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Sample records for patients recalling abuse

  1. Communication and patient participation influencing patient recall of treatment discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Claude; Glaser, Emma; Lussier, Marie-Thérèse

    2017-08-01

    Patient recall of treatment information is a key variable towards chronic disease (CD) management. It is unclear what communication and patient participation characteristics predict recall. To assess what aspects of doctor-patient communication predict patient recall of medication information. To describe lifestyle treatment recall, in CD primary care patients. Observational study within a RCT. Community-based primary care (PC) practices. Family physicians (n=18): practicing >5 years, with a CD patient caseload. Patients (n=159): >40 years old, English speaking, computer literate, off-target hypertension, type II diabetes and/or dyslipidaemia. Patient characteristics: age, education, number of CDs. Information characteristics: length of encounter, medication status, medication class. Communication variables: socio-emotional utterances, physician dominance and communication control scores and PACE (ask, check and express) utterances, measured by RIAS. Number of medication themes, dialogue and initiative measured by MEDICODE. Recall of CD, lifestyle treatment and medication information. Frequency of lifestyle discussions varied by topic. Patients recalled 43% (alcohol), 52% (diet) to 70% (exercise) of discussions. Two and a half of six possible medication themes were broached per medication discussion. Less than one was recalled. Discussing more themes, greater dialogue and patient initiative were significant predictors of improved medication information recall. Critical treatment information is infrequently exchanged. Active patient engagement and explicit conversations about medications are associated with improved treatment information recall in off-target CD patients followed in PC. Providers cannot take for granted that long-term off-target CD patients recall information. They need to encourage patient participation to improve recall of treatment information. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Delayed recall of childhood sexual abuse memories and the awakening rise and diurnal pattern of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Tom; Geraerts, Elke; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2007-08-30

    Traumatic stress associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may result in chronic alterations of stress-sensitive neurochemical systems (e.g., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic-adrenal medullary activity). Some authors have suggested that these alterations might help explain why some individuals, after a period of inability to remember, demonstrate delayed recall of CSA memories (i.e., "recovered" memories). The present study is the first study that explored morning cortisol responses and circadian cortisol profiles among women with recovered (n=7), repressed (n=8), or continuous (n=6) memories of CSA and women without a history of CSA (n=9). Although there were group differences in current depression and post-traumatic stress symptoms, we found no differences in cortisol awakening response or daytime profile between women reporting recovered, repressed, or continuous memories of CSA as compared to women without a history of CSA. Implications for neurobiological models intended to explain the delayed recall of CSA are discussed.

  3. Communicating with older cancer patients: impact on information recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.

    2009-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis was to unravel the relationship between patient characteristics, communication between patient and clinician, and subsequent patient information recall in the context of medical consultations with older cancer patients. Chapter 2 reviewed the literature to explore age

  4. Recall in older cancer patients: measuring memory for medical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jesse; van Weert, Julia; van der Meulen, Nienke; van Dulmen, Sandra; Heeren, Thea; Bensing, Jozien

    2008-04-01

    Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient education preceding chemotherapy. We constructed a recall questionnaire consisting of multiple-choice questions, completion items, and open-ended questions related to information about treatment and recommendations on how to handle side effects. Immediately after a nursing consultation preceding chemotherapy treatment, 69 older patients (M = 71.8 years, SD = 4.1) completed the questionnaire. We checked recall against the actual communication in video recordings of the consultations. On average, 82.2 items were discussed during the consultations. The mean percentage of information recalled correctly was 23.2% for open-ended questions, 68.0% for completion items, and 80.2% for multiple-choice questions. Older cancer patients are confronted with a lot of information. Recall of information strongly depended on question format; especially active reproduction appeared to be poor. To improve treatment outcomes, it is important that cancer patients are able to actively retrieve knowledge about how to prevent and recognize adverse side effects and that this is checked by the health professional. We make suggestions on how to make information more memorable for older cancer patients.

  5. Recall in older cancer patients: measuring memory for medical information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Weert, J. van; Meulen, N. van der; Dulmen, S. van; Heeren, T.; Bensing, J.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient

  6. Recall in older cancer patients: Measuring memory for medical information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; van Weert, J.; van der Meulen, N.; van Dulmen, S.; Heeren, T.; Bensing, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients' recall of information after patient

  7. Dream Recall Frequency Among Patients in a Psychiatric Outpatient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim:The aim of this study was to find out if the frequency of dream recall among neuropsychiatric patients on psychotropic drugs was significantly different from that of healthy individuals. Methods: The study was done on 53 neuropsychiatric patients with different diagnoses who were on medication and 144 healthy ...

  8. Recall in older cancer patients: measuring memory for medical information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Weert, J. van; Meulen, N. van der; Dulmen, S. van; Heeren, Th.; Bensing, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Remembering medical treatment information may be particularly taxing for older cancer patients, but to our knowledge this ability has never been assessed in this specific age group only. Our purpose in this study was to investigate older cancer patients’ recall of information after

  9. Can audio recording improve patients' recall of outpatient consultations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolderslund, Maiken; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Axboe, Mette

    Introduction In order to give patients possibility to listen to their consultation again, we have designed a system which gives the patients access to digital audio recordings of their consultations. An Interactive Voice Response platform enables the audio recording and gives the patients access...... and those who have not (control).The audio recordings and the interviews are coded according to six themes: Test results, Treatment, Risks, Future tests, Advice and Plan. Afterwards the extent of patients recall is assessed by comparing the accuracy of the patient’s statements (interview...

  10. INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS IN INTRAVENOUS DRUGS ABUSED PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Ponomareva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three-year observation of acute tricuspid infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abused patient: diagnosis, clinical features, visceral lesions, the possibility of cardiac surgery and conservative treatment, outcome.

  11. INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS IN INTRAVENOUS DRUGS ABUSED PATIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Ponomareva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-year observation of acute tricuspid infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abused patient: diagnosis, clinical features, visceral lesions, the possibility of cardiac surgery and conservative treatment, outcome.

  12. The role of companions in aiding older cancer patients to recall medical information.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Wijngaards-de Meij, L.; Dulmen, S. van; Heeren, T.J.; Bensing, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigates information recall in unaccompanied and accompanied older cancer patients and their companions.Methods: One hundred cancer patients (aged >/=65 years) and 71 companions completed a recall questionnaire after a nursing consultation preceding chemotherapy treatment.

  13. [Prescription drug abuse in elderly psychiatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterling, Tilman; Schneider, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    Due to demographic changes there will be a fraction of elderly patients with substance use disorders. However, only a few data have been published about elderly abusers of prescription drugs. Since substance abuse is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders, treatment in a psychiatric hospital is often needed. In this explorative study elderly people with prescription drug abuse who required psychiatric inpatient treatment should be characterized. This study was part of the gerontopsychiatry study Berlin (Gepsy-B), an investigation of the data of all older inpatients (≥ 65 years) admitted to a psychiatric hospital within a period of 3 years. Among 1266 documented admissions in 110 cases (8.7 %) (mean age: 75.7 ± 7.1 years) prescription drug abuse, mostly of benzodiazepines was diagnosed. Females showed benzodiazepine abuse more often than males. In only a small proportion of the cases the reason for admission was withdrawal of prescribed drugs. 85.5 % suffered from psychiatric comorbidity, mostly depression. As risk factors for abuse depressive symptoms (OR: 3.32) as well as concurrent nicotine (OR: 2.69) or alcohol abuse (OR: 2.14) were calculated. Psychiatric inpatient treatment was primarily not necessary because of prescription drug abuse but because of other psychopathological symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Patient and professional accuracy of recalled treatment decisions in out-patient consultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.; Barnard, K.; Cradock, S.

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To test the assumption that professional recall of consultation decisions is valid and more accurate than patient recall of consultation decisions. Methods: One hundred and thirty-four consultations between diabetes specialist nurses and diabetes specialist dietitians in an adult out-patien...

  15. Pregabalin abuse among opiate addicted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosshans, Martin; Lemenager, Tagrid; Vollmert, Christian; Kaemmerer, Nina; Schreiner, Rupert; Mutschler, Jochen; Wagner, Xenija; Kiefer, Falk; Hermann, Derik

    2013-12-01

    Pregabalin is a novel GABA-analogue approved for the treatment of partial onset seizures, neuropathic pain, and general anxiety disorder. Pregabalin has been classified as a Schedule V drug with a low risk of inflicting abuse or addiction. However, some publications have indicated that pregabalin may have a potential for abuse among patients with past or current opiate addiction. Thus, we hypothesized that pregabalin might be abused by patients who were undergoing an opiate replacement therapy and never had an indication for taking pregabalin on medical grounds. Urine specimens from 124 patients with opiate dependency syndrome and from 111 patients with other addiction disorders (alcohol, benzodiazepines, cannabis, amphetamines) were screened for pregabalin by means of a mass spectrometer analysis. We found 12.1 % of all urine specimens from patients with opiate addiction to be positive for pregabalin. None of the patients concerned had a medical indication for using pregabalin. In the control group, 2.7 % of the patients were tested positively for pregabalin, due to their taking it regularly for chronic pain or general anxiety. Our data suggest that pregabalin is liable to be abused among individuals with opiate dependency syndrome Thus, vigilance and caution are called for when patients with a past or current opiate dependency are exposed to treatment with pregabalin.

  16. Patient reminder and recall interventions to improve immunization rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson Vann, Julie C; Jacobson, Robert M; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Asafu-Adjei, Josephine K; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2018-01-18

    Immunization rates for children and adults are rising, but coverage levels have not reached optimal goals. As a result, vaccine-preventable diseases still occur. In an era of increasing complexity of immunization schedules, rising expectations about the performance of primary care, and large demands on primary care providers, it is important to understand and promote interventions that work in primary care settings to increase immunization coverage. One common theme across immunization programs in many nations involves the challenge of implementing a population-based approach and identifying all eligible recipients, for example the children who should receive the measles vaccine. However, this issue is gradually being addressed through the availability of immunization registries and electronic health records. A second common theme is identifying the best strategies to promote high vaccination rates. Three types of strategies have been studied: (1) patient-oriented interventions, such as patient reminder or recall, (2) provider interventions, and (3) system interventions, such as school laws. One of the most prominent intervention strategies, and perhaps best studied, involves patient reminder or recall systems. This is an update of a previously published review. To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of various types of patient reminder and recall interventions to improve receipt of immunizations. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL to January 2017. We also searched grey literature and trial registers to January 2017. We included randomized trials, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time series evaluating immunization-focused patient reminder or recall interventions in children, adolescents, and adults who receive immunizations in any setting. We included no-intervention control groups, standard practice activities that did not include immunization patient reminder or recall, media-based activities aimed at promoting immunizations

  17. Does age really matter? Recall of information presented to newly referred patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jesse; Butow, Phyllis N; van Weert, Julia C M; van Dulmen, Sandra; Devine, Rhonda J; Heeren, Thea J; Bensing, Jozien M; Tattersall, Martin H N

    2008-11-20

    To examine age- and age-related differences in recall of information provided during oncology consultations. Two hundred sixty patients with cancer diagnosed with heterogeneous cancers, seeing a medical or radiation oncologist for the first time, participated in the study. Patients completed questionnaires assessing information needs and anxiety. Recall of information provided was measured using a structured telephone interview in which patients were prompted to remember details physicians gave about diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Recall was checked against the actual communication in audio-recordings of the consultations. Recall decreased significantly with age, but only when total amount of information presented was taken into account. This indicates that if more information is discussed, older patients have more trouble remembering the information than younger ones. In addition, recall was selectively influenced by prognosis. First, patients with a poorer prognosis recalled less. Next, the more information was provided about prognosis, the less information patients recalled, regardless of their actual prognosis. Recall is not simply a function of patient age. Age only predicts recall when controlling for amount of information presented. Both prognosis and information about prognosis are better predictors of recall than age. These results provide important insights into intervention strategies to improve information recall in patients with cancer.

  18. Recall management of patients with Rofil Medical breast implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Sarah; Bruckner, Thomas; Golatta, Michael; Wallwiener, Markus; Küffner, Livia; Mayer, Christine; Paringer, Carmen; Domschke, Christoph; Blumenstein, Maria; Schütz, Florian; Sohn, Christof; Heil, Joerg

    2014-07-01

    Some Rofil Medical breast implants are relabelled Poly Implant Prothèse (PIP) implants, and it is recommended that Rofil implants be managed in the same way as PIP implants. We report the results of a systematic recall of patients who had received Rofil implants. All patients who received Rofil implants at our centre were identified and invited for specialist consultation. In patients who opted for explantation, preoperative and intraoperative work-up was performed in accordance with national guidelines and analysed. In cases suspicious for rupture, an MRI scan was performed. Two-hundred and twenty-five patients (average age 56; range 28-80) received a total of 321 Rofil implants an average of 5.8 (range 1-11) years previously, 225/321 (70%) implants were used for reconstruction after breast cancer. A total of 43 implants were removed prior to 2011, mainly due to capsular contracture (CC). A total of 188 patients were still affected at the time of recall. Of the 188 patients, 115 (61%) attended for specialist consultation, of which 50 (44%) requested immediate implant removal. To date, 72 of 115 (63%) women attending consultation (38% of all affected) have chosen explantation, 66 of 72 (92%) opting for new implants. Of the 108 explanted implants, 25 (23%) had capsular rupture and 57 (53%) had implant bleeding. Preoperative clinical assessment was unreliable for predicting CC or rupture. The majority of patients attended for consultation and requested explantation. The quality of the explanted Rofil implants was comparable to PIP implants, with a higher rupture prevalence compared with other, non-affected implants. Nevertheless, the acceptance of breast implants for reimplantation remained high. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Does recall period have an effect on cancer patients' ratings of the severity of multiple symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qiuling; Trask, Peter C; Wang, Xin Shelley; Mendoza, Tito R; Apraku, Winifred A; Malekifar, Maggie; Cleeland, Charles S

    2010-08-01

    Choosing an appropriate recall period for symptom assessment in a clinical trial is dependent on the design and purpose of the trial. To examine the effects of recall on symptom severity ratings by comparing ratings made using 24-hour and seven-day recall periods of the MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI). Forty-two patients in their third to eighth week of chemoradiation rated their symptoms using the MDASI on two separate occasions (T1 and T2), one week apart. At T1, patients were randomly assigned to rate symptoms using either a 24-hour or a seven-day recall. At T2, patients rated symptoms using the recall period not used at their first visit. Comparing the 24-hour and seven-day recall periods, the correlation coefficient for total symptom severity was 0.888. All correlation coefficients for symptom severity items were >0.7 except for distress (r=0.67). The percentages of moderate to severe symptoms (rated >or=5) were consistent for both recall periods, with no significant difference between recall periods in the prevalence of moderate to severe symptoms. Cronbach alpha coefficients for both 24-hour and seven-day recalls were >0.8. Symptoms from both recall periods were more severe for patients with poorer performance status. Twenty patients were cognitively debriefed; 70% thought that the seven-day recall was "more appropriate" for the MDASI, but 85% did not think that recall period would influence their answers. This study demonstrated that the MDASI in a seven-day recall format has psychometric properties consistent with the 24-hour recall version, which may promote its use in future cancer clinical trials and may inform the choice of recall period when symptoms are outcome measures. Copyright (c) 2010 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of companions in aiding older cancer patients to recall medical information.

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, J.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Wijngaards-de Meij, L.; Dulmen, S. van; Heeren, T.J.; Bensing, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study investigates information recall in unaccompanied and accompanied older cancer patients and their companions.Methods: One hundred cancer patients (aged >/=65 years) and 71 companions completed a recall questionnaire after a nursing consultation preceding chemotherapy treatment. Recall was checked against the actual communication in video-recordings of the consultations. Patients also completed measures of anxiety and memory-related beliefs.Results: Findings revealed that...

  1. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... Types of abuse Signs of abuse Reporting abuse Types of abuse Abuse comes in many forms: Physical: ...

  2. Discrepancy between subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall: The past as seen by Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigated whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may demonstrate a discrepancy between subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall. To this end, 31 AD patients and 35 controls were asked to retrieve three autobiographical memories. For each memory, participants were asked to rate its subjective characteristics (e.g., reliving, travel in time, visual imagery…). Besides this subjective assessment, we analyzed recall objectively with regard to specificity. Results showed poorer subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall in AD patients than in controls. A discrepancy (i.e., higher level of subjective reliving than of objective recall) was observed in AD but not in control participants. Despite a compromise in their objective recall, AD patients seemed to attribute a high value to their subjective autobiographical experience. This discrepancy can be attributed to a potential genuine consciousness experience in which mild AD patients can, to some extent, experience some subjective features of the past. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Oncologists' non-verbal behavior and analog patients' recall of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Marij A; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; van Weert, Julia C M; Vermeulen, Daniëlle M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2016-06-01

    Background Information in oncological consultations is often excessive. Those patients who better recall information are more satisfied, less anxious and more adherent. Optimal recall may be enhanced by the oncologist's non-verbal communication. We tested the influence of three non-verbal behaviors, i.e. eye contact, body posture and smiling, on patients' recall of information and perceived friendliness of the oncologist. Moreover, the influence of patient characteristics on recall was examined, both directly or as a moderator of non-verbal communication. Material and methods Non-verbal communication of an oncologist was experimentally varied using video vignettes. In total 194 breast cancer patients/survivors and healthy women participated as 'analog patients', viewing a randomly selected video version while imagining themselves in the role of the patient. Directly after viewing, they evaluated the oncologist. From 24 to 48 hours later, participants' passive recall, i.e. recognition, and free recall of information provided by the oncologist were assessed. Results Participants' recognition was higher if the oncologist maintained more consistent eye contact (β = 0.17). More eye contact and smiling led to a perception of the oncologist as more friendly. Body posture and smiling did not significantly influence recall. Older age predicted significantly worse recognition (β = -0.28) and free recall (β = -0.34) of information. Conclusion Oncologists may be able to facilitate their patients' recall functioning through consistent eye contact. This seems particularly relevant for older patients, whose recall is significantly worse. These findings can be used in training, focused on how to maintain eye contact while managing computer tasks.

  4. Oncologists' non-verbal behavior and analog patients' recall of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, Marij A.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; van Weert, Julia C. M.; Vermeulen, Daniëlle M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Information in oncological consultations is often excessive. Those patients who better recall information are more satisfied, less anxious and more adherent. Optimal recall may be enhanced by the oncologist's non-verbal communication. We tested the influence of three non-verbal behaviors,

  5. Recall of UVB-induced erythema in breast cancer patient receiving multiple drug chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Lindskov, R

    1984-01-01

    One day after sunbathing, a breast cancer patient received intravenous methotrexate, cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil and had a recall of her UV erythema over the following week. Phototesting with UVA and UVB prior to and after a subsequent chemotherapy treatment showed a UVB-induced recall...

  6. Association between childhood abuse and psychiatric morbidities among hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirod Kumar Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood abuse has been linked with increased risk of adult psychiatric disorders including major depression, substance abuse, anxiety disorders, posttraumatic stress disorder, and personality disorders. However, only a few from India attempted to study long-term consequences of childhood abuse. Our study aimed to understand the role of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse along with psychiatric co-morbidities in hospitalized patients. Materials and Methods: Patients admitted to psychiatric inpatient services in the age group of 14-45 years for the 1 st time were evaluated for a history of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse on the basis of retrospective chart review. Semi-structured Performa was used to evaluate the patient with a history of child abuse, and they were diagnosed according to International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnostic criteria. Result: The prevalence of child abuse in our inpatient services was 43.29%; emotional abuse (61.9% was most commonly reported among patient followed by physical (21.43% and sexual abuse (16.67%. We observed a significant difference in terms of length of hospital stay between abuse (10.29 ± 6.01 days and nonabuse group (5.90 ± 2.43 days (t = 4.902, df = 95, P < 0.0001. The boys experienced physical abuse at a younger age (7.43 ± 2.50 years than girls (13.50 ± 0.70 years. The sexual abuse and emotional abuse were reported at a younger age in girls than boys. We found high prevalence of substance use disorders (40.47%, psychosis (19.04%, and mood disorder (28.57% among abuse group. Conclusions: The study findings highlight the developing importance of the different forms of abuse on adult psychiatric diagnosis in India. The abused patients are at high risk of the development of psychiatric disorder than the nonabuse group. The increased length of hospitalization among abused group reflects severity and complexity of child abuse. The early detection of social factors

  7. Assessment of Substances Abuse in Burn Patients by Using Drug Abuse Screening Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Gaseminegad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the frequency of substance abuse among hospitalized burn injury patients. However, few studies have investigated substance abuse among burn patients. This study was aimed to identify the incidence of substance abuse in burn injury patients using the "Drug Abuse Screening Test" (DAST-20. We determined the validity of DAST-20 in spring 2010. Subsequently, this descriptive study was performed on 203 burn injury patients who fit the study's inclusion criteria. We chose a score of 6 as the cutoff and thus achieved a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 85% for the DAST-20. During the study, we gathered demographic data, burn features and DAST-20 results for all patients. Patients with scores of 6 or more were considered to be substances abusers. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS v16 software. According to the DAST-20 results, 33% of the patients were in the user group. The mean score of DAST-20 was significantly higher among users than it was among nonusers (P<0.05. The level of substance abuse was severe in 77% of users. No significant differences were found among the substances, with the exception of alcohol. Substance abuse is an important risk factor for burn patients. In addition, this study showed that DAST-20 is a valid screening measure for studies on burn patients.

  8. Neuropsychological functioning in buprenorphine maintained patients versus abstinent heroin abusers on naltrexone hydrochloride therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinis, Lambros; Lyros, Epameinondas; Andrian, Virginia; Katsakiori, Paraskevi; Panagis, George; Georgiou, Vasileios; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2009-10-01

    Methadone and buprenorphine are among the most widely employed pharmacological treatments currently available for opioid addiction. Cognitive effects of buprenorphine in abstinent heroin abusers are nevertheless far from being understood. Neuropsychological performance of 18 buprenorphine-maintained patients (BMP) was evaluated relative to that of 32 currently abstinent heroin abusers on naltrexone hydrochloride therapy (FHAN), and 34 non-drug dependent controls. The three groups were demographically balanced. Clinical groups reported histories of similar patterns of drug use and had increased periods of abstinence from any illicit substance use including heroin. The BMP group performed poorer than controls on the RAVLT (encoding and delayed recall of verbal information), CTT (conceptual flexibility, executive functions) and the RBANS figure copy (visual perception) and delayed recall of visual information. There were no significant differences in any of the cognitive measures between the BMP and FHAN groups or between the FHAN group and controls. Furthermore, the non-differing percentage of abnormal cases between the two patient groups led us to infer that treatment with either BPM or FHAN is not accompanied by qualitative differences in the cognitive profiles of these patients. Overall, results suggest that treatment with naltrexone in abstinent heroin abusers may result in less impairment of cognitive functions compared to treatment with buprenorphine. These findings are relevant for improved prognosis and treatment strategies in opioid dependence.

  9. Factors associated with patient recall of key information in ambulatory specialty care visits: Results of an innovative methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, M Barton; Lee, Yoojin; Taubin, Tatiana; Rogers, William H; Wilson, Ira B

    2018-01-01

    While some studies have assessed patient recall of important information from ambulatory care visits, none has done so recently. Furthermore, little is known about features of clinical interactions which are associated with patient understanding and recall, without which shared decision making, a widely shared ideal for patient care, cannot occur. Our objective was to evaluate characteristics of patients and outpatient encounters associated with patient recall of information after one week, along with observation of elements of shared decision making. This was an observational study based on coded transcripts of 189 outpatient encounters, and post-visit interviews with patients 1 week later. Coding used three previously validated systems, adopted for this study. Forty-nine percent of decisions and recommendations were recalled accurately without prompting; 36% recalled with a prompt; 15% recalled erroneously or not at all. Provider behaviors hypothesized to be associated with patient recall, such as open-questioning and "teach back," were rare. Patients with less than high school education recalled 38% of items freely and accurately, while patients with a college degree recalled 65% (p total number of items to be recalled per visit, and percentage of utterances in decision-making processes by the provider ("verbal dominance"), were significant predictors of poorer recall. The item count was associated with poorer recall for lower, but not higher, educated patients.

  10. A PCT-wide collaborative clinical audit selecting recall intervals for patients according to risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, P J

    2011-03-26

    This audit was carried out to assess the level to which recall intervals were individually and appropriately selected for patients attending dental practices across a primary care trust (PCT) area in Essex. A retrospective audit was carried out by reference to patient records to assess various criteria, including whether patients were categorised according to risk of oral disease, whether an appropriate recall had been selected and whether a discussion regarding a recall interval had been undertaken. An educational event highlighting the issue of recall intervals was held. Subsequent to this a prospective audit was undertaken to assess relevant criteria. Prospective audit data showed a marked increase in the use of patient risk assessments for caries, periodontal disease, oral cancer and non-carious tooth surface loss (NCTSL). Recall intervals were also more often selected based on a patient's risk status and discussed with the patient compared to that observed in the retrospective audit data. This audit was successful as a tool to bring about change in the behaviour of dentists regarding their determination of appropriate recall intervals for patients. Whether that change in behaviour is long-term or transient requires further investigation.

  11. Childhood abuse in Chinese patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianjun; Yang, Yunping; Wu, Jiang; Napolitano, Lisa A; Xi, Yingjun; Cui, Yonghua

    2012-04-01

    This study examined (1) the relative prevalence of childhood abuse and other pathological childhood experiences in China reported by outpatients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), with other personality disorders, and without personality disorders; and, (2) whether the primary predictors of BPD in North America are associated with the development of BPD in China. The childhood experiences of 203 outpatients with BPD, 109 outpatients with other personality disorders, and 70 outpatients without Axis II diagnoses were assessed with the Chinese version of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q). Patients with BPD reported significantly more physical, emotional, and sexual abuse than either comparison group. Four types of childhood experiences were significant predictors of BPD: maternal neglect, paternal antipathy, sexual abuse, and maternal physical abuse. The findings suggest that maternal physical abuse is as strong a predictor of BPD in China as sexual abuse, a finding not replicated in North America.

  12. Older patients can accurately recall their preoperative health status six weeks following total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jackie; Bryant, Dianne; MacDonald, Steven J

    2009-12-01

    In clinical trials, use of patient recall data would be beneficial when the collection of baseline data is impossible, such as in trauma situations. We investigated the ability of older patients to accurately recall their preoperative quality of life, function, and general health status at six weeks following total hip arthroplasty. We randomized consecutive patients who were fifty-five years of age or older into two groups. At each assessment, patients completed self-report questionnaires (at four weeks preoperatively, on the day of surgery, and at six weeks and three months postoperatively for Group 1 and at six weeks and three months postoperatively for Group 2). At six weeks postoperatively, all patients completed the questionnaires on the basis of their recollection of their preoperative health status. We evaluated the validity and reliability of recall ratings, the degree of error in recall ratings, and the effects of the use of recall data on power and sample size requirements. A total of 174 patients (mean age, seventy-one years) who were undergoing either primary or revision total hip arthroplasty were randomized and included in the analysis (118 patients were in Group 1 and fifty-six were in Group 2). Agreement between actual and recalled data was excellent for disease-specific questionnaires (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.86, 0.87, and 0.88) and moderate for generic health measures (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.48, 0.58, and 0.60). Increased error associated with recalled ratings compared with actual ratings necessitates minimal increases in sample size or results in small decreases in power. Patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty can accurately recall their preoperative health status at six weeks postoperatively.

  13. Evaluation of a pictograph enhancement system for patient instruction: a recall study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng-Treitler, Qing; Perri, Seneca; Nakamura, Carlos; Kuang, Jinqiu; Hill, Brent; Bui, Duy Duc An; Stoddard, Gregory J; Bray, Bruce E

    2014-01-01

    We developed a novel computer application called Glyph that automatically converts text to sets of illustrations using natural language processing and computer graphics techniques to provide high quality pictographs for health communication. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the Glyph system to illustrate a set of actual patient instructions, and tested patient recall of the original and Glyph illustrated instructions. We used Glyph to illustrate 49 patient instructions representing 10 different discharge templates from the University of Utah Cardiology Service. 84 participants were recruited through convenience sampling. To test the recall of illustrated versus non-illustrated instructions, participants were asked to review and then recall a set questionnaires that contained five pictograph-enhanced and five non-pictograph-enhanced items. The mean score without pictographs was 0.47 (SD 0.23), or 47% recall. With pictographs, this mean score increased to 0.52 (SD 0.22), or 52% recall. In a multivariable mixed effects linear regression model, this 0.05 mean increase was statistically significant (95% CI 0.03 to 0.06, pillustration is a novel approach to improve the comprehension and recall of discharge instructions. Our results showed a statistically significant in recall with automated illustrations. Subjects with no-colleague education and younger subjects appeared to benefit more from the illustrations than others. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Dream recall frequency and content in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentes, Carla; Costa, João; Peralta, Rita; Pires, Joana; Sousa, Paula; Paiva, Teresa

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate morning dream recall frequency and content in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Fifty-two patients with pharmacoresistant TLE submitted to a written dream diary during five consecutive days and continuous video-electroencephalographic (video-EEG) monitoring. A matched control group of 41 healthy subjects completed the same diary at home. The number of recalled dreams (including long dreams) and nonrecalled dream mentation were collected, and the Dream Recall Rate (DRR) was calculated. Hall and Van de Castle dream content analysis was performed. Greater than 70% of patients with TLE (37 of 52) recall their dreams, but DRR rate in these patients is lower than in controls (p ≤ 0.001). Dream recall does not appear to be influenced by the presence of neuropsychological deficits nor seizure frequency. In dreams descriptions, TLE patients (vs. controls) have a higher percentage of familiarity in settings and fewer dreams with at least one success. Onirical activity of patients with TLE is different from that of healthy subjects. Our results support the role of mesial and neocortical temporal structures in dream experience. The selective activation of dysfunctional mesial structures may be responsible for some of the observed variability. However, dream content changes can also mirror social and psychological comorbidities of patients with epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2011 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Illustrations enhance older colorectal cancer patients' website satisfaction and recall of online cancer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, N; Smets, E M A; Eddes, E H; de Haes, J C J M; Loos, E F; van Weert, J C M

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of illustrations in online cancer information on older cancer patients' website satisfaction (i.e. satisfaction with the attractiveness, comprehensibility and emotional support from the website) and recall of information. In an online experiment, 174 younger (text-only information, text with two cognitive illustrations or text with two affective illustrations. In general, adding cognitive illustrations compared with text-only information improved the satisfaction with the attractiveness of the website in both younger and older patients. For older patients in particular, cognitive illustrations facilitated recall of cancer information: whereas older patients recalled less information overall compared with younger patients (39% vs. 50%), no statistically significant differences in age on recall were observed when cognitive illustrations were added to text. Furthermore, older patients were more satisfied with the emotional support from the website than younger patients, especially when affective illustrations were present. Our results suggest that effective online cancer communication for ageing populations involves considering both cognitive and affective illustrations to enhance website satisfaction and recall of cancer information. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Painful Memories: Reliability of Pain Intensity Recall at 3 Months in Senior Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul Daoust

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Validity of pain recall is questioned in research. Objective. To evaluate the reliability of pain intensity recall for seniors in an emergency department (ED. Methods. This study was part of a prospective multicenter project for seniors (≥65 years old treated in an ED for minor traumatic injury. Pain intensity (0–10 numerical rating scale was evaluated at the initial ED visit, at one week (baseline, and 3 months. At three months, patients were asked to recall the pain intensity they had at baseline. Results. 482 patients were interviewed (mean age 76.6 years, SD ± 7.3 and 72.8% were female. Intraclass correlation coefficient between pain at baseline and its recall was 0.24 (95% CI: 0.14–0.33. Senior patients tended to overestimate their pain intensity by a mean of 1.2 (95% CI: 0.9–1.5 units. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that the variance of baseline pain recall at 3 months was explained by pain at ED visit (11%, pain at 3 months (7%, and pain at baseline (2%. Conclusion. The accuracy of pain intensity recall after three months is poor in seniors and seems to be influenced by the pain experienced at the time of injury.

  17. Cognitive profile of patients with rotated drawing at copy or recall: a controlled group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molteni, Federica; Traficante, Debora; Ferri, Francesca; Isella, Valeria

    2014-03-01

    When copying or recalling a figure from memory, some patient with dementia or focal brain lesions may rotate the drawing through ±90° or 180°. We have tried to clarify the nature of this phenomenon by investigating the cognitive profile of 22 patients who rotated the copy of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure and 27 who rotated (only) the recall, and two control groups of cases with the same neuropsychiatric diagnoses, but no misorientation deficit. Brain MRI and FDG-PET images were also analysed. Predictor of rotation at the copy versus rotation at the recall was visuospatial impairment as measured by the copy of the Rey Figure; predictors of rotation at the copy versus no rotation were, again, visuospatial deficits, in addition to an abnormal performance at the task of selective attention. No specific profile of cognitive impairment distinguished patients with and without rotation at the recall. Disproportionate temporo-parieto-occipital atrophy or hypometabolism were evident in cases with misorientation of the copy, while predominant frontal abnormalities were found in cases of rotated recall. Based on these findings, rotated drawing at the copy is interpreted as a dorsal visual stream deficit, whose occurrence is more probable when attentional control is impaired. Rotation at recall seems to have a distinct, more anterior, neural substrate, but its dysexecutive nature has yet to be demonstrated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Isoforms of transferrin in psoriasis patients abusing alcohol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Hoefkens (Peter); E.M. Higgins; R.J. Ward (Roberta); H.G. van Eijk (Henk)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe different isoforms of transferrin have been quantified by isoelectric focusing in the sera of psoriasis patients with and without a history of abusing alcohol. In both male and female psoriasis subjects abusing alcohol, there were significant increases in the

  19. Postoperative delirium in patients with history of alcohol abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, G; Pinho, C; Santos, A; Abelha, F J

    2017-04-01

    Postoperative delirium (POD) is an acute confusional state characterized by changes in consciousness and cognition, which may be fluctuating, developing in a small period of time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol abuse and the development of POD. We prospectively evaluated consecutively all postoperative patients admitted in the Post-anesthesia Care Unit over a 1-month period for delirium, using the Portuguese versions of the the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale. Before surgery, alcohol consumption was inquired and alcohol abuse was assessed by the CAGE (Cutting Down, Annoyance, Guilt and Eye-opener) questionnaire; a score ≥2 defined alcohol abuse. Fischer exact test or chi-square was applied for comparisons. Risk factors were analyzed in a multivariate analysis using a logistic regression with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Two hundred twenty-one patients were enrolled. Delirium was seen in 11% patients. The incidence of alcohol abuse was 10%. Patients with alcohol abuse were more frequently men (P<.001) and had a higher ASA physical status III/IV (P=.021). POD was more frequent in patients with alcohol abuse (30% vs. 9%; P=.002). Age (OR: 5.9; 95%CI: 2.2-15.9; P<.001 for patients ≥65years), ASA physical statusIII/IV (OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.7-10.7; P=.002) and alcohol abuse (OR: 4.2; 95%CI: 1.4-12.9; P=.013) were found to be independent predictors for POD. Older patients, higher ASA physical status and alcohol abuse were more frequent in patients with POD. Alcohol abuse was considered an independent risk factor for POD. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiologic head CT interpretation errors in pediatric abusive and non-abusive head trauma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralik, Stephen F.; Finke, Whitney; Wu, Isaac C.; Ho, Chang Y.; Hibbard, Roberta A.; Hicks, Ralph A.

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric head trauma, including abusive head trauma, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this research was to identify and evaluate radiologic interpretation errors of head CTs performed on abusive and non-abusive pediatric head trauma patients from a community setting referred for a secondary interpretation at a tertiary pediatric hospital. A retrospective search identified 184 patients <5 years of age with head CT for known or potential head trauma who had a primary interpretation performed at a referring community hospital by a board-certified radiologist. Two board-certified fellowship-trained neuroradiologists at an academic pediatric hospital independently interpreted the head CTs, compared their interpretations to determine inter-reader discrepancy rates, and resolved discrepancies to establish a consensus second interpretation. The primary interpretation was compared to the consensus second interpretation using the RADPEER trademark scoring system to determine the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates. MRI and/or surgical findings were used to validate the primary interpretation or second interpretation when possible. The diagnosis of abusive head trauma was made using clinical and imaging data by a child abuse specialist to separate patients into abusive head trauma and non-abusive head trauma groups. Discrepancy rates were compared for both groups. Lastly, primary interpretations and second interpretations were evaluated for discussion of imaging findings concerning for abusive head trauma. There were statistically significant differences between primary interpretation-second interpretation versus inter-reader overall and major discrepancy rates (28% vs. 6%, P=0.0001; 16% vs. 1%, P=0.0001). There were significant differences in the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates for abusive head trauma patients compared to non-abusive head trauma

  1. Radiologic head CT interpretation errors in pediatric abusive and non-abusive head trauma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kralik, Stephen F.; Finke, Whitney; Wu, Isaac C.; Ho, Chang Y. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Hibbard, Roberta A.; Hicks, Ralph A. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Child Protection Programs, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2017-07-15

    Pediatric head trauma, including abusive head trauma, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this research was to identify and evaluate radiologic interpretation errors of head CTs performed on abusive and non-abusive pediatric head trauma patients from a community setting referred for a secondary interpretation at a tertiary pediatric hospital. A retrospective search identified 184 patients <5 years of age with head CT for known or potential head trauma who had a primary interpretation performed at a referring community hospital by a board-certified radiologist. Two board-certified fellowship-trained neuroradiologists at an academic pediatric hospital independently interpreted the head CTs, compared their interpretations to determine inter-reader discrepancy rates, and resolved discrepancies to establish a consensus second interpretation. The primary interpretation was compared to the consensus second interpretation using the RADPEER trademark scoring system to determine the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates. MRI and/or surgical findings were used to validate the primary interpretation or second interpretation when possible. The diagnosis of abusive head trauma was made using clinical and imaging data by a child abuse specialist to separate patients into abusive head trauma and non-abusive head trauma groups. Discrepancy rates were compared for both groups. Lastly, primary interpretations and second interpretations were evaluated for discussion of imaging findings concerning for abusive head trauma. There were statistically significant differences between primary interpretation-second interpretation versus inter-reader overall and major discrepancy rates (28% vs. 6%, P=0.0001; 16% vs. 1%, P=0.0001). There were significant differences in the primary interpretation-second interpretation overall and major discrepancy rates for abusive head trauma patients compared to non-abusive head trauma

  2. How many items from a word list can Alzheimer's disease patients and normal controls recall? Do they recall in a similar way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Marcia Lorena Fagundes; Camozzato, Ana Luiza

    2007-01-01

    The serial position effect occurs when individuals are asked to recall a list of information that exceeds normal attention span. Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients show lower scores on word span recall tests when compared to healthy aging subjects, younger individuals or depressed patients. To evaluate the immediate free recall and the serial position effect of a 10-word list, emotionally neutral in tone, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and two age-groups of healthy controls. The free word recall test was applied in a sample of 44 mild AD outpatients and 168 >50 year and 173 =50 year-old healthy controls. The span of recalled words and order of recollection of each item was recorded. Scores for serial position effect were analyzed.MMSE scores were recorded for all participants. Descriptive statistics and the ANOVA with Tukey test were performed. The controls scored significantly better than AD patients on the MMSE and word span (p=0.0001). Older controls word span mean ±SD was 5.65±1.75, younger controls was 5.99±1.27, and AD patients was 2.86±1.42. The best recalled item in all groups was the first item of the list. Primacy was observed across the three groups, although AD patients presented lower scores. Recency was diminished among AD patients compared to control groups. Primacy effect was observed in AD patients as well as in both normal control groups. Recency effect was presented by the normal control groups but was extremely poor among AD patients. The first item was universally best retrieved.

  3. The validity of a patient-reported adverse drug event questionnaire using different recall periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Sieta T; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M; de Zeeuw, Dick; Denig, Petra

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the validity of a patient-reported adverse drug events (ADEs) questionnaire with a 3-month or 4-week recall period. METHODS: Patients receiving at least one oral glucose-lowering drug were asked to report potential ADEs they experienced related to any drug in a daily diary for a

  4. Does age really matter? Recall of information presented to newly referred patients with cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Butow, P.N.; van Weert, J.C.M.; van Dulmen, S.; Devine, R.J.; Heeren, T.J.; Bensing, J.M.; Tattersall, M.H.N.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To examine age- and age-related differences in recall of information provided during oncology consultations. Patients and Methods Two hundred sixty patients with cancer diagnosed with heterogeneous cancers, seeing a medical or radiation oncologist for the first time, participated in the

  5. Does age really matter? Recall of information presented to newly referred patients with cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J.; Butow, P.N.; Weert, J.C.M. van; Dulmen, S. van; Devine, R.J.; Heeren, T.J.; Bensing, J.M.; Tattersall, M.H.N.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine age- and age-related differences in recall of information provided during oncology consultations. Patients and Methods: Two hundred sixty patients with cancer diagnosed with heterogeneous cancers, seeing a medical or radiation oncologist for the first time, participated in the

  6. Field visual perspective during autobiographical memory recall is less frequent among patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potheegadoo, Jevita; Berna, Fabrice; Cuervo-Lombard, Christine; Danion, Jean-Marie

    2013-10-01

    There is growing interest in clinical research regarding the visual perspective adopted during memory retrieval, because it reflects individuals' self-attitude towards their memories of past personal events. Several autobiographical memory deficits, including low specificity of personal memories, have been identified in schizophrenia, but visual perspective during autobiographical memory retrieval has not yet been investigated in patients. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the visual perspective with which patients visualize themselves when recalling autobiographical memories and to assess the specificity of their memories which is a major determinant of visual perspective. Thirty patients with schizophrenia and 30 matched controls recalled personal events from 4 life periods. After each recall, they were asked to report their visual perspective (Field or Observer) associated with the event. The specificity of their memories was assessed by independent raters. Our results showed that patients reported significantly fewer Field perspectives than comparison participants. Patients' memories, whether recalled with Field or Observer perspectives, were less specific and less detailed. Our results indicate that patients with schizophrenia adopt Field perspectives less frequently than comparison participants, and that this may contribute to a weakened sense of the individual of being an actor of his past events, and hence to a reduced sense of self. They suggest that this may be related to low specificity of memories and that all the important aspects involved in re-experiencing autobiographical events are impaired in patients with schizophrenia. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-mycobacterial recall responses differentiate female patients ...

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    patients with genital tuberculosis from patients with other gynecological ... Lakew2. Abstract. Background: Female Genital Tuberculosis (FGTB) is one form of extra pulmonary tuberculosis affecting the female ..... major secretion product of.

  8. Illicit Internet availability of drugs subject to recall and patient safety consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Aung, Phyo; Liang, Bryan A

    2015-12-01

    Permanently recalled drugs are a public health concern if they remain accessible in violation of applicable regulation. Illicit online pharmacies act as an alternative form of access and have been associated with the sale to patients of counterfeit/falsified/fraudulent/substandard drugs. We wished to determine if permanently recalled and significantly restricted drugs were illegally marketed for sale online. The study was conducted in two phases with two objectives. The first phase attempted to identify drugs subject to permanent recall in certain major pharmaceutical markets as well as those listed as recalled or significantly restricted by the United Nations. We also examined the market authorization status of identified drugs in China and India. The second phase used structured searches on the Internet to determine if identified drugs were marketed for sale online. The World Wide Web. After identification of permanently recalled and restricted drugs we conducted Internet searches for illegal "no prescription" marketing events. We assessed the form of marketing, whether a site offered direct-to-patient sale, use of social media marketing, and the site's compliance status with external monitoring bodies. Number of recalled drugs marketed as available for purchase on the Internet. We identified 16 class I equivalent permanently recalled or restricted drugs, 56.3 % (n = 9) of which maintained market authorization in either China or India. Half (n = 8) were marketed for sale online without a prescription direct-to-patient. Use of social media marketing was mixed, with only 18.8 % (n = 3) of recalled drugs having a presence on Facebook, though 50.0 % (n = 8) had content on Twitter. We also found the majority (68.8 %, n = 11) were available and marketed for sale by vendors on the wholesale/business-to-business website alibaba.com primarily as active pharmaceutical ingredient. Despite efforts in several countries to restrict access to these drugs or permanently remove

  9. Categorical spatial memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia: positional versus object-location recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Roy P C; Rijken, Stefan; Joosten-Weyn Banningh, Liesbeth W A; Van Schuylenborgh-VAN Es, Nelleke; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2010-01-01

    Memory for object locations, as part of spatial memory function, has rarely been studied in patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD), while studies in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients are lacking altogether. The present study examined categorical spatial memory function using the Location Learning Test (LLT) in MCI patients (n = 30), AD patients (n = 30), and healthy controls (n = 40). Two scoring methods were compared, aimed at disentangling positional recall (location irrespective of object identity) and object-location binding. The results showed that AD patients performed worse than the MCI patients on the LLT, both on recall of positional information and on recall of the locations of different objects. In addition, both measures could validly discriminate between AD and MCI patients. These findings are in agreement with the notion that visual cued-recall tests may have better diagnostic value than traditional (verbal) free-recall tests in the assessment of patients with suspected MCI or AD.

  10. Study on elder abuse and neglect among patients in a medical college hospital, Bangalore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisha, Catherin; Manjaly, Steve; Kiran, Pretesh; Mathew, Betsy; Kasturi, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Elder abuse and neglect is a problem that occurs across all settings and all populations. Elder abuse has many forms, such as abandonment, emotional or psychological abuse, financial or material exploitation, neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. We conducted this research to determine the prevalence of various types of abuse and neglect and their associated factors among elderly patients attending the urban and rural geriatric clinics at a medical college hospital in Bangalore, India. A total of 200 elderly patients participated in the study. The overall prevalence of elder abuse or neglect was 32 (16%), comprised of: verbal abuse in 25 (12.5%); neglect in 22 (11%); financial abuse in 17 (8.5%); and physical abuse in 3 (1.5%). Hence, many elderly patients had experienced multiple forms of abuse. There was statistically significant association between elder abuse and total financial dependence, lack of social support, and depression among the elderly patients.

  11. Illustrations enhance older colorectal cancer patients' website satisfaction and recall of online cancer information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, N.; Smets, E. M A; Eddes, E. H.; de Haes, J. C J M; Loos, E. F.; van Weert, J. C M

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of illustrations in online cancer information on older cancer patients' website satisfaction (i.e. satisfaction with the attractiveness, comprehensibility and emotional support from the website) and recall of information. In an online experiment, 174

  12. Interventions to improve recall of medical information in cancer patients: a systematic review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, N. van der; Jansen, J.; Dulmen, S. van; Bensing, J.; Weert, J. van

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review investigates which interventions are effective to improve recall of medical information in cancer patients. A literature research was done in PubMed, PsychINFO, CINAHL and Cochrane Library, following the guidelines of the Cochrane Collaboration. The methodological quality of

  13. Reducing patients' anxiety and uncertainty, and improving recall in bad news consultations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osch, M. van; Sep, M.; Vliet, L.M. van; Dulmen, S. van; Bensing, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients' recall of provided information during bad news consultations is poor. According to the attentional narrowing hypothesis, the emotional arousal caused by the bad news might be responsible for this hampered information processing. Because affective communication has proven to be

  14. The value of physicians' affect-oriented communication for patients' recall of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leonie N. C.; Tollenaar, Marieke S.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this paper is to discuss experimental research investigating the effect of physicians' affect-oriented communication on patients' recall of information provided during medical consultations, with a special focus on the mediating role of emotional stress in that relation.

  15. Assessing Sexual Abuse/Attack Histories with Bariatric Surgery Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, David

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed sexual abuse/attack histories in 537 bariatric surgery patients using the PsyBari. The prevalence rates found were lower (15.5%, 19.3% of women, 5.2% of men) than other studies that used bariatric surgery patients but consistent with studies that used nonbariatric obese subjects. Furthermore, bariatric surgery patients who…

  16. Fallibility of Optometric Patients Recall of Spectacle Prescription Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S. Pointer

    2010-01-01

    Conclusions: The accuracy of subjective recollection as an indication of refractive change over an immediately-preceding time interval of several years must be treated with caution. Whether questioning patients in the optometric practice or establishing the background of participants in a clinical vision research project, there is no substitute for reference to a contemporary record detailing refractive history.

  17. Relationships with clinical staff after a diagnosis of breast cancer are associated with patients' experience of care and abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Peter; Holcombe, Christopher; Clark, Louise; Krespi, Rita; Fisher, Jean; Hill, Jonathan

    2007-09-01

    Patients experiencing the crisis of the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer need to form trusting and supportive relationships with clinical staff. However, adverse childhood experiences damage the ability to form supportive relationships as adults. We tested the prediction that women recalling childhood abuse and lack of parental care would experience poorer support from clinical staff caring for them around the time of diagnosis and surgical treatment of breast cancer. Two to 4 days after surgery, women with primary breast cancer (N=355) self-reported: childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and parental care; perceived social support; support experienced from the surgeon and breast and ward nurses; and current emotional distress. Logistic regression analyses and covariance structure modeling tested the dependence of perceived professional support on childhood abuse and care and on current social support, controlling for emotional distress and age. Women who reported feeling fully supported by clinical staff were more likely to recall no abuse and good parental care. The influence of parental care, but not abuse, was explained by its association with experiencing good social support generally, which was itself associated with feeling fully supported by clinical staff. These relationships were independent of current emotional distress. Patients' ability to feel fully supported by clinical staff reflects not only how much support staff make available but also patients' experience of close relationships in childhood. We suggest that, whereas lack of parental care compromises adult supportive relationships in general, abuse specifically reduces support from clinical staff.

  18. Impact of Adding a Pictorial Display to Enhance Recall of Cancer Patient Histories: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolch, Gary; Ghosh, Sunita; Boyington, Curtiss; Watanabe, Sharon M; Fainsinger, Robin; Burton-Macleod, Sarah; Thai, Vincent; Thai, JoAnn; Fassbender, Konrad

    2017-01-01

    Current health care delivery models have increased the need for safe and concise patient handover. Handover interventions in the literature have focused on the use of structured tools but have not evaluated their ability to facilitate retention of patient information. In this study, mock pictorial displays were generated in an attempt to create a snapshot of each patient's medical and social circumstances. These pictorial displays contained the patient's photograph and other disease- and treatment-related images. The objective of this randomized trial was to assess the ability of these snapshots to enhance delayed information recall by care providers. Participating physicians were given four advanced cancer patient histories to review, two at a time over two weeks. Pictorial image displays, referred to as the Electronic Whiteboard (EWB) were added, in a randomized manner to half of the textual histories. The impact of the EWB on information recall was tested in immediate and delayed time frames. Overall, patient information recall declined significantly over time, with or without the EWB. Still, this trial demonstrates significantly higher test scores after 24 hours with the addition of pictures to textual patient information, compared with textual information alone (P = 0.0002). A more modest improvement was seen with the addition of the EWB for questionnaires administered immediately after history review (P = 0.008). Most participants agreed that the EWB was a useful enhancement and that seeing a patient's photograph improved their ability to retain information. Most studies examining the institution of handover protocols in the health care setting have failed to harness the power of pictures and other representative images. This study demonstrates the ability of pictorial displays to improve both immediate and delayed recall of patient histories without increasing review time. These types of displays may be amenable to generation by software programs and

  19. Do improved patient recall and the provision of memory support enhance treatment adherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lu; Lee, Jason Y; Harvey, Allison G

    2017-03-01

    Patient adherence to psychosocial treatment is an important but understudied topic. The aim of this study was to examine whether better patient recall of treatment contents and therapist use of memory support (MS) were associated with better treatment adherence. Data were drawn from a pilot randomized controlled trial. Participants were 48 individuals (mean age = 44.27 years, 29 females) with Major Depressive Disorder randomized to receive either Cognitive Therapy (CT) with an adjunctive Memory Support Intervention (CT + Memory Support) or CT-as-usual. Therapist and patient ratings of treatment adherence were collected during each treatment session. Patient recall was assessed at mid-treatment. Therapist use of MS was manually coded for a random selection of sessions. Patient recall was significantly associated with better therapist and patient ratings of adherence. Therapist use of Application, a specific MS strategy, predicted higher therapist ratings of adherence. Attention Recruitment, another specific MS strategy, appeared to attenuate the positive impact of session number on patient ratings of adherence. Treatment groups, MS summary scores and other specific MS strategies were not significantly associated with adherence. The measure for treatment adherence is in the process of being formally validated. Results were based on small sample. These results support the importance of patient recall in treatment adherence. Although collectively the effects of MS on treatment adherence were not significant, the results support the use of certain specific MS strategy (i.e., application) as a potential pathway to improve treatment adherence. Larger-scale studies are needed to further examine these constructs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical injury, leave marks, or cause pain. Sexual abuse is any type of sexual contact between an adult and anyone younger than 18; between a significantly older child and a younger child; or if one person ...

  1. Radiation recall gastritis secondary to erlotinib in a patient with pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Casey; Hegde, Sanjay; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2014-12-01

    Radiation recall refers to chemotherapy-triggered inflammation in healthy areas previously exposed to irradiation. Chemotherapeutics known to be associated with radiation recall phenomenon include anthracyclines, taxanes and antimetabolites, such as gemcitabine and capecitabine. Case reports detailing radiation recall dermatitis and pneumonitis associated with erlotinib have been previously described in the literature, however, there are no reported cases describing radiation gastritis associated with erlotinib. We report a patient with pancreatic cancer who developed gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to radiation recall gastritis related to erlotinib exposure. A 57-year-old Hispanic male with pancreatic cancer initially received 7 cycles of FOLFIRINOX followed by capecitabine with radiation therapy for 28 fractions for a total of 5,040 cGy. Re-staging with computed tomography demonstrated stable disease. The patient was then treated with erlotinib and capecitabine for approximately two months before restaging demonstrated progressive disease. Shortly after discontinuing erlotinib and capecitabine, the patient reported maroon colored stools. Laboratory studies demonstrated a precipitous drop in hemoglobin and hematocrit from pre-treatment baseline, ultimately requiring transfusion with packed red blood cells. Subsequent esophagogastroduodenoscopy demonstrated findings consistent with radiation gastritis, with oozing in the gastric body and antrum, which was treated therapeutically with argon plasma coagulation. The patient's gastrointestinal bleed was difficult to control. Over the course of a two-month period - the patient required multiple admissions, repeat therapeutic esophagogastroduodenoscopies and transfusions. Radiation recall from erlotinib is rare but can potentially arise in any site that has been previously irradiated. There may be an association between the pathogenesis of radiation recall and erlotinib's up-regulation of the angiogenic growth factor

  2. A comparison between patient recall and concurrent measurement of preoperative quality of life outcome in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Jonathan; Xu, Min; Duncan, Clive P; Masri, Bassam A; Garbuz, Donald S

    2008-09-01

    The objective is to evaluate the reliability of patients' recall of preoperative pain and function during the immediate postoperation period after total hip arthroplasty. A prospective cohort of 104 patients completed a survey about their quality of life before operation, and recalled preoperative status at 3 days, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks after operation. Quality of life was measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index, the Oxford-12 hip score, and the 12-item Short-Form score. The intraclass correlation coefficient and Spearman correlation coefficient were used to compare preoperative quality of life scores to the scores recalled. The reliability of recall remained high up to 3 months postoperation. Patients are able to accurately recall their preoperative function for up to 3 months after total hip arthroplasty.

  3. Automated pictographic illustration of discharge instructions with Glyph: impact on patient recall and satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri-Moore, Seneca; Kuang, Jinqiu; Bray, Bruce E; Ngo, Long; Doig, Alexa; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Objectives First, to evaluate the effect of standard vs pictograph-enhanced discharge instructions on patients’ immediate and delayed recall of and satisfaction with their discharge instructions. Second, to evaluate the effect of automated pictograph enhancement on patient satisfaction with their discharge instructions. Materials and Methods Glyph, an automated healthcare informatics system, was used to automatically enhance patient discharge instructions with pictographs. Glyph was developed at the University of Utah by our research team. Patients in a cardiovascular medical unit were randomized to receive pictograph-enhanced or standard discharge instructions. Measures of immediate and delayed recall and satisfaction with discharge instructions were compared between two randomized groups: pictograph (n = 71) and standard (n = 73). Results Study participants who received pictograph-enhanced discharge instructions recalled 35% more of their instructions at discharge than those who received standard discharge instructions. The ratio of instructions at discharge was: standard = 0.04 ± 0.03 and pictograph-enhanced = 0.06 ± 0.03. The ratio of instructions at 1 week post discharge was: standard = 0.04 ± 0.02 and pictograph-enhanced 0.04 ± 0.02. Additionally, study participants who received pictograph-enhanced discharge instructions were more satisfied with the understandability of their instructions at 1 week post-discharge than those who received standard discharge instructions. Discussion Pictograph-enhanced discharge instructions have the potential to increase patient understanding of and satisfaction with discharge instructions. Conclusion It is feasible to automatically illustrate discharge instructions and provide them to patients in a timely manner without interfering with clinical work. Illustrations in discharge instructions were found to improve patients’ short-term recall of discharge instructions and delayed satisfaction (1-week post hospitalization

  4. Patient recall of specific cognitive therapy contents predicts adherence and outcome in adults with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lu; Zhao, Xin; Ong, Stacie L; Harvey, Allison G

    2017-10-01

    The current study examined whether and which specific contents of patients' memory for cognitive therapy (CT) were associated with treatment adherence and outcome. Data were drawn from a pilot RCT of forty-eight depressed adults, who received either CT plus Memory Support Intervention (CT + Memory Support) or CT-as-usual. Patients' memory for treatment was measured using the Patient Recall Task and responses were coded into cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) codes, such as CBT Model and Cognitive Restructuring, and non-CBT codes, such as individual coping strategies and no code. Treatment adherence was measured using therapist and patient ratings during treatment. Depression outcomes included treatment response, remission, and recurrence. Total number of CBT codes recalled was not significantly different comparing CT + Memory Support to CT-as-usual. Total CBT codes recalled were positively associated with adherence, while non-CBT codes recalled were negatively associated with adherence. Treatment responders (vs. non-responders) exhibited a significant increase in their recall of Cognitive Restructuring from session 7 to posttreatment. Greater recall of Cognitive Restructuring was marginally significantly associated with remission. Greater total number of CBT codes recalled (particularly CBT Model) was associated with non-recurrence of depression. Results highlight the important relationships between patients' memory for treatment and treatment adherence and outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Patient Recall of Informed Consent at 4 Weeks After Total Hip Replacement With Standardized Versus Procedure-Specific Consent Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Eoghan; Shaarani, Shahril; Kenyon, Robert; Cashman, James

    2017-08-25

    Informed consent plays a pivotal role in the operative process, and surgeons have an ethical and legal obligation to provide patients with information to allow for shared decision-making. Unfortunately, patient recall after the consent process is frequently poor. This study aims to evaluate the effect of procedure-specific consent forms on patient's recall four weeks after total hip replacement (THR). This is a prospective study using a posttest-only control group design. Sixty adult patients undergoing total hip replacement were allocated to be consented using either the generic or the surgery-specific consent form. Four weeks after surgery, a phone interview was conducted to assess patient's recall of risk of surgical complications. Patient demographic characteristics and educational attainment were similar in both groups. There was a statistically significant increase in the mean number of risks recalled in the study group at 1.43 compared with 0.67 in the control group (P = 0.0131). Consent is a complex process, and obtaining informed consent is far from straightforward. A statistically significant improvement in patient's recall with the use of procedure-specific consent forms was identified, and based on this, we would advocate their use. However, overall patient recall in both groups was poor. We believe that improving the quality of informed consent may require the sum of small gains, and the use of procedure-specific consent forms may aid in this regard.

  6. 42 CFR 2.1 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.1 Statutory authority for confidentiality of drug abuse patient records. The restrictions of these regulations upon the disclosure and use of drug abuse patient records were initially authorized by section 408...

  7. Recall deficits in stroke patients with thalamic lesions covary with damage to the parvocellular mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergola, Giulio; Güntürkün, Onur; Koch, Benno; Schwarz, Michael; Daum, Irene; Suchan, Boris

    2012-08-01

    The functional role of the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus (MD) and its cortical network in memory processes is discussed controversially. While Aggleton and Brown (1999) suggested a role for recognition and not recall, Van der Werf et al. (2003) suggested that this nucleus is functionally related to executive function and strategic retrieval, based on its connections to the prefrontal cortices (PFC). The present study used a lesion approach including patients with focal thalamic lesions to examine the functions of the MD, the intralaminar nuclei and the midline nuclei in memory processing. A newly designed pair association task was used, which allowed the assessment of recognition and cued recall performance. Volume loss in thalamic nuclei was estimated as a predictor for alterations in memory performance. Patients performed poorer than healthy controls on recognition accuracy and cued recall. Furthermore, patients responded slower than controls specifically on recognition trials followed by successful cued recall of the paired associate. Reduced recall of picture pairs and increased response times during recognition followed by cued recall covaried with the volume loss in the parvocellular MD. This pattern suggests a role of this thalamic region in recall and thus recollection, which does not fit the framework proposed by Aggleton and Brown (1999). The functional specialization of the parvocellular MD accords with its connectivity to the dorsolateral PFC, highlighting the role of this thalamocortical network in explicit memory (Van der Werf et al., 2003). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Peak and end effects in patients' daily recall of pain and fatigue: a within-subjects analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stefan; Stone, Arthur A; Schwartz, Joseph E; Broderick, Joan E

    2011-02-01

    Clinical research often relies on retrospective recall of symptom levels, but the information contained in these ratings is not well understood. The "peak-and-end rule" suggests that the most intense (peak) and final (end) moments of an experience disproportionately influence retrospective judgments, which may bias self-reports of somatic symptoms. This study examined the extent to which peak and end symptom levels systematically affect patients' day-to-day recall of pain and fatigue. Rheumatology patients (N = 97) completed 5 to 6 momentary ratings of pain and fatigue per day as well as a daily recall rating of these symptoms for 28 consecutive days. For pain, peak and end momentary ratings predicted daily recall of average pain beyond the actual average of momentary ratings. This effect was small, yet was confirmed in both between-person and within-person (repeated measures) analyses. For fatigue, neither peak nor end momentary symptoms significantly contributed to daily recall. Of note, the evidence for peak- and end-effects in recall of pain and fatigue varied significantly between individual patients. These findings suggest that peak- and end-effects create a small bias in recall reports of pain, but not fatigue. However, there are considerable individual differences in susceptibility to peak and end heuristics. The peak-end cognitive heuristic could bias end-of-day recall of pain and fatigue. An effect was shown for pain, but not for fatigue. The effects were small and were unlikely to substantially bias end-of-day assessments. Individuals were shown to differ in the degree that the heuristic was associated with recall. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of abuse history with symptom severity and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Juan; Vincent, Ann; Cha, Stephen S; Luedtke, Connie A; Oh, Terry H

    2015-03-01

    A high prevalence of abuse has been reported in patients with fibromyalgia. We aimed to examine the association between self-reported abuse history and symptom severity and quality of life (QOL) in 962 patients with fibromyalgia. All patients completed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and the Short Form 36 health survey (SF-36). Multivariate regression analyses were performed. In total, 289 patients (30%) reported a history of abuse. Of those who specified abuse types, 161 patients (59%) reported more than 1 type of abuse (36% emotional, 32% physical, 25% sexual, and 7% verbal). Patients in the abuse group were younger and more likely to be female, unemployed, unmarried, and current smokers compared with patients who reported no abuse. After adjusting for these differences, abuse history was associated with worse symptoms, as indicated by a higher FIQ total score (P history was associated with worse QOL, with lower SF-36 scores in all domains except the physical component summary. In conclusion, abuse history in patients with fibromyalgia was associated with worse symptoms and QOL compared with those patients without abuse history. Future studies are needed to assess whether additional tailored interventions as part of fibromyalgia treatment are helpful for patients with a history of abuse.

  10. Childhood sexual abuse in adult patients with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Menon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Researchers have found elevated rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA in borderline personality disorder (BPD patients. They have also implicated the role of CSA later in BPD. However, there has been a scarcity of studies regarding this in Indian population. Objectives: To profile the occurrence of CSA and its parameters in BPD patients and to document symptomatology of BPD associated with CSA. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six consecutive patients with BPD were administered with a two-staged semi-structured interview by different interviewers with the first stage for collecting sociodemographic details and confirming BPD diagnosis and the second stage for collecting information about CSA. Results: Of 36 BPD patients, 16 (44.44% reported a history of definite CSA. The majority of CSA associated with BPD were having characteristics of onset at 7–12 years, <10 occasions of abuse, perpetrator being a close relative or a close acquaintance and genital type of CSA. Identity disturbances (P = 0.0354, recurrent suicidal/self-harm behavior (P = 0.0177, and stress-related paranoid/dissociative symptoms (P = 0.0177 were significantly associated with the presence of CSA while unstable interpersonal relationships (P = 0.001 were significantly associated with the absence of CSA. Conclusion: Significant proportion of BPD patients reported CSA. The specific symptom profile of BPD patients can be used to predict the presence of CSA in these patients, which has a direct implication in the treatment of these patients.

  11. [The drug abuse patient as emergency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, R; Ryser, D H

    1991-01-15

    Acute drug intoxication is a medical emergency considering its potential interference with vital functions. All 157 cases with drug overdose admitted to the emergency department of the "Inselspital" in Berne over 183 days between July 1989 and June 1990 were analyzed retrospectively. In the vast majority of cases heroin overdose was involved. In mixed poisonings with heroin mostly flunitrazepam and alcohol contributed to the clinical picture, less commonly cocaine. There were very few intoxications with cocaine alone. A practical approach to the management of patients with certain or suspected drug intoxication presenting with coma and depressed respiration is proposed. In the therapy of acute intoxications with opiates and benzodiazepines there are specific antagonists available. In contrast, therapy of cocaine overdose remains symptomatic. The medical complications of acute heroin and cocaine intoxications are discussed separately.

  12. [Analgesic abuse and psychiatric comorbidity in headache patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radat, F; Irachabal, S; Swendsen, J; Henry, P

    2002-01-01

    Headache patients frequently overuse analgesic medications: 20% of the patients from headache centers is concerned by this problem, which has been estimated to occur in four percent of the community migrainers. Frequent use of various types of headache medication may paradoxically cause an increase in headache attack frequency as well as their chronicisation due to potentially complex mechanisms of sensitization. Patients will enter into a self- perpetuating cycle of daily headaches and use of symptomatic medications which can lead to addiction and to social and occupational impairement. Indeed, many patients will experience pharmacological tolerance and dependence but also by some kind of craving. International Headache Society qualify these patients as abusers referring mostly to the amount of substance ingested. Hence patients are labelled analgesic abusers . However, as many of these analgesic medications contained psychotropic substances (i.e. caffeine, codeine.), these patients may fulfill DSM IV criteria of dependance. Nevertheless, the dependance criteria should be adapted to chronic pain patients. Indeed, if pharmacological dependence and tolerance criteria are easy to apply in such patients, it is not the case for the criteria a great deal of time spent to obtain substances, to use substances or to recover from substances effects . As analgesic medications are legally obtained from medical practitioners, drug seeking behaviours are mostly: obtaining medications from multiple providers, repeating episodes of prescription loss and multiplying requests for early refills. Moreover the detrimental effects of analgesic abuse on psychosocial functioning is likely to be related to pain rather than to medication overuse. Finally the best indicator of addictive behaviors in such patients, is the loss of control over the use of analgesic medication despite the adverse consequences over pain. Comorbidity with addiction to other substances has never been specifically

  13. Recall of ICU Stay in Patients Managed With a Sedation Protocol or a Sedation Protocol With Daily Interruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burry, Lisa; Cook, Deborah; Herridge, Margaret; Devlin, John W; Fergusson, Dean; Meade, Maureen; Steinberg, Marilyn; Skrobik, Yoanna; Olafson, Kendiss; Burns, Karen; Dodek, Peter; Granton, John; Ferguson, Niall; Jacka, Michael; Tanios, Maged; Fowler, Robert; Reynolds, Steven; Keenan, Sean; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Mehta, Sangeeta

    2015-10-01

    To 1) describe factual, emotional, and delusional memories of ICU stay for patients enrolled in the SLEAP (Daily sedation interruption in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients cared for with a sedation protocol) trial; 2) compare characteristics of patients with and without ICU recall, and patients with and without delusional memories; and 3) determine factors associated with delusional memories 28 days after ICU discharge. Prospective cohort. Sixteen North American medical and surgical ICUs. Critically ill, mechanically ventilated adults randomized in the SLEAP trial. Post-ICU interviews on days 3, 28, and 90 using the validated ICU Memory Tool. Overall, 289 of 297 ICU survivors (97%) (146 protocolized sedation and 143 protocolized sedation plus daily interruption patients) were interviewed at least once. Because there were no differences in recall status or types of memories between the two sedation groups, we present the findings for all patients rather than by study group. On days 3, 28, and 90, 28%, 26%, and 36% of patients, respectively, reported no recall of being in the ICU (overall perception, self-reported) (p = 0.75). Mean daily doses of benzodiazepines and opioids were lower in patients with no ICU recall than those with recall (p patients reporting no recall of ICU stay on day 3, 97% and 90% reported at least one factual and one emotional memory from ICU, respectively. Emotional memories declined with time after ICU discharge, particularly panic and confusion. Delusional memories 28 days after discharge were common (70%) yet unrelated to delirium (p = 0.84), recall status (p = 0.15), total dose of benzodiazepine (p = 0.78), or opioid (p = 0.21). Delusional memories were less likely with longer duration of mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 0.955; 95% CI, 0.91-1.00; p = 0.04). Recall of ICU stay and types of memories reported were not influenced by the trial sedation strategy. Lack of ICU recall and delusional memories were common after ICU

  14. Psychiatric disorders are overlooked in patients with drug abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruckow, Line; Linnet, Kristian; Banner, Jytte

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Psychiatric disease is overlooked in drug users. Patients with both drug abuse and a psychiatric disease – dual diagnosis – suffer decreased compliance to treatment and decreased life expectancy compared with single-diagnosis patients. Identifying the patients among ­either drug...... addicts or mentally ill patients is difficult. Methods: All drug addicts autopsied at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in the years 1992, 2002 and 2012 were included. The group was divided into two subpopulations of possible dual diagnosis patients either according...... to police reports stating mental illness or to psychotropics found in the toxicology screening after autopsy. Results: We found a rise in possible mental illness in both subpopulations in the study period. Drug addicts with psychotropics in the blood at the time of death increased from 3.1% in 1992 to 48...

  15. Do the filarial lymphoedema patients''3 months recall' on acute dermato-lymphangio-adenitis (ADLA) correlate with streptococcal serology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Britto, L J; Das, L K

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to know the correlation of patients' 3 months recall on acute dermato-lymphangio-adenitis (ADLA) with anti-streptolysin O (ASO) serology and its application as a tool to know the burden of ADLA in the community. Fifty-nine lymphoedema (LE) patients and 27 age matched controls were clinically assessed for LE and the occurrence of ADLA during the previous 3 months was obtained by recall. After obtaining the informed consent, 2 mL of venous blood sample was collected and ASO was quantified in Olympus AU400 auto-analyzer. When the results were computed as two groups, controls and LE patients with no reported ADLA and LE patients with reported ADLA (by 3 months recall), the ASO positivity and ASO titre was significantly higher in the later group (P LE patients with no reported ADLA and LE patients with reported ADLA, the ASO titre was significantly higher in LE patients reported ADLA (P titre for making conclusion. Patients' 3 months recall on ADLA correlates with the ASO titre and therefore, it could be considered as a tool to measure the burden of ADLA in the community. Multicentre community-based studies are needed to ascertain the findings. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2011 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  16. Improvement of memory recall by quercetin in rodent contextual fear conditioning and human early-stage Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Toshiyuki; Itoh, Masanori; Ohta, Kazunori; Hayashi, Yuichi; Hayakawa, Miki; Yamada, Yasushi; Akanabe, Hiroshi; Chikaishi, Tokio; Nakagawa, Kiyomi; Itoh, Yoshinori; Muro, Takato; Yanagida, Daisuke; Nakabayashi, Ryo; Mori, Tetsuya; Saito, Kazuki; Ohzawa, Kaori; Suzuki, Chihiro; Li, Shimo; Ueda, Masashi; Wang, Miao-Xing; Nishida, Emika; Islam, Saiful; Tana; Kobori, Masuko; Inuzuka, Takashi

    2016-06-15

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience a wide array of cognitive deficits, which typically include the impairment of explicit memory. In previous studies, the authors reported that a flavonoid, quercetin, reduces the expression of ATF4 and delays memory deterioration in an early-stage AD mouse model. In the present study, the effects of long-term quercetin intake on memory recall were assessed using contextual fear conditioning in aged wild-type mice. In addition, the present study examined whether memory recall was affected by the intake of quercetin-rich onion (a new cultivar of hybrid onion 'Quergold') powder in early-stage AD patients. In-vivo analysis indicated that memory recall was enhanced in aged mice fed a quercetin-containing diet. Memory recall in early-stage AD patients, determined using the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale, was significantly improved by the intake of quercetin-rich onion (Quergold) powder for 4 weeks compared with the intake of control onion ('Mashiro' white onion) powder. These results indicate that quercetin might influence memory recall.

  17. Cued recall measure predicts the progression of gray matter atrophy in patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koric, Lejla; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Felician, Olivier; Guye, Maxime; de Anna, Francesca; Soulier, Elisabeth; Didic, Mira; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    Amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a heterogeneous syndrome that could be subdivided into distinct neuropsychological variants. To investigate relationships between the neuropsychological profile of memory impairment at baseline and the neuroimaging pattern of grey matter (GM) loss over 18 months, we performed a prospective volumetric brain study on 31 aMCI patients and 29 matched controls. All subjects were tested at baseline using a standardized neuropsychological battery, which included the Free and Cued Selective Recall Reminding Test (FCSRT) for the assessment of verbal declarative memory. Over 18 months, patients with impaired free recall but normal total recall (high index of cueing) on the FCSRT developed subcortical and frontal GM loss, while patients with impaired free and total recall (low index of cueing) developed GM atrophy within the left anterior and lateral temporal lobe. In summary, cued recall deficits are associated with a progression of atrophy that closely parallels the spatiotemporal distribution of neurofibrillary degeneration in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), indicating possible AD pathological changes. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Consumer Product Safety Commission — CPSC provides accessibility to recalls via a recall database. The information is publicly available to consumers and businesses as well as software and application...

  19. Recalls API

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This Recalls API allows you to tap into a list of (1) drug and food safety recalls from the Food and Drug Administration, Food Safety and Inspection Service, and...

  20. Recall strategies for the verbal fluency test in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez-Cardoso, J; Marosi-Holczberger, E; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Y; Yañez-Tellez, G; Chávez-Oliveros, M

    2014-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by inflammation and demyelination. It generates irreversible myelin changes, which in turn give rise to physical and cognitive disorders. The verbal fluency test (VF) has been shown to be a sensitive tool for detecting cognitive impairment in these patients. To compare quantitative and qualitative aspects of performance on semantic and phonological fluency tests between MS patients and healthy controls by analysing total words produced and strategies used (clusters and switching). We evaluated 46 patients with MS and 33 healthy controls using the VF test. The semantic VF task revealed no significant differences between groups; for the phonological task, patients demonstrated reduced word production (F [77]=2.286 P<.001) and poorer use of grouping strategies, resulting in more frequent switching (F [77]=3.808 P<.005). These results support using qualitative analysis for recall strategies, since the technique provides data about which components of the task are affected by brain damage. Clusters depend on the integrity of semantic memory, while switching has to do with developing effective search strategies, cognitive flexibility, and the ability to modify responses. Frontal lobe damage has been reported in MS, and this is consistent with results from the phonological VF test. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Social Functioning and Self-Esteem of Substance Abuse Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöğütçü, Filiz; Karakaş, Sibel Asi

    2016-10-01

    This descriptive study was conducted to examine the levels of social functioning and self-esteem in individuals diagnosed with substance abuse. The study was conducted at the AMATEM (Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment Center) service of a psychiatry clinic in the Elazığ province in eastern Turkey between September 1, 2014 and February 1, 2015. The population is comprised of 249 patients being treated in this clinic, and the sample included 203 patients who comply with the research criteria and agreed to participate in the study. A Socia-Demographic Questionnaire, Coopersmith Self-esteem Scale (CSI) and Social Functioning Scale (SFS) were used for data collection. Percentages, averages, standard deviations and Pearson's correlation were used for data analysis. This study found that the patients' mean sore on the Self-esteem Scale is 50.97±18.01. Their score on the Social Functioning Scale is 115.76±22.41. A significant correlation between the patients' self-esteem and the age of first substance use was detected (p=0.001). A significant correlation was detected between their social functioning and the duration of their substance use (pself-esteem (pself-esteem and social functioning. A significant positive correlation between social functioning and self-esteem was found. It was also found that the age of first substance use and self-esteem are directly correlated. Counseling to increase patients' levels of self-esteem and improve their social functioning is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Drug abuse identification and pain management in dental patients: a case study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Fahmida; Frare, Robert W; Py Berrios, Karen L

    2012-01-01

    Properly identifying patients with a history of drug abuse is the first step in providing effective dental care. Dental professionals need to be fully aware of the challenges associated with treating this population. In the current study, the authors analyzed the physical and oral manifestations of illicit drug abuse to aid in the identification of patients who abuse drugs and the pain management strategies needed to treat them. The authors also present a clinical case of a patient with unique skin lesions and discuss the typical clinical findings of drug abuse based on a literature review.

  3. An fMRI study during finger movement tasks and recalling finger movement tasks in normal subjects and schizophrenia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Takefumi

    2003-01-01

    Using fMRI, we investigated the region of the brain, which was activated by the finger movement tasks (F1) and the recalling finger movement tasks (F2). Six right-handed age-matched healthy controls and six Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) Schizophrenia patients were included in the study. In healthy controls, contralateral motor area, supplementary motor area and somatosensory area were all activated during F1 and F2. However the contralateral parietal lobe (supramarginal gyrus etc) and ipsilateral cerebellum were also activated during F2. In schizophrenia patients, the contralateral motor area was activated during F1, but the activated region was smaller than that observed in healthy subjects. During F2, the bilateral parietal lobes (sensorimotor cortices, association cortex) were activated, while the activated regions were smaller than those seen in healthy controls and no laterality was observed. In addition, no laterality of the activated regions was clearly observed. These results suggest that the function of recalling motor tasks can be mapped onto the contralateral motor area, somatosensory area, supplementary motor area, parietal association cortices, and ipsilateral cerebellum. In schizophrenia patients, the activated regions are smaller than those observed in healthy controls, and parietal regions are also activated bilaterally during recalling motor tasks. Schizophrenia patients may therefore process to recall motor task differently from healthy subjects while also demonstrate less laterality of the brain. (author)

  4. Tailored information for cancer patients on the Internet: effects of visual cues and language complexity on information recall and satisfaction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weert, J.C.M. van; Noort, G. van; Bol, N.; Dijk, L. van; Tates, K.; Jansen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effects of visual cues and language complexity on satisfaction and information recall using a personalised website for lung cancer patients. In addition, age effects were investigated. Methods: An experiment using a 2 (complex vs. non-complex

  5. Tailored information for cancer patients on the Internet: effects of visual cues and language complexity on information recall and satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weert, J.C.M.; van Noort, G.; Bol, N.; van Dijk, L.; Tates, K.; Jansen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to investigate the effects of visual cues and language complexity on satisfaction and information recall using a personalised website for lung cancer patients. In addition, age effects were investigated. Methods An experiment using a 2 (complex vs. non-complex

  6. Dopaminergic system and dream recall: An MRI study in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gennaro, Luigi; Lanteri, Olimpia; Piras, Fabrizio; Scarpelli, Serena; Assogna, Francesca; Ferrara, Michele; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the role of the dopamine system [i.e., subcortical-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) network] in dreaming, by studying patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) as a model of altered dopaminergic transmission. Subcortical volumes and cortical thickness were extracted by 3T-MR images of 27 PD patients and 27 age-matched controls, who were asked to fill out a dream diary upon morning awakening for one week. PD patients do not substantially differ from healthy controls with respect to the sleep, dream, and neuroanatomical measures. Multivariate correlational analyses in PD patients show that dopamine agonist dosage is associated to qualitatively impoverished dreams, as expressed by lower bizarreness and lower emotional load values. Visual vividness (VV) of their dream reports positively correlates with volumes of both the amygdalae and with thickness of the left mPFC. Emotional load also positively correlates with hippocampal volume. Beside the replication of our previous finding on the role of subcortical nuclei in dreaming experience of healthy subjects, this represents the first evidence of a specific role of the amygdala-mPFC dopaminergic network system in dream recall. The association in PD patients between higher dopamine agonist dosages and impoverished dream reports, however, and the significant correlations between VV and mesolimbic regions, however, provide an empirical support to the hypothesis that a dopamine network plays a key role in dream generation. The causal relation is however precluded by the intrinsic limitation of assuming the dopamine agonist dosage as a measure of the hypodopaminergic state in PD. Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Psychiatric disorders are overlooked in patients with drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruckow, Line; Linnet, Kristian; Banner, Jytte

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatric disease is overlooked in drug users. Patients with both drug abuse and a psychiatric disease - dual diagnosis - suffer decreased compliance to treatment and decreased life expectancy compared with single-diagnosis patients. Identifying the patients among either drug addicts or mentally ill patients is difficult. All drug addicts autopsied at the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in the years 1992, 2002 and 2012 were included. The group was divided into two subpopulations of possible dual diagnosis patients either according to police reports stating mental illness or to psychotropics found in the toxicology screening after autopsy. We found a rise in possible mental illness in both subpopulations in the study period. Drug addicts with psychotropics in the blood at the time of death increased from 3.1% in 1992 to 48.1% in 2012, and this group was significantly younger at the time of death than those without psychotropics in the blood. Suspected dual diagnosis patients have increased in number. They die earlier than their drug addict counterparts. Methadone remains the leading cause of death in all subpopulations. Possible causes are misuse of treatment and/or illegally bought methadone, wrongly assigned cause of death due to unknown tolerance and/or polydrug toxicity in combination with psychotropic medicine. none. not relevant.

  8. Kynurenine pathway metabolites are associated with hippocampal activity during autobiographical memory recall in patients with depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kymberly D; Drevets, Wayne C; Dantzer, Robert; Teague, T Kent; Bodurka, Jerzy; Savitz, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Inflammation-related changes in the concentrations of inflammatory mediators such as c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 1β (IL-1), and IL-6 as well as kynurenine metabolites are associated with major depressive disorder (MDD) and affect depressive behavior, cognition, and hippocampal plasticity in animal models. We previously reported that the ratios of kynurenic acid (KynA) to the neurotoxic metabolites, 3-hydroxykynurenine (3HK) and quinolinic acid (QA), were positively correlated with hippocampal volume in depression. The hippocampus is critical for autobiographical memory (AM) recall which is impaired in MDD. Here we tested whether the ratios, KynA/3HK and KynA/QA were associated with AM recall performance as well as hippocampal activity during AM recall. Thirty-five unmedicated depressed participants and 25 healthy controls (HCs) underwent fMRI scanning while recalling emotionally-valenced AMs and provided serum samples for the quantification of kynurenine metabolites, CRP, and cytokines (IL-1 receptor antagonist - IL-1RA; IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha - TNF, interferon gamma -IFN-γ, IL-10). KynA/3HK and KynA/QA were lower in the MDD group relative to the HCs. The concentrations of the CRP and the cytokines did not differ significantly between the HCs and the MDD group. Depressed individuals recalled fewer specific AMs and displayed increased left hippocampal activity during the recall of positive and negative memories. KynA/3HK was inversely associated with left hippocampal activity during specific AM recall in the MDD group. Further, KynA/QA was positively correlated with percent negative specific memories recalled in the MDD group and showed a non-significant trend toward a positive correlation with percent positive specific memories recalled in HCs. In contrast, neither CRP nor the cytokines were significantly associated with AM recall or activity of the hippocampus during AM recall. Conceivably, an imbalance in levels of KynA versus QA

  9. A close view of all forms of abuse among mentally ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Hernández de Cadena

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available It is of common knowledge, that mentally ill patients are frequently subjected to physical and mental abuse. However, there is little information about this topic. Patients with mental disorders may be subjected to physical, sexual, psychological, and economical, as well as, negligence abuse by folks and people from community, due to fact, of prejudice towards people with mental disorders. Therefore abuse in all forms, constitutes an additional stressor event and changes prognosis of preexistent disorder. Diagnosis of abuse is a complex process and it is necessary a full clinical history, including physical and mental evaluation.

  10. Consent: an event or a memory in lumbar spinal surgery? A multi-centre, multi-specialty prospective study of documentation and patient recall of consent content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, William B; McAuley, Ciaran P; Gillies, Martin J; Grover, Patrick J; Pereira, Erlick A C

    2017-11-01

    Prospective, multi-centre, multi-specialty medical notes review and patient interview. The consenting process is an important communication tool which also carries medico-legal implications. While written consent is a pre-requisite before spinal surgery in the UK, the standard and effectiveness of the process have not been assessed previously. This study assesses standard of written consent for elective lumbar decompressive surgery for degenerative disc disease across different regions and specialties in the UK; level of patient recall of the consent content; and identifies factors which affect patient recall. Consent forms of 153 in-patients from 4 centres a, b, c, d were reviewed. Written documentation of intended benefits, alternative treatments and operative risks was assessed. Of them, 108 patients were interviewed within 24 h before or after surgeries to assess recall. The written documentation rates of the operative risks showed significant inter-centre variations in haemorrhage and sphincter disturbance (P = 0.000), but not for others. Analysis of pooled data showed variations in written documentation of risks (P recall of these risks, there was no inter-centre variation. Patients' recall of paralysis as a risk was highest (50.9%) and that of recurrence was lowest (6.5%). Patients recalled risks better than those ≥65, significantly so for infection (29.9 vs 9.7%, P = 0.027). Patients consented >14 days compared to recall for paralysis (65.2 vs 43.7%) and recurrence (17.4 vs 2.8%). Patient recall was independent of consenter grade. Overall, the standard of written consent for elective lumbar spinal decompressive surgery was sub-optimal, which was partly reflected in the poor patient recall. While consenter seniority did not affect patient recall, younger age and longer consent-to-surgery time improved it.

  11. The effect of pretreatment with clonidine on propofol consumption in opium abuser and non-abuser patients undergoing elective leg surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Jabbari Moghadam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Clonidine, an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, increases the quality of perioperative sedation and analgesia with a few side effects. This study was designed to assess the effect of clonidine premedication on the anesthesics used for elective below knee surgeries in opium abusers and non-abusers. Materials and Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 160 patients were selected and assigned into four groups. Eighty patients among the opium abusers were divided randomly into clonidine and no clonidine groups, with 40 patients in each, and 80 among the non-abusers were again divided randomly into clonidine and no clonidine groups, with 40 patients in each group. All were anesthetized for elective orthopedic operation using the same predetermined method. The total administered dose of propofol and other variables were compared. Results: The total propofol dose in a decreasing order was as follows: Abuser patients receiving placebo (862 ± 351 mg, non-abuser patients receiving placebo (806 ± 348 mg, abuser patients receiving clonidine (472 ± 175 mg, and non-abuser patients receiving clonidine (448 ± 160 mg. Hence, a statistically significant difference was observed among the four study groups (P value for ANOVA = 0.0001. Conclusion: Adding clonidine as a preoperative medication decreases the patient′s anesthetic needs; this decrease was even more considerable on the anesthetic needs than the effect of opium abuse history on anesthetic dose.

  12. Social adaptability and substance abuse: Predictors of depression among hemodialysis patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Several aspects linked to social are involved in the onset of depressive feelings. We aimed to find out if social adaptability and substance abuse predict depression among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Methods We included 145 ESRD patients undergoing HD. Social adaptability was estimated by the Social Adaptability Index (SAI). Substance abuse was defined according to SAI. We screened for depression by applying the 20-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. A score ≥ 24 classified the patients as depressed. Comparisons between depressed and non-depressed patients were carried out and logistic regression was performed to test gender, age, total SAI, SAI without the substance abuse item, only the substance abuse score and substance abuse as a categorical variable (yes/no) as predictors of depression. Results There were 36 (24.8%) depressed patients. There were no differences regarding demographic and laboratory data between the depressed and non-depressed patients. Mean SAI among depressed and non-depressed patients was, respectively, 6.1 ± 1.6 vs. 6.2 ± 1.9 (p=0.901). The percentage of patients with or without substance abuse among depressed patients was, respectively, 13.8% vs. 13.9% (p=1.000). Gender, age, total SAI, SAI without the substance abuse item, only the substance abuse score and substance abuse as a categorical variable did not predict depression. Conclusions Social adaptability and substance abuse did not predict depression in HD patients. We propose that aspects related to socioeconomic status not comprised in SAI items should be ruled out as predictors of depression. PMID:23320829

  13. Sentence Context and Word-Picture Cued-Recall Paired-Associate Learning Procedure Boosts Recall in Normal and Mild Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Iodice, Rosario; Meilán, Juan José García; Ramos, Juan Carro; Small, Jeff A.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to employ the word-picture paradigm to examine the effectiveness of combined pictorial illustrations and sentences as strong contextual cues. The experiment details the performance of word recall in healthy older adults (HOA) and mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The researchers enhanced the words’ recall with word-picture condition and when the pair was associated with a sentence contextualizing the two items. Method. The sample was composed of 18 HOA and...

  14. Differences in methylphenidate abuse rates among methadone maintenance treatment patients in two clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peles, Einat; Schreiber, Shaul; Linzy, Shirley; Domani, Yoav; Adelson, Miriam

    2015-07-01

    Methylphenidate, an amphetamine-like prescription medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was suspected as being abused among methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) patients. We tested its presence in the routine urine monitoring of all patients in both Tel Aviv and Las Vegas MMT clinics. Data on demographic and addiction history, ADHD (Wender Utah Rating Scale), cognitive impairment (Mini Mental State Exam), and lifetime DSM-IV-TR psychiatric diagnosis from admission were retrieved, and retention following 6 months. None of the 190 patients in Las Vegas tested positive for methylphenidate, while 14.7% (45/306) did in Tel Aviv. Abusers were less educated (p = 0.01), had higher ADHD scores (p = 0.02), lower cognitive scores (p = 0.05), and a higher benzodiazepine (BDZ) abuse rate (p cannabis, opiates, and cocaine abuse and infectious disease. Of the methylphenidate abuse 42.2% have take-home methadone dose privileges. Not like opiate use, being methylphenidate positive did not relate to 6-months retention. Compared to Tel Aviv, Las Vegas patients were more educated, with lower BDZ, and cocaine abuse. The greater abuse of methylphenidate among ADHD subjects might indicate their using it as self-medication, raising a possible indication for its prescription for that subgroup of MMT patients. The high rate of methylphenidate abuse in Israel needs future study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Recall of HbA1c and self-management behaviours, patient activation, perception of care and diabetes distress in Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willaing, I; Rogvi, S-A; Bøgelund, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between HbA1c recall by patients with Type 2 diabetes and self-management behaviours, patient activation, perception of care and diabetes distress....

  16. [Current situation on new psychoactive substances abuse among methadone maintenance treatment patients in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Z; Dai, M M; Cao, X B

    2018-04-10

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) greatly contributed to the successful outcomes of prevention and control on both AIDS and drug abuse in China. However, the features on drug abuse changed in the past decades, and the prevalence of new psychoactive substances abuse potentially somehow offset the achievement of MMT. This paper concised the information on research and surveys of this issue that targeting on the current situation, characteristics, related factors and relevant public health problem on new psychoactive substances abuse, among patients who have been on MMT, in China.

  17. Patients Reporting Ritual Abuse in Childhood: A Clinical Syndrome. Report of 37 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Walter C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-seven adult dissociative disorder patients who reported ritual abuse in childhood by satanic cults are described. A clinical syndrome is presented that includes dissociative states with satanic overtones, posttraumatic stress disorder, survivor guilt, unusual fears, and substance abuse. Questions concerning reliability, credibility, and…

  18. Gender differences in substance abuse, PTSD and intentional self-harm among veterans health administration patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Leatherman, Sarah; Curreri, Andrew; Myers, Lisa G; Ferguson, Ryan; Miller, Matthew

    2017-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported substance abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses as risk factors for suicide among Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients. Research on risk factors for suicide may not generalize to our understanding of non-fatal intentional self-harm (ISH), given the evidence that these outcomes have unique risk factors. The aims of this study were to examine (1) gender-stratified rates of non-fatal ISH in VHA patients with alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence, and PTSD and (2) gender-stratified interaction between alcohol abuse and dependence and drug abuse and dependence and PTSD in predicting non-fatal ISH. Participants include all VHA care users who received a PTSD diagnosis in Massachusetts from 2000 to 2008 (n=16,004) and an age- and gender-matched comparison group (n=52,502). Data were obtained from the VHA administrative registries. We found evidence of stronger interactions between substance abuse diagnoses and PTSD in predicting non-fatal ISH for females than for males. The interaction contrast (IC) for alcohol abuse and dependence and PTSD in predicting non-fatal ISH among female VHA patients was 62.35/100,000 person-years; for male VHA patients the comparable IC was 21.49/100,000 person-years. For female VHA patients the IC for drug abuse and dependence and PTSD predicting ISH was 256.33/100,000 person-years; no interaction was observed for male VHA patients. This study contributes to the scant literature on gender differences in substance abuse and PTSD among VHA patients. The findings highlight comorbid diagnoses as particularly important risk factors for non-fatal ISH among female VHA patients. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Radiation recall dermatitis, panniculitis, and myositis following cyclophosphamide therapy: histopathologic findings of a patient affected by multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni, Giovanni; Vassallo, Camilla; Brazzelli, Valeria; Martinoli, Sara; Ardigò, Marco; Alessandrino, Paolo Emilio; Borroni, Riccardo Giovanni; Franchini, Pietro

    2004-06-01

    Radiation recall dermatitis is one of the skin sequelae that may affect oncology patients. It occurs in a previously irradiated field, when subsequent chemotherapy is given. The eruption may be elicited by chemotherapy, even several months after radiotherapy. Its mechanism is poorly understood, and the histopathologic findings have received, to date, only sketchy descriptions. A 55-year-old male affected by multiple myeloma received radiation therapy both on his left coxofemoral area, and lumbar region (D11-L1). After cyclophosphamide administration, he developed 2 well defined square-shaped, infiltrated erythematoviolaceous plaques in the prior irradiated fields. Histopathologic findings revealed a diffusely fibrosclerosing process, involving deep dermis, hypodermis, as well as the underlying muscle, while sparing the epidermis and superficial-mid dermis. Histopathology was indistinguishable from deep radio-dermatitis, panniculitis, and myositis. This is the first case providing clear evidence of the causative role of cyclophosphamide in inducing a cutaneous and subcutaneous radiation recall reaction.

  20. Pentazocine abuse in sickle cell anaemia patients: a report of two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pentazocine abuse in sickle cell anaemia patients: a report of two case vignetes. ... African Journal of Drug and Alcohol Studies ... to review guidelines for the use of analgesics in the management of bone pain crisis or other chronic pains.

  1. Sentence Context and Word-Picture Cued-Recall Paired-Associate Learning Procedure Boosts Recall in Normal and Mild Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodice, Rosario; Meilán, Juan José García; Ramos, Juan Carro; Small, Jeff A

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to employ the word-picture paradigm to examine the effectiveness of combined pictorial illustrations and sentences as strong contextual cues. The experiment details the performance of word recall in healthy older adults (HOA) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). The researchers enhanced the words' recall with word-picture condition and when the pair was associated with a sentence contextualizing the two items. The sample was composed of 18 HOA and 18 people with mild AD. Participants memorized 15 pairs of words under word-word and word-picture conditions, with and without a sentence context. In the paired-associate test, the first item of the pair was read aloud by participants and used to elicit retrieval of the associated item. The findings suggest that both HOA and mild-AD pictures improved item recall compared to word condition such as sentences which further enabled item recall. Additionally, the HOA group performs better than the mild-AD group in all conditions. Word-picture and sentence context strengthen the encoding in the explicit memory task, both in HOA and mild AD. These results open a potential window to improve the memory for verbalized instructions and restore sequential abilities in everyday life, such as brushing one's teeth, fastening one's pants, or drying one's hands.

  2. Sentence Context and Word-Picture Cued-Recall Paired-Associate Learning Procedure Boosts Recall in Normal and Mild Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Iodice

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to employ the word-picture paradigm to examine the effectiveness of combined pictorial illustrations and sentences as strong contextual cues. The experiment details the performance of word recall in healthy older adults (HOA and mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The researchers enhanced the words’ recall with word-picture condition and when the pair was associated with a sentence contextualizing the two items. Method. The sample was composed of 18 HOA and 18 people with mild AD. Participants memorized 15 pairs of words under word-word and word-picture conditions, with and without a sentence context. In the paired-associate test, the first item of the pair was read aloud by participants and used to elicit retrieval of the associated item. Results. The findings suggest that both HOA and mild-AD pictures improved item recall compared to word condition such as sentences which further enabled item recall. Additionally, the HOA group performs better than the mild-AD group in all conditions. Conclusions. Word-picture and sentence context strengthen the encoding in the explicit memory task, both in HOA and mild AD. These results open a potential window to improve the memory for verbalized instructions and restore sequential abilities in everyday life, such as brushing one’s teeth, fastening one’s pants, or drying one’s hands.

  3. Cognitive Factors Affecting Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition Tasks in Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi Yamagishi; Takuya Sato; Atsushi Sato; Toru Imamura

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims: Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Subjects: We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic. Methods: Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the ...

  4. The influence of process and patient factors on the recall of consent information in mentally competent patients undergoing surgery for neck of femur fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S K; Karuppaiah, K; Bajwa, A S

    2012-07-01

    Informed consent is an ethical and legal prerequisite for major surgical procedures. Recent literature has identified 'poor consent' as a major cause of litigation in trauma cases. We aimed to investigate the patient and process factors that influence consent information recall in mentally competent patients (abbreviated mental test score [AMTS] ≥6) presenting with neck of femur (NOF) fractures. A prospective study was conducted at a tertiary unit. Fifty NOF patients (cases) and fifty total hip replacement (THR) patients (controls) were assessed for process factors (adequacy and validity of consent) as well as patient factors (comprehension and retention) using consent forms and structured interview proformas. The two groups were matched for ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) grade and AMTS. The consent forms were adequate in both groups but scored poorly for validity in the NOF group. Only 26% of NOF patients remembered correctly what surgery they had while only 48% recalled the risks and benefits of the procedure. These results were significantly poorer than in THR patients (p = 0.0001). This study confirms that NOF patients are poor at remembering the information conveyed to them at the time of consent when compared with THR patients despite being intellectually and physiologically matched. We suggest using preprinted consent forms (process factors), information sheets and visual aids (patient factors) to improve retention and recall.

  5. The influence of process and patient factors on the recall of consent information in mentally competent patients undergoing surgery for neck of femur fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, SK; Karuppaiah, K; Bajwa, AS

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Informed consent is an ethical and legal prerequisite for major surgical procedures. Recent literature has identified ‘poor consent’ as a major cause of litigation in trauma cases. We aimed to investigate the patient and process factors that influence consent information recall in mentally competent patients (abbreviated mental test score [AMTS] ≥6) presenting with neck of femur (NOF) fractures. METHODS A prospective study was conducted at a tertiary unit. Fifty NOF patients (cas...

  6. Direct and indirect influences of childhood abuse on depression symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yumi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Takagaki, Koki; Okada, Go; Toki, Shigeru; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanabe, Hajime; Kobayakawa, Makoto; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2015-10-14

    It is known that the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder are affected by interactions between a number of factors. This study investigated how childhood abuse, personality, and stress of life events were associated with symptoms of depression in depressed people. Patients with major depressive disorder (N = 113, 58 women and 55 men) completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Neuroticism Extroversion Openness Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS), and the Life Experiences Survey (LES), which are self-report scales. Results were analyzed with correlation analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM), by using SPSS AMOS 21.0. Childhood abuse directly predicted the severity of depression and indirectly predicted the severity of depression through the mediation of personality. Negative life change score of the LES was affected by childhood abuse, however it did not predict the severity of depression. This study is the first to report a relationship between childhood abuse, personality, adulthood life stresses and the severity of depression in depressed patients. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depression. These results suggest the need for clinicians to be receptive to the possibility of childhood abuse in patients suffering from depression. SEM is a procedure used for hypothesis modeling and not for causal modeling. Therefore, the possibility of developing more appropriate models that include other variables cannot be excluded.

  7. Effect of adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography on patient recall and cancer detection rates: A retrospective study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohno, Eriko; Umemoto, Takeshi; Sasaki, Kyoko; Morishima, Isamu; Ueno, Ei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography can reduce patient recall rates and increase cancer detection rates. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of mammography and ultrasonography breast screenings performed at the Total Health Evaluation Center Tsukuba, Japan, between April 2011 and March 2012. We also reviewed the modalities and results of diagnostic examinations from women with mammographic abnormalities who visited the Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital for further testing. Results: Of 11,753 women screened, cancer was diagnosed in 10 (0.22%) of the 4529 participants who underwent mammography alone, 23 (0.37%) of the 6250 participants who underwent ultrasonography alone, and 5 (0.51%) of the 974 participants who underwent mammography and ultrasonography. The recall rate due to mammographic abnormalities was 4.9% for women screened only with mammography and 2.6% for those screened with both modalities. The cancer detection rate was 0.22% for women screened only with mammography (positive predictive value, 4.5%) and 0.31% for those screened with both modalities (positive predictive value, 12.0%). Of the 211 lesions presenting as mammographic abnormalities investigated further, diagnostic ultrasonography found no abnormalities in 63 (29.9%) and benign findings in 69 (33.7%). The rest 36.4% needed mammography, cytological or histological examinations or follow-up in addition to diagnostic ultrasonography. Conclusions: It is possible to reduce the recall rate in screening mammography by combining mammography and ultrasonography for breast screening

  8. Medical students' experiences of professional lapses and patient rights abuses in a South African health sciences faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivian, Lauraine M H; Naidu, Claudia S; Keikelame, Mpoe J; Irlam, James

    2011-10-01

    To elicit South African medical students' experiences of witnessing patient rights abuses and professional lapses during their clinical training in order to inform an appropriate and effective response. During June and July 2009 at the University of Cape Town Faculty of Health Sciences, the authors surveyed 223 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year medical students in selected clinical rotations concerning abuses they had observed. Volunteers were later interviewed individually. The authors coded interview transcripts for key themes using a constant-comparative grounded theory approach. Of 223 students surveyed, 183 (82%) responded, 130 (71%) of whom reported witnessing patient rights abuses and professional lapses, including physical abuse (38%), verbal abuse (37%), disrespect for patients' dignity (25%), and inadequately informing patients about their treatment (25%). Students attributed abuse to stressed health workers, overburdened facilities, and disempowered patients. Most students who witnessed abuse (59%) did not actively respond, and 64% of survey respondents felt unprepared or uncertain about challenging abuses in the future. Interviews with 28 students yielded detailed accounts of the abuses witnessed and of students' emotional reactions, coping strategies, and responses. Most students did not report abuses; they feared reprisal or doubted it would make a difference. This study demonstrates the disjunction between what these students were taught about human rights and ethics and what they witnessed in clinical settings. The high prevalence of patient rights abuses experienced by these students highlights the need to align medical ethics and human rights with medico-legal protocols in theory and clinical practice.

  9. Relationship between Opium Abuse and Severity of Depression in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepehrmanesh Zahra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundOpium use in diabetic populations is associated with major depressive disorder (MDD. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between opium use and severity of depression in Iranian diabetic patients.MethodsIn this case-control study, 642 type 2 diabetic patients were recruited from those presenting at two outpatient clinics at the Akhavan Hospital in Kashan, Iran; of them, 600 diabetic patients were included in the study and divided into two groups: opium-abusers (150 patients and non-opium-abusers (450 patients. Clinical and demographic information was obtained through a detailed questionnaire. Depression symptomalogy and severity were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and a corresponding diagnosis was made based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, Text Revision, 2000 (DSM-IV TR criteria.ResultsThe mean depression score was higher in the opium abuse group than in the non-abuser group (29.27±1.44 vs. 18.29±1.31, P<0.001. In general, a significant association was found between opium abuse and depression among patients (odds ratio [OR], 4.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.87 to 7.44; P=0.001. No significant relationship was found between dysthymia and opium abuse (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.18 to 1.192; P=0.155, while MDD was significantly higher in the opium abuser group (OR, 7.32; 95% CI, 5.20 to 12.01; P<0.001.ConclusionDepression is more frequent in opium-dependent diabetic patients, and its severity is also greater. Given these findings, opium-dependent diabetic patients should be advised about the increased risks of depression and related comorbidities.

  10. Fast and Highly Selective LC-MS/MS Screening for THC and 16 Other Abused Drugs and Metabolites in Human Hair to Monitor Patients for Drug Abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Remco A.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.; Greijdanus, Ben; VanDerNagel, Joanneke E. L.; Uges, Donald R. A.

    Background:To facilitate the monitoring of drug abuse by patients, a method was developed and validated for the analysis of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxyamphetamine, methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, methylphenidate, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, morphine,

  11. Effectiveness of narcotics anonymous training programs in personality characters in substance abuse patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namat Sotodeh Asl

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Substance abuse is one of the most common disorders that exert a high impact on the life of patients and their families. There are many treatment methods for Addiction. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of narcotics anonymous (NA program on personality characters in substance abuse patients.Materials and Methods: This quasi experimental design was performed on 100 patients with substance abuse disorders that they had been randomly selected from those patients who were referred to psychiatric clinics and counseling centers in Esfehan in 2008. Then, the subjects were equally divided into two groups; experimental and control. All the patients carried out Eysenk test prior to any intervention and also a demographic questionnaire were filled out by all the subjects. Then, Eysenk test was performed on all the patients following the intervention. Changing in personality character in the experimental group (before and after the intervention was compared with those of the control group. Results: The findings showed that narcotic program has significant effects on personality characters of experimental group to substance abuse in post test, but these effects are not significant in control group.Conclusion: According to the findings of this work, we suggest the effectiveness of NA program in changing personality characters of the patients with substance abuse

  12. Relationship between Personality Disorders and Relapses among Sample of Substance Abuse Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Hasan Gaber

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between Personality Disorders and Relapses among Sample of 75 Substance Abuse Patients (personality disorder scale (prepared by the researchers) were used Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed that there are statistically significant relationship between Antisocial personality disorder(ASPD), Borderline personality disorder (BPD, Avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) and Dependent personality disorder (DPD) and substance abuse relapses (P≤=0.00)...

  13. Revision of the Word Association Test for assessing associations of patients reporting satanic ritual abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, F; Labott, S M

    1998-11-01

    A growing number of psychiatric patients report satanic ritual abuse, prompting research into this controversial area. In the current study, the Word Association Test (WAT) was modified to assess experience with satanic abuse. Pilot work resulted in norms for two domains: normative and satanic. Female psychiatric patients were compared on their associations in two studies. Based on a sexual history, they were grouped into those reporting sexual abuse, those reporting satanic ritual abuse (SRA), and those without a history of sexual abuse (controls). In both studies, SRA patients gave significantly more total associations, significantly fewer normative associations, and significantly more satanic associations than did the other two groups. These results suggest that an experience base is shared by individuals reporting SRA that is not found in individuals who do not report satanic abuse (even if they do report sexual abuse). The implications of these findings are discussed from the perspective of arguments advanced by advocates and critics of SRA.

  14. Drug abuse in hospitalized trauma patients in a university trauma care center: an explorative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Soroush

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drug abuse has been known as a growing contributing factor to all types of trauma in the world. The goal of this article is to provide insight into demographic and substance use factors associated with trauma and to determine the prevalence of drug abuse in trauma patients. Methods: Evidence of substance abuse was assessed in trauma patients presenting to Sina trauma hospital over a 3-month period. They were interviewed and provided urine samples to detect the presence of drug/metabolites of opium, morphine, cannabis and heroin by “Morphine Check” kits. Demographic data, mechanisms of injury, history of smoking and drug abuse were recorded. Results: A total of 358 patients with a mean age of 28.4 years were studied. The Patients were predominantly male (94.7%. There was a history of smoking in 136 cases (38%. 58 cases (16.2% reported to abuse drugs (91.5% opium. The commonest route of administration was smoke inhalation (37.2%. Screening by Morphine Check test revealed 95 samples to be positive (26.5%. The preponderance of test-positive cases was among young people (of 20-30 years of age with a history of smoking. Victims of violence and those with penetrating injuries also showed a higher percentage of positive screens (P=0.038 and P<0.001, respectively. Conclusion: These results suggest that drug abuse is a contributing factor to trauma especially in violent injuries and among the young. Regarding the considerable prevalence of drug abuse among trauma patients, it’s highly recommended that all trauma patients be screened for illicit drugs

  15. A Case of Physically Abused OCD Patient Who Physically Abused Her own Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuðba AYAZ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It was suggested that along with genetic factors various psychosocial factors may play a role in the development of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD. Parents’ childrearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences are among the mostly investigated ones. In literature it was indicated that child rearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences may play a role in the development of OCD. There are studies which show that child rearing styles including excessive protection, critical and rejective are associated with the development of OCD. However, it is still controversial that which child rearing styles lead to the OCD through which mechanisms. Besides, in literature it was shown that emotional traumatic experiences lead to the development of OCD through various factors. In addition, understanding what kind of conflict and problems are reflected by people with OCD diagnosis into the relationship with their children is important in terms of interventions that protect the mental health of the child. In this article, it was aimed to discuss psychosocial factors related to the development of OCD symptoms, by examining a case in detail, who had childhood traumatic experiences and has been raised in an environment where negative parenting styles exist, and who physically abused her own child. (Journal of Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy and Research 2013, 2: 116-120 [JCBPR 2013; 2(2.000: 116-120

  16. A Case of Physically Abused OCD Patient Who Physically Abused Her own Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba AYAZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available It was suggested that along with genetic factors various psychosocial factors may play a role in the development of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD. Parents’ childrearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences are among the mostly investigated ones. In literature it was indicated that child rearing styles and childhood traumatic experiences may play a role in the development of OCD. There are studies which show that child rearing styles including excessive protection, critical and rejective are associated with the development of OCD. However, it is still controversial that which child rearing styles lead to the OCD through which mechanisms. Besides, in literature it was shown that emotional traumatic experiences lead to the development of OCD through various factors. In addition, understanding what kind of conflict and problems are reflected by people with OCD diagnosis into the relationship with their children is important in terms of interventions that protect the mental health of the child. In this article, it was aimed to discuss psychosocial factors related to the development of OCD symptoms, by examining a case in detail, who had childhood traumatic experiences and has been raised in an environment where negative parenting styles exist, and who physically abused her own child.

  17. Identifying and assessing the risk of opioid abuse in patients with cancer: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmichael AN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ashley-Nicole Carmichael,1 Laura Morgan,1 Egidio Del Fabbro2 1School of Pharmacy, 2Division of Hematology, Oncology, and Palliative Care, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA Background: The misuse and abuse of opioid medications in many developed nations is a health crisis, leading to increased health-system utilization, emergency department visits, and overdose deaths. There are also increasing concerns about opioid abuse and diversion in patients with cancer, even at the end of life. Aims: To evaluate the current literature on opioid misuse and abuse, and more specifically the identification and assessment of opioid-abuse risk in patients with cancer. Our secondary aim is to offer the most current evidence of best clinical practice and suggest future directions for research. Materials and methods: Our integrative review included a literature search using the key terms “identification and assessment of opioid abuse in cancer”, “advanced cancer and opioid abuse”, “hospice and opioid abuse”, and “palliative care and opioid abuse”. PubMed, PsycInfo, and Embase were supplemented by a manual search. Results: We found 691 articles and eliminated 657, because they were predominantly noncancer populations or specifically excluded cancer patients. A total of 34 articles met our criteria, including case studies, case series, retrospective observational studies, and narrative reviews. The studies were categorized into screening questionnaires for opioid abuse or alcohol, urine drug screens to identify opioid misuse or abuse, prescription drug-monitoring programs, and the use of universal precautions. Conclusion: Screening questionnaires and urine drug screens indicated at least one in five patients with cancer may be at risk of opioid-use disorder. Several studies demonstrated associations between high-risk patients and clinical outcomes, such as aberrant behavior, prolonged opioid use, higher morphine-equivalent daily dose

  18. Effect of providing cancer patients with the audiotaped initial consultation on satisfaction, recall, and quality of life: a randomized, double-blind study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, L. M.; Visser, M. R.; Lammes, F. B.; van der Velden, J.; Kuenen, B. C.; de Haes, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: By means of a randomized double-blind study, the effect of providing taped initial consultations on cancer patients' satisfaction, recall, and quality of life was investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive cancer patients referred to either the gynecology or medical oncology outpatient

  19. The power of clinicians' affective communication: how reassurance about non-abandonment can reduce patients' physiological arousal and increase information recall in bad news consultations. An experimental study using analogue patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sep, Milou S. C.; van Osch, Mara; van Vliet, Liesbeth M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.; Bensing, Jozien M.

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of incurable cancer may evoke physiological arousal in patients. Physiological arousal can negatively impact patients' recall of information provided in the medical consultation. We aim to investigate whether clinicians' affective communication during a bad news consultation will

  20. Clinical pattern and prevalence of upper gastrointestinal toxicity in patients abusing ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shirley Yuk Wah; Ng, Stephen Ka Kei; Tam, Yuk Him; Yee, Samuel Chi Hang; Lai, Franco Pui Tak; Hong, Cindy Yuek Lam; Chiu, Philip Wai Yan; Ng, Enders Kwok Wai; Ng, Chi Fai

    2017-09-01

    Evaluations of upper gastrointestinal toxicity from ketamine abuse are uncommon. This study investigated the clinical pattern of upper gastrointestinal symptoms in patients inhaling ketamine. In a cross-sectional study of 611 consecutive patients who were seeking treatment for ketamine uropathy in a tertiary hospital setting between August 2008 and June 2016, their clinical pattern of upper gastrointestinal symptoms was evaluated and compared with a control population of 804 non-users. A total of 168 (27.5%) patients abusing ketamine (mean age 26.3 years, 58.9% female) reported the presence of upper gastrointestinal symptoms. These symptoms were significantly more prevalent in patients inhaling ketamine than in those who were not (27.5% vs 5.2%, P ketamine abuse before symptom presentation was 5.0 ± 3.1 years. The presenting symptoms included epigastric pain (n = 155, 25.4%), recurrent vomiting (n = 48, 7.9%), anemia (n = 36, 5.9%) and gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 20, 3.3%). Uropathy symptoms were preceded by upper gastrointestinal symptoms for 4.4 ± 3.0 years in 141 (83.9%) patients. Logistic regression showed that elder age (odds ratio [OR] 1.06, P = 0.04), active abuser status (OR 1.60, P = 0.04) and longer duration of ketamine abuse (OR 1.00, P = 0.04) were independent factors associated with upper gastrointestinal toxicity. Although epigastric symptoms are unusual in the young population, upper gastrointestinal toxicity was highly prevalent in those inhaling ketamine. Enquiries about ketamine abuse are recommended when assessing young patients with epigastric symptoms. © 2017 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Alcohol Abuse Increases Rebleeding Risk and Mortality in Patients with Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärkkäinen, Jussi M; Miilunpohja, Sami; Rantanen, Tuomo; Koskela, Jenni M; Jyrkkä, Johanna; Hartikainen, Juha; Paajanen, Hannu

    2015-12-01

    No current data are available on rebleeding and mortality risk in patients who use alcohol excessively and are admitted for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). This information could help in planning interventions and follow-up protocols for these patients. This study provides contemporary data on the long-term outcome after first-time NVUGIB in alcohol abusers (AAs) compared to non-abusers (NAs). Consecutive patients hospitalized for their first acute gastrointestinal bleeding from 2009 through 2011 were retrospectively recorded and categorized as AA or NA. Risk factors for one-year mortality and rebleeding were identified, and patients were further monitored for long-term mortality until 2015. Alcohol abuse was identified in 19.7% of patients with NVUGIB (n = 518). The one-year rebleeding rate was 16.7% in AAs versus 9.1% in NAs (P = 0.027). Alcohol abuse was associated with a twofold increase in rebleeding risk (P = 0.025); the risk especially increased 6 months after the initial bleeding. The study groups did not differ significantly in 30-day (6.0%) or one-year mortality rates (20.5%). However, there was a tendency for higher overall mortality in AAs than NAs after adjustment of comorbidities. AAs with NVUGIB are at high risk of rebleeding, and mortality is increased in AA patients. A close follow-up strategy and long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy are recommended for AA patients with peptic ulcer or esophagitis.

  2. [The delayed word recall task using ADAS-Jcog word booklet effectively divides patients with mild cognitive impairment from normal elderly people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Naoko; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Sayaka; Mogi, Nanaka; Iguchi, Akihisa

    2007-07-01

    A new screening test for detecting mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with higher sensitivity that can easily be administered at the bedside is necessary. In this study, we proposed the delayed recall task using the word booklet of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive component-Japanese version (ADAS-Jcog) and compared the score of the task in patients with MCI with that of cognitive normal elderly (NE) and patients with AD. Thirty six patients with MCI, 13 very mild AD, 104 mild AD, 13 moderate AD, and age- and education-matched 19 NE, recruited from the memory clinic of Nagoya University Hospital, were evaluated by the ADAS-Jcog word recall task which consisted of immediate recall (IR), a classical method on ADAS-Jcog, and delayed recall (DR) that has been newly introduced. Compared with controls, patients with MCI were significantly impaired on both IR and DR. On the other hand, DR is more sensitive than IR for distinguishing MCI from NE. The highest sensitivity (94.4%) and specificity (68.4%) were achieved when the results of IR were combined with those of DR. The result suggests that the delayed word recall task using the word booklet of ADAS-Jcog may be a useful tool as a screening method for the detection of MCI.

  3. Resilience and social support as protective factors against abuse of patients with dementia: A study on family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Lídia; Contador, Israel; Fernández-Calvo, Bernardino; Ruisoto, Pablo; Jenaro, Cristina; Flores, Noelia; Ramos, Francisco; Rivera-Navarro, Jesús

    2018-05-24

    Scientific literature has identified different vulnerability factors associated to abuse in people with dementia (PWD), but little is known about the psychosocial protective variables against abuse. The main objective of this study is to investigate a set of caregiver and patient factors linked to abuse-related behavior of PWD. A total of 326 primary and family caregivers, residents of the Castilla and León community (Spain), were evaluated. All participants filled out a standardized protocol, which assessed the sociodemographic characteristics, patient and care-related variables, as well as the perceived burden, resilience, and social support. Abuse-related behavior was evaluated using the Caregiver Abuse Screen. Results show that the severity of cognitive impairment and behavior disorders of PWD, a greater number of caregiving hours, a worse previous relationship with the caregiver, and perceived burden are positively related with abuse. However, resilience and social support showed a negative relationship with Caregiver Abuse Screen scores, suggesting a protective effect on abuse, even after controlling the effect of a number of covariates. Indeed, resilience was the only variable that remained significant after including the effect of burden. This paper states the role of burden in abuse of PWD, while resilience and social support are abuse protective factors. These variables should be considered in future guidelines for the prevention of abuse against PWD. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Underestimation of substance abuse in psychiatric patients by conventional hospital screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Lisa J; Junquera, Patricia; Van Dijck, Karolien; Steele, Bernard W; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2014-12-01

    Psychiatric diagnosis mainly relies on behavioral signs and symptoms. Substance abuse can mimic the clinical presentation of primary psychiatric disorders and can also complicate the management of psychiatric patients. The reliability and accuracy of urine toxicology is a vital tool in the optimal treatment of these patients. Current demographics of substance abuse suggest that in addition to the most conventional drugs of abuse (e.g. cocaine, cannabis) that are of concern to treating physicians, prescription medications and new designer drugs also should be when evaluating patients who present with symptoms of psychosis/drug addiction or altered mental status. Urine samples from 220 psychiatric inpatients admitted to either an acute drug and alcohol unit or acute psychiatric unit were analyzed for drugs by the standard hospital assay (KIMS) and by a more sensitive ELISA and GC-MS basic drug screening protocol. The standard hospital toxicology (KIMS) was inferior to the ELISA and GC-MS methods in terms of both assay sensitivity and in detecting a broader number of drugs. The KIMS tests failed to identify opiates and amphetamine/methamphetamine in 50% of the patients. The KIMS screen did not identify zolpidem, buprenorphine and a number of synthetic drugs of abuse including cathinone and tryptamines. In order to reliably identify substance abuse in patients with altered mental status in inpatient settings, analytical methodologies with adequate assay sensitivity and range to detect the vast majority of commonly abused illicit drugs and prescription medications are required for optimal clinical assessment and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Polysomnographic findings in a cohort of chronic insomnia patients with benzodiazepine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Marianna; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Marano, Giuseppe; Di Nicola, Marco; Dittoni, Serena; Gnoni, Valentina; Di Blasi, Chiara; Giannantoni, Nadia Mariagrazia; Lapenta, Leonardo; Brunetti, Valerio; Bria, Pietro; Janiri, Luigi; Mazza, Salvatore; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-01-15

    To evaluate sleep modifications induced by chronic benzodiazepine (BDZ) abuse. Cohort study, comparison of sleep measures between BDZs abusers and controls. Drug Addiction Unit (Institute of Psychiatry) and Unit of Sleep Disorders (Institute of Neurology) of the Catholic University in Rome. Six outpatients affected by chronic BDZ abuse were enrolled, (4 men, 2 women, mean age 53.3 ± 14.8, range: 34-70 years); 55 healthy controls were also enrolled (23 men, 32 women, mean age 54.2 ± 13.0, range: 27-76 years). All patients underwent clinical evaluation, psychometric measures, ambulatory polysomnography, scoring of sleep macrostructure and microstructure (power spectral fast-frequency EEG arousal, cyclic alternating pattern [CAP]), and heart rate variability. BDZ abusers had relevant modification of sleep macrostructure and a marked reduction of fast-frequency EEG arousal in NREM (patients: 6.6 ± 3.7 events/h, controls 13.7 ± 4.9 events/h, U-test: 294, p = 0.002) and REM (patients: 8.4 ± 2.4 events/h, controls 13.3 ± 5.1 events/h, U-test: 264, p = 0.016), and of CAP rate (patients: 15.0 ± 8.6%, controls: 51.2% ± 12.1%, U-test: 325, p < 0.001). BDZ abusers have reduction of arousals associated with increased number of nocturnal awakenings and severe impairment of sleep architecture. The effect of chronic BDZ abuse on sleep may be described as a severe impairment of arousal dynamics; the result is the inability to modulate levels of vigilance.

  6. Emotional hyperreactivity in response to childhood abuse by primary caregivers in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud

    2015-09-01

    One of the core postulated features of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is extreme emotional reactivity to a wide array of evocative stimuli. Findings from previous experimental research however are mixed, and some theories suggest specificity of hyper emotional responses, as being related to abuse, rejection and abandonment only. The current experiment examines the specificity of emotional hyperreactivity in BPD. The impact of four film clips (BPD-specific: childhood abuse by primary caregivers; BPD-nonspecific: peer bullying; positive; and neutral) on self-reported emotional affect was assessed in three female groups; BPD-patients (n = 24), cluster C personality disorder patients (n = 17) and non-patient controls (n = 23). Results showed that compared to the neutral film clip, BPD-patients reacted with more overall negative affect following the childhood abuse clip, and with more anger following the peer bullying clip than the two other groups. The current study was restricted to assessment of the impact of evocative stimuli on self-reported emotions, and the order in which the film clips were presented to the participants was fixed. Results suggest that BPD-patients only react generally excessively emotional to stimuli related to childhood abuse by primary caregivers, and with excessive anger to peer-bullying stimuli. These findings are thus not in line with the core idea of general emotional hyperreactvity in BPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Childhood emotional abuse, dissociation, and suicidality among patients with drug dependency in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamar-Gurol, Defne; Sar, Vedat; Karadag, Figen; Evren, Cuneyt; Karagoz, Mustafa

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and correlates of dissociative disorders among patients with drug dependency. The Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) was used to screen 104 consecutive patients at an addiction treatment center. Thirty-seven patients who had scores >or=30 were compared with 21 patients who scored suicide attempt and/or childhood emotional abuse was significant predictors of a dissociative disorder. The majority (59.3%) of dissociative drug users reported that dissociative experiences had existed prior to substance use. More patients in the dissociative disorder than in the non-dissociative group stopped their treatment prematurely. A considerable proportion of drug users have a dissociative disorder, which may also interfere with treatment process. The relatively young age of this subgroup of patients and frequent reports of childhood emotional abuse underline potential preventive benefits of early intervention among adolescents with developmental trauma history and dissociative psychopathology.

  8. 42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction.... (B) To qualified personnel for the purpose of conducting scientific research, management audits, financial audits, or program evaluation, but such personnel may not identify, directly or indirectly, any...

  9. Can audio recording of outpatient consultations improve patients recall and understanding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolderslund, Maiken

    of the dialogue between the patient and the clinician via the telephone in the consultation room. By dialing a dedicated number, patients can get access to an audio recording of their consultation by entering their social security number along with a PIN. The primary objective of this study is to determine......Introduction Information provided in an outpatient consultation concerns medication, diagnostic tests, treatment and rehabilitation, all of which are crucial knowledge with regards to patient compliance, decision making and general patient satisfaction. Despite good communication skills among...... clinicians, the communication is challenged by the fact that patients tend to forget or misunderstand parts of the information given. Thus we have designed a study which gives the patients a possibility to hear their consultation again. An Interactive Voice Response platform enables an audio recording...

  10. Nonmedical Abuse of Benzodiazepines in Opiate-Dependent Patients in Tehran, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babakhanian, Masuade; Sadeghi, Maliheh; Mansoori, Nader; Alam Mehrjerdi, Zahra; Tabatabai, Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present preliminary study was to explore the prevalence of nonmedical abuse of benzodiazepines in a group of opiate-dependent patients who were on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program in outpatient clinics in the south-west of Tehran, Iran. Methods: 114 male and female opiate-dependent clients who met DSM.IV-TR criteria for opiate dependence with mean age 36.5 years participated in the study from 16 clinics and completed a self-report questionnaire on demographics and substance use details. Then the participants were interviewed on the details of nonmedical abuse of benzodiazepines. Results: The study findings indicated that the current nonmedical abuse of benzodiazepines was commonly prevalent among participants. The most common current benzodiazepines abused were alprazolam (100%) followed by chlordiazepoxide (96.5%), clonazepam (94.7%), diazepam (86.8%), lorazepam (79.8%) and oxazepam (73.7%) respectively. Depression (77%) and anxiety (72.8%) were frequently reported as the most important reasons associated with consuming benzodiazepines followed by problem in anger control (44.7%), suicide thought (12.3%), self-injury (7.9%), and suicide commitment (5.3%) respectively. Conclusion: Nonmedical abuse of benzodiazepines is an important problem among opiate addicts which should be considered in treatment interventions during MMT program. PMID:24644471

  11. Occupational injury among hospital patient-care workers: what is the association with workplace verbal abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbath, Erika L; Hurtado, David A; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Tamers, Sara L; Nelson, Candace; Kim, Seung-Sup; Wagner, Gregory; Sorenson, Glorian

    2014-02-01

    To test the association between workplace abuse exposure and injury risk among hospital workers. We hypothesized that exposed workers would have higher injury rates than unexposed workers. Survey of direct-care workers (n = 1,497) in two hospitals. Exposure to workplace abuse was assessed through self-report; occupational injury reports were extracted from employee records. We tested associations between non-physical workplace violence and injury using log-binomial regression and multilevel modeling. Adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for injury associated with being yelled at was 1.52 (95% CI 1.19, 1.95); for experiencing hostile/offensive gestures 1.43 (1.11, 1.82); and for being sworn at 1.41 (1.09, 1.81). In analyses by injury subtypes, musculoskeletal injuries were more strongly associated with abuse than were acute traumatic injuries. Associations operated on group and individual levels and were most consistently associated with abuse perpetrated by patients. Exposure to workplace abuse may be a risk factor for injuries among hospital workers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Substance use and abuse among patients with comorbid dysthymia and substance disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eames, S L; Westermeyer, J; Crosby, R D

    1998-11-01

    This study determines the substance use and abuse patterns among patients with comorbid substance-related disorder (SRD) and dysthymia in SRD-dysthymia as compared with patients with SRD only. Differences in use and abuse patterns could be useful for (a) understanding motivations for use, such as self-treatment, and (b) assisting clinicians to identify cases of dysthymia among SRD patients. Retrospective and current data were obtained regarding history of substance use and current SRD diagnoses. Two university medical centers with alcohol-drug programs located within departments of psychiatry were the settings. A total of 642 patients was assessed. of whom 39 had SRD-dysthymia and 308 had SRD only. Data on past usc were collected by a research associate using a questionnaire. Current SRD and dysthymia diagnoses were made by psychiatrists specializing in addiction. The patients with SRD-dysthymia and SRD only did not differ with regard to use of alcohol, tobacco, and benzodiazepines. The patients with SRD-dysthymia started caffeine use at an earlier age, had shorter "use careers" of cocaine, amphetamines, and opiates, and had fewer days of cocaine and cannabis use in the last year. They also had a lower rate of cannabis abuse/dependence. This study indicated that patients with dysthymia and SRD have exposure to most substances of abuse that is comparable to patients with SRD only. However, they selectively use certain substances less often than patients with SRD only. Early use of caffeine may reflect self-treatment for depressive symptoms among patients with SRD-dysthymia.

  13. Forgotten dreams: recalling the patient in British psychotherapy, 1945-60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poskett, James

    2015-04-01

    The forgotten dream proved central to the early development of Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic technique in The Interpretation of Dreams (1900). However, little attention has been paid to the shifting uses of forgotten dreams within psychotherapeutic practice over the course of the twentieth century. This paper argues that post-war psychotherapists in London, both Jungian and Freudian, developed a range of subtly different approaches to dealing with their patients' forgotten dreams. Theoretical commitments and institutional cultures shaped the work of practitioners including Donald Winnicott, Melanie Klein, Anna Freud, and Edward Griffith. By drawing on diaries and case notes, this paper also identifies the active role played by patients in negotiating the mechanics of therapy, and the appropriate response to a forgotten dream. This suggests a broader need for a detailed social history of post-Freudian psychotherapeutic technique, one that recognises the demands of both patients and practitioners.

  14. Discrepancies between patient and professionals recall and perception of an outpatient consultation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parkin, T.; Skinner, T. C.

    2003-01-01

    was associated with greater autonomous motivation for self-care (r = 0.31; P perceptions......Aims: To explore the degree of agreement between patient and health care professional's perceptions of consultations. Methods: Immediately after 141 dietitian/nurse specialist consultations, patients and professional's completed the Health Care Climate questionnaire (HCC), Medical Interview...... Satisfaction Scale (MISS) and the Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire (TSRQ) In addition, both parties were asked about any key points or issues discussed in the consultation; any decisions that were made about their diabetes treatment today; any goals that were set as a result of today's consultation...

  15. Intake of tryptophan-enriched whey protein acutely enhances recall of positive loaded words in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieben, Cindy K; Blokland, Arjan; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Jansen, Willemijn; Han, Gang; Hupperts, Raymond M

    2018-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has physiological and/or immunological characteristics that diminish serotonin metabolism, a neurotransmitter associated with affective and cognitive functions. The aim was examine the acute and dose-dependent effects of a dietary tryptophan (TRP) enrichment on affective and cognitive functions in MS patients. We hypothesized that increased dietary availability of the amino acid TRP enhances serotonin concentrations and improves neuropsychological functions. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, MS patients with (n = 15) and without (n = 17) depressed mood ingested a whey protein mixture with 4 different amounts of TRP. Mood states, total plasma TRP and plasma TRP/ΣLNAA ratio were measured during each test session and cognitive tasks were conducted three hours after dietary intake. A fast, transient and dose-dependent increase of total plasma TRP and TRP/ΣLNAA ratio was found. Ratings of negative mood decreased over time, independent of the TRP dose. Relative to whey-only, immediate word recall and delayed recognition improved after ingestion of the lowest added TRP dose and was mainly due to better recollection for positive loaded words. Executive functions were not affected by a difference in TRP availability. A moderate addition of TRP to whey protein enhances memory processes without improving the mood state in MS. ccmo-registration number is NL32316.096.10. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Drug abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, T.R.; Seastrunk, J.W.; Malone, G.; Knesevich, M.A.; Hickey, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that this study used SPECT to examine patients who have abused drugs to determine whether SPECT could identify abnormalities and whether these findings have clinical importance. Fifteen patients with a history of substance abuse (eight with cocaine, six with amphetamine, and one with organic solvent) underwent SPECT performed with a triple-headed camera and Tc-99m HMPAO both early for blood flow and later for functional information. These images were then processed into a 3D videotaped display used in group therapy. All 15 patients had multiple areas of decreased tracer uptake peppered throughout the cortex but mainly affecting the parietal lobes, expect for the organic solvent abuser who had a large parietal defect. The videotapes were subjectively described by a therapist as an exceptional tool that countered patient denial of physical damage from substance abuse. Statistical studies of recidivism between groups is under way

  17. Forensic Index and Substance Abuse among Psychiatric Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although forensic index and substance use are crucial issues in clinical work among mentally ill patients, studies emanating from psychiatric facilities in nonwestern cultures have been relatively scarce. This paper examines this issue in a tertiary health institution. Participants were 259 mentally ill patients (124 inpatients ...

  18. Cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Takashi; Sato, Takuya; Sato, Atsushi; Imamura, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic. Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS) and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the target words, the examiner cued their recall by providing the category of the target word and then provided a forced-choice recognition of the target word with 2 distracters. The patients were divided into groups according to the results of the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for repeated measures was carried out to evaluate the net effects of cognitive factors on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks after controlling for the effects of age and recent memory deficit. Performance on the ADAS Orientation task was found to be related to performance on the free and cued recall tasks, performance on the ADAS Following Commands task was found to be related to performance on the cued recall task, and performance on the ADAS Ideational Praxis task was found to be related to performance on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. The extended 3-word recall test reflects deficits in a wider range of memory and other cognitive processes, including memory retention after interference, divided attention, and executive functions, compared with word-list recall tasks. The characteristics of the extended 3-word recall test may be advantageous for evaluating patients' memory impairments in daily living.

  19. The relevance of psychodynamic psychotherapy to understanding therapist-patient sexual abuse and treatment of survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahav, Rivka; Oz, Sheri

    2006-01-01

    Regardless of the therapy modality, research continues to point to the therapeutic relationship as a major salient factor in clinical success or failure. When a patient is sexually abused by his or her therapist, this therapeutic relationship is cynically exploited in a way that does not properly serve the essential needs of the patient. When this patient then seeks reparative therapy, the subsequent therapist needs to pay close attention to issues of the relationship which were breached by the previous clinician. In this article, two case studies showing very different dynamics will be presented in order to demonstrate: (1) relevant factors related to transference, countertransference, projective identification, and the analytic third pertaining to the former, abusive therapy; and (2) needs versus wishes, and issues related to boundaries and self-disclosure in the corrective therapy.

  20. Forgotten Dreams: Recalling the Patient in British Psychotherapy, 1945–60

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poskett, James

    2015-01-01

    The forgotten dream proved central to the early development of Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic technique in The Interpretation of Dreams (1900). However, little attention has been paid to the shifting uses of forgotten dreams within psychotherapeutic practice over the course of the twentieth century. This paper argues that post-war psychotherapists in London, both Jungian and Freudian, developed a range of subtly different approaches to dealing with their patients’ forgotten dreams. Theoretical commitments and institutional cultures shaped the work of practitioners including Donald Winnicott, Melanie Klein, Anna Freud, and Edward Griffith. By drawing on diaries and case notes, this paper also identifies the active role played by patients in negotiating the mechanics of therapy, and the appropriate response to a forgotten dream. This suggests a broader need for a detailed social history of post-Freudian psychotherapeutic technique, one that recognises the demands of both patients and practitioners. PMID:25766542

  1. Illicit drug exposure in patients evaluated for alleged child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Resmiye; Bayman, Levent; Assad, Abraham; Wibbenmeyer, Lucy; Buhrow, Jakob; Austin, Andrea; Bayman, Emine O

    2011-06-01

    Substantiation of drug exposure in cases with alleged maltreatment is important to provide proper treatment and services to these children and their families. A study performed at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics showed that 30% of pediatric patients with burn injuries, which were due to child maltreatment, were also exposed to illicit drugs. The children presenting to the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics with alleged maltreatment have been tested for illicit substances since 2004. The objective of this study was to analyze the presence of illicit drug exposure in the pediatric subpopulation admitted to pediatric inpatient and outpatient units for an evaluation for abuse/neglect. The study design is a retrospective chart review. Using hospital databases, every pediatric chart with a child abuse/neglect allegation was retrieved. The association between risk factors and clinical presentation and illicit drug test result was assessed. Excel and SAS were used for statistical analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained to conduct this study. Six hundred sixty-five charts met study inclusion criteria for child abuse/neglect allegation. Of those, 232 cases were tested for illicit drugs between 2004 and 2008 per the testing protocol. Thirty-four cases (14.7%) tested positive on a drug test. Positive test rates based on clinical presentation were 28.6% (18/63) in neglect cases, 16.1% (5/31) in cases with soft tissue injuries, 14.3% (4/28) in burn injuries, 10.0% (2/20) in cases with sexual abuse, 7.1% (2/28) in cases with fractures, and 4.8% (3/62) in abusive head trauma cases. There were long-term abuse findings in 129 children (55.6%). Logistic regression analysis revealed that positive drug testing was most significantly associated with clinical symptoms suggesting physical abuse or neglect versus sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] = 6.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-35.49; P = 0.026), no or public health insurance versus those with

  2. Fractures and alcohol abuse - patient opinion of alcohol intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bolette; Alva-Jørgensen, Peter; Raffing, Rie

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: To clarify patient opinions about alcohol intervention in relation to surgery before investigating the effect in a Scandinavian multi-centre randomized trial. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A qualitative study. Thirteen consecutive alcohol patients with fractures participated after informed consent....... They were interviewed during their hospital stay. The number of participants was based on the criteria of data-saturation. The analysis followed the applied qualitative framework model aimed at evaluation of specific participant needs within a larger overall project. RESULTS: All patients regarded alcohol...

  3. Virtual patients: an effective educational intervention to improve paediatric basic specialist trainee education in the management of suspected child abuse?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McEvoy, M M

    2011-09-01

    Child abuse is a particularly difficult subject to teach at both undergraduate and postgraduate level. Most doctors are dissatisfied with their training in child abuse recognition and management. We developed an interactive video based Virtual Patient to provide formal training for paediatric Basic Specialist Trainees in the recognition of suspected child abuse. The Virtual Patient case revolves around the management of suspected physical abuse in a seven month old child, who initially presents to the Emergency Department with viral upper respiratory tract symptoms. This Virtual Patient was used to facilitate a case discussion with Basic Specialist Trainees. A questionnaire was developed to determine their perception of the value of the Virtual Patient as an educational tool. Twenty five Basic Specialist Trainees completed the questionnaire. Upon completion of the case, 23\\/25 (92%) participants reported greater self confidence in their ability to recognize cases of suspected child abuse and 24\\/25 (96%) of participants reported greater self confidence in their ability to report cases of suspected child abuse. Basic Specialist Trainees perceived the Virtual Patient to be a useful educational tool. Virtual Patients may have a role to play in enhancing postgraduate training in the recognition of suspected child abuse.

  4. Intravenous Drug Abuse by Patients Inside the Hospital: A Cause for Sustained Bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noopur Goel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with history of intravenous drug abuse are noted to be at risk of several infections including HIV, endocarditis, and other opportunistic infections. We report the case of a patient with sustained Bacillus cereus bacteremia despite use of multiple antibiotic regimens during his inpatient stay. Our case highlights the importance of high suspicion for active drug use inside the hospital in such patients. This is important in order to minimize unnecessary diagnostic workup and provide adequate treatment and safe hospital stay for these patients.

  5. Cognitive Factors Affecting Free Recall, Cued Recall, and Recognition Tasks in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Yamagishi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Our aim was to identify cognitive factors affecting free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Subjects: We recruited 349 consecutive AD patients who attended a memory clinic. Methods: Each patient was assessed using the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS and the extended 3-word recall test. In this task, each patient was asked to freely recall 3 previously presented words. If patients could not recall 1 or more of the target words, the examiner cued their recall by providing the category of the target word and then provided a forced-choice recognition of the target word with 2 distracters. The patients were divided into groups according to the results of the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis for repeated measures was carried out to evaluate the net effects of cognitive factors on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks after controlling for the effects of age and recent memory deficit. Results: Performance on the ADAS Orientation task was found to be related to performance on the free and cued recall tasks, performance on the ADAS Following Commands task was found to be related to performance on the cued recall task, and performance on the ADAS Ideational Praxis task was found to be related to performance on the free recall, cued recall, and recognition tasks. Conclusion: The extended 3-word recall test reflects deficits in a wider range of memory and other cognitive processes, including memory retention after interference, divided attention, and executive functions, compared with word-list recall tasks. The characteristics of the extended 3-word recall test may be advantageous for evaluating patients’ memory impairments in daily living.

  6. Recall of intensive care unit stay in patients managed with a sedation protocol or a sedation protocol with daily sedative interruption: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, Cheryl; Burry, Lisa; Martinez-Motta, Carlos; Tirgari, Sam; Jiang, Depeng; McDonald, Ellen; Granton, John; Cook, Deborah; Mehta, Sangeeta

    2011-04-01

    Analgesics and sedatives are integral for the relief of pain and anxiety in critically ill patients. However, these agents may contribute to amnesia for intensive care unit (ICU) events; which has been associated with development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Drug administration strategies that minimize sedative use have been associated with less amnesia. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate recall of ICU stay in patients managed with 2 sedation strategies: a sedation protocol or a combination of sedation protocol and daily sedative/analgesic interruption. A questionnaire was administered on day 3 following ICU discharge to evaluate patients' recollections of pain, anxiety, fear, and sleep, as well as memories for specific ICU procedures. Participants were ICU survivors who had been enrolled in SLEAP - a randomized pilot trial comparing two sedation strategies, at 3 university-affiliated medical/surgical ICUs. Twenty-one patients who regained orientation within 72 hours of ICU discharge completed the questionnaire. More than 50% of patients recalled experiencing pain, anxiety, and fear to a moderate or extreme extent; and 57% reported inadequate sleep while in the ICU. Of the 21 patients, 48%, 33%, and 29% had no memories of endotracheal tube suctioning, being on a "breathing machine," and being bathed, respectively. A notable percentage of patients discharged from the ICU report moderate to extreme pain, anxiety, and fear, and inability to sleep during their ICU stay; and 29% to 48% have no recall of specific ICU events. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The power of clinicians' affective communication: how reassurance about non-abandonment can reduce patients' physiological arousal and increase information recall in bad news consultations. An experimental study using analogue patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sep, Milou S C; van Osch, Mara; van Vliet, Liesbeth M; Smets, Ellen M A; Bensing, Jozien M

    2014-04-01

    The diagnosis of incurable cancer may evoke physiological arousal in patients. Physiological arousal can negatively impact patients' recall of information provided in the medical consultation. We aim to investigate whether clinicians' affective communication during a bad news consultation will decrease patients' physiological arousal and will improve recall. Healthy women (N=50), acting as analogue patients, were randomly assigned to watch one out of the two versions of a scripted video-vignette of a bad news consultation in which clinician's communication differed: standard vs. affective communication. Participants' skin conductance levels were obtained during video-watching, and afterwards their recall was assessed. While the diagnosis increased skin conductance levels in all analogue patients, skin conductance levels during the remainder of the consultation decreased more in the affective communication condition than in the standard condition. Analogue patients' recall was significantly higher in the affective condition. Breaking bad news evokes physiological arousal. Affective communication can decrease this evoked physiological arousal and might be partly responsible for analogue patients' enhanced information recall. Although our findings need to be translated to clinical patients, they suggest that clinicians need to deal with patients' emotions before providing additional medical information. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Sex differences in disinhibition and its relationship to physical abuse in a sample of stimulant-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winhusen, Theresa; Lewis, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Research suggests that impulsivity is a vulnerability factor for developing stimulant dependence, that women develop dependence more quickly than men, and that physical abuse can increase impulsivity and may have greater adverse health consequences in women. This study sought to tie these findings together by evaluating: (1) sex differences in disinhibition prior to lifetime initiation of stimulant abuse and (2) the relationship between physical abuse and disinhibition in stimulant-dependent patients. The Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe) is a reliable and valid self-report assessment of three neurobehavioral domains associated with frontal systems functioning (Apathy, Disinhibition, and Executive Dysfunction, summed for a Total), that assesses pre-morbid functioning and has a specific cutoff for defining clinically significant abnormalities. Six sites evaluating 12-step facilitation for stimulant abusers obtained the FrSBe from 118 methamphetamine- and/or cocaine-dependent participants. Lifetime physical abuse was measured by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). The proportion reporting clinically significant disinhibition was significantly higher in women (64.9%) than in men (45.0%, p=0.04), with no significant difference on the other FrSBe scales. Physical abuse in women, but not men, was associated with worse functioning, with physically abused, relative to non-abused, women having a significantly greater proportion with clinically significant disinhibition (pabuse and that physical abuse in women is associated with greater disinhibition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Meaningful Memory in Acute Anorexia Nervosa Patients-Comparing Recall, Learning, and Recognition of Semantically Related and Semantically Unrelated Word Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhoeven, Valentin; Kallen, Ursula; Ingenerf, Katrin; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Weisbrod, Matthias; Herzog, Wolfgang; Brockmeyer, Timo; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Nikendei, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    It is unclear whether observed memory impairment in anorexia nervosa (AN) depends on the semantic structure (categorized words) of material to be encoded. We aimed to investigate the processing of semantically related information in AN. Memory performance was assessed in a recall, learning, and recognition test in 27 adult women with AN (19 restricting, 8 binge-eating/purging subtype; average disease duration: 9.32 years) and 30 healthy controls using an extended version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, applying semantically related and unrelated word stimuli. Short-term memory (immediate recall, learning), regardless of semantics of the words, was significantly worse in AN patients, whereas long-term memory (delayed recall, recognition) did not differ between AN patients and controls. Semantics of stimuli do not have a better effect on memory recall in AN compared to CO. Impaired short-term versus long-term memory is discussed in relation to dysfunctional working memory in AN. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Informed consent: do information pamphlets improve post-operative risk-recall in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy: prospective randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaffar, Hussain; Wilson, Lindsay; Kamdar, Dev P; Sultanov, Faizullo; Enepekides, Danny; Higgins, Kevin M

    2016-02-13

    Informed consent consists of basic five elements: voluntarism, capacity, disclosure, understanding, and ultimate decision-making. Physician disclosure, patient understanding, and information retention are all essential in the doctor-patient relationship. This is inclusive of helping patients make and manage their decisions and expectations better and also to deal with any consequences and/or complications that arise. This study investigates whether giving patients procedure-specific handouts pre-operatively as part of the established informed consent process significantly improves overall risk-recall following surgery. These handouts outline the anticipated peri-operative risks and complications associated with total thyroidectomy, as well as the corrective measures to address complications. In addition, the influence of potential confounders affecting risk-recall, such as anxiety and pre-existing memory disturbance, are also examined. Consecutive adult (≥18 years old) patients undergoing total thyroidectomy at a single academic tertiary care referral centre are included. Participants are randomly assigned into either the experimental group (with pamphlets) or the control group by a computerized randomization system (Clinstat). All participants filled out a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and they are tested by the physician for short-term memory loss using the Memory Impairment Screen (MIS) exam. All patients are evaluated at one week post-operatively. The written recall questionnaire test is also administered during this clinical encounter. Forty-nine patients are included--25 of them receive verbal consent only, while another 24 patients received both verbal consent and patient education information pamphlets. The overall average of correct answers for each group was 83% and 80% in the control and intervention groups, respectively, with no statistically significant differences. There are also no statistically significant differences between the

  11. Factors associated with depression and suicide attempts in patients undergoing rehabilitation for substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortíz-Gómez, L D; López-Canul, B; Arankowsky-Sandoval, G

    2014-12-01

    Comorbidity of major depression with substance abuse increases the risk of committing suicide. The objective of this work was to determine the psychological and socio-demographic factors associated with depression and suicide attempts in patients rehabilitating for drug consumption. 57 Patients attending a center for drug abuse treatment answered the following instruments: the Mini-international neuropsychiatric interview, a questionnaire of general information and background data on consumption of substances, depression and suicide attempts, and the Spanish adaptation of the Holmes and Rahe scale for the assessment of life events. Chi-square and logistic regression tests were used to establish associations between variables. 68.4% of the Patients had current major depression, of these, 75.4% experienced it before the onset of substance abuse. Patients attempting suicide before drug use corresponded to 26%, whilst 28.1% attempted suicide within the last year. Current depression-related variables were receiving a diagnosis of depression prior to the consumption of drugs and the first used drugs, which were alcohol or marijuana. The adverse life event "Familial drug abuse history", was also significantly related to depression (p=0.02). Variables associated with current suicide attempts were: receiving a diagnosis of depression prior to the consumption of drugs (p=0.02), and suicide attempts previous to drug use (psuicide prior to the use of drugs also experienced these conditions during the rehabilitation process. Substance use in the family was a risk factor for both, underscoring the need of actions aimed at preventing addictions in the household environment. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Recreational drug abuse in patients hospitalized for diabetic ketosis or diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidro, María L; Jorge, Segundo

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the association between recreational drug use and diabetic ketosis (DK) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in our area. Retrospective examination of records from a 1,450 bed urban teaching hospital in Spain. All adult admissions for DK or DKA from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2009 in our hospital were included. Demographic, exploratory (blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate), and analytical data (glucose, urea, creatinine, corrected Na(+), K(+), pH, HCO3(-) and HbA1c) at admittance were recorded. In 152 patients, 253 episodes of DK or DKA occurred. Screening for drug use was performed in 40.3% of the events; 20.6% of the episodes (n = 52) were shown to be substance abuse. Cocaine, followed by cannabis and alcohol, was the most frequently involved drug. Poly-substance abuse occurred in 67.3% of them. Comorbidities were present in 11.5 and 39.8% of the cases shown and not shown to be related to drug use (P = 0.00). Seventy percent of the patients who were at least once shown to have consumed drugs, and 15.9% of those who were never shown to have done so, were admitted more than once (P = 0.00). The frequency of recent drug misuse in patients presenting with DK or DKA was high. Substance abuse screening was frequently neglected. Adverse profile, most significantly in readmission to hospital, was found in the patients with positive drug findings. History taking in this context should routinely include questions on substance abuse, and toxicology screening may be worthwhile, particularly in those with the history of frequent readmissions.

  13. Child Abuse and Dissociation in Patients with Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Williams

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available >OBJECTIVE: In the absence of a proven medical explanation for the chronic pain syndrome Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type I (CRPS I, this study explored a hypothetical link between childhood physical and sexual abuse, and the subsequent development of CRPS I. The hypothesis predicts the existence of a subpopulation of CRPS I patients with a high frequency of dissociative experiences corresponding to a history of childhood trauma.

  14. Alcohol abuse as the strongest risk factor for violent offending in patients with paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudumija Slijepcevic, Marija; Jukic, Vlado; Novalic, Darko; Zarkovic-Palijan, Tija; Milosevic, Milan; Rosenzweig, Ivana

    2014-04-01

    To determine predictive risk factors for violent offending in patients with paranoid schizophrenia in Croatia. The cross-sectional study including male in-patients with paranoid schizophrenia with (N=104) and without (N=102) history of physical violence and violent offending was conducted simultaneously in several hospitals in Croatia during one-year period (2010-2011). Data on their sociodemographic characteristics, duration of untreated illness phase (DUP), alcohol abuse, suicidal behavior, personality features, and insight into illness were collected and compared between groups. Binary logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors of violent offending. Predictors of violent offending were older age, DUP before first contact with psychiatric services, and alcohol abuse. Regression model showed that the strongest positive predictive factor was harmful alcohol use, as determined by AUDIT test (odds ratio 37.01; 95% confidence interval 5.20-263.24). Psychopathy, emotional stability, and conscientiousness were significant positive predictive factors, while extroversion, pleasantness, and intellect were significant negative predictive factors for violent offending. This study found an association between alcohol abuse and the risk for violent offending in paranoid schizophrenia. We hope that this finding will help improve public and mental health prevention strategies in this vulnerable patient group.

  15. Investigations of morning and laboratory dream recall and content in depressive patients during baseline conditions and under antidepressive treatment with trimipramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, D; Löw, H; Schredl, M; Wiegand, M; Dippel, B; Berger, M

    1990-06-01

    REM sleep abnormalities like shortened REM (rapid eye movement) latency, prolongation of the first REM period and heightening of REM density often found in patients with a major depression have prompted an increasing number of studies investigating the neurobiology and neurophysiology of REM sleep in depressive patients, as well as in healthy humans and animals. On the other hand, since the early 1970s investigation of the psychological concomitant of REM sleep, i.e., dreaming, in depressive patients has been extremely sparse. The present study aimed at investigating morning and laboratory dream recall and content in patients with a major depressive disorder to shed more light on this neglected area. In short, morning as well as laboratory dream recall in depressive inpatients was drastically reduced. The low number of scorable dream reports collected did not reveal a heightened incidence of "masochistic" or "negative" content, indeed were rather mundane. In contrast, depressive outpatients (probably less depressed) had a higher rate of morning dream recall. Interestingly, antidepressive treatment with trimipramine (an antidepressant which does not suppress REM sleep) led to a positive influence on patients' mood that was paralleled by a change of dream mood in a positive direction.

  16. Clinical Phenomenology of Childhood Abuse-Related Complex PTSD in a Population of Female Patients: Patterns of Personality Disturbance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorrepaal, E.; Thomaes, K.; Smit, J.H.; Hoogendoorn, A.; Veltman, D.J.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.; Draijer, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Complex posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves a variety of personality disturbances presumed to result from repeated interpersonal trauma such as child abuse. As Complex PTSD patients are a heterogeneous population, we searched for clinically relevant personality-based subtypes.

  17. Sexual abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iztok Takač

    2012-11-01

    Conclusions: Effective and efficient treatment of victims of sexual abuse requires a systematic approach to the patient, starting with a thorough history, and continuing with a clinical investigation, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the consequences of sexual abuse. The complete management must include sampling of any potential biological traces from the body of the victim. The key to success is a coordinated cooperation with investigators and forensics.

  18. Word list and story recall elicit different patterns of memory deficit in patients with Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal dementia, subcortical ischemic vascular disease, and Lewy body dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Roberta; Fadda, Lucia; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Different roles have been attributed to mesio-temporal areas and frontal lobes in declarative memory functioning, and qualitative differences have been observed in the amnesic symptoms due to pathological damage of these two portions of the central nervous system. The aim of the present study was to look for memory profiles related to pathological involvement in the temporal and frontal structures in patients with different dementia syndromes on word-list and prose memory tasks. 20 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 20 with frontal variant of FTD (fvFTD), 20 with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD), and 20 with Lewy body dementia (LBD) and 34 healthy subjects (NCs) were submitted to word-list and prose memory tasks. All groups performed similarly on both the immediate and delayed recall of the word-list. Conversely, AD patients performed worse than all the other dementia groups on the immediate prose recall. On delayed prose recall, AD patients performed worse than fvFTD and SIVD patients but similar to LBD patients. Differential scores between word-list and prose tests were minimal in the AD group and very pronounced in fvFTD and SIVD groups. The combined use of the prose and word-list tasks evidenced a "mesio-temporal" memory profile in AD patients as opposed to a "frontal" one in fvFTD and SIVD patients and a mixed profile in the LBD patients. In particular, a differential score between the two tests can be useful in differentiating AD patients from patients with other forms of dementia.

  19. Puberty, sexual milestones and abuse: how are they related in eating disorder patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, U; Evans, K; Tiller, J; Treasure, J

    1995-03-01

    In order to assess the relationship pubertal development, sexual milestones and childhood sexual abuse in women with eating disorders, 44 patients with restricting anorexia nervosa (RAN), 26 with bulimic anorexia nervosa (BAN), 29 with bulimia nervosa and also with a history of anorexia nervosa (BN/HistAN), and 69 with bulimia nervosa but without a history of anorexia nervosa (BN) completed questionnaires on pubertal and sexual development and unpleasant sexual experiences. Forty-four female college students complete the sexual development questionnaire only. Different eating disorder groups were found to be similar in terms of their pubertal development. All eating disorder groups showed delays in aspects of their psychosexual development (age at first kiss, masturbation, genital fondling and first sexual intercourse) compared with the control group, although to a different degree. The RAN group was delayed on almost all sexual milestones whereas the other groups were delayed on only some. On some variables, most noticeably on first sexual intercourse, restricters also were more delayed than the other eating disorder groups. Similarly, the median number of sexual partners differed significantly between groups (RAN = 1, BAN = 2, BN/HistAN = 4, BN = 4, controls = 5, P masturbation, marriage, children or pregnancy. Of the eating disorder patients 22-31% had been sexually abused during childhood. A history of abuse affected attitudes to masturbation, but did not appear to affect sexual development.

  20. Utilization of communication technology by patients enrolled in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Acquavita, Shauna P; Harding, Emily; Stitzer, Maxine L

    2013-04-01

    Technology-based applications represent a promising method for providing efficacious, widely available interventions to substance abuse treatment patients. However, limited access to communication technology (i.e., mobile phones, computers, internet, and e-mail) could significantly impact the feasibility of these efforts, and little is known regarding technology utilization in substance abusing populations. A survey was conducted to characterize utilization of communication technology in 266 urban, substance abuse treatment patients enrolled at eight drug-free, psychosocial or opioid-replacement therapy clinics. Survey participants averaged 41 years of age and 57% had a yearly household income of less than $15,000. The vast majority reported access to a mobile phone (91%), and to SMS text messaging (79%). Keeping a consistent mobile phone number and yearly mobile contract was higher for White participants, and also for those with higher education, and enrolled in drug-free, psychosocial treatment. Internet, e-mail, and computer use was much lower (39-45%), with younger age, higher education and income predicting greater use. No such differences existed for the use of mobile phones however. Concern regarding the digital divide for marginalized populations appears to be disappearing with respect to mobile phones, but still exists for computer, internet, and e-mail access and use. Results suggest that mobile phone and texting applications may be feasibly applied for use in program-client interactions in substance abuse treatment. Careful consideration should be given to frequent phone number changes, access to technology, and motivation to engage with communication technology for treatment purposes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The relationship between aggression rates and drugs abuse among posttraumatic stress disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Tatari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a stress disorder, whose prevalence was 2-15%. PTSD is associated with mood, anxiety, personality and substance use disorders (SUD. The substance user patients with PTSD have more problems, and severity of symptoms is more than non-substance users with PTSD patients. These patients may be nervous, aggressive, and restless and their function will be affected in many aspects. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between aggression levels and substances use among PTSD patients. Methods: Among patients with PTSD referred to Kermanshah Farabi Hospital in 2011,182 cases were selected and their aggression levels were assessed by Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The aggression levels in PTSD patients with and without SUD were compared. Result: The highest frequencies were in middle-aged (81.1%, males (91.8%, married (77.5% and poor economic status (63.2% patients. Substances using was higher among married patients and the most abused substances was opium. Substances consumption was higher among patients with lower socioeconomic status and opium and amphetamines were the most abused substance. Most PTSD types were related to after-war events (70.3%. Mean of total aggression was higher in SUD. Rate of total aggression was higher in patients using opium. Conclusion: Compared to those without PTSD, individuals with this disorder are more likely to have aggression. Patients with concurrent PTSD and SUD suffer from more severe complaints and show worse treatment outcomes compared with patients with either disorder alone.

  2. Antisocial personality disorder is associated with receipt of physical disability benefits in substance abuse treatment patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Shannon A; Cherniack, Martin G; Petry, Nancy M

    2013-09-01

    Opioid dependence is growing at an alarming rate in the United States, and opioid dependent patients have substantial medical, as well as psychiatric, conditions that impact their ability to work. This study evaluated the association between antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and receipt of physical disability payments in methadone maintenance patients. Using data from 115 drug and alcohol abusing methadone maintained patients participating in two clinical trials, baseline characteristics of individuals receiving (n=22) and those not receiving (n=93) physical disability benefits were compared, and a logistic regression evaluated unique predictors of disability status. Both an ASPD diagnosis and severity of medical problems were significant predictors of disability receipt, ps<.05. After controlling for other variables that differed between groups, patients with ASPD were more than five times likelier to receive physical disability benefits than patients without ASPD (odds ratio=5.66; 95% confidence interval=1.58-20.28). These results demonstrate a role of ASPD in the receipt of disability benefits in substance abusers and suggest the need for greater understanding of the reasons for high rates of physical disability benefits in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characteristics of patients hospitalized at an intensive care unit due to drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Antunes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize the clinical and demographic profile of patients hospitalized due to drug intoxication at an intensive care unit (ICU of a teaching hospital between 2004 and 2010. Methodology. In this descriptive study, information was collected from the hospitalized patients, as informed by a Toxicology Care Center (CAT in Paraná (Brazil. The clinical files were checked and information was collected about age, gender, toxic agents and intoxication circumstances, comorbidities and clinical outcomes. Results. Sixty-two patients were included in the study, with a mean age of 58 years and 77% male. Alcohol was the substance related to most hospitalizations (77%, followed by psychoactive drugs (14% and marihuana and crack (5% each. The main comorbidities were bronchopneumonia due to aspiration (37%, alcohol-related liver cirrhosis (24% and traumatic brain injury (19%. The most frequent intoxication circumstances were chronic abuse (79%, attemptive suicide (19% and acute abuse (4.9%. Thirty-nine percent of the patients died during hospitalization. Conclusion. The results show a concerning reality, as most of the patients are men of economically active age, who were intoxicated by a legal substance like alcohol, with a relevant number of deaths. Nurses need to pay particular attention to this health problem, in the context of which they play a fundamental role as educators with a view to the encouragement of healthy lifestyles.

  4. Prevalence and Predictors of Self-Reported Sexual Abuse in Severely Obese Patients in a Population-Based Bariatric Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle L. Gabert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sexual abuse may be associated with poorer weight loss outcomes following bariatric treatment. Identifying predictors of abuse would enable focused screening and may increase weight management success. Methods. We analyzed data from 500 consecutively recruited obese subjects from a population-based, regional bariatric program. The prevalence of self-reported sexual abuse was ascertained using a single interview question. Health status was measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify sexual abuse predictors. Results. The mean age was 43.7 y (SD 9.6, 441 (88.2% were females, 458 (91.8% were white, and the mean body mass index (BMI was 47.9 kg/m2 (SD 8.1. The self-reported prevalence of past abuse was 21.8% (95% CI 18.4–25.4%. Abused subjects had worse health status (VAS score 53.1 (SD 21.2 versus 58.0 (SD 20.1, P=0.03. BMI was not associated with abuse (P>0.5. Age, sex, BMI, and covariate-adjusted independent predictors of abuse included alcohol addiction (adjusted odds ratio 15.8; 95% CI 4.0–62.8, posttraumatic stress disorder (4.9; 2.5–9.5, borderline personality (3.8; 1.0–13.8, depression (2.4; 1.3–4.3, and lower household income (3.4; 1.6–7.0. Conclusions. Abuse was common amongst obese patients managed in a population-based bariatric program; alcohol addiction, psychiatric comorbidities, and low-income status were highly associated with sexual abuse.

  5. Suicidal and self-injurious behavior among patients with alcohol and drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Sharqi AM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of self-harming behavior in patients with alcohol or drug abuse problems.Methods: This was a one-year study that recruited a convenience sample of 736 outpatients and inpatients identified with alcohol or drug abuse, and was conducted at Al-Amal mental health hospitals in three major cities. All consecutively selected patients were interviewed on five working days for data collection on a semistructured sociodemographic form using the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale Risk Assessment version.Results: In addition to the socioclinical profile revealed, 50.7% of respondents reported any suicidal ideation, while 6.9% reported self-injurious behavior without intent to die. Any suicidal and self-injurious behavior was reported by 13.1% of participants. A total of 71.3% of respondents reported any recent negative activating events. In addition to any treatment history, observed correlates were hopelessness (60.7%, perceived burden on family (29.5%, refusing a safety plan (26.1%, and sexual abuse (11%. Conversely, reasons for living (64.9%, fear of death or dying due to pain and suffering (64.3%, and spirituality (92% were largely endorsed as protective factors. There were multiple significant odds ratios (P ≤ 0.01 revealed when independent socioclinical variables were compared with dependent variables in terms of suspected risk and protective factors. In an adjusted logistic regression model

  6. Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography as work-up tool in patients recalled from breast cancer screening has low risks and might hold clinical benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, I P L; Van de Voorde, P; Jeukens, C R L P N; Wildberger, J E; Kooreman, L F; Smidt, M L; Lobbes, M B I

    2017-09-01

    Contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) is a reliable problem solving tool in the work-up of women recalled from breast cancer screening. We evaluated additional findings caused by CESM alone and outweighed them against the disadvantages of this technique. From December 2012 to December 2015, all women recalled from screening who underwent CESM were considered for this study. Radiation exposure and number of adverse contrast reactions were analysed. An experienced breast radiologist reviewed all exams and identified cases with lesions detected by CESM alone and scored their conspicuity. From these cases, data on breast density and final diagnosis were collected. For malignant cases, tumour grade and receptor characteristics were also collected. During this study, 839 women underwent CESM after a screening recall, in which five minor adverse contrast reactions were observed. Median radiation dose per exam was 6.0mGy (0.9-23.4mGy). Seventy CESM-only lesions were detected in 65 patients. Of these 70 lesions, 54.3% proved to be malignant, most commonly invasive ductal carcinomas. The remaining CESM-only lesions were benign, predominantly fibroadenomas. No complications were observed during biopsy of these lesions. Retrospectively, the majority of the lesions were either occult or a 'minimal sign' on low-energy CESM images or the screening mammogram. Using CESM as a work-up tool for women recalled from screening carries low risk for the patient, while additionally detected tumour foci might hold important clinical implications which need to be further studied in large, randomized controlled trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Diagnostics and treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome patients with an alcohol abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Maria; Sonne, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a condition with high morbidity and mortality and occurs as a consequence of thiamine deficiency. Clinical symptoms are often ambiguous and post-mortem examinations show that the syndrome is underdiagnosed and probably undertreated. There is sparse clinical evidence concerning optimal dosage and duration of treatment. This article reviews the current literature and concludes that all patients with a history of alcohol abuse should be treated with high dosage IV thiamine for an extended period of time, albeit further research is needed.

  8. Object relations and interpersonal problems in sexually abused female patients: an empirical study with the SCORS and the IIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernhof, Karin; Kaufhold, Johannes; Grabhorn, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined how retrospective reports of experiencing traumatic sexual abuse in childhood relates to both the development of self-representations and object representations and the occurrence of interpersonal problems. A total of 30 psychosomatic female patients who reported sexual abuse in childhood were compared with a corresponding number of eating-disordered patients and a nonclinical control group. The object relations technique (ORT; Phillipson, 1955), evaluated using the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS; Westen, 1985, 1991b), and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (Horowitz, Rosenberg, Baer, & Ureno, 1988) were used to measure the groups. The patients reporting sexual abuse achieved significantly lower scores in the cognitive scales of the SCORS; in the affective scales, they differed from the control group but not from the patients with an eating disorder. Concerning interpersonal problems, the patients reporting childhood sexual abuse reported interpersonal conflicts more frequently. The results of the study support the influence of traumatic sexual abuse on the formation of self-representations and object representations and on the occurrence of interpersonal conflicts.

  9. LESSONS FROM THE EVALUATION OF A PUBLIC OUT-PATIENT SUBSTANCE ABUSE TREATMENT PROGRAMME IN THE WESTERN CAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strebel, Anna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Substance abuse is widely regarded as a major health and social problem in South Africa, and particularly in the Western Cape (Corrigall, Ward, Stinson, Struthers, Frantz, Lund, Flisher & Joska, 2007; Myers, Fakier & Louw, 2009. The complex nature of patterns of substance abuse, as well as the particular problems associated with this abuse, has implications for the development and implementation of treatment interventions. The most common primary drug of abuse in the Western Cape amongst patients admitted to treatment programmes is methamphetamine (known locally as “tik” (Dada, Plüddemann, Parry, Vawda & Fourie, 2012. The previous decade saw a dramatic rise in methamphetamine (hereafter indicated as MA use, particularly among youths, with over half the patients in treatment for MA abuse being younger than 25 years (Plüddemann, Parry, Dada, Bhana, Bachoo & Fourie, 2010. MA is also often used in combination with other drugs, and this prevalence of poly-substance abuse needs to be taken into account in the planning of services (Harker, Kader, Myers, Falkier, Parry, Flisher, Peltzer, Ramlagan & Davids, 2008.

  10. [Gender and accessibility barriers to treatment in alcohol abuse patients in the Autonomous Region of Valencia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Dols, Sofía; Valderrama-Zurián, Juan Carlos; Vidal-Infer, Antonio; Samper-Gras, Teresa; Hernández-Martínez, Ma Carmen; Torrijo-Rodrigo, Ma José

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the factors that contribute to delaying the access of alcohol abuse patients to specific treatment centres in the Autonomous Region of Valencia (Spain). 563 patients from Addictive Behaviours Units (UCA) and Alcohology Units (UA) were interviewed. A survey was conducted which included items on previous requested treatment in other centres and on barriers of accessibility to treatment in specific ambulatory centres. A descriptive analysis and t-student and ANOVA with Scheffé post-hoc tests were carried out. 59.7% of respondents said they had requested previous treatment in non-specific resources due to physical or psychical trouble that they now relate to their alcohol use although they did not do so at the time, in addition to being motivated by their own alcohol abuse (42.8%). The most attended resources were Primary Care and Specialist Unit Care. Women showed a higher demand for treatment in Mental Health Services (p gender differences in barriers that delay access to treatment do exist. It is necessary to build gender-adapted intervention guidelines to be used in Primary Care and Mental Health services to reduce the accessibility barriers to treatment.

  11. Cannabis abuse in patients with schizophrenia pattern and effects on symptomatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, I U; Farooq, S [Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Provincial Health

    2007-03-15

    To determine the relationship between cannabis abuse and its impact on the short-term outcome and severity of illness. ICD-10 criteria were used for diagnosis of schizophrenia. Severity and type of schizophrenic symptoms were assessed with the help of PANSS. Cases were identified as having problem with cannabis use with the help of section 12 of Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) W.H.O. 1994. Amount, duration and frequency of cannabis use was also noted. Patients with cannabis use were younger had shorter duration of illness and earlier age at onset of illness. They exhibited more positive symptoms. A total of 20% cases met ICD-10 criteria of harmful use of cannabinoid, 76% met ICD-10 criteria of cannabinoid dependence syndrome. Schizophrenic patients with comorbid cannabis abuse exhibited more positive symptoms and violent behavior, and may be more likely to lead to dependence in persons with schizophrenia. This has implication for service development to meet the perceived needs of this group. (author)

  12. Chronic non-fatal Datura abuse in a patient of paranoid schizophrenia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanra, Sourav; Khess, C R J; Srivastava, Naveen

    2015-04-01

    A range of psychoactive substances used by patients suffering from schizophrenia varies and may include those which are fatal and may cause serious toxicity leading to death. We here present a case report of a patient suffering from paranoid schizophrenia, who was abusing Datura stramonium over a prolonged period. A 32 year old male presented with aggressive behaviour, irritability for 6 years and regular intake of Datura seeds for 3 years. After taking detailed history and mental status examination (MSE), diagnoses of paranoid schizophrenia and mental and behavioral disorder due to use of hallucinogen were made. He had shown improvement on standard treatment with antipsychotics. D. stramonium is recognized among emerging new psychoactive substances being used across the world. Among various theories we discuss self-medication hypothesis as a mediating factor for this case. Though D. stramonium is notorious for its life threatening sequelae, clinicians should be aware of its chronic abuse as self-medication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cannabis abuse in patients with schizophrenia pattern and effects on symptomatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, I.U.; Farooq, S.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the relationship between cannabis abuse and its impact on the short-term outcome and severity of illness. ICD-10 criteria were used for diagnosis of schizophrenia. Severity and type of schizophrenic symptoms were assessed with the help of PANSS. Cases were identified as having problem with cannabis use with the help of section 12 of Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) W.H.O. 1994. Amount, duration and frequency of cannabis use was also noted. Patients with cannabis use were younger had shorter duration of illness and earlier age at onset of illness. They exhibited more positive symptoms. A total of 20% cases met ICD-10 criteria of harmful use of cannabinoid, 76% met ICD-10 criteria of cannabinoid dependence syndrome. Schizophrenic patients with comorbid cannabis abuse exhibited more positive symptoms and violent behavior, and may be more likely to lead to dependence in persons with schizophrenia. This has implication for service development to meet the perceived needs of this group. (author)

  14. Major trauma from suspected child abuse: a profile of the patient pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Ffion C; Lecky, Fiona E; Fisher, Ross; Fragoso-Iiguez, Marisol; Coats, Tim J

    2017-09-01

    Networked organised systems of care for patients with major trauma now exist in many countries, designed around the needs of the majority of patients (90% adults). Non-accidental injury is a significant cause of paediatric major trauma and has a different injury and age profile from accidental injury (AI). This paper compares the prehospital and inhospital phases of the patient pathway for children with suspected abuse, with those accidentally injured. The paediatric database of the national trauma registry of England and Wales, Trauma Audit and Research Network, was interrogated from April 2012 (the launch of the major trauma networks) to June 2015, comparing the patient pathway for cases of suspected child abuse (SCA) with AI. In the study population of 7825 children, 7344 (94%) were classified as AI and 481 (6%) as SCA. SCA cases were younger (median 0.4 years vs 7 years for AI), had a higher Injury Severity Score (median 16vs9 for AI), and had nearly three times higher mortality (5.7%vs2.2% for AI). Other differences included presentation to hospital evenly throughout the day and year, arrival by non-ambulance means to hospital (74%) and delayed presentation to hospital from the time of injury (median 8 hours vs 1.8 hours for AI). Despite more severe injuries, these infants were less likely to receive key interventions in a timely manner. Only 20% arrived to a designated paediatric-capable major trauma centre. Secondary transfer to specialist care, if needed, took a median of 21.6 hours from injury(vs 13.8 hours for AI). These data show that children with major trauma that is inflicted rather than accidental follow a different pathway through the trauma system. The current model of major trauma care is not a good fit for the way in which child victims of suspected abuse present to healthcare. To achieve better care, awareness of this patient profile needs to increase, and trauma networks should adjust their conventional responses. © Article author

  15. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disable...

  16. Amphetamine-like stimulant cessation in an abusing patient treated with bupropion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardieu, S; Poirier, Y; Micallef, J; Blin, O

    2004-01-01

    Bupropion sustained release is considered to be a weak inhibitor of dopamine and serotonin reuptake. We report the case of an amphetamine-abusing patient who self-administered bupropion. Since 30 years, a 52-year-old women used amphetamine derivates. She explained her need for amphetamine use in order to perform daily activities. Recently, she decided to experiment with bupropion. She abruptly stopped taking clobenzorex and simultaneously started taking bupropion (150 mg/day). The seventh day she reported a concomitant intake of clobenzorex; this induced adverse effects. Whilst taking bupropion, she described experiencing an euthymic state without any compulsion to take amphetamine drugs and was able to perform daily activities. After stopping it, no symptoms of withdrawal were reported by the patient. This observation supports an another report suggesting that bupropion may be of help in weaning from amphetamine users and should be confirmed by clinical trials.

  17. Screening for substance abuse risk in cancer patients using the Opioid Risk Tool and urine drug screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Joshua S; Owens, Justine E; Blackhall, Leslie J

    2014-07-01

    The use of opioids for management of cancer-related pain has increased significantly and has been associated with a substantial rise in rates of substance abuse and diversion. There is a paucity of data not only on the prevalence of substance abuse in cancer patients, but also for issues of drug use and diversion in family caregivers. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of risk factors for substance abuse and diversion, and abnormal urine drug screens in cancer patients receiving palliative care. A retrospective chart review was performed for patients with cancer who were seen in the University of Virginia Palliative Care Clinic during the month of September 2012. We evaluated Opioid Risk Tool variables and total scores, insurance status, and urine drug screen results. Of the 114 cancer patients seen in September 2012, the mean Opioid Risk Tool score was 3.79, with 43% of patients defined as medium to high risk. Age (16-45 years old, 23%) and a personal history of alcohol (23%) or illicit drugs (21%) were the most common risk factors identified. We obtained a urine drug screen on 40% of patients, noting abnormal findings in 45.65%. Opioids are an effective treatment for cancer-related pain, yet substantial risk for substance abuse exits in the cancer population. Screening tools, such as the Opioid Risk Tool, should be used as part of a complete patient assessment to balance risk with appropriate relief of suffering.

  18. A Recommendation for the Management of Illness Anxiety Disorder Patients Abusing the Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalki, Mohammad; Al-Tawayjri, Ibrahim; Al-Anazi, Ahmed; Mahmoud, Sami; Al-Mohrej, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) entails a preoccupation with having a serious, undiagnosed illness in which somatic symptoms are, if present, mild in intensity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Case Report. This is a case of seventy-three-year-old Saudi man who started visiting the primary health care center around twenty-five years ago. With concerns of having cancer, the patient continuously visited the hospital, costing over $170,000. Throughout this period, the patient has been exposed to extensive unnecessary imaging studies and laboratory tests that have effects on his life in all aspects with such concerns. Five years ago, a family doctor has put an end to that by directing the patient to the right path. The doctor made several actions; most importantly, he directed the patient to a cognitive behavioral therapy which significantly improved a range of hypochondriacal beliefs and attitudes. This patient's case demonstrates the fundamental importance of a proper health system that limits such patients from abusing the health system and depleting the medical resources. Moreover, this case emphasizes the important role of the family physician who can be the first physician to encounter such patients. Thus, proper understanding of the nature of such disorder is a key element for better diagnosis and management.

  19. Self-medication hypothesis in substance-abusing psychotic patients: Can it help some subjects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanta Kumar Padhy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The evidence for gself.medication hypothesish (SMH in patients with dual diagnosis psychosis has been conflicting, though largely not supported, recently. But, still can SMH be a beneficial one in some patients with dual diagnosis remains a question. Methods: The study was conducted at Drug De.addiction and Treatment Centre, Department of Psychiatry, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, a Tertiary Care Hospital in India. This cross.sectional comparative study had psychotic patients with substance use disorder as cases and those without substance use disorder as controls. Demographic details, clinical information, and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS scores were ascertained for cases and controls. Cases were additionally administered modified Stated Reasons Scale and modified Perceived Effects Scale. Results: Case and controls were comparable on demographic details and duration of psychotic illness, but cases had significantly lower scores on BPRS. The reasons reported for substance abuse in cases were more often nonhedonistic than hedonistic. Perceived effects of major substances of abuse (alcohol, cannabis, and opioids were different. Alcohol use was associated with perceived decrease in loneliness and cannabis was associated with perceived increase in suspiciousness and delusions. Considerable match was found between reasons for taking the substances and the effects perceived. Interpretation and Conclusions: Incorporating reasons for taking substance and their perceived effects in the treatment regimen would certainly help a subset of such difficult.to.treat patients. India being a low.resource country with a scarcity of experts and specialized dual diagnosis clinics, these findings may have an important implication in the clinical practice.

  20. Development and validation of a Thai stressful life events rating scale for patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenic methamphetamine abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ek-uma Imkome

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to psychometrically test a Thai Stressful Life Events Rating Scale (TSLERS. Factor analysis was done on data collected from 313 patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse in Thailand from April to May, 2015. Results identified the following problems impacting physical and mental health: social relationship and social concerns, money, family life, life security, and career. Evaluation of the psychometric scale properties demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability. TSLERS provided scientific and empirical data about stressful life events of patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse, and was suitable for stress detection and suggesting further innovations.

  1. How to Respond to an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... managing your emotions appropriately and being proactive. Behavioral Management Plan Your best plan of action is to ... recall for all patients. The recall of 1 brand of ICD does not mean that there is ...

  2. Trends in sociodemographic and drug abuse variables in patients with alcohol and drug use disorders in a Nigerian treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, T A; Onifade, P O; Ogunwale, A

    2010-01-01

    Globally, patterns of the use of psychoactive substances have been changing. To evaluate the trend in two five year periods, 1992 to 1997 versus 2002 to 2007, of alcohol and substance use disorders and associated variables in patients admitted to a drug abuse treatment facility. This was a comparative cross-sectional study involving all patients admitted into Drug Abuse Treatment, Education, and Research (DATER), Unit of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro, Nigeria within the study period. All subjects had a structured psychiatric interview, a physical examination, laboratory investigations and DATER Questionnaire protocols that elicited socio-demographic, drug and family variables. The patients in 2002 to 2007 versus those of 1992 to 1997 were younger (chi squared 13.29; p,0.01). More last borns were using drugs by 2002 to 2007 (chi squared, 11.37; p,0.01). Cannabis was the most abused drug in 2002 to 2007 (53.5%) as compared to cocaine (44%) in 1992 to 1997 (chi squared 35.5; p,0.001). Polydrug abuse was high in the two periods but significantly the drug combination changed to cannabis in combination with alcohol in 2002 to 2007 as against cocaine in combination with opiates in 1992 to 1997 chi squared 45.3, p 0.001). More patients had co-morbid psychiatric disorders in 2000 to 2007 (67.6% as against 38.5% in 1992 to 1999 chi squared 28.32, p,0.001). In both periods, co-morbidity associated with cannabis use rather than any other drug of abuse as the odds ratio was greater than one. The findings in the trend in the two five year periods underscore the imperatives of continuous evaluation of the drug abuse patient population in treatment which may help drive changes in treatment inputs.

  3. A Recommendation for the Management of Illness Anxiety Disorder Patients Abusing the Health Care System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Almalki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD entails a preoccupation with having a serious, undiagnosed illness in which somatic symptoms are, if present, mild in intensity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013. Case Report. This is a case of seventy-three-year-old Saudi man who started visiting the primary health care center around twenty-five years ago. With concerns of having cancer, the patient continuously visited the hospital, costing over $170,000. Throughout this period, the patient has been exposed to extensive unnecessary imaging studies and laboratory tests that have effects on his life in all aspects with such concerns. Five years ago, a family doctor has put an end to that by directing the patient to the right path. The doctor made several actions; most importantly, he directed the patient to a cognitive behavioral therapy which significantly improved a range of hypochondriacal beliefs and attitudes. This patient’s case demonstrates the fundamental importance of a proper health system that limits such patients from abusing the health system and depleting the medical resources. Moreover, this case emphasizes the important role of the family physician who can be the first physician to encounter such patients. Thus, proper understanding of the nature of such disorder is a key element for better diagnosis and management.

  4. An Item Bank for Abuse of Prescription Pain Medication from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Yu, Lan; Dodds, Nathan E; Johnston, Kelly L; Lawrence, Suzanne M; Hilton, Thomas F; Daley, Dennis C; Patkar, Ashwin A; McCarty, Dennis

    2017-08-01

    There is a need to monitor patients receiving prescription opioids to detect possible signs of abuse. To address this need, we developed and calibrated an item bank for severity of abuse of prescription pain medication as part of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS ® ). Comprehensive literature searches yielded an initial bank of 5,310 items relevant to substance use and abuse, including abuse of prescription pain medication, from over 80 unique instruments. After qualitative item analysis (i.e., focus groups, cognitive interviewing, expert review, and item revision), 25 items for abuse of prescribed pain medication were included in field testing. Items were written in a first-person, past-tense format, with a three-month time frame and five response options reflecting frequency or severity. The calibration sample included 448 respondents, 367 from the general population (ascertained through an internet panel) and 81 from community treatment programs participating in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. A final bank of 22 items was calibrated using the two-parameter graded response model from item response theory. A seven-item static short form was also developed. The test information curve showed that the PROMIS ® item bank for abuse of prescription pain medication provided substantial information in a broad range of severity. The initial psychometric characteristics of the item bank support its use as a computerized adaptive test or short form, with either version providing a brief, precise, and efficient measure relevant to both clinical and community samples. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Psychotic Symptoms Associated with the use of Dopaminergic Drugs, in Patients with Cocaine Dependence or Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero, Carlos; Abad, Alfonso C; Padilla-Mata, Antonio; Ros-Cucurull, Elena; Barral, Carmen; Casas, Miquel; Grau-López, Lara

    2017-01-01

    In the field of dual diagnosis, physicians are frequently presented with pharmacological questions. Questions about the risk of developing psychotic symptoms in cocaine users who need treatment with dopaminergic drugs could lead to an undertreatment. Review the presence of psychotic symptoms in patients with cocaine abuse/dependence, in treatment with dopaminergic drugs. Systematic PubMed searches were conducted including December 2014, using the keywords: "cocaine", dopaminergic drug ("disulfuram-methylphenidate-bupropion-bromocriptine-sibutramineapomorphine- caffeine") and ("psychosis-psychotic symptoms-delusional-paranoia"). Articles in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Italian were included. Articles in which there was no history of cocaine abuse/dependence, absence of psychotic symptoms, systematic reviews, and animal studies, were excluded. 313 papers were reviewed. 7 articles fulfilled the inclusion-exclusion criteria. There is a clinical trial including 8 cocaine-dependent patients using disulfiram in which 3 of them presented psychotic symptoms and 6 case-reports: disulfuram (1), methylphenidate (1), disulfiram with methylphenidate (2), and bupropion (2), reporting psychotic symptoms, especially delusions of reference and persecutory ideation. Few cases have been described, which suggests that the appearance of these symptoms is infrequent. The synergy of dopaminergic effects or the dopaminergic sensitization in chronic consumption are the explanatory theories proposed by the authors. In these cases, a relationship was found between taking these drugs and the appearance of psychotic symptoms. Given the low number of studies found, further research is required. The risk of psychotic symptoms seems to be acceptable if we compare it with the benefits for the patients but a closer monitoring seems to be advisable.

  6. Failure to recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical analysis shows that if the pattern of rehearsal in free-recall experiments (of necessity, the pattern observed when participants rehearse aloud) be continued without any further interruption by stimuli (as happens during recall), it terminates with the retrieval of the same 1 word over and over again. Such a terminal state is commonly reached before some of the words in the list have been retrieved even once; those words are not recalled. The 1 minute frequently allowed for recall in free-recall experiments is ample time for retrieval to seize up in this way. The author proposes a model that represents the essential features of the pattern of rehearsal; validates that model by reference to the overt rehearsal data from B. B. Murdock, Jr., and J. Metcalfe (1978) and the recall data from B. B. Murdock, Jr., and R. Okada (1970); demonstrates the long-term properties of continued sequences of retrievals and, also, a fundamental relation linking recall to the total time of presentation; and, finally, compares failure to recall in free-recall experiments with forgetting in general.

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi vaccine candidate antigens Tc24 and TSA-1 recall memory immune response associated with HLA-A and -B supertypes in Chagasic chronic patients from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva-Lizama, Liliana E; Cruz-Chan, Julio V; Aguilar-Cetina, Amarú Del C; Herrera-Sanchez, Luis F; Rodriguez-Perez, Jose M; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel E; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria J; Ortega-Lopez, Jaime; Jones, Kathryn; Hotez, Peter; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Dumonteil, Eric

    2018-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi antigens TSA-1 and Tc24 have shown promise as vaccine candidates in animal studies. We evaluated here the recall immune response these antigens induce in Chagasic patients, as a first step to test their immunogenicity in humans. We evaluated the in vitro cellular immune response after stimulation with recombinant TSA-1 (rTSA-1) or recombinant Tc24 (rTc24) in mononuclear cells of asymptomatic Chagasic chronic patients (n = 20) compared to healthy volunteers (n = 19) from Yucatan, Mexico. Proliferation assays, intracellular cytokine staining, cytometric bead arrays, and memory T cell immunophenotyping were performed by flow cytometry. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Chagasic patients showed significant proliferation after stimulation with rTc24 and presented a phenotype of T effector memory cells (CD45RA-CCR7-). These cells also produced IFN-γ and, to a lesser extent IL10, after stimulation with rTSA-1 and rTc24 proteins. Overall, both antigens recalled a broad immune response in some Chagasic patients, confirming that their immune system had been primed against these antigens during natural infection. Analysis of HLA-A and HLA-B allele diversity by PCR-sequencing indicated that HLA-A03 and HLA-B07 were the most frequent supertypes in this Mexican population. Also, there was a significant difference in the frequency of HLA-A01 and HLA-A02 supertypes between Chagasic patients and controls, while the other alleles were evenly distributed. Some aspects of the immune response, such as antigen-induced IFN-γ production by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and CD8+ proliferation, showed significant association with specific HLA-A supertypes, depending on the antigen considered. In conclusion, our results confirm the ability of both TSA-1 and Tc24 recombinant proteins to recall an immune response induced by the native antigens during natural infection in at least some patients. Our data support the further development of these antigens as therapeutic

  8. Anabolic steroids abuse-induced cardiomyopathy and ischaemic stroke in a young male patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamloul, Reham Mohammed; Aborayah, Ahmed Fathy; Hashad, Assem; Abd-Allah, Foad

    2014-02-26

    We report a case of a 37-year-old man presented with acute stroke and hepatorenal impairment which were associated with anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse over 2 years. Despite the absence of apparent symptoms and signs of congestive heart failure at presentation, an AAS-induced dilated cardiomyopathy with multiple thrombi in the left ventricle was attributed to be the underlying cause of his condition. Awareness of the complications of AAS led to the prompt treatment of the initially unrecognised dilated cardiomyopathy, and improved the liver and kidney functions. However, the patient was exposed to a second severe ischaemic event, which led to his death. This unique and complex presentation of AAS complications opens for better recognition and treatment of their potentially fatal effects.

  9. Mental health risks among nurses under abusive supervision: the moderating roles of job role ambiguity and patients' lack of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jing; Wang, Haiwan; Han, Zhuo Rachel; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    While the nursing profession has been associated with mental health problems and the research into the antecedents of mental health has steadily grown, the relationship between abusive supervision and mental health issues of anxiety and depression remains largely unknown. This study aims to examine the relationship between abusive supervision and mental health problems. And we also aim to investigate whether this relationship is moderated by role ambiguity and the patients' lack of reciprocity. A total of 227 frontline nurses from two public hospitals completed the survey questionnaire. (1) Abusive supervision was positively associated with poor mental health; (2) the positive relationship was moderated by nurses' perceived role ambiguity in such a way that the relationship was stronger when the perceived role ambiguity is high; (3) the positive relationship was moderated by the patients' lack of reciprocity in such a way that the relationship was stronger when patients' lack of reciprocity was high. To conclude, the present study showed that abusive supervision was positively associated with mental health problems of anxiety and depression among samples of Chinese nurses. Findings of this study also highlighted that this relationship was contingent upon perceived role ambiguity and patients' reciprocity.

  10. Overgeneral autobiographical memory and age of onset of childhood sexual abuse in patients with recurrent suicidal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Catherine; Duggan, Danielle S

    2009-03-01

    To explore the association between age of onset of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and overgeneral memory (OGM) in a clinical sample. Presence and age of onset of CSA and levels of OGM were assessed in 49 patients attending hospital following a recurrence of suicidal behaviour. Twenty six participants reported CSA. Earlier age of onset of CSA was associated with greater OGM, indexed by fewer specific and more categoric memories. The association was not accounted for either by elevated levels of depression in those reporting earlier abuse, nor by levels of general verbal fluency. The findings are consistent with previous work and support the hypothesis that abuse occurring earlier in development results in more pronounced OGM.

  11. Note Taking and Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Judith L.; Harris, Mary B.

    1974-01-01

    To study the effect of note taking and opportunity for review on subsequent recall, 88 college students were randomly assigned to five treatment groups utilizing different note taking and review combinations. No treatment effects were found, although quality of notes was positively correlated with free recall an multiple-choice measures.…

  12. Predicting Free Recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Donald

    2006-01-01

    This article reports some calculations on free-recall data from B. Murdock and J. Metcalfe (1978), with vocal rehearsal during the presentation of a list. Given the sequence of vocalizations, with the stimuli inserted in their proper places, it is possible to predict the subsequent sequence of recalls--the predictions taking the form of a…

  13. Dexmedetomidine infusion to facilitate opioid detoxification and withdrawal in a patient with chronic opioid abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surjya Prasad Upadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU for acute intoxication, serious complication of overdose, or withdrawal symptoms of illicit drugs. An acute withdrawal of drugs with addiction potential is associated with a sympathetic overactivity leading to marked psychomimetic disturbances. Acute intoxication or withdrawal of such drugs is often associated with life-threatening complications which require ICU admission and necessitate prolonged sedative analgesic medications, weaning from which is often complicated by withdrawal and other psychomimetic symptoms. Dexmedetomidine, an alpha-2 (α2 agonist, has been used successfully to facilitate withdrawal and detoxification of various drugs and also to control delirium in ICU patients. Herein, we report a case of a chronic opioid abuse (heroin patient admitted with acute overdose complications leading to a prolonged ICU course requiring sedative-analgesic medication; the drug withdrawal-related symptoms further complicated the weaning process. Dexmedetomidine infusion was successfully used as a sedative-analgesic to control the withdrawal-related psychomimetic symptoms and to facilitate smooth detoxification and weaning from opioid and other sedatives.

  14. The independent effects of child sexual abuse and impulsivity on lifetime suicide attempts among female patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daray, Federico M; Rojas, Sasha M; Bridges, Ana J; Badour, Christal L; Grendas, Leandro; Rodante, Demián; Puppo, Soledad; Rebok, Federico

    2016-08-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a causal agent in many negative adulthood outcomes, including the risk for life-threatening behaviors such as suicide ideation and suicide attempts. Traumatic events such as CSA may pose risk in the healthy development of cognitive and emotional functioning during childhood. In fact, high impulsivity, a risk factor for suicidal behavior, is characteristic of CSA victims. The current study aims to understand the relations among CSA, impulsivity, and frequency of lifetime suicide attempts among a female patient sample admitted for suicidal behavior. Participants included 177 female patients between the ages of 18 and 63 years admitted at two hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Number of previous suicide attempts and CSA were assessed via structured interviews, while impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). A model of structural equations was employed to evaluate the role of impulsivity in the relation between CSA and suicide attempts. CSA (β=.18, pimpulsivity (β=.24, psuicide attempts. However, impulsivity was not significantly associated with CSA (β=.09, p>.05). CSA and impulsivity are independently associated with lifetime suicide attempts among female patients with recent suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Monkeys Recall and Reproduce Simple Shapes from Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    If you draw from memory a picture of the front of your childhood home, you will have demonstrated recall. You could also recognize this house upon seeing it. Unlike recognition, recall demonstrates memory for things that are not present. Recall is necessary for planning and imagining, and can increase the flexibility of navigation, social behavior, and other cognitive skills. Without recall, memory is more limited to recognition of the immediate environment. Amnesic patients are impaired on r...

  16. Bipolaris spicifera : An unusual cause of non-healing cutaneous ulcers in a patient with diabetes and alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Sharma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of Bipolaris spicifera, a dematiaceous fungus commonly found in soil and as a plant pathogen, isolated from culture of the lesions and from an excisional biopsy pecimen in a patient with diabetes and alcohol abuse.This case highlights the importance of considering Bipolaris as a differential diagnosis in patients with cutaneous lesions and the need for vigorous management for complete cure. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;4(1: 33-35

  17. Substance abuse in patients admitted voluntarily and involuntarily to acute psychiatric wards: a national cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Opsal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance abuse and mental disorder comorbidity is high among patients admitted to acute psychiatric wards. The aim of the study was to identify this co-occurrence as a reason for involuntary admission and if specific substance use-related diagnoses were associated with such admissions.Methods: The study was a part of a multicentre, cross-sectional national study carried out during 2005-2006 within a research network of acute mental health services. Seventy-five percent of Norwegian hospitals providing acute in-patient treatment participated. Substance use was measured using the Clinician Rating Scale and the ICD-10 diagnoses F10-19. Diagnostic assessments were performed by the clinicians during hospital stay.Results: Overall, 33.2% (n=1,187 of the total patient population (3,506 were abusing alcohol or drugs prior to admission according to the Clinician Rating Scale. No difference in the overall prevalence of substance abuserelated diagnoses between the two groups was found. Overall, 310 (26% of the admissions, 216 voluntarily and 94 involuntarily admitted patients received a double diagnosis. Frequent comorbid combinations among voluntarily admitted patients were; a combination of alcohol and either mood disorder (40% or multiple mental disorders (29%. Among involuntarily admitted patients, a combination of poly drug use and schizophrenia was most frequent (47%. Substance abusing patients diagnosed with mental and behavioral disorders due to the use of psychoactive stimulant substances had a significantly higher risk of involuntary hospitalization (OR 2.3.Conclusion: Nearly one third of substance abusing patients are involuntarily admitted to mental hospitals, in particular stimulant drug use was associated with involuntarily admissions.

  18. Contingency management is especially efficacious in engendering long durations of abstinence in patients with sexual abuse histories

    OpenAIRE

    Petry, Nancy M.; Ford, Julian D.; Barry, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to sexual victimization is prevalent among persons with substance use disorders (SUDs). Contingency management (CM) treatments utilize concrete and relatively immediate positive reinforcers to retain patients in treatment and reduce substance use, and CM may have particular benefits for patients with histories of sexual victimization. Using data from three randomized trials of CM (N = 393), this study evaluated main and interactive effects of sexual abuse history and treatment condit...

  19. Silencing the Patient: Freud, Sexual Abuse, and "The Etiology of Hysteria."

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOmber, James B.

    1996-01-01

    States that, in "The Etiology of Hysteria," Sigmund Freud's "seduction theory" asserted that child sexual abuse was the single cause of adult hysteria. Argues that Freud's failure to persuade his audience can be attributed not only to their denial of sexual abuse but also to his failure to clarify how pschyoanalysis could…

  20. Effects of time and recall of patch test results on quality of life (QoL) after testing. Cross-sectional study analyzing QoL in hand eczema patients 1, 5 and 10 years after patch testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Wasim N; Lindberg, Magnus

    2017-08-01

    Patch testing can improve health-related quality of life (HRQOL). To study the impact on HRQOL of elapsed time after patch testing (1-10 years), and how the outcome of testing and patients' recall affects HRQOL. The Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire was sent to all patients (aged 18-65 years) who were patch tested for suspected contact allergy in 2009, 2005 and 2000 at the Department of Dermatology in Örebro. The response rate was 51% (n = 256). The DLQI score was significantly lower at 10 years after patch testing (mean DLQI = 5.5) than at 1 year (mean DLQI = 7.7). Work was the most impaired aspect. A binary logistic model showed that only time (10 years after testing) was associated with no effect, a light effect or a moderate effect (DLQI negative or positive test results concerning full recall, partial recall or no recall of diagnosed allergens. Although there was an improvement in HRQOL over time, the work aspect remained a major problem. The improvement was not affected by the outcome of testing and patients' recall of test results. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Meconium indicators of maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy and association with patient characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goecke, Tamme W; Burger, Pascal; Fasching, Peter A; Bakdash, Abdulsallam; Engel, Anne; Häberle, Lothar; Voigt, Franziska; Faschingbauer, Florian; Raabe, Eva; Maass, Nicolai; Rothe, Michael; Beckmann, Matthias W; Pragst, Fritz; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Identification of women with moderate alcohol abuse during pregnancy is difficult. We correlated self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy and patient characteristics with objective alcohol indicators measured in fetal meconium. A total of 557 women singleton births and available psychological tests, obstetric data and meconium samples were included in statistical analysis. Alcohol metabolites (fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG)), were determined from meconium and correlated with patient characteristics. We found that 21.2% of the 557 participants admitted low-to-moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Of the parameters analyzed from meconium, only EtG showed an association with alcohol history (P alcohol consumption, who obviously denied having consumed alcohol during pregnancy. No other associations between socioeconomic or psychological characteristics and the drinking status (via meconium alcohol metabolites) could be found. Women who drink higher doses of ethanol during pregnancy, according to metabolite measures in meconium, might be less likely to admit alcohol consumption. No profile of socioeconomic or psychological characteristics of those women positively tested via meconium could be established.

  2. Caffeine consumption among eating disorder patients: epidemiology, motivations, and potential of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgalassi, A; Ramacciotti, C E; Bianchi, M; Coli, E; Polese, L; Bondi, E; Massimetti, G; Dell'osso, L

    2009-12-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate caffeine use in different types of eating disorders (ED) patients either using a categorical approach [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth Edition - Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria] or a dimensional perspective. Fifty-eight ED female patients [anorexia nervosa (AN), restricting and binge-eating/purging type, N=15; bulimia nervosa (BN) purging type/nonpurging type, N=26; binge eating disorder (BED), N=17] referred to an Eating Disorder Unit and 15 non-clinical controls were administered the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) and the Caffeine Use Test, an interview specifically developed to investigate caffeine intake. Statistical analyses were then repeated clustering patients according to the presence/absence of purging behaviors (purgers, N=22; non-purgers, N=19; BED, N=17). Current and lifetime caffeine use, measured as mg/day, were similar comparing controls and ED patients as a whole. BN patients showed a significantly higher maximum lifetime caffeine intake (817.4+/-528,9 vs 325.0+/-294.6 mg/die, F=3.246, pCaffeine abuse was significantly more represented among patients vs controls (pcaffeine, no significant difference was found among the different groups, for either Dependence, Intoxication or Withdrawal. Most of patients and controls reported pleasure as the main motivation for caffeine use, followed by increased vigilance and attention and appetite suppression in AN and BN patients. Note that a shift in diagnosis in the course of the ED from non-purging to purging type was associated with an increase in caffeine current, lifetime and maximum lifetime intake (F=1.667 pcaffeine intake in patients as a whole, but in the purging subgroup current caffeine use was increased in presence of an anxiety disorder (pcaffeine with an average intake similar to that of the general population, however with a kind of binge attitude. Among heavy drinkers, daily

  3. Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cocaine Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Prescription drugs, including opioids Drug abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to ...

  4. "Doctor, please tell me it's nothing serious": An exploration of patients' worrying and reassuring cognitions using stimulated recall interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Giroldi (Esther); W. Veldhuijzen (Wemke); A. Mannaerts (Alexandra); T. van der Weijden (Trudy); F. Bareman (Frits); C.P.M. van der Vleuten (Cees)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Many patients who consult their GP are worried about their health, but there is little empirical data on strategies for effective reassurance. To gain a better understanding of mechanisms for effective patient reassurance, we explored cognitions underlying patients' worries,

  5. "Doctor, please tell me it's nothing serious": an exploration of patients' worrying and reassuring cognitions using stimulated recall interviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giroldi, E.; Veldhuijzen, W.; Mannaerts, A.; Weijden, T.T. van der; Bareman, F.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients who consult their GP are worried about their health, but there is little empirical data on strategies for effective reassurance. To gain a better understanding of mechanisms for effective patient reassurance, we explored cognitions underlying patients' worries, cognitions

  6. Categorical spatial memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia: Positional versus object-location recall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Rijken, S.; Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Schuylenborgh-van Es, N. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Memory for object locations, as part of spatial memory function, has rarely been Studied in patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD), while Studies in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients are lacking altogether. The present study examined categorical spatial memory function using the

  7. Categorical spatial memory in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer dementia: positional versus object-location recall.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessels, R.P.C.; Rijken, S.; Joosten-Weyn Banningh, L.W.A.; Schuylenborgh-van Es, N. van; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Memory for object locations, as part of spatial memory function, has rarely been studied in patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD), while studies in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) patients are lacking altogether. The present study examined categorical spatial memory function using the

  8. Pistachio Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes food subject to recall in the United States since March 2009 related to pistachios distributed by Setton Pistachio of Terra Bella, Inc. The FDA...

  9. Peanut Product Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes human and pet food subject to recall in the United States since January 2009 related to peanut products distributed by Peanut Corporation of...

  10. Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall since September 2010 related to infant formula distributed by Abbott. This list will be updated with publicly available...

  11. Fecundity of patients with schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder, depression, anorexia nervosa, or substance abuse vs their unaffected siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Robert A; Kyaga, Simon; Uher, Rudolf; MacCabe, James H; Långström, Niklas; Landen, Mikael; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Svensson, Anna C

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown how genetic variants conferring liability to psychiatric disorders survive in the population despite strong negative selection. However, this is key to understanding their etiology and designing studies to identify risk variants. To examine the reproductive fitness of patients with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders vs their unaffected siblings and to evaluate the level of selection on causal genetic variants. We measured the fecundity of patients with schizophrenia, autism, bipolar disorder, depression, anorexia nervosa, or substance abuse and their unaffected siblings compared with the general population. Population databases in Sweden, including the Multi-Generation Register and the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. In total, 2.3 million individuals among the 1950 to 1970 birth cohort in Sweden. Fertility ratio (FR), reflecting the mean number of children compared with that of the general population, accounting for age, sex, family size, and affected status. Except for women with depression, affected patients had significantly fewer children (FR range for those with psychiatric disorder, 0.23-0.93; P Siblings of patients with depression and substance abuse had significantly increased fecundity (FR range, 1.01-1.05; P new mutations or an as-yet unknown mechanism. Bipolar disorder did not seem to be under strong negative selection. Vulnerability to depression, and perhaps substance abuse, may be preserved by balancing selection, suggesting the involvement of common genetic variants in ways that depend on other genes and on environment.

  12. Adaptive Memory: Animacy Enhances Free Recall but Impairs Cued Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Earl Y.; Serra, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that human memory systems evolved to remember animate things better than inanimate things. In the present experiments, we examined whether these effects occur for both free recall and cued recall. In Experiment 1, we directly compared the effect of animacy on free recall and cued recall. Participants studied lists of…

  13. Buprenorphine/naloxone as a promising therapeutic option for opioid abusing patients with chronic pain: reduction of pain, opioid withdrawal symptoms, and abuse liability of oral oxycodone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Perrine; Sullivan, Maria A; Cohen, Julien; Fugon, Lionel; Jones, Jermaine D; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Cooper, Ziva D; Manubay, Jeanne M; Mogali, Shanthi; Comer, Sandra D

    2013-08-01

    Few studies have examined abuse of prescription opioids among individuals with chronic pain under buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nx) maintenance. The current 7-week inpatient study assessed oral oxycodone self-administration by patients with chronic pain who had a history of opioid abuse. Participants (n=25) were transitioned from their preadmission prescribed opioid to Bup/Nx. All of the participants were tested under each of the sublingual Bup/Nx maintenance doses (2/0.5, 8/2 or 16/4 mg) in random order. During each maintenance period, participants could self-administer oxycodone orally (0, 10, 20, 40 or 60 mg prescription opioids) or receive money during laboratory sessions. Drug choice (percentage) was the primary dependent variable. Subjective ratings of clinical pain and withdrawal symptoms also were measured. Mann-Whitney tests compared percentage of drug choice for each active oxycodone dose to placebo. Logistic regression analyses identified correlates of oxycodone preference, defined as 60% or greater choice of oxycodone compared to money. Pain was significantly reduced while participants were maintained on Bup/Nx compared to preadmission ratings. No differences in percentage drug choice were observed between the active oxycodone doses and placebo under each Bup/Nx maintenance dose. However, factors associated with oxycodone preference were lower Bup/Nx maintenance dose, more withdrawal symptoms and more pain. These data suggest that Bup/Nx was effective in reducing pain and supplemental oxycodone use. Importantly, adequate management of pain and withdrawal symptoms by Bup/Nx may reduce oxycodone preference in this population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Development and validation of a Thai stressful life events rating scale for patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenic methamphetamine abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ek-uma Imkome; JintanaYunibhand; Waraporn Chaiyawat

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to psychometrically test a Thai Stressful Life Events Rating Scale (TSLERS). Factor analysis was done on data collected from 313 patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse in Thailand from April to May, 2015. Results identified the following problems impacting physical and mental health: social relationship and social concerns, money, family life, life security, and career. Evaluation of the psychometric scale properties demonstrated acceptable validity ...

  15. Personality Disorders in Substance Abusers: A Comparison of Patients Treated in a Prison Unit and Patients Treated in Inpatient Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Stefánsson, Ragnar

    2008-01-01

    -III. Baserate scores indicated a prevalence of 95% of personality disorders. A logistic regression analysis correctly identified 95% of the sample, and showed that antisocial personality disorder traits were characteristic of the prison sample, and masochistic personality disorder traits were characteristic......Abstract  A large body of literature has shown a high prevalence of personality disorders in substance abusers. We compared a sample of substance abusers treated in a prison setting with substance abusers treated in a non-prison inpatient setting rated with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory...... of the inpatient sample. The findings indicate that treatment models used in prison settings should be adjusted to meet the needs of antisocial patients....

  16. Substance Abuse, Relapse, and Treatment Program Evaluation in Malaysia: Perspective of Rehab Patients and Staff Using the Mixed Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chie, Qiu Ting; Tam, Cai Lian; Bonn, Gregory; Dang, Hoang Minh; Khairuddin, Rozainee

    2016-01-01

    This study examined reasons for substance abuse and evaluated the effectiveness of substance treatment programs in Malaysia through interviews with rehab patients and staff. Substance rehab patients (aged 18–69 years; n = 30) and staff (ages 30–72 years; n = 10) participated in semi-structured interviews covering a range of topics, including family and peer relationships, substance use and treatment history, factors for substance use and relapse, motivation for entering treatment, work experience, job satisfaction, treatment evaluation, and patient satisfaction. Most patients did not demonstrate the substance progression trend and had normal family relationships. Most patients reported having peers from normal family backgrounds as well. Various environmental and personal factors was cited as contributing to substance abuse and relapse. There was no significant difference between patient and staff program evaluation scores although the mean score for patients was lower. A holistic treatment approach with a combination of cognitive–behavioral, medical, social, and spiritual components was favored by patients. Suggestions for improving existing programs include better tailoring treatment to individual needs, and providing more post-treatment group support. PMID:27303313

  17. Midwives' and patients' perspectives on disrespect and abuse during labor and delivery care in Ethiopia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrowes, Sahai; Holcombe, Sarah Jane; Jara, Dube; Carter, Danielle; Smith, Katheryn

    2017-08-22

    It is increasingly recognized that disrespect and abuse of women during labor and delivery is a violation of a woman's rights and a deterrent to the use of life-saving, facility-based labor and delivery services. In Ethiopia, rates of skilled birth attendance are still only 28% despite a recent dramatic national scale up in the numbers of trained providers and facilities. Concerns have been raised that womens' perceptions of poor quality of care and fear of mistreatment might contribute to this low utilization. This study examines the experiences of disrespect and abuse in maternal care from the perspectives of both providers and patients. We conducted 45 in-depth interviews at four health facilities in Debre Markos, Ethiopia with midwives, midwifery students, and women who had given birth within the past year. Students and providers also took a brief quantitative survey on patients' rights during labor and delivery and responded to clinical scenarios regarding the provision of stigmatized reproductive health services. We find that both health care providers and patients report frequent physical and verbal abuse as well as non-consented care during labor and delivery. Providers report that most abuse is unintended and results from weaknesses in the health system or from medical necessity. We uncovered no evidence of more systematic types of abuse involving detention of patients, bribery, abandonment or ongoing discrimination against particular ethnic groups. Although health care providers showed good basic knowledge of confidentiality, privacy, and consent, training on the principles of responsive and respectful care, and on counseling, is largely absent. Providers indicated that they would welcome related practical instruction. Patient responses suggest that women are aware that their rights are being violated and avoid facilities with reputations for poor care. Our results suggest that training on respectful care, offered in the professional ethics modules of the

  18. Time Limits : Effects on Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Kinue

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of differing time limits and the level of language proficiency on the written recalls of 66 Japanese EFL undergraduates. Results showed that different time limits affected total recall, but not main ideas recalled. Regardless of proficiency level, the 20-minute group (Group 2) recalled a greater number of idea units than the 8-minute group (Group 1). However, no significant difference was found between Groups 1 and 2 regarding the recall of main ideas, alth...

  19. Complications related to osteopenia in the thoracic spine on admission chest radiographs of substance abuse detoxification patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haramati, L.B.; Alterman, D.D.; Israel, G.M.; Haramati, N.; Mallavurapu, R.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To assess the prevalence of complications related to osteopenia in the thoracic spine (anterior wedging and fish vertebrae) of patients admitted for substance abuse detoxification. Design and patients. We retrospectively identified 150 sequential patients admitted to our drug and alcohol detoxification ward in whom posteroanterior and lateral admission chest radiographs and clinical charts were available for review. There were 116 men and 34 women with a mean age of 37 years (range 19-67 years). Thirty-eight patients were admitted for drug detoxification, 37 for alcohol detoxification, and 75 for drug and alcohol detoxification. These patients were compared with 66 age- and sex-matched controls from our hospital's employee health service. Two radiologists reviewed all chest radiographs for the presence of anterior wedging and fish vertebrae in the thoracic spine and other nonspinal fractures. Serum calcium and inorganic phosphorus levels were recorded for the substance abuse detoxification patients. Results. Forty-nine percent (n=73) of detoxification patients had complications of osteopenia in the thoracic spine including: anterior wedging (n=47), fish vertebrae (n=21), or both (n=5). Twenty-four percent (n=36) of patients had an elevated serum inorganic phosphorus level and one patient had an elevated serum calcium level. Patients with anterior wedging or fish vertebrae included: 45% (n=45) of patients below age 40 years, 35% (n=12) of women, 41% (n=15) of drug detoxification patients, 58% (n=22) of alcohol detoxification patients, 48% (n=36) of drug and alcohol detoxification patients, and 47% (n=17) of patients with elevated serum inorganic phosphorus (P=NS). Six percent (n=9) of our study population had nonspinal fractures on their chest radiographs. Twenty-one percent (n=14) of controls had complications of osteopenia in the thoracic spine (all anterior wedging). This prevalence differed significantly (P<0.05, chi-squared) from the study population

  20. Reducing Sex under the Influence of Drugs or Alcohol for Patients in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsyn, Donald A.; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Doyle, Suzanne R.; Song, Yong S.; Coyer, Susan; Pelta, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Aims In a previous report, the effectiveness of the Real Men Are Safe (REMAS) intervention in reducing the number of unprotected sexual occasions among male drug abuse treatment patients was demonstrated. A secondary aim of REMAS was to reduce the frequency with which men engage in sex under the influence (SUI) of drugs or alcohol. Design Men in methadone maintenance (n=173) or outpatient psychosocial treatment (n=104) completed assessments at baseline, 3- and 6-months post intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to attend either REMAS (five sessions containing information, motivational exercises and skills training, including one session specifically targeting reducing SUI), or HIV education (HIV-Ed; one session containing HIV prevention information). SUI during the most recent sexual event served as the primary outcome in a repeated measures logistic regression model. Findings Men assigned to the REMAS condition reporting SUI at the most recent sexual event decreased from 36.8% at baseline to 25.7% at 3 months compared to a increase from 36.9% to 38.3% in the HIV-Ed condition (tintervention=−2.16, p=.032). No difference between the treatment groups was evident at 6-month follow-up. At each assessment time point, sex with a casual partner versus a regular partner, and being in methadone maintenance versus psychosocial outpatient treatment, were associated with engaging in SUI. Conclusions Overall a motivational and skills training HIV prevention intervention designed for men was associated with greater reduction in SUI than standard HIV education at the 3-month follow-up. PMID:20078464

  1. Dream recall and dream content in obsessive-compulsive patients: is there a change during exposure treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuelz, Anne K; Stotz, Ulrike; Riemann, Dieter; Schredl, Michael; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Very little is known about dreams in patients with obsessive compulsive disorder, especially regarding changes over the course of treatment with stimulus exposure and response prevention. By use of dream content analysis, 40 dreams of 9 obsessive compulsive (OC) inpatients were compared with 84 dreams of 10 matched OC outpatients and 63 dreams of 11 healthy control participants. Dream protocols of inpatients were collected at the beginning of treatment and after the first exposure exercises. Controls filled in dream protocols in respective intervals. Before treatment, dreams of patients showed significantly less positive contents than dreams of healthy controls. Under treatment with exposure, a significant reduction of OC themes was observed. The findings support the continuity hypothesis of dreaming by showing a link between day-time symptoms and OC symptoms in dreams. Contrary to expectations, however, exposure treatment does not intensify dreams.

  2. Temperament and character profiles associated with depression and treatment response in patients with or without comorbid substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavonen, Vesa; Luoto, Kaisa; Koivukangas, Antti; Lassila, Antero; Leinonen, Esa; Kampman, Olli

    2016-11-30

    There is limited knowledge on the relationship between temperament and character profiles and substance abuse comorbidity in depressed patients. We recruited 127 depressed patients without alcohol use problems (non-AUP) and 89 depressed patients with alcohol use problems (AUP). We assessed all patients using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) at baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment. Using univariate general linear models (GLMs), we analyzed differences in TCI-R between AUP and non-AUP. GLMs were also used in analyzing the associations between TCI-R changes and antidepressive treatment responses measured with changes in Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score (ΔMADRS). Alcohol use explained independently significant proportions of the variation in Novelty Seeking, Self-Directedness, and Persistence. Reward Dependence score change explained 14.1% of the ΔMADRS in AUP, but was non-significant in non-AUP. Character score changes in Self-Directedness and Self-Transcendence explained together 14.1% of ΔMADRS in non-AUP, whereas they were all non-significant in AUP. AUP compared with non-AUP patients had lower Self-Directedness and Persistence and higher Novelty Seeking scores. Detected changes in Reward Dependence and lower Self-Directedness in AUP patients could be reflective of different biological mechanisms associated with depressive symptomatology in alcohol abuse. Changes in character are associated with acute treatment response in non-AUP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Polysubstance Abuse: Alcohol, Opioids and Benzodiazepines Require Coordinated Engagement by Society, Patients, and Physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbu, Uzor C

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has published significant data trends related to substance abuse involving opioid pain relievers (OPR, benzodiazepines and alcohol in the United States. The CDC describes opioid misuse and abuse as an epidemic, with the use of OPR surpassing that of illicit drugs. Alcohol has also been a persistent problem and is associated with a number of emergency department visits and deaths independent of other substances. The use of these drugs in combination creates an additive effect with increased central nervous system suppression and a heightened risk of an overdose. We present a summary of the findings from the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR with commentary on strategies to combat prescription drug and alcohol abuse. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:76–79.

  4. Different outcomes, psychopathological features, and comorbidities in patients with eating disorders reporting childhood abuse: A 3-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Giovanni; Lelli, Lorenzo; Cassioli, Emanuele; Ciampi, Eleonora; Zamponi, Francesco; Campone, Beatrice; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Ricca, Valdo

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of childhood adversities in long-term outcomes in eating disorders (EDs). One hundred thirty-three eating disorder patients were studied by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and psychometric tests, at baseline, at the end of individual cognitive behavioural therapy, and at 3-year follow-up. As compared with the other patients, those reporting childhood abuse (overall: 24.8%; physical abuse: 20.3%; sexual abuse: 13.6%) showed higher impulsivity, psychiatric comorbidity, lower full recovery at follow-up (12.1% vs. 31%), and higher diagnostic crossover (39.4% vs. 13.0%). The different rates of recovery were mostly due to a higher persistence of depression in abused patients (77.8% vs. 26.7%). Patients with both abuse and neglect had a higher probability of dropout. Eating disorder patients with childhood abuse represent a group of persons with more complex psychopathological features and a worse long-term outcome, thus requiring specific treatment strategies. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. I Am a Pediatric Dentist: Why Is Substance Abuse among My Patients My Concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, H Barry; Perlman, Steven P

    The rapidly evolving demographic base of our communities intensifies the need for an awareness which in the past seemed beyond the traditional concerns of pediatric dentists; in this case, substance abuse by teenagers. A review was carried out regarding evolving demographics, the proportion of teenagers involved with substance abuse, the rationale for the use of varying elicit substances and the associated symptoms. A series of options for action are considered given the potential for pediatric dentists to be involved in the care of teenagers using elicit substances.

  6. Protocol for the BAG-RECALL clinical trial: a prospective, multi-center, randomized, controlled trial to determine whether a bispectral index-guided protocol is superior to an anesthesia gas-guided protocol in reducing intraoperative awareness with explicit recall in high risk surgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villafranca Alex

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness with explicit recall of intra-operative events is a rare and distressing complication that may lead to severe psychological symptoms. Candidate depth of anesthesia monitors have been developed, partly with the aim of preventing this complication. Despite conflicting results from clinical trials and the lack of incisive validation, such monitors have enjoyed widespread clinical adoption, in particular the bispectral index. The American Society of Anesthesiologists has called for adequately powered and rigorously designed clinical trials to determine whether the use of such monitors decreases the incidence of awareness in various settings. The aim of this study is to determine with increased precision whether incorporating the bispectral index into a structured general anesthesia protocol decreases the incidence of awareness with explicit recall among a subset of surgical patients at increased risk for awareness and scheduled to receive an inhalation gas-based general anesthetic. Methods/Design BAG-RECALL is a multi-center, randomized, controlled clinical trial, in which 6,000 patients are being assigned to bispectral index-guided anesthesia (target range, 40 to 60 or end-tidal anesthetic gas-guided anesthesia (target range, 0.7 to 1.3 age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentration. Postoperatively, patients are being assessed for explicit recall at two intervals (0 to 72 hours, and 30 days after extubation. The primary outcome of the trial is awareness with explicit recall. Secondary outcomes include postoperative mortality, psychological symptoms, intensive care and hospital length of stay, average anesthetic gas administration, postoperative pain and nausea and vomiting, duration of stay in the recovery area, intra-operative dreaming, and postoperative delirium. Discussion This trial has been designed to complement two other clinical trials: B-Unaware and MACS (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00281489 and NCT00689091

  7. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  8. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  9. Can opium abuse be a risk factor for carotid stenosis in patients who are candidates for coronary artery bypass grafting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, Shapour; Shakiba, Madjid; Soleymanzadeh, Maryam; Esfandbod, Maryam

    2010-01-01

    Over the centuries, opium has been the most frequent substance abused in the Middle East. There are many controversial aspects about the effects of opioids on the atherosclerosis process, which is still unclear. All patients who were candidates for coronary artery bypass graft in Tehran Heart Center were registered and evaluated for risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking status and duration, opium abuse, involved coronary arteries and left main branch lesion > 50%, carotid stenosis > or = 70%. A total of 1,339 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 400 (29.9%) were female and the other 939 (70.1%) male. Female patients were omitted from analysis due to the low numbers of female opium addicts. Our study revealed that in the addicted population, the risk of diabetes and hypertension was lower than in the non-addicted group (p 50% and extent of carotid stenosis was not significantly different between the two groups. Our investigations demonstrate that opium is not cardioprotective, as has been claimed by some previous studies, and does not even decelerate atherosclerosis of carotid arteries in opium-addicted patients, but more evidence is still needed to completely prove the case.

  10. Inhalant Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is when you pour the product into a bag, hold it over your mouth and nose, and inhale. How is inhalant abuse diagnosed? If you think your child is abusing inhalants, talk to them. Be honest and open. Tell them ...

  11. Abusive Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Abusive Relationships KidsHealth / For Teens / Abusive Relationships Print en español Relaciones de maltrato Healthy Relationships = Respect & Trust Healthy relationships involve respect, trust, and ...

  12. Association between Experience of Child Abuse and Severity of Drug Addiction Measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese Drug-Dependent Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Gardner, Fumiyuki Chin; Haraguchi, Ayako; Saito, Tamaki; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J). One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA) had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA). Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA) had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA). Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence. PMID:25741639

  13. The Moderating Role of Purging Behaviour in the Relationship Between Sexual/Physical Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disorder Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara; Silva, Cátia; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Cao, Li; Machado, Paulo P P

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to examine predictors of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in eating disorder patients and to evaluate the moderating role of purging behaviours in the relationship between a theorised predictor (i.e. sexual/physical abuse) and NSSI. Participants in this study were 177 female patients with eating disorders (age range = 14-38 years) who completed semistructured interviews assessing eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related risk factors (e.g. history of sexual and physical abuse, history of NSSI and feelings of fatness). Results revealed that 65 participants (36.7%) reported lifetime engagement in NSSI, and 48 participants (27.1%) reported a history of sexual/physical abuse. Early onset of eating problems, lower BMI, feeling fat, a history of sexual/physical abuse and the presence of purging behaviours were all positively associated with the lifetime occurrence of NSSI. The relationship between sexual/physical abuse before eating disorder onset and lifetime NSSI was moderated by the presence of purging behaviours, such that the relationship was stronger in the absence of purging. These findings are consistent with the notion that purging and NSSI may serve similar functions in eating disorder patients (e.g. emotion regulation), such that the presence of purging may attenuate the strength of the association between sexual/physical abuse history (which is also associated with elevated NSSI risk) and engagement in NSSI behaviours. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Association between Experience of Child Abuse and Severity of Drug Addiction Measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese Drug-Dependent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasukazu Ogai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J. One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA. Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA. Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence.

  15. Association between experience of child abuse and severity of drug addiction measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese drug-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Gardner, Fumiyuki Chin; Haraguchi, Ayako; Saito, Tamaki; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2015-03-03

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J). One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA) had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA). Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA) had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA). Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence.

  16. Autogenic training and dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, M; Doll, E

    1997-06-01

    The present study has investigated the relationship between Autogenic Training and dream recall for 112 participants in 16 beginning courses of 10 wk. Analyses confirmed the hypothesis that learning and practicing this relaxation technique enhanced dream recall.

  17. Adolescent Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)

  18. Elder abuse

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Elder abuse takes many forms and occurs in a variety of settings; it is both under-recognised and under-reported. Despite a lack of statutory guidelines or legislation, effective management is possible. More could be done to recognise abuse, and healthcare workers need to be vigilant, paying attention to both the circumstances in which abuse occurs and its warning signs.

  19. The Effect of Semantic Categorisation on Recall Memory in Amnesia

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley Channon; Irene Daum

    2000-01-01

    Amnesic patients were compared to a healthy control group on recall of word lists containing semantically-related or unrelated words. As expected on the basis of previous literature, the amnesic group performed below the control group on all measures of recall. When total recall scores for each list were used as the index of performance, their scores were not significantly affected by the type of list, unlike those of the control group. Comparison of serial position effects for different part...

  20. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  1. Dreaming and recall during sedation for colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stait, M L; Leslie, K; Bailey, R

    2008-09-01

    Dreaming is reported by one in five patients who are interviewed on emergence from general anaesthesia, but the incidence, predictors and consequences of dreaming during procedural sedation are not known. In this prospective observational study, 200 patients presenting for elective colonoscopy under intravenous sedation were interviewed on emergence to determine the incidences of dreaming and recall. Sedation technique was left to the discretion of the anaesthetist. The incidence of dreaming was 25.5%. Patients reporting dreaming were younger than those who did not report dreaming. Doses of midazolam and fentanyl were similar between dreamers and non-dreamers, however propofol doses were higher in patients who reported dreams than those who did not. Patients reported short, simple dreams about everyday life--no dream suggested near-miss recall of the procedure. Frank recall of the procedure was reported by 4% of the patients, which was consistent with propofol doses commensurate with light general anaesthesia. The only significant predictor of recall was lower propofol dose. Satisfaction with care was generally high, however dreamers were more satisfied with their care than non-dreamers.

  2. Suicidal and self-injurious behavior among patients with alcohol and drug abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Sharqi, Abdullah Mohammed; Sherra, Khaled Saad; Al-Habeeb, Abdulhameed Abdullah; Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Abdullah Mohammed Al-Sharqi,1 Khaled Saad Sherra,2 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,3 Naseem Akhtar Qureshi3,41Private Clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Psychiatric Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Egypt; 3General Administration for Mental Health and Social Services, 4General Directorate of Research and Studies, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Self-injurious behavior, a major public health problem globally, is linked with alcohol and drug abuse. This cross-...

  3. The Formation of Marijuana Risk Perception in a Population of Substance Abusing Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samuel T; van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Davidson, Larry; D'Souza, Deepak C

    2016-03-01

    Risk perception has been shown to be protective with regard to marijuana use. Notably, the risk perception of marijuana in individuals with substance abuse problems varies significantly from that of the general public. Understanding how risk perception is formed in substance users could explain these differences and help predict the consequences of policy changes. Using this framework, we explored risk perception and its formation in a sample of substance abusing veterans. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with veterans who were receiving treatment for substance abuse. Interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. A prominent perspective among the 31 participants was that marijuana is significantly different from other drugs because it is safe, not addictive, not associated with physical withdrawal, and has less overt behavioral effects than other substances. Many of these participants drew upon their own innocuous experiences with the drug in developing this perspective, more so than information from any other source. A contrasting narrative emphasized marijuana's capacity to cause negative social consequences, act as a gateway to the use of other, more harmful substances, and cause paranoia or worsen psychosis. In conclusion, individual experience with marijuana featured more prominently in informing risk perception than any other source of information. Our results and previous literature suggest that the significant disconnect between the individual experiences of substance users and the current clinical and legal policy towards marijuana may weaken the legitimacy of public policy or the authority of the medical community.

  4. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorst, J.P.; Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD

    1982-01-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  5. Child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorst, J.P.

    1982-08-01

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleeding or visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse.

  6. The impact of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms on suicidal behavior and substance abuse disorder among patients with schizophrenia: a retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobylecki, C.J.; Hansen, T.; Timm, S.

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal behavior and substance abuse are frequent phenomena among patients with schizophrenia and may be attributable in part to antipsychotic treatment failure. Individuals who carry functional variants of the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes, shown to cause altered drug metabolism of psychoactive drugs......, are at risk of toxic accumulation or rapid elimination of these drugs, leading to treatment failure. We tested whether substance abuse disorder and suicidal behavior were associated with the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes among patients with schizophrenia. Three hundred sixty-two patients with schizophrenia...

  7. Effects of handedness (left vs right) and cannabis abuse on intermanual coordination and negative symptoms in schizophrenic patients of the paranoid type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorynia, Inge; Schwaiger, Markus

    2011-09-01

    Intermanual coordination as an index of interhemispheric transfer and negative symptoms were investigated in 50 left- and 42 right-handed schizophrenic inpatients of the paranoid type, also including drug abusers. The primary objective was to show that there were higher values in intermanual coordination and fewer manifestations of negative symptoms in the left-handed compared to the right-handed patients. This assumption was based on previous studies. Most importantly, right- and left-handed patients showed a different behaviour in intermanual coordination, when the duration of illness was taken into consideration. Thus, long-term left-handed paranoid patients performed better in intermanual coordination and showed fewer manifestations of negative symptoms than did long-term right-handed patients. These results were true for the large group of all patients, and among them for the subgroup of patients without drug abuse. Consequently, higher scores in intermanual coordination in left-handed patients may be related to a better interhemispheric crosstalk resulting in less pronounced negative symptoms. Secondary objectives assessed by explorative data analysis included the effects of cannabis abuse. While cannabis abuse may be more prevalent in left-handed patients, its effects may be more pronounced in right-handed patients, scoring higher in intermanual coordination and lower in manifestations of negative symptoms.

  8. The Effect of Semantic Categorisation on Recall Memory in Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Channon

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Amnesic patients were compared to a healthy control group on recall of word lists containing semantically-related or unrelated words. As expected on the basis of previous literature, the amnesic group performed below the control group on all measures of recall. When total recall scores for each list were used as the index of performance, their scores were not significantly affected by the type of list, unlike those of the control group. Comparison of serial position effects for different parts of the lists revealed that the control group derived greater benefit from semantic relatedness in recall of items from the middle positions. This effect was not shown by the amnesic group, who showed similar U-shaped serial position curves for recall of all three lists, and appeared to use a more passive recall strategy than the control group. The findings are discussed in relation to our current understanding of amnesic deficits.

  9. Memory, maternal representations and internalizing symptomatology among abused, neglected and nonmaltreated children

    OpenAIRE

    Valentino, Kristin; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2008-01-01

    A depth-of-processing incidental recall task for maternal referent stimuli was utilized to assess basic memory processes and the affective valence of maternal-representations among abused (N = 63), neglected (N= 33) and nonmaltreated (N = 128) school-aged children. Self-reported and observer-rated indices of internalizing symptoms were also assessed. Abused children demonstrated impairments in recall compared to neglected and nonmaltreated children. Although abused, neglected, and nonmaltreat...

  10. The impact of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms on suicidal behavior and substance abuse disorder among patients with schizophrenia: a retrospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobylecki, Camilla J; Hansen, Thomas Folkmann; Timm, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Suicidal behavior and substance abuse are frequent phenomena among patients with schizophrenia and may be attributable in part to antipsychotic treatment failure. Individuals who carry functional variants of the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genes, shown to cause altered drug metabolism of psychoactive drugs......, are at risk of toxic accumulation or rapid elimination of these drugs, leading to treatment failure. We tested whether substance abuse disorder and suicidal behavior were associated with the CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 genotypes among patients with schizophrenia. Three hundred sixty-two patients with schizophrenia...... spectrum disorders (International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision) were genotyped for functional CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 polymorphisms. Based on available medical records and clinical interviews, their suicidal behavior and substance abuse disorder were evaluated. No significant associations between...

  11. Effects of auditory recall experience on regional cerebral blood flow as assessed by 99m-Tc-HMPAO SPECT in 13 Post Traumatic Stress Disorder patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagani, M.M.E.; Salmaso, D.; Soares, J.; Aberg-Wistedt, A.; Sundin, O.; Jacobsson, H.; Larsson, S.A.; Haellstroem, T.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a severe condition affecting about 8% of population and increasing the risk of depression. PTSD patients, among other symptoms, suffer from intrusive distressing recollections of the traumatic event and avoidance of stimuli related to trauma. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) between two groups of subjects exposed to the same type of traumatic stressor either developing PTSD or not. Materials and Methods: Thirteen subway drivers developing PTSD (PTSD) and 19 not developing PTSD (CTR) after being exposed to earlier person-under-the-train accident were included in the study. The rCBF distribution was compared between the two groups during a situation involving an auditory evoked re-experiencing of their traumatic event. 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT, using a three-headed gamma camera, was performed and the radiopharmaceutical uptake in 7 bilateral regions of the brain was assessed using a standardised digitalised brain atlas. The chosen regions were those supposed to be involved in fear and emotional response and were located in the thalamus, limbic cortex and prefrontal, temporal and parietal lobes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the significance of the differences in flow in such functional regions. Results: In the global analysis, rCBF significantly differed between groups (0.04), hemispheres (p<0.02) and regions (p<0.0001). There was also a significant region x hemisphere interaction (p<0.0001). As compared to CTR, PTSD rCBF increased in the primary and associative auditory cortex (p<0.03) and in the temporal poles (p<0.02). Significant hemispheric differences were found in these latter regions (p<0.001 and p<0.0001, respectively), anterior cingulate cortex (p<0001) and multi-medial parietal association cortex (p<0.0001). Conclusions: Higher rCBF values in PTSD patients under recall of their traumatic experience were found as compared to CTR. The

  12. [Search association between cannabis abuse and bipolar disorder: A study on a sample of patients hospitalized for bipolar disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazour, F; Awaida, C; Souaiby, L; Richa, S

    2018-02-01

    Cannabis use is very frequent in bipolar disorder and has been found to increase the duration and frequency of manic symptoms while decreasing those of depression. Bipolar patients who use cannabis were shown to have poorer compliance to treatment, more symptoms that are psychotic and a worse prognosis than patients who do not. In this study, we have evaluated the importance of cannabis use among bipolar patients admitted to the Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross, Lebanon (Hôpital Psychiatrique de la Croix [HPC]) as well as the clinical differences between cannabis users and non-users. Over a period of 13 months, we recruited the patients admitted to HPC for bipolar disorder according to the MINI DSM-IV criteria. These patients were screened for substance abuse/dependence and were accordingly divided into 2 groups: cannabis users and cannabis non-users. Both groups were interviewed by a medical student and asked to answer the following questionnaires: the MINI DSM-IV, the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) for evaluating manic episodes, the Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) for evaluating depressive episodes, the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) to assess psychotic symptoms associated to the bipolar disorder, and the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) for evaluating the importance of cannabis consumption. The study's exclusion criteria were the following: diagnosis of a confusional state, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, dementia, age less than 18 years old or superior to 85 years old, and non-cooperation. Among the 100 bipolar patients included in the study, 27 (27 %) were cannabis users. Eight of these 27 patients were first admitted to HPC for substance abuse and then included in the study after a bipolar disorder was diagnosed according to the MINI DSM-IV criteria. Cannabis use was found to be more prevalent in young males with a mean age of 20.3 years old at the first contact with the substance

  13. Radiation recall cutaneous induced by chlorambucil. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dei-Cas, Ignacio; Wright, Dolores; Rigo, Bettina; Cohen Sabban, Emilia; Lacasagne, Jorgelina; Pietropaolo, Nelida; Cabo, Horacio; Molina, Malena

    2005-01-01

    Radiation recall refers to a tissue reaction produced by the use of certain drugs, usually chemotherapeutic agents, in a previously irradiated area. We report a patient with cutaneous radiation recall associated with chlorambucil, drug previously unreported as a causative agent in the literature. (author) [es

  14. Preventing medical device recalls

    CERN Document Server

    Raheja, Dev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Medical Device RequirementsIntroductionThe ChallengesSources of ErrorsUnderstanding the Science of Safety     Overview of FDA Quality System Regulation     Overview of Risk Management Standard ISO 14971     Overview of FDA Device Approval Process     Overview of Regulatory Requirements for Clinical TrialsSummaryReferencesPreventing Recalls during Specification WritingIntroductionConduct Requirements Analysis to Identify Missing RequirementsSpecifications for Safety, Durability, and

  15. Informed consent recall and comprehension in orthodontics: traditional vs improved readability and processability methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Edith Y; Fields, Henry W; Kiyak, Asuman; Beck, F Michael; Firestone, Allen R

    2009-10-01

    Low general and health literacy in the United States means informed consent documents are not well understood by most adults. Methods to improve recall and comprehension of informed consent have not been tested in orthodontics. The purposes of this study were to evaluate (1) recall and comprehension among patients and parents by using the American Association of Orthodontists' (AAO) informed consent form and new forms incorporating improved readability and processability; (2) the association between reading ability, anxiety, and sociodemographic variables and recall and comprehension; and (3) how various domains (treatment, risk, and responsibility) of information are affected by the forms. Three treatment groups (30 patient-parent pairs in each) received an orthodontic case presentation and either the AAO form, an improved readability form (MIC), or an improved readability and processability (pairing audio and visual cues) form (MIC + SS). Structured interviews were transcribed and coded to evaluate recall and comprehension. Significant relationships among patient-related variables and recall and comprehension explained little of the variance. The MIC + SS form significantly improved patient recall and parent recall and comprehension. Recall was better than comprehension, and parents performed better than patients. The MIC + SS form significantly improved patient treatment comprehension and risk recall and parent treatment recall and comprehension. Patients and parents both overestimated their understanding of the materials. Improving the readability of consent materials made little difference, but combining improved readability and processability benefited both patients' recall and parents' recall and comprehension compared with the AAO form.

  16. Free Recall Shows Similar Reactivation Behavior as Recognition & Cued Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    I find that the total retrieval time in word free recall increases linearly with the total number of items recalled. Measured slopes, the time to retrieve an additional item, vary from 1.4-4.5 seconds per item depending upon presentation rate, subject age and whether there is a delay after list presentation or not. These times to retrieve an additional item obey a second linear relationship as a function of the recall probability averaged over the experiment, explicitly independent of subject...

  17. Feasibility of brief intensive exposure therapy for PTSD patients with childhood sexual abuse: a brief clinical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Hendriks

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the strong empirical support for the effectiveness of exposure-based treatments in ameliorating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, improvement of treatment is wanted given relatively high dropout rates and challenges of treating patients with high comorbidity and treatment-interfering stressors. The purpose of the current paper is to introduce an intensive exposure treatment program, illustrated by four case descriptions of PTSD patients, who suffered multiple (sexual traumas in childhood, had high levels of comorbidity and psychosocial stressors, and failed to improve during “regular” trauma-focused treatment programs. The program consisted of psychoeducation, prolonged imaginal exposure, exposure in vivo, exposure by drawings combined with narrative reconstructing, and writing assignments about central trauma-related cognitions. The treatment included 5 working days with individual sessions (in total 30 h of treatment provided by a team of four therapists. The PTSD symptoms of all patients decreased substantially and the effect sizes were large (Cohen's d resp. 1.5 [pre–post], 2.4 [pre-FU1 month], and 2.3 [pre-FU3 months]. Also, none of the patients showed symptom worsening or dropped out. The evaluation of these four pilot cases suggests that it is possible to intensify exposure treatment, even for multiple traumatized PTSD patients with high comorbidity. We concluded that the first results of this new, intensive exposure program for PTSD patients with childhood sexual abuse are promising.

  18. Modeling recall memory for emotional objects in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrøm, Martin

    2011-07-01

    To examine whether emotional memory (EM) of objects with self-reference in Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be modeled with binomial logistic regression in a free recall and an object recognition test to predict EM enhancement. Twenty patients with AD and twenty healthy controls were studied. Six objects (three presented as gifts) were shown to each participant. Ten minutes later, a free recall and a recognition test were applied. The recognition test had target-objects mixed with six similar distracter objects. Participants were asked to name any object in the recall test and identify each object in the recognition test as known or unknown. The total of gift objects recalled in AD patients (41.6%) was larger than neutral objects (13.3%) and a significant EM recall effect for gifts was found (Wilcoxon: p recall and recognition but showed no EM enhancement due to a ceiling effect. A logistic regression showed that likelihood of emotional recall memory can be modeled as a function of MMSE score (p Recall memory was enhanced in AD patients for emotional objects indicating that EM in mild to moderate AD although impaired can be provoked with strong emotional load. The logistic regression model suggests that EM declines with the progression of AD rather than disrupts and may be a useful tool for evaluating magnitude of emotional load.

  19. Compound cueing in free recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cueing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the two most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cueing in both conditional response probabilities and inter-response times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cueing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cueing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors. PMID:23957364

  20. Compound cuing in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J; Kahana, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the 2 most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cuing in both conditional response probabilities and interresponse times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cuing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed, and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cuing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors.

  1. Writing superiority in cued recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eFueller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In list learning paradigms with free recall, written recall has been found to be less susceptible to intrusions of related concepts than spoken recall when the list items had been visually presented. This effect has been ascribed to the use of stored orthographic representations from the study phase during written recall (Kellogg, 2001. In other memory retrieval paradigms, either better recall for modality-congruent items or an input-independent writing superiority effect have been found (Grabowski, 2005. In a series of four experiments using a paired associate (PA learning paradigm we tested (a whether output modality effects on verbal recall can be replicated in a paradigm that does not involve the rejection of semantically related intrusion words, (b whether a possible superiority for written recall was due to a slower response onset for writing as compared to speaking in immediate recall, and (c whether the performance in PA word recall was correlated with performance in an additional episodic memory task. We found better written recall in the first half of the recall phase, irrespective of the modality in which the material was presented upon encoding. An explanation based on longer response latencies for writing and hence more time for retrieval could be ruled out by showing that the effect persisted in delayed response versions of the task. Although there was some evidence that stored additional episodic information may contribute to the successful retrieval of associate words, this evidence was only found in the immediate response experiments and hence is most likely independent from the observed output modality effect. In sum, our results from a PA learning paradigm suggest that superior performance for written versus spoken recall cannot be (solely explained in terms of additional access to stored orthographic representations from the encoding phase. Our findings rather suggest a general writing-superiority effect at the time of memory

  2. Recall in extensive form games

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Ritzberger

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers characterizations of perfect recall in extensive form games. It is shown that perfect recall can be expressed in terms of choices without any reference to infomation sets. When information sets are taken into account, it is decomposable into an ordering of information sets and that players do not forget what they knew nor what they did. Thus, if information sets are partially ordered, then perfect recall is implied by the player's inability to refine her information from ...

  3. Bystanders' Reactions to Witnessing Repetitive Abuse Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Gregory R.; Carney, JoLynn V.; Hazler, Richard J.; Oh, Insoo

    2009-01-01

    The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (D. S. Weiss & C. R. Marmar, 1997) was used to obtain self-reported trauma levels from 587 young adults recalling childhood or adolescence experiences as witnesses to common forms of repetitive abuse defined as bullying. Mean participant scores were in a range suggesting potential need for clinical assessment…

  4. Frontoparietal cognitive control of verbal memory recall in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanjal, Novraj S; Wise, Richard J S

    2014-08-01

    Episodic memory retrieval is reliant upon cognitive control systems, of which 2 have been identified with functional neuroimaging: a cingulo-opercular salience network (SN) and a frontoparietal executive network (EN). In Alzheimer's disease (AD), pathology is distributed throughout higher-order cortices. The hypotheses were that this frontoparietal pathology would impair activity associated with verbal memory recall; and that central cholinesterase inhibition (ChI) would modulate this, improving memory recall. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to study normal participants and 2 patient groups: mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. Activity within the EN and SN was observed during free recall of previously heard sentences, and related to measures of recall accuracy. In normal subjects, trials with reduced recall were associated with greater activity in both the SN and EN. Better recall was associated with greater activity in medial regions of the default mode network. By comparison, AD patients showed attenuated responses in both the SN and EN compared with either controls or MCI patients, even after recall performance was matched between groups. Following ChI, AD patients showed no modulation of activity within the SN, but increased activity within the EN. There was also enhanced activity within regions associated with episodic and semantic memory during less successful recall, requiring greater cognitive control. The results indicate that in AD, impaired responses of cognitive control networks during verbal memory recall are partly responsible for reduced recall performance. One action of symptom-modifying treatment is partially to reverse the abnormal function of frontoparietal cognitive control and temporal lobe memory networks. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  5. Other Drugs of Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Abuse » Other Drugs of Abuse Other Drugs of Abuse Listen There are many other drugs of abuse, ... and Rehab Resources About the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) | About This Website Tools and Resources | Contact ...

  6. SEXUAL ABUSE IN ADOLESCENTS - DATA FROM A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abused patients scored higher on depression rating scales than non sexually ... between sexual abuse and depresSIon, suicidal symptoms and alcohol nse is .... psychiatric symptoms, including negative cognitions, suicidal. Not present.

  7. Blurring of emotional and non-emotional memories by taxing working memory during recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Eidhof, Marloes B; Verboom, Jesse; Littel, Marianne; Engelhard, Iris M

    2014-01-01

    Memories that are recalled while working memory (WM) is taxed, e.g., by making eye movements (EM), become blurred during the recall + EM and later recall, without EM. This may help to explain the effects of Eye Movement and Desensitisation and Reprocessing (EMDR) in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in which patients make EM during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies on recall + EM have focused on emotional memories. WM theory suggests that recall + EM is superior to recall only but is silent about effects of memory emotionality. Based on the emotion and memory literature, we examined whether recall + EM has superior effects in blurring emotional memories relative to neutral memories. Healthy volunteers recalled negative or neutral memories, matched for vividness, while visually tracking a dot that moved horizontally ("recall + EM") or remained stationary ("recall only"). Compared to a pre-test, a post-test (without concentrating on the dot) replicated earlier findings: negative memories are rated as less vivid after "recall + EM" but not after "recall only". This was not found for neutral memories. Emotional memories are more taxing than neutral memories, which may explain the findings. Alternatively, transient arousal induced by recall of aversive memories may promote reconsolidation of the blurred memory image that is provoked by EM.

  8. On EMDR: eye movements during retrieval reduce subjective vividness and objective memory accessibility during future recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Hout, Marcel A; Bartelski, Nicola; Engelhard, Iris M

    2013-01-01

    In eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), patients make eye movements (EM) during trauma recall. Earlier experimental studies found that EM during recall reduces memory vividness during future recalls, and this was taken as laboratory support for the underlying mechanism of EMDR. However, reduced vividness was assessed with self-reports that may be affected by demand characteristics. We tested whether recall+EM also reduces memory vividness on a behavioural reaction time (RT) task. Undergraduates (N=32) encoded two pictures, recalled them, and rated their vividness. In the EM group, one of the pictures was recalled again while making EM. In the no-EM group one of the pictures was recalled without EM. Then fragments from both the recalled and non-recalled pictures, and new fragments were presented and participants rated whether these were (or were not) seen before. Both pictures were rated again for vividness. In the EM group, self-rated vividness of the recalled+EM picture decreased, relative to the non-recalled picture. In the no-EM group there was no difference between the recalled versus non-recalled picture. The RT task showed the same pattern. Reduction of memory vividness due to recall+EM is also evident from non-self-report data.

  9. Geriatric forensics - Part 2 "Prevalence of elder abuse and their potential forensic markers among medical and dental patients".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoo, Khurshid A; Garg, Rishabh; Kumar, Shalabh

    2015-01-01

    This study is a continuation of the earlier studies and has been extended to investigate the potential forensic markers of elder abuse. To determine the prevalence of elder abuse in various outpatient departments (OPDs). To study the associated parameters related to the abuser and the abused. To determine the existence of potential forensic markers of elder abuse. The subjects were randomly selected from the medical and the dental OPDs of the university. Eight hundred and thirty two elderly subjects in the age range 40-60 years were interviewed using a questionnaire to determine the existence of elder abuse. The subjects were investigated and examined for weight, nutrition and hydration, vital signs, habits, existing visual and auditory capabilities, medications, disclosure of wills/deeds, signs of depression, and documented cleanliness. The mini-mental state examination, the Geriatric Depression Scale, the Clock drawing test, and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale were used to determine the potential forensic markers. Mean values in percentage were determined by dividing the number of determined subjects by the total number of subjects for that parameter. About 37% in medical and 41% in dental OPDs were found to have suffered from abuse, mostly in the age group 60-70 years. Females received more abuse and a combination of son and daughter-in-law constituted most abusers. Various potential markers of elder abuse and neglect investigated among the elder abuse victims included depression (89%), signs of improper feeding (83%), changes in personal hygiene (69%), need for medical/dental treatment (78%), medication misuse (67%), changes in wills/deeds (26%), decubiti (10%), bruises (17%), skin tears (27%), and confusion (23%). Elder abuse exists in one or more forms in both medical and dental OPDs among both males and females in all age groups.

  10. Recalling taboo and nontaboo words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista

    2008-01-01

    People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research.

  11. [Analysis of intrusion errors in free recall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2017-06-01

    Extra-list intrusion errors during five trials of the eight-word list-learning task of the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test (ADST) were investigated in 823 consecutive psychogeriatric patients (87.1% suffering from major neurocognitive disorder). Almost half of the participants (45.9%) produced one or more intrusion errors on the verbal recall test. Correct responses were lower when subjects made intrusion errors, but learning slopes did not differ between subjects who committed intrusion errors and those who did not so. Bivariate regression analyses revealed that participants who committed intrusion errors were more deficient on measures of eight-word recognition memory, delayed visual recognition and tests of executive control (the Behavioral Dyscontrol Scale and the ADST-Graphical Sequences as measures of response inhibition). Using hierarchical multiple regression, only free recall and delayed visual recognition retained an independent effect in the association with intrusion errors, such that deficient scores on tests of episodic memory were sufficient to explain the occurrence of intrusion errors. Measures of inhibitory control did not add significantly to the explanation of intrusion errors in free recall, which makes insufficient strength of memory traces rather than a primary deficit in inhibition the preferred account for intrusion errors in free recall.

  12. Conversational Memory Employing Cued and Free Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Pamela J.; Benoit, William L.

    1988-01-01

    Tests two hypotheses: (1) that cued recall elicits significantly more conversational information than free recall; and (2) that conversational interactants recall more of their partner's utterances than their own. Finds cued recall produced significantly higher amounts of remembering than free recall. (MS)

  13. Drugs of abuse--opiates.

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, W; Wesson, D R

    1990-01-01

    Treating opiate-dependent patients can be difficult for many physicians because the patients' life-styles, values, and beliefs differ from those of the physicians. Primary care physicians, however, are often involved in the treatment of the medical complications of opiate abuse, and physicians must often manage a patient's opiate dependence until appropriate referral to a drug abuse treatment program can be arranged. Treatment is guided by an understanding of the patient's addictive disease, ...

  14. Blending technology and teamwork for successful management of product recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frush, Karen; Pleasants, Jane; Shulby, Gail; Hendrix, Barbara; Berson, Brooke; Gordon, Cynthia; Cuffe, Michael S

    2009-12-01

    Patient safety programs have been developed in many hospitals to reduce the risk of harm to patients. Proactive, real-time, and retrospective risk-reduction strategies should be implemented in hospitals, but patient safety leaders should also be cognizant of the risks associated with thousands of products that enter the hospital through the supply chain. A growing number of recalls and alerts related to these products are received by health care facilities each year, through a recall process that is fraught with challenges. Despite the best efforts of health care providers, weaknesses and gaps in the process lead to delays, fragmentation, and disruptions, thus extending the number of days patients may be at risk from potentially faulty or misused products. To address these concerns, Duke Medicine, which comprises an academic medical center, two community hospitals, outlying clinics, physicians' offices, and home health and hospice, implemented a Web-based recall management system. Within three months, the time required to receive, deliver, and close alerts decreased from 43 days to 2.74 days. To maximize the effectiveness of the recall management process, a team of senior Duke Medicine leaders was established to evaluate the impact of product recalls and alerts on patient safety, to evaluate response action plans, and to provide oversight of patient and provider communication strategies. Alerts are now communicated more effectively and responded to in a more consistent and global manner. This comprehensive approach to product recalls is a critical component of a broader Duke Medicine strategy to improve patient safety.

  15. Recreational Nitrous Oxide Abuse-Induced Vitamin B12 Deficiency in a Patient Presenting with Hyperpigmentation of the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Ta Chiang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency causes skin hyperpigmentation, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, and megaloblastic anemia. Although vitamin B12 deficiency rarely occurs in well-nourished, healthy, young people, nitrous oxide (N2O intoxication is an important cause of vitamin B12 deficiency in this cohort. N2O, a colorless gas used as an anesthetic since the late 19th century because of its euphoric and analgesic qualities, is now used as a recreational drug and is available via the Internet and at clubs. Here, we describe the case of a 29-year-old woman presenting with skin hyperpigmentation as her only initial symptom after N2O abuse for approximately 2 years. N2O intoxication-induced vitamin B12 deficiency was diagnosed based on the skin pigmentation that had manifested over the dorsa of her fingers, toes, and trunk, coupled with myeloneuropathy of the posterior and lateral columns, a low serum vitamin B12 level, an elevated serum homocysteine level, and the N2O exposure revealed while establishing the patient's history. Symptoms improved significantly with vitamin B12 treatment. We recommend that dermatologists consider N2O intoxication-induced vitamin B12 deficiency as a potential cause of skin hyperpigmentation and myeloneuropathy of the posterior and lateral columns in young, otherwise healthy patients. Failure to recognize this presentation may result in inappropriate treatment, thus affecting patients' clinical outcomes.

  16. The impacts of substance abuse and dependence on neuropsychological functions in a sample of patients from Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed Yasser A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A lot of studies were directed to explore the relation between drug abuse and neuropsychological functions. Some studies reported that even after a long duration of disappearance of withdrawal or intoxication symptoms, many patients have obvious deterioration of cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between the substance use disorders and the executive functions. Methods Two groups were selected for this study. An experimental group consisted of 154 patients and further subdivided according to the substance used into three different subgroups: opioid, amphetamine and alcohol groups which included 49, 56 and 49 patients respectively. The control group was selected matching the experimental group in the demographic characteristics and included 100 healthy persons. Tools used were: Benton visual retention tests, color trail making test, Stroop colors-word test, symbol digit modalities test, the five dots cognitive flexibility test, and TAM verbal flexibility test. All the data were subjected to statistical analysis Results The study showed that the group of drug-dependent subjects performed significantly worse than the comparison group on all measures Also, there were significant differences among the subgroups as the alcoholic group was much worse followed by the amphetamine then the opioids groups. Patients with longer duration of dependence and multiple hospital readmissions were much worse in comparison to patients with shorter duration of dependence and less readmission. Conclusion The study confirmed that the functions of specific brain regions underlying cognitive control are significantly impaired in patients of drug addiction. This impairment was significantly related to type of substance, duration of use and number of hospitalization and may contribute to most of behavioral disturbances found in addicts and need much attention during tailoring of treatment programs.

  17. Benzodiazepine abuse among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzodiazepines belong to the hypnotic-sedative class of drugs which have anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic properties. These drugs have been in clinical use for at least half a century. The propensity for development of dependence, especially on prescription benzodiazepines, coupled with the risk of falls and cognitive impairment due to benzodiazepines makes the elderly population susceptible to adverse outcomes with the use of benzodiazepines, and hence, cautious use is desired in this population. This review discusses the various aspects pertaining to benzodiazepine abuse in the elderly including pharmacology, prevalence of abuse, adverse consequences of benzodiazepine abuse, and subsequently assessment and management of elderly patients with benzodiazepine abuse.

  18. Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed. Copyright © 2010 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spouse Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The term spouse abuse is commonly used to refer to Aggressive, violent and/or controlling behaviours that take place between two people involved in an intimate Relationship. Spouse abuse is a high frequency crime resulting in victims from all social classes, ethnicities, genders and educational backgrounds. Preventative methods at societal and community levels are required in addition to more traditional intervention approaches in order to adequately address this problem. This entry will prov...

  20. [Dutch Health Care Inspectorate (IGZ) abuses its inspection authority in patient files].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lessen Kloeke, Koosje

    2014-01-01

    For its investigation regarding the transfer of data after discharge of vulnerable elderly patients from hospital to nursing homes, care homes or home care, the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate (IGZ) demands access to patients' files, without their explicit consent. Doctors who do not cooperate run the risk of penalty payments. Since it concerns a limited number of patients per practice, it would not be unreasonably onerous for the Inspectorate to allow doctors to ask their patients' consent. Other reasons mentioned by the Inspectorate, such as possible "inappropriate correction" of data and the capability of vulnerable elderly patients to give their consent seem improper grounds to breach patients' right to privacy and to demand that doctors breach professional confidentiality. The legality of the Inspectorate's actions could be addressed in a test case and should be discussed more widely in light of the Inspectorate's work plan for 2014.

  1. Assessing Quality of Care and Elder Abuse in Nursing Homes via Google Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowery, Jared; Andrei, Amanda; Le, Elizabeth; Jian, Jing; Ward, Megan

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to assess the quality of care and detect elder abuse in nursing homes, since patients may be incapable of reporting quality issues or abuse themselves, and resources for sending inspectors are limited. This study correlates Google reviews of nursing homes with Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) inspection results in the Nursing Home Compare (NHC) data set, to quantify the extent to which the reviews reflect the quality of care and the presence of elder abuse. A total of 16,160 reviews were collected, spanning 7,170 nursing homes. Two approaches were tested: using the average rating as an overall estimate of the quality of care at a nursing home, and using the average scores from a maximum entropy classifier trained to recognize indications of elder abuse. The classifier achieved an F-measure of 0.81, with precision 0.74 and recall 0.89. The correlation for the classifier is weak but statistically significant: = 0.13, P nursing homes can be used to detect indications of elder abuse with high precision and to assess the quality of care, but only when a sufficient number of reviews are available.

  2. Large individual differences in free recall

    OpenAIRE

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    Using single factor ANOVA I show that there are large individual differences in free recall ({\\eta} ranges from 0.09-0.26) including the total recall, the balance between recency and primacy, and the initial recall (subsequent recalls show smaller individual differences). All three memory properties are relatively uncorrelated. The variance in the initial position may be a measure of executive control and is correlated with total recall (the smaller the variation, the larger the recall).

  3. Increased intestinal permeability to macromolecules and endotoxemia in patients with chronic alcohol abuse in different stages of alcohol-induced liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Schäfer, C.; Schütz, Tanja

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: No information is yet available about the influence of alcohol abuse on the translocation of larger molecules (Mr>1200) through the intestinal mucosa in man. The present study aimed to determine the intestinal permeability to macromolecules in patients with chronic alcohol abuse...... and mild to more advanced stages of liver disease, and to measure the concentration of endotoxins in the plasma, as these compounds derive from the intestinal flora and are suspected to contribute to the development of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). METHODS: The permeability to polyethylene glycol Mr 400......, Mr 1500, Mr 4000, and Mr 10,000 and endotoxin plasma concentrations were measured in 54 patients with alcoholic liver disease, 19 of them with cirrhosis, and in 30 non-alcoholic healthy controls. RESULTS: Permeability to polyethylene glycol Mr 400 was found to be unchanged in patients with ALD...

  4. Clinical Characteristics Related to Severity of Sexual Abuse: A Study of Seriously Mentally Ill Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Jon; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Variables associated with sexual abuse were examined among youth, ages 5 through 18, with severe mental illness. Review of 499 patient records revealed abuse as an isolated event in 62 cases, intermittent abuse in 61 cases, and chronic abuse in 150. Sexual abuse was associated with inappropriate sexual behaviors, substance abuse, and posttraumatic…

  5. Internet addiction disorder and problematic use of Google Glass™ in patient treated at a residential substance abuse treatment program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Kathryn; Eickhoff, Erin; Davis, Diane L; Klam, Warren P; Doan, Andrew P

    2015-02-01

    Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is characterized by the problematic use of online video games, computer use, and mobile handheld devices. While not officially a clinical diagnosis according to the most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), individuals with IAD manifest severe emotional, social, and mental dysfunction in multiple areas of daily activities due to their problematic use of technology and the internet. We report a 31year-old man who exhibited problematic use of Google Glass™. The patient has a history of a mood disorder most consistent with a substance induced hypomania overlaying a depressive disorder, anxiety disorder with characteristics of social phobia and obsessive compulsive disorder, and severe alcohol and tobacco use disorders. During his residential treatment program at the Navy's Substance Abuse and Recovery Program (SARP) for alcohol use disorder, it was noted that the patient exhibited significant frustration and irritability related to not being able to use his Google Glass™. The patient exhibited a notable, nearly involuntary movement of the right hand up to his temple area and tapping it with his forefinger. He reported that if he had been prevented from wearing the device while at work, he would become extremely irritable and argumentative. Over the course of his 35-day residential treatment, the patient noted a reduction in irritability, reduction in motor movements to his temple to turn on the device, and improvements in his short-term memory and clarity of thought processes. He continued to intermittently experience dreams as if looking through the device. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of IAD involving problematic use of Google Glass™. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Determination of morphine, codeine and 6-monoacetylmorphine in saliva of substance-abuse patients using HPLC/MS methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Saliva represents an alternative specimen for substances abuse determination in toxicology. Hence, the aim of this study was to optimize a method for saliva specimen preparation for heroin metabolites, morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine (6-mam, and codeine determination by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC/MS, and to apply this method on saliva samples taken from the patients. Methods. Saliva specimen was prepared using liqiud/liquid extraction of morphine, codeine and 6- mam by mixture of chloroform and isopropanol (9 : 1; v/v. Extracts were analysed by HPLC/MS technique: separation column Waters Spherisorb® 5 μm, ODS2, 4.6 × 100 mm; mobile phase: ammonium acetate : acetonitile (80 : 20; v/v, mobile phase flow rate 0.3 mL/min; mass detection range: 100-400 m/z. Regression and correlation analyses were performed with the probalility level of 0.05. Concentrations of morphine, codeine and 6-mam were determined in saliva samples of the patients with “opiates” in urine identified by the test strips. Results. Calibration for each analysed substance was done in the concentration range from 0.1 to 1 mg/L and the coefficient of correlation was R2 > 0.99. We obtained following calibration curves: y = 385531x + 14584; y = 398036x + 31542; and y = 524162x - 27105, for morphine, codeine and 6-mam, respectively. Recovery for morphine and codeine determination was 99%, while for 6- mam it was 94%. Limits of detection and quantification of a proposed method were 0.01 mg/L and 0.05 mg/L, respectively. Concentration of morphine in the saliva of the heroin users ranged between 0.54 and 5.82 mg/L, concentration of codeine between 0.05 and 5.33, and 6-mam between 0.01 and 0.68 mg/L. A statistically significant correlation between codeine and 6-mam concentrations was obtained. Conclusion. A proposed HPLC/MS method for morphine, codeine and 6-mam determination in saliva is accurate, simple, cheap and suitable for routine analysis and

  7. Protocols for the Assessment of Elder Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Terry; Wetle, Terrie

    The fact that many states have passed elder abuse reporting laws has left care providers with a dilemma. If suspected abuse is reported, the relationship between caregiver and patient may change and the family's difficulties may increase. Indicators of abuse are not easy to differentiate from health problems, especially in the frail elderly. An…

  8. Accumulating experience in a child abuse clinic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Behaviour problems were recorded in 73% of cases. Many different ... management is now a priority in our setting. S Afr Med J 1996; 86: ... abused children, registered nurses, social workers and ... physical abuse, emotional abuse, and "-'1§ct. ~N<: .... aggression (10% of patients), 'clinginess' (12%) and temper tantrums ...

  9. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  10. Emotional discussions reduce memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleti, Emanuela; Wright, Daniel B; Curci, Antonietta

    2017-05-01

    People often discuss events they have seen and these discussions can influence later recollections. We investigated the effects of factual, emotional, and free retelling discussion on memory recollections of individuals who have witnessed an event. Participants were shown a video, made an initial individual recall, participated in one of the three retelling conditions (emotional versus factual versus free) or a control condition, and then recalled the event individually again. Participants in the factual and free retelling conditions reported more items not previously recalled than participants in the control condition did, while the emotional condition did not show the same advantage. Participants in all three retelling conditions failed to report more previously recalled items as compared with the control condition. Finally, a memory conformity effect was observed for all three retelling conditions. These findings suggest that eyewitnesses' discussions may influence the accuracy of subsequent memory reports, especially when these discussions are focused on emotional details and thoughts.

  11. MANAGEMENT OF UNSAFE FOOD RECALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Górna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the essence of eff ective management to recall unsafe food. The implementation of the development is refl ected in its individual parts. Legal requirements oblige companies to take immediate action when an available product poses a threat to the consumer’s health or life. These actions imply blocking of a suspicious batch or a possible product recall, as well as eff ective communication with supervisory authorities and consumers, if a product has already been available to them. The scope of these regulations is scrupulously listed in private safety standards and food quality, such as BRC, IFS, or in an international norm ISO 22000. The article emphasized the importance of the traceability system to ensure eff ective recall, also analysed the results of the research into the causes and evaluated the eff ectiveness of the food recall.

  12. FDA Abbott Infant Formula Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — On September 22, 2010, Abbott issued a voluntary recall of certain Similac powdered infant formula after identifying a common warehouse beetle (both larvae and...

  13. Intrusions in story recall: when over-learned information interferes with episodic memory recall. Evidence from Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Anna, Francesca; Attali, Eve; Freynet, Laurence; Foubert, Lucie; Laurent, Aurore; Dubois, Bruno; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco

    2008-03-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) suffer from distortions of memory. Among such distortions, intrusions in memory tests are frequently observed. In this study we describe the performance of a group of mild AD patients and a group of normal controls on the recall of three different types of stories: a previously unknown story, a well-known fairy-tale (Cinderella), and a modified well-known fairy-tale (Little Red Riding Hood is not eaten by the wolf). The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that in patients who tend to produce intrusions, over-learned information interferes with episodic recall, i.e., the retrieval of specific, unique past episodes. AD patients produced significantly more intrusions in the recall of the modified fairy-tale compared to the recall of the two other stories. Intrusions in the recall of the modified fairy-tale always consisted of elements of the original version of the story. We suggest that in AD patients intrusions may be traced back to the interference of strongly represented, over-learned information in episodic memory recall.

  14. Predicting a dissociative disorder from type of childhood maltreatment and abuser-abused relational tie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Christa; Fletcher, Lizelle

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the types of childhood maltreatment and abuser-abused relational ties that best predict a dissociative disorder (DD). Psychiatric inpatients (n = 116; mean age = 35; F:M = 1.28:1) completed measures of dissociation and trauma. Abuse type and abuser-abused relational ties were recorded in the Traumatic Experiences Questionnaire. Multidisciplinary team clinical diagnosis or administration of the SCID-D-R to high dissociators confirmed DD diagnoses. Logit models described the relationships between abuser-abused relational tie and the diagnostic grouping of patients, DD present (n = 16) or DD absent (n = 100). Fisher's exact tests measured the relative contribution of specific abuse types. There was a positive relationship between abuse frequency and the presence of DD. DD patients experienced more abuse than patients without DDs. Two combinations of abuse type and relational tie predicted a DD: childhood emotional neglect by biological parents/siblings and later emotional abuse by intimate partners. These findings support the early childhood etiology of DDs and subsequent maladaptive cycles of adult abuse. Enquiries about childhood maltreatment should include a history of emotional neglect by biological parents/siblings. Adult emotional abuse by intimate partners should assist in screening for DDs.

  15. Drug abuse in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana dos Reis Nunes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a pregnant woman admitted to cocaine overdose and discuss maternal and fetal complications of cocaine abuse in pregnancy. Considering the increased frequency of users in the female population, the obstetric team should be able to make the patient's care and your baby.

  16. Management systems, patient quality improvement, resource availability, and substance abuse treatment quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Dail; Roman, Paul M; Blum, Terry C

    2012-06-01

    To examine the relationships among general management systems, patient-focused quality management/continuous process improvement (TQM/CPI) processes, resource availability, and multiple dimensions of substance use disorder (SUD) treatment. Data are from a nationally representative sample of 221 SUD treatment centers through the National Treatment Center Study (NTCS). The design was a cross-sectional field study using latent variable structural equation models. The key variables are management practices, TQM/continuous quality improvement (CQI) practices, resource availability, and treatment center performance. Interviews and questionnaires provided data from treatment center administrative directors and clinical directors in 2007-2008. Patient-focused TQM/CQI practices fully mediated the relationship between internal management practices and performance. The effects of TQM/CQI on performance are significantly larger for treatment centers with higher levels of staff per patient. Internal management practices may create a setting that supports implementation of specific patient-focused practices and protocols inherent to TQM/CQI processes. However, the positive effects of internal management practices on treatment center performance occur through use of specific patient-focused TQM/CPI practices and have more impact when greater amounts of supporting resources are present. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  17. The evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow in the chronic alcohol abuse patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Y. A.; Kim, D. J.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    The use of alcohol is increasingly prevalent in our country and remains associated with innumerable social and economic problems. In addition, brain abnormalities have been proved by means of neuroimaging techniques not only in the first days of withdrawal, but also months after the last use of the substance in the patients. The purpose of the present study was to investigate patterns of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in alcoholic dementia. Six patients (all men; 44-67 years, mean age = 57.5 years) who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for alcoholic dementia were enrolled in the study. RCBF measurements of resting state using Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate dimmer (ECD) SPECT were performed. The SPECT image was obtained 40 minutes after intravenous injection of 1110 MBq of Tc-99m ECD using a dual-head gamma camera (ECAM plus; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The normalized SPECT data from the alcoholic dementia group were compared with those from 12 healthy subjects. Alcoholic dementia patients showed significant decrement of rCBF in the left thalamus, superior frontal gyrus of left frontal lobe, left insula, postcentral gyrus of left parietal lobe, parahippocapal gyrus of left limbic lobe, right caudate, and cingulate gyrus of right limbic lobe than age-matched healthy subjects. Despite the small number of patients examined, the study supports the belief that patients with alcohol induced cognitive dysfunction have the neuro pathophysiology as those with classical alcoholic dementia

  18. The evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow in the chronic alcohol abuse patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y. A.; Kim, D. J.; Oh, J. H.; Kim, C. H.; Kim, S. H.; Sohn, H. S.; Chung, S. K. [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The use of alcohol is increasingly prevalent in our country and remains associated with innumerable social and economic problems. In addition, brain abnormalities have been proved by means of neuroimaging techniques not only in the first days of withdrawal, but also months after the last use of the substance in the patients. The purpose of the present study was to investigate patterns of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in alcoholic dementia. Six patients (all men; 44-67 years, mean age = 57.5 years) who fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for alcoholic dementia were enrolled in the study. RCBF measurements of resting state using Tc-99m ethyl cysteinate dimmer (ECD) SPECT were performed. The SPECT image was obtained 40 minutes after intravenous injection of 1110 MBq of Tc-99m ECD using a dual-head gamma camera (ECAM plus; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). The normalized SPECT data from the alcoholic dementia group were compared with those from 12 healthy subjects. Alcoholic dementia patients showed significant decrement of rCBF in the left thalamus, superior frontal gyrus of left frontal lobe, left insula, postcentral gyrus of left parietal lobe, parahippocapal gyrus of left limbic lobe, right caudate, and cingulate gyrus of right limbic lobe than age-matched healthy subjects. Despite the small number of patients examined, the study supports the belief that patients with alcohol induced cognitive dysfunction have the neuro pathophysiology as those with classical alcoholic dementia.

  19. Leaving an Abusive Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elder abuse Emotional and verbal abuse Financial abuse Harassment Human trafficking Physical abuse Sexual coercion Stalking Violence ... A teacher, counselor, or principal at your child’s school. An adult at your child’s school can help ...

  20. Drugs of abuse and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mursaleen, Leah R; Stamford, Jonathan A

    2016-01-04

    The term "drug of abuse" is highly contextual. What constitutes a drug of abuse for one population of patients does not for another. It is therefore important to examine the needs of the patient population to properly assess the status of drugs of abuse. The focus of this article is on the bidirectional relationship between patients and drug abuse. In this paper we will introduce the dopaminergic systems of the brain in Parkinson's and the influence of antiparkinsonian drugs upon them before discussing this synergy of condition and medication as fertile ground for drug abuse. We will then examine the relationship between drugs of abuse and Parkinson's, both beneficial and deleterious. In summary we will draw the different strands together and speculate on the future merit of current drugs of abuse as treatments for Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Recommendation for the Management of Illness Anxiety Disorder Patients Abusing the Health Care System

    OpenAIRE

    Almalki, Mohammad; Al-Tawayjri, Ibrahim; Al-Anazi, Ahmed; Mahmoud, Sami; Al-Mohrej, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) entails a preoccupation with having a serious, undiagnosed illness in which somatic symptoms are, if present, mild in intensity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Case Report. This is a case of seventy-three-year-old Saudi man who started visiting the primary health care center around twenty-five years ago. With concerns of having cancer, the patient continuously visited the hospital, costing over $170,000. Throughout this period, the patien...

  2. Understanding recall rates in screening mammography: A conceptual framework review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Norsuddin, N.; Reed, W.; Mello-Thoms, C.; Lewis, S.J.

    2015-01-01

    Recall rates are one of the performance measures used to evaluate the effectiveness of mammography screening programs. There is conflicting evidence regarding the link between recall rates and cancer detection rates and a variety of differing recall rates exist between countries and readers. This variability in recall rates may have important clinical and economic implications such as unnecessary follow-up procedures, additional costs to the health care system and psychological effects for the women themselves associated with false-positive mammograms results. In order to reduce the impact of false positive recall rates in screening mammography, it is essential for all multidisciplinary health care providers, especially those in medical imaging, to fully understand the factors that may contribute and affect recall rates. The multifactorial nature of recall rates is explored in this paper through the construction of a conceptual map based on a review of the current literature. - Highlights: • Recall rates vary across countries and readers and for initial and subsequent screens. • Falsely recalling women has important clinical, cost and psycho-social implications. • Imaging technology, readers' expertise and patient presentation affect recall rates. • Higher recall rates do not translate into improved sensitivity at higher thresholds. • Multidisciplinary approaches to reduce recall rates may improve women experiences.

  3. The differential diagnosis of ritual abuse allegations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, W; Chang, D K

    1997-01-01

    Because psychiatrists do not have a consistent way to classify and define the forms of child abuse that may be mistaken for ritual abuse, the objective of this paper is to create a comprehensive differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse. The authors reviewed 60 articles, chapters, and books that contained allegations of ritual abuse or behaviors that might be mistaken for ritual abuse, that were made by patients or caretakers. This paper clarifies the behaviors that represent or may be mistaken for ritual abuse: Cult-based ritual abuse, pseudoritualistic abuse, activities by organized satanic groups, repetitive psychopathological abuse, sexual abuse by pedophiles, child pornography portraying ritual abuse, distorted memory, false memory, false report due to a severe mental disorder, pseudologia phantastica, adolescent behavior simulating ritual abuse, epidemic hysteria, deliberate lying, and hoaxes. The differential diagnosis of allegations of ritual abuse is important in both clinical and forensic psychiatry. In some cases, it will not be possible to tell whether a particular allegation is factual or what the underlying mental processes are. It is important to separate the role of the mental health professional as therapist from the role as an expert witness in court.

  4. Corporal Punishment of Adolescents by Parents: A Risk Factor in the Epidemiology of Depression, Suicide, Alcohol Abuse, Child Abuse, and Wife Beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Murray A.; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman

    1994-01-01

    Studied large national sample of U.S. adults, finding that almost one-half recalled having been corporally punished during adolescence. Data analysis revealed that children who experienced corporal punishment in adolescence had increased risk later in life of depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts, alcohol abuse, physical abuse of children, and…

  5. True and false recall and dissociation among maltreated children: the role of self-schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Toth, Sheree L

    2008-01-01

    The current investigation addresses the manner through which trauma affects basic memory and self-system processes. True and false recall for self-referent stimuli were assessed in conjunction with dissociative symptomatology among abused (N=76), neglected (N=92), and nonmaltreated (N=116) school-aged children. Abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated children did not differ in the level of processing self-schema effect or in the occurrence and frequency of false recall. Rather, differences in the affective valence of false recall emerged as a function of maltreatment subtype and age. Regarding dissociation, the abused children displayed higher levels of dissociative symptomatology than did the nonmaltreated children. Although abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated children did not exhibit differences in the valence of their self-schemas, positive and negative self-schemas were related to self-integration differently among the subgroups of maltreatment. Negative self-schemas were associated with increased dissociation among the abused children, whereas positive self-schemas were related to increased dissociation for the neglected children. Thus, positive self-schemas displayed by the younger neglected children were related to higher dissociation, suggestive of defensive self-processing. Implications for clinical intervention are underscored.

  6. Practice makes perfect in memory recall

    OpenAIRE

    Romani, Sandro; Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha

    2016-01-01

    A large variability in performance is observed when participants recall briefly presented lists of words. The sources of such variability are not known. Our analysis of a large data set of free recall revealed a small fraction of participants that reached an extremely high performance, including many trials with the recall of complete lists. Moreover, some of them developed a number of consistent input-position-dependent recall strategies, in particular recalling words consecutively (?chainin...

  7. Cocaine modulates HIV-1 integration in primary CD4+ T cells: implications in HIV-1 pathogenesis in drug-abusing patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Amma B.; Pandhare, Jui; Paromov, Victor; Mantri, Chinmay K.; Pratap, Siddharth; Dash, Chandravanu

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that cocaine abuse worsens HIV-1 disease progression. Increased viral load has been suggested to play a key role for the accelerated HIV disease among cocaine-abusing patients. The goal of this study was to investigate whether cocaine enhances proviral DNA integration as a mechanism to increase viral load. We infected CD4+ T cells that are the primary targets of HIV-1 in vivo and treated the cells with physiologically relevant concentrations of cocaine (1 µM–100 µM). Proviral DNA integration in the host genome was measured by nested qPCR. Our results illustrated that cocaine from 1 µM through 50 µM increased HIV-1 integration in CD4+ T cells in a dose-dependent manner. As integration can be modulated by several early postentry steps of HIV-1 infection, we examined the direct effects of cocaine on viral integration by in vitro integration assays by use of HIV-1 PICs. Our data illustrated that cocaine directly increases viral DNA integration. Furthermore, our MS analysis showed that cocaine is able to enter CD4+ T cells and localize to the nucleus-. In summary, our data provide strong evidence that cocaine can increase HIV-1 integration in CD4+ T cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that increased HIV-1 integration is a novel mechanism by which cocaine enhances viral load and worsens disease progression in drug-abusing HIV-1 patients. PMID:25691383

  8. Memory for child sexual abuse information: simulated memory error and individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Kelly; Goodman, Gail S; Lyons, Kristen E; Newton, Jeremy; Avila-Mora, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Building on the simulated-amnesia work of Christianson and Bylin (Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13, 495-511, 1999), the present research introduces a new paradigm for the scientific study of memory of childhood sexual abuse information. In Session 1, participants mentally took the part of an abuse victim as they read an account of the sexual assault of a 7-year-old. After reading the narrative, participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: They (1) rehearsed the story truthfully (truth group), (2) left out the abuse details of the story (omission group), (3) lied about the abuse details to indicate that no abuse had occurred (commission group), or (4) did not recall the story during Session 1 (no-rehearsal group). One week later, participants returned for Session 2 and were asked to truthfully recall the narrative. The results indicated that, relative to truthful recall, untruthful recall or no rehearsal at Session 1 adversely affected memory performance at Session 2. However, untruthful recall resulted in better memory than did no rehearsal. Moreover, gender, PTSD symptoms, depression, adult attachment, and sexual abuse history significantly predicted memory for the childhood sexual abuse scenario. Implications for theory and application are discussed.

  9. Recalled emotions and risk judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shosh Shahrabani

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study is based on a field study of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war that was conducted in two waves, the first two weeks after the end of the war, and the second 18 months later (2008. The purpose of the study was to examine recalled emotions and perceived risks induced by manipulation using a short videoclip that recalled the sounds of the alarms and the sights of the missile attacks during the war. Before filling in the study questionnaire in 2008, the experimental group watched a short videoclip recalling the events of the war. The control group did not watch the video before filling in the questionnaire. Using the data provided by questionnaires, we analyzed the effect of recalled emotions on perceived risks in two different regions in Israel: the northern region, which was under missile attack daily during the war, and the central region, which was not under missile attacks. The videoclip had a strong effect on the level of recalled emotions in both regions, but it did not affect risk judgments. The results of the analytical framework in the northern region support both the valence approach, in which negative emotion increases pessimism about risk (Johnson and Tversky, 1983, and the modified appraisal tendency theory, which implies different effects for different emotions (Lerner and Keltner, 2000. The current study emphasizes the effects of recalled emotion in the context of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon war on perceived risks among those in the northern region who were under direct attack compared to those who were not directly exposed to the war. Understanding people's responses to stressful events is crucial, not only when these events take place but also over time, since media-induced emotions can influence appraisals and decisions regarding public policies.

  10. Substance abuse and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussas, G I; Papadopoulou, A G

    2017-01-01

    Substance abuse is a health problem with serious psychological and psychiatric dimensions and multiple social and economic consequences. Cancer is a disease that threatens not only life and physical integrity but mental health as well. Oncology patients suffer from mental disorders in high rates, especially from depression and anxiety. The role of substance abuse in the pathogenesis of cancer is studied systematically, since there are research data supporting the mutagenic effects of certain substances. It has been supported that a possible dysregulation of the immune system is linked to the oncogenic processes induced by substances of abuse. Specifically, opioids are the first addictive substances that have been identified as oncogenic factors. However, conflicting results have been offered by experimental animal studies, which showed that opioids, such as morphine, depending on the dosage administered, may not only enhance the process of tumor growth, but also inhibit it. Additionally, research data indicate that the use of cannabis may be associated with cancer, either as an independent factor or in relation to other mutagenics, although it is not yet clear to which extent these effects may be connected to the disease, especially once the consumption of tobacco and alcohol by these patients are taken into account. However, it has been argued that certain cannabinoids may have biological -anticancer- activities which could be used therapeutically without being accompanied by the corresponding 9-tetrahydrocannabinol psychoactive effects. It is well known that alcohol is a risk factor for developing head and neck cancer, and epidemiological studies indicate that the higher the consumption of alcohol, the more mortality due to cancer increases. In addition, it is suggested that there is no safety level for alcohol consumption regarding the risk of developing cancer; that is even a minimum daily consumption is associated with the occurrence of certain types of cancer

  11. Informed consent: do information pamphlets improve post-operative risk-recall in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy: prospective randomized control study

    OpenAIRE

    Alsaffar, Hussain; Wilson, Lindsay; Kamdar, Dev P.; Sultanov, Faizullo; Enepekides, Danny; Higgins, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Informed consent consists of basic five elements: voluntarism, capacity, disclosure, understanding, and ultimate decision-making. Physician disclosure, patient understanding, and information retention are all essential in the doctor-patient relationship. This is inclusive of helping patients make and manage their decisions and expectations better and also to deal with any consequences and/or complications that arise. This study investigates whether giving patients procedure-specifi...

  12. Free Recall Curves: Nothing but Rehearsing Some Items More or Recalling Them Sooner?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Delbert A.; Prytulak, Lubomir S.

    1975-01-01

    The hypothesis that free recall curves reflecting effects of serial position, presentation time and delay of recall are attributable to subjects' pattern of rehearsal was explored. Experiments varied the patterns of rehearsal to examine the effects on recall. (CHK)

  13. Assessment of family history of substance abuse for preventive interventions with patients experiencing chronic pain: A quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, Elizabeth; Nash, Virginia; Evans, Michele; Cronin, Joan; Bee, Susan; King, Susan; Osborn, Kristine; Gehin, Jessica; Weis, Karen; Loukianova, Larissa

    2016-04-01

    This quality improvement project demonstrates that RN Care Managers, in a chronic pain programme, can assess for a family history of substance abuse in 5-10 min. Information informs treatment based on specific high risk criteria. Benefits include heightened awareness of the genetic and environmental risks associated with a family history of substance abuse, an opportunity to participate in motivational interventions to prevent or minimize consequences of substance use disorders, and likely substantial overall health-care cost savings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. Diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias in chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbic, Danijela; Pincus, Tamar

    2014-08-01

    Patients' beliefs about the origin of their pain and their cognitive processing of pain-related information have both been shown to be associated with poorer prognosis in low back pain (LBP), but the relationship between specific beliefs and specific cognitive processes is not known. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias in 2 groups of chronic LBP patients, those who were certain about their diagnosis and those who believed that their pain was due to an undiagnosed problem. Patients (N=68) endorsed and subsequently recalled pain, illness, depression, and neutral stimuli. They also provided measures of pain, diagnostic status, mood, and disability. Both groups exhibited a recall bias for pain stimuli, but only the group with diagnostic uncertainty also displayed a recall bias for illness-related stimuli. This bias remained after controlling for depression and disability. Sensitivity analyses using grouping by diagnosis/explanation received supported these findings. Higher levels of depression and disability were found in the group with diagnostic uncertainty, but levels of pain intensity did not differ between the groups. Although the methodology does not provide information on causality, the results provide evidence for a relationship between diagnostic uncertainty and recall bias for negative health-related stimuli in chronic LBP patients. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancing Recall in Semantic Querying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rouces, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    lexically and structurally different, which we will introduce in the next section. As RDF graphs from different sources are expected to be linked, the modeling heterogeneities will make the federated graph become sparser and inconsistent. This is detrimental to the recall of SPARQL queries, as the query...

  16. Recalls and unemployment insurance taxes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2004), s. 651-656 ISSN 1350-4851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : recalls * unemployment insurance taxes Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.135, year: 2004 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=14132347&site=ehost-live

  17. New drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases. © 2014 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  18. Predicting Drug Recalls From Internet Search Engine Queries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yom-Tov, Elad

    2017-01-01

    Batches of pharmaceuticals are sometimes recalled from the market when a safety issue or a defect is detected in specific production runs of a drug. Such problems are usually detected when patients or healthcare providers report abnormalities to medical authorities. Here, we test the hypothesis that defective production lots can be detected earlier by monitoring queries to Internet search engines. We extracted queries from the USA to the Bing search engine, which mentioned one of the 5195 pharmaceutical drugs during 2015 and all recall notifications issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) during that year. By using attributes that quantify the change in query volume at the state level, we attempted to predict if a recall of a specific drug will be ordered by FDA in a time horizon ranging from 1 to 40 days in future. Our results show that future drug recalls can indeed be identified with an AUC of 0.791 and a lift at 5% of approximately 6 when predicting a recall occurring one day ahead. This performance degrades as prediction is made for longer periods ahead. The most indicative attributes for prediction are sudden spikes in query volume about a specific medicine in each state. Recalls of prescription drugs and those estimated to be of medium-risk are more likely to be identified using search query data. These findings suggest that aggregated Internet search engine data can be used to facilitate in early warning of faulty batches of medicines.

  19. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G; Cooper, Janine M; Dzieciol, Anna M; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-10-13

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition.

  20. [Structure and Family Type in Patients With Substance Abuse or Dependence Psychoactive Rehabilitation Center of Addiction in the Municipality of Chia Cundinamarca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Navarro, Pedro; Parra Vera, Mario Danilo; Arévalo Zamora, Caterín; Cifuentes Gaitán, Luisa Karen; Valero Carvajal, Jaime; Sierra de Jaramillo, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    To determine the family type, family structure in a group of patients with a diagnosis of substance abuse or dependence who were at a rehabilitation center for addiction during the period between August and October 2009. Through a descriptive qualitative-interpretative methodology 10 patients who met inclusion criteria for substance dependence or abuse were studied. The fieldwork and transcripts were made for three months by non-participant observation, non-structured interviews and examination of patients' clinical history. Seven of the families interviewed were single-parent families with an unconventional organization on "gender roles". Single-parent families favored loneliness, difficulty in rule-setting, de-idealization of the place of the father in the family structure and a constant search for complicity. In the analysis by categories, we found that in 10 families in the study of individuals with addictions it is common to find family structure characteristics such as inadequate communication, lack of authority rules and limits, presence of triangulations, the lack of cohesion due to the existence of a disconnected relationship pattern and changed roles compared to conventional gender. The search for the affection of the mother at her emotional overload absence of roles and lack of father, raised by the separation of the couple, was found as an essential aspect underlying the addictive behavior. A pattern of parental abandonment is configured. The findings confirmed what has been mentioned by various authors regarding the characteristics of the family typology structure and personal factors in patients with addictions, in addition to their need for affection combined with the desire for the mother's presence. The family typology does not determine for itself the abuse of psychoactive substances, but the influence of other factors such as family structure, especially deficient affective interactions, which should be considered in the development of

  1. Mental Health and Substance Use Characteristics of Flight Attendants Enrolled in an In-Patient Substance Abuse Treatment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Gail; Diaz, Naelys; McIlveen, John; Weiner, Michael; Mullaney, Donald

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence rates of co-occurring mental health problems among 70 flight attendants in substance abuse treatment. Results indicated that flight attendants in treatment were more likely to experience alcohol dependency than drug dependency. A high proportion of participants reported clinical levels of…

  2. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug abuse. And it's illegal, just like taking street drugs. Why Do People Abuse Prescription Drugs? Some people abuse prescription drugs ... common risk of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse ... as if they were taking street drugs. That's one reason most doctors won't ...

  3. Isolation Effect in Immediate and Delayed Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellezza, Francis S.; Cheney, Terry L.

    1973-01-01

    If the hypothesis of selective rehearsal is used to account for the isolation effect, then the recall of isolated items will depend both on the serial position of the isolated item and on whether recall is immediate or delayed. (Author)

  4. Minimum alveolar concentration threshold of sevoflurane for postoperative dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, P; Perilli, V; Lai, C; Sacco, T; Modesti, C; Luca, E; De Santis, P; Sollazzi, L; Antonelli, M

    2015-11-01

    Many factors affect postoperative dream recall, including patient characteristics, type of anesthesia, timing of postoperative interview and stress hormone secretion. Aims of the study were to determine whether Bispectral Index (BIS)-guided anesthesia might decrease sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) when compared with hemodynamically-guided anesthesia, and to search for a MAC threshold useful for preventing arousal, dream recall and implicit memory. One hundred thirty patients undergoing elective thyroidectomy were enrolled. Anesthesia was induced with propofol 2 mg kg(-1), fentanyl 3 mcg kg(-1) and cis-atracurium 0.15 mg kg(-1). For anesthesia maintenance, patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: a BIS-guided group in which sevoflurane MAC was adjusted on the basis of BIS values, and a hemodynamic parameters (HP)-guided group in which MAC was adjusted based on HP. An auditory recording was presented to patients during anesthesia maintenance. Dream recall and explicit/implicit memory were investigated upon awakening and approximately after 24 h. Mean sevoflurane MAC during auditory presentation was similar in the two groups (0.85 ± 0.16 and 0.87 ± 0.17 [P = 0.53] in BIS-guided and HP-guided groups, respectively). Frequency of dream recall was similar in the two groups: 27% (N. = 17) in BIS-guided group, 18% (N. = 12) in HP-guided group, P = 0.37. In both groups, dream recall was less probable in patients anesthetized with MAC values ≥ 0.9 (area under ROC curve = 0.83, sensitivity = 90%, and specificity = 49%). BIS-guided anesthesia was not able to generate different MAC values compared to HP-guided anesthesia. Independent of the guide used for anesthesia, a sevoflurane MAC over 0.9 was required to prevent postoperative dream recall.

  5. Abusive Legalism

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Alvin

    2018-01-01

    This paper suggests that one response to growing scrutiny of authoritarian tactics is to turn to sub-constitutional public law, or private law. By using “ordinary” law in ways that seem consistent with formal and procedural aspects of rule of law, autocrats can nonetheless frustrate the rule of law and consolidate power, while also avoiding drawing unfavourable attention to that consolidation. I refer to this phenomenon as “abusive legalism.” This paper makes three main contributions to the s...

  6. TUW at the First Total Recall Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-20

    TUW AT THE FIRST TOTAL RECALL TRACK MIHAI LUPU Abstract. For the first participation in the TREC Total Recall track, we set out to try some basic...significantly and consistently outperformed it. 1. Introduction As the organizers point out, the focus of the Total Recall Track is to evaluate methods to...TUW AT THE FIRST TOTAL RECALL TRACK 3 The only change we made was at a higher level. The Sofia ML library provides 5 more ML algorithms. The following

  7. Experienced Sensory Modalities in Dream Recall

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 斉

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to survey the frequency of visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, cutaneous, organic, gustatory, and olfactory experience in dream recall. A total of 1267 undergraduate students completed a dream recall frequency questionnaire, which contained a question about dream recall frequency and about recall frequency of seven sensory modalities. Results showed that seven sensory modalities were divided into two groups; normally perceived sensory modalities in dreaming, wh...

  8. Dissociation between recognition and recall in developmental amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlam, Anna-Lynne R.; Malloy, Megan; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2009-01-01

    Developmental amnesia (DA) is a memory disorder due to hypoxia/ischaemia-induced damage to the hippocampus early in life. To test the hypothesis that this disorder is associated with a disproportionate impairment in recall vis-à-vis recognition, we examined a group of 10 patients with DA on the Doors and People test, which affords a quantitative comparison between measures of the two memory processes. The results supported the hypothesis in that the patients showed a sharp, though not complete, recall-recognition dissociation, exhibiting impairment on both measures relative to their matched controls, but with a far greater loss in recall than in recognition. Whether their relatively spared recognition ability is due to restriction of their medial temporal lobe damage to the hippocampus or whether it is due instead to their early age at injury is still uncertain. PMID:19524088

  9. Practice Makes Perfect in Memory Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Sandro; Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha

    2016-01-01

    A large variability in performance is observed when participants recall briefly presented lists of words. The sources of such variability are not known. Our analysis of a large data set of free recall revealed a small fraction of participants that reached an extremely high performance, including many trials with the recall of complete lists.…

  10. An Improved Algorithm for Predicting Free Recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Donald

    2008-01-01

    Laming [Laming, D. (2006). "Predicting free recalls." "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 32, 1146-1163] has shown that, in a free-recall experiment in which the participants rehearsed out loud, entire sequences of recalls could be predicted, to a useful degree of precision, from the prior sequences of stimuli…

  11. 21 CFR 7.42 - Recall strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recall strategy. 7.42 Section 7.42 Food and Drugs....42 Recall strategy. (a) General. (1) A recall strategy that takes into account the following factors... in the market-place. (v) Continued availability of essential products. (2) The Food and Drug...

  12. Simulating Memory Impairment for Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Jeremy W; Hobbs, Sue D

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigated effects of simulated memory impairment on recall of child sexual abuse (CSA) information. A total of 144 adults were tested for memory of a written CSA scenario in which they role-played as the victim. There were four experimental groups and two testing sessions. During Session 1, participants read a CSA story and recalled it truthfully (Genuine group), omitted CSA information (Omission group), exaggerated CSA information (Commission group), or did not recall the story at all (No Rehearsal group). One week later, at Session 2, all participants were told to recount the scenario truthfully, and their memory was then tested using free recall and cued recall questions. The Session 1 manipulation affected memory accuracy during Session 2. Specifically, compared with the Genuine group's performance, the Omission, Commission, or No Rehearsal groups' performance was characterized by increased omission and commission errors and decreased reporting of correct details. Victim blame ratings (i.e., victim responsibility and provocativeness) and participant gender predicted increased error and decreased accuracy, whereas perpetrator blame ratings predicted decreased error and increased accuracy. Findings are discussed in relation to factors that may affect memory for CSA information. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Treatment of Anxiety Disorders and Comorbid Alcohol Abuse with Buspirone in a Patient with Antidepressant-Induced Platelet Dysfunction: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mazhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of abnormal bleeding with serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been known, but there is insufficient evidence base to guide pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with underlying haematological conditions. The following case report is about a 50-year-old female with generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, and alcohol abuse where pharmacological treatment of anxiety symptoms has been difficult as it would lead to bruising due to the patient’s underlying qualitative platelet dysfunction. Treatment with venlafaxine, citalopram, escitalopram, and clomipramine resulted in improvement and anxiety symptoms, as well as reduction in alcohol use, but pharmacological treatment has to be discontinued because of bruising and hematomas. In view of an active substance use disorder, benzodiazepines were avoided as a treatment option. The patient’s anxiety symptoms and comorbid alcohol abuse responded well to pharmacological treatment with buspirone which gradually titrated up to a dose of 30 mg BID. Patient was followed for around a six-month period while she was on buspirone before being discharged to family doctor’s care. Buspirone is unlikely to have a significant effect on platelet serotonin transponder and could be an effective alternative for pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with a bleeding diathesis.

  14. Associations among depressive symptoms, childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events in the general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Kotaro Ono,1 Yoshikazu Takaesu,1 Yukiei Nakai,2 Akiyoshi Shimura,1 Yasuyuki Ono,1 Akiko Murakoshi,1 Yasunori Matsumoto,1 Hajime Tanabe,3 Ichiro Kusumi,2 Takeshi Inoue1 1Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido, 3Department of Clinical Human Sciences, Graduate school of Humanities and Social Sciences, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan Background: Recent studies have suggested that the interactions among several factors affect the onset, progression, and prognosis of major depressive disorder. This study investigated how childhood abuse, neuroticism, and adult stressful life events interact with one another and affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Subjects and methods: A total of 413 participants from the nonclinical general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, the neuroticism subscale of the shortened Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised, and the Life Experiences Survey, which are self-report scales. Structural equation modeling (Mplus version 7.3 and single and multiple regressions were used to analyze the data. Results: Childhood abuse, neuroticism, and negative evaluation of life events increased the severity of the depressive symptoms directly. Childhood abuse also indirectly increased the negative appraisal of life events and the severity of the depressive symptoms through enhanced neuroticism in the structural equation modeling. Limitations: There was recall bias in this study. The causal relationship was not clear because this study was conducted using a cross-sectional design. Conclusion: This study suggested that neuroticism is the mediating factor for the two effects of childhood abuse on adulthood depressive symptoms and negative evaluation of life events. Childhood abuse directly and indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms

  15. Video context-dependent recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven M; Manzano, Isabel

    2010-02-01

    In two experiments, we used an effective new method for experimentally manipulating local and global contexts to examine context-dependent recall. The method included video-recorded scenes of real environments, with target words superimposed over the scenes. In Experiment 1, we used a within-subjects manipulation of video contexts and compared the effects of reinstatement of a global context (15 words per context) with effects of less overloaded context cues (1 and 3 words per context) on recall. The size of the reinstatement effects in Experiment 1 show how potently video contexts can cue recall. A strong effect of cue overload was also found; reinstatement effects were smaller, but still quite robust, in the 15 words per context condition. The powerful reinstatement effect was replicated for local contexts in Experiment 2, which included a no-contexts-reinstated group, a control condition used to determine whether reinstatement of half of the cues caused biased output interference for uncued targets. The video context method is a potent way to investigate context-dependent memory.

  16. Alexithymia in Egyptian Substance Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rasheed, Amany Haroun

    2001-03-01

    Alexithymia is thought of as a trait that predisposes to drug abuse. Moreover, it is suggested to be related to type of the substance abused, with the worst-case scenario including a worse prognosis as well as tendency to relapse or even not to seek treatment at all. To address this important subject in Egyptian patients, a sample of 200 Egyptian substance abusers was randomly selected from inpatients in the Institute of Psychiatry, Ain Shams University, Egypt. The study also included 200 group-matched controls. DSM-IV criteria were used for assessment of substance use disorders, and toxicologic urine analysis was used to confirm the substances of abuse. Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS)-Arabic version was used for assessment of alexithymia. It was found that alexithymia was significantly more prevalent in the substance use disorders group as compared to healthy controls. It was also found that among the substance use disorders group, alexithymics reported more polysubstance abuse, more opiate use (other than heroin IV), lower numbers of hospitalizations, lower numbers of reported relapses, and a lower tendency to relapse as a result of internal cues compared to patients without alexithymia. Statistically significant associations were also found between alexithymia and more benzodiazepine abuse and nonpersistence in treatment. The results suggest that alexithymia should be targeted in a treatment setting for substance use disorders.

  17. Common Modality Effects in Immediate Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    In 2 experiments, participants were presented with lists of between 2 and 12 words for either immediate free recall (IFR) or immediate serial recall (ISR). Auditory recall advantages at the end of the list (modality effects) and visual recall advantages early in the list (inverse modality effects) were observed in both tasks and the extent and…

  18. The effects of recall-concurrent visual-motor distraction on picture and word recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M W

    1977-05-01

    The dual-coding model (Paivio, 1971, 1975) predicts a larger imaginal component in the recall of pictures relative to words and a larger imaginal component in the recall of concrete words relative to abstract words. These predictions were tested by examining the effect of a recall-concurrent imagery-suppression task (pursuit-rotor tracking) on the recall of pictures vs picture labels and on the recall of concrete words vs abstract words. The results showed that recall-concurrent pursuit-rotor tracking interfered with picture recall, but not word recall (Experiments 1 and 2); however, there was no evidence of an effect of recall-concurrent tracking on the recall of concrete words (Experiment 3). The results suggested a revision of the dual-coding model.

  19. Subjective Organization Calculator for Free Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya Senkova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The free recall measure has an advantage over other memory measures because the free recall measure can provide organization measures, which can reveal the strategies participants used to maximize recall. For instance, even when a study list does not show a clear organizational scheme, recall outputs are often far from random, evidenced by participants recalling the same two or more items together repeatedly across multiple test trials. Unfortunately, computing organizational measures is laborious. The present article introduces a calculator to compute subjective organization (SO measures. The calculator is based on a popular platform accessible to most researchers and is designed to compute commonly used SO measures for each participant.

  20. Are forward and backward recall the same? A dual-task study of digit recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair-Thompson, Helen L; Allen, Richard J

    2013-05-01

    There is some debate surrounding the cognitive resources underlying backward digit recall. Some researchers consider it to differ from forward digit recall due to the involvement of executive control, while others suggest that backward recall involves visuospatial resources. Five experiments therefore investigated the role of executive-attentional and visuospatial resources in both forward and backward digit recall. In the first, participants completed visuospatial 0-back and 2-back tasks during the encoding of information to be remembered. The concurrent tasks did not differentially disrupt performance on backward digit recall, relative to forward digit recall. Experiment 2 shifted concurrent load to the recall phase instead and, in this case, revealed a larger effect of both tasks on backward recall, relative to forwards recall, suggesting that backward recall may draw on additional resources during the recall phase and that these resources are visuospatial in nature. Experiments 3 and 4 then further investigated the role of visual processes in forward and backward recall using dynamic visual noise (DVN). In Experiment 3, DVN was presented during encoding of information to be remembered and had no effect upon performance. However, in Experiment 4, it was presented during the recall phase, and the results provided evidence of a role for visual imagery in backward digit recall. These results were replicated in Experiment 5, in which the same list length was used for forward and backward recall tasks. The findings are discussed in terms of both theoretical and practical implications.

  1. Abusing ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivares Bøgeskov, Benjamin Miguel

    This paper presents the result from our research on how nurse managers use and occasionally misuse inconclusive ethical arguments to engage their personnel in current reforms. The Danish health care system has undergone a series of reforms inspired by New Public Management theories, which have......, paying special attention to the way in which ethical arguments are used in relation to engagement. Our research shows that ethical arguments are extremely common, and they are used either to elicit engagement, or to demand engagement considering the result of a duty. However, most interestingly...... it was possible for us to find recurrence of fallacious arguments of different kinds. Based on these findings, I will argue that the use of fallacious arguments in order to generate engagement is in reality an abusive use of ethics, which raises important questions. I argue that depending on the degree...

  2. The Preservation of Cued Recall in the Acute Mentally Fatigued State: A Randomised Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flindall, Ian Richard; Leff, Daniel Richard; Pucks, Neysan; Sugden, Colin; Darzi, Ara

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of acute mental fatigue on the recall of clinical information in the non-sleep-deprived state. Acute mental fatigue in the non-sleep-deprived subject is rarely studied in the medical workforce. Patient handover has been highlighted as an area of high risk especially in fatigued subjects. This study evaluates the deterioration in recall of clinical information over 2 h with cognitively demanding work in non-sleep-deprived subjects. A randomised crossover study involving twenty medical students assessed free (presentation) and cued (MCQ) recall of clinical case histories at 0 and 2 h under low and high cognitive load using the N-Back task. Acute mental fatigue was assessed through the Visual Analogue Scale, Stanford Scale and NASA-TLX Mental Workload Rating Scale. Free recall is significantly impaired by increased cognitive load (p cued recall under high and low cognitive load conditions (p = 1). This study demonstrates the loss of clinical information over a short time period involving a mentally fatiguing, high cognitive load task. Free recall for the handover of clinical information is unreliable. Memory cues maintain recall of clinical information. This study provides evidence towards the requirement for standardisation of a structured patient handover. The use of memory cues (involving recognition memory and cued recall methodology) would be beneficial in a handover checklist to aid recall of clinical information and supports evidence for their adoption into clinical practice.

  3. Induced Recall of Jane Austen's Novels: Films, Television, Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.

    2000-01-01

    Notes that the popularity of Jane Austen adaptations in theaters, television, and videos increases the probability that patients and therapists may recall these movies in treatment. Underscores excerpts from a comparison of an Austen novel with the psychoanalytic process and highlights available film adaptations in video format. (SC)

  4. Developmental dysplasia of the hip, age, BMI, place of residence and tobacco abuse increase the odds of aseptic loosening in Chinese patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanlong Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this hospital-based case-control study was to evaluate the patient-related risk factors for aseptic loosening after total hip arthroplasty (THA and total knee arthroplasty (TKA in Chinese patients. METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2012, 67 patients undergoing THA and TKA who developed aseptic loosening were detected as case subjects and 336 patients without aseptic loosening, matched by the year of index surgery and type of surgery, were selected as controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: The demographic factors and comorbid conditions associated with a risk-adjusted increase in aseptic loosening (in decreasing order of significance were a rural place of residence (OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.21-4.30; p = 0.011, body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2 (vs. 18.5-28 kg/m(2 (OR = 2.29; 95% CI: 1.19-4.41; p = 0.013, developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH (OR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.11-7.66; p = 0.030, tobacco abuse (OR = 2.88; 95% CI: 1.05-7.89; p = 0.039, and age <45 years (vs. 45-65 years (OR = 2.63; 95% CI: 1.01-6.80; p = 0.047. CONCLUSIONS: Patients aged <45 years and those with a BMI of ≥ 28 kg/m(2, a preoperative diagnosis of DDH, history of tobacco abuse, or living in rural areas are at increased risk for aseptic loosening after THA and TKA in Chinese population. Additional systematic large-scale studies are needed to verify these results.

  5. Elder abuse in Chinese populations: a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, XinQi

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on the epidemiology of elder abuse in the global Chinese population with respect to its prevalence, risk factors, and consequences, as well as the perceptions of elder abuse. Evidence revealed that elder abuse and its subtypes are common among the global Chinese population with prevalence ranging from 0.2% to 64%. Younger age, lower income levels, depression, cognitive impairment, and lack of social support were consistently associated with self-reported elder abuse. Caregiver burden was a constant risk factor for the proclivity to elder abuse by caregivers. The adverse health outcomes of elder abuse included suicidal ideation and psychological stress. Some primary research gaps exist: such as, lack of consistency in measurements and recall periods, insufficient studies on the causal relationships between potential risk factors and elder abuse, consequences of elder abuse, and possible interventions. In order to reduce the risk of elder abuse in the global Chinese population, collaboration is encouraged among researchers, health care professionals, social service providers, and policy makers.

  6. The Category Cued Recall test in very mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Mortensen, E.L.; Gade, A.

    2007-01-01

    Episodic memory tests that measure cued recall may be particularly effective in the diagnosis of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) because they examine both episodic and semantic memory functions. The Category Cued Recall (CCR) test provides superordinate semantic cues at encoding and retrieval...... was taken as the standard. It was also investigated whether the two episodic memory tests correlated with measures of semantic memory. The tests were administered to 35 patients with very mild AD (Mini Mental State Examination score > 22) and 28 control subjects. Both tests had high sensitivity (>88......%) with high specificity (>89%). One out of the five semantic memory tests was significantly correlated to performances on CCR, whereas delayed recall on the ADAS-cog memory test was significantly correlated to two semantic tests. In conclusion, the discriminative validity of the CCR test and the ADAS...

  7. Levels of Processing with Free and Cued Recall and Unilateral Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lespinet-Najib, Veronique; N'Kaoua, Bernard; Sauzeon, Helene; Bresson, Christel; Rougier, Alain; Claverie, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the role of the temporal lobes in levels-of-processing tasks (phonetic and semantic encoding) according to the nature of recall tasks (free and cued recall). These tasks were administered to 48 patients with unilateral temporal epilepsy (right ''RTLE''=24; left ''LTLE''=24) and a normal group (n=24). The results indicated…

  8. Oncologists’ non-verbal behavior and analog patients’ recall of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, M.A.; de Haes, H.C.J.M.; van Tienhoven, G.; van Laarhoven, H.W.M.; van Weert, J.C.M.; Vermeulen, D.M.; Smets, E.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Information in oncological consultations is often excessive. Those patients who better recall information are more satisfied, less anxious and more adherent. Optimal recall may be enhanced by the oncologist’s non-verbal communication. We tested the influence of three non-verbal behaviors,

  9. How to Handle Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Handle Abuse KidsHealth / For Kids / How to Handle Abuse What's in this article? Tell Right Away How Do You Know Something Is Abuse? ... babysitter, teacher, coach, or a bigger kid. Child abuse can happen anywhere — at ... building. Tell Right Away A kid who is being seriously hurt ...

  10. Recalling the origins of DLTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, David V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper recalls the events leading up to the author's 1973 discovery of Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS). It discusses the status of junction capacitance techniques in the late 1960s and points out why the typical capacitance instrumentation of that era would not have lead the author to the DLTS discovery. This discovery is discussed in the context of the novel NMR-inspired instrumentation used by the author to study fast capacitance transients of the ZnO center in GaP LEDs. Finally, the author makes some general comments about the innovation process

  11. Infective endocarditis not related to intravenous drug abuse in HIV-1-infected patients: report of eight cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa, J E; Miro, J M; Del Rio, A; Moreno-Camacho, A; Garcia, F; Claramonte, X; Marco, F; Mestres, C A; Azqueta, M; Gatell, J M

    2003-01-01

    To add to the limited information on infective endocarditis (IE) not related to intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) in HIV-1-infected patients. We have reviewed the characteristics of eight cases of IE in non-IVDA HIV-1 infected patients diagnosed in our institution between 1979 and 1999 as well as cases in the literature. All our patients were male, and the mean age was 44 years (range 29-64). HIV-1 risk factors were: homosexuality in five, heterosexuality in two, and the use of blood products in one. HIV stage C was found in six cases, and the median (range) CD4 cell count was 22/microL (4-274 cells/microL). IE was caused by Enterococcus faecalis in three cases, staphylococci in two cases, and Salmonella enteritidis, viridans group streptococci and Coxiella burnetii in one case each. Three patients acquired IE while in the hospital. All IE cases involved a native valve, and underlying valve disease was found in three patients. The aortic valve was the most frequently affected (five cases). Two patients underwent surgery, with a good outcome, and one patient died. Fourteen cases of IE not related to IVDA in HIV-1-infected patients were found in the literature review. The most common causative agents were Salmonella spp. and fungi (four cases each). Two patients had prosthetic valve IE, and the mitral valve was the most frequently affected (10 cases). The remaining clinical characteristics and the outcome were similar to those in the present series. IE not related to IVDA is rare in HIV-1-infected patients. In more than half of the cases, IE develops in patients with advanced HIV-1 disease. A wide etiologic range is found, reflecting different clinical and environmental conditions. None of the patients who underwent surgery died, and the overall mortality rate was not higher than in non-HIV-1-infected patients with IE.

  12. Dopamine D2-receptor imaging with [sup 123]I-iodobenzamide SPECT in migraine patients abusing ergotamine: does ergotamine cross the blood brain barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeff, N.P.; Visser, W.H.; Ferrari, M.D.; Saxena, P.R.; Royen, E.A. van (Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands))

    1993-10-01

    Two migraine patients were studied by in vivo SPECT using the dopamine D2-receptor specific radioligand [sup 123]I-3-iodo-6-methoxybenzamide ([sup 123]I-IBZM) during ergotamine abuse and after withdrawal. Results were compared with 15 healthy controls. Striatum/cerebellum and striatum/occipital cortex ratios of count rate density were calculated as a semiquantitative measurement for striatal dopamine D2-receptor binding potential. No differences were found in striatal uptake of [sup 123]I-IBZM between healthy controls and the patients when on or off ergotamine. Preliminary evidence suggests that ergotamine may not occupy striatal dopamine D2-receptors to a large extent and thus may not cross the blood brain barrier in large quantities. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Substance abuse: medical and slang terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Humera; El-Mallakh, Rif S; Vandeveir, Keith

    2005-03-01

    Substance abuse is among one of the major problems plaguing our society. It has come to the attention of several healthcare professionals that a communication gap exists between themselves and substance abusers. Most of the time the substance abusers are only familiar with the slang terms of abused substances, a terminology that medical professionals are usually unaware of. This paper is an attempt to close that communication gap, allowing health care professionals to understand the slang terminology that their patients use, thus enabling them to make appropriate treatment decisions. In addition, the article presents some key features (including active ingredient, pharmacological classification, medical use, abuse form, usage method, combinations used, effects sought, long-term possible effects, and detectability in urine) of the most commonly abused substances.

  14. Parietal lesion effects on cued recall following pair associate learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Shir; Soroker, Nachum; Levy, Daniel A

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the involvement of the posterior parietal cortex in episodic memory in a lesion-effects study of cued recall following pair-associate learning. Groups of patients who had experienced first-incident stroke, generally in middle cerebral artery territory, and exhibited damage that included lateral posterior parietal regions, were tested within an early post-stroke time window. In three experiments, patients and matched healthy comparison groups executed repeated study and cued recall test blocks of pairs of words (Experiment 1), pairs of object pictures (Experiment 2), or pairs of object pictures and environmental sounds (Experiment 3). Patients' brain CT scans were subjected to quantitative analysis of lesion volumes. Behavioral and lesion data were used to compute correlations between area lesion extent and memory deficits, and to conduct voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. These analyses implicated lateral ventral parietal cortex, especially the angular gyrus, in cued recall deficits, most pronouncedly in the cross-modal picture-sound pairs task, though significant parietal lesion effects were also found in the unimodal word pairs and picture pairs tasks. In contrast to an earlier study in which comparable parietal lesions did not cause deficits in item recognition, these results indicate that lateral posterior parietal areas make a substantive contribution to demanding forms of recollective retrieval as represented by cued recall, especially for complex associative representations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bizarreness effect in dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolli, C; Bolzani, R; Cornoldi, C; De Beni, R; Fagioli, I

    1993-02-01

    This study aimed to ascertain a) whether morning reports of dream experience more frequently reproduce bizarre contents of night reports than nonbizarre ones and b) whether this effect depends on the rarity of bizarre contents in the dream or on their richer encoding in memory. Ten subjects were awakened in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep three times per night for 4 nonconsecutive nights and asked to report their previous dream experiences. In the morning they were asked to re-report those dreams. Two separate pairs of judges scored the reports: the former identified the parts in each report with bizarre events, characters or feelings and the latter parsed each report into content units using transformational grammar criteria. By combining the data of the two analyses, content units were classified as bizarre or nonbizarre and, according to whether present in both the night and corresponding morning reports, as semantically equivalent or nonequivalent. The proportion of bizarre contents common to night and morning reports was about twice that of nonbizarre contents and was positively correlated to the quantity of bizarre contents present in the night report. These findings support the view that bizarreness enhances recall of dream contents and that this memory advantage is determined by a richer encoding at the moment of dream generation. Such a view would seem to explain why dreams in everyday life, which are typically remembered after a rather long interval, appear more markedly bizarre than those recalled in the sleep laboratory.

  16. Recall Latencies, Confidence, and Output Positions of True and False Memories: Implications for Recall and Metamemory Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jou, Jerwen

    2008-01-01

    Recall latency, recall accuracy rate, and recall confidence were examined in free recall as a function of recall output serial position using a modified Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm to test a strength-based theory against the dual-retrieval process theory of recall output sequence. The strength theory predicts the item output sequence to be…

  17. T cell subtypes and reciprocal inflammatory mediator expression differentiate P. falciparum memory recall responses in asymptomatic and symptomatic malaria patients in southeastern Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason S Lehmann

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infection is responsible for maintaining malarial disease within human populations in low transmission countries such as Haiti. Investigating differential host immune responses to the parasite as a potential underlying mechanism could help provide insight into this highly complex phenomenon and possibly identify asymptomatic individuals. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of individuals who were diagnosed with malaria in Sud-Est, Haiti by comparing the cellular and humoral responses of both symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. Plasma samples were analyzed with a P. falciparum protein microarray, which demonstrated serologic reactivity to 3,877 P. falciparum proteins of known serologic reactivity; however, no antigen-antibody reactions delineating asymptomatics from symptomatics were identified. In contrast, differences in cellular responses were observed. Flow cytometric analysis of patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells co-cultured with P. falciparum infected erythrocytes demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the proportion of T regulatory cells (CD4+ CD25+ CD127-, and increases in unique populations of both NKT-like cells (CD3+ CD8+ CD56+ and CD8mid T cells in asymptomatics compared to symptomatics. Also, CD38+/HLA-DR+ expression on γδ T cells, CD8mid (CD56- T cells, and CD8mid CD56+ NKT-like cells decreased upon exposure to infected erythrocytes in both groups. Cytometric bead analysis of the co-culture supernatants demonstrated an upregulation of monocyte-activating chemokines/cytokines in asymptomatics, while immunomodulatory soluble factors were elevated in symptomatics. Principal component analysis of these expression values revealed a distinct clustering of individual responses within their respective phenotypic groups. This is the first comprehensive investigation of immune responses to P. falciparum in Haiti, and describes unique cell-mediated immune repertoires that

  18. Inaccuracy of transthoracic echocardiography for the identification of right-sided vegetation in patients with no history of intravenous drug abuse or cardiac device insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiang; Liu, Shuang; Yang, Jinghua; Xu, Jie; Zhu, Guangfa

    2014-06-01

    The use of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) to identify right-sided infective endocarditis (RSIE) vegetation is controversial. Data are scarce for patients with no history of intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) or cardiac device insertion. This study analysed the consistency of presurgical echocardiographic results with surgical findings for vegetation identification, and the factors that influence accuracy of echocardiography. This retrospective trial divided infective endocarditis (IE) patients into three subgroups according to the results of their presurgical TTE: left-sided native IE (LSNIE), left-sided prosthetic valve IE (LSPIE) and RSIE. The accuracy of TTE was tested by comparing vegetation (number and location), detected presurgery by TTE, with actual findings during surgery. In total, 416 patients were analysed, 322 with LSNIE, 31 with LSPIE and 63 with RSIE. Consistency between TTE findings and surgical results was lower in the RSIE group compared with the LSPIE and LSNIE groups. Consistency was lowered by the presence of vegetation in multiple locations and atypical distribution--both of which were increased in the RSIE group. The chance of vegetation in both sides of the heart rose with increased numbers of vegetation locations in RSIE patients. A high proportion of RSIE patients had congenital heart defects, mostly ventricular septal defects. TTE may be unsuitable for RSIE patients with no history of IVDA or cardiac device insertion, because multifocal and atypically distributed vegetation may influence detection accuracy. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  19. Body-related attentional biases in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder resulting from childhood sexual abuse with and without co-occurring borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witthöft, M; Borgmann, E; White, A; Dyer, A

    2015-03-01

    Disturbed body perception is a common characteristic of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childhood sexual abuse (CSA). We examined the extent to which biased information processing of body related stimuli was related to CSA. Patients with PTSD after CSA (PTSD group; n = 61) were compared to healthy controls (HC group; n = 30). The PTSD group was subdivided into patients with comorbid Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD; PTSD+ group) and patients without BPD (PTSD-group). We used an emotional Stroop task (EST) with body-related words to assess biased information processing. Only patients in the PTSD+ group but not in the PTSD-group showed a significantly stronger attentional bias to body related words compared to the HC group (p = .009). Recruitment in in-patient setting might have led to a non-representative sample of PTSD patients. The PTSD patients were not characterized regarding anything other than the mentioned mental disorders. Potentially, the body related words may have been associated with offenders' body areas, but not with the patients. We found that patients with PTSD and comorbid BPD had a stronger attentional bias towards body related stimuli in comparison to other groups. This suggests that the observed attentional bias is a product of CSA combined with the emotion regulation difficulties characteristic of BPD. Future studies should test whether directly targeting body-related abnormalities in information processing can improve existing treatments for patients with CSA and BPD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Practice makes perfect in memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Sandro; Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha

    2016-04-01

    A large variability in performance is observed when participants recall briefly presented lists of words. The sources of such variability are not known. Our analysis of a large data set of free recall revealed a small fraction of participants that reached an extremely high performance, including many trials with the recall of complete lists. Moreover, some of them developed a number of consistent input-position-dependent recall strategies, in particular recalling words consecutively ("chaining") or in groups of consecutively presented words ("chunking"). The time course of acquisition and particular choice of positional grouping were variable among participants. Our results show that acquiring positional strategies plays a crucial role in improvement of recall performance. © 2016 Romani et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  1. Serial position curves in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laming, Donald

    2010-01-01

    The scenario for free recall set out in Laming (2009) is developed to provide models for the serial position curves from 5 selected sets of data, for final free recall, and for multitrial free recall. The 5 sets of data reflect the effects of rate of presentation, length of list, delay of recall, and suppression of rehearsal. Each model accommodates the serial position curve for first recalls (where those data are available) as well as that for total recalls. Both curves are fit with the same parameter values, as also (with 1 exception) are all of the conditions compared within each experiment. The distributions of numbers of recalls are also examined and shown to have variances increased above what would be expected if successive recalls were independent. This is taken to signify that, in those experiments in which rehearsals were not recorded, the retrieval of words for possible recall follows the same pattern that is observed following overt rehearsal, namely, that retrieval consists of runs of consecutive elements from memory. Finally, 2 sets of data are examined that the present approach cannot accommodate. It is argued that the problem with these data derives from an interaction between the patterns of (covert) rehearsal and the parameters of list presentation.

  2. The Doors and People Test: The effect of frontal lobe lesions on recall and recognition memory performance

    OpenAIRE

    MacPherson, S. E.; Turner, M. S.; Bozzali, M.; Cipolotti, L.; Shallice, T.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Memory deficits in patients with frontal lobe lesions are most apparent on free recall tasks that require the selection, initiation, and implementation of retrieval strategies. The effect of frontal lesions on recognition memory performance is less clear with some studies reporting recognition memory impairments but others not. The majority of these studies do not directly compare recall and recognition within the same group of frontal patients, assessing only recall or recognition...

  3. Amnesia, rehearsal, and temporal distinctiveness models of recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gordon D A; Della Sala, Sergio; Foster, Jonathan K; Vousden, Janet I

    2007-04-01

    Classical amnesia involves selective memory impairment for temporally distant items in free recall (impaired primacy) together with relative preservation of memory for recency items. This abnormal serial position curve is traditionally taken as evidence for a distinction between different memory processes, with amnesia being associated with selectively impaired long-term memory. However recent accounts of normal serial position curves have emphasized the importance of rehearsal processes in giving rise to primacy effects and have suggested that a single temporal distinctiveness mechanism can account for both primacy and recency effects when rehearsal is considered. Here we explore the pattern of strategic rehearsal in a patient with very severe amnesia. When the patient's rehearsal pattern is taken into account, a temporal distinctiveness model can account for the serial position curve in both amnesic and control free recall. The results are taken as consistent with temporal distinctiveness models of free recall, and they motivate an emphasis on rehearsal patterns in understanding amnesic deficits in free recall.

  4. Imprinting and recalling cortical ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Yang, Weijian; Bando, Yuki; Peterka, Darcy S; Yuste, Rafael

    2016-08-12

    Neuronal ensembles are coactive groups of neurons that may represent building blocks of cortical circuits. These ensembles could be formed by Hebbian plasticity, whereby synapses between coactive neurons are strengthened. Here we report that repetitive activation with two-photon optogenetics of neuronal populations from ensembles in the visual cortex of awake mice builds neuronal ensembles that recur spontaneously after being imprinted and do not disrupt preexisting ones. Moreover, imprinted ensembles can be recalled by single- cell stimulation and remain coactive on consecutive days. Our results demonstrate the persistent reconfiguration of cortical circuits by two-photon optogenetics into neuronal ensembles that can perform pattern completion. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  6. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Effect of Concurrent Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    In 3 experiments, participants saw lists of 16 words for free recall with or without a 6-digit immediate serial recall (ISR) task after each word. Free recall was performed under standard visual silent and spoken-aloud conditions (Experiment 1), overt rehearsal conditions (Experiment 2), and fixed rehearsal conditions (Experiment 3). The authors…

  7. Is the relationship between pattern recall and decision-making influenced by anticipatory recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Adam D; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared traditional measures of pattern recall to measures of anticipatory recall and decision-making to examine the underlying mechanisms of expert pattern perception and to address methodological limitations in previous studies where anticipatory recall has generally been overlooked. Recall performance in expert and novice basketball players was measured by examining the spatial error in recalling player positions both for a target image (traditional recall) and at 40-ms increments following the target image (anticipatory recall). Decision-making performance was measured by comparing the participant's response to those identified by a panel of expert coaches. Anticipatory recall was observed in the recall task and was significantly more pronounced for the experts, suggesting that traditional methods of spatial recall analysis may not have provided a completely accurate determination of the full magnitude of the experts' superiority. Accounting for anticipatory recall also increased the relative contribution of recall skill to decision-making accuracy although the gains in explained variance were modest and of debatable functional significance.

  8. Client experiences of motivational interviewing: An interpersonal process recall study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah A; Latchford, Gary; Tober, Gillian

    2016-03-01

    To explore clients' experience of the therapy process in motivational interviewing (MI) for alcohol abuse. A qualitative study using grounded theory. Interviews with nine clients were conducted using interpersonal process recall (IPR), a methodology which utilizes a video recording as a cue to aid memory recall. Clients watched a videotape of their MI session and were asked to identify and describe the important moments in the therapy session. The transcribed interviews were then analysed using grounded theory. A single session of MI is seen by the clients in this study as a complex interpersonal interaction between client and therapist, which impacts on the client's cognitive and affective intrapersonal processes. The themes which emerged partly confirm processes of MI previously hypothesized to be important, but also highlight the importance of factors common to all therapeutic approaches. The aspects of therapy which clients in this study felt were important are similar to those hypothesized to underlie the effectiveness of MI, including a non-confrontational approach, affirmation, and developing discrepancies between beliefs and behaviour. These were embedded in aspects common to all therapies, including the qualities of the therapist and the therapeutic relationship. Client's perspectives on therapeutic processes are an important area of research, and IPR is a particularly suitable method. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Alcohol abuse and postoperative morbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Hanne

    2003-01-01

    Patients who drink too much have more complications after surgery. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the evidence, possible mechanisms, and prevention of the increased postoperative morbidity in alcohol abusers, defined by a consumption of at least five drinks per day. The literature could...... be criticised for several methodological flaws. Nevertheless, the results are in agreement showing moderate to strong evidence of increased postoperative morbidity after surgical procedures on alcohol abusers. There is weak to moderate evidence of increased postoperative mortality, hospital stay, and re......-operation. The personal and economic consequences are tremendous. The incidence of alcohol abusers undergoing surgery was 7% to 49%, according to gender and diagnosis. They have been identified by a self-reported alcohol intake, which implies the possibility of underestimation. Alcohol markers could be used for a more...

  10. Biomarker validation of a cued recall memory deficit in prodromal Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M; Wolf, S; Reischies, F M; Daerr, M; Wolfsgruber, S; Jessen, F; Popp, J; Maier, W; Hüll, M; Frölich, L; Hampel, H; Perneczky, R; Peters, O; Jahn, H; Luckhaus, C; Gertz, H-J; Schröder, J; Pantel, J; Lewczuk, P; Kornhuber, J; Wiltfang, J

    2012-02-07

    To compare cued recall measures with other memory and nonmemory tests regarding their association with a biomarker profile indicative of Alzheimer disease (AD) in CSF among patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Data were obtained by the German Dementia Competence Network. A total of 185 memory clinic patients fulfilling broad criteria for MCI (1 SD deficit in memory tests or in nonmemory tests) were assessed with an extended neuropsychological battery, which included the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), the word list learning task from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease neuropsychological battery (CERAD-NP), and the Logical Memory (LM) paragraph recall test from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. CSF was obtained from all patients. A total of 74 out of 185 subjects with MCI (40%) had a CSF profile consistent with AD (Aβ(1-42)/tau ratio; CSF AD+ group). FCSRT measures reflecting both free and cued recall discriminated best between CSF AD+ and CSF AD- patients, and significantly improved CSF AD classification accuracy, as compared with CERAD delayed recall and LM delayed recall. Cued recall deficits are most closely associated with CSF biomarkers indicative of AD in subjects with MCI. This novel finding complements results from prospective clinical studies and provides further empirical support for cued recall as a specific indicator of prodromal AD, in line with recently proposed research criteria.

  11. 9 CFR 381.311 - Recall procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Canning and Canned Products § 381.311 Recall procedure... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recall procedure. 381.311 Section 381.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY...

  12. Directed Forgetting of Recently Recalled Autobiographical Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnier, Amanda J.; Conway, Martin A.; Mayoh, Lyndel; Speyer, Joanne; Avizmil, Orit; Harris, Celia B.

    2007-01-01

    In 6 experiments, the authors investigated list-method directed forgetting of recently recalled autobiographical memories. Reliable directed forgetting effects were observed across all experiments. In 4 experiments, the authors examined the impact of memory valence on directed forgetting. The forget instruction impaired recall of negative,…

  13. Recall from Semantic and Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillund, Gary; Perlmutter, Marion

    Although research in episodic recall memory, comparing younger and older adults, favors the younger adults, findings in semantic memory research are less consistent. To examine age differences in semantic and episodic memory recall, 72 young adults (mean age, 20.8) and 72 older adults (mean age 71) completed three memory tests under varied…

  14. Recalling visual serial order for verbal sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logie, R.H.; Saito, S.; Morita, A.; Varma, S.; Norris, D.

    2016-01-01

    We report three experiments in which participants performed written serial recall of visually presented verbal sequences with items varying in visual similarity. In Experiments 1 and 2 native speakers of Japanese recalled visually presented Japanese Kanji characters. In Experiment 3, native speakers

  15. Dream recall and the full moon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Fulda, Stephany; Reinhard, Iris

    2006-02-01

    There is ongoing debate on whether the full moon is associated with sleep and dreaming. The analysis of diaries kept by the participants (N = 196) over 28 to 111 nights showed no association of a full moon and dream recall. Psychological factors might explain why some persons associate a full moon with increased dream recall.

  16. Age differences in outcomes among patients in the "Stimulant Abuser Groups to Engage in 12-Step" (STAGE-12) intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Sharon B; Doyle, Suzanne R; Peavy, K Michelle; Wells, Elizabeth A; Owens, Mandy D; Shores-Wilson, Kathy; DiCenzo, Jessica; Donovan, Dennis M

    2018-01-01

    Emerging adults (roughly 18-29years) with substance use disorders can benefit from participation in twelve-step mutual-help organizations (TSMHO), however their attendance and participation in such groups is relatively low. Twelve-step facilitation therapies, such as the Stimulant Abuser Groups to Engage in 12-Step (STAGE-12), may increase attendance and involvement, and lead to decreased substance use. Analyses examined whether age moderated the STAGE-12 effects on substance use and TSMHO meeting attendance and participation. We utilized data from a multisite randomized controlled trial, with assessments at baseline, mid-treatment (week 4), end-of-treatment (week 8), and 3- and 6- months post-randomization. Participants were adults with DSM-IV diagnosed stimulant abuse or dependence (N=450) enrolling in 10 intensive outpatient substance use treatment programs across the U.S. A zero-inflated negative binomial random-effects regression model was utilized to examine age-by-treatment interactions on substance use and meeting attendance and involvement. Younger age was associated with larger treatment effects for stimulant use. Specifically, younger age was associated with greater odds of remaining abstinent from stimulants in STAGE-12 versus Treatment-as-Usual; however, among those who were not abstinent during treatment, younger age was related to greater rates of stimulant use at follow-up for those in STAGE-12 compared to TAU. There was no main effect of age on stimulant use. Younger age was also related to somewhat greater active involvement in different types of TSMHO activities among those in STAGE-12 versus TAU. There were no age-by-treatment interactions for other types of substance use or for treatment attendance, however, in contrast to stimulant use; younger age was associated with lower odds of abstinence from non-stimulant drugs at follow-up, regardless of treatment condition. These results suggest that STAGE-12 can be beneficial for some emerging adults

  17. The Doors and People Test: The effect of frontal lobe lesions on recall and recognition memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Sarah E; Turner, Martha S; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa; Shallice, Tim

    2016-03-01

    Memory deficits in patients with frontal lobe lesions are most apparent on free recall tasks that require the selection, initiation, and implementation of retrieval strategies. The effect of frontal lesions on recognition memory performance is less clear with some studies reporting recognition memory impairments but others not. The majority of these studies do not directly compare recall and recognition within the same group of frontal patients, assessing only recall or recognition memory performance. Other studies that do compare recall and recognition in the same frontal group do not consider recall or recognition tests that are comparable for difficulty. Recognition memory impairments may not be reported because recognition memory tasks are less demanding. This study aimed to investigate recall and recognition impairments in the same group of 47 frontal patients and 78 healthy controls. The Doors and People Test was administered as a neuropsychological test of memory as it assesses both verbal and visual recall and recognition using subtests that are matched for difficulty. Significant verbal and visual recall and recognition impairments were found in the frontal patients. These results demonstrate that when frontal patients are assessed on recall and recognition memory tests of comparable difficulty, memory impairments are found on both types of episodic memory test. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Memory Training for Individuals with Alzheimer’s Disease Improves Name Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Kesslak

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease is clinically characterized by a variety of progressive cognitive deficits, most notably an impaired ability to acquire new information, such as name recall. Eleven demented patients and 11 controls participated in a 4 week memory program that included training in name–face recall. Individuals were taught strategies for name–face rehearsal, and administered task specific and standardized tests to assess the intervention efficacy. During the memory training patients improved recall of names and faces (p

  19. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth / For Teens / Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... resfriado Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  20. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Talking to Teens about Healthy Relationships ... of child abuse prevention through our Pinwheels for Prevention campaign. ...

  1. Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Elder Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Elder Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. Drug abuse first aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Medicines that are for treating a health problem ... about local resources. Alternative Names Overdose from drugs; Drug abuse first aid References Myck MB. Hallucinogens and drugs ...

  3. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  4. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001552.htm Child abuse - physical To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: ...

  6. Recurrent encephalic hemorrhage associated with cocaine abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumar, J.; Otero, E.; Castineira, A.; Arrojo, L.; Linares, M.; Castineira, J.A.; Vidal, J.

    1994-01-01

    We report a case of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage secondary to cocaine abuse in a patient with no other predisposing factors. The hemorrhages were located both supra- and infratentorially. (orig.)

  7. The study of personal familial and psychological characteristics and drug abuse among in bed patients with suicide intention in Shohadaye Ashayer in 1383

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mitra Safa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Safa M1, Mohmoudi GhA2, Soultani far M3, Saki M4, Farhadi A5 1. Assistant professor, Department of psychology, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences 2. Assistant professor, Department of forensic medicine, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences 3. General practitioner 4. Instructor, Department of nursing, Faculty of nursing and midwifery, LorestanUniversity of medical sciences 5. Instructor, Department of psychology and health, Faculty of medicine, LorestanUniversity of medical sciences Abstract Background: Suicide is one of the social problem which brings about death of active characters in the society and it is considered as a remarkable problem for health. Suicide is the number 9 factor of death in America. Nearly 85 cases of suicide happen per day within 20 minutes each. Drug abuse is of psychiatric urgency and it is regarded as an important variable related to suicide. Materials and methods: All clients who committed suicide and were hospitalized in Shohadaye Ashayer hospital were included in this study ( from July 83 to January 83 . Results: The results showed that there is a significant relationship between drug abuse and chronic organic disease among patients with suicide intention . Among 67 suicide cases, 55.2% were male and 44.8% were female. The highest frequency (55.2% covered the age group (19–26 .Most of the cases were unmarried. 47.8% were unemployed . 79.1 % were city residents and 21.9 % were living in the country. 53.7% of the participants had elementary school and junior high school education . Conclusion: The study was to determine the frequency of personal, familial psychological characteristics and drug abuse among clients with suicide. The results emphasize on the preventive effect of the level of education in this Province. The results also showed that the more the number of people in the family, the more suicide cases in the family. Further more among married ones, cases

  8. The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association protocol, auricular acupuncture to support patients with substance abuse and behavioral health disorders: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuyt EB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth B Stuyt,1 Claudia A Voyles2 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Pueblo, CO, 2Department of Clinical Studies, AOMA Graduate School of Integrative Medicine, Austin, TX, USA Abstract: The National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA-standardized 3- to 5-point ear acupuncture protocol, born of a community-minded response to turbulent times not unlike today, has evolved into the most widely implemented acupuncture-assisted protocol, not only for substance abuse, but also for broad behavioral health applications. This evolution happened despite inconsistent research support. This review highlights the history of the protocol and the research that followed its development. Promising, early randomized-controlled trials were followed by a mixed field of positive and negative studies that may serve as a whole to prove that NADA, despite its apparent simplicity, is neither a reductive nor an independent treatment, and the need to refine the research approaches. Particularly focusing on the last decade and its array of trials that elucidate aspects of NADA application and effects, the authors recommend that, going forward, research continues to explore the comparison of the NADA protocol added to accepted treatments to those treatments alone, recognizing that it is not a stand-alone procedure but a psychosocial intervention that affects the whole person and can augment outcomes from other treatment modalities. Keywords: National Acupuncture Detoxification Association (NADA, ear acupuncture, acudetox, addiction, mental health, trauma

  9. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  10. Elder Abuse in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  11. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

    1985-01-01

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

  12. Drug recall: An incubus for pharmaceutical companies and most serious drug recall of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaich, Upendra; Sadhna, Divya

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increasing trend in the number of prescribed and over-the-counter drug recall over the last few years. The recall is usually due to company's discovery, customer's complaint or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) observation. The process of recall involves a planned specific course of action, which addresses the depth of recall, need for public warning, and the extent of effectiveness checks for the recall. The FDA review and/or recommend changes to the firm's recall strategy, as appropriate. The critical recall information list includes the identity of the product; summary of the failure; amount of product produced in the distribution chain and direct account. Product recalls clashes thousands of companies every year affecting: sales, testing customer relationships and disrupting supply chains. Drug recall is incubus for pharmaceutical companies. It effects the reputation of the company. The reason for the recall can be divided into two categories: manufacturing affined and safety/efficacy affined. It is essential to follow all the guidelines related to drug development and manufacturing procedure so as to minimize drug recall.

  13. Childhood physical abuse in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubo Chiharu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Japan and Asia, few studies have been done of physical and sexual abuse. This study was aimed to determine whether a history of childhood physical abuse is associated with anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. Methods We divided 564 consecutive new outpatients at the Department of Psychosomatic Medicine of Kyushu University Hospital into two groups: a physically abused group and a non-abused group. Psychological test scores and the prevalence of self-injurious behavior were compared between the two groups. Results A history of childhood physical abuse was reported by patients with depressive disorders(12.7%, anxiety disorders(16.7%, eating disorders (16.3%, pain disorders (10.8%, irritable bowel syndrome (12.5%, and functional dyspepsia(7.5%. In both the patients with depressive disorders and those with anxiety disorders, STAI-I (state anxiety and STAI-II (trait anxiety were higher in the abused group than in the non-abused group (p In the patients with depressive disorders, the abused group was younger than the non-abused group (p Conclusion A history of childhood physical abuse is associated with psychological distress such as anxiety, depression and self-injurious behavior in outpatients with psychosomatic symptoms. It is important for physicians to consider the history of abuse in the primary care of these patients.

  14. SOME CONSIDERATIONS ON ABUSE OF DOMINANT POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Maican

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Article 82 (formerly 86 EC contains four essential elements (an undertaking, a dominant position, an abuse of that position and the abuse must affect trade between member states. The term undertakings is subject to the same broad interpretation as that applied to article 81 (formerly 85 EC and covers the same activities, both public and private.The Community interest must be also taken into account. Although it is not clear precisely what this element of article 86 requires, it will clearly curtail the scope of the exception provided under this article. Although abusive behavior of undertakings in a dominant position is prohibited, it must be recalled that merely being in a strong position is not a problem in itself. It is necessary for major players in a market to be aware of their position because practices which would not fall foul of article 82 (formerly 86 EC, where an undertaking is not dominant, will do so where dominance is established. A refusal to deal by a non-dominant undertaking would not be an abuse within article 82 (formerly 86 EC, but it will be so where the undertaking is dominant.

  15. Memory Training for Individuals with Alzheimer’s Disease Improves Name Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Kesslak, J. P.; Nackoul, K.; Sandman, C. A.

    1997-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is clinically characterized by a variety of progressive cognitive deficits, most notably an impaired ability to acquire new information, such as name recall. Eleven demented patients and 11 controls participated in a 4 week memory program that included training in name–face recall. Individuals were taught strategies for name–face rehearsal, and administered task specific and standardized tests to assess the intervention efficacy. During the memory training patients improve...

  16. Comparison of 7-day recall and daily diary reports of COPD symptoms and impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Antonia V; Amtmann, Dagmar; Diehr, Paula; Patrick, Donald L

    2012-05-01

    Patient reporting of symptoms in a questionnaire with a 7-day recall period was expected to differ from symptom reporting in a 7-day symptom diary on the basis of cognitive theory of memory processes and several studies of symptoms and health behaviors. A total of 101 adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) completed a daily diary of items measuring symptoms and impacts of COPD for 7 days, and on the seventh day they completed a questionnaire of the same items with a 7-day recall period. The analysis examined concordance of 7-day recall with summary descriptors of the daily responses, examined the magnitude and covariates (patient characteristics and response patterns) of the difference between 7-day recall and mean of daily responses, and compared the discriminant ability and ability to detect change of 7-day recall and mean of daily responses. A 7-day recall was moderately concordant with the mean and maximum of daily responses and was 0.34 to 0.50 SDs higher than the mean of daily responses. Only the weekly report itself was a covariate of the difference. The discriminant ability and ability to detect change were equivalent. In measuring the weeklong experience of COPD symptoms and impacts on groups of patients, the 7-day recall scores were higher than the daily diary scores, but equivalent in detecting change over time. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence from Semantic Distraction in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; Sörqvist, Patrik; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this…

  18. Data-driven methodology illustrating mechanisms underlying word list recall: applications to clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenecker, Julia; Kohn, Philip; Liu, Stanley; Zoltick, Brad; Weinberger, Daniel R; Elvevåg, Brita

    2010-09-01

    Word list learning tasks such as the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT; Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 1987) are widely used to investigate recall strategies. Participants who recall the most words generally employ semantic techniques, whereas those with poor recall (e.g., patients with schizophrenia) rely on serial techniques. However, these conclusions are based on formulas that assume that categories reflect semantic associations, bind strategy to overall performance, and neglect strategy changes over 5 trials. Therefore, we derived novel measures-independent of recall performance-to compute strategies across trials and identify whether diagnosis predicts recall strategy. Participants were included on the basis of performance on the CVLT (i.e., total words recalled over 5 trials). The 50 highest and 50 lowest performers among healthy volunteers (n = 100) and patients with schizophrenia (n = 100) were selected. Novel measures of recall and transition probability were calculated and analyzed by permutation tests. Recall patterns and strategies of patients resembled those of controls with similar performance levels: Regardless of diagnosis, low performers were more likely to recall the first 2 and last 4 items from the list; high performers increased engagement of semantically based transitions across the 5 trials, whereas low performers did not. Cognitive strategy must be considered independent of overall performance before attributing poor performance to degraded learning processes. Our results demonstrate the importance of departing from global scoring techniques, especially when working with clinical populations such as patients with schizophrenia for whom episodic memory deficits are a hallmark feature. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Is scanning in probed order recall articulatory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon; Lelièvre, Anna

    2009-09-01

    We consider how theories of serial recall might apply to other short-term memory tasks involving recall of order. In particular, we consider the possibility that when participants are cued to recall an item at an arbitrary position in a sequence, they covertly serially recall the list up to the cued position. One question is whether such "scanning" is articulatory in nature. Two experiments are presented in which the syllabic length of words preceding and following target positions were manipulated, to test the prediction of an articulatory-based mechanism that time to recall an item at a particular position will depend on the number of preceding long words. Although latency was dependent on target position, no word length effects on latency were observed. Additionally, the effects of word length on accuracy replicate recent demonstrations in serial recall that recall accuracy is dependent on the word length of all list items, not just that of target items, in line with distinctiveness assumptions. It is concluded that if scanning does occur, it is not carried out by covert or overt articulation.

  20. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Recalling what was where when seeing nothing there

    OpenAIRE

    Staudte, Maria; Altmann, Gerry T. M.

    2016-01-01

    So-called ?looks-at-nothing? have previously been used to show that recalling what also elicits the recall of where this was. Here, we present evidence from an eye-tracking study which shows that disrupting looks to ?there? does not disrupt recalling what was there, nor do (anticipatory) looks to ?there? facilitate recalling what was there. Therefore, our results suggest that recalling where does not recall what.

  2. The relationship of manic episodes and drug abuse to sexual risk behavior in patients with co-occurring bipolar and substance use disorders: a 15-month prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Sanchez, Amy K; Griffin, Margaret L; McDonald, Leah J; Weiss, Roger D

    2011-11-01

    Risky sexual behavior is common among individuals with bipolar and substance use disorders. This 15-month prospective study examined the effects of between-subject differences and within-subject changes in mood symptoms and drug use on sexual risk behavior among 61 patients with both disorders. Participants completed five post-treatment follow-up assessments at 3-month intervals. Using a multivariate mixed-effects model analysis, more average weeks of mania (between-subject difference) was associated with greater sexual risk, but change in weeks of mania (within-subject change) was not; depression was unrelated to sexual risk. In addition, within-subject increases in days of cocaine use predicted increases in sexual risk. Results underscore the importance of substance abuse treatment and suggest that bipolar patients with active and/or recurrent mania are in need of targeted HIV prevention services. Further research is needed to test whether individual differences in impulsivity may explain the association between mania and sexual risk.

  3. After the Recall: Reexamining Multiple Magnet Ingestion at a Large Pediatric Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Daniel; Strickland, Matt; Hepburn, Charlotte Moore

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a mandatory product recall on the frequency of multiple mini-magnet ingestion at a large tertiary pediatric hospital, and to examine the morbidity and mortality associated with these ingestions. In this retrospective chart review, we searched our institution's electronic patient record for patients aged magnetic foreign bodies between 2002 and 2015, a period that included the mandatory product recall. We compared the frequency and character of ingestions before and after the recall. Comparing the postrecall years (January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2015) with the 2 years immediately preceding the recall year (January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012) yields an incidence rate ratio of 0.34 (95% CI, 0.18-0.64) for all magnet ingestions and 0.20 (95% CI, 0.08-0.53) for ingestion of multiple magnets. Based on the Fisher exact test, the incidence of both magnet ingestion (P magnet ingestion (P magnet ingestion decreased. There were no deaths in either study period. There was a significant decrease in multiple mini-magnet ingestion following a mandatory product recall. This study supports the effectiveness of the recall, which should bolster efforts to keep it in place in jurisdictions where it is being appealed. More broadly, the result provides general evidence of a recall helping decrease further harm from a product that carries a potential hazard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Rehearsal significantly improves immediate and delayed recall on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, Erik

    2011-10-01

    A repeated observation during memory assessment with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is that patients who spontaneously employ a memory rehearsal strategy by repeating the word list more than once achieve better scores than patients who only repeat the word list once. This observation led to concern about the ability of the standard test procedure of RAVLT and similar tests in eliciting the best possible recall scores. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a rehearsal recall strategy of repeating the word list more than once would result in improved scores of recall on the RAVLT. We report on differences in outcome after standard administration and after experimental administration on Immediate and Delayed Recall measures from the RAVLT of 50 patients. The experimental administration resulted in significantly improved scores for all the variables employed. Additionally, it was found that patients who failed effort screening showed significantly poorer improvement on Delayed Recall compared with those who passed the effort screening. The general clear improvement both in raw scores and T-scores demonstrates that recall performance can be significantly influenced by the strategy of the patient or by small variations in instructions by the examiner.

  5. Anismus as a marker of sexual abuse. Consequences of abuse on anorectal motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroi, A M; Berkelmans, I; Denis, P; Hémond, M; Devroede, G

    1995-07-01

    Anorectal manometry was performed in 40 women, who consulted for functional disorders of the lower gastrointestinal tract and had been sexually abused. Anismus, defined as a rise in anal pressure during straining, was observed in 39 of 40 abused women, but in only six of 20 healthy control women (P anismus, as well as the group of healthy controls. A decreased amplitude of anal voluntary contraction and an increased threshold volume in perception of rectal distension were observed in both abused and nonabused patients. A decreased amplitude of rectoanal inhibitory reflex, little rise in rectal pressure upon straining, frequent absence of initial contraction during rectal distension, and increased resting pressure at the lower part of the anal canal were observed in abused but not in nonabused patients, suggesting that these abnormalities, in association with anismus, suggest a pattern of motor activity in the anal canal that could be indicative of sexual abuse.

  6. Methylphenidate: increased abuse or appropriate use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llana, M E; Crismon, M L

    1999-01-01

    To address the question of the significant increase in methylphenidate (MPD) prescriptions being written and to make recommendations for health care providers involved in providing care for patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their families. Medline search 1966-1998 for professional articles using the following search terms--methylphenidate, children, adolescents, abuse; Internet search using MPD, Ritalin, and ADHD; and Paper Chase search using methylphenidate. The available literature regarding potential abuse or diversion of MPD consists of case reports, review articles, newspaper articles, and a Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) publication. All available literature sources were used. Although the media and DEA report significant abuse and diversion of prescribed MPD, a review of the available literature did not reveal data to substantiate these claims. Nonetheless, there are reasons to suspect that abuse and diversion occur. A potential contributing factor to abuse is the reported similarities in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics between MPD and cocaine. Recommendations are made to decrease the possibility of abuse and diversion of prescribed MPD. A balanced middle ground must be found regarding the benefits of MPD and its abuse potential. Education of clinicians, patients, and family members is key in ensuring that MPD is used appropriately.

  7. Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence From Semantic Distraction in Free Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, John E.; Hughes, Robert W.; S?rqvist, Patrik; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this did not influence the disruptive effect of those distractors on veridical recall (Experiment 1). Using an externalized output-editing procedure?whe...

  8. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadayat eSeddiqi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO. Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  9. Radiation Emitting Product Corrective Actions and Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database provides descriptions of radiation-emitting products that have been recalled under an approved corrective action plan to remove defective and...

  10. Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for Associative Memory Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddiqi, Hadayat; Humble, Travis

    2014-12-01

    Hopfield networks are a variant of associative memory that recall patterns stored in the couplings of an Ising model. Stored memories are conventionally accessed as fixed points in the network dynamics that correspond to energetic minima of the spin state. We show that memories stored in a Hopfield network may also be recalled by energy minimization using adiabatic quantum optimization (AQO). Numerical simulations of the underlying quantum dynamics allow us to quantify AQO recall accuracy with respect to the number of stored memories and noise in the input key. We investigate AQO performance with respect to how memories are stored in the Ising model according to different learning rules. Our results demonstrate that AQO recall accuracy varies strongly with learning rule, a behavior that is attributed to differences in energy landscapes. Consequently, learning rules offer a family of methods for programming adiabatic quantum optimization that we expect to be useful for characterizing AQO performance.

  11. Recalls of Food and Dietary Supplements

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Food producers recall their products from the marketplace when the products are mislabeled or when the food may present a health hazard to consumers because the food...

  12. Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Containing Products Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since February 2010 related to hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) paste and powder distributed by...

  13. FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The FDA Peanut-Containing Product Recall widget allows you to browse the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) database of peanut butter and peanut-containing products...

  14. 21 CFR 7.49 - Recall communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... communication should be commensurate with the hazard of the product being recalled and the strategy developed... communication should not contain irrelevant qualifications, promotional materials, or any other statement that...

  15. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate: A drug of abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drasbek, Kim Ryun; Christensen, Jakob; Jensen, Kimmo

    2006-01-01

    γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a drug of abuse that causes euphoria, anxiolysis and hypnosis. The recent rise in the recreational intake of GHB, as well as its association with “drug rape”, has turned the attention to GHB in acute hospital settings. Acutely admitted GHB intoxicated patients may display...... available. As a basis for understanding the clinical features of GHB intoxication and abuse, we here review the pharmacological and neurophysiological knowledge about GHB, which stems from decades of clinical and basic GHB research. Also, we discuss the latest discoveries in the quest for distinct GHB...... receptors in the brain, and their possible implications for future therapies of GHB abuse....

  16. Attentional Processing and Recall of Emotional Words

    OpenAIRE

    Fraga Carou, Isabel; Redondo, Jaime; Piñeiro, Ana; Padrón, Isabel; Fernández-Rey, José; Alcaraz, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the attention paid to words of different emotional value. A dual-task experimental paradigm was employed, registering response times to acoustic tones which were presented during the reading of words. The recall was also evaluated by means of an intentional immediate recall test. The results reveal that neither the emotional valence nor the arousal of words on their own affected the attention paid by participants. Only in the third exper...

  17. Differential recall bias, intermediate confounding, and mediation analysis in life course epidemiology: An analytic framework with empirical example.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which childhood socioeconomic status (CSES affects adult mental health, general health, and well-being are not clear. Moreover, the analytical assumptions employed when assessing mediation in social and psychiatric epidemiology are rarely explained. The aim of this paper was to explain the intermediate confounding assumption, and to quantify differential recall bias in the association between CSES, childhood abuse, and mental health (SCL-10, general health (EQ-5D, and subjective well-being (SWLS. Furthermore, we assessed the mediating role of psychological and physical abuse in the association between CSES and mental health, general health, and well-being; and the influence of differential recall bias in the estimation of total effects, direct effects, and proportion of mediated effects. The assumptions employed when assessing mediation are explained with reference to a causal diagram. Poisson regression models (relative risk, RR and 99% CI were used to assess the association between CSES and psychological and physical abuse in childhood. Mediation analysis (difference method was used to assess the indirect effect of CSES (through psychological and physical abuse in childhood on mental health, general health, and well-being. Psychological abuse and physical abuse mediated the association between CSES and adult mental health, general health, and well-being (6-16% among men and 7-14% among women, p<0.001. The results suggest that up to 27% of the association between CSES and childhood abuse, 23% of the association between childhood abuse, and mental health, general health, and well-being, and 44% of the association between CSES and mental health, general health, and well-being is driven by differential recall bias. Assessing mediation with cross-sectional data (exposure, mediator, and outcome measured at the same time showed that the total effects and direct effects were vastly overestimated (biased upwards. Consequently, the

  18. Routes of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics: a review and assessment of the potential impact of abuse-deterrent formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasior, Maciej; Bond, Mary; Malamut, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Prescription opioid analgesics are an important treatment option for patients with chronic pain; however, misuse, abuse and diversion of these medications are a major global public health concern. Prescription opioid analgesics can be abused via intended and non-intended routes of administration, both intact or after manipulation of the original formulation to alter the drug-delivery characteristics. Available data indicate that ingestion (with or without manipulation of the prescribed formulation) is the most prevalent route of abuse, followed by inhalation (snorting, smoking and vaping) and injection. However, reported routes of abuse vary considerably between different formulations. A number of factors have been identified that appear to be associated with non-oral routes of abuse, including a longer duration of abuse, younger age, male sex and a rural or socially deprived location. The development of abuse-deterrent formulations of prescription opioid analgesics is an important step toward reducing abuse of these medications. Available abuse-deterrent formulations aim to hinder extraction of the active ingredient, prevent administration through alternative routes and/or make abuse of the manipulated product less attractive, less rewarding or even aversive. There are currently five opioid analgesics with a Food and Drug Administration abuse-deterrent label, and a number of other products are under review. A growing body of evidence suggests that introduction of abuse-deterrent opioid analgesics in the USA has been associated with decreased rates of abuse of these formulations. The availability of abuse-deterrent formulations therefore appears to represent an important step toward curbing the epidemic of abuse of prescription opioid analgesics, while ensuring the availability of effective pain medications for patients with legitimate medical need.

  19. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Kerr

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24, were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01, detailed description (p < 0.05 and portion size matching (p < 0.05. Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods. The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05 and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8% compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days.

  20. Recalls of cardiac implants in the last decade: what lessons can we learn?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Due to an ageing population and demographic changes worldwide, a higher prevalence of heart disease is forecasted, which causes an even higher demand for cardiac implants in future. The increasing high incidence of clinical adverse events attributed especially to high-risk medical devices has led an advocated change from many stakeholders. This holds especially true for devices like cardiac implants, with their high-risk nature and high complication rates associated with considerable mortality, due to their frequent use in older populations with frequent co-morbidities. To ensure patients' safety, the objective of this study is to analyze different cardiac implants recall reasons and different recall systems, based on an overview of the recalls of cardiac implant medical devices in the last decade. On the basis of the results from this structured analysis, this study provides recommendations on how to avoid such recalls from a manufacturer perspective, as well as how to timely react to an adverse event from a post-surveillance system perspective.A systematic search of cardiac implant recalls information has been performed in the PubMed, ScienceDirect and Scopus databases, as well as data sources in regulatory authorities from 193 UN Member States. Data has been extracted for the years 2004-2014 with the following criteria applied: cardiac implant medical device recalls and reasons for recall, associated harm or risk to patients. From the data sources described above, eleven regulatory authorities and 103 recall reports have been included in this study. The largest cardiac implant categories include ICDs 40.8%, pacemakers 14.5% and stents 14.5%. Regarding the recall reasons, the majority of reports were related to device battery problems (33.0% and incorrect therapy delivery (31.1%. From a total of 103 recall reports, five reported death and serious injuries. Our review highlights weaknesses in the current cardiac implant recall system, including

  1. Examining the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall: the serial nature of recall and the effect of test expectancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, we examined the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall (ISR), using a within-subjects (Experiment 1) and a between-subjects (Experiment 2) design. In both experiments, participants read aloud lists of eight words and were precued or postcued to respond using free recall or ISR. The serial position curves were U-shaped for free recall and showed extended primacy effects with little or no recency for ISR, and there was little or no difference between recall for the precued and the postcued conditions. Critically, analyses of the output order showed that although the participants started their recall from different list positions in the two tasks, the degree to which subsequent recall was serial in a forward order was strikingly similar. We argue that recalling in a serial forward order is a general characteristic of memory and that performance on ISR and free recall is underpinned by common memory mechanisms.

  2. Does bruising help determine which fractures are caused by abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvano, Thomas J; Binns, Helen J; Flaherty, Emalee G; Leonhardt, Dan E

    2009-11-01

    To determine whether the presence or absence of bruising can be used to differentiate between abusive and nonabusive fractures, a retrospective study was conducted of patients with acute fractures referred to a child abuse team. A bruise and fracture were considered associated if both occurred on the same body site. Chart summaries, excluding information on bruising, were reviewed by 2 abuse experts to assign cause of injury. Of the 150 participants, fractures of 93 (62%) were categorized as abusive and 57 (38%) as nonabusive. Bruising associated with a fracture was found for 26% of abused and 25% of nonabused children. Most children (61%) had no bruises anywhere on the body, and this did not differ significantly by cause of injury. The sensitivity of a bruise associated with a fracture to predict abuse was only 26%. The presence or absence of bruising was not useful to differentiate between abusive and nonabusive fractures.

  3. Neural changes in extinction recall following prolonged exposure treatment for PTSD: A longitudinal fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liat Helpman, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Prolonged exposure treatment appears to alter neural activation in PTSD patients during recall of fear extinction, and change in extinction recall (measured by SCR is associated with symptom reduction. We discuss results in the context of neural systems involved in response to affective stimuli.

  4. Interpersonal sensitivity mediates the effects of child abuse and affective temperaments on depressive symptoms in the general adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsuka A

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ayano Otsuka,1 Yoshikazu Takaesu,1 Mitsuhiko Sato,1 Jiro Masuya,1 Masahiko Ichiki,1 Ichiro Kusumi,2 Takeshi Inoue1 1Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, 2Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan Background: Recent studies have suggested that multiple factors interact with the onset and prognosis of major depressive disorders. In this study, we investigated how child abuse, affective temperaments, and interpersonal sensitivity are interrelated, and how they affect depressive symptoms in the general adult population. Subjects and methods: A total of 415 volunteers from the general adult population completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire version, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, and the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure, which are all self-administered questionnaires. Data were subjected to structural equation modeling (Mplus, and single and multiple regression analyses. Results: The effect of child abuse on depressive symptoms was mediated by interpersonal sensitivity and 4 affective temperaments, including depressive, cyclothymic, anxious, and irritable temperaments. In addition, the effect of these temperaments on depressive symptoms was mediated by interpersonal sensitivity, indicating the indirect enhancement of depressive symptoms. In contrast to these 4 temperaments, the hyperthymic temperament did not mediate the effect of child abuse on depressive symptoms; its effect was not mediated by interpersonal sensitivity. However, a greater hyperthymic temperament predicted decreased depressive symptoms and interpersonal sensitivity, independent of any mediation effect. Limitations: Because this is a cross-sectional study, long-term prospective studies are necessary to confirm its findings. Therefore, recall bias should be considered when interpreting the results. As the subjects were

  5. Elder Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Gulen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abuse and neglect are preventable societal problems that influence elderly individuals physically, spiritually and socially. Elder abuse is neglected for many years and is a growing problem all over the world. The aim of this article is to review the evaluation of elderly individuals who are exposed to abuse and neglect with systematic detailed history and physical examination and to describe individual, familial, and social measures that should be taken to prevent these abuses. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 393-407

  6. Elder physical abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lisa M

    2014-11-01

    Physical abuse of the elderly is a significant public health concern. The true prevalence of all types is unknown, and under-reporting is known to be significant. The geriatric population is projected to increase dramatically over the next 10 years, and the number of abused individuals is projected to increase also. It is critical that health care providers feel competent in addressing physical elder abuse. This article presents cases illustrating the variety of presenting symptoms that may be attributed to physical elder abuse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pictorial Detail and Recall in Adults and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Gary H.

    1982-01-01

    Specific comparisons for a categorized set of items indicated that recall of detailed drawings and outlines was superior to recall of words. For an uncategorized set, outlines were recalled significantly better than pictures and both were recalled better than words. (Author/PN)

  8. The contribution of emotion regulation difficulties to risky sexual behavior within a sample of patients in residential substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tull, Matthew T; Weiss, Nicole H; Adams, Claire E; Gratz, Kim L

    2012-10-01

    The present study examined the unique contribution of emotion regulation difficulties to past-year risky sexual behavior (RSB) among substance use disorder (SUD) patients (above and beyond other known RSB risk factors). A sample of 177 SUD patients completed a series of questionnaires. At the zero-order level, emotion regulation difficulties, were significantly positively associated with the number of commercial sexual (i.e., the exchange of sex for drugs or money) partners with which penetrative sex occurred and significantly negatively associated with the likelihood of using a condom when having sex with a commercial partner under the influence of drugs. Emotion regulation difficulties also significantly predicted these RSB indices above and beyond other RSB risk factors, including demographics, depression, sensation seeking, traumatic exposure, and substance use severity. The specific emotion regulation difficulty of lack of emotional clarity emerged as a unique predictor of RSB. The implications of these findings for understanding motivations for RSB and developing targeted interventions for RSB among SUD patients are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stroke And Substance Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Chitsaz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injectors are at risk of infections endocarditis, which carries risk for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Cerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage usually occurs after rupture of a septic (mycotic aneurysm. Heroine users can are also at risk for hemorrhagic stroke secondary to liver failure with deranged clotting and to heroin nephropathy with uremia or malignant hypertension. In some heroin users the drug it self is directly causal due to vasculitis, hypersensitivity and immunologic changes. Embolization of foreign material to brain due to mixed of heroine with quinine can cause cerebral embolism. AMPHETAMINE AND other psychostimulants: In abuser of amphetamine hemorrhagic stroke can occur, oral, intravenous, nasal, and inhalational routes of administration have been reported. Most were chronic user, but in several patients, stroke followed a first exposure. Some of amphetamine induced intracranial hemorrhages are secondary to acute hypertension, some to cerebral vacuities, and some to a combination of two. Decongestants and diet pills: Phenylpropanolamine (PPA, an amphetamine – like drug, in decongestants and diet pills, induce acute hypertension, sever headache, psychiatric symptoms, seizures and hemorrhagic stroke. Ephedrine and pseudo ephedrine are present in decongestants and bronchodilators and induce headache, tachyarrhythmia, hypertensive emergency, and hemorrhagic and occlusive stroke. Ecstasy, 3,4 Methylenedioxymethamphetamin (MDMA with amphetamine like can

  10. Prose recall and amnesia: implications for the structure of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan; Wilson, Barbara A

    2002-01-01

    Two densely amnesic patients are shown to have good immediate but poor delayed prose recall, a result that presents problems for the current multi-component model of working memory. Examination of a wide sample of memory impaired patients suggests that this pattern occurs in densely amnesic patients who have well-preserved intelligence and good executive capacities. Patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease typically show poor immediate and delayed prose recall, reflecting their combined intellectual and memory deficits. The results are interpreted in terms of a proposed new component of working memory, the episodic buffer.

  11. Prior childhood sexual abuse in mothers of sexually abused children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, R K; Tebbutt, J; Swanston, H; Lynch, D L; O'Toole, B I

    1998-11-01

    To see if mothers who were sexually abused in their own childhood are at increased risk of their children being sexually abused and to see if prior sexual abuse in mothers affects their parenting abilities. Sixty-seven mothers whose children had been sexually abused by others and 65 control mothers were asked about sexual abuse in their own childhood. The sexually abused children of mothers who had been sexually abused in their own childhood were compared with the sexually abused children of mothers who had not suffered child sexual abuse as children. Comparisons were made on self-esteem, depression and behavior in the children. Thirty-four percent of mothers of sexually abused children gave a history of sexual abuse in their own childhoods, compared with 12% of control mothers. Assessment of the sexually abused children for self-esteem, depression and behavior at the time of diagnosis, after 18 months and after 5 years showed no difference in any of these measures at any of the three time intervals between those whose mothers had suffered child sexual abuse and those whose mothers had not been abused. In this study, sexual abuse in a mother's own childhood was related to an increased risk of sexual abuse occurring in the next generation, although prior maternal sexual abuse did not effect outcome in children who were sexually abused.

  12. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Courts Cultural Competence Diverse Populations and Communities Domestic Violence Human Trafficking Laws & Policies Service Array Statistics ... Home Topics Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children ...

  13. Trauma complexity and child abuse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Karin

    2017-01-01

    and categories emerged in the domains childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood emotional abuse (CEA), and neglect. Participants articulated wide personal impacts of child abuse in emotional, relational, and behavioral domains in their adult lives. These narratives contribute valuable clinical information...

  14. Memory, Maternal Representations, and Internalizing Symptomatology among Abused, Neglected, and Nonmaltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Kristin; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2008-01-01

    A depth-of-processing incidental recall task for maternal-referent stimuli was utilized to assess basic memory processes and the affective valence of maternal representations among abused (N = 63), neglected (N = 33), and nonmaltreated (N = 128) school-aged children (ages 8-13.5 years old). Self-reported and observer-rated indices of internalizing…

  15. Understanding the dynamics of correct and error responses in free recall: evidence from externalized free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Brewer, Gene A; Spillers, Gregory J

    2010-06-01

    The dynamics of correct and error responses in a variant of delayed free recall were examined in the present study. In the externalized free recall paradigm, participants were presented with lists of words and were instructed to subsequently recall not only the words that they could remember from the most recently presented list, but also any other words that came to mind during the recall period. Externalized free recall is useful for elucidating both sampling and postretrieval editing processes, thereby yielding more accurate estimates of the total number of error responses, which are typically sampled and subsequently edited during free recall. The results indicated that the participants generally sampled correct items early in the recall period and then transitioned to sampling more erroneous responses. Furthermore, the participants generally terminated their search after sampling too many errors. An examination of editing processes suggested that the participants were quite good at identifying errors, but this varied systematically on the basis of a number of factors. The results from the present study are framed in terms of generate-edit models of free recall.

  16. Reexposure Breeds Recall: Effects of Experience on 9-Month-Olds' Ordered Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J.; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Waters, Jennie M.; Bangston, Stephanie K.

    2001-01-01

    Two experiments using deferred imitation tested whether multiple experiences were necessary, or merely facilitative, of 9-month-olds' long-term recall. Found that infants did not demonstrate recall of a multi-step sequence experienced one, two, or three times a month earlier. However, when re-exposed to the experience 1 week after the initial…

  17. The effect of encoding condition on free recall in Parkinson's disease: incidental and intentional memory are equally affected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellfolk, Ulla; Huurinainen, Salla; Joutsa, Juho; Karrasch, Mira

    2012-01-01

    Free recall memory deficits are common at early stages of Parkinson's disease (PD). As most studies have used intentional memory tasks, there is little information on how non-intentional, incidental encoding conditions affect memory performance in PD. We studied possible differences between PD patients and controls on free recall using incidental and intentional visual memory tasks. Free recall was examined in relation to attentive/executive functioning and subjective memory complaints. A total of 29 non-demented, medicated PD patients (age 60, disease duration 19 months) and 29 healthy controls (age 61) participated in the study. Incidental free recall was studied using a memory-modification of the Boston naming test (Memo-BNT) and intentional free recall with the 20 Objects test. There was a significant main effect for group due to worse free recall performances in the PD group. No statistically significant interaction between group and encoding condition was observed. The free recall deficit in the PD group was related to cognitive/psychomotor slowing, but not to attentive/executive task demands, or to subjective memory complaints. The results indicate that PD patients are impaired on free recall irrespective of encoding condition.

  18. Abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos: atualização para uma antiga evidência Cannabis abuse in patients with psychiatric disorders: an update to old evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Diehl

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma atualização sobre o abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos. MÉTODO: Busca de artigos nas bases de dados eletrônicas Medline, The Cochrane Library Database, Lilacs, PubMed e SciELO, utilizando os descritores "marijuana abuse", "cannabis abuse", "psychiatric disorders" AND "mental disorders"; incluindo artigos que avaliaram ambas as exposições para abuso e dependência de cannabis e qualquer outro transtorno psiquiátrico. Foi considerado o período até dezembro de 2009. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o abuso frequente de cannabis pode aumentar o risco para o desenvolvimento de esquizofrenia e de sintomas psicóticos crônicos, embora estes achados ainda careçam de comprovação. A cannabis parece ser uma das drogas de escolha de portadores de transtorno afetivo bipolar, sendo que é descrito que estados maníacos podem ser induzidos pelo seu consumo. O abuso de maconha também frequentemente co-ocorre em indivíduos com transtornos ansiosos, sendo que a relação de cronicidade destas condições e o consumo de maconha ainda é incerta. Para depressão ainda não existem evidências claras que apontem que o consumo de cannabis ocorre como forma de automedicação. Em indivíduos com transtornos psiquiátricos, há relatos de que o uso da cannabis pode exacerbar sintomas positivos, somar efeitos negativos no curso do transtorno, contribuir para pior adesão ao tratamento e levar a maior número de hospitalizações. CONCLUSÃO: O abuso de cannabis em pacientes com transtornos psiquiátricos como esquizofrenia, transtornos do humor e ansiosos tem impacto negativo tanto na fase aguda quanto em fases mais avançadas destas condições, embora futuros estudos avaliando estas associações ainda sejam necessários.OBJECTIVE: To perform an update on cannabis abuse by patients with psychiatric disorders. METHOD: A search was performed in the electronic databases Medline, The Cochrane Library Database

  19. Effects of erythropoietin on memory-relevant neurocircuitry activity and recall in mood disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K W; Macoveanu, J; Vinberg, M

    2016-01-01

    MRI at 3T, mood ratings, and blood tests at baseline and week 14. During fMRI, participants performed a picture encoding task followed by postscan recall. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients had complete data (EPO: N = 32, saline: N = 30). EPO improved picture recall and increased encoding-related activity......OBJECTIVE: Erythropoietin (EPO) improves verbal memory and reverses subfield hippocampal volume loss across depression and bipolar disorder (BD). This study aimed to investigate with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) whether these effects were accompanied by functional changes in memory...... in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and temporo-parietal regions, but not in hippocampus. Recall correlated with activity in the identified dlPFC and temporo-parietal regions at baseline, and change in recall correlated with activity change in these regions from baseline to follow-up across the entire...

  20. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming ... find Facts for Families © helpful and would like to make good mental health a reality, consider donating to the Campaign for ...

  1. Signs of domestic abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-07-13

    Essential facts The government's definition of domestic violence and abuse, published in 2016 by the Home Office, is: 'Any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive, threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those 16 years or over who are, or have been, intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality.'

  2. SNL Abuse Testing Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lamb, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steele, Leigh Anna Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report describes recommended abuse testing procedures for rechargeable energy storage systems (RESSs) for electric vehicles. This report serves as a revision to the FreedomCAR Electrical Energy Storage System Abuse Test Manual for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications (SAND2005-3123).

  3. Elder Abuse Awareness Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goettler, Darla

    The Elder Abuse Prevention Project sponsored by the Seniors' Education Centre, University Extension, University of Regina (Saskatchewan, Canada) emerged from a provincial workshop held by the Centre in 1989. The workshop was designed to examine possible avenues for addressing elder abuse issues in Saskatchewan. The purposes of the project were to…

  4. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  5. Opioid Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... means feeling withdrawal symptoms when not taking the drug. Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes a person to compulsively seek out drugs, even though they cause harm. The risks of dependence and addiction are higher if you abuse the medicines. Abuse ...

  6. Training Tomorrow's Doctors to Safeguard the Patients of Today: Using Medical Student Simulation Training to Explore Barriers to Recognition of Elder Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James M; Rudd, Matthew P; Walker, Richard W; Stewart, Jane

    2016-01-01

    In recognition of the fact that elder abuse is a global problem that doctors underrecognize and underreport, a simulation training session for undergraduate medical students was developed. The primary objective of this qualitative study was to examine barriers to and drivers of medical students making a diagnosis of elder abuse in simulated practice, with the goal of refining teaching methods and informing future teaching sessions for other clinical teachers. Third-year medical students (Newcastle University, United Kingdom) undertook a simulation scenario with a high-fidelity mannequin representing an elder abuse victim. After the simulation scenario, students underwent a semistructured debriefing. A tripartite approach to data collection was employed that included audio recordings of the simulation, data sheets capturing students' thoughts during the scenario, and postscenario debriefing. A different researcher analyzed each data set in isolation before discussions were held to triangulate findings from the data sets. Forty-six students undertook the scenario; none declined to participate. A number of barriers to students diagnosing elder abuse were identified. Students held a low index of suspicion for elder abuse and were overly optimistic regarding the etiology of the individual's injuries. Students lacked the confidence to raise concerns about possible elder abuse, believing that certainty was required before doing so. There was widespread confusion about nomenclature. These findings provide clinical teachers with important topic areas to address in future teaching sessions. Simulation, as a method to teach about elder abuse in a reproducible and immersive fashion, is recommended to clinical teachers. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  7. Recall and recognition of verbal paired associates in early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowndes, G J; Saling, M M; Ames, D; Chiu, E; Gonzalez, L M; Savage, G R

    2008-07-01

    The primary impairment in early Alzheimer's disease (AD) is encoding/consolidation, resulting from medial temporal lobe (MTL) pathology. AD patients perform poorly on cued-recall paired associate learning (PAL) tasks, which assess the ability of the MTLs to encode relational memory. Since encoding and retrieval processes are confounded within performance indexes on cued-recall PAL, its specificity for AD is limited. Recognition paradigms tend to show good specificity for AD, and are well tolerated, but are typically less sensitive than recall tasks. Associate-recognition is a novel PAL task requiring a combination of recall and recognition processes. We administered a verbal associate-recognition test and cued-recall analogue to 22 early AD patients and 55 elderly controls to compare their ability to discriminate these groups. Both paradigms used eight arbitrarily related word pairs (e.g., pool-teeth) with varying degrees of imageability. Associate-recognition was equally effective as the cued-recall analogue in discriminating the groups, and logistic regression demonstrated classification rates by both tasks were equivalent. These preliminary findings provide support for the clinical value of this recognition tool. Conceptually it has potential for greater specificity in informing neuropsychological diagnosis of AD in clinical samples but this requires further empirical support.

  8. 10-minute delayed recall from the modified mini-mental state test predicts Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyness, Scott A; Lee, Ae Young; Zarow, Chris; Teng, Evelyn L; Chui, Helena C

    2014-01-01

    We compared the sensitivity and specificity of two delayed recall scores from the Modified Mini-Mental State (3MS) test with consensus clinical diagnosis to differentiate cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus non-AD pathologies. At a memory disorders clinic, 117 cognitively impaired patients were administered a baseline 3MS test and received a contemporaneous consensus clinical diagnosis. Their brains were examined after death about 5 years later. Using logistic regression with forward selection to predict pathologically defined AD versus non-AD, 10-min delayed recall entered first (p = 0.001), followed by clinical diagnosis (p = 0.02); 1-min delayed recall did not enter. 10-min delayed recall scores ≤4 (score range = 0-9) were 87% sensitive and 47% specific in predicting AD pathology; consensus clinical diagnosis was 82% sensitive and 45% specific. For the 57 patients whose initial Mini-Mental State Examination scores were ≥19 (the median), 3MS 10-min delayed recall scores ≤4 showed some loss of sensitivity (80%) but a substantial gain in specificity (77%). In conclusion, 10-min delayed recall score on the brief 3MS test distinguished between AD versus non-AD pathology about 5 years before death at least as well as consensus clinical diagnosis that requires much more comprehensive information and complex deliberation.

  9. Erroneous and Veridical Recall Are Not Two Sides of the Same Coin: Evidence From Semantic Distraction in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments examined the extent to which erroneous recall blocks veridical recall using, as a vehicle for study, the disruptive impact of distractors that are semantically similar to a list of words presented for free recall. Instructing participants to avoid erroneous recall of to-be-ignored spoken distractors attenuated their recall but this did not influence the disruptive effect of those distractors on veridical recall (Experiment 1). Using an externalized output-editing procedure—whereby participants recalled all items that came to mind and identified those that were erroneous—the usual between-sequences semantic similarity effect on erroneous and veridical recall was replicated but the relationship between the rate of erroneous and veridical recall was weak (Experiment 2). The results suggest that forgetting is not due to veridical recall being blocked by similar events. PMID:25938326

  10. Lingering representations of stimuli influence recall organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephanie C.Y.; Applegate, Marissa C.; Morton, Neal W; Polyn, Sean M.; Norman, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Several prominent theories posit that information about recent experiences lingers in the brain and organizes memories for current experiences, by forming a temporal context that is linked to those memories at encoding. According to these theories, if the thoughts preceding an experience X resemble the thoughts preceding an experience Y, then X and Y should show an elevated probability of being recalled together. We tested this prediction by using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data to measure neural evidence for lingering processing of preceding stimuli. As predicted, memories encoded with similar lingering thoughts about the category of preceding stimuli were more likely to be recalled together. Our results demonstrate that the “fading embers” of previous stimuli help to organize recall, confirming a key prediction of computational models of episodic memory. PMID:28132858

  11. Lingering representations of stimuli influence recall organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephanie C Y; Applegate, Marissa C; Morton, Neal W; Polyn, Sean M; Norman, Kenneth A

    2017-03-01

    Several prominent theories posit that information about recent experiences lingers in the brain and organizes memories for current experiences, by forming a temporal context that is linked to those memories at encoding. According to these theories, if the thoughts preceding an experience X resemble the thoughts preceding an experience Y, then X and Y should show an elevated probability of being recalled together. We tested this prediction by using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data to measure neural evidence for lingering processing of preceding stimuli. As predicted, memories encoded with similar lingering thoughts about the category of preceding stimuli were more likely to be recalled together. Our results demonstrate that the "fading embers" of previous stimuli help to organize recall, confirming a key prediction of computational models of episodic memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. sexual abuse of children as a form of power abuse and abuse of the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic ... Some researchers recognize that power also plays a role in sexual abuse, but this abuse of ..... Gender, power, and organizational culture.

  13. Recreational drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.

  14. Abuse Potential of Pregabalin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjerning, Ole; Rosenzweig, Mary; Pottegård, Anton

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several case reports and epidemiological studies have raised concern about the abuse potential of pregabalin, the use of which has increased substantially over the last decade. Pregabalin is, in some cases, used for recreational purposes and it has incurred attention among drug abusers...... for causing euphoric and dissociative effects when taken in doses exceeding normal therapeutic dosages or used by alternative routes of administration, such as nasal insufflation or venous injection. The magnitude of the abuse potential and the mechanism behind it are not fully known. OBJECTIVE: The aim...... of this study was to present a systematic review of the data concerning the abuse potential of pregabalin. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search and reviewed the preclinical, clinical and epidemiological data on the abuse potential of pregabalin. RESULTS: We included preclinical (n = 17...

  15. Dextromethorphan Abuse in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018

  16. Universal problems during residency: abuse and harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata-Kobayashi, Shizuko; Maeno, Tetsuhiro; Yoshizu, Misaki; Shimbo, Takuro

    2009-07-01

    Perceived abuse or harassment during residency has a negative impact on residents' health and well-being. This issue pertains not only to Western countries, but also to those in Asia. In order to launch strong international preventive measures against this problem, it is necessary to establish the generality and cultural specificity of this problem in different countries. Therefore, we investigated mistreatment among resident doctors in Japan. In 2007, a multi-institutional, cross-sectional survey was conducted at 37 hospitals. A total of 619 residents (409 men, 210 women) were recruited. Prevalence of mistreatment in six categories was evaluated: verbal abuse; physical abuse; academic abuse; sexual harassment; gender discrimination, and alcohol-associated harassment. In addition, alleged abusers, the emotional effects of abusive experiences, and reluctance to report the abuse to superiors were investigated. Male and female responses were statistically compared using chi-square analysis. A total of 355 respondents (228 men, 127 women) returned a completed questionnaire (response rate 57.4%). Mistreatment was reported by 84.8% of respondents (n = 301). Verbal abuse was the most frequently experienced form of mistreatment (n = 256, 72.1%), followed by alcohol-associated harassment (n = 184, 51.8%). Among women, sexual harassment was also often reported (n = 74, 58.3%). Doctors were most often reported as abusers (n = 124, 34.9%), followed by patients (n = 77, 21.7%) and nurses (n = 61, 17.2%). Abuse was reported to have occurred most frequently during surgical rotations (n = 98, 27.6%), followed by rotations in departments of internal medicine (n = 76, 21.4%), emergency medicine (n = 41, 11.5%) and anaesthesia (n = 40, 11.3%). Very few respondents reported their experiences of abuse to superiors (n = 36, 12.0%). The most frequent emotional response to experiences of abuse was anger (n = 84, 41.4%). Mistreatment during residency is a universal phenomenon. Deliberation

  17. Right upper-quadrant pain in a patient with drug abuse, secondary syphilis and occult hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Cory M; Angulo, Paul

    2014-01-01

    To describe the etiology of hepatitis and identify occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. A 40-year-old man presented with severe abdominal pain and jaundice, a history of acute HBV infection that had cleared as well as the use of acetaminophen, methamphetamine, buprenorphine and marijuana. He admitted to having had unprotected sex with multiple partners of both genders. A thorough skin examination revealed papulosquamous lesions on his penis, scrotum, upper and lower extremities and feet. Transaminases and bilirubin were elevated. His rapid plasma reagin was reactive, and hepatitis serologies showed occult HBV. Liver biopsy showed severe hepatitis, but the stains for hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core antigen were negative. The pathological findings were highly indicative of drug-induced hepatitis without evidence of chronic hepatitis, reactivation of HBV or syphilitic hepatitis. With supportive management and abstinence from drugs, his condition improved. This case describes a patient with multiple potential causes for hepatitis and highlights the importance of obtaining a detailed social history. Further, one should consider the presence of occult HBV and recognize the serologic pattern. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Some structural determinants of melody recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltz, M

    1991-05-01

    Sophisticated musicians were asked to recall, using musical notation, a set of unfamiliar folk tunes that varied in rhythmic structure and referents of tonality. The results showed that memory was facilitated by tonic triad members marking phrase endings, but only when their presence was highlighted by a corresponding pattern of temporal accents. Conversely, recall significantly declined when tonal information was either absent or obscured by rhythmic structure. Error analyses further revealed that the retention of overall pitch contour and information at phrase ending points varied as a function of these manipulations. The results are discussed in terms of a framework that links the acts of perceiving and remembering to a common attentional scheme.

  19. Pulmonary hemorrhage following anabolic agent abuse: Two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Hvid-Jensen, Helene S.; Rasmussen, Finn; Bendstrup, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Numerous adverse effects follow anabolic agent abuse. Pulmonary hemorrhage is not considered one of them. We present two cases of young male bodybuilders who developed diffuse alveolar bleeding as a result of anabolic steroid abuse. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage associated with anabolic agent abuse has not been described previously in the literature. Both patients developed acute dyspnea and hemoptysis with consistent radiological findings. In both cases symptoms promptly resolved with cessatio...

  20. Free recall memory performance after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Signy; Macdonald, R Loch; Schweizer, Tom A

    2012-03-01

    Memory deficits for survivors of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are common, however, the nature of these deficits is not well understood. In this study, 24 patients with SAH and matched control participants were asked to study six lists containing words from four different categories. For half the lists, the categories were presented together (organized lists). For the remaining lists, the related words were presented randomly to maximize the use of executive processes such as strategy and organization (unorganized lists). Across adjoining lists, there was overlap in the types of categories given, done to promote intrusions. Compared to control participants, SAH patients recalled a similar number of words for the organized lists, but significantly fewer words for the unorganized lists. SAH patients also reported more intrusions than their matched counterparts. Separating patients into anterior communicating artery ruptures (ACoA) and ruptures in other regions, there was a recall deficit only for the unorganized list for those with ACoA ruptures and deficits across both list types for other rupture locations. These results suggest that memory impairment following SAH is likely driven by impairment in the executive components of memory, particularly for those with ACoA ruptures. Such findings may help direct future cognitive-therapeutic programs.

  1. Recalling and forgetting dreams: theta and alpha oscillations during sleep predict subsequent dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzano, Cristina; Ferrara, Michele; Mauro, Federica; Moroni, Fabio; Gorgoni, Maurizio; Tempesta, Daniela; Cipolli, Carlo; De Gennaro, Luigi

    2011-05-04

    Under the assumption that dream recall is a peculiar form of declarative memory, we have hypothesized that (1) the encoding of dream contents during sleep should share some electrophysiological mechanisms with the encoding of episodic memories of the awake brain and (2) recalling a dream(s) after awakening from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep should be associated with different brain oscillations. Here, we report that cortical brain oscillations of human sleep are predictive of successful dream recall. In particular, after morning awakening from REM sleep, a higher frontal 5-7 Hz (theta) activity was associated with successful dream recall. This finding mirrors the increase in frontal theta activity during successful encoding of episodic memories in wakefulness. Moreover, in keeping with the different EEG background, a different predictive relationship was found after awakening from stage 2 NREM sleep. Specifically, a lower 8-12 Hz (alpha) oscillatory activity of the right temporal area was associated with a successful dream recall. These findings provide the first evidence of univocal cortical electroencephalographic correlates of dream recall, suggesting that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the encoding and recall of episodic memories may remain the same across different states of consciousness.

  2. Trends in Non-prescription Drug Recalls in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Chikoto; Ishida, Takuya; Osawa, Takashi; Naito, Takafumi; Kawakami, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Recalls of non-prescription drugs can contribute to preventing harm to human health, however, they also interrupt the supply of medicines to the market. The aim of the present study was to investigate the trends in non-prescription drug recalls in Japan. Class I, II, and III recalls reported from April 2009 to March 2014 were obtained from the websites of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. Each drug recall was classified according to year, dosage form, therapeutic category, and reasons for the recall. The trends over the 5 year period were assessed for each class. A total of 220 recalls were reported in the 5-year study period. The numbers of drug recalls were 21, 16, 80, 58, and 45 in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. The drugs recalled consisted of 177 internal medications, 35 topical agents, and 8 others. Drug recalls were observed in 12 therapeutic categories of drug effects. The largest number of recalls was for Chinese herbal medicines and crude drugs. Of all the drug recalls in 2011, Chinese herbal medicines and crude drugs produced by one manufacturer accounted for 84%. Slightly more than half (54%) of drug recalls were due to a violation of the regulations. One manufacturer recalled many drugs because of non-compliance with the standard regulations for manufacturing drugs after 2011. In conclusion, non-prescription drug recalls can occur for any drug regardless of the dosage form and therapeutic category.

  3. Substance abuse and first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. The Danish OPUS trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lone; Jeppesen, Pia; Thorup, Anne

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years.......To evaluate whether integrated treatment (given by OPUS), in comparison with standard treatment, significantly reduced the number of patients with substance abuse and improved clinical and social outcome in the group of substance abusers after 2 years....

  4. The Role of Gluococorticoids and Neuroinflammation in Mediating the Effects of Stress on Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    exposed to a drug of abuse do not develop addiction, or abuse the drug . For example, the overwhelming majority of patients that receive opiates for...addiction, nor abuse the drug . For example, the overwhelming majority of patients that receive opiates for pain relief while hospitalized do not develop... drugs of abuse. Though this project has been completed, our future plans are clearly centered around understanding how HMGB1 mediates stress-induced

  5. Radiation recall dermatitis after docetaxel chemotherapy. Treatment by antioxidant ointment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncker-Rohr, Viola; Freund, Ulrich; Momm, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Radiation recall dermatitis (RRD) is an acute skin toxicity caused by different anticancer or antibiotic drugs within a former completely healed irradiation field. Predictive factors for RRD are not known and its mechanisms are not completely understood. A case of RRD induced by docetaxel and successfully treated by an antioxidant ointment (Mapisal registered ) is presented here. Such an ointment might be useful not only in RRD therapy, but also in the treatment of high-grade dermatitis induced by radiotherapy and thus may contribute to the improvement of patients' quality of life and to the scheduled completion of cancer therapies. (orig.) [de

  6. Differentiation between mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease and depression by means of cued recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierckx, E; Engelborghs, S; De Raedt, R; De Deyn, P P; Ponjaert-Kristoffersen, I

    2007-05-01

    Discriminating Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from depression is a challenge in psychogeriatric medicine. A study was set up to ascertain whether cued recall could be useful in differentiating early AD and MCI from depression among elderly individuals. The Visual Association Test (VAT) and the Memory Impairment Screen-plus (MIS-plus) were administered together with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) to 40 MCI patients, 35 mild AD patients, 46 depressed patients and 52 healthy control subjects. A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post-hoc Scheffé tests showed that AD patients had significantly lower cued recall scores (i.e. combined VAT and MIS-plus scores) than MCI patients, who in turn had lower scores than depressed patients. The scores of depressed patients and controls were not significantly different. Discriminant analysis revealed that 94% of the AD patients and 96% of the depressed patients could be classified correctly by means of the GDS and the cued recall sores. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves identified an optimal cut-off score of 8 (maximum score 12) for differentiating AD and MCI patients from depressed elderly patients and controls. Applying this cut-off, a sensitivity of 83% (58%) and a specificity of 85% (85%) was obtained when differentiating AD (MCI) from depression. Cued recall, operationalized by the combined scores of VAT and MIS-plus, is a useful method for differentiating AD patients from depressed individuals and healthy controls. Probably because of the great heterogeneity among MCI patients, the diagnostic power of cued recall decreases when applied to differentiate MCI from depression.

  7. Differential Interpolation Effects in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrusic, William M.; Jamieson, Donald G.

    1978-01-01

    Attempts to determine whether a sufficiently demanding and difficult interpolated task (shadowing, i.e., repeating aloud) would decrease recall for earlier-presented items as well as for more recent items. Listening to music was included as a second interpolated task. Results support views that serial position effects reflect a single process.…

  8. Interpreting semantic clustering effects in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Jeremy R; Kahana, Michael J

    2012-07-01

    The order in which participants choose to recall words from a studied list of randomly selected words provides insights into how memories of the words are represented, organised, and retrieved. One pervasive finding is that when a pair of semantically related words (e.g., "cat" and "dog") is embedded in the studied list, the related words are often recalled successively. This tendency to successively recall semantically related words is termed semantic clustering (Bousfield, 1953; Bousfield & Sedgewick, 1944; Cofer, Bruce, & Reicher, 1966). Measuring semantic clustering effects requires making assumptions about which words participants consider to be similar in meaning. However, it is often difficult to gain insights into individual participants' internal semantic models, and for this reason researchers typically rely on standardised semantic similarity metrics. Here we use simulations to gain insights into the expected magnitudes of semantic clustering effects given systematic differences between participants' internal similarity models and the similarity metric used to quantify the degree of semantic clustering. Our results provide a number of useful insights into the interpretation of semantic clustering effects in free recall.

  9. When Do First Letters Mnemonics Aid Recall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, P. E.; Cook, N.

    1978-01-01

    The evidence for the effectiveness of the first letter mnemonic technique is confused. There are at least three studies showing no effect, and one where an improvement in recall occurred. Reports two experiments which attempted to locate the conditions under which the first letter mnemonic is effective. (Author/RK)

  10. Working Memory and Binding in Sentence Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, A. D.; Hitch, G. J.; Allen, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    A series of experiments explored whether chunking in short-term memory for verbal materials depends on attentionally limited executive processes. Secondary tasks were used to disrupt components of working memory and chunking was indexed by the sentence superiority effect, whereby immediate recall is better for sentences than word lists. To…

  11. Accessibility Limits Recall from Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsic, Jason; Swan, Garrett; Wilson, Daryl E.; Pratt, Jay

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate limitations of accessibility of information in visual working memory (VWM). Recently, cued-recall has been used to estimate the fidelity of information in VWM, where the feature of a cued object is reproduced from memory (Bays, Catalao, & Husain, 2009; Wilken & Ma, 2004; Zhang & Luck, 2008). Response…

  12. Radiation recall dermatitis induced by trastuzumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Kaynak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation recall phenomenon is an acute, egzematous reaction that develops throughout a previously irradiated area, precipitated by the administration of docetaxel, doxorubicin, gemcitabine and paclitaxel. We report a 52-year-old woman with breast cancer who received locoregional radiotherapy followed by trastuzumab monotherapy. Three day after the first cycle of trastuzumab monotherapy, dermatitis developed in the previously irradiated skin.

  13. Rehearsal and recall in immediate memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, A.F.

    1961-01-01

    Experiments on the influence of rehearsal on the retention and recoil of digit combinations are described, from the results of which it appears that a rehearsal period facilitates recall by producing a transition from immediate to permanent memory. It further seems that some parts of the material

  14. Negative Priming in Free Recall Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanczakowski, Maciej; Beaman, C. Philip; Jones, Dylan M.

    2016-01-01

    Negative priming in free recall is the finding of impaired memory performance when previously ignored auditory distracters become targets of encoding and retrieval. This negative priming has been attributed to an aftereffect of deploying inhibitory mechanisms that serve to suppress auditory distraction and minimize interference with learning and…

  15. Task Context and Organization in Free Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyn, Sean M.; Norman, Kenneth A.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work on organization in free recall has focused on the ways in which semantic and temporal information determine the order in which material is retrieved from memory. Tulving's theory of ecphory suggests that these organizational effects arise from the interaction of a retrieval cue with the contents of memory. Using the…

  16. Prevalence of sexual abuse among children with conduct disorder: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Many clinicians and researchers have speculated that child sexual abuse and conduct disorder co-occur frequently, yet no systematic reviews of literature have specifically addressed both these conditions. To estimate the prevalence of sexual abuse among children with conduct disorder, the pertinent literature was systematically reviewed. Ten databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Blind assessments of study eligibility and quality were conducted by two independent researchers. Disagreements were resolved by consensus. Twenty-three studies meeting minimum quality criteria that were enough to insure objectivity and not to invalidate results and including 7,256 participants with either conduct disorder or child sexual abuse were examined. The prevalence of child sexual abuse among participants with conduct disorder was 27 %; however, such figure might be underestimated due to selection, sampling, and recall biases; poor assessment methods; and narrow definitions of abuse in included studies. Participants with conduct disorder, compared with healthy individuals, reported higher rates of child sexual abuse. However, compared with other psychiatric populations, they reported similar or lower rates. There was also some evidence suggesting that children with conduct disorder might be more likely to report child physical abuse. Female participants with conduct disorder, compared with males, were significantly more likely to report child sexual abuse. Youths with conduct disorder are at risk of being (or having been) sexually abused, although such risk seems to be neither more specific to nor stronger for these individuals, compared with people with other psychiatric disorders.

  17. Infantile abuse: Radiological diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Araujo Reyes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Infantile abuse is a frequent problem, that must be suspected to bediagnosed, the children victims of infantile abuse can present anytype of injury, nevertheless there are associated injuries common toan inferred trauma that constitute radiological patterns highly specific for abuse, among them are the metafisial injuries, posterior costal fractures and first costal arc fractures, fractures of the toracolumbar region, fractures without apparent explanation, fractures in different stage of evolution, subdural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, intraparenquimatose contusion and diffuse axonal injury, which combined with the history of the trauma, the age, the development of mental abilities, as well as the mechanism guides the injury diagnose.

  18. Workplace abuse: finding solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, Kate

    2007-01-01

    The atmosphere within the work setting speaks volumes about your culture, and is often a primary factor in recruitment and retention (or turnover) of staff. Workplace tension and abuse are significant contributing factors as to why nurses are exiting workplaces--and even leaving the profession. Abuse can take many forms from inappropriate interpersonal communication to sexual harassment and even violence. Administrators should adopt a zero tolerance policy towards abusive communication. Addressing peer behavior is essential, but positive behavior must also be authentically modeled from the CNO and other nursing leaders. Raising awareness and holding individuals accountable for their behavior can lead to a safer and more harmonious work environment.

  19. Child Abuse and Neglect in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Rajeev

    2015-08-01

    India is home to the largest child population in the world, with almost 41 % of the total population under 18 y of age. The health and security of the country's children is integral to any vision for its progress and development. Doctors and health care professionals are often the first point of contact for abused and neglected children. They play a key role in detecting child abuse and neglect, provide immediate and longer term care and support to children. Despite being important stakeholders, often physicians have a limited understanding on how to protect these vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for systematic training for physicians to prevent, detect and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect in the clinical setting. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of child abuse and neglect from a medical assessment to a socio-legal perspective in India, in order to ensure a prompt and comprehensive multidisciplinary response to victims of child abuse and neglect. During their busy clinical practice, medical professionals can also use the telephone help line (CHILDLINE telephone 1098) to refer cases of child abuse, thus connecting them to socio-legal services. The physicians should be aware of the new legislation, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which requires mandatory reporting of cases of child sexual abuse, failing which they can be penalized. Moreover, doctors and allied medical professionals can help prevent child sexual abuse by delivering the message of personal space and privacy to their young patients and parents.

  20. Differential neural correlates of autobiographical memory recall in bipolar and unipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kymberly D; Bodurka, Jerzy; Drevets, Wayne C

    2016-11-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) recall is impaired in both bipolar depression (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate differences between healthy controls (HCs) and depressed participants with either BD or MDD as they recalled AMs that varied in emotional valence. Unmedicated adults in a current major depressive episode who met criteria for either MDD or BD and HCs (n=16/group) underwent fMRI while recalling AMs in response to emotionally valenced cue words. Control tasks involved generating examples from a given category and counting the number of risers in a letter string. Both participants with BD and those with MDD recalled fewer specific and more categorical memories than HC participants. During specific AM recall of positive memories, participants with BD showed increased hemodynamic activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, middle temporal gyrus, parahippocampus, and amygdala relative to MDD and HC participants, as well as decreased dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) activity relative to MDD participants. During specific AM recall of negative memories, participants with BD manifested decreased activity in the precuneus, amygdala, anterior cingulate, and DLPFC along with increased activity in the dorsomedial PFC relative to MDD participants. While depressed participants with BD and MDD exhibited similar depression ratings and memory deficits, the brain regions underlying successful AM recall significantly differentiated these patient groups. Differential amygdala activity during emotional memory recall (particularly increased activity in participants with BD for positive AMs) may prove useful in the differentiation of individuals with MDD and BD experiencing a depressive episode. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  2. Restoring primacy in amnesic free recall: evidence for the recency theory of primacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Michaela; Brown, Gordon D A; Della Sala, Sergio

    2011-09-01

    Primacy and recency effects at immediate recall are thought to reflect the independent functioning of a long-term memory store (primacy) and a short-term memory store (recency). Key evidence for this theory comes from amnesic patients who show severe long-term memory storage deficits, coupled with profoundly attenuated primacy. Here we challenge this dominant dual-store theory of immediate recall by demonstrating that attenuated primacy in amnesic patients can reflect abnormal working memory rehearsal processes. D.A., a patient with severe amnesia, presented with profoundly attenuated primacy when using her preferred atypical noncumulative rehearsal strategy. In contrast, despite her severe amnesia, she showed normal primacy when her rehearsal was matched with that of controls via an externalized cumulative rehearsal schedule. Our data are in keeping with the "recency theory of primacy" and suggest that primacy at immediate recall is dependent upon medial temporal lobe involvement in cumulative rehearsal rather than long-term memory storage.

  3. Substance abuse in first-episode non-affective psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor K; Melle, Ingrid; Auestad, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol and drugs is an important and clinically challenging aspect of first-episode psychosis. Only a few studies have been carried out on large-sized and reliably characterized samples. These are reviewed, and the results are compared with a sample of 300 first-episode psychosis patients...... recruited for the TIPS (Early Treatment and Identification of Psychosis) study from Norway and Denmark. Prevalence rates from the literature vary from 6% to 44% for drugs and 3% to 35% for alcohol. In our sample, 23% abused drugs and 15% abused alcohol during the last 6 months. When compared to non......-abusers, the drug-abusing group is characterized by the following: male gender, younger age, better premorbid social, poor premorbid academic functioning, and more contact with friends in the last year before onset. Alcohol abusers were the oldest group and they had the least contact with friends. A group...

  4. FIRST DIRECT EVIDENCE OF TWO STAGES IN FREE RECALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Tarnow

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available I find that exactly two stages can be seen directly in sequential free recall distributions. These distributions show that the first three recalls come from the emptying of working memory, recalls 6 and above come from a second stage and the 4th and 5th recalls are mixtures of the two.A discontinuity, a rounded step function, is shown to exist in the fitted linear slope of the recall distributions as the recall shifts from the emptying of working memory (positive slope to the second stage (negative slope. The discontinuity leads to a first estimate of the capacity of working memory at 4-4.5 items. The total recall is shown to be a linear combination of the content of working memory and items recalled in the second stage with 3.0-3.9 items coming from working memory, a second estimate of the capacity of working memory. A third, separate upper limit on the capacity of working memory is found (3.06 items, corresponding to the requirement that the content of working memory cannot exceed the total recall, item by item. This third limit is presumably the best limit on the average capacity of unchunked working memory.The second stage of recall is shown to be reactivation: The average times to retrieve additional items in free recall obey a linear relationship as a function of the recall probability which mimics recognition and cued recall, both mechanisms using reactivation (Tarnow, 2008.

  5. Serotonergic blunting to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) highly correlates with sustained childhood abuse in impulsive and autoaggressive female borderline patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinne, T.; Westenberg, H. G.; den Boer, J. A.; van den Brink, W.

    2000-01-01

    Disturbances of affect, impulse regulation, and autoaggressive behavior, which are all said to be related to an altered function of the central serotonergic (5-HT) system, are prominent features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). A high coincidence of childhood physical and sexual abuse is

  6. Cardiovascular Complications of Acute Amphetamine Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazmi, Elham; Mousavi, Farinaz; Giahchin, Leila; Mokhtari, Tahmineh; Behnoush, Behnam

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate cardiovascular complications among patients who abuse amphetamines. Methods This cross-sectional study took place between April 2014 and April 2015 among 3,870 patients referred to the Toxicology Emergency Department of Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Those with clinical signs of drug abuse and positive urine screening tests were included in the study, while cases of chronic abuse were excluded. Cardiac complications were evaluated via electrocardiography (ECG) and transthoracic echocardiography. Results A total of 230 patients (5.9%) had a history of acute amphetamine abuse and positive urine tests. Of these, 32 patients (13.9%) were <20 years old and 196 (85.2%) were male. In total, 119 (51.7%) used amphetamine and methamphetamine compounds while 111 (48.3%) used amphetamines with morphine or benzodiazepines. The most common ECG finding was sinus tachycardia (43.0%), followed by sinus tachycardia plus a prolonged QT interval (34.3%). Mean creatine kinase-MB and troponin I levels were 35.9 ± 4.3 U/mL and 0.6 ± 0.2 ng/mL, respectively. A total of 60 patients (26.1%) were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. The majority (83.3%) of these patients had normal echocardiography results. The mean aortic root diameter (ARD) was 27.2 ± 2.8 mm. Abnormalities related to the ARD were found in 10 patients (16.7%), three of whom subsequently died. Conclusion According to these findings, cardiac complications were common among Iranian patients who abuse amphetamines, although the majority of patients had normal echocardiography and ECG findings. PMID:28417026

  7. Sexually Abused Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    Reports of male victims (N=189) of child sexual abuse were retrospectively reviewed. Comparison to an age- and race-matched group of female victims revealed similarities in patterns of disclosure and perpetrator characteristics. (Author/DB)

  8. Substance abuse in anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Guasch, Roser; Roigé, Jaume; Padrós, Jaume

    2012-04-01

    Anaesthesiologists have a significantly higher frequency of substance abuse by a factor of nearly 3 when compared with other physicians. This is still a current problem that must be reviewed. Many hypotheses have been formulated to explain why anaesthesiologists appear to be more susceptible to substance abuse than other medical professionals (genetic differences in sensitivity to opioids, stress, the association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology or the second-hand exposure hypothesis). Environmental exposure and sensitization may be an important risk factor in physician addiction. There is a long debate about returning to work for an anaesthetist who has been depending on opioid drugs, and recent debates are discussed. Institutional efforts have been made in many countries and physician health programmes have been developed. As drug abuse among anaesthesiologists has continued, new studies have been conducted to know the theories about susceptibility. Written substance abuse policies and controls must be taken in place and in all countries.

  9. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  10. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Showing private parts ("flashing"), forcing children to watch pornography, verbal pressure for sex, and exploiting children as prostitutes or for pornography can be sexual abuse as well. Researchers estimate ...

  11. Generational Reproduction of child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    García Ampudia, Lupe; Orellana M., Oswaldo; Pomalaya V., Ricardo; Yanac Reynoso, Elisa; Malaver S., Carmela; Herrera F., Edgar; Sotelo L., Noemi; Campos C., Lilia; Sotelo L., Lidia; Orellana García, Daphne; Velasquez M., Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is the study of the abuse rising in two generations, of parents and children and establishing the relationship between background child’s abuse with the potential abuse. The sample is comprised of 441 students and 303 parents who agreed to answer the Memories of Abuse Questionnaire. The used instruments were the Child History Questionnaire adapted for the purpose of this research, the Inventory of Potential Child Abuse (Milner, J. 1977), adapted by De Paul, Arru...

  12. The prevalence of HIV infection among cannabis-abused psychiatric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of HIV infection among cannabis-abused psychiatric patients: the case of federal psychiatric hospital, Calabar. ... called “Prevalence of HIV infection and Cannabis-Abused Questionnaire” (P.H.I.C.Q.), while data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using contingency chi-square (X2) technique.

  13. Substances of abuse — demand for their determinations in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis trends observed in this study demonstrate global patterns of drug abuse emerging in the Western Cape. The medical and social effects of drug abuse impose a grave responsibility on policymakers to ensure that adequate funding is available for analytical laboratories. Only in such a way can these patients be ...

  14. Antitussives and substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burns JM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jarrett M Burns, Edward W Boyer Division of Medical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Abstract: Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. Keywords: dextromethorphan, purple drank, sizzurp, codeine/promethazine

  15. Incidence of iatrogenic opioid dependence or abuse in patients with pain who were exposed to opioid analgesic therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, C; Smith, B H; Matthews, K

    2018-06-01

    The prevalence and incidence of chronic conditions, such as pain and opioid dependence, have implications for policy development, resource allocation, and healthcare delivery. The primary objective of the current review was to estimate the incidence of iatrogenic opioid dependence or abuse after treatment with opioid analgesics. Systematic electronic searches utilised six research databases (Embase, Medline, PubMed, Cinahl Plus, Web of Science, OpenGrey). A 'grey' literature search and a reference search of included articles were also undertaken. The PICOS framework was used to develop search strategies and the findings are reported in accordance with the PRISMA Statement. After eligibility reviews of 6164 articles, 12 studies (involving 310 408 participants) were retained for inclusion in the meta-analyses. A random effects model (DerSimonian-Laird method) generated a pooled incidence of opioid dependence or abuse of 4.7%. There was little within-study risk of bias and no significant publication bias; however, substantial heterogeneity was found among study effects (99.78%). Sensitivity analyses indicated that the diagnostic criteria selected for identifying opioid dependence or abuse (Diagnostic Statistical Manual (DSM-IV) vs International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9)) accounted for 20% and duration of exposure to opioid analgesics accounted for 18% of variance in study effects. Longer-term opioid analgesic exposure, and prescription of strong rather than weak opioids, were associated with a significantly lower incidence of opioid dependence or abuse. The incidence of iatrogenic opioid dependence or abuse was 4.7% of those prescribed opioids for pain. Further research is required to confirm the potential for our findings to inform prevention of this serious adverse event. Copyright © 2018 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Design paper: The CapOpus trial: A randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of specialized addiction treatment versus treatment as usual for young patients with cannabis abuse and psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gluud Christian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies indicate a link between cannabis-use and psychosis as well as more severe psychosis in those with existing psychotic disorders. There is currently insufficient evidence to decide the optimal way to treat cannabis abuse among patients with psychosis. Objectives The major objective for the CapOpus trial is to evaluate the additional effect on cannabis abuse of a specialized addiction treatment program adding group treatment and motivational interviewing to treatment as usual. Design The trial is designed as a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial. Patients are primarily recruited through early-psychosis detection teams, community mental health centers, and assertive community treatment teams. Patients are randomized to one of two treatment arms, both lasting six months: 1 specialized addiction treatment plus treatment as usual or 2 treatment as usual. The specialized addiction treatment is manualized and consists of both individual and group-based motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy, and incorporates both the family and the case manager of the patient. The primary outcome measure will be changes in amount of cannabis consumption over time. Other outcome measures will be psychosis symptoms, cognitive functioning, quality of life, social functioning, and cost-benefit analyses. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00484302.

  17. Sexual Abuse of Children as a Form of Power Abuse and Abuse of the Body

    OpenAIRE

    Reynaert, Machteld

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the relationship between sexual abuse, power and the body from a Catholic theological viewpoint. The article starts with the relationship between sexual abuse and power. It is argued that sexual abuse is always a form of power abuse. A second step examines the relation between sexual abuse and the body. We may not ignore the theme of the body when we speak about sexual abuse as a form of power abuse. The article also explores whether the body is a theme in recent (th...

  18. Impact of Diagrams on Recalling Sequential Elements in Expository Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri-Rozenblit, Sarah

    1988-01-01

    Examines the instructional effectiveness of abstract diagrams on recall of sequential relations in social science textbooks. Concludes that diagrams assist significantly the recall of sequential relations in a text and decrease significantly the rate of order mistakes. (RS)

  19. Short-term delayed recall of auditory verbal learning test is equivalent to long-term delayed recall for identifying amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianhua Zhao

    Full Text Available Delayed recall of words in a verbal learning test is a sensitive measure for the diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and early Alzheimer's disease (AD. The relative validity of different retention intervals of delayed recall has not been well characterized. Using the Auditory Verbal Learning Test-Huashan version, we compared the differentiating value of short-term delayed recall (AVL-SR, that is, a 3- to 5-minute delay time and long-term delayed recall (AVL-LR, that is, a 20-minute delay time in distinguishing patients with aMCI (n = 897 and mild AD (n = 530 from the healthy elderly (n = 1215. In patients with aMCI, the correlation between AVL-SR and AVL-LR was very high (r = 0.94, and the difference between the two indicators was less than 0.5 points. There was no difference between AVL-SR and AVL-LR in the frequency of zero scores. In the receiver operating characteristic curves analysis, although the area under the curve (AUC of AVL-SR and AVL-LR for diagnosing aMCI was significantly different, the cut-off scores of the two indicators were identical. In the subgroup of ages 80 to 89, the AUC of the two indicators showed no significant difference. Therefore, we concluded that AVL-SR could substitute for AVL-LR in identifying aMCI, especially for the oldest patients.

  20. Delayed Recall and Working Memory MMSE Domains Predict Delirium following Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Catherine C; Garvan, Cynthia; Hizel, Loren P; Lopez, Marcos G; Billings, Frederic T

    2017-01-01

    Reduced preoperative cognition is a risk factor for postoperative delirium. The significance for type of preoperative cognitive deficit, however, has yet to be explored and could provide important insights into mechanisms and prediction of delirium. Our goal was to determine if certain cognitive domains from the general cognitive screener, the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), predict delirium after cardiac surgery. Patients completed a preoperative MMSE prior to undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Following surgery, delirium was assessed throughout ICU stay using the Confusion Assessment Method for ICU delirium and the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale. Cardiac surgery patients who developed delirium (n = 137) had lower total MMSE scores than patients who did not develop delirium (n = 457). In particular, orientation to place, working memory, delayed recall, and language domain scores were lower. Of these, only the working memory and delayed recall domains predicted delirium in a regression model adjusting for history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, age, sex, and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass. For each word not recalled on the three-word delayed recall assessment, the odds of delirium increased by 50%. For each item missed on the working memory index, the odds of delirium increased by 36%. Of the patients who developed delirium, 47% had a primary impairment in memory, 21% in working memory, and 33% in both domains. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve using only the working memory and delayed recall domains was 0.75, compared to 0.76 for total MMSE score. Delirium risk is greater for individuals with reduced MMSE scores on the delayed recall and working memory domains. Research should address why patients with memory and executive vulnerabilities are more prone to postoperative delirium than those with other cognitive limitations.