC
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
support, children from impoverished households, many of whom are uneducated, are adding to the ... The goal of this study was to identify the dynamic interplay among poverty/exclusion ... The lack of public lighting and access points to water exposes girls to .... work together to develop more inclusive economic and social.
2010-07-01
... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Regulated Substances for Accidental Release Prevention § 68.126 Exclusion. Flammable Substances Used as Fuel or Held for Sale as Fuel at Retail Facilities. A flammable substance... substance is used as a fuel or held for sale as a fuel at a retail facility. [65 FR 13250, Mar. 13, 2000] ...
The Exclusive Pursuit of Social Inclusion
Goodson, Ivor
2005-01-01
Despite its best intentions, social exclusion has grown rather than diminished under New Labour's education policies. In order to understand this, Ivor Goodson argues that we need to engage with the history of the formal curriculum and the long and continuing fight over what counts as proper knowledge. Taking science and environmental science as…
27 CFR 8.51 - Exclusion, in general.
2010-04-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXCLUSIVE OUTLETS Exclusion § 8.51 Exclusion, in general. (a) Exclusion, in whole or in part occurs: (1) When a practice by an industry member, whether direct, indirect, or... tie or link between the industry member and retailer or by any other means of industry member control...
PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF EXCLUSIVE AND INCLUSIVE TALENT MANAGEMENT STRATEGY IN COMPANIES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asta Savanevičienė
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The article deals with the practical application of exclusive and inclusive talent management strategies in order to form and maintain a competitive human resource potential of the company. The features of both exclusive and inclusive talent management strategies were defined and their practical appication in companies of various Lithuaniam industries was studied. The input from the respondents suggests that major companies prefer the inclusive talent management strategy, rather than exclusive. Summing up all the research results, the following conclusions were formulated: the features characteristic to inclusive talent management strategy dominate in the companies of manufacturing, banking, catering, consulting, trade, energy, transport, and agribusiness industries. In the company of technology industry, features of a mixed (having both exclusive and inclusive talent management strategy are apparent. The company in the construction-engineering industry has the dominating features of exclusive talent management strategy. Inclusive talent management strategy responds to the principles of human potential development-oriented expression and is an important message for the formulation of further insight into talent management, based on the use of internal potential.
A Principle of Intentionality.
Turner, Charles K
2017-01-01
The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett's model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone.
General principles of radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Easson, E.C.
1985-01-01
The daily practice of any established branch of medicine should be based on some acceptable principles. This chapter is concerned with the general principles on which the radiotherapy of the Manchester school is based. Though many radiotherapists in other centres would doubtless accept these principles, there are sufficiently wide differences in practice throughout the world to suggest that some therapists adhere to a fundamentally different philosophy. The authors believe it is important, especially for those beginning their formal training in radiotherapy, to subscribe to an internally consistent school of thought, employing methods of treatment for each type of lesion in each anatomical site that are based on accepted principles and subjected to continuous rigorous scrutiny to test their effectiveness. Not only must each therapeutic technique be evaluated, but the underlying principles too must be questioned if and when this seems indicated. It is a feature of this hospital that similar lesions are all treated by the same technique, so long as statistical evidence justifies such a policy. All members of the staff adhere to the accepted policy until or unless reliable reasons are adduced to change this policy
The traveltime holographic principle
Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.
2015-01-01
Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the `traveltime holographic principle', by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.
Ethical principles of scientific communication
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baranov G. V.
2017-03-01
Full Text Available the article presents the principles of ethical management of scientific communication. The author approves the priority of ethical principle of social responsibility of the scientist.
Ethical principles and theories.
Schultz, R C
1993-01-01
Ethical theory about what is right and good in human conduct lies behind the issues practitioners face and the codes they turn to for guidance; it also provides guidance for actions, practices, and policies. Principles of obligation, such as egoism, utilitarianism, and deontology, offer general answers to the question, "Which acts/practices are morally right?" A re-emerging alternative to using such principles to assess individual conduct is to center normative theory on personal virtues. For structuring society's institutions, principles of social justice offer alternative answers to the question, "How should social benefits and burdens be distributed?" But human concerns about right and good call for more than just theoretical responses. Some critics (eg, the postmodernists and the feminists) charge that normative ethical theorizing is a misguided enterprise. However, that charge should be taken as a caution and not as a refutation of normative ethical theorizing.
Principles of musical acoustics
Hartmann, William M
2013-01-01
Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...
Mechanical engineering principles
Bird, John
2014-01-01
A student-friendly introduction to core engineering topicsThis book introduces mechanical principles and technology through examples and applications, enabling students to develop a sound understanding of both engineering principles and their use in practice. These theoretical concepts are supported by 400 fully worked problems, 700 further problems with answers, and 300 multiple-choice questions, all of which add up to give the reader a firm grounding on each topic.The new edition is up to date with the latest BTEC National specifications and can also be used on undergraduate courses in mecha
Itch Management: General Principles.
Misery, Laurent
2016-01-01
Like pain, itch is a challenging condition that needs to be managed. Within this setting, the first principle of itch management is to get an appropriate diagnosis to perform an etiology-oriented therapy. In several cases it is not possible to treat the cause, the etiology is undetermined, there are several causes, or the etiological treatment is not effective enough to alleviate itch completely. This is also why there is need for symptomatic treatment. In all patients, psychological support and associated pragmatic measures might be helpful. General principles and guidelines are required, yet patient-centered individual care remains fundamental. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Born, Max; Wolf, Emil
1999-10-01
Principles of Optics is one of the classic science books of the twentieth century, and probably the most influential book in optics published in the past forty years. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated, with new material covering the CAT scan, interference with broad-band light and the so-called Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction theory. This edition also details scattering from inhomogeneous media and presents an account of the principles of diffraction tomography to which Emil Wolf has made a basic contribution. Several new appendices are also included. This new edition will be invaluable to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers working in most areas of optics.
Electrical principles 3 checkbook
Bird, J O
2013-01-01
Electrical Principles 3 Checkbook aims to introduce students to the basic electrical principles needed by technicians in electrical engineering, electronics, and telecommunications.The book first tackles circuit theorems, single-phase series A.C. circuits, and single-phase parallel A.C. circuits. Discussions focus on worked problems on parallel A.C. circuits, worked problems on series A.C. circuits, main points concerned with D.C. circuit analysis, worked problems on circuit theorems, and further problems on circuit theorems. The manuscript then examines three-phase systems and D.C. transients
Bulmer, M G
1979-01-01
There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo
DuBay, William H.
2004-01-01
The principles of readability are in every style manual. Readability formulas are in every writing aid. What is missing is the research and theory on which they stand. This short review of readability research spans 100 years. The first part covers the history of adult literacy studies in the U.S., establishing the stratified nature of the adult…
Schwartz, Melvin
1972-01-01
This advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level text by the 1988 Nobel Prize winner establishes the subject's mathematical background, reviews the principles of electrostatics, then introduces Einstein's special theory of relativity and applies it throughout the book in topics ranging from Gauss' theorem and Coulomb's law to electric and magnetic susceptibility.
Principles of Bridge Reliability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.
The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....
Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Martinez, Ron
2015-01-01
John Sinclair's Idiom Principle famously posited that most texts are largely composed of multi-word expressions that "constitute single choices" in the mental lexicon. At the time that assertion was made, little actual psycholinguistic evidence existed in support of that holistic, "single choice," view of formulaic language. In…
The traveltime holographic principle
Huang, Y.; Schuster, Gerard T.
2014-01-01
Fermat's interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat's interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region's boundary.
The Bohr Correspondence Principle
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
Deepak Dhar. Keywords. Correspondence principle, hy- drogen atom, Kepler orbit. Deepak Dhar works at the. Tata Institute of Funda- mental Research,. Mumbai. His research interests are mainly in the area of statistical physics. We consider the quantum-mechanical non-relati- vistic hydrogen atom. We show that for bound.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdelmalik, W.E.Y.
2011-01-01
This work presents a summary of the IAEA Safety Standards Series publication No. SF-1 entitled F UDAMENTAL Safety PRINCIPLES p ublished on 2006. This publication states the fundamental safety objective and ten associated safety principles, and briefly describes their intent and purposes. Safety measures and security measures have in common the aim of protecting human life and health and the environment. These safety principles are: 1) Responsibility for safety, 2) Role of the government, 3) Leadership and management for safety, 4) Justification of facilities and activities, 5) Optimization of protection, 6) Limitation of risks to individuals, 7) Protection of present and future generations, 8) Prevention of accidents, 9)Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protective action to reduce existing or unregulated radiation risks. The safety principles concern the security of facilities and activities to the extent that they apply to measures that contribute to both safety and security. Safety measures and security measures must be designed and implemented in an integrated manner so that security measures do not compromise safety and safety measures do not compromise security.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sharp, Robin
This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...
The traveltime holographic principle
Huang, Y.
2014-11-06
Fermat\\'s interferometric principle is used to compute interior transmission traveltimes τpq from exterior transmission traveltimes τsp and τsq. Here, the exterior traveltimes are computed for sources s on a boundary B that encloses a volume V of interior points p and q. Once the exterior traveltimes are computed, no further ray tracing is needed to calculate the interior times τpq. Therefore this interferometric approach can be more efficient than explicitly computing interior traveltimes τpq by ray tracing. Moreover, the memory requirement of the traveltimes is reduced by one dimension, because the boundary B is of one fewer dimension than the volume V. An application of this approach is demonstrated with interbed multiple (IM) elimination. Here, the IMs in the observed data are predicted from the migration image and are subsequently removed by adaptive subtraction. This prediction is enabled by the knowledge of interior transmission traveltimes τpq computed according to Fermat\\'s interferometric principle. We denote this principle as the ‘traveltime holographic principle’, by analogy with the holographic principle in cosmology where information in a volume is encoded on the region\\'s boundary.
Kamat, R. V.
1991-01-01
A principle is presented to show that, if the time of passage of light is expressible as a function of discrete variables, one may dispense with the more general method of the calculus of variations. The calculus of variations and the alternative are described. The phenomenon of mirage is discussed. (Author/KR)
Principles of economics textbooks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Poul Thøis
2012-01-01
Has the financial crisis already changed US principles of economics textbooks? Rather little has changed in individual textbooks, but taken as a whole ten of the best-selling textbooks suggest rather encompassing changes of core curriculum. A critical analysis of these changes shows how individual...
"Exclusive Dealing Contract and Inefficient Entry Threat"
Noriyuki Yanagawa; Ryoko Oki
2008-01-01
This paper examines the effects of exclusive dealing contracts in a simple model with manufacturers-distributors relations. We consider entrants in both manufacturing and distribution sectors. It is well-known that a potential entry threat is welfare increasing under homogenous price competition, even though the potential entrant is less productive. This paper reexamines this intuition by employing the above model. We show that the entry threat of a less-productive manufacturer is welfare dec...
Poverty and Social Exclusion in India : Women
Das, Maitreyi Bordia; Mehta, Soumya Kapoor
2012-01-01
This brief describes the poverty and social exclusion of Women in India. The last few decades have seen remarkable progress in the status of women and girls, yet the cultural roots of gender inequality are still strong and affect a range of outcomes. The high salaries and independent lifestyles of women in urban India have captured public imagination. Yet progress has been very uneven and ...
Exclusive ω meson production at COMPASS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nowak Wolf-Dieter
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Exclusive ω meson production is studied by the COMPASS Collaboration using the CERN 160 GeV/c muon beam and a transversely polarised proton target. Single-spin and double-spin asymmetries are measured, some of which are sensitive to the Generalised Parton Distributions E that are related to quark orbital angular momenta. The results, which are sensitive also to the pion-pole contribution to the production mechanism, are compared to the predictions of a phenomenological model.
Exclusive nonleptonic B→VV decays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barik, N.; Naimuddin, Sk.; Dash, P. C.; Kar, Susmita
2009-01-01
The exclusive two-body nonleptonic B→VV decays are investigated, within the factorization approximation, in the relativistic independent quark model based on a confining potential in the scalar-vector harmonic form. The branching ratios and the longitudinal polarization fraction (R L ) are calculated yielding the model predictions in agreement with experiment. Our predicted CP-odd fraction (R perpendicular ) for B→D*D (s) * decays are in general agreement with other model predictions and within the existing experimental limit.
Exclusive photoproduction of Υ mesons at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S.
2009-03-01
The exclusive photoproduction reaction γ p → Υ p has been studied with the ZEUS experiment in ep collisions at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 468 pb -1 . The measurement covers the kinematic range 60 2 2 , where W is the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy and Q 2 is the photon virtuality. These results, which represent the analysis of the full ZEUS data sample for this channel, are compared to predictions based on perturbative QCD. (orig.)
Exclusive hadron production in two photon reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poppe, M.
1986-02-01
This paper summarises experimental results on exclusive hadron production in two photon collisions at electron positron storage rings and attempts some interpretation. Experimental know how is described and new suggestions are made for future analyses. New model calculations on resonance form factors and pair production amplitudes are presented. The two photon vertex is decomposed such that experiments can be parameterised with the minimal number of free parameters. Selection rules for off shell photon collisions are given in addition to Yang's theorems. (orig.)
Immunoglobulin heavy chain exclusion in the shark.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karolina Malecek
2008-06-01
Full Text Available The adaptive immune system depends on specific antigen receptors, immunoglobulins (Ig in B lymphocytes and T cell receptors (TCR in T lymphocytes. Adaptive responses to immune challenge are based on the expression of a single species of antigen receptor per cell; and in B cells, this is mediated in part by allelic exclusion at the Ig heavy (H chain locus. How allelic exclusion is regulated is unclear; we considered that sharks, the oldest vertebrates possessing the Ig/TCR-based immune system, would yield insights not previously approachable and reveal the primordial basis of the regulation of allelic exclusion. Sharks have an IgH locus organization consisting of 15-200 independently rearranging miniloci (VH-D1-D2-JH-Cmu, a gene organization that is considered ancestral to the tetrapod and bony fish IgH locus. We found that rearrangement takes place only within a minilocus, and the recombining gene segments are assembled simultaneously and randomly. Only one or few H chain genes were fully rearranged in each shark B cell, whereas the other loci retained their germline configuration. In contrast, most IgH were partially rearranged in every thymocyte (developing T cell examined, but no IgH transcripts were detected. The distinction between B and T cells in their IgH configurations and transcription reveals a heretofore unsuspected chromatin state permissive for rearrangement in precursor lymphocytes, and suggests that controlled limitation of B cell lineage-specific factors mediate regulated rearrangement and allelic exclusion. This regulation may be shared by higher vertebrates in which additional mechanistic and regulatory elements have evolved with their structurally complex IgH locus.
Bell inequalities for the simplest exclusivity graph
Sadiq, Muhamad; Badziag, Piotr; Bourennane, Mohamed; Cabello, Adan
2011-01-01
Which is the simplest logical structure for which there is quantum nonlocality? We show that there are only three bipartite Bell inequalities with quantum violation associated with the simplest graph of relationships of exclusivity with a quantum-classical gap. These are the most elementary logical Bell inequalities. We show that the quantum violation of some well-known Bell inequalities is related to them. We test the three Bell inequalities with pairs of polarization-entangled photons and r...
Integration et exclusion des communautes : La curieuse ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Les données que nous y présentons procèdent d'une démarche méthodologique qui a consisté à combiner la recherche documentaire et l'observation des pratiques sportives de diverses communautés aussi bien à l'échelle locale que globale. Mots clés : Sport, société, socialisation, intégration, exclusion. English Abstract.
On BLM scale fixing in exclusive processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anikin, I.V.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Teryaev, O.V.; Wallon, S.
2005-01-01
We discuss the BLM scale fixing procedure in exclusive electroproduction processes in the Bjorken regime with rather large x B . We show that in the case of vector meson production dominated in this case by quark exchange the usual way to apply the BLM method fails due to singularities present in the equations fixing the BLM scale. We argue that the BLM scale should be extracted from the squared amplitudes which are directly related to observables. (orig.)
On BLM scale fixing in exclusive processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anikin, I.V. [JINR, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Universite Paris-Sud, LPT, Orsay (France); Pire, B. [Ecole Polytechnique, CPHT, Palaiseau (France); Szymanowski, L. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Warsaw (Poland); Univ. de Liege, Inst. de Physique, Liege (Belgium); Teryaev, O.V. [JINR, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Wallon, S. [Universite Paris-Sud, LPT, Orsay (France)
2005-07-01
We discuss the BLM scale fixing procedure in exclusive electroproduction processes in the Bjorken regime with rather large x{sub B}. We show that in the case of vector meson production dominated in this case by quark exchange the usual way to apply the BLM method fails due to singularities present in the equations fixing the BLM scale. We argue that the BLM scale should be extracted from the squared amplitudes which are directly related to observables. (orig.)
Fast pion production in exclusive neutrino processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gershtein, S.S.; Komachenko, Yu.Ya.; Khlopov, M.Yu.
1980-01-01
Single pion production in exclusive neutrino reactions with small momentum transfer to nucleon, induced by neutrino scattering on virtual mesons (reggeons), is considered. The estimation of the contributions to process νA → μπA where A is a nucleon or the target nucleus made by various virtual mesons is presented. In the experimental investigation of such processes the contributions of different mesons may be singled out, thus providing information on the weak; meson-pion (reggeon-pion) transitions
ATLAS results on diffraction and exclusive production
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00224260; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
Various aspects of forward physics have been studied by the ATLAS collaboration using data from Run I at the LHC. In this text, main results of three published analyses are summarized, based on data from proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ or 8 TeV collected between 2010 and 2012. One analysis deals with diffractive signature with at least two jets in the final state, the other two study exclusive production of a pair of leptons or W bosons.
Window in the dark matter exclusion limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaharijas, Gabrijela; Farrar, Glennys R.
2005-01-01
We consider the cross section limits for light dark matter cadnidates (m=0.4 to 10 GeV). We calculate the interaction of dark matter in the crust above underground dark matter detectors and find that in the intermediate cross section range, the energy loss of dark matter is sufficient to fall below the energy threshold of current underground experiments. This implies the existence of a window in the dark matter exclusion limits in the micro-barn range
Exclusion and Control in the Carceral State
Dolovich, Sharon
2011-01-01
Theorists of punishment typically construe the criminal justice system as the means to achieve retribution or to deter or otherwise prevent crime. But a close look at the way the American penal system actually operates makes clear the poor fit between these more conventional explanations and the realities of American penal practice. Taking actual practice as its starting point, this essay argues instead that the animating mission of the American carceral project is the exclusion and control o...
Fronting and exhaustive exclusion in Biblical Hebrew
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Kate H
48, 2017, 219-222 doi: 10.5774/48-0-292. Fronting and exhaustive exclusion in Biblical Hebrew. Christo H. J. van der Merwe. Department of Ancient Studies, University of Stellenbosch, South ... Merwe, Naudé and Kroeze 2017: 491-493). .... “And I will give him to the Lord all the days of his life, and no razor shall touch his.
Robust Visual Tracking via Exclusive Context Modeling
Zhang, Tianzhu
2015-02-09
In this paper, we formulate particle filter-based object tracking as an exclusive sparse learning problem that exploits contextual information. To achieve this goal, we propose the context-aware exclusive sparse tracker (CEST) to model particle appearances as linear combinations of dictionary templates that are updated dynamically. Learning the representation of each particle is formulated as an exclusive sparse representation problem, where the overall dictionary is composed of multiple {group} dictionaries that can contain contextual information. With context, CEST is less prone to tracker drift. Interestingly, we show that the popular L₁ tracker [1] is a special case of our CEST formulation. The proposed learning problem is efficiently solved using an accelerated proximal gradient method that yields a sequence of closed form updates. To make the tracker much faster, we reduce the number of learning problems to be solved by using the dual problem to quickly and systematically rank and prune particles in each frame. We test our CEST tracker on challenging benchmark sequences that involve heavy occlusion, drastic illumination changes, and large pose variations. Experimental results show that CEST consistently outperforms state-of-the-art trackers.
Measurement of exclusive processes with CMS
Bylinkin, Alexander
2017-01-01
Exclusive vector meson photoproduction is studied in ultra-peripheral pPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 5.02$ TeV. The cross sections are measured as a function of the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy, extending the energy range explored by H1 and ZEUS Experiments at HERA. In addition, the differential cross sections ($d\\sigma/d\\left |t\\right|$), where $\\left |t\\right|\\approx p^{2}_{T}$ is the squared transverse momentum of produced vector mesons, are measured and the slope parameters are obtained. The results are compared to previous measurements and to theoretical predictions. We also report a measurement of the exclusive or quasi-exclusive $W^{+}W^{-}$ production in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV ($7$ TeV) using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $19.7$ fb$^{-1}$ ($5.5$fb$^{-1}$), respectively. In this study, we look for any deviations that there might be from the Standard Model, and the results are used to set limits on the Anomalous Quartic Gauge Couplings. Finally, the latest p...
Extremum principles for irreversible processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hillert, M.; Agren, J.
2006-01-01
Hamilton's extremum principle is a powerful mathematical tool in classical mechanics. Onsager's extremum principle may play a similar role in irreversible thermodynamics and may also become a valuable tool. His principle may formally be regarded as a principle of maximum rate of entropy production but does not have a clear physical interpretation. Prigogine's principle of minimum rate of entropy production has a physical interpretation when it applies, but is not strictly valid except for a very special case
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asundi, A.Y.
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Dr. Ranganathan's "Principles for Helpful Sequence" among the set of normative principles play an exclusive role in the arrangement of subject isolates. Each subject in the universe of subjects is regulated by a guiding principle of its own which analogously determines the sequence of Arrays in ordering the subject surrogates or isolates. For example, the "Principle of Later-in-Evolution" is applied for sequencing isolates of Animal and Plant Species; this concept can be applied to one of the tools of KOS viz. Taxonomies. The application of Principles for Helpful Sequence is summarily presented and in the process the paper highlights the inherent elements of knowledge organization in each one of these principles in a manner that might map the future course of research in this area with the potentiality to bring about a relation between principles for helpful sequence and KOS.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean-Marie Moutquin
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Background:This study examines the effect of exclusive versus non-exclusive breastfeeding on specific infant morbidities from birth to nine months, in Conakry (Guinea. Methods:A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1,167 mother-infant pairs who visited one of 20 immunization centres in Conakry for vaccination between the 45th and 270th days of the child’s life. Two data sources were used: the infant health book and an orally administered questionnaire completed with the mother. Data analyses included univariate cross-tabulations and multivariate logistic regression models to estimate the effect of breastfeeding on infant morbidity. Results:Exclusive breastfeeding decreased with the infant’s age. At six months of age, the proportion of infants who were exclusively breastfed was only 15.5%. After adjusting for the infant’s age, and the interaction between the type of breastfeeding and the infant’s age, exclusive breastfeeding significantly protected the infants against many of the studied morbidities (OR: 0.28, CI: 0.15-0.51 and specifically against diarrhoea (OR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.17 – 0.86, respiratory infections (OR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.14 – 0.50, and low growth rate (OR: 0.11; 95% CI: 0.02 – 0.46, but not for otitis, urinary infection, or meningitis. Conclusion:This investigation confirmed the protective effects of exclusive breastfeeding on some specific infant’s morbidities during the first nine months of life. The results of this study are of great importance for the development of an information program designed to encourage the exclusive breastfeeding among the mothers of Conakry, Guinea.
Scheidegger, Adrian E
1982-01-01
Geodynamics is commonly thought to be one of the subjects which provide the basis for understanding the origin of the visible surface features of the Earth: the latter are usually assumed as having been built up by geodynamic forces originating inside the Earth ("endogenetic" processes) and then as having been degrad ed by geomorphological agents originating in the atmosphere and ocean ("exogenetic" agents). The modem view holds that the sequence of events is not as neat as it was once thought to be, and that, in effect, both geodynamic and geomorphological processes act simultaneously ("Principle of Antagonism"); however, the division of theoretical geology into the principles of geodynamics and those of theoretical geomorphology seems to be useful for didactic purposes. It has therefore been maintained in the present writer's works. This present treatise on geodynamics is the first part of the author's treatment of theoretical geology, the treatise on Theoretical Geomorphology (also published by the Sprin...
Mobus, George E
2015-01-01
This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. The subject of systems science, as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales, should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated...
Common principles and multiculturalism.
Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher
2009-01-01
Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea.
Principles of Mobile Communication
Stüber, Gordon L
2012-01-01
This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a third, fully revised and updated edition. Along with coverage of basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes plenty of finer details that will satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to research the topic in depth. It also has a role as a handy reference for wireless engineers. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. Beginning with a survey of the field that introduces an array of issues relevant to wireless communications and which traces the historical development of today’s accepted wireless standards, the book moves on to cover all the relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation to error probability performance and cellular radio resource management. A valuable appendix provides a succinct and focused tutorial on probability and random processes, concepts widely used throughout the book. This new edition, revised...
Principles of mathematical modeling
Dym, Clive
2004-01-01
Science and engineering students depend heavily on concepts of mathematical modeling. In an age where almost everything is done on a computer, author Clive Dym believes that students need to understand and "own" the underlying mathematics that computers are doing on their behalf. His goal for Principles of Mathematical Modeling, Second Edition, is to engage the student reader in developing a foundational understanding of the subject that will serve them well into their careers. The first half of the book begins with a clearly defined set of modeling principles, and then introduces a set of foundational tools including dimensional analysis, scaling techniques, and approximation and validation techniques. The second half demonstrates the latest applications for these tools to a broad variety of subjects, including exponential growth and decay in fields ranging from biology to economics, traffic flow, free and forced vibration of mechanical and other systems, and optimization problems in biology, structures, an...
Principles of Stellar Interferometry
Glindemann, Andreas
2011-01-01
Over the last decade, stellar interferometry has developed from a specialist tool to a mainstream observing technique, attracting scientists whose research benefits from milliarcsecond angular resolution. Stellar interferometry has become part of the astronomer’s toolbox, complementing single-telescope observations by providing unique capabilities that will advance astronomical research. This carefully written book is intended to provide a solid understanding of the principles of stellar interferometry to students starting an astronomical research project in this field or to develop instruments and to astronomers using interferometry but who are not interferometrists per se. Illustrated by excellent drawings and calculated graphs the imaging process in stellar interferometers is explained starting from first principles on light propagation and diffraction wave propagation through turbulence is described in detail using Kolmogorov statistics the impact of turbulence on the imaging process is discussed both f...
Principles of Fourier analysis
Howell, Kenneth B
2001-01-01
Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...
Principles of mobile communication
Stüber, Gordon L
2017-01-01
This mathematically rigorous overview of physical layer wireless communications is now in a 4th, fully revised and updated edition. The new edition features new content on 4G cellular systems, 5G cellular outlook, bandpass signals and systems, and polarization, among many other topics, in addition to a new chapters on channel assignment techniques. Along with coverage of fundamentals and basic principles sufficient for novice students, the volume includes finer details that satisfy the requirements of graduate students aiming to conduct in-depth research. The book begins with a survey of the field, introducing issues relevant to wireless communications. The book moves on to cover relevant discrete subjects, from radio propagation, to error probability performance, and cellular radio resource management. An appendix provides a tutorial on probability and random processes. The content stresses core principles that are applicable to a broad range of wireless standards. New examples are provided throughout the bo...
Liu, Jia-Ming
2016-01-01
With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental concepts and major principles of photonics. Assuming only a basic background in optics, readers are guided through key topics such as the nature of optical fields, the properties of optical materials, and the principles of major photonic functions regarding the generation, propagation, coupling, interference, amplification, modulation, and detection of optical waves or signals. Numerous examples and problems are provided throughout to enhance understanding, and a solutions manual containing detailed solutions and explanations is available online for instructors. This is the ideal resource for electrical engineering and physics undergraduates taking introductory, single-semester or single-quarter courses in photonics, providing them with the knowledge and skills needed to progress to more advanced courses on photonic devices, systems and applications.
Common Principles and Multiculturalism
Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher
2009-01-01
Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea. PMID:23908720
Principles of (Behavioral) Economics
David Laibson; John A. List
2015-01-01
Behavioral economics has become an important and integrated component of modern economics. Behavioral economists embrace the core principles of economics—optimization and equilibrium—and seek to develop and extend those ideas to make them more empirically accurate. Behavioral models assume that economic actors try to pick the best feasible option and those actors sometimes make mistakes. Behavioral ideas should be incorporated throughout the first-year undergraduate course. Instructors should...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kreider, J.F.
1985-01-01
This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity principle; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements
Principles of electrical safety
Sutherland, Peter E
2015-01-01
Principles of Electrical Safety discusses current issues in electrical safety, which are accompanied by series' of practical applications that can be used by practicing professionals, graduate students, and researchers. . Provides extensive introductions to important topics in electrical safety Comprehensive overview of inductance, resistance, and capacitance as applied to the human body Serves as a preparatory guide for today's practicing engineers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martens, Hans.
1991-01-01
The subject of this thesis is the uncertainty principle (UP). The UP is one of the most characteristic points of differences between quantum and classical mechanics. The starting point of this thesis is the work of Niels Bohr. Besides the discussion the work is also analyzed. For the discussion of the different aspects of the UP the formalism of Davies and Ludwig is used instead of the more commonly used formalism of Neumann and Dirac. (author). 214 refs.; 23 figs
PREFERENCE, PRINCIPLE AND PRACTICE
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skovsgaard, Morten; Bro, Peter
2011-01-01
Legitimacy has become a central issue in journalism, since the understanding of what journalism is and who journalists are has been challenged by developments both within and outside the newsrooms. Nonetheless, little scholarly work has been conducted to aid conceptual clarification as to how jou...... distinct, but interconnected categories*preference, principle, and practice. Through this framework, historical attempts to justify journalism and journalists are described and discussed in the light of the present challenges for the profession....
The Principle of Proportionality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bennedsen, Morten; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper
2005-01-01
Recent policy initiatives within the harmonization of European company laws have promoted a so-called "principle of proportionality" through proposals that regulate mechanisms opposing a proportional distribution of ownership and control. We scrutinize the foundation for these initiatives...... in relationship to the process of harmonization of the European capital markets.JEL classifications: G30, G32, G34 and G38Keywords: Ownership Structure, Dual Class Shares, Pyramids, EU companylaws....
Common Principles and Multiculturalism
Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher
2009-01-01
Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Con...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levine, R.B.; Stassi, J.; Karasick, D.
1985-01-01
Anterior displacement of the tibial tubercle is a well-accepted orthopedic procedure in the treatment of certain patellofemoral disorders. The radiologic appearance of surgical procedures utilizing the Maquet principle has not been described in the radiologic literature. Familiarity with the physiologic and biochemical basis for the procedure and its postoperative appearance is necessary for appropriate roentgenographic evaluation and the radiographic recognition of complications. (orig.)
Principles of lake sedimentology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janasson, L.
1983-01-01
This book presents a comprehensive outline on the basic sedimentological principles for lakes, and focuses on environmental aspects and matters related to lake management and control-on lake ecology rather than lake geology. This is a guide for those who plan, perform and evaluate lake sedimentological investigations. Contents abridged: Lake types and sediment types. Sedimentation in lakes and water dynamics. Lake bottom dynamics. Sediment dynamics and sediment age. Sediments in aquatic pollution control programmes. Subject index
Principles of artificial intelligence
Nilsson, Nils J
1980-01-01
A classic introduction to artificial intelligence intended to bridge the gap between theory and practice, Principles of Artificial Intelligence describes fundamental AI ideas that underlie applications such as natural language processing, automatic programming, robotics, machine vision, automatic theorem proving, and intelligent data retrieval. Rather than focusing on the subject matter of the applications, the book is organized around general computational concepts involving the kinds of data structures used, the types of operations performed on the data structures, and the properties of th
Economic uncertainty principle?
Alexander Harin
2006-01-01
The economic principle of (hidden) uncertainty is presented. New probability formulas are offered. Examples of solutions of three types of fundamental problems are reviewed.; Principe d'incertitude économique? Le principe économique d'incertitude (cachée) est présenté. De nouvelles formules de chances sont offertes. Les exemples de solutions des trois types de problèmes fondamentaux sont reconsidérés.
Principled Missing Data Treatments.
Lang, Kyle M; Little, Todd D
2018-04-01
We review a number of issues regarding missing data treatments for intervention and prevention researchers. Many of the common missing data practices in prevention research are still, unfortunately, ill-advised (e.g., use of listwise and pairwise deletion, insufficient use of auxiliary variables). Our goal is to promote better practice in the handling of missing data. We review the current state of missing data methodology and recent missing data reporting in prevention research. We describe antiquated, ad hoc missing data treatments and discuss their limitations. We discuss two modern, principled missing data treatments: multiple imputation and full information maximum likelihood, and we offer practical tips on how to best employ these methods in prevention research. The principled missing data treatments that we discuss are couched in terms of how they improve causal and statistical inference in the prevention sciences. Our recommendations are firmly grounded in missing data theory and well-validated statistical principles for handling the missing data issues that are ubiquitous in biosocial and prevention research. We augment our broad survey of missing data analysis with references to more exhaustive resources.
Knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding among women ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Knowledge and practice of exclusive breastfeeding among women with children aged between 9 ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Conclusion: Most mothers knew the benefits and definitions of exclusive breastfeeding.
Social Inclusion and Exclusion: A Review
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nabin Rawal
2008-10-01
Full Text Available The concept of social exclusion/inclusion figured prominently in the policy discourse in France in the mid 1970s. The concept was later adopted by the European Union in the late 1980s as a key concept in social policy and in many instances replaced the concept of poverty. This concept which had first appeared in Europe as a response to the crisis of the welfare State has now gained considerable currency over the last five years in both official and development discourses in Nepal. The issue gained considerable leverage when the Nepal Government recognized inclusion as a policy issue as one of the four pillars of 2003 Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP, which is also Nepal's Tenth Plan. The debates surrounding inclusion/exclusion have ascended to conspicuous importance in the present political transition in Nepal with several groups such as Dalit, women, ethnic communities, donor communities, Madhesi communities and region voicing their demands for an inclusive state by virtue of which, the issue has now come to be a part of the popular public discourse. However, what has to be borne in mind is that the concept lacks universality in the way it has been defined and employed. While some claim that social exclusion is more illuminating and holds the promise of understanding disadvantaged groups better, others argue that this concept is so evocative, ambiguous, multidimensional and elastic that it can be defined in many different ways and owing to its ambiguity in definition it may mean all things to all people. Howsoever, the term has been used, defined, conceptualized, the article here makes an effort to review accessible literature on the topic.DOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1362Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.161-180
Exclusive ρ0 production at HERMES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rostomyan, Armine Armand
2008-11-01
In this thesis the exclusive electroproduction of ρ 0 mesons is analyzed using the data accumulated with the HERMES spectrometer in the years 2002-2005 by scattering the lepton beam of the HERA accelerator of the internal target of HERMES filled with transversely polarized hydrogen gas atoms. The ρ 0 production mechanism and, in a model-dependent way, the structure of the nucleon are studied by measuring the spin-density matrix elements (SDMEs), which parameterize the ρ 0 production and decay angular distribution. The decomposition of the angular distribution in terms of SDMEs was previously done for both polarized and unpolarized lepton beam and unpolarized target. Recently, the angular distribution was decomposed in terms of SDMEs also for a transversely polarized target. A first measurement of the 30 'transverse' SDMEs is reported in this thesis, yielding information on the degree of s-channel helicity conservation and natural-parity exchange in the case of a transversely polarized target. The measured SDMEs are implemented into the rhoMC Monte Carlo generator, which is currently the only one capable of fully simulating the exclusive ρ 0 production and decay for both unpolarized and polarized beam and target. The interest in SDMEs for a polarized target arose after it was shown that at leading twist the corresponding SDMEs can be related to the azimuthal transverse target-spin asymmetry in the cross section of exclusive ρ 0 production which is sensitive to the unknown nucleon helicity-ip GPDs. Since the GPD formalism is only valid for longitudinally polarized vector mesons produced by longitudinal photons, for the first time the transverse target-spin asymmetry of longitudinally polarized ρ 0 mesons is extracted and compared to the available theoretical predictions, specically considering possible problems with next-to-leading order corrections. (orig.)
Social exclusion, health and hidden homelessness.
Watson, J; Crawley, J; Kane, D
2016-10-01
Homelessness and poverty are extreme forms of social exclusion which extend beyond the lack of physical or material needs. The purpose of this study was to explore and expand the concept of social exclusion within the social determinants of health perspective - to understand how the social environment, health behaviours and health status are associated with material and social deprivation. Fundamental qualitative description with tones of focused ethnography. Participants who identified as hidden homeless described their everyday living conditions and how these everyday conditions were impacted and influenced by their social environments, coping/health behaviours and current health status. Research Ethics Board approval was granted and informed consents were obtained from 21 participants prior to the completion of individual interviews. Qualitative content analysis examined the descriptions of men and women experiencing hidden homelessness. Participants described the 'lack of quality social interactions and supports' and their 'daily struggles of street life'. They also shared the 'pain of addiction' and how coping strategies influenced health. Participants were hopeful that their insights would 'better the health of homeless people' by helping shape public policy and funding of community resources that would reduce barriers and improve overall health. Health professionals who understand health behaviours as coping mechanisms for poor quality social environments can provide more comprehensive and holistic care. The findings of this study can be used to support the importance of housing as a key factor in the health and well-being of people experiencing poverty, homelessness and social exclusion; and consequently, reinforces the need for a national housing strategy. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Study of Exclusive Final States at CDF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinfold, James
2008-01-01
We present the current status of the searches, using the CDF detector at the Tevatron, for the exclusive processes: pp-bar →p(e + e - )p-bar and pp-bar →p(μ + μ - )p-bar , produced via two photon interactions; pp-bar →p(γγ)p-bar and pp-bar →p(J/ψ+γ)p-bar , from double pomeron exchange; and, pp-bar →p(J/ψ(→μ + μ - ))p-bar ; from photon-pomeron fusion
Exclusive nonleptonic B{yields}VV decays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barik, N [Department of Physics, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar-751004 (India); Naimuddin, Sk [Department of Physics, Maharishi College of Natural Law, Bhubaneswar-751007 (India); Dash, P C [Department of Physics, Prananath Autonomous College, Khurda-752057 (India); Kar, Susmita [Department of Physics, North Orissa University, Baripada-757003 (India)
2009-07-01
The exclusive two-body nonleptonic B{yields}VV decays are investigated, within the factorization approximation, in the relativistic independent quark model based on a confining potential in the scalar-vector harmonic form. The branching ratios and the longitudinal polarization fraction (R{sub L}) are calculated yielding the model predictions in agreement with experiment. Our predicted CP-odd fraction (R{sub perpendicular}) for B{yields}D*D{sub (s)}* decays are in general agreement with other model predictions and within the existing experimental limit.
Tomography for amplitudes of hard exclusive processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polyakov, M.V.
2008-01-01
We discuss which part of information about hadron structure encoded in the Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) [part of total GPD image] can be restored from the known amplitude of a hard exclusive process. The physics content of this partial image is analyzed. Among other things, we show that this partial image contains direct information about how the target hadron responses to the (string) quark-antiquark operator of arbitrary spin J. Explicit equations relating physics content of the partial image of GPDs directly to the data are derived. Also some new results concerning the dual parametrization of GPDs are presented
Nonlinear Cross-Diffusion with Size Exclusion
Burger, Martin
2010-01-01
The aim of this paper is to investigate the mathematical properties of a continuum model for diffusion of multiple species incorporating size exclusion effects. The system for two species leads to nonlinear cross-diffusion terms with double degeneracy, which creates significant novel challenges in the analysis of the system. We prove global existence of weak solutions and well-posedness of strong solutions close to equilibrium. We further study some asymptotics of the model, and in particular we characterize the large-time behavior of solutions. 2010 © Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.
Exclusive photoproduction of {upsilon} mesons at HERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Magill, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (US)] (and others)
2009-03-15
The exclusive photoproduction reaction {gamma} p {yields} {upsilon} p has been studied with the ZEUS experiment in ep collisions at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 468 pb{sup -1}. The measurement covers the kinematic range 60
Power corrections to exclusive processes in QCD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mankiewicz, Lech
2002-02-01
In practice applicability of twist expansion crucially depends on the magnitude to power corrections to the leading-twist amplitude. I illustrate this point by considering explicit examples of two hard exclusive processes in QCD. In the case of {gamma}{sup *}{gamma} {yields} {pi}{pi} amplitude power corrections are small enough such that it should be possible to describe current experimental data by the leading-twist QCD prediction. The photon helicity-flip amplitude in DVCS on a nucleon receives large kinematical power corrections which screen the leading-twist prediction up to large values of the hard photon virtuality.
Death to perturbative QCD in exclusive processes?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eckardt, R.; Hansper, J.; Gari, M.F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Bochum (Germany)
1994-04-01
The authors discuss the question of whether perturbative QCD is applicable in calculations of exclusive processes at available momentum transfers. They show that the currently used method of determining hadronic quark distribution amplitudes from QCD sum rules yields wave functions which are completely undetermined because the polynomial expansion diverges. Because of the indeterminacy of the wave functions no statement can be made at present as to whether perturbative QCD is valid. The authors emphasize the necessity of a rigorous discussion of the subject and the importance of experimental data in the range of interest.
Central Exclusive Production at the Tevatron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Albrow, Michael G. [Fermilab
2014-11-10
The Collider Detector at Fermilab, CDF, observed for the first time in hadron-hadron collisions photon-photon (gamma + gamma -> e+e-, mu+mu-) and photon-pomeron (gamma + \\BbbP -> J/psi, psi(2S)) interactions, as well as $p+\\bar{p}\\rightarrow p+\\chi_c+\\bar{p}$ by double pomeron exchange, \\BbbP + \\BbbP or DPE. Exclusive pi+pi- production was also measured at $\\sqrt{s} = 900~{\\rm GeV}$ and 1960 GeV; resonance structures are discussed.
29 CFR 793.20 - Exclusive engagement in exempt work.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusive engagement in exempt work. 793.20 Section 793.20... LABOR STANDARDS ACT Workweek Application of Exemption § 793.20 Exclusive engagement in exempt work. An employee who engages exclusively in a workweek in work which is exempt under section 13(b)(9) is exempt...
33 CFR 2.30 - Exclusive Economic Zone.
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exclusive Economic Zone. 2.30... JURISDICTION Jurisdictional Terms § 2.30 Exclusive Economic Zone. (a) With respect to the United States... States exercises sovereignty, exclusive economic zone means the zone seaward of and adjacent to the...
27 CFR 6.151 - Exclusion, in general.
2010-04-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Exclusion § 6.151 Exclusion, in general. (a) Exclusion, in whole or in part occurs: (1) When a practice by an industry member, whether direct, indirect, or through... or link between the industry member and retailer or by any other means of industry member control...
27 CFR 10.51 - Exclusion, in general.
2010-04-01
..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Exclusion § 10.51 Exclusion, in general. (a) Exclusion, in whole or in part occurs: (1) When a practice by an industry member, whether direct, indirect, or... a tie or link between the industry member and trade buyer or by any other means of industry member...
Efficiency principles of consulting entrepreneurship
Moroz Yustina S.; Drozdov Igor N.
2015-01-01
The article reviews the primary goals and problems of consulting entrepreneurship. The principles defining efficiency of entrepreneurship in the field of consulting are generalized. The special attention is given to the importance of ethical principles of conducting consulting entrepreneurship activity.
Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming
Faigle, Ulrich; Kern, Walter; Still, Georg
2002-01-01
Algorithmic Principles of Mathematical Programming investigates the mathematical structures and principles underlying the design of efficient algorithms for optimization problems. Recent advances in algorithmic theory have shown that the traditionally separate areas of discrete optimization, linear
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sifa, Rafet; Bauckhage, Christian; Drachen, Anders
2014-01-01
be derived from this large-scale analysis, notably that playtime as a function of time, across the thousands of games in the dataset, and irrespective of local differences in the playtime frequency distribution, can be modeled using the same model: the Wei bull distribution. This suggests...... that there are fundamental properties governing player engagement as it evolves over time, which we here refer to as the Playtime Principle. Additionally, the analysis shows that there are distinct clusters, or archetypes, in the playtime frequency distributions of the investigated games. These archetypal groups correspond...
Complex Correspondence Principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bender, Carl M.; Meisinger, Peter N.; Hook, Daniel W.; Wang Qinghai
2010-01-01
Quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are distinctly different theories, but the correspondence principle states that quantum particles behave classically in the limit of high quantum number. In recent years much research has been done on extending both quantum and classical mechanics into the complex domain. These complex extensions continue to exhibit a correspondence, and this correspondence becomes more pronounced in the complex domain. The association between complex quantum mechanics and complex classical mechanics is subtle and demonstrating this relationship requires the use of asymptotics beyond all orders.
Principles of chemical kinetics
House, James E
2007-01-01
James House's revised Principles of Chemical Kinetics provides a clear and logical description of chemical kinetics in a manner unlike any other book of its kind. Clearly written with detailed derivations, the text allows students to move rapidly from theoretical concepts of rates of reaction to concrete applications. Unlike other texts, House presents a balanced treatment of kinetic reactions in gas, solution, and solid states. The entire text has been revised and includes many new sections and an additional chapter on applications of kinetics. The topics covered include quantitative rela
Lehpamer, Harvey
2012-01-01
This revised edition of the Artech House bestseller, RFID Design Principles, serves as an up-to-date and comprehensive introduction to the subject. The second edition features numerous updates and brand new and expanded material on emerging topics such as the medical applications of RFID and new ethical challenges in the field. This practical book offers you a detailed understanding of RFID design essentials, key applications, and important management issues. The book explores the role of RFID technology in supply chain management, intelligent building design, transportation systems, military
Krinov, E L
1960-01-01
Principles of Meteoritics examines the significance of meteorites in relation to cosmogony and to the origin of the planetary system. The book discusses the science of meteoritics and the sources of meteorites. Scientists study the morphology of meteorites to determine their motion in the atmosphere. The scope of such study includes all forms of meteorites, the circumstances of their fall to earth, their motion in the atmosphere, and their orbits in space. Meteoric bodies vary in sizes; in calculating their motion in interplanetary space, astronomers apply the laws of Kepler. In the region of
Kadane, Joseph B
2011-01-01
An intuitive and mathematical introduction to subjective probability and Bayesian statistics. An accessible, comprehensive guide to the theory of Bayesian statistics, Principles of Uncertainty presents the subjective Bayesian approach, which has played a pivotal role in game theory, economics, and the recent boom in Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. Both rigorous and friendly, the book contains: Introductory chapters examining each new concept or assumption Just-in-time mathematics -- the presentation of ideas just before they are applied Summary and exercises at the end of each chapter Discus
Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo
2010-01-01
It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm
2002-01-01
We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within...... the framework of Bishop-style mathematics (which has been open for about 20 years). The underivability even holds if the ine.ective schema of full comprehension (in all types) for negated formulas (in particular for -free formulas) is added, which allows one to derive the law of excluded middle...
Principles of quantum chemistry
George, David V
2013-01-01
Principles of Quantum Chemistry focuses on the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.This book describes chemical bonding and its two specific problems - bonding in complexes and in conjugated organic molecules. The very basic theory of spectroscopy is also considered. Other topics include the early development of quantum theory; particle-in-a-box; general formulation of the theory of quantum mechanics; and treatment of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. The examples of solutions of Schroedinger equations; approximation methods in quantum c
Kaufman, Myron
2002-01-01
Ideal for one- or two-semester courses that assume elementary knowledge of calculus, This text presents the fundamental concepts of thermodynamics and applies these to problems dealing with properties of materials, phase transformations, chemical reactions, solutions and surfaces. The author utilizes principles of statistical mechanics to illustrate key concepts from a microscopic perspective, as well as develop equations of kinetic theory. The book provides end-of-chapter question and problem sets, some using Mathcad™ and Mathematica™; a useful glossary containing important symbols, definitions, and units; and appendices covering multivariable calculus and valuable numerical methods.
Principles of fluorescence techniques
2016-01-01
Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.
Recent diffractive and exclusive results from CMS
Bylinkin, Alexandr
2017-01-01
A measurement of the exclusive and semi-exclusive production of charged pion pairs in proton-proton collisions, $pp\\rightarrow p(p^{*})+ \\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}+ p (p^{*})$, where the $ \\pi^+\\pi^-$ pair is emitted at central rapidities,and the scattered protons stay intact (p) or diffractively dissociate ($p^*$) without detection is presented in these proceedings.The measurement is performed with the CMS detector at the LHC, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 450$\\mu b^{-1}$ collected at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The dipion cross section, measured for single-pion transverse momentum $p_T > 0.2$ GeV and rapidity $\\mid y\\mid < 2$, is $26.5\\pm0.3(stat.)\\pm5.0(syst.)\\pm1.1\\mu b$. The differential cross sections measured as a function of the invariant mass and $p_T$ of the pion pair are compared to phenomenological predictions.
Hoarding symptoms are not exclusive to hoarders
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Caterina Novara
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Hoarding Disorder (HD was originally conceptualized as a subcategory of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD, and numerous studies have in fact focused exclusively on investigating the comorbidity between OCD and HD. Hoarding behavior can nevertheless also be found in other clinical populations and in particular in patients with eating disorders (ED, anxiety disorders (AD, major depression (MD, and psychotic disorders (PD. The current study was carried out with the aim of investigating, using a validated instrument such as the Saving Inventory-Revised (SI-R, the presence of HD symptoms in patients diagnosed with ED, AD, MD and PD. Hoarding symptomatology was also assessed in groups of self-identified hoarders (SIH and healthy controls. The results revealed that 22.5% of the ED patients exceeded the cut-off for the diagnosis of HD, followed by 7.7% of the patients with MD, 7.4% of the patients with AD, and 5.9% of the patients with PD. The patients with ED had significantly higher SI-R scores than the other groups in the Acquisition and Difficulty Discarding scales while the AD, MD, and PD patients were characterized exclusively by Difficulty Discarding. These data suggest to clinicians that hoarding symptoms should be assessed in other types of patients and especially in those affected by Bulimia and Binge eating.
National simple: Constitutionality Analysis of Exclusions Sectorial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guilherme Adolfo dos Santos Mendes
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The Constitution defines the favored legal treatment for small businesses without making any explicit exception, including and especially for tax obligations. Nevertheless, all the laws, which have introduced tax benefits guided by this higher provision, have discriminated small companies due to the economic sector of activity. Known as “National Simple” and introduced by the Complementary Law No. 123/06, the current legislation did not extend its benefits to small production units of a number of industries, such as the automotive industry, the passenger transport industry, the energy industry and the industry of manufacture of weapons, beverages and tobacco products. By demonstrating the mistakes of the arguments in favor of such exclusions, the article holds up that none of these provisions meets constitutional standards. Furthermore, based on a critical analysis of the Positive Law, it is shown that the hidden desire behind the exclusions was to keep the economic sectors of high profitability under control of big corporations to the detriment of smaller initiatives.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Jiyin; Huang, Shaoyun, E-mail: hqxu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: syhuang@pku.edu.cn; Lei, Zijin [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Pan, Dong; Zhao, Jianhua [State Key Laboratory of Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Xu, H. Q., E-mail: hqxu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: syhuang@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, Box 118, S-22100 Lund (Sweden)
2016-08-01
We demonstrate direct measurements of the spin-orbit interaction and Landé g factors in a semiconductor nanowire double quantum dot. The device is made from a single-crystal pure-phase InAs nanowire on top of an array of finger gates on a Si/SiO{sub 2} substrate and the measurements are performed in the Pauli spin-blockade regime. It is found that the double quantum dot exhibits a large singlet-triplet energy splitting of Δ{sub ST} ∼ 2.3 meV, a strong spin-orbit interaction of Δ{sub SO} ∼ 140 μeV, and a large and strongly level-dependent Landé g factor of ∼12.5. These results imply that single-crystal pure-phase InAs nanowires are desired semiconductor nanostructures for applications in quantum information technologies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ottenstein, N.; Wallace, S.J.; Tjon, J.A.
1987-11-01
Dirac impulse approximation predictions for cross sections and spin observables in elastic proton scattering by 40 Ca and 208 Pb at energies of 200, 500 and 800 MeV are presented. The analysis is based on complete sets of Lorentz invariant NN amplitudes determined from a meson exchange model of the nuclear force. Effects of relativistic nuclear densities are explored including estimates of the vacuum polarization corrections based on quantum hadrodynamics. Effects of Pauli blocking are considered using the approximations of Murdock and Horowitz. A good description of the experimental data is obtained over a broad energy range and over a wide variation of nuclear size based on the generalized impulse approximation. Vacuum polarization corrections are found to enhance the agreement between theory and experiment. 18 refs., 8 figs
Frost, Darrel R.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Mendelson, Joseph R.
2009-01-01
The Point of View by Gregory Pauly, David Hillis, and David Cannatella misrepresents the motives and activities of the anuran subcommittee of the Scientific and Standard English Names Committee, contains a number of misleading statements, omits evidence and references to critical literature that have already rejected or superseded their positions, and cloaks the limitations of their nomenclatural approach in ambiguous language. Their Point of View is not about promoting transparency in the process of constructing the English Names list, assuring that its taxonomy is adequately reviewed, or promoting nomenclatural stability in any global sense. Rather, their Point of View focuses in large part on a single publication, The Amphibian Tree of Life, which is formally unrelated to the Standard English Names List, and promotes an approach to nomenclature mistakenly asserted by them to be compatible with both the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and one of its competitors, the PhyloCode.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
Pauli exclusion principle, Fermi–. Dirac statistics, identical and in- distinguishable particles, Fermi gas. Fermi–Dirac Statistics. Derivation and Consequences. S Chaturvedi and Shyamal Biswas. (left) Subhash Chaturvedi is at University of. Hyderabad. His current research interests include phase space descriptions.
Applications of accelerator mass spectrometry to nuclear physics and astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Zhiyu; Zhang Chuan
2002-01-01
As an ultra high sensitive analyzing method, accelerator mass spectrometry is playing an important role in the studies of nuclear physics and astrophysics. The accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) applications in searching for violation of Pauli exclusion principle and study on supernovae are discussed as examples
Quantum Interference of Molecules
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
IAS Admin
in terms of the established laws of classical physics and called for a radically different way of thinking. This led to the ... (Compton, 1922), the exclusion principle (Pauli, 1922), ... tian Huygens had proposed the wave theory of light in. 1690 ...
Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
78 Feature Article. What is Free Software? V Vinay · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 79-84 Classroom. Exchange and Sign-change: The Pauli Exclusion Principle · Rahul Siddharthan · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 85-87 Research News.
The principle of general tovariance
Heunen, C.; Landsman, N.P.; Spitters, B.A.W.; Loja Fernandes, R.; Picken, R.
2008-01-01
We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance
Fermat and the Minimum Principle
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Arguably, least action and minimum principles were offered or applied much earlier. This (or these) principle(s) is/are among the fundamental, basic, unifying or organizing ones used to describe a variety of natural phenomena. It considers the amount of energy expended in performing a given action to be the least required ...
Fundamental Principle for Quantum Theory
Khrennikov, Andrei
2002-01-01
We propose the principle, the law of statistical balance for basic physical observables, which specifies quantum statistical theory among all other statistical theories of measurements. It seems that this principle might play in quantum theory the role that is similar to the role of Einstein's relativity principle.
Principles for School Drug Education
Meyer, Lois
2004-01-01
This document presents a revised set of principles for school drug education. The principles for drug education in schools comprise an evolving framework that has proved useful over a number of decades in guiding the development of effective drug education. The first edition of "Principles for Drug Education in Schools" (Ballard et al.…
Peters, Michael A.; Besley, Tina A. C.
2014-01-01
This article offers a broad philosophical and historical background to the dyad of social exclusion/inclusion by examining the analytics and politics of exclusion first by reference to Michel Foucault who studies the modern history of exclusion and makes it central to his approach in understanding the development of modern institutions of emerging…
Principles of Mechanical Excavation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lislerud, A.
1997-12-01
Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena ANGHEL
2015-07-01
Full Text Available "I'm wishing Law this: all legal obligations sholud be executed with the scrupulosity with which moral obligations are being performed by those people who feel bound by them ...", so beautifully portraited by Nicolae Titulescu`s words1. Life in the society means more than a simple coexistence of human beings, it actually means living together, collaborating and cooperating; that is why I always have to relate to other people and to be aware that only by limiting my freedom of action, the others freedom is feasible. Neminem laedere should be a principle of life for each of us. The individual is a responsible being. But responsibility exceeds legal prescriptions. Romanian Constitution underlines that I have to exercise my rights and freedoms in good faith, without infringing the rights and freedoms of others. The legal norm, developer of the constitutional principles, is endowed with sanction, which grants it exigibility. But I wonder: If I choose to obey the law, is my decision essentially determined only due of the fear of punishment? Is it not because I am a rational being, who developed during its life a conscience towards values, and thus I understand that I have to respect the law and I choose to comply with it?
Principles of Mechanical Excavation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lislerud, A. [Tamrock Corp., Tampere (Finland)
1997-12-01
Mechanical excavation of rock today includes several methods such as tunnel boring, raiseboring, roadheading and various continuous mining systems. Of these raiseboring is one potential technique for excavating shafts in the repository for spent nuclear fuel and dry blind boring is promising technique for excavation of deposition holes, as demonstrated in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto. In addition, there is potential for use of other mechanical excavation techniques in different parts of the repository. One of the main objectives of this study was to analyze the factors which affect the feasibility of mechanical rock excavation in hard rock conditions and to enhance the understanding of factors which affect rock cutting so as to provide an improved basis for excavator performance prediction modeling. The study included the following four main topics: (a) phenomenological model based on similarity analysis for roller disk cutting, (b) rock mass properties which affect rock cuttability and tool life, (c) principles for linear and field cutting tests and performance prediction modeling and (d) cutter head lacing design procedures and principles. As a conclusion of this study, a test rig was constructed, field tests were planned and started up. The results of the study can be used to improve the performance prediction models used to assess the feasibility of different mechanical excavation techniques at various repository investigation sites. (orig.). 21 refs.
Competitions between prosocial exclusions and punishments in finite populations
Liu, Linjie; Chen, Xiaojie; Szolnoki, Attila
2017-04-01
Prosocial punishment has been proved to be a powerful mean to promote cooperation. Recent studies have found that social exclusion, which indeed can be regarded as a kind of punishment, can also support cooperation. However, if prosocial punishment and exclusion are both present, it is still unclear which strategy is more advantageous to curb free-riders. Here we first study the direct competition between different types of punishment and exclusion. We find that pool (peer) exclusion can always outperform pool (peer) punishment both in the optional and in the compulsory public goods game, no matter whether second-order sanctioning is considered or not. Furthermore, peer exclusion does better than pool exclusion both in the optional and in the compulsory game, but the situation is reversed in the presence of second-order exclusion. Finally, we extend the competition among all possible sanctioning strategies and find that peer exclusion can outperform all other strategies in the absence of second-order exclusion and punishment, while pool exclusion prevails when second-order sanctioning is possible. Our results demonstrate that exclusion is a more powerful strategy than punishment for the resolution of social dilemmas.
Exclusive processes and the exclusive-inclusive connection in quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, S.J.; Lepage, G.P.
1979-03-01
An outline of a new analysis of exclusive processes and quantum chromodynamics is presented. The main elements of this work involve a consistent Fock space decomposition of the hadronic wave function, plus evolution equations for wave functions which allow an exact evaluation of hadronic matrix elements in the asymptotic short distance limit. 77 references
Determinants of exclusive breastfeeding in Nigeria
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Odiase Justice I
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Exclusive breast feeding (EBF has important protective effects on the survival of infants and decreases risk for many early-life diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors associated with EBF in Nigeria. Methods Data on 658 children less than 6 months of age were obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS 2003. The 2003 NDHS was a multi-stage cluster sample survey of 7864 households. EBF rates were examined against a set of individual, household and community level variables using a backward stepwise multilevel logistic regression method. Results The average EBF rate among infants younger than 6 months of age was 16.4% (95%CI: 12.6%-21.1% but was only 7.1% in infants in their fifth month of age. After adjusting for potential confounders, multivariate analyses revealed that the odds of EBF were higher in rich (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR = 1.15, CI = 0.28-6.69 and middle level (AOR = 2.45, CI = 1.06-5.68 households than poor households. Increasing infant age was associated with significantly less EBF (AOR = 0.65, 95%CI: 0.51-0.82. Mothers who had four or more antenatal visits were significantly more likely to engage in EBF (AOR = 2.70, 95%CI = 1.04-7.01. Female infants were more likely to be exclusively breastfed than male infants (AOR = 2.13, 95%CI = 1.03-4.39. Mothers who lived in the North Central geopolitical region were significantly more likely to exclusively breastfeed their babies than those mothers who lived in other geopolitical regions. Conclusions The EBF rate in Nigeria is low and falls well short of the expected levels needed to achieve a substantial reduction in child mortality. Antenatal care was strongly associated with an increased rate of EBF. Appropriate infant feeding practises are needed if Nigeria is to reach the child survival Millennium Development Goal of reducing infant mortality from about 100 deaths per 1000 live births to a target of 35 deaths per 1000 live
A survey of variational principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewins, J.D.
1993-01-01
In this article survey of variational principles has been given. Variational principles play a significant role in mathematical theory with emphasis on the physical aspects. There are two principals used i.e. to represent the equation of the system in a succinct way and to enable a particular computation in the system to be carried out with greater accuracy. The survey of variational principles has ranged widely from its starting point in the Lagrange multiplier to optimisation principles. In an age of digital computation, these classic methods can be adapted to improve such calculations. We emphasize particularly the advantage of basic finite element methods on variational principles. (A.B.)
Mach's principle and rotating universes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, D.H.
1990-01-01
It is shown that the Bianchi 9 model universe satisfies the Mach principle. These closed rotating universes were previously thought to be counter-examples to the principle. The Mach principle is satisfied because the angular momentum of the rotating matter is compensated by the effective angular momentum of gravitational waves. A new formulation of the Mach principle is given that is based on the field theory interpretation of general relativity. Every closed universe with 3-sphere topology is shown to satisfy this formulation of the Mach principle. It is shown that the total angular momentum of the matter and gravitational waves in a closed 3-sphere topology universe is zero
A survey of variational principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewins, J.D.
1993-01-01
The survey of variational principles has ranged widely from its starting point in the Lagrange multiplier to optimisation principles. In an age of digital computation, these classic methods can be adapted to improve such calculations. We emphasize particularly the advantage of basing finite element methods on variational principles, especially if, as maximum and minimum principles, these can provide bounds and hence estimates of accuracy. The non-symmetric (and hence stationary rather than extremum principles) are seen however to play a significant role in optimisation theory. (Orig./A.B.)
Amaku, Marcos; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Chaib, Eleazar; Massad, Eduardo
2013-01-01
We address the observation that, in some cases, patients infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are cleared of HCV when super-infected with the hepatitis A virus (HAV). We hypothesise that this phenomenon can be explained by the competitive exclusion principle, including the action of the immune system, and show that the inclusion of the immune system explains both the elimination of one virus and the co-existence of both infections for a certain range of parameters. We discuss the potential clinical implications of our findings.
THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the
Exclusive rare radiative decays of B mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barik, N.; Kar, S.; Dash, P.C.
1998-01-01
The exclusive rare radiative B decays are studied in the relativistic independent quark model based on the confining potential in the scalar-vector harmonic form. The relevant form factors as well as the branching ratios for the processes B 0 →K *0 γ and B ± →K *± γ have been estimated in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. The result compares well with several other model predictions. The calculation has been extended to the CKM-favored process B s →φγ and CKM-suppressed processes B u,d →ργ and B s →K * γ. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Challenging gender stereotypes: resistance and exclusion.
Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Killen, Melanie
2015-01-01
The likelihood of resisting gender-stereotypic peer group norms, along with expectations about personal resistance, was investigated in 9- to 10-year-olds and 13- to 14-year-olds (N = 292). Participants were told about a stereotype conforming group (boys playing football; girls doing ballet) and a stereotype nonconforming group (boys doing ballet; girls playing football). Contrary to expectations from gender-stereotyping research, participants stated that they would personally resist gender-stereotypic norms, and more so than they would expect their peers to resist. However, expecting peers to resist declined with age. Participants expected that exclusion from the group was a consequence for challenging the peer group, and understood the asymmetrical status of gender stereotypes with an expectation that it would be more difficult for boys to challenge stereotypes than for girls. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Racial Exclusion in the Online World
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhoomi K. Thakore
2013-05-01
Full Text Available As the internet has become an integral part of everyday life, it is understood that patterns of racial stereotyping and discrimination found in the offline world are often reproduced online. In our paper, we examine two exclusionary practices in an online environment for adult toy collectors: First, the exclusion of non-white individuals who are expected to form immediate friendships with other non-white members; and second, the essentializing of racial issues when concerns over the lack of racial diversity in the toys are discussed. This dismissal is often directly connected to non-white members’ decisions to no longer participate, resulting in a new form of segregation within virtual space.
Bullying and social exclusion anxiety in schools
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndergaard, Dorte Marie
2012-01-01
In this article, I develop a new conceptual framework, a new thinking technology, for understanding the bullying that takes place between children in schools. In addition, I propose a new definition of bullying. This new thinking technology reflects a shift in focus from individual characteristics...... to the social processes that may lead to bullying. The social approach theorises bullying as one of many reactions to particular kinds of social insecurity. The concepts I develop include the necessity of belonging, social exclusion anxiety and the production of contempt and dignity by both children and adults....... I also draw on Judith Butler’s concept of abjection. In the last part of the article, I employ Karen Barad’s theory of agential realism, focusing specifically on her concept of intraacting enacting forces. The entry to the theoretical development is based on empirical data generated in Denmark...
Orthogonality catastrophe and fractional exclusion statistics
Ares, Filiberto; Gupta, Kumar S.; de Queiroz, Amilcar R.
2018-02-01
We show that the N -particle Sutherland model with inverse-square and harmonic interactions exhibits orthogonality catastrophe. For a fixed value of the harmonic coupling, the overlap of the N -body ground state wave functions with two different values of the inverse-square interaction term goes to zero in the thermodynamic limit. When the two values of the inverse-square coupling differ by an infinitesimal amount, the wave function overlap shows an exponential suppression. This is qualitatively different from the usual power law suppression observed in the Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe. We also obtain an analytic expression for the wave function overlaps for an arbitrary set of couplings, whose properties are analyzed numerically. The quasiparticles constituting the ground state wave functions of the Sutherland model are known to obey fractional exclusion statistics. Our analysis indicates that the orthogonality catastrophe may be valid in systems with more general kinds of statistics than just the fermionic type.
Hard exclusive meson production to constrain GPDs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wolbeek, Johannes ter; Fischer, Horst; Gorzellik, Matthias; Gross, Arne; Joerg, Philipp; Koenigsmann, Kay; Malm, Pasquale; Regali, Christopher; Schmidt, Katharina; Sirtl, Stefan; Szameitat, Tobias [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany); Collaboration: COMPASS Collaboration
2014-07-01
The concept of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) combines the two-dimensional spatial information, given by form factors, with the longitudinal momentum information from the PDFs. Thus, GPDs provide a three-dimensional 'tomography' of the nucleon. Furthermore, according to Ji's sum rule, the GPDs H and E enable access to the total angular momenta of quarks, antiquarks and gluons. While H can be approached using electroproduction cross section, hard exclusive meson production off a transversely polarized target can help to constrain the GPD E. At the COMPASS experiment at CERN, two periods of data taking were performed in 2007 and 2010, using a longitudinally polarized 160 GeV/c muon beam and a transversely polarized NH{sub 3} target. This talk introduces the data analysis of the process μ + p → μ' + p' + V, and recent results are presented.
Gold multifragmentation: Analysis of an exclusive experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aichelin, J.; Campi, X.
1986-01-01
We analyze completely exclusive 1 GeV/nucleon gold-emulsion reaction data with special emphasis on quantities which may help to settle the unsolved problem of which reaction mechanism produces the multifragmentation of heavy nuclei. We present results on correlations between target fragments and projectile fragments and among projectile fragments. In particular, we present for the first time the evolution of the mass yield distribution with the violence of the collisions which is characterized by the number of Z = 1 particles. We find that events producing Z = 2 particles have a different signature than those producing medium mass fragments. This shows that the agreement of the data with theories describing the inclusive mass yield by a single process: like a liquid gas phase transition: is accidental
Exclusion from the Health Insurance Scheme
2003-01-01
A CERN pensioner, member of the Organization's Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), recently provided fake documents in support of claims for medical expenses, in order to receive unjustified reimbursement from the CHIS. The Administrator of the CHIS, UNIQA, suspected a case of fraud: Accordingly, an investigation and interview of the person concerned was carried out and brought the Organization to the conclusion that fraud had actually taken place. Consequently and in accordance with Article VIII 3.12 of the CHIS Rules, it was decided to exclude this member permanently from the CHIS. The Organization takes the opportunity to remind Scheme members that any fraud or attempt to fraud established within the framework of the CHIS exposes them to: - disciplinary action, according to the Staff Rules and Regulations, for CERN members of the personnel; - definitive exclusion from the CHIS for members affiliated on a voluntary basis. Human Resources Division Tel. 73635
Dall'Arno, Michele; Brandsen, Sarah; Tosini, Alessandro; Buscemi, Francesco; Vedral, Vlatko
2017-07-01
A paramount topic in quantum foundations, rooted in the study of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox and Bell inequalities, is that of characterizing quantum theory in terms of the spacelike correlations it allows. Here, we show that to focus only on spacelike correlations is not enough: we explicitly construct a toy model theory that, while not contradicting classical and quantum theories at the level of spacelike correlations, still displays an anomalous behavior in its timelike correlations. We call this anomaly, quantified in terms of a specific communication game, the "hypersignaling" phenomena. We hence conclude that the "principle of quantumness," if it exists, cannot be found in spacelike correlations alone: nontrivial constraints need to be imposed also on timelike correlations, in order to exclude hypersignaling theories.
Svelto, Orazio
2010-01-01
This new Fifth Edition of Principles of Lasers incorporates corrections to the previous edition. The text’s essential mission remains the same: to provide a wide-ranging yet unified description of laser behavior, physics, technology, and current applications. Dr. Svelto emphasizes the physical rather than the mathematical aspects of lasers, and presents the subject in the simplest terms compatible with a correct physical understanding. Praise for earlier editions: "Professor Svelto is himself a longtime laser pioneer and his text shows the breadth of his broad acquaintance with all aspects of the field … Anyone mastering the contents of this book will be well prepared to understand advanced treatises and research papers in laser science and technology." (Arthur L. Schawlow, 1981 Nobel Laureate in Physics) "Already well established as a self-contained introduction to the physics and technology of lasers … Professor Svelto’s book, in this lucid translation by David Hanna, can be strongly recommended for...
Beuthien-Baumann, B
2018-05-01
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a procedure in nuclear medicine, which is applied predominantly in oncological diagnostics. In the form of modern hybrid machines, such as PET computed tomography (PET/CT) and PET magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) it has found wide acceptance and availability. The PET procedure is more than just another imaging technique, but a functional method with the capability for quantification in addition to the distribution pattern of the radiopharmaceutical, the results of which are used for therapeutic decisions. A profound knowledge of the principles of PET including the correct indications, patient preparation, and possible artifacts is mandatory for the correct interpretation of PET results.
Principles of asymmetric synthesis
Gawley, Robert E; Aube, Jeffrey
2012-01-01
The world is chiral. Most of the molecules in it are chiral, and asymmetric synthesis is an important means by which enantiopure chiral molecules may be obtained for study and sale. Using examples from the literature of asymmetric synthesis, this book presents a detailed analysis of the factors that govern stereoselectivity in organic reactions. After an explanation of the basic physical-organic principles governing stereoselective reactions, the authors provide a detailed, annotated glossary of stereochemical terms. A chapter on "Practical Aspects of Asymmetric Synthesis" provides a critical overview of the most common methods for the preparation of enantiomerically pure compounds, techniques for analysis of stereoisomers using chromatographic, spectroscopic, and chiroptical methods. The authors then present an overview of the most important methods in contemporary asymmetric synthesis organized by reaction type. Thus, there are four chapters on carbon-carbon bond forming reactions, one chapter on reductions...
Saxena, A K
2014-01-01
Principles of Modern Physics, divided into twenty one chapters, begins with quantum ideas followed by discussions on special relativity, atomic structure, basic quantum mechanics, hydrogen atom (and Schrodinger equation) and periodic table, the three statistical distributions, X-rays, physics of solids, imperfections in crystals, magnetic properties of materials, superconductivity, Zeeman-, Stark- and Paschen Back- effects, Lasers, Nuclear physics (Yukawa's meson theory and various nuclear models), radioactivity and nuclear reactions, nuclear fission, fusion and plasma, particle accelerators and detectors, the universe, Elementary particles (classification, eight fold way and quark model, standard model and fundamental interactions), cosmic rays, deuteron problem in nuclear physics, and cathode ray oscilloscope. NEW TO THE FOURTH EDITION: The CO2 Laser Theory of magnetic moments on the basis of shell model Geological dating Laser Induced fusion and laser fusion reactor. Hawking radiation The cosmological red ...
Principles & practice of physics
Mazur, Eric; Dourmashkin, Peter A; Pedigo, Daryl; Bieniek, Ronald J
2015-01-01
Putting physics first Based on his storied research and teaching, Eric Mazur's Principles & Practice of Physics builds an understanding of physics that is both thorough and accessible. Unique organization and pedagogy allow you to develop a true conceptual understanding of physics alongside the quantitative skills needed in the course. *New learning architecture: The book is structured to help you learn physics in an organized way that encourages comprehension and reduces distraction.*Physics on a contemporary foundation: Traditional texts delay the introduction of ideas that we now see as unifying and foundational. This text builds physics on those unifying foundations, helping you to develop an understanding that is stronger, deeper, and fundamentally simpler.*Research-based instruction: This text uses a range of research-based instructional techniques to teach physics in the most effective manner possible. The result is a groundbreaking book that puts physics first, thereby making it more accessible to...
Emulsion Science Basic Principles
Leal-Calderon, Fernando; Schmitt, Véronique
2007-01-01
Emulsions are generally made out of two immiscible fluids like oil and water, one being dispersed in the second in the presence of surface-active compounds.They are used as intermediate or end products in a huge range of areas including the food, chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, paint, and coating industries. Besides the broad domain of technological interest, emulsions are raising a variety of fundamental questions at the frontier between physics and chemistry. This book aims to give an overview of the most recent advances in emulsion science. The basic principles, covering aspects of emulsions from their preparation to their destruction, are presented in close relation to both the fundamental physics and the applications of these materials. The book is intended to help scientists and engineers in formulating new materials by giving them the basics of emulsion science.
Skulachev, Vladimir P; Kasparinsky, Felix O
2013-01-01
Principles of Bioenergetics summarizes one of the quickly growing branches of modern biochemistry. Bioenergetics concerns energy transductions occurring in living systems and this book pays special attention to molecular mechanisms of these processes. The main subject of the book is the "energy coupling membrane" which refers to inner membranes of intracellular organelles, for example, mitochondria and chloroplasts. Cellular cytoplasmic membranes where respiratory and photosynthetic energy transducers, as well as ion-transporting ATP-synthases (ATPases) are also part of this membrane. Significant attention is paid to the alternative function of mitochondria as generators of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediate programmed death of cells (apoptosis and necrosis) and organisms (phenoptosis). The latter process is considered as a key mechanism of aging which may be suppressed by mitochondria-targeted antioxidants.
The nonholonomic variational principle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krupkova, Olga [Department of Algebra and Geometry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, Tomkova 40, 779 00 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Mathematics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086 (Australia)], E-mail: krupkova@inf.upol.cz
2009-05-08
A variational principle for mechanical systems and fields subject to nonholonomic constraints is found, providing Chetaev-reduced equations as equations for extremals. Investigating nonholonomic variations of the Chetaev type and their properties, we develop foundations of the calculus of variations on constraint manifolds, modelled as fibred submanifolds in jet bundles. This setting is appropriate to study general first-order 'nonlinear nonitegrable constraints' that locally are given by a system of first-order ordinary or partial differential equations. We obtain an invariant constrained first variation formula and constrained Euler-Lagrange equations both in intrinsic and coordinate forms, and show that the equations are the same as Chetaev equations 'without Lagrange multipliers', introduced recently by other methods. We pay attention to two possible settings: first, when the constrained system arises from an unconstrained Lagrangian system defined in a neighbourhood of the constraint, and second, more generally, when an 'internal' constrained system on the constraint manifold is given. In the latter case a corresponding unconstrained system need not be a Lagrangian, nor even exist. We also study in detail an important particular case: nonholonomic constraints that can be alternatively modelled by means of (co)distributions in the total space of the fibred manifold; in nonholonomic mechanics this happens whenever constraints affine in velocities are considered. It becomes clear that (and why) if the distribution is completely integrable (= the constraints are semiholonomic), the principle of virtual displacements holds and can be used to obtain the constrained first variational formula by a more or less standard procedure, traditionally used when unconstrained or holonomic systems are concerned. If, however, the constraint is nonintegrable, no significant simplifications are available. Among others, some properties of nonholonomic
Dynamical principles in neuroscience
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.
2006-01-01
Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?
Dynamical principles in neuroscience
Rabinovich, Mikhail I.; Varona, Pablo; Selverston, Allen I.; Abarbanel, Henry D. I.
2006-10-01
Dynamical modeling of neural systems and brain functions has a history of success over the last half century. This includes, for example, the explanation and prediction of some features of neural rhythmic behaviors. Many interesting dynamical models of learning and memory based on physiological experiments have been suggested over the last two decades. Dynamical models even of consciousness now exist. Usually these models and results are based on traditional approaches and paradigms of nonlinear dynamics including dynamical chaos. Neural systems are, however, an unusual subject for nonlinear dynamics for several reasons: (i) Even the simplest neural network, with only a few neurons and synaptic connections, has an enormous number of variables and control parameters. These make neural systems adaptive and flexible, and are critical to their biological function. (ii) In contrast to traditional physical systems described by well-known basic principles, first principles governing the dynamics of neural systems are unknown. (iii) Many different neural systems exhibit similar dynamics despite having different architectures and different levels of complexity. (iv) The network architecture and connection strengths are usually not known in detail and therefore the dynamical analysis must, in some sense, be probabilistic. (v) Since nervous systems are able to organize behavior based on sensory inputs, the dynamical modeling of these systems has to explain the transformation of temporal information into combinatorial or combinatorial-temporal codes, and vice versa, for memory and recognition. In this review these problems are discussed in the context of addressing the stimulating questions: What can neuroscience learn from nonlinear dynamics, and what can nonlinear dynamics learn from neuroscience?
Fault Management Guiding Principles
Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan
2011-01-01
Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.
Core principles of evolutionary medicine
Grunspan, Daniel Z; Nesse, Randolph M; Barnes, M Elizabeth; Brownell, Sara E
2018-01-01
Abstract Background and objectives Evolutionary medicine is a rapidly growing field that uses the principles of evolutionary biology to better understand, prevent and treat disease, and that uses studies of disease to advance basic knowledge in evolutionary biology. Over-arching principles of evolutionary medicine have been described in publications, but our study is the first to systematically elicit core principles from a diverse panel of experts in evolutionary medicine. These principles should be useful to advance recent recommendations made by The Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute to make evolutionary thinking a core competency for pre-medical education. Methodology The Delphi method was used to elicit and validate a list of core principles for evolutionary medicine. The study included four surveys administered in sequence to 56 expert panelists. The initial open-ended survey created a list of possible core principles; the three subsequent surveys winnowed the list and assessed the accuracy and importance of each principle. Results Fourteen core principles elicited at least 80% of the panelists to agree or strongly agree that they were important core principles for evolutionary medicine. These principles over-lapped with concepts discussed in other articles discussing key concepts in evolutionary medicine. Conclusions and implications This set of core principles will be helpful for researchers and instructors in evolutionary medicine. We recommend that evolutionary medicine instructors use the list of core principles to construct learning goals. Evolutionary medicine is a young field, so this list of core principles will likely change as the field develops further. PMID:29493660
Pedagogical Principles in Online Teaching
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Uth Thomsen, Thyra; von Wallpach, Sylvia
of the seven pedagogical principles that govern the teaching at our university. We also present a case study that illustrates how both opportunities and challenges were met in two “first-mover” fully online courses during Fall 2014. The experiences from this case study are discussed in terms of to what extent...... they met the pedagogical principles and observations unrelated to the pedagogical principle are shared....
Softening the Blow of Social Exclusion: The Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gili Freedman
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Social exclusion is an interactive process between multiple people, yet previous research has focused almost solely on the negative impacts on targets. What advice is there for people on the other side (i.e., sources who want to minimize its negative impact and preserve their own reputation? To provide an impetus for research on the interactive nature of exclusion, we propose the Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion. Our theory postulates that targets and sources’ needs are better maintained if sources use clear, explicit verbal communication. We propose that sources have three options: explicit rejection (clearly stating no, ostracism (ignoring, and ambiguous rejection (being unclear. Drawing on psychology, sociology, communications, and business research, we propose that when sources use explicit rejection, targets’ feelings will be less hurt, their needs will be better protected, and sources will experience less backlash and emotional toil than if sources use ambiguous rejection or ostracism. Finally, we propose how the language of rejections may impact both parties.
Softening the Blow of Social Exclusion: The Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion
Freedman, Gili; Williams, Kipling D.; Beer, Jennifer S.
2016-01-01
Social exclusion is an interactive process between multiple people, yet previous research has focused almost solely on the negative impacts on targets. What advice is there for people on the other side (i.e., sources) who want to minimize its negative impact and preserve their own reputation? To provide an impetus for research on the interactive nature of exclusion, we propose the Responsive Theory of Social Exclusion. Our theory postulates that targets and sources’ needs are better maintained if sources use clear, explicit verbal communication. We propose that sources have three options: explicit rejection (clearly stating no), ostracism (ignoring), and ambiguous rejection (being unclear). Drawing on psychology, sociology, communications, and business research, we propose that when sources use explicit rejection, targets’ feelings will be less hurt, their needs will be better protected, and sources will experience less backlash and emotional toil than if sources use ambiguous rejection or ostracism. Finally, we propose how the language of rejections may impact both parties. PMID:27777566
Great Lakes Literacy Principles
Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey
2011-03-01
Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.
Principles of Bioremediation Assessment
Madsen, E. L.
2001-12-01
Although microorganisms have successfully and spontaneously maintained the biosphere since its inception, industrialized societies now produce undesirable chemical compounds at rates that outpace naturally occurring microbial detoxification processes. This presentation provides an overview of both the complexities of contaminated sites and methodological limitations in environmental microbiology that impede the documentation of biodegradation processes in the field. An essential step toward attaining reliable bioremediation technologies is the development of criteria which prove that microorganisms in contaminated field sites are truly active in metabolizing contaminants of interest. These criteria, which rely upon genetic, biochemical, physiological, and ecological principles and apply to both in situ and ex situ bioremediation strategies include: (i) internal conservative tracers; (ii) added conservative tracers; (iii) added radioactive tracers; (iv) added isotopic tracers; (v) stable isotopic fractionation patterns; (vi) detection of intermediary metabolites; (vii) replicated field plots; (viii) microbial metabolic adaptation; (ix) molecular biological indicators; (x) gradients of coreactants and/or products; (xi) in situ rates of respiration; (xii) mass balances of contaminants, coreactants, and products; and (xiii) computer modeling that incorporates transport and reactive stoichiometries of electron donors and acceptors. The ideal goal is achieving a quantitative understanding of the geochemistry, hydrogeology, and physiology of complex real-world systems.
Quantum principles and particles
Wilcox, Walter
2012-01-01
QUANTUM PRINCIPLESPerspective and PrinciplesPrelude to Quantum MechanicsStern-Gerlach Experiment Idealized Stern-Gerlach ResultsClassical Model AttemptsWave Functions for Two Physical-Outcome CaseProcess Diagrams, Operators, and Completeness Further Properties of Operators/ModulationOperator ReformulationOperator RotationBra-Ket Notation/Basis StatesTransition AmplitudesThree-Magnet Setup Example-CoherenceHermitian ConjugationUnitary OperatorsA Very Special OperatorMatrix RepresentationsMatrix Wave Function RecoveryExpectation ValuesWrap Up ProblemsFree Particles in One DimensionPhotoelectric EffectCompton EffectUncertainty Relation for PhotonsStability of Ground StatesBohr ModelFourier Transform and Uncertainty RelationsSchrödinger EquationSchrödinger Equation ExampleDirac Delta FunctionsWave Functions and ProbabilityProbability CurrentTime Separable SolutionsCompleteness for Particle StatesParticle Operator PropertiesOperator RulesTime Evolution and Expectation ValuesWrap-UpProblemsSome One-Dimensional So...
Spencer-Devlin, Marni
2013-01-01
The Iceberg Principles connect spirituality and science in a way that proves that the energy, which is the substance of the Universe, really is Love - not sweet, syrupy, candy-and-roses kind of love but the most powerful force in the Universe. Love without expression is meaningless. This is why the Big Bang was the only logical outcome. Love had to become reflected in dimensionality. With the Big Bang a 4:96 ratio was created between the dimensional and non-dimensional realms. This ratio between visibility and invisibility the ratio of an iceberg also applies to human beings. Only four percent of who we are is visible. Our physical DNA describes us but it does not define us. What defines us are our characteristics, our gifts, and talents - the spiritual DNA. This is invisible but makes up ninety-six percent of who we are. Our talents are not accidental; our life purpose is to express them. Just as the Universe emerges into dimensionality, constantly creating galaxies at millions of miles a minute, we are al...
Principles of alternative gerontology
Bilinski, Tomasz; Bylak, Aneta; Zadrag-Tecza, Renata
2016-01-01
Surveys of taxonomic groups of animals have shown that contrary to the opinion of most gerontologists aging is not a genuine trait. The process of aging is not universal and its mechanisms have not been widely conserved among species. All life forms are subject to extrinsic and intrinsic destructive forces. Destructive effects of stochastic events are visible only when allowed by the specific life program of an organism. Effective life programs of immortality and high longevity eliminate the impact of unavoidable damage. Organisms that are capable of agametic reproduction are biologically immortal. Mortality of an organism is clearly associated with terminal specialisation in sexual reproduction. The longevity phenotype that is not accompanied by symptoms of senescence has been observed in those groups of animals that continue to increase their body size after reaching sexual maturity. This is the result of enormous regeneration abilities of both of the above-mentioned groups. Senescence is observed when: (i) an organism by principle switches off the expression of existing growth and regeneration programs, as in the case of imago formation in insect development; (ii) particular programs of growth and regeneration of progenitors are irreversibly lost, either partially or in their entirety, in mammals and birds. “We can't solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.” (Ascribed to Albert Einstein) PMID:27017907
2010-07-01
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do other Federal agencies know if the Department of the Treasury agrees to a voluntary exclusion? 19.645 Section 19.645 Money and Finance: Treasury... Principles Relating to Suspension and Debarment Actions § 19.645 Do other Federal agencies know if the...
Experimental toxicology: the basic principles
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Anderson, Diana; Conning, D. M
1988-01-01
Principles and methods are discussed in detail, covering experimental design, biochemical issues, animal husbandry, species differences, immunological issues, carcinogenesis, reproductive approaches...
The Principle of General Tovariance
Heunen, C.; Landsman, N. P.; Spitters, B.
2008-06-01
We tentatively propose two guiding principles for the construction of theories of physics, which should be satisfied by a possible future theory of quantum gravity. These principles are inspired by those that led Einstein to his theory of general relativity, viz. his principle of general covariance and his equivalence principle, as well as by the two mysterious dogmas of Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics, i.e. his doctrine of classical concepts and his principle of complementarity. An appropriate mathematical language for combining these ideas is topos theory, a framework earlier proposed for physics by Isham and collaborators. Our principle of general tovariance states that any mathematical structure appearing in the laws of physics must be definable in an arbitrary topos (with natural numbers object) and must be preserved under so-called geometric morphisms. This principle identifies geometric logic as the mathematical language of physics and restricts the constructions and theorems to those valid in intuitionism: neither Aristotle's principle of the excluded third nor Zermelo's Axiom of Choice may be invoked. Subsequently, our equivalence principle states that any algebra of observables (initially defined in the topos Sets) is empirically equivalent to a commutative one in some other topos.
Using Principles of Programmed Instruction
Huffman, Harry
1971-01-01
Although programmed instruction in accounting is available, it is limited in scope and in acceptance. Teachers, however, may apply principles of programming to the individualizing of instruction. (Author)
Fundamental principles of quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bugajski, S.
1980-01-01
After introducing general versions of three fundamental quantum postulates - the superposition principle, the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle - the question of whether the three principles are sufficiently strong to restrict the general Mackey description of quantum systems to the standard Hilbert-space quantum theory is discussed. An example which shows that the answer must be negative is constructed. An abstract version of the projection postulate is introduced and it is demonstrated that it could serve as the missing physical link between the general Mackey description and the standard quantum theory. (author)
Exclusive production of W pairs in CMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silveira Da
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We report the results on the search for exclusive production of W pairs in the LHC with data collected by the Compact Muon Solenoid detector in proton-proton collisions at √s = 7 TeV. The analysis comprises the two-photon production of a W pairs, pp → pW+ W− p → p νe± νµ∓ p. Two events are observed in data for pT(ℓ > 4 GeV, |η(ℓ| 20 GeV, in agreement with the standard model prediction of 2.2 ± 0.4 signal events with 0.84 ± 0.15 background events. Moreover, a study of the tail of the lepton pair transverse momentum distribution is performed to search for an evidence of anomalous quartic gauge couplings in the γγ → W+ W− vertex. As no events are observed in data, it results in a model-independent upper limits for the anomalous W quartic gauge couplings aW0,C/Λ2, which are of the order of 10−4.
Exclusive φ meson production in HERMES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golembiovskaya, Mayya
2014-03-01
In the present work exclusive φ meson leptoproduction at HERMES experiment in DESY was studied using the data collected at HERA accelerator in the period from 1998 till 2000 and from 2006 till 2007 years. In the analysis unpolarized and longitudinally polarized hydrogen and deuteron targets were used, the beam consisted of longitudinally polarized leptons. Via measurement of the angular and momentum distribution of the φ meson decay products 23 spin density matrix elements (SDMEs) for the φ meson were obtained. The number of SDMEs was defined by the experiment conditions, e.g. by the beam and target polarization directions. For the mentioned time period φ meson SDMEs were defined at HERMES for the first time. The quantities U 1 , U 2 and U 3 which can be used to check presence of unnatural parity exchange (UPE) mechanism in phi meson production were calculated from SDMEs. All the results were obtained in 3 kinematic bins of Q 2 , 4 kinematic bins of t' and for the integrated kinematics. No statistically significant difference between the results for hydrogen and deuteron targets was observed. The UPE quantities were found to be zero within 2 σ for the integrated kinematics, indicating negligible contribution of UPE for the φ meson production which is in agreement with theory predictions. The test of s-channel helicity conservation hypothesis via comparison of corresponding SDME values showed helicity conservation for the φ meson production.
Radiation danger of exclusion zone objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kholosha, V.I.; Proskura, N.I.; Ivanov, Yu.A.; Kazakov, S.V.; Arkhipov, A.N.
2001-01-01
The analysis of radiation danger of the Exclusion Zone objects was made. Here, the Zone is defined as the territory from which the population has been evacuated in 1986 owing to the Chernobyl accident and possible outflow of the contaminated substances out of the borders is potentially dangerous to the Ukraine. In the present work were analyzed such problems as sources of radiation danger in the Zone, ways of radionuclide migration out of the borders of the Zone in normal and emergency situations, the non-radiation (ecological) danger factors of the Zone objects, doses (individual and collective) from various sources and on separate ways of their formation, and the characteristics of radiation danger of the Zone objects. The conclusions are: (1) Radionuclide flows both from technologic and natural sources exceed those from Shelter objects, (2) Under emergency conditions, radionuclide flows and doze loading remain comparable with those from emergency sources, (3) To solve some management tasks in radiation situation, the basic works on the Shelter objects should be oriented to decrease probability of emergency occurrence and to reduce radiation influence (prevention wash-outs during high waters, fire-prevention measures in forests and strengthening of the control behind non-authorized use of objects in the Zone). (S. Ohno)
Exclusive electroproduction of two pions at HERA
Abramowicz, H.
2012-01-25
The exclusive electroproduction of two pions in the mass range 0.4 < M{\\pi}{\\pi} < 2.5 GeV has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 82 pb-1. The analysis was carried out in the kinematic range of 2 < Q2 < 80 GeV2, 32 < W < 180 GeV and |t| < 0.6 GeV2, where Q2 is the photon virtuality, W is the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy and t is the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex. The two-pion invariant-mass distribution is interpreted in terms of the pion electromagnetic form factor, |F(M{\\pi}{\\pi})|, assuming that the studied mass range includes the contributions of the {\\rho}, {\\rho}' and {\\rho}" vector-meson states. The masses and widths of the resonances were obtained and the Q2 dependence of the cross-section ratios {\\sigma}({\\rho}' \\rightarrow {\\pi}{\\pi})/{\\sigma}({\\rho}) and {\\sigma}({\\rho}" \\rightarrow {\\pi}{\\pi})/{\\sigma}({\\rho}) was extracted. The pion form factor obtained in the present analysis is compared to that obtained...
Size exclusion chromatography with superficially porous particles.
Schure, Mark R; Moran, Robert E
2017-01-13
A comparison is made using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) of synthetic polymers between fully porous particles (FPPs) and superficially porous particles (SPPs) with similar particle diameters, pore sizes and equal flow rates. Polystyrene molecular weight standards with a mobile phase of tetrahydrofuran are utilized for all measurements conducted with standard HPLC equipment. Although it is traditionally thought that larger pore volume is thermodynamically advantageous in SEC for better separations, SPPs have kinetic advantages and these will be shown to compensate for the loss in pore volume compared to FPPs. The comparison metrics include the elution range (smaller with SPPs), the plate count (larger for SPPs), the rate production of theoretical plates (larger for SPPs) and the specific resolution (larger with FPPs). Advantages to using SPPs for SEC are discussed such that similar separations can be conducted faster using SPPs. SEC using SPPs offers similar peak capacities to that using FPPs but with faster operation. This also suggests that SEC conducted in the second dimension of a two-dimensional liquid chromatograph may benefit with reduced run time and with equivalently reduced peak width making SPPs advantageous for sampling the first dimension by the second dimension separator. Additional advantages are discussed for biomolecules along with a discussion of optimization criteria for size-based separations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Size-exclusion chromatography of perfluorosulfonated ionomers.
Mourey, T H; Slater, L A; Galipo, R C; Koestner, R J
2011-08-26
A size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) method in N,N-dimethylformamide containing 0.1 M LiNO(3) is shown to be suitable for the determination of molar mass distributions of three classes of perfluorosulfonated ionomers, including Nafion(®). Autoclaving sample preparation is optimized to prepare molecular solutions free of aggregates, and a solvent exchange method concentrates the autoclaved samples to enable the use of molar-mass-sensitive detection. Calibration curves obtained from light scattering and viscometry detection suggest minor variation in the specific refractive index increment across the molecular size distributions, which introduces inaccuracies in the calculation of local absolute molar masses and intrinsic viscosities. Conformation plots that combine apparent molar masses from light scattering detection with apparent intrinsic viscosities from viscometry detection partially compensate for the variations in refractive index increment. The conformation plots are consistent with compact polymer conformations, and they provide Mark-Houwink-Sakurada constants that can be used to calculate molar mass distributions without molar-mass-sensitive detection. Unperturbed dimensions and characteristic ratios calculated from viscosity-molar mass relationships indicate unusually free rotation of the perfluoroalkane backbones and may suggest limitations to applying two-parameter excluded volume theories for these ionomers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Exclusive electroproduction of two pions at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abramowicz, H.; Ashery, D.; Gueta, O.; Gurvich, E.; Ingbir, R.; Kananov, S.; Levy, A.; Stern, A.
2012-01-01
The exclusive electroproduction of two pions in the mass range 0.4 ππ -1 . The analysis was carried out in the kinematic range of 2 2 2 , 32 2 , where Q 2 is the photon virtuality, W is the photon-proton centre-of-mass energy and t is the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex. The two-pion invariant-mass distribution is interpreted in terms of the pion electromagnetic form factor, vertical stroke F(M ππ ) vertical stroke, assuming that the studied mass range includes the contributions of the ρ, ρ' and ρ'' vector-meson states. The masses and widths of the resonances were obtained and the Q 2 dependence of the cross-section ratios σ(ρ'→ππ)/ σ(ρ) and σ(ρ''→ππ)/ σ(ρ) was extracted. The pion form factor obtained in the present analysis is compared to that obtained in e + e - →π + π - . (orig.)
Exclusion of identification by negative superposition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takač Šandor
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The paper represents the first report of negative superposition in our country. Photo of randomly selected young, living woman was superimposed on the previously discovered female skull. Computer program Adobe Photoshop 7.0 was used in work. Digitilized photographs of the skull and face, after uploaded to computer, were superimposed on each other and displayed on the monitor in order to assess their possible similarities or differences. Special attention was payed to matching the same anthropometrical points of the skull and face, as well as following their contours. The process of fitting the skull and the photograph is usually started by setting eyes in correct position relative to the orbits. In this case, lower jaw gonions go beyond the face contour and gnathion is highly placed. By positioning the chin, mouth and nose their correct anatomical position cannot be achieved. All the difficulties associated with the superposition were recorded, with special emphasis on critical evaluation of work results in a negative superposition. Negative superposition has greater probative value (exclusion of identification than positive (possible identification. 100% negative superposition is easily achieved, but 100% positive - almost never. 'Each skull is unique and viewed from different perspectives is always a new challenge'. From this point of view, identification can be negative or of high probability.
Alternative hospital gift bags and breastfeeding exclusivity.
Bai, Yeon; Wunderlich, Shahla M; Kashdan, Rickie
2013-01-01
The type of gift bags given to new mothers at the time of discharge from the hospital can influence their confidence in breastfeeding. Most hospitals in the US continue to distribute commercial gift bags containing formula samples despite the reported negative influence of commercial bags on the duration of breastfeeding. This study compared breastfeeding outcomes in women receiving three different kinds of gift bags at discharge. A prospective intervention study was conducted during 2009-2010 in New Jersey. Three breastfeeding cohorts were recruited and assigned to three groups: COMMERCIAL received discharge bags containing formula samples, BF-INFO received breastfeeding information and supplies, and PUMP received breastfeeding information/supplies plus a manual breast pump. Follow-up contacts were at 2, 4, and 12 postpartum weeks to determine breastfeeding outcome. The mean durations of exclusive (EBF) and partial breastfeeding were compared between groups using ANOVA. A total of 386 participants completed the study. The mean EBF duration (weeks) in the PUMP (n = 138, 8.28 ± 4.86) and BF-INFO (n = 121, 7.87 ± 4.63) were significantly longer (P < 0.01) than COMMERCIAL (n = 127, 6.12 ± 4.49). The rate of EBF through 12 weeks in PUMP was most consistent. The mean duration of partial breastfeeding showed similar results: significantly longer in PUMP and BF-INFO than COMMERCIAL (P < 0.01).
Dynamics of non-Markovian exclusion processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khoromskaia, Diana; Grosskinsky, Stefan; Harris, Rosemary J
2014-01-01
Driven diffusive systems are often used as simple discrete models of collective transport phenomena in physics, biology or social sciences. Restricting attention to one-dimensional geometries, the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) plays a paradigmatic role to describe noise-activated driven motion of entities subject to an excluded volume interaction and many variants have been studied in recent years. While in the standard ASEP the noise is Poissonian and the process is therefore Markovian, in many applications the statistics of the activating noise has a non-standard distribution with possible memory effects resulting from internal degrees of freedom or external sources. This leads to temporal correlations and can significantly affect the shape of the current-density relation as has been studied recently for a number of scenarios. In this paper we report a general framework to derive the fundamental diagram of ASEPs driven by non-Poissonian noise by using effectively only two simple quantities, viz., the mean residual lifetime of the jump distribution and a suitably defined temporal correlation length. We corroborate our results by detailed numerical studies for various noise statistics under periodic boundary conditions and discuss how our approach can be applied to more general driven diffusive systems. (paper)
Dynamics of non-Markovian exclusion processes
Khoromskaia, Diana; Harris, Rosemary J.; Grosskinsky, Stefan
2014-12-01
Driven diffusive systems are often used as simple discrete models of collective transport phenomena in physics, biology or social sciences. Restricting attention to one-dimensional geometries, the asymmetric simple exclusion process (ASEP) plays a paradigmatic role to describe noise-activated driven motion of entities subject to an excluded volume interaction and many variants have been studied in recent years. While in the standard ASEP the noise is Poissonian and the process is therefore Markovian, in many applications the statistics of the activating noise has a non-standard distribution with possible memory effects resulting from internal degrees of freedom or external sources. This leads to temporal correlations and can significantly affect the shape of the current-density relation as has been studied recently for a number of scenarios. In this paper we report a general framework to derive the fundamental diagram of ASEPs driven by non-Poissonian noise by using effectively only two simple quantities, viz., the mean residual lifetime of the jump distribution and a suitably defined temporal correlation length. We corroborate our results by detailed numerical studies for various noise statistics under periodic boundary conditions and discuss how our approach can be applied to more general driven diffusive systems.
Exclusive φ meson production in HERMES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Golembiovskaya, Mayya
2014-03-15
In the present work exclusive φ meson leptoproduction at HERMES experiment in DESY was studied using the data collected at HERA accelerator in the period from 1998 till 2000 and from 2006 till 2007 years. In the analysis unpolarized and longitudinally polarized hydrogen and deuteron targets were used, the beam consisted of longitudinally polarized leptons. Via measurement of the angular and momentum distribution of the φ meson decay products 23 spin density matrix elements (SDMEs) for the φ meson were obtained. The number of SDMEs was defined by the experiment conditions, e.g. by the beam and target polarization directions. For the mentioned time period φ meson SDMEs were defined at HERMES for the first time. The quantities U{sub 1}, U{sub 2} and U{sub 3} which can be used to check presence of unnatural parity exchange (UPE) mechanism in phi meson production were calculated from SDMEs. All the results were obtained in 3 kinematic bins of Q{sup 2}, 4 kinematic bins of t' and for the integrated kinematics. No statistically significant difference between the results for hydrogen and deuteron targets was observed. The UPE quantities were found to be zero within 2 σ for the integrated kinematics, indicating negligible contribution of UPE for the φ meson production which is in agreement with theory predictions. The test of s-channel helicity conservation hypothesis via comparison of corresponding SDME values showed helicity conservation for the φ meson production.
Exclusive electroproduction of two pions at HERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)
2011-11-15
The exclusive electroproduction of two pions in the mass range 0.4< M{sub {pi}}{sub {pi}} <2.5 GeV has been studied with the ZEUS detector at HERA using an integrated luminosity of 82 pb{sup -1}. The analysis was carried out in the kinematic range of 2< Q{sup 2}<80 GeV{sup 2}, 32
Abnormal neural responses to social exclusion in schizophrenia.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Victoria B Gradin
Full Text Available Social exclusion is an influential concept in politics, mental health and social psychology. Studies on healthy subjects have implicated the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, a region involved in emotional and social information processing, in neural responses to social exclusion. Impairments in social interactions are common in schizophrenia and are associated with reduced quality of life. Core symptoms such as delusions usually have a social content. However little is known about the neural underpinnings of social abnormalities. The aim of this study was to investigate the neural substrates of social exclusion in schizophrenia. Patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls underwent fMRI while participating in a popular social exclusion paradigm. This task involves passing a 'ball' between the participant and two cartoon representations of other subjects. The extent of social exclusion (ball not being passed to the participant was parametrically varied throughout the task. Replicating previous findings, increasing social exclusion activated the mPFC in controls. In contrast, patients with schizophrenia failed to modulate mPFC responses with increasing exclusion. Furthermore, the blunted response to exclusion correlated with increased severity of positive symptoms. These data support the hypothesis that the neural response to social exclusion differs in schizophrenia, highlighting the mPFC as a potential substrate of impaired social interactions.
The inconstant "principle of constancy".
Kanzer, M
1983-01-01
A review of the principle of constancy, as it appeared in Freud's writings, shows that it was inspired by his clinical observations, first with Breuer in the field of cathartic therapy and then through experiences in the early usage of psychoanalysis. The recognition that memories repressed in the unconscious created increasing tension, and that this was relieved with dischargelike phenomena when the unconscious was made conscious, was the basis for his claim to originality in this area. The two principles of "neuronic inertia" Freud expounded in the Project (1895), are found to offer the key to the ambiguous definition of the principle of constancy he was to offer in later years. The "original" principle, which sought the complete discharge of energy (or elimination of stimuli), became the forerunner of the death drive; the "extended" principle achieved balances that were relatively constant, but succumbed in the end to complete discharge. This was the predecessor of the life drives. The relation between the constancy and pleasure-unpleasure principles was maintained for twenty-five years largely on an empirical basis which invoked the concept of psychophysical parallelism between "quantity" and "quality." As the links between the two principles were weakened by clinical experiences attendant upon the growth of ego psychology, a revision of the principle of constancy was suggested, and it was renamed the Nirvana principle. Actually it was shifted from alignment with the "extended" principle of inertia to the original, so that "constancy" was incongruously identified with self-extinction. The former basis for the constancy principle, the extended principle of inertia, became identified with Eros. Only a few commentators seem aware of this radical transformation, which has been overlooked in the Standard Edition of Freud's writings. Physiological biases in the history and conception of the principle of constancy are noted in the Standard Edition. The historical
Quantitative Boltzmann-Gibbs Principles via Orthogonal Polynomial Duality
Ayala, Mario; Carinci, Gioia; Redig, Frank
2018-06-01
We study fluctuation fields of orthogonal polynomials in the context of particle systems with duality. We thereby obtain a systematic orthogonal decomposition of the fluctuation fields of local functions, where the order of every term can be quantified. This implies a quantitative generalization of the Boltzmann-Gibbs principle. In the context of independent random walkers, we complete this program, including also fluctuation fields in non-stationary context (local equilibrium). For other interacting particle systems with duality such as the symmetric exclusion process, similar results can be obtained, under precise conditions on the n particle dynamics.
Principles of animal extrapolation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calabrese, E.J.
1991-01-01
Animal Extrapolation presents a comprehensive examination of the scientific issues involved in extrapolating results of animal experiments to human response. This text attempts to present a comprehensive synthesis and analysis of the host of biomedical and toxicological studies of interspecies extrapolation. Calabrese's work presents not only the conceptual basis of interspecies extrapolation, but also illustrates how these principles may be better used in selection of animal experimentation models and in the interpretation of animal experimental results. The book's theme centers around four types of extrapolation: (1) from average animal model to the average human; (2) from small animals to large ones; (3) from high-risk animal to the high risk human; and (4) from high doses of exposure to lower, more realistic, doses. Calabrese attacks the issues of interspecies extrapolation by dealing individually with the factors which contribute to interspecies variability: differences in absorption, intestinal flora, tissue distribution, metabolism, repair mechanisms, and excretion. From this foundation, Calabrese then discusses the heterogeneticity of these same factors in the human population in an attempt to evaluate the representativeness of various animal models in light of interindividual variations. In addition to discussing the question of suitable animal models for specific high-risk groups and specific toxicological endpoints, the author also examines extrapolation questions related to the use of short-term tests to predict long-term human carcinogenicity and birth defects. The book is comprehensive in scope and specific in detail; for those environmental health professions seeking to understand the toxicological models which underlay health risk assessments, Animal Extrapolation is a valuable information source.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smorodinskij, Ya.A.
1980-01-01
The prerelativistic history of the equivalence principle (EP) is presented briefly. Its role in history of the general relativity theory (G.R.T.) discovery is elucidated. A modern idea states that the ratio of inert and gravitational masses does not differ from 1 at least up to the 12 sign after comma. Attention is paid to the difference of the gravitational field from electromagnetic one. The difference is as follows, the energy of the gravitational field distributed in space is the source of the field. These fields always interact at superposition. Electromagnetic fields from different sources are put together. On the basis of EP it is established the Sun field interact with the Earth gravitational energy in the same way as with any other one. The latter proves the existence of gravitation of the very gravitational field to a heavy body. A problem on gyroscope movement in the Earth gravitational field is presented as a paradox. The calculation has shown that gyroscope at satellite makes a positive precession, and its axis turns in an angle equal to α during a turn of the satellite round the Earth, but because of the space curvature - into the angle two times larger than α. A resulting turn is equal to 3α. It is shown on the EP basis that the polarization plane in any coordinate system does not turn when the ray of light passes in the gravitational field. Together with the historical value of EP noted is the necessity to take into account the requirements claimed by the EP at description of the physical world