Sample records for patient relevant outcome

  1. Outcome quality of in-patient cardiac rehabilitation in elderly patients--identification of relevant parameters. (United States)

    Salzwedel, Annett; Nosper, Manfred; Röhrig, Bernd; Linck-Eleftheriadis, Sigrid; Strandt, Gert; Völler, Heinz


    Outcome quality management requires the consecutive registration of defined variables. The aim was to identify relevant parameters in order to objectively assess the in-patient rehabilitation outcome. From February 2009 to June 2010 1253 patients (70.9 ± 7.0 years, 78.1% men) at 12 rehabilitation clinics were enrolled. Items concerning sociodemographic data, the impairment group (surgery, conservative/interventional treatment), cardiovascular risk factors, structural and functional parameters and subjective health were tested in respect of their measurability, sensitivity to change and their propensity to be influenced by rehabilitation. The majority of patients (61.1%) were referred for rehabilitation after cardiac surgery, 38.9% after conservative or interventional treatment for an acute coronary syndrome. Functionally relevant comorbidities were seen in 49.2% (diabetes mellitus, stroke, peripheral artery disease, chronic obstructive lung disease). In three key areas 13 parameters were identified as being sensitive to change and subject to modification by rehabilitation: cardiovascular risk factors (blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides), exercise capacity (resting heart rate, maximal exercise capacity, maximal walking distance, heart failure, angina pectoris) and subjective health (IRES-24 (indicators of rehabilitation status): pain, somatic health, psychological well-being and depression as well as anxiety on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). The outcome of in-patient rehabilitation in elderly patients can be comprehensively assessed by the identification of appropriate key areas, that is, cardiovascular risk factors, exercise capacity and subjective health. This may well serve as a benchmark for internal and external quality management.

  2. A 5 year prospective study of patient-relevant outcomes after total knee replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsdotter, A-K; Toksvig-Larsen, S; Roos, E M


    men, mean age 71 (51-86) assigned for TKR at the Department of Orthopaedics at Lund University Hospital were included in the study. The self-administered questionnaires Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and SF-36 were mailed preoperatively and 6 months, 12 months and at 5 years......OBJECTIVE: To prospectively describe self-reported outcomes up to 5 years after total knee replacement (TKR) in Osteoarthritis (OA) and to study which patient-relevant factors may predict outcomes for pain and physical function (PF). METHODS: 102 consecutive patients with knee OA, 63 women and 39...... postoperatively. RESULTS: Response rate at 5 years was 86%. At 6 months significant improvement was seen in all KOOS and SF-36 scores (P

  3. Risk-Adjusted Analysis of Relevant Outcome Drivers for Patients after More Than Two Kidney Transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampros Kousoulas


    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for patients suffering end-stage renal disease, but as the long-term renal allograft survival is limited, most transplant recipients will face graft loss and will be considered for a retransplantation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the patient and graft survival of the 61 renal transplant recipients after second or subsequent renal transplantation, transplanted in our institution between 1990 and 2010, and to identify risk factors related to inferior outcomes. Actuarial patient survival was 98.3%, 94.8%, and 88.2% after one, three, and five years, respectively. Actuarial graft survival was 86.8%, 80%, and 78.1% after one, three, and five years, respectively. Risk-adjusted analysis revealed that only age at the time of last transplantation had a significant influence on patient survival, whereas graft survival was influenced by multiple immunological and surgical factors, such as the number of HLA mismatches, the type of immunosuppression, the number of surgical complications, need of reoperation, primary graft nonfunction, and acute rejection episodes. In conclusion, third and subsequent renal transplantation constitute a valid therapeutic option, but inferior outcomes should be expected among elderly patients, hyperimmunized recipients, and recipients with multiple operations at the site of last renal transplantation.

  4. Introducing the Concept of the Minimally Important Difference to Determine a Clinically Relevant Change on Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conijn, Anne P.; Jonkers, Wilma; Rouwet, Ellen V.; Vahl, Anco C.; Reekers, Jim A.; Koelemay, Mark J. W.


    PurposeThe minimally important difference (MID) represents the smallest change in score on patient-reported outcome measures that is relevant to patients. The aim of this study was to introduce the MID for the Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire (VascuQol) and the walking impairment questionnaire (WIQ) for patients with intermittent claudication (IC).MethodsIn this multicenter study, we recruited 294 patients with IC between July and October 2012. Patients completed the VascuQol, with scores ranging from 1 to 7 (worst to best), and the WIQ, with scores ranging from 0 to 1 (worst to best) at first visit and after 4 months follow-up. In addition, patients answered an anchor-question rating their health status compared to baseline, as being improved, unchanged, or deteriorated. The MID for improvement and deterioration was calculated by an anchor-based approach, and determined with the upper and lower limits of the 95 % confidence interval of the mean change of the group who had not changed according to the anchor-question.ResultsFor the MID analyses of the VascuQol and WIQ, 163 and 134 patients were included, respectively. The MID values for the VascuQol (mean baseline score 4.25) were 0.87 for improvement and 0.23 for deterioration. For the WIQ (mean baseline score 0.39), we found MID values of 0.11 and −0.03 for improvement and deterioration, respectively.ConclusionIn this study, we calculated the MID for the VascuQol and the WIQ. Applying these MID facilitates better interpretation of treatment outcomes and can help to set treatment goals for individual care

  5. Introducing the Concept of the Minimally Important Difference to Determine a Clinically Relevant Change on Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conijn, Anne P., E-mail: [Academic Medical Center, Departments of Vascular Surgery and Interventional Radiology (Netherlands); Jonkers, Wilma, E-mail: [Achmea Insurances, Division of Health Care (Netherlands); Rouwet, Ellen V., E-mail: [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Vascular Surgery (Netherlands); Vahl, Anco C., E-mail: [Onze Lieve Vrouwe Gasthuis, Department of Vascular Surgery (Netherlands); Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Koelemay, Mark J. W., E-mail: [Academic Medical Center, Department of vascular surgery (Netherlands)


    PurposeThe minimally important difference (MID) represents the smallest change in score on patient-reported outcome measures that is relevant to patients. The aim of this study was to introduce the MID for the Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire (VascuQol) and the walking impairment questionnaire (WIQ) for patients with intermittent claudication (IC).MethodsIn this multicenter study, we recruited 294 patients with IC between July and October 2012. Patients completed the VascuQol, with scores ranging from 1 to 7 (worst to best), and the WIQ, with scores ranging from 0 to 1 (worst to best) at first visit and after 4 months follow-up. In addition, patients answered an anchor-question rating their health status compared to baseline, as being improved, unchanged, or deteriorated. The MID for improvement and deterioration was calculated by an anchor-based approach, and determined with the upper and lower limits of the 95 % confidence interval of the mean change of the group who had not changed according to the anchor-question.ResultsFor the MID analyses of the VascuQol and WIQ, 163 and 134 patients were included, respectively. The MID values for the VascuQol (mean baseline score 4.25) were 0.87 for improvement and 0.23 for deterioration. For the WIQ (mean baseline score 0.39), we found MID values of 0.11 and −0.03 for improvement and deterioration, respectively.ConclusionIn this study, we calculated the MID for the VascuQol and the WIQ. Applying these MID facilitates better interpretation of treatment outcomes and can help to set treatment goals for individual care.

  6. Surgical treatment of patients with single and dual pathology: relevance of lesion and of hippocampal atrophy to seizure outcome. (United States)

    Li, L M; Cendes, F; Watson, C; Andermann, F; Fish, D R; Dubeau, F; Free, S; Olivier, A; Harkness, W; Thomas, D G; Duncan, J S; Sander, J W; Shorvon, S D; Cook, M J; Arnold, D L


    Modern neuroimaging can disclose epileptogenic lesions in many patients with partial epilepsy and, at times, display the coexistence of hippocampal atrophy in addition to an extrahippocampal lesion (dual pathology). We studied the postoperative seizure outcome of 64 patients with lesional epilepsy (median follow-up, 30 months) and considered separately the surgical results in the 51 patients with a single lesion and in the 13 who had dual pathology. In patients with a single lesion, 85% were seizure free or significantly improved (Engel's class I-II) when the lesion was totally removed compared with only 40% when there was incomplete resection (p dual pathology who had both the lesion and the atrophic hippocampus removed became seizure free. In contrast, only 2 of the 10 patients with dual pathology undergoing surgery aimed at the lesion or at the hippocampus alone became seizure free (p dual pathology, surgery should, if possible, include resection of both the lesion and the atrophic hippocampus.

  7. Outcome measures in European patients with haemophilia: Survey of implementation in routine clinical practice, perception of relevance and recommendations by European treaters in the EHTSB. (United States)

    Hermans, C; Klamroth, R; Richards, M; de Moerloose, P; Garrido, R P


    This study was conducted to evaluate the current implementation of outcome measures in routine clinical haemophilia practice and to explore and appreciate the perception of the relevance of such measures by treaters. A survey was completed by 19 of the 26 physicians involved in the European Haemophilia Therapy Strategy Board (EHTSB). Employing an extensive inventory of outcome measures used in patients with haemophilia, information was collected about the frequency of data collection and the subjective appreciation of their importance during clinic review. The survey revealed that most treaters currently collect data that are mainly related to the haemostatic treatment (consumption of concentrates) and the bleeding symptoms (number and location of bleeds) in a non-uniform and non-standardized way. By contrast, functional, physical and quality of life scorings are rarely used and show considerable heterogeneity between treaters. Also, many disparities emerged between practice and perception, in particular quality of life data that are perceived as being important but for most of the time are not collected. This survey represents, in our view, the first attempt to evaluate the actual utilization of outcome measures in haemophilia care. While the value of outcome measures is appreciated, they are not assessed regularly. Therefore, there is a need to include appropriate performance indicators (outcome measures) of haemophilia care in routine clinical practice. Consensus recommendations to provide a framework for achieving this aim are provided. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Measuring financial toxicity as a clinically relevant patient-reported outcome: The validation of the COmprehensive Score for financial Toxicity (COST). (United States)

    de Souza, Jonas A; Yap, Bonnie J; Wroblewski, Kristen; Blinder, Victoria; Araújo, Fabiana S; Hlubocky, Fay J; Nicholas, Lauren H; O'Connor, Jeremy M; Brockstein, Bruce; Ratain, Mark J; Daugherty, Christopher K; Cella, David


    Cancer and its treatment lead to increased financial distress for patients. To the authors' knowledge, to date, no standardized patient-reported outcome measure has been validated to assess this distress. Patients with AJCC Stage IV solid tumors receiving chemotherapy for at least 2 months were recruited. Financial toxicity was measured by the COmprehensive Score for financial Toxicity (COST) measure. The authors collected data regarding patient characteristics, clinical trial participation, health care use, willingness to discuss costs, psychological distress (Brief Profile of Mood States [POMS]), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy: General (FACT-G) and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QOL questionnaires. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and validity of the COST measure were assessed using standard-scale construction techniques. Associations between the resulting factors and other variables were assessed using multivariable analyses. A total of 375 patients with advanced cancer were approached, 233 of whom (62.1%) agreed to participate. The COST measure demonstrated high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Factor analyses revealed a coherent, single, latent variable (financial toxicity). COST values were found to be correlated with income (correlation coefficient [r] = 0.28; Pfinancial toxicity were race (P = .04), employment status (Pcosts was not found to be associated with the degree of financial distress (P = .49). The COST measure demonstrated reliability and validity in measuring financial toxicity. Its correlation with HRQOL indicates that financial toxicity is a clinically relevant patient-centered outcome. Cancer 2017;123:476-484. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  9. Identifying patient- and family-centered outcomes relevant to inpatient versus at-home management of neutropenia in children with acute myeloid leukemia. (United States)

    Szymczak, Julia E; Getz, Kelly D; Madding, Rachel; Fisher, Brian; Raetz, Elizabeth; Hijiya, Nobuko; Gramatges, Maria M; Henry, Meret; Mian, Amir; Arnold, Staci D; Aftandilian, Catherine; Collier, Anderson B; Aplenc, Richard


    Efficacy of therapeutic strategies relative to patient- and family-centered outcomes in pediatric oncology must be assessed. We sought to identify outcomes important to children with acute myeloid leukemia and their families related to inpatient versus at-home management of neutropenia. We conducted qualitative interviews with 32 children ≥8 years old and 54 parents. Analysis revealed the impact of neutropenia management strategy on siblings, parent anxiety, and child sleep quality as being outcomes of concern across respondents. These themes were used to inform the design of a questionnaire that is currently being used in a prospective, multiinstitutional comparative effectiveness trial. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Physician empathy: Definition, outcome-relevance and its measurement in patient care and medical education [Ärztliche Empathie: Definition, Outcome-Relevanz und Messung in der Patientenversorgung und medizinischen Ausbildung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumann, Melanie


    Full Text Available [english] Objective: The present study gives a brief introduction into FurthermoreThe latter topic will be explored in detail as we conducted a pilot study on the German versions of two self-assessment instruments of empathy, which are mostly used in medical education research, namely the “Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy, Student Version” (JSPE-S and the “Interpersonal Reactivity Index” (IRI.Methods: We first present an overview of the current empirical and theoretical literature on the definition and outcome-relevance of PE. Additionally, we conducted basic psychometric analyses of the German versions of the JSPE-S and the IRI. Data for this analyses is based on a cross-sectional pilot-survey in N=44 medical students and N=63 students of other disciplines from the University of Cologne. Results: PE includes the of the patient as well as verbal and non-verbal , which should result in a helpful therapeutic action of the physician. Patients’ health outcomes in different healthcare settings can be improved considerably from a high quality empathic encounter with their clinician. Basic psychometric results of the German JSPE-S and IRI measures show first promising results.Conclusion: PE as an essential and outcome-relevant element in the patient-physician relationship requires more consideration in the education of medical students and, thus, in medical education research. The German versions of the JSPE-S and IRI measures seem to be promising means to evaluate these education aims and to conduct medical education research on empathy.[german] Ziel: Die vorliegende Studie gibt einen kurzen Überblick Des Weiteren werden Letzteres Thema wird ausführlich behandelt, da eine Pilotstudie zur Testung zwei deutscher Versionen von Selbsteinschätzungsinstrumenten durchgeführt wurde, die derzeit am häufigsten in der internationalen Medizinischen Ausbildungsforschung genutzt werden. Dazu gehören die “Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy

  11. Teleophthalmology: improving patient outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreelatha OK


    Full Text Available Omana Kesary Sreelatha,1 Sathyamangalam VenkataSubbu Ramesh2 1Ophthalmology Department, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman; 2Department of Optometry, School of Allied Health Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal, India Abstract: Teleophthalmology is gaining importance as an effective eye care delivery modality worldwide. In many developing countries, teleophthalmology is being utilized to provide quality eye care to the underserved urban population and the unserved remote rural population. Over the years, technological innovations have led to improvement in evidence and teleophthalmology has evolved from a research tool to a clinical tool. The majority of the current teleophthalmology services concentrate on patient screening and appropriate referral to experts. Specialty care using teleophthalmology services for the pediatric group includes screening as well as providing timely care for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP. Among geriatric eye diseases, specialty teleophthalmology care is focused toward screening and referral for diabetic retinopathy (DR, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (ARMD, and other sight-threatening conditions. Comprehensive vision screening and refractive error services are generally covered as part of most of the teleophthalmology methods. Over the past decades, outcome assessment of health care system includes patients’ assessments on their health, care, and services they receive. Outcomes, by and large, remain the ultimate validators of the effectiveness and quality of medical care. Teleophthalmology produces the same desired clinical outcome as the traditional system. Remote portals allow specialists to provide care over a larger region, thereby improving health outcomes and increasing accessibility of specialty care to a larger population. A high satisfaction level and acceptance is reported in the majority of the studies because of increased accessibility and reduced traveling cost and time

  12. Surgeon Reported Outcome Measure for Spine Trauma an International Expert Survey Identifying Parameters Relevant for The Outcome of Subaxial Cervical Spine Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadiqi, Said; Verlaan, Jorrit Jan; Lehr, A. M.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Kandziora, Frank; Rajasekaran, S.; Schnake, Klaus J.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Oner, F. C.


    STUDY DESIGN.: International web-based survey OBJECTIVE.: To identify clinical and radiological parameters that spine surgeons consider most relevant when evaluating clinical and functional outcomes of subaxial cervical spine trauma patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: While an outcome instrument

  13. Accuracy and precision of glucose monitoring are relevant to treatment decision-making and clinical outcome in hospitalized patients with diabetes. (United States)

    Voulgari, Christina; Tentolouris, Nicholas


    The accuracy and precision of three blood glucose meters (BGMs) were evaluated in 600 hospitalized patients with type 1 (n = 200) or type 2 (n = 400) diabetes. Capillary blood glucose values were analyzed with Accu-Chek(®) Aviva [Roche (Hellas) S.A., Maroussi, Greece], Precision-Xceed(®) [Abbott Laboratories (Hellas) S.A., Alimos, Greece], and Glucocard X-Sensor(®) (Menarini Diagnostics S.A., Argyroupolis, Greece). At the same time plasma glucose was analyzed using the World Health Organization's glucose oxidase method. Median plasma glucose values (141.2 [range, 13-553] mg/dL) were significantly different from that produced by the BGMs (P diabetes patients. In all cases, the BGMs were unreliable in sensing hypoglycemia. Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that low blood pressure and hematocrit significantly affected glucose measurements obtained with all three BGMs (P diabetes patients, all three frequently used BGMs undersensed hypoglycemia and oversensed hyperglycemia to some extent. Patients and caregivers should be aware of these restrictions of the BGMs.

  14. Patient-relevant treatment goals in psoriasis. (United States)

    Blome, Christine; Gosau, Ramona; Radtke, Marc A; Reich, Kristian; Rustenbach, Stephan J; Spehr, Christina; Thaçi, Diamant; Augustin, Matthias


    Patient-oriented care requires therapeutic decisions to agree with the patients' treatment needs and goals. This study addressed the following questions: What is important to psoriasis patients starting systemic treatment? How stable are these preferences within the first year of treatment? Are treatment goals associated with age, gender, or treatment success? The importance of treatment goals was assessed for patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the German Psoriasis Registry (PsoBest) at baseline (onset of a systemic treatment; n = 3066) and at a 1-year follow-up (n = 1444) using the Patient Benefit Index (PBI). Treatment success was measured with PBI global score and Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI). Patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis pursued a wide range of different goals. The most general treatment goals were rated most relevant, including skin healing and quick skin improvement (94.8/94.5 % "quite" or "very" important), confidence in the therapy (93.0 %), control over the disease (92.3 %), and a clear diagnosis and therapy (89.6 %). Further important goals related to not being in fear of the disease getting worse (84.8 %), reduction in itching (83.9 %), burning (70.6 %), and pain (60.6 %) as well as attaining a normal everyday life (78.4 %) and low treatment burden (64.2-77.9 %). Goals were mostly not associated with sex and gender. Goal importance slightly increased with treatment success. In a substantial proportion of patients (30.3-54.7 %) goal importance changed within 1 year after onset of systemic treatment. We conclude that treatment goal importance should be assessed in clinical practice on a regular basis.

  15. Ecologically relevant outcome measure for post-inpatient rehabilitation. (United States)

    Marquez de la Plata, Carlos; Qualls, Devin; Plenger, Patrick; Malec, James F; Hayden, Mary Ellen


    Transfer of skills learned within the clinic environment to patients' home or community is important in post-inpatient brain injury rehabilitation (PBIR). Outcome measures used in PBIR assess level of independence during functional tasks; however, available functional instruments do not quantitate the environment in which the behaviors occur. To examine the reliability and validity of an instrument used to assess patients' functional abilities while quantifying the amount of structure and distractions in the environment. 2501 patients who sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) and participated in a multidisciplinary PBIR program between 2006 and 2014 were identified retrospectively for this study. The PERPOS and MPAI-4 were used to assess functional abilities at admission and at discharge. Construct validity was assessed using a bivariate Spearman rho analysis A subsample of 56 consecutive admissions during 2014 were examined to determine inter-rater reliability. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and Kappa coefficients assessed inter-rater agreement of the total PERPOS and PERPOS subscales respectively. The PERPOS and MPAI-4 demonstrated a strong negative association among both TBI and CVA patients. Kappa scores for the three PERPOS scales each demonstrated good to excellent inter-rater agreement. The ICC for overall PERPOS scores fell in the good agreement range. The PERPOS can be used reliably in PBIR to quantify patients' functional abilities within the context of environmental demands.

  16. Is refeeding syndrome relevant for critically ill patients? (United States)

    Koekkoek, Wilhelmina A C; Van Zanten, Arthur R H


    To summarize recent relevant studies regarding refeeding syndrome (RFS) in critically ill patients and provide recommendations for clinical practice. Recent knowledge regarding epidemiology of refeeding syndrome among critically ill patients, how to identify ICU patients at risk, and strategies to reduce the potential negative impact on outcome are discussed. RFS is a potentially fatal acute metabolic derangement that ultimately can result in marked morbidity and even mortality. These metabolic derangements in ICU patients differ from otherwise healthy patients with RFS, as there is lack of anabolism. This is because of external stressors inducing a hypercatabolic response among other reasons also reflected by persistent high glucagon despite initiation of feeding. Lack of a proper uniform definition complicates diagnosis and research of RFS. However, refeeding hypophosphatemia is commonly encountered during critical illness. The correlations between risk factors proposed by international guidelines and the occurrence of RFS in ICU patients remains unclear. Therefore, regular phosphate monitoring is recommended. Based on recent trials among critically ill patients, only treatment with supplementation of electrolytes and vitamins seems not sufficient. In addition, caloric restriction for several days and gradual increase of caloric intake over days is recommendable.

  17. Peripheral Lymph Node Excisional Biopsy: Yield, Relevance, and Outcomes in a Remote Surgical Setup

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    Ashish Lal Shrestha


    Full Text Available Objective. To study the patient profile for symptomatic peripheral lymphadenopathy in terms of histopathological findings and demography and evaluate the yield, relevance, and outcomes of peripheral lymph node biopsy (PLNB as a diagnostic step in a remote setup in the absence of less invasive options like fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC or ultrasonogram- (USG- guided FNAC. Methods. A retrospective review of patients undergoing PLNB between 1 May 2011 and 30 April 2013 was done. Demographics, histopathological reports, and outcomes were studied. Results. Of 132 patients, 51 (38.63% were male and 81 (61.36% were female. There were 48 (36.3% patients in the age group less than 16 years, and 84 (63.6% were beyond 16 years. The commonest site of biopsy was the neck in 114 (86.36% patients. The histopathological diagnosis was tuberculosis (TB in 60 (45.45% patients, reactive lymphadenitis in 29 (21.9%, nonspecific granuloma in 18 (13.6%, lymphoma in 7 (5.3%, acute lymphadenitis in 7 (5.3%, metastatic secondary in 3 (2.2%, and other benign causes in 8 (6.06%. Conclusions. PLNB is a procedure with good diagnostic yield in evaluation of peripheral lymphadenopathy. Its relevance is appreciable in a remote setup where less invasive options are unavailable. Its simplicity and lack of mortality/significant morbidity make it a valid option in rural surgical practice.


    Jacobs, Esther; Antoine, Sunya-Lee; Prediger, Barbara; Neugebauer, Edmund; Eikermann, Michaela


    Defining relevant outcome measures for clinical trials on medical devices (MD) is complex, as there is a large variety of potentially relevant outcomes. The chosen outcomes vary widely across clinical trials making the assessment in evidence syntheses very challenging. The objective is to provide an overview on the current common procedures of health technology assessment (HTA) institutions in defining outcome measures in MD trials. In 2012-14, the Web pages of 126 institutions involved in HTA were searched for methodological manuals written in English or German that describe methods for the predefinition process of outcome measures. Additionally, the institutions were contacted by email. Relevant information was extracted. All process steps were performed independently by two reviewers. Twenty-four manuals and ten responses from the email request were included in the analysis. Overall, 88.5 percent of the institutions describe the type of outcomes that should be considered in detail and 84.6 percent agree that the main focus should be on patient relevant outcomes. Specifically related to MD, information could be obtained in 26 percent of the included manuals and email responses. Eleven percent of the institutions report a particular consideration of MD related outcomes. This detailed analysis on common procedures of HTA institutions in the context of defining relevant outcome measures for the assessment of MD shows that standardized procedures for MD from the perspective of HTA institutions are not widespread. This leads to the question if a homogenous approach should be implemented in the field of HTA on MD.

  19. Use of the analytic hierarchy process to prioritize patient-relevant endpoints of antidepressant treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Manen, Jeanette Gabrielle; Hummel, J. Marjan; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Volz, F.; Gerber, A.; Danner, M.


    OBJECTIVES: In deciding about coverage of new medical technology, multiple clinical outcomes are used to support reimbursement claims. Neither the real world value nor the relevance of these outcome measures for patients is systematically assessed. Hence, there is growing interest in the use of

  20. Contamination vs. harm-relevant outcome expectancies and covariation bias in spider phobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter J.; Peters, Madelon L.

    There is increasing evidence that spiders are not feared because of harmful outcome expectancies but because of disgust and contamination-relevant outcome expectancies. This study investigated the relative strength of contamination- and harm-relevant UCS expectancies and covariation bias in spider


    Snyder, Claire F.; Jensen, Roxanne E.; Segal, Jodi B.; Wu, Albert W.


    Patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) aims to improve care quality and patient outcomes by providing information that patients, clinicians, and family members need regarding treatment alternatives, and emphasizing patient input to inform the research process. PCOR capitalizes on available data sources and generates new evidence to provide timely and relevant information and can be conducted using prospective data collection, disease registries, electronic medical records, aggregated results from prior research, and administrative claims. Given PCOR’s emphasis on the patient perspective, methods to incorporate patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are critical. PROs are defined by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration as “Any report coming directly from patients… about a health condition and its treatment.” However, PROs have not routinely been collected in a way that facilitates their use in PCOR. Electronic medical records, disease registries, and administrative data have only rarely collected, or been linked to, PROs. Recent technological developments facilitate the electronic collection of PROs and linkage of PRO data, offering new opportunities for putting the patient perspective in PCOR. This paper describes the importance of and methods for using PROs for PCOR. We (1) define PROs; (2) identify how PROs can be used in PCOR, and the critical role of electronic data methods for facilitating the use of PRO data in PCOR; (3) outline the challenges and key unanswered questions that need to be addressed for the routine use of PROs in PCOR; and (4) discuss policy and research interventions to accelerate the integration of PROs with clinical data. PMID:23774513

  2. Risk-adjusted Outcomes of Clinically Relevant Pancreatic Fistula Following Pancreatoduodenectomy: A Model for Performance Evaluation. (United States)

    McMillan, Matthew T; Soi, Sameer; Asbun, Horacio J; Ball, Chad G; Bassi, Claudio; Beane, Joal D; Behrman, Stephen W; Berger, Adam C; Bloomston, Mark; Callery, Mark P; Christein, John D; Dixon, Elijah; Drebin, Jeffrey A; Castillo, Carlos Fernandez-Del; Fisher, William E; Fong, Zhi Ven; House, Michael G; Hughes, Steven J; Kent, Tara S; Kunstman, John W; Malleo, Giuseppe; Miller, Benjamin C; Salem, Ronald R; Soares, Kevin; Valero, Vicente; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Vollmer, Charles M


    To evaluate surgical performance in pancreatoduodenectomy using clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF) occurrence as a quality indicator. Accurate assessment of surgeon and institutional performance requires (1) standardized definitions for the outcome of interest and (2) a comprehensive risk-adjustment process to control for differences in patient risk. This multinational, retrospective study of 4301 pancreatoduodenectomies involved 55 surgeons at 15 institutions. Risk for CR-POPF was assessed using the previously validated Fistula Risk Score, and pancreatic fistulas were stratified by International Study Group criteria. CR-POPF variability was evaluated and hierarchical regression analysis assessed individual surgeon and institutional performance. There was considerable variability in both CR-POPF risk and occurrence. Factors increasing the risk for CR-POPF development included increasing Fistula Risk Score (odds ratio 1.49 per point, P ratio 3.30, P performance outliers were identified at the surgeon and institutional levels. Of the top 10 surgeons (≥15 cases) for nonrisk-adjusted performance, only 6 remained in this high-performing category following risk adjustment. This analysis of pancreatic fistulas following pancreatoduodenectomy demonstrates considerable variability in both the risk and occurrence of CR-POPF among surgeons and institutions. Disparities in patient risk between providers reinforce the need for comprehensive, risk-adjusted modeling when assessing performance based on procedure-specific complications. Furthermore, beyond inherent patient risk factors, surgical decision-making influences fistula outcomes.

  3. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Austin, Stephen Fitzgerald; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht


    INTRODUCTION: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for anxiety and depressive disorders are an important aspect of measurement-based care. AIM: The aim of the study was to perform a clinimetric analysis of two PROMs scales in patents with depression and anxiety. METHODS: Patients completed...... recruited from two Danish mental health centers with anxiety or depression. The standardization of the SCL-10 and WHO-5 by T-scores indicated that a T-score of 65 corresponding to being moderately in need of treatment and a T-score of 75 to be severely in need of treatment. The coefficient of alpha...... with anxiety or depression undergoing psychotherapy treatment....

  4. Survivorship care plans: are randomized controlled trials assessing outcomes that are relevant to stakeholders? (United States)

    Birken, Sarah A; Urquhart, Robin; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine; Zizzi, Alexandra R; Haines, Emily; Stover, Angela; Mayer, Deborah K; Hahn, Erin E


    The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes assessed in extant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to outcomes that stakeholders expect from survivorship care plans (SCPs). To facilitate the transition from active treatment to follow-up care for the 15.5 million US cancer survivors, many organizations require SCP use. However, results of several RCTs of SCPs' effectiveness have been null, possibly because they have evaluated outcomes on which SCPs should be expected to have limited influence. Stakeholders (e.g., survivors, oncologists) may expect outcomes that differ from RCTs' outcomes. We identified RCTs' outcomes using a PubMed literature review. We identified outcomes that stakeholders expect from SCPs using semistructured interviews with stakeholders in three healthcare systems in the USA and Canada. Finally, we mapped RCTs' outcomes onto stakeholder-identified outcomes. RCT outcomes did not fully address outcomes that stakeholders expected from SCPs, and RCTs assessed outcomes that stakeholders did not expect from SCPs. RCTs often assessed outcomes only from survivors' perspectives. RCTs of SCPs' effectiveness have not assessed outcomes that stakeholders expect. To better understand SCPs' effectiveness, future RCTs should assess outcomes of SCP use that are relevant from the perspective of multiple stakeholders. SCPs' effectiveness may be optimized when used with an eye toward outcomes that stakeholders expect from SCPs. For survivors, this means using SCPs as a map to guide them with respect to what kind of follow-up care they should seek, when they should seek it, and from whom they should seek it.

  5. Outcomes in registered, ongoing randomized controlled trials of patient education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Pino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the increasing prevalence of chronic noncommunicable diseases, patient education is becoming important to strengthen disease prevention and control. We aimed to systematically determine the extent to which registered, ongoing randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluated an educational intervention focus on patient-important outcomes (i.e., outcomes measuring patient health status and quality of life. METHODS: On May 6, 2009, we searched for all ongoing RCTs registered in the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry platform. We used a standardized data extraction form to collect data and determined whether the outcomes assessed were 1 patient-important outcomes such as clinical events, functional status, pain, or quality of life or 2 surrogate outcomes, such as biological outcome, treatment adherence, or patient knowledge. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We selected 268 of the 642 potentially eligible studies and assessed a random sample of 150. Patient-important outcomes represented 54% (178 of 333 of all primary outcomes and 46% (286 of 623 of all secondary outcomes. Overall, 69% of trials (104 of 150 used at least one patient-important outcome as a primary outcome and 66% (99 of 150 as a secondary outcome. Finally, for 31% of trials (46 of 150, primary outcomes were only surrogate outcomes. The results varied by medical area. In neuropsychiatric disorders, patient important outcomes represented 84% (51 of 61 of primary outcomes, as compared with 54% (32 of 59 in malignant neoplasm and 18% (4 of 22 in diabetes mellitus trials. In addition, only 35% assessed the long-term impact of interventions (i.e., >6 months. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to improve the relevance of outcomes and to assess the long term impact of educational interventions in RCTs.

  6. Using Patient Reported Outcomes Measures to Promote Integrated Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel G. M. Olde Rikkert


    Full Text Available Introduction: Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs have been introduced as standardised outcomes, but have not been implemented widely for disease targeted pathways of care, nor for geriatric patients who prefer functional performance and quality of life. Discussion: We describe innovative multipurpose implementation of PROMs as evidenced by two best practices of PROMs application in geriatric and physiotherapy practice. We show that PROMs can show meaningful outcomes in older subjects’ patient journeys, which can at the same time serve individuals and groups of both patients and professionals. Key lesson: PROMs can deliver generic outcomes relevant for older patients, may improve patient-physician relationship, quality of care and prediction of future outcomes in geriatric care, if they are valid, reliable and responsive, but still short and simple. A precondition to make the hard tip from research to practice is that PROMs are carefully positioned in the clinical encounters and in electronic health records.

  7. Patient web portals to improve diabetes outcomes: a systematic review. (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y; Mayberry, Lindsay Satterwhite; Mulvaney, Shelagh A; Hess, Rachel


    Patient web portals (PWPs), defined as the integration of electronic medical records and patient health records, have been related to enhanced patient outcomes. A literature review was conducted to characterize the design and evaluation of PWPs to improve health care processes and outcomes in diabetes. A summary of 26 articles revealed the positive impact PWPs have on patient outcomes, patient-provider communication, disease management, and access to and patient satisfaction with health care. Innovative and useful approaches included the evaluation of specific components of the PWPs, assessing the impact of PWPs on mediators of health behaviors, such as patient distress, identification of barriers to use, and patient willingness to pay for access. Future research should focus on relevant processes that mediate patient and provider use, impact on health care utilization, and a patient-centered approach to the design and integration of educational opportunities afforded through PWPs.

  8. Combining radiotherapy and ipilimumab induces clinically relevant radiation-induced abscopal effects in metastatic melanoma patients: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Chicas-Sett


    Conclusion: Early clinical outcomes reports suggest that the combination of ipilimumab and RT may improve survival in metastatic melanoma patients. The abscopal responses become a clinically relevant effect of such combination and should be studied in controlled randomized trials.

  9. [Patient evaluation and outcome measures]. (United States)

    Nieto Pol, Enrique


    Both the initial evaluation and follow-up of patients with osteoarthritis require systematic evaluation of the indicators that provide information on the degree of involvement of the disease and allow its quantification. Reliable measures of disease progression help decision-making by clinicians and provide valid information on treatment response and the effectiveness of the distinct therapeutic interventions. The instruments recommended in research, as outcome measures in osteoarthritis, are pain evaluation, assessment of physical function, and self-reported global evaluation. In studies lasting more than 1 year, structural changes are evaluated through simple X-ray. Self-reported quality of life assessment and physician global assessment are also recommended as options. These indicators should be incorporated into routine clinical practice for adequate evaluation and correct follow-up of patients with osteoarthritis. The recommended pain evaluation method for use in clinical practice is the visual analog scale (VAS). The best instrument to evaluate physical function in patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis is the WOMAC scale (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index). For patient-reported global assessment in routine practice, the recommended scales are VAS or the SF-12 (12-item short-form health survey). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation of the Spanish-language version of the Relevant Outcome Scale for Alzheimer's Disease. (United States)

    Carnero Pardo, C; López Alcalde, S; Espinosa García, M; Sánchez Magro, I


    The Relevant Outcome Scale for Alzheimer's Disease (ROSA) is a useful tool for evaluating and monitoring dementia patients. This study aims to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of ROSA. Spanish multicentre study involving 39 researchers and including 237 patients with Alzheimer disease (78 mild, 79 moderate, and 80 severe). The patients were tested with the following: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Fototest, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Blessed dementia scale, and a Spanish-language version of ROSA. A subsample of 40 subjects was retested in the 14 days following the initial evaluation. The construct validity was evaluated with the Spearman correlation coefficient (r), internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha (alpha), and test-retest reliability with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). ROSA requires 13.8±7.4minutes to administer and its results show a significant association with the clinical stage of AD (mild, 116.7±23.1; moderate, 92.9±19.8; and severe, 64.3±22.6), and with results on the MMSE (r=0.68), Fototest (r=0.63), NPI (r=0.53), and Blessed dementia scale (r=-0.80). ROSA shows high internal consistency (alpha=0.90) and excellent test-retest reliability (ICC0.97). The Spanish version of ROSA is a brief, valid, and reliable tool permitting overall evaluation of patients with dementia. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Initial diagnosis of therapeutically relevant thoracic lesions in polytraumatised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danz, B.; Biehl, C.; Baehren, W.


    To determine the value of supine chest radiography in comparison to orientating chest CT in the initial diagnostic evaluation of severely polytraumatised patients. 303 patients with primary indication for a cranial CT following trauma were investigated between 1988 and 1993. After performing the cranial CT all patients underwent a chest CT with an average of 6 CT slices without changing the position of the patient and with a median scan time of 4 minutes. The results of the chest CT were correlated with the findings of the supine chest radiography in regard to therapeutically relevant pathological changes. The sensitivity in detection of pneumothorax in supine chest radiography was 53% versus 97% in CT, atelectasis 20% versus 94%, lung contusion 79% versus 99%, haemotothorax 62% versus 97%. More fractures were found conventionally (sensitivity 94%) than by chest CT (sensitivity 44%). Supine chest radiography of polytraumatised patients is clearly inferior to orientating chest CT in demonstrating posttraumatic lesions; obtaining therapeutically relevant information justifies the additionally needed small amount of time. (orig.) [de

  12. Relevance of Geriatric Assessment in Older Patients With Colorectal Cancer. (United States)

    Decoster, Lore; Vanacker, Leen; Kenis, Cindy; Prenen, Hans; Van Cutsem, Erik; Van Der Auwera, Jacques; Van Eetvelde, Ellen; Van Puyvelde, Katrien; Flamaing, Johan; Milisen, Koen; Lobelle, Jean Pierre; De Grève, Jacques; Wildiers, Hans


    This study aims to evaluate the relevance of geriatric assessment (GA) in older patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and to study functional status (FS) and chemotherapy-related toxicity during treatment. Patients with CRC aged ≥ 70 years were evaluated at baseline using a GA. Results were communicated to the treating physician. At 2 to 3 months follow-up, FS was reassessed, and chemotherapy-related toxicity was recorded. A total of 193 patients, with a median age of 77 years, were included. GA was abnormal in 75% and revealed unknown problems in 40%. Treatment was altered in 37% based on clinical assessment. GA led to geriatric interventions in 9 patients (5%) and additionally influenced treatment in 1 patient. At follow-up (n = 164), functional decline was observed in 29 patients (18%) for activities of daily living (ADL) and in 60 patients (37%) for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Baseline IADL, depression, fatigue, and cognition were predictors for ADL decline, whereas no predictors for IADL decline could be identified. In the 109 patients receiving chemotherapy, stage and baseline fatigue were predictive for grade 3/4 hematologic toxicity, and baseline ADL, fatigue, and nutrition were predictive for grade 3/4 nonhematologic toxicity. Although GA identified previously unknown problems in more than one-third of older CRC patients, the impact on interventions or treatment decisions was limited. Baseline GA parameters may predict functional decline and chemotherapy-related toxicity. Education of physicians treating older patients with CRC is an essential step in the implementation of GA and subsequent interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preoperative patient education: evaluating postoperative patient outcomes. (United States)

    Meeker, B J


    Preoperative teaching is an important part of patient care and can prevent complications, as well as promote patient fulfillment during hospitalization. A study was conducted at Alton Ochsner Medical Foundation in New Orleans, LA, in 1989, to determine the impact of a preoperative teaching program on the incidence of postoperative atelectasis and patient satisfaction. Results showed no significant difference of postoperative complications and patient gratification after participating in a structured preoperative teaching program. As part of this study, it was identified that a patient evaluation tool for a preoperative teaching class needed to be developed. The phases of this process are explained in the following article.

  14. EMTALA and patients with psychiatric emergencies: a review of relevant case law. (United States)

    Lindor, Rachel A; Campbell, Ronna L; Pines, Jesse M; Melin, Gabrielle J; Schipper, Agnes M; Goyal, Deepi G; Sadosty, Annie T


    Emergency department (ED) care for patients with psychiatric complaints has become increasingly challenging given recent nationwide declines in available inpatient psychiatric beds. This creates pressure to manage psychiatric patients in the ED or as outpatients and may place providers and institutions at risk for liability under the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA). We describe the patient characteristics, disposition, and legal outcomes of EMTALA cases involving patients with psychiatric complaints. Jury verdicts, settlements, and other litigation involving alleged EMTALA violations related to psychiatric patients between the law's enactment in 1986 and the end of 2012 were collected from 3 legal databases (Westlaw, Lexis, and Bloomberg Law). Details about the patient characteristics, disposition, and reasons for litigation were independently abstracted by 2 trained reviewers onto a standardized data form. Thirty-three relevant cases were identified. Two cases were decided in favor of the plaintiffs, 4 cases were settled, 10 cases had an unknown outcome, and 17 were decided in favor of the defendant institutions. Most patients in these 33 cases were men, had past psychiatric diagnoses, were not evaluated by a psychiatrist, and eventually committed or attempted suicide. The most frequently successful defense used by institutions was to demonstrate that their providers used a standard screening examination and did not detect an emergency medical condition that required stabilization. Lawsuits involving alleged EMTALA violations in the care of ED patients with psychiatric complaints are uncommon and rarely successful. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The International Dermatology Outcome Measures Group: formation of patient-centered outcome measures in dermatology. (United States)

    Gottlieb, Alice B; Levin, Adriane A; Armstrong, April W; Abernethy, April; Duffin, Kristina Callis; Bhushan, Reva; Garg, Amit; Merola, Joseph F; Maccarone, Mara; Christensen, Robin


    As quality standards are increasingly in demand throughout medicine, dermatology needs to establish outcome measures to quantify the effectiveness of treatments and providers. The International Dermatology Outcome Measures Group was established to address this need. Beginning with psoriasis, the group aims to create a tool considerate of patients and providers using the input of all relevant stakeholders in assessment of disease severity and response to treatment. Herein, we delineate the procedures through which consensus is being reached and the future directions of the project. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Orthogeriatric care: improving patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarazona-Santabalbina FJ


    Full Text Available Francisco José Tarazona-Santabalbina,1,2 Ángel Belenguer-Varea,1,2 Eduardo Rovira,1,2 David Cuesta-Peredó1,21Geriatric Medicine Unit, Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Universitario de la Ribera, 2Medical School, Universidad Católica de Valencia San vicente Mártir, Valencia, SpainAbstract: Hip fractures are a very serious socio-economic problem in western countries. Since the 1950s, orthogeriatric units have introduced improvements in the care of geriatric patients admitted to hospital because of hip fractures. During this period, these units have reduced mean hospital stays, number of complications, and both in-hospital mortality and mortality over the middle term after hospital discharge, along with improvements in the quality of care and a reduction in costs. Likewise, a recent clinical trial has reported greater functional gains among the affected patients. Studies in this field have identified the prognostic factors present upon admission or manifesting themselves during admission and that increase the risk of patient mortality or disability. In addition, improved care afforded by orthogeriatric units has proved to reduce costs. Nevertheless, a number of management issues remain to be clarified, such as the optimum anesthetic, analgesic, and thromboprophylactic protocols; the type of diagnostic and therapeutic approach best suited to patients with cognitive problems; or the efficiency of the programs used in convalescence units or in home rehabilitation care. Randomized clinical trials are needed to consolidate the evidence in this regard. Keywords: hip fractures, geriatric assessment, orthogeriatric care, recovery of function, mortality

  17. Nurse working conditions and patient safety outcomes. (United States)

    Stone, Patricia W; Mooney-Kane, Cathy; Larson, Elaine L; Horan, Teresa; Glance, Laurent G; Zwanziger, Jack; Dick, Andrew W


    System approaches, such as improving working conditions, have been advocated to improve patient safety. However, the independent effect of many working condition variables on patient outcomes is unknown. To examine effects of a comprehensive set of working conditions on elderly patient safety outcomes in intensive care units. Observational study, with patient outcome data collected using the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance system protocols and Medicare files. Several measures of health status and fixed setting characteristics were used to capture distinct dimensions of patient severity of illness and risk for disease. Working condition variables included organizational climate measured by nurse survey; objective measures of staffing, overtime, and wages (derived from payroll data); and hospital profitability and magnet accreditation. The sample comprised 15,846 patients in 51 adult intensive care units in 31 hospitals depending on the outcome analyzed; 1095 nurses were surveyed. Central line associated bloodstream infections (CLBSI), ventilator-associated pneumonia, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, 30-day mortality, and decubiti. Units with higher staffing had lower incidence of CLBSI, ventilator-associated pneumonia, 30-day mortality, and decubiti (P working conditions were associated with all outcomes measured. Improving working conditions will most likely promote patient safety. Future researchers and policymakers should consider a broad set of working condition variables.

  18. Outcomes of polytrauma patients with diabetes mellitus (United States)


    Background The impact of diabetes mellitus in patients with multiple system injuries remains obscure. This study was designed to increase knowledge of outcomes of polytrauma in patients who have diabetes mellitus. Methods Data from the Trauma Audit and Research Network was used to identify patients who had suffered polytrauma during 2003 to 2011. These patients were filtered to those with known outcomes, then separated into those with diabetes, those known to have other co-morbidities but not diabetes and those known not to have any co-morbidities or diabetes. The data were analyzed to establish if patients with diabetes had differing outcomes associated with their diabetes versus the other groups. Results In total, 222 patients had diabetes, 2,558 had no past medical co-morbidities (PMC), 2,709 had PMC but no diabetes. The diabetic group of patients was found to be older than the other groups (P <0.05). A higher mortality rate was found in the diabetic group compared to the non-PMC group (32.4% versus 12.9%), P <0.05). Rates of many complications including renal failure, myocardial infarction, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis were all found to be higher in the diabetic group. Conclusions Close monitoring of diabetic patients may result in improved outcomes. Tighter glycemic control and earlier intervention for complications may reduce mortality and morbidity. PMID:25026864

  19. How pharmacist-patient communication determines pharmacy loyalty? Modeling relevant factors. (United States)

    Patrícia Antunes, Liliana; Gomes, João José; Cavaco, Afonso Miguel


    Portuguese community pharmacies provide pharmaceutical services, such as therapeutic outcomes follow-up, supplemented by relevant point-of-care testing that require continuity of provision to be effective. To identify factors of technical and communication nature that during a patient interview contribute to patients' loyalty. A cross-sectional descriptive study, with a purposive sample of community pharmacies providing pharmaceutical care, was conducted. Patient interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim. Duration, segments and utterances were identified and time stamped, using a previously validated coding scheme. To identify predictors of loyalty, logistic regression analyses were performed. From 59 interviews, participants' average age was 65.7 years and 42 (71.2%) were female; 45 (76.3%) interviews were classified as outcomes measurements and 14 (23.7%) as pharmaceutical consultations, with 33.2% of the patients booking a following appointment. The significant items to explain loyalty were associated with lifestyle and psychosocial exchange, age of the patient, and the presence of all interview segments (i.e. a complete consultation). Contrary to common professional beliefs and practice orientation it would appear that pharmacists' technical skills are not the essential factors that promote patients' loyalty needed for continuity of care, at least in the same extent as the social and lifestyle-related content of the exchange. Pharmaceutical care education should focus on relational skills as much as on medication-related competencies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Goal setting in psychotherapy: the relevance of approach and avoidance goals for treatment outcome. (United States)

    Wollburg, Eileen; Braukhaus, Christoph


    The present study is the first aimed at investigating the influence of goal definition on treatment outcome in a sample of depressed patients. Data from 657 inpatients admitted to a psychosomatic clinic in Germany being treated in a cognitive-behavioral therapy program were analyzed. Treatment goals were identified as either approach or avoidance, and the sample was classified accordingly. Patients who identified approach goals only were placed in the approach group, and those who identified at least one avoidance goal were placed in the avoidance group. Results showed that framing goals using avoidance terms was associated with less symptomatic improvement but did not affect goal attainment. Findings from this research should be utilized in practice not only for process management such as individual treatment planning but also to control outcome quality. Furthermore, goal definition should be considered as a control variable in research on depression.

  1. Global patient outcomes after elective surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    BACKGROUND: As global initiatives increase patient access to surgical treatments, there remains a need to understand the adverse effects of surgery and define appropriate levels of perioperative care. METHODS: We designed a prospective international 7-day cohort study of outcomes following elective...... adult inpatient surgery in 27 countries. The primary outcome was in-hospital complications. Secondary outcomes were death following a complication (failure to rescue) and death in hospital. Process measures were admission to critical care immediately after surgery or to treat a complication and duration...... to a critical care unit as routine immediately after surgery, of whom 2198 (50.4%) developed a complication, with 105 (2.4%) deaths. A total of 1233 patients (16.4%) were admitted to a critical care unit to treat complications, with 119 (9.7%) deaths. Despite lower baseline risk, outcomes were similar in low...

  2. Patients' opinions on outcomes following critical illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, H K; Haberlandt, T; Reichmann, P D


    BACKGROUND: Our aim was to explore which outcomes are most important to patients following ICU-discharge, and to explore whether intensive care unit (ICU)-nurses and anesthesiologists are aware of patients' priorities. METHODS: First, interviews with adult ICU-survivors were conducted until data......, fatigue, and decreased walking distance. The top three for ICU-nurses (54 participants) were: fatigue, difficulties concentrating, sadness/depression, and for anesthesiologists (17 participants): fatigue, difficulties in activities of daily living, and lack of physical strength. CONCLUSION: Patients chose......-ICU discharge) rated the items, as did ICU-nurses and anesthesiologists. RESULTS: A total of 32 patients participated (44% women, medians: age 70.5, time since discharge 179 days, length of stay in ICU 9 days, APACHEII 19.5). The three most important outcomes defined by patients were: lack of physical strength...

  3. Differential UCS expectancy bias in spider fearful individuals : Evidence toward an association between spiders and disgust-relevant outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Overveld, M; de Jong, PJ; Peters, ML

    Recently, differential UCS expectancies were found for high- and low-predatory fear-relevant animals [Davey, G. C. L., Cavanagh, K., & Lamb, A. (2003). Differential aversive outcome expectancies for high- and low-predation fear-relevant animals. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental

  4. Patient-reported Outcomes in Cystic Fibrosis


    Goss, Christopher H.; Quittner, Alexandra L.


    Over the past 20 years, there has been tremendous progress in the area of patient-reported outcomes (PROs). A PRO instrument is defined as any measure of a patient's health status that is elicited directly from the patient and assesses how the patient “feels or functions with respect to his or her health condition.” The advances seen in clinical research regarding PROs has been mirrored in research in cystic fibrosis (CF). A large number of instruments have been used for both therapeutic and ...

  5. Fall risk-relevant functional mobility outcomes in dementia following dyadic tai chi exercise. (United States)

    Yao, Lan; Giordani, Bruno J; Algase, Donna L; You, Mei; Alexander, Neil B


    Whether persons with dementia benefit from fall prevention exercise is unclear. Applying the Positive Emotion-Motivated Tai Chi protocol, preliminary findings concerning adherence and effects of a dyadic Tai Chi exercise program on persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) are reported. Using pre/posttest design, 22 community-dwelling AD-caregiver dyads participated in the program. Fall-risk-relevant functional mobility was measured using Unipedal Stance Time (UST) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) tests. Results showed that 19/22 (86.4%) AD patients completed the 16-week program and final assessment; 16/19 dyads (84.2%) completed the prescribed home program as reported by caregivers. UST adjusted mean improved from 4.0 to 5.1 (Week 4, p .05) post intervention. Retaining dementia patients in an exercise intervention remains challenging. The dyadic Tai Chi approach appears to succeed in keeping AD-caregiver dyads exercising and safe.

  6. Patient-centred outcomes research: perspectives of patient stakeholders. (United States)

    Chhatre, Sumedha; Gallo, Joseph J; Wittink, Marsha; Schwartz, J Sanford; Jayadevappa, Ravishankar


    To elicit patient stakeholders' experience and perspectives about patient-centred care. Qualitative. A large urban healthcare system. Four patient stakeholders who are prostate cancer survivors. Experience and perspectives of patient stakeholders regarding patient-centred care and treatment decisions. Our patient stakeholders represented a diverse socio-demographic group. The patient stakeholders identified engagement and dialogue with physicians as crucial elements of patient-centred care model. The degree of patient-centred care was observed to be dependent on the situations. High severity conditions warranted a higher level of patient involvement, compared to mild conditions. They agreed that patient-centred care should not mean that patients can demand inappropriate treatments. An important attribute of patient-centred outcomes research model is the involvement of stakeholders. However, we have limited knowledge about the experience of patient stakeholders in patient-centred outcomes research. Our study indicates that patient stakeholders offer a unique perspective as researchers and policy-makers aim to precisely define patient-centred research and care.

  7. Outcome of orthognathic surgery in Chinese patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chew, Ming Tak; Sandham, John; Soh, Jen; Wong, Hwee Bee

    Objective: To evaluate the outcome of orthognathic surgery by objective cephalometric measurement of posttreatment soft-tissue profile and by subjective evaluation of profile esthetics by laypersons and clinicians. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 30 Chinese patients who had completed

  8. Cerebral oxygen transport failure?: decreasing hemoglobin and hematocrit levels after ischemic stroke predict poor outcome and mortality: STroke: RelevAnt Impact of hemoGlobin, Hematocrit and Transfusion (STRAIGHT)--an observational study. (United States)

    Kellert, Lars; Martin, Evgenia; Sykora, Marek; Bauer, Harald; Gussmann, Philipp; Diedler, Jennifer; Herweh, Christian; Ringleb, Peter A; Hacke, Werner; Steiner, Thorsten; Bösel, Julian


    Although conceivably relevant for penumbra oxygenation, the optimal levels of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) in patients with acute ischemic stroke are unknown. We identified patients from our prospective local stroke database who received intravenous thrombolysis based on multimodal magnet resonance imaging during the years 1998 to 2009. A favorable outcome at 3 months was defined as a modified Rankin Scale score≤2 and a poor outcome as a modified Rankin Scale score≥3. The dynamics of Hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrit (Hct), and other relevant laboratory parameters as well as cardiovascular risk factors were retrospectively assessed and analyzed between these 2 groups. Of 217 patients, 114 had a favorable and 103 a poor outcome. In a multivariable regression model, anemia until day 5 after admission (odds ratio [OR]=2.61; 95% CI, 1.33 to 5.11; P=0.005), Hb nadir (OR=0.81; 95% CI, 0.67 to 0.99; P=0.038), and Hct nadir (OR=0.93; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.99; P=0.038) remained independent predictors for poor outcome at 3 months. Mortality after 3 months was independently associated with Hb nadir (OR=0.80; 95% CI, 0.65 to 0.98; P=0.028) and Hb decrease (OR=1.34; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.76; P=0.04) as well as Hct decrease (OR=1.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.23; P=0.027). Poor outcome and mortality after ischemic stroke are strongly associated with low and further decreasing Hb and Hct levels. This decrease of Hb and Hct levels after admission might be more relevant and accessible to treatment than are baseline levels.

  9. Patient-Reported Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Transplant—Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Tang


    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a complex medical condition that is associated with several comorbidities and requires comprehensive medical management. Given the chronic nature of the condition, its frequent association with psychosocial distress, and its very significant symptom burden, the subjective patient experience is key toward understanding the true impact of CKD on the patients’ life. Patient-reported outcome measures are important tools that can be used to support patient-centered care and patient engagement during the complex management of patients with CKD. The routine collection and use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs in clinical practice may improve quality of care and outcomes, and may provide useful data to understand the disease from both an individual and a population perspective. Many tools used to measure PROs focus on assessing health-related quality of life, which is significantly impaired among patients with CKD. Health-related quality of life, in addition to being an important outcome itself, is associated with clinical outcomes such as health care use and mortality. In Part 1 of this review, we provide an overview of PROs and implications of their use in the context of CKD. In Part 2, we will review the selection of appropriate measures and the relevant domains of interest for patients with CKD.

  10. Thyroid cancer outcomes in Filipino patients. (United States)

    Kus, Lukas H; Shah, Manish; Eski, Spiro; Walfish, Paul G; Freeman, Jeremy L


    To compare the outcomes of patients having thyroid cancer among Filipinos vs non-Filipinos. Retrospective medical record review. High-volume tertiary referral center in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. A total of 499 patients with thyroid cancer (36 Filipino and 463 non-Filipino) treated at Mount Sinai Hospital from January 1, 1984, to August 31, 2003, with a minimum 5-year follow-up period and a minimum 1.0-cm tumor size. Patients were identified from a thyroid cancer database. Data on patient, tumor, and treatment factors were collected along with outcomes. The presence of thyroid cancer recurrence, the rate of death from disease, and the time to recurrence. The 2 groups were similar for sex, age, history of head and neck radiation exposure, family history of thyroid cancer, follow-up time, tumor size, tumor pathologic findings, presence of tumor multifocality, stage of primary disease, type of thyroid surgery, use of postoperative radioactive iodine therapy, and use of external beam radiation therapy. Filipino patients experienced a thyroid cancer recurrence rate of 25% compared with 9.5% for non-Filipino patients (odds ratio, 3.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-7.49; P = .004). On multivariate analysis, the increased risk of thyroid cancer recurrence persisted for Filipino patients (odds ratio, 6.99; 95% confidence interval, 2.31-21.07; P Filipino patients and non-Filipino patients regarding the rate of death from disease (5.6% vs 1.9%) and the time to recurrence (52.6 vs 53.1 months). Filipino patients have a significantly higher risk of thyroid cancer recurrence compared with non-Filipino patients. However, no significant difference was noted in the time to recurrence or the rate of death from disease. These findings justify a more aggressive initial management and follow-up regimen for Filipino patients with thyroid cancer.

  11. Bridge Therapy Outcomes in Patients With Mechanical Heart Valves. (United States)

    Delate, Thomas; Meisinger, Stephanie M; Witt, Daniel M; Jenkins, Daniel; Douketis, James D; Clark, Nathan P


    Bridge therapy is associated with an increased risk of major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism (TE) without a corresponding reduction in TE. The benefits of bridge therapy in patients with mechanical heart valve (MHV) prostheses interrupting warfarin for invasive procedures are not well described. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at an integrated health-care delivery system. Anticoagulated patients with MHV interrupting warfarin for invasive diagnostic or surgical procedures between January 1, 2006, and March 31, 2012, were identified. Patients were categorized according to exposure to bridge therapy during the periprocedural period and TE risk (low, medium, and high). Outcomes validated via manual chart review included clinically relevant bleeding, TE, and all-cause mortality in the 30 days following the procedure. There were 547 procedures in 355 patients meeting inclusion criteria. Mean cohort age was 65.2 years, and 38% were female. Bridge therapy was utilized in 466 (85.2%) procedures (95.2%, 77.3%, and 65.8% of high, medium, and low TE risk category procedures, respectively). The 30-day rate of clinically relevant bleeding was numerically higher in bridged (5.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9%-8.3%) versus not bridged procedures (1.2%; 95% CI, bridge therapy is common among patients with MHV and may be associated with increased bleeding risk. Further research is needed to determine whether bridge therapy reduces TE in patients with MHV interrupting warfarin for invasive procedures.

  12. Patient-relevant needs and treatment goals in nail psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blome, C; Costanzo, A; Dauden, E.


    , but not with age or disease duration. Manual dexterity and social interaction were of particular importance. Goal importance and quality of life were associated, but not redundant (r = 0.612, p ...PURPOSE: Patient-centered health care implies that medical decisions are made jointly by physician and patient, based on patient needs. Aims were to (a) identify treatment goals for a new questionnaire on patient needs and benefits in nail psoriasis treatment; (b) analyze the importance...... of treatment goals in patients with nail psoriasis in general and in defined subgroups; and (c) determine the association between overall treatment goal importance and quality of life. METHODS: The study comprised the following steps: qualitative survey on needs and burdens in 120 patients; development...

  13. The hateful patient revisited: Relevance for 21st century medicine. (United States)

    Strous, Rael D; Ulman, Anne-Marie; Kotler, Moshe


    While the practice of medicine has changed over the years, including technological advances, access to medical information, and the narrowing of socio-economic and educational gaps between the clinician and his/her patients, the importance of the doctor-patient relationship has not diminished over time. This can be a very rewarding interaction. However, many physicians experience a great deal of anger, inadequacy and frustration, and much of the actual practice of medicine may become a burden rather than a source of satisfaction. Physicians may encounter a subset of patients who engender strong negative feelings, despair and even downright malice. An understanding of the "hateful patient" can therefore be very informative to the physician. Several categories of such patients may be described, and sensitivity to the phenomenon will lead to improved physician well-being, less self-destructive patient behavior and a lower risk of litigation. Several factors may assist the 21st century physician in managing the "hateful patient" in an empathic manner and in making some sense of why the patient has resorted to negative response patterns. Ultimately, a failure to consider these issues will result in poorer medical care and, no less important, reduced satisfaction of both patients and doctors. The intention of this article is to revisit the concept and to place it in the context of contemporary medical practice.

  14. Patient satisfaction and positive patient outcomes in ambulatory anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah U


    Full Text Available Ushma Shah, David T Wong, Jean Wong Department of Anesthesia, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Most surgeries in North America are performed on an ambulatory basis, reducing health care costs and increasing patient comfort. Patient satisfaction is an important outcome indicator of the quality of health care services incorporated by the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA. Patient satisfaction is a complex concept that is influenced by multiple factors. A patient's viewpoint and knowledge plays an influential role in patient satisfaction with ambulatory surgery. Medical optimization and psychological preparation of the patient plays a pivotal role in the success of ambulatory surgery. Postoperative pain, nausea, and vomiting are the most important symptoms for the patient and can be addressed by multimodal drug regimens. Shared decision making, patient–provider relationship, communication, and continuity of care form the main pillars of patient satisfaction. Various psychometrically developed instruments are available to measure patient satisfaction, such as the Iowa Satisfaction with Anesthesia Scale and Evaluation du Vecu de I'Anesthesie Generale, but none have been developed specifically for ambulatory surgery. The ASA has made recommendations for data collection for patient satisfaction surveys and emphasized the importance of reporting the data to the Anesthesia Quality Institute. Future research is warranted to develop a validated tool to measure patient satisfaction in ambulatory surgery. Keywords: patient, satisfaction, anesthesia, outcomes, questionnaire, perspectives

  15. Pregnancy Outcomes Among Patients With Vasculitis (United States)

    Clowse, Megan E. B.; Richeson, Rachel L.; Pieper, Carl; Merkel, Peter A.


    Objective Pregnancy outcomes of patients with vasculitis are unknown, but are of great concern to patients and physicians. Through an online survey, this study assessed pregnancy outcomes among patients with vasculitis. Methods Participants in the Vasculitis Clinical Research Consortium Patient Contact Registry were invited to respond to an anonymous, internet-based survey that included questions about pregnancy outcomes, the timing of pregnancy relative to a diagnosis of vasculitis, and medication use. Results A total of 350 women and 113 men completed the survey. After a diagnosis of vasculitis, 74 pregnancies were reported by women and 18 conceptions were reported by men. The rate of pregnancy loss was higher among women who conceived after a diagnosis of vasculitis compared to those who conceived prior to diagnosis (33.8% versus 22.4%; P = 0.04). Among women, the rate of preterm births increased significantly for pregnancies conceived after a diagnosis of vasculitis relative to those conceived before diagnosis (23.3% versus 11.4%; P = 0.03). Only 18% of women reported worsening of vasculitis during pregnancy, but those who experienced increased vasculitis activity were more likely to deliver preterm. Exposure to cyclophosphamide or prednisone did not appear to impact pregnancy outcomes; however, the number of pregnancies among women taking these medications was small. Among the pregnancies conceived by men with vasculitis, the timing of diagnosis had no significant effect on the rate of pregnancy loss. Conclusion Women who conceived after a diagnosis of vasculitis had a higher rate of pregnancy loss than those who conceived prior to diagnosis. Vasculitis did not worsen during the majority of pregnancies conceived after diagnosis. PMID:23401494

  16. Treatment outcomes among pulmonary tuberculosis patients at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Oct 5, 2009 ... in our environment. Keywords: Pulmonary tuberculosis; treatment centers; treatment outcome. Résumé paramètre: Centres de traitement de la tuberculose en Ibadan, Nigeria objectif: Pour évaluer les résultats de traitement et les déterminants de résultat entre la tuberculose patients. design: A plan d'étude ...

  17. Outcomes analysis in 100 liver transplantation patients. (United States)

    Geevarghese, S K; Bradley, A E; Wright, J K; Chapman, W C; Feurer, I; Payne, J L; Hunter, E B; Pinson, C W


    There is an increasing demand for outcomes analysis, including quality of life and financial analysis, following medical interventions and surgical procedures. We analyzed outcomes for 100 consecutive patients undergoing liver transplantation during a period of case management revision. Patient survival was calculated by Kaplan-Meier actuarial methods. The Karnofsky performance status was objectively assessed for surviving patients up to 6 years after transplantation and was evaluated by repeated measures analysis of variance and covariance. Subjective evaluation of quality of life over time was obtained using the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale. The correlations between time and scale were calculated. Financial data were accumulated from billing records. Six-month, 1-year, 2-year, and 3- through 5-year survival was 86%, 84%, 83%, and 78%, respectively. Karnofsky performance status confirmed poor functional status preoperatively with a mean of 53 +/- 2, but significantly improving to 72 +/- 2 at 3 months, 80 +/- 2 at 6 months, 90 +/- 1 at 1 year, 92 +/- 1 at 2 years, 94 +/- 1 at 3 years, 96 +/- 1 at 4 years, and 97 +/- 1 at 5 years (P <0.001). Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale scores demonstrated significant improvement following transplantation overall (r = -0.33), improving most in sexual relationships (r = -0.41), and domestic environment (r = -0.35; P <0.001). Median length of stay for the first half of the patients was 19 days declining to 11 days for the second half. Median hospital charges declined from $105,000 to $90,000. Quality of life parameters assessed both by care givers (Karnofsky) and by patients (Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale) improved dramatically following transplantation and over time, demonstrating that liver transplantation effectively restores a good quality of life. Outcomes can be improved while reducing length of stay and charges through modifications in case management.

  18. Qualitative Methods in Patient-Centered Outcomes Research. (United States)

    Vandermause, Roxanne; Barg, Frances K; Esmail, Laura; Edmundson, Lauren; Girard, Samantha; Perfetti, A Ross


    The Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI), created to fund research guided by patients, caregivers, and the broader health care community, offers a new research venue. Many (41 of 50) first funded projects involved qualitative research methods. This study was completed to examine the current state of the science of qualitative methodologies used in PCORI-funded research. Principal investigators participated in phenomenological interviews to learn (a) how do researchers using qualitative methods experience seeking funding for, implementing and disseminating their work; and (b) how may qualitative methods advance the quality and relevance of evidence for patients? Results showed the experience of doing qualitative research in the current research climate as "Being a bona fide qualitative researcher: Staying true to research aims while negotiating challenges," with overlapping patterns: (a) researching the elemental, (b) expecting surprise, and (c) pushing boundaries. The nature of qualitative work today was explicitly described and is rendered in this article.

  19. Assessment and treatment relevance in elderly glioblastoma patients. (United States)

    Bauchet, Luc; Zouaoui, Sonia; Darlix, Amélie; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas; Ferreira, Ernestine; Fabbro, Michel; Kerr, Christine; Taillandier, Luc


    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor. Its incidence continues to increase in the elderly because the older segment of the population is growing faster than any other age group. Most clinical studies exclude elderly patients, and "standards of care" do not exist for GBM patients aged >70 years. We review epidemiology, tumor biology/molecular factors, prognostic factors (clinical, imaging data, therapeutics), and their assessments as well as classic and specific endpoints plus recent and ongoing clinical trials for elderly GBM patients. This work includes perspectives and personal opinions on this topic. Although there are no standards of care for elderly GBM patients, we can hypothesize that (i) Karnofsky performance status (KPS), probably after steroid treatment, is one of the most important clinical factors for determining our oncological strategy; (ii) resection is superior to biopsy, at least in selected patients (depending on location of the tumor and associated comorbidities); (iii) specific schedules of radiotherapy yield a modest but significant improvement; (iv) temozolomide has an acceptable tolerance, even when KPS life and toxicity measures) will aid clinicians in determining the balance of potential benefits and risks of each oncological strategy. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  20. Prognostic relevance of metabolic approach in patients with heart failure. (United States)

    Di Napoli, P; Barsotti, A


    Progressions in acute cardiac care have improved survival after acute myocardial infarction, but in contraposition with this, there has been an increase in mortality because of heart failure. For this reason congestive heart failure is an increasingly widespread, costly and deadly disease, frequently named as epidemic of the XXI century. Despite advancement in modern treatment, mortality rate in heart failure patients remains high. In these patients more importance was attributed in the management of the left ventricle dysfunction. In fact, the heart failure patients have still a poor prognosis due to the ineluctable progression of contractile dysfunction and ventricular remodeling. The classical management of left ventricle dysfunction includes the pharmacological treatment with beta-blockers, ACE-inhibitors and aldosterone antagonists, and various surgical or electrophysiological interventions. Emerging evidence suggests that myocardium dysfunction is also due to substrate metabolism alterations. In particular, there is evidence that, in the failing heart, shifting metabolism away from a preference for fatty acids towards more carbohydrate oxidation could recover contractile function. Trimetazidine has been shown to improve symptoms and ventricular function and to have a beneficial effect on the inflammatory profile and endothelial function in these patients. Recently, it has been suggested that trimetazidine could also reduce ventricular remodeling, slowing down the progression of pump failure, and improve prognosis. These results suggest that trimetazidine is a useful adjunct to our current armamentarium for the treatment of heart failure patients.

  1. Cachexia and adiposity in rheumatoid arthritis. Relevance for disease management and clinical outcomes. (United States)

    Challal, Salima; Minichiello, Emeline; Boissier, Marie-Christophe; Semerano, Luca


    Altered body composition is a frequent finding in rheumatoid arthritis and is associated with the two major outcomes of the disease: disability and cardiovascular mortality. It is estimated that up to two thirds of patients may be affected by loss of lean mass, the so-called rheumatoid cachexia. Hence, body weight being equal, the relative amount of lean mass is lower and that of body fat is higher in rheumatoid arthritis patients vs. healthy controls. Both disease-related factors and other factors, like drug treatments, physical activity and nutrition contribute to modify body composition in rheumatoid arthritis. The effect of pharmacological treatments, and notably of anti-TNF drugs, on body composition is controversial. Conversely, training programs to stimulate muscle growth can restore lean mass and reduce adiposity. There is good evidence that amelioration of body composition ameliorates function and reduces disability. Currently, there is no evidence that interventions that modify body composition can reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in rheumatoid arthritis. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  2. Reducing Hospital Toxicity: Impact on Patient Outcomes. (United States)

    Milani, Richard V; Bober, Robert M; Lavie, Carl J; Wilt, Jonathan K; Milani, Alexander R; White, Christopher J


    Circadian rhythms are endogenous 24-hour oscillations in biologic processes that drive nearly all physiologic and behavioral functions. Disruption in circadian rhythms can adversely impact short and long-term health outcomes. Routine hospital care often causes significant disruption in sleep-wake patterns that is further compounded by loss of personal control of health information and health decisions. We wished to evaluate measures directed at improving circadian rhythm and access to daily health information on hospital outcomes. We evaluated 3,425 consecutive patients admitted to a medical-surgical unit comprised of an intervention wing (n=1,185) or standard control wing (n=2,240) over a 2.5-year period. Intervention patients received measures to improve sleep that included reduction of nighttime noise, delay of routine morning phlebotomy, passive vital sign monitoring, and use of red-enriched lighting after sunset, as well as access to daily health information utilizing an inpatient portal. Intervention patients accessed the inpatient portal frequently during hospitalization seeking personal health and care team information. Measures impacting the quality and quantity of sleep were significantly improved. LOS was 8.6 hours less (p=0.04), 30 and 90-day readmission rates were 16% and 12% lower, respectively (both p≤ 0.02), and self-rated emotional/mental health was higher (69.2% vs. 52.4%; p=0.03) in the intervention group compared to controls. Modest changes in routine hospital care can improve the hospital environment impacting sleep and access to health knowledge, leading to improvements in hospital outcomes. Sleep-wake patterns of hospitalized patients represent a potential avenue for further enhancing hospital quality and safety. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Exercise adherence improves long-term patient outcome in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip and/or knee.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, M.; Veenhof, C.; Schellevis, F.; Twisk, J.; Dekker, J.; Bakker, D. de


    Purpose: To determine the effect of patient exercise adherence, within the prescribed physiotherapy treatment period and after discharge, on patients’ outcome on pain, physical function and patient self-perceived effect in individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip and/or knee. Relevance: The

  4. Metrics for evaluating patient navigation during cancer diagnosis and treatment: crafting a policy-relevant research agenda for patient navigation in cancer care. (United States)

    Guadagnolo, B Ashleigh; Dohan, Daniel; Raich, Peter


    Racial and ethnic minorities as well as other vulnerable populations experience disparate cancer-related health outcomes. Patient navigation is an emerging health care delivery innovation that offers promise in improving quality of cancer care delivery to these patients who experience unique health-access barriers. Metrics are needed to evaluate whether patient navigation can improve quality of care delivery, health outcomes, and overall value in health care during diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Information regarding the current state of the science examining patient navigation interventions was gathered via search of the published scientific literature. A focus group of providers, patient navigators, and health-policy experts was convened as part of the Patient Navigation Leadership Summit sponsored by the American Cancer Society. Key metrics were identified for assessing the efficacy of patient navigation in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Patient navigation data exist for all stages of cancer care; however, the literature is more robust for its implementation during prevention, screening, and early diagnostic workup of cancer. Relatively fewer data are reported for outcomes and efficacy of patient navigation during cancer treatment. Metrics are proposed for a policy-relevant research agenda to evaluate the efficacy of patient navigation in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Patient navigation is understudied with respect to its use in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Core metrics are defined to evaluate its efficacy in improving outcomes and mitigating health-access barriers. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  5. Transition theory and its relevance to patients with chronic wounds. (United States)

    Neil, J A; Barrell, L M


    A wound, in the broadest sense, is a disruption of normal anatomic structure and function. Acute wounds progress through a timely and orderly sequence of repair that leads to the restoration of functional integrity. In chronic wounds, this timely and orderly sequence goes awry. As a result, people with chronic wounds often face not only physiological difficulties but emotional ones as well. The study of body image and its damage as a result of a chronic wound fits well with Selder's transition theory. This article describes interviews with seven patients with chronic wounds. The themes that emerged from those interviews were compared with Selder's theory to describe patients' experience with chronic wounds as a transition process that can be identified and better understood by healthcare providers.

  6. The relevance of personality assessment in patients with hyperventilation symptoms. (United States)

    Decuyper, Mieke; De Bolle, Marleen; Boone, Eva; De Fruyt, Filip


    Relatively few data are available concerning the relations between hyperventilation symptoms and general personality traits in clinical populations. A clear picture of the personality traits associated with hyperventilation symptoms could enhance early detection of those individuals who are at risk for developing hyperventilation. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of general personality in hyperventilation syndrome. Patients (N = 364) with symptoms not explained by an organic disease and supposedly caused by hyperventilation completed the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, the General Health Questionnaire--12, and the Nijmegen Questionnaire. Patients were also subjected to a hyperventilation provocation test and transcutaneous carbon dioxide (TcPCO(2)) values were registered. The results showed that patients with hyperventilation obtained mean Neuroticism scores above the normative mean. Moreover, only Neuroticism was positively linked with self-reported hyperventilation symptoms, and personality traits were more strongly related to self-reported complaints than to objective physical information. Neuroticism clearly differentiated between different diagnostic groups on the basis of Nijmegen Questionnaire and TcPCO(2) values, and an additional small effect of Agreeableness was observed. The present study contributes to the evidence that Neuroticism is strongly associated with self-reported hyperventilation symptoms, and provides substantial evidence that Neuroticism is a vulnerability factor in the development of hyperventilation. Therefore, personality assessment may be helpful in advancing the understanding and the early detection of hyperventilation symptoms.

  7. Patient Compliance With Electronic Patient Reported Outcomes Following Shoulder Arthroscopy. (United States)

    Makhni, Eric C; Higgins, John D; Hamamoto, Jason T; Cole, Brian J; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N


    To determine the patient compliance in completing electronically administered patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores following shoulder arthroscopy, and to determine if dedicated research assistants improve patient compliance. Patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery from January 1, 2014, to December 31, 2014, were prospectively enrolled into an electronic data collection system with retrospective review of compliance data. A total of 143 patients were included in this study; 406 patients were excluded (for any or all of the following reasons, such as incomplete follow-up, inaccessibility to the order sets, and inability to complete the order sets). All patients were assigned an order set of PROs through an electronic reporting system, with order sets to be completed prior to surgery, as well as 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Compliance rates of form completion were documented. Patients who underwent arthroscopic anterior and/or posterior stabilization were excluded. The average age of the patients was 53.1 years, ranging from 20 to 83. Compliance of form completion was highest preoperatively (76%), and then dropped subsequently at 6 months postoperatively (57%) and 12 months postoperatively (45%). Use of research assistants improved compliance by approximately 20% at each time point. No differences were found according to patient gender and age group. Of those completing forms, a majority completed forms at home or elsewhere prior to returning to the office for the clinic visit. Electronic administration of PRO may decrease the amount of time required in the office setting for PRO completion by patients. This may be mutually beneficial to providers and patients. It is unclear if an electronic system improves patient compliance in voluntary completion PRO. Compliance rates at final follow-up remain a concern if data are to be used for establishing quality or outcome metrics. Level IV, case series. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North

  8. Development of a patient-reported outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Tina; Søgaard, Karen; Roos, Ewa M.


    removed from the original 69. A multidimensional questionnaire, divided into five subscales, was developed from the remaining 34 items: mobility; symptoms; sleep disturbance; everyday activity and pain; and participation in everyday life. Exploratory factor analysis supported a 5-subscale structure......OBJECTIVE: To develop a patient-reported outcome evaluating the impact of neck pain. The results of item generation and reduction and subscale structure in support of the content and construct validity of the measure are reported. METHODS: Items were generated from the literature and through focus...

  9. The effect of patient origin and relevance of contact on patient and caregiver satisfaction in the emergency room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Nielsen, Anette S


    AIMS: This study examined (1) whether patient and caregiver satisfaction in the emergency room (ER) varies according to patient origin, and (2) whether relevance of visit can explain any variation. METHODS: Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of walk-in patients and their caregivers...... at four ERs in Copenhagen. The patient questionnaire was available in nine languages, and addressed patient satisfaction. The caregiver questionnaire addressed caregiver satisfaction and relevance of the patient contact in the ER. A total of 3,809 patients and 3,905 caregivers responded. The response rate...... satisfaction rates when patients were of Middle Eastern compared with Danish origin. Satisfaction of both groups was associated with the relevance of the visit as assessed by the caregiver. Visits by patients of Middle Eastern origin were less often assessed as being relevant, but caregivers were less...

  10. Relevant factors affecting the outcome of ultrasound guided foam sclerotherapy of the great saphenous vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Falaschi


    Full Text Available Ultrasound guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS constitutes a valid ablative treatment for superficial vein diseases for the great saphenous vein (GSV, but no standardized protocol for its execution has yet been defined. Different variable factors involved in this procedure influence the final outcome and clinical results. The aim of our study was to analyze the respective influence on efficacy and side effects of three variable factors (foam volume, foam concentration, and contact time between the foam and the endothelium for UGFS procedures for GSV insufficiency in order to select the best protocol for treatment. A retrospective analysis was made of UGFS procedures (190 patients, 201 legs performed for GSV insufficiency in our institute from January 2007 to January 2010. All great saphenous veins included in our study exhibited a trans-ostial reflux and caliber range was 7-11 mm. In all cases, foam was prepared according to the Tessari method, using polidocanol (POL and a gas mixture of CO2 (70% and filtered room air (30%, in a proportion of 1:4. A single injection procedure in the GSV was performed under Doppler ultrasound guidance at mid to lower third of the thigh. Legs were randomly assigned to one of three different treatment protocols: - Group A (71 legs: POL 3%, mean foam volume 4.5 cc, intermittent groin pressure 5 min, supine bed rest 10 min; - Group B (61 legs: POL 2%, mean foam volume 9 cc, intermittent groin pressure 5 min, supine bed rest 10 min; - Group C (69 legs: POL 2%, mean foam volume 9 cc, continuous groin pressure 5 min followed by intermittent groin pressure 5 min, continuous leg compression 5 min, supine bed rest 10 min. Efficacy of treatment and occurrence of side effects were evaluated in each group at two weeks and again at two years after the procedure and the cumulative results compared. Analysis of outcomes did not show any significant difference between the complete obliteration rate (P=0.825 or occurrence of local

  11. Critical Outcomes in Longitudinal Observational Studies and Registries in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zamora, Natalia V; Christensen, Robin; Goel, Niti


    OBJECTIVE: Outcomes important to patients are those that are relevant to their well-being, including quality of life, morbid endpoints, and death. These outcomes often occur over the longterm and can be identified in prospective longitudinal observational studies (PLOS). There are no standards...... for which outcome domains should be considered. Our overarching goal is to identify critical longterm outcome domains for patients with rheumatic diseases, and to develop a conceptual framework to measure and classify them within the scope of OMERACT Filter 2.0. METHODS: The steps of this initiative...

  12. A systematic review on the effect of sweeteners on glycemic response and clinically relevant outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebe Natasha


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major metabolic complications of obesity and type 2 diabetes may be prevented and managed with dietary modification. The use of sweeteners that provide little or no calories may help to achieve this objective. Methods We did a systematic review and network meta-analysis of the comparative effectiveness of sweetener additives using Bayesian techniques. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and CAB Global were searched to January 2011. Randomized trials comparing sweeteners in obese, diabetic, and healthy populations were selected. Outcomes of interest included weight change, energy intake, lipids, glycated hemoglobin, markers of insulin resistance and glycemic response. Evidence-based items potentially indicating risk of bias were assessed. Results Of 3,666 citations, we identified 53 eligible randomized controlled trials with 1,126 participants. In diabetic participants, fructose reduced 2-hour blood glucose concentrations by 4.81 mmol/L (95% CI 3.29, 6.34 compared to glucose. Two-hour blood glucose concentration data comparing hypocaloric sweeteners to sucrose or high fructose corn syrup were inconclusive. Based on two ≤10-week trials, we found that non-caloric sweeteners reduced energy intake compared to the sucrose groups by approximately 250-500 kcal/day (95% CI 153, 806. One trial found that participants in the non-caloric sweetener group had a decrease in body mass index compared to an increase in body mass index in the sucrose group (-0.40 vs 0.50 kg/m2, and -1.00 vs 1.60 kg/m2, respectively. No randomized controlled trials showed that high fructose corn syrup or fructose increased levels of cholesterol relative to other sweeteners. Conclusions Considering the public health importance of obesity and its consequences; the clearly relevant role of diet in the pathogenesis and maintenance of obesity; and the billions of dollars spent on non-caloric sweeteners, little high-quality clinical research has been done. Studies are

  13. [Relevance of the socioeconomic and health context in patient satisfaction]. (United States)

    Pérez-Romero, Shirley; Gascón-Cánovas, Juan J; Salmerón-Martínez, Diego; Parra-Hidalgo, Pedro; Monteagudo-Piqueras, Olga

    To determine which factors of the socioeconomic and health contexts influence the perception of the satisfaction of the population with the health services. The data come from the European Health Survey of 2009. In the 22,188 subjects surveyed, the relationship between the perception of satisfaction with the health services received and the individual and contextual variables was studied, applying a multilevel analysis. The factors of the socioeconomic and health contexts that influence satisfaction are: higher rates of low level of studies where the perception of excellence is less likely (odds ratio [OR]: 0.48-0.82) and dissatisfaction is more prevalent (OR: 1.46-1.63). Likewise, the proportion of unsatisfied citizens is lower when per capita expenditure on health services is very high (>1400 €) (OR: 0.49-0.87) and the ratio "primary health care physicians/inhabitants" is high (>60) (OR: 0.500.85). In addition, the prevalence of dissatisfaction describes a positive linear trend with the unemployment rate (OR: 1.12; p=0.0001) and the relative magnitude of the services sector (OR: 1.03; p=0.001). By contrast, this linear trend is negative as the Health Care Coverage Ratio increases (OR: 0.88; p=0.04). The individual factors that determine patient satisfaction are: sex, age, mental health and country of birth. In addition, there are differences in patient satisfaction among the autonomous communities according to socio-economic determinants such as GDP per capita, low-level study rates, unemployment rates or number of inhabitants/doctor's ratio. User satisfaction studies as well as being adjusted for individual variables such as sex, age or health level should also take into account characteristics of the socioeconomic environment of the geographic area where they reside. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Environmental Design on Patient Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jannie; Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Rosenberg, Jacob


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to assess how inpatients were affected by the built environment design during their hospitalization. BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, the healthcare system has become increasingly aware of how focus on healthcare environment might affect patient....... The following databases were searched: Medline/PubMed, Cinahl, and Embase. Inclusion criteria were randomized clinical trials (RCTs) investigating the effect of built environment design interventions such as music, natural murals, and plants in relation to patients' health outcome. RESULTS: Built environment...... satisfaction. The focus on environmental design has become a field with great potential because of its possible impact on cost control while improving quality of care. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to identify current and past studies about evidence-based healthcare design...

  15. Improving patient outcomes through registered dietitian order writing. (United States)

    Roberts, Susan R


    Traditionally, registered dietitians (RD) have not had order writing privileges in most patient-care facilities and rely on physicians to implement their recommendations. Research has demonstrated that this model results in a high percentage of RD recommendations not being ordered. Timely nutrition interventions are important due to the prevalence of malnutrition in the hospital setting and when RD recommendations are implemented, important outcomes are improved. In addition, several studies have demonstrated that when RDs have order writing privileges, which allows more assurance that an intervention will occur and timely interventions, improved outcomes, such as improved nutrition status, better management of electrolytes and glycemic control, reaching goal calories sooner, reduction in inappropriate parenteral nutrition use, cost savings, and less error with electronic order entry. The process for implementation and outcomes of an RD order writing program at 1 large, urban, tertiary medical center is described. The program has been successful, but the implementation process required multiple years and ongoing monitoring through data collection to ensure success. RDs interested in order writing privileges must consider federal and state regulations, their individual scope of practice (relevant training and competency assessment), and how to obtain approval from the appropriate hospital governing committees. RDs who obtain order writing privileges must understand "with privilege comes responsibility" and should plan to conduct outcomes research to promote the value and acceptance of RD order writing by regulatory agencies at all levels and hospital leaders, for instance physicians and administrators.

  16. Continuous oscillation: outcome in critically ill patients. (United States)

    Traver, G A; Tyler, M L; Hudson, L D; Sherrill, D L; Quan, S F


    To compare turning by an oscillating bed to standard 2-hour turning. Outcomes were survival, length of stay (LOS), duration of mechanical ventilation, and incidence of pneumonia. One hundred and three intensive care patients were randomly assigned to standard turning or turning by an oscillating bed. Data, collected at baseline, daily for 7 days, and then three times weekly until study discharge, included demographics, initial Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score, ventilatory/gas exchange parameters, indicators of pneumonia, nursing measures, and chest roentgenograph. There were no significant differences for LOS, duration of ventilation, nor incidence of pneumonia. Higher survival for subjects on the oscillating bed reached borderline significance (P = .056) for subjects with APACHE II greater than or equal to 20. Longitudinal data were analyzed using the random effects model. No differences in ventilatory or gas exchange parameters were identified. Among subjects who developed pneumonia there was a significantly higher respiratory score (nursing acuity scale) for subjects on the oscillating bed. In selected critically ill patients oscillating therapy may improve survival and improve airway clearance. The frequency and degree of turning needed to prevent complications and improve outcome remains unclear. These newer beds should be used with discrimination so as to not increase hospital costs unnecessarily.

  17. A systematic review of patient-reported outcome measures in paediatric otolaryngology. (United States)

    Powell, J; Powell, S; Robson, A


    Recently, there has been increased emphasis on the development and application of patient-reported outcome measures. This drive to assess the impact of illness or interventions, from the patient's perspective, has resulted in a greater number of available questionnaires. The importance of selecting an appropriate patient-reported outcome measure is specifically emphasised in the paediatric population. The literature on patient-reported outcome measures used in paediatric otolaryngology was reviewed. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using the databases Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and PsycInfo, using the terms: 'health assessment questionnaire', 'structured questionnaire', 'questionnaire', 'patient reported outcome measures', 'PROM', 'quality of life' or 'survey', and 'children' or 'otolaryngology'. The search was limited to English-language articles published between 1996 and 2016. The search yielded 656 articles, of which 63 were considered relevant. This included general paediatric patient-reported outcome measures applied to otolaryngology, and paediatric otolaryngology disease-specific patient-reported outcome measures. A large collection of patient-reported outcome measures are described in the paediatric otolaryngology literature. Greater standardisation of the patient-reported outcome measures used in paediatric otolaryngology would assist in pooling of data and increase the validation of tools used.

  18. A review of potential factors relevant to coping in patients with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thora G.; Rydahl-Hansen, Susan; Wagner, Lis


    The aim was to identify characteristics that are considered to describe coping in patients with advanced cancer, as seen from a patient perspective. Based on the identified characteristics, the second aim was to identify potential factors that are relevant to coping in patients with advanced cancer....

  19. AMCP Partnership Forum: Improving Quality, Value, and Outcomes with Patient-Reported Outcomes. (United States)


    manufacturers should engage key stakeholders early and throughout the drug development process to ensure the most valid and representative PROs and patient populations will be included. To streamline the PRO collection process, participants suggested engaging pharmacists and other providers who may have more frequent interaction with patients. Participants also recommended that PRO collection and analysis should use common technology platforms, streamline components of clinician care to reduce workflow, and be integrated with claims data to provider payers a better understanding of patient health in real time. Finally, additional work should be done to develop patient-reported outcome measures that contain relevant measures for all healthcare stakeholders. While significant challenges remain in PRO development and adoption, participants agreed that greater use can only be achieved through collaboration and patient-centered care. The AMCP Partnership Forum titled "Improving Quality, Value, and Outcomes with Patient-Reported Outcomes" and the development of this proceedings report were supported by Amgen, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Genentech, GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Novo Nordisk, Precision for Value, Premier, Sanofi, Takeda Pharmaceuticals USA, and Xcenda.

  20. Pregnancy outcome in patients with pityriasis rosea. (United States)

    Drago, Francesco; Broccolo, Francesco; Zaccaria, Elisa; Malnati, Mauro; Cocuzza, Clementina; Lusso, Paolo; Rebora, Alfredo


    The effect of pityriasis rosea (PR) on the outcome of pregnancy has not been previously reported. We sought to investigate the possible impact of PR in pregnant women. In all, 38 women who developed PR during pregnancy were observed. In one of them, who developed PR at 10 weeks' gestation and aborted 2 weeks later, plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, maternal skin, and placental and embryonic tissues were studied by quantitative calibrated real-time polymerase chain reaction for human herpesviruses (HHV)-6 and -7. Controls included plasma from 36 healthy blood donors, plasma and paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 12 patients with other dermatitides, and from placental and embryonic tissues from one woman who presented with a 19-week intrauterine fetal death. Of the 38 women, 9 had a premature delivery and 5 miscarried. In particular, 62% of the women who developed PR within 15 weeks' gestation aborted. Neonatal hypotonia, weak motility, and hyporeactivity were noted in 6 cases. In the patient studied in detail, HHV-6 DNA was detected in plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, skin, and placenta and embryonic tissues, whereas HHV-7 DNA was absent. HHV-6 p41 antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in skin lesions, placenta, and embryonic tissues. No herpesvirus DNA was detected in plasma and tissues from control subjects. This is a case series study with a small number of patients. PR may be associated with an active HHV-6 infection. In pregnancy, PR may foreshadow premature delivery with neonatal hypotonia and even fetal demise especially if it develops within 15 weeks' gestation.

  1. Patient reported outcomes in hip arthroplasty registries. (United States)

    Paulsen, Aksel


    -retest). I found that the translated PRO had good feasibility, an excellent response rate, no floor effect, but a high ceiling effect (as was expected with our postoperative patients) and few patients missed too many items to calculate a sum score. The translated PRO had high test-retest reliability and very high internal consistency, and appears to be a valid and reliable tool for outcome studies on THA patients in a hip registry setting. The MCII and PASS study included 1,335 patients, and I estimated that one year after THA, an improvement of 38-55% from mean baseline PRO score and absolute follow-up scores of 57-91% of the maximum score correspond to a minimal important improvement and acceptable symptom state, respectively.

  2. Enhancing the Relevance and Value of Marketing Curriculum Outcomes to a Liberal Arts Education (United States)

    Petkus, Ed, Jr.


    Could marketing coursework be part of the general education requirements for all college students? This article describes the ways in which the professional school marketing curriculum model (Schibrowsky, Peltier, & Boyt, 2002) can complement and enhance liberal arts education outcomes. First, the general relationship between liberal arts…

  3. Variation in tissue outcome of ovine and human engineered heart valve constructs : relevance for tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geemen, van D.; Driessen - Mol, A.; Grootzwagers, L.G.M.; Soekhradj - Soechit, R.S.; Riem Vis, P.W.; Baaijens, F.P.T.; Bouten, C.V.C.

    AIM: Clinical application of tissue engineered heart valves requires precise control of the tissue culture process to predict tissue composition and mechanical properties prior to implantation, and to understand the variation in tissue outcome. To this end we investigated cellular phenotype and

  4. Patient assessment: preparing for a predictable aesthetic outcome. (United States)

    Mehta, Shamir B; Banerji, Subir; Aulakh, Raman


    The flux of patients seeking to make changes to the appearance of their smile zone appears to be on a pathway of continual increase. This is possibly due to an increase in awareness towards oral health, and perhaps social, peer and media pressures, respectively. Cohorts of dental practitioners have thus responded to the latter demands by attending a plethora of educational courses, often focusing on either restorative techniques or other disciplines, notably orthodontics and clear aligners in particular. Consequently, treatment planning and thus treatment provision may carry the risk of being biased or indeed 'outcome driven' whereby the skills and knowledge of any clinician towards a particular faculty may significantly influence the ultimate treatment plan, with the unfortunate tendency sometimes to overlook the role of the interdisciplinary approach of concomitant restorative and contemporary techniques. The role of orthodontics to facilitate the provision of such treatment, along with predictable enamel bonding, has the distinct advantage of providing an acceptable aesthetic result with minimal biological intervention. However, to achieve an optimal result in such cases requires meticulous treatment planning and patient selection to avoid pitfalls with regards to long-term stability and function. This article suggests a standardized approach to patient assessment, with an interdisciplinary perspective in mind. Clinical Relevance: With the growth of patient demand for improving the appearance of the smile, a meticulous assessment protocol is required along with effective interdisciplinary communication. This enables a comprehensive treatment plan to be developed with the correct priorities.

  5. Patient Safety Outcomes in Small Urban and Small Rural Hospitals (United States)

    Vartak, Smruti; Ward, Marcia M.; Vaughn, Thomas E.


    Purpose: To assess patient safety outcomes in small urban and small rural hospitals and to examine the relationship of hospital and patient factors to patient safety outcomes. Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample and American Hospital Association annual survey data were used for analyses. To increase comparability, the study sample was…

  6. Relevance of neuroimaging for neurocognitive and behavioral outcome after pediatric traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Königs, Marsh; Pouwels, Petra Jw; Ernest van Heurn, L W; Bakx, Roel; Jeroen Vermeulen, R; Carel Goslings, J; Poll-The, Bwee Tien; van der Wees, Marleen; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E; Oosterlaan, Jaap


    This study aims to (1) investigate the neuropathology of mild to severe pediatric TBI and (2) elucidate the predictive value of conventional and innovative neuroimaging for functional outcome. Children aged 8-14 years with trauma control (TC) injury (n = 27) were compared to children with mild TBI and risk factors for complicated TBI (mild RF+ , n = 20) or moderate/severe TBI (n = 17) at 2.8 years post-injury. Neuroimaging measures included: acute computed tomography (CT), volumetric analysis on post-acute conventional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and post-acute diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics and voxel-wise regression). Functional outcome was measured using Common Data Elements for neurocognitive and behavioral functioning. The results show that intracranial pathology on acute CT-scans was more prevalent after moderate/severe TBI (65%) than after mild RF+ TBI (35%; p = .035), while both groups had decreased white matter volume on conventional MRI (ps ≤ .029, ds ≥ -0.74). The moderate/severe TBI group further showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in a widespread cluster affecting all white matter tracts, in which regional associations with neurocognitive functioning were observed (FSIQ, Digit Span and RAVLT Encoding) that consistently involved the corpus callosum. FA had superior predictive value for functional outcome (i.e. intelligence, attention and working memory, encoding in verbal memory and internalizing problems) relative to acute CT-scanning (i.e. internalizing problems) and conventional MRI (no predictive value). We conclude that children with mild RF+ TBI and moderate/severe TBI are at risk of persistent white matter abnormality. Furthermore, DTI has superior predictive value for neurocognitive out-come relative to conventional neuroimaging.

  7. CT Imaging Findings and Their Relevance to the Clinical Outcomes After Stent Graft Repair of Penetrating Aortic Ulcers: Six-year, Single-center Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Angle, John F.; Park, Auh Whan; Anderson, Curtis; Sabri, Saher S.; Turba, Ulku C. [University of Virginia Health System, Division of Angiography, Interventional Radiology and Special Procedures, Department of Radiology (United States); Kern, John A.; Cherry, Kenneth J. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Surgery (United States); Matsumoto, Alan H., E-mail: [University of Virginia Health System, Division of Angiography, Interventional Radiology and Special Procedures, Department of Radiology (United States)


    Purpose: To present the computed tomographic (CT) imaging findings and their relevance to clinical outcomes related to stent graft placement in patients with penetrating aortic ulcers (PAUs). Methods: Medical and imaging records and imaging studies were reviewed for consecutive patients who underwent stent graft repair of a PAU. The distribution and characteristics of the PAU, technical success of stent graft repair, procedure-related complications, associated aortic wall abnormalities, and outcomes of the PAUs at follow-up CT scans were evaluated. Results: Fifteen patients underwent endovascular treatment for PAU. A total of 87% of the PAUs were in the proximal (n = 8) or distal (n = 5) descending thoracic aorta. There was a broad spectrum of PAU depth (mean, 7.9 {+-} 5.6 mm; range 1.5-25.0 mm) and diameter (mean, 13.5 {+-} 9.7 mm; range 2.2-41.0 mm). Atherosclerosis of the thoracic aorta and intramural hematoma were associated in 53 and 93% of the patients, respectively. Technical success was achieved in 100%. Two or more stent grafts were used in five patients. Endoleaks were observed in two patients within 2 weeks of the procedure, both of which resolved spontaneously. At follow-up CT scanning, regression and thrombosis of the PAUs were observed in all patients. The average patient survival was 61.8 months, with an overall mortality of 13% (2 of 15) at follow-up. Neither death was related to the endograft device or the PAU. Conclusion: Endovascular stent graft placement was safe and effective in causing regression and thrombosis of PAUs in this small series of patients. Two or more stent grafts were used in five patients (33%) with associated long-segmental atherosclerotic changes of the thoracic aorta or intramural hematoma.

  8. CT Imaging Findings and Their Relevance to the Clinical Outcomes After Stent Graft Repair of Penetrating Aortic Ulcers: Six-year, Single-center Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Angle, John F.; Park, Auh Whan; Anderson, Curtis; Sabri, Saher S.; Turba, Ulku C.; Kern, John A.; Cherry, Kenneth J.; Matsumoto, Alan H.


    Purpose: To present the computed tomographic (CT) imaging findings and their relevance to clinical outcomes related to stent graft placement in patients with penetrating aortic ulcers (PAUs). Methods: Medical and imaging records and imaging studies were reviewed for consecutive patients who underwent stent graft repair of a PAU. The distribution and characteristics of the PAU, technical success of stent graft repair, procedure-related complications, associated aortic wall abnormalities, and outcomes of the PAUs at follow-up CT scans were evaluated. Results: Fifteen patients underwent endovascular treatment for PAU. A total of 87% of the PAUs were in the proximal (n = 8) or distal (n = 5) descending thoracic aorta. There was a broad spectrum of PAU depth (mean, 7.9 ± 5.6 mm; range 1.5–25.0 mm) and diameter (mean, 13.5 ± 9.7 mm; range 2.2–41.0 mm). Atherosclerosis of the thoracic aorta and intramural hematoma were associated in 53 and 93% of the patients, respectively. Technical success was achieved in 100%. Two or more stent grafts were used in five patients. Endoleaks were observed in two patients within 2 weeks of the procedure, both of which resolved spontaneously. At follow-up CT scanning, regression and thrombosis of the PAUs were observed in all patients. The average patient survival was 61.8 months, with an overall mortality of 13% (2 of 15) at follow-up. Neither death was related to the endograft device or the PAU. Conclusion: Endovascular stent graft placement was safe and effective in causing regression and thrombosis of PAUs in this small series of patients. Two or more stent grafts were used in five patients (33%) with associated long-segmental atherosclerotic changes of the thoracic aorta or intramural hematoma.

  9. Patient Satisfaction with Surgical Outcome after Hypospadias Correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dokter, E.M.J.; Moues, C.M.; Rooij, I.A.L.M. van; Biezen, J.J. van der


    Background: Hypospadias is a congenital malformation in which surgical correction is indicated in most cases. Postoperative patient satisfaction is important because of its influence on the child's psychological development. Objective: To evaluate patient satisfaction with surgical outcome after

  10. An analysis of contextual information relevant to medical care unexpectedly volunteered to researchers by asthma patients. (United States)

    Black, Heather L; Priolo, Chantel; Gonzalez, Rodalyn; Geer, Sabrina; Adam, Bariituu; Apter, Andrea J


    To describe and categorize contextual information relevant to patients' medical care unexpectedly volunteered to research personnel as part of a patient advocate (PA) intervention to facilitate access health care, communication with medical personnel, and self-management of a chronic disease such as asthma. We adapted a patient navigator intervention, to overcome barriers to access and communication for adults with moderate or severe asthma. Informed by focus groups of patients and providers, our PAs facilitated preparation for a visit with an asthma provider, attended the visit, confirmed understanding, and assisted with post-visit activities. During meetings with researchers, either for PA activities or for data collection, participants frequently volunteered personal and medical information relevant for achieving successful self-management that was not routinely shared with medical personnel. For this project, researchers journaled information not captured by the structured questionnaires and protocol. Using a qualitative analysis, we describe (1) researchers' journals of these unique communications; (2) their relevance for accomplishing self-management; (3) PAs' formal activities including teach-back, advocacy, and facilitating appointment making; and (4) observations of patients' interactions with the clinical practices. In 83 journals, patients' social support (83%), health (68%), and deportment (69%) were described. PA assistance with navigating the medical system (59%), teach-back (46%), and observed interactions with patient and medical staff (76%) were also journaled. Implicit were ways patients and practices could overcome barriers to access and communication. These journals describe the importance of seeking contextual and medically relevant information from all patients and, especially, those with significant morbidities, prompting patients for barriers to access to health care, and confirming understanding of medical information.

  11. Outcomes management of mechanically ventilated patients: utilizing informatics technology. (United States)

    Smith, K R


    This article examines an informatics system developed for outcomes management of the mechanically ventilated adult population, focusing on weaning the patient from mechanical ventilation. The link between medical informatics and outcomes management is discussed, along with the development of methods, tools, and data sets for outcomes management of the mechanically ventilated adult population at an acute care academic institution. Pros and cons of this system are identified, and specific areas for improvement of future health care outcomes medical informatics systems are discussed.

  12. Does gender influence outcomes in critically ill patients?


    Angele, Martin K; Pratschke, Sebastian; Chaudry, Irshad H


    Investigators continue to debate whether gender plays any role in patient outcome following injury/critical illness. We submit that age and hormonal milieu at the time of injury, rather than gender, are the critical factors influencing patient outcome under those conditions.

  13. New onset status epilepticus in older patients: Clinical characteristics and outcome. (United States)

    Malter, M P; Nass, R D; Kaluschke, T; Fink, G R; Burghaus, L; Dohmen, C


    We here evaluated (1) the differential characteristics of status epilepticus (SE) in older (≥60 years) compared to younger adults (18-59 years). In particular, we were interested in (2) the proportion and characteristics of new onset SE in patients with no history of epilepsy (NOSE) in older compared to younger adults, and (3) predictive parameters for clinical outcome in older subjects with NOSE. We performed a monocentric retrospective analysis of all adult patients (≥18years) admitted with SE to our tertiary care centre over a period of 10 years (2006-2015) to evaluate clinical characteristics and short-time outcome at discharge. One-hundred-thirty-five patients with SE were included in the study. Mean age at onset was 64 years (range 21-90), eighty-seven of the patients (64%) were older than 60 years. In 76 patients (56%), SE occurred as NOSE, sixty-seven percent of them were aged ≥60 years. There was no age-dependent predominance for NOSE. NOSE was not a relevant outcome predictor, especially regarding age-related subgroups. Older patients with NOSE had less frequently general tonic clonic SE (GTCSE; p=0.001) and were more often female (p=0.01). Regarding outcome parameters and risk factors in older patients with NOSE, unfavourable outcome was associated with infections during in-hospital treatment (0.04), extended stay in ICU (p=0.001), and generally in hospital (p<0.001). In our cohort, older patients represented the predominant subgroup in patients with SE. Older patients suffered more often from non-convulsive semiology and had a less favourable short-time outcome. NOSE was not a predictive outcome parameter in older patients. Data suggest that avoiding infections should have a priority because higher infection rates were associated with unfavourable outcome. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Using patient acuity data to manage patient care outcomes and patient care costs. (United States)

    Van Slyck, A; Johnson, K R


    This article describes actual reported uses for patient acuity data that go beyond historical uses in determining staffing allocations. These expanded uses include managing patient care outcomes and health care costs. The article offers the patient care executive examples of how objective, valid, and reliable data are used to drive approaches to effectively influence decision making in an increasingly competitive health care environment.

  15. Surgical Outcome in Patients with Spontaneous Supratentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendevski Vladimir


    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to evaluate the surgical outcome in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH after surgical intervention, in respect to the initial clinical conditions, age, sex, hemispheric side and anatomic localization of ICH. Thirty-eight surgically treated patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage were included in the study. The surgical outcome was evaluated three months after the initial admission, according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS. The surgical treatment was successful in 14 patients (37%, whereas it was unsuccessful in 24 patients (63%. We have detected a significant negative correlation between the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS scores on admission and the GOS scores after three months, suggesting worse neurological outcome in patients with initially lower GCS scores. The surgical outcome in patients with ICH was not affected by the sex, the hemispheric side and the anatomic localization of ICH, but the age of the patients was estimated as a significant factor for their functional outcome, with younger patients being more likely to be treated successfully. The surgical outcome is affected from the initial clinical state of the patients and their age. The treatment of ICH is still an unsolved clinical problem and the development of new surgical techniques with larger efficiency in the evacuation of the hematoma is necessary, thus making a minimal damage to the normal brain tissue, as well as decreasing the possibility of postoperative bleeding.

  16. Clinically applied medical ethnography: relevance to cultural competence in patient care. (United States)

    Engebretson, Joan


    Medical anthropology provides an excellent resource for nursing research that is relevant to clinical nursing. By expanding the understanding of ethnographic research beyond ethnicity, nurses can conduct research that explores patient's constructions and explanatory models of health and healing and how they make meaning out of chronic conditions and negotiate daily life. These findings can have applicability to culturally competent care at both the organizational or systems level, as well as in the patient/provider encounter. Individual patient care can be improved by applying ethnographic research findings to build provider expertise and then using a cultural negotiation process for individualized patient care. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Clinical relevance of routinely measured vital signs in hospitalized patients: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm-Versloot, Marja N.; Verweij, Lotte; Lucas, Cees; Ludikhuize, Jeroen; Goslings, J. Carel; Legemate, Dink A.; Vermeulen, Hester


    Conflicting evidence exists on the effectiveness of routinely measured vital signs on the early detection of increased probability of adverse events. To assess the clinical relevance of routinely measured vital signs in medically and surgically hospitalized patients through a systematic review.

  18. Patient reported outcomes in patients undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for traumatic or degenerative meniscal tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Englund, Martin; Christensen, Robin


    OBJECTIVES: To compare patient reported outcomes from before surgery to 52 weeks after surgery between individuals undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for traumatic meniscal tears and those for degenerative meniscal tears. DESIGN: Comparative prospective cohort study. SETTING: Four public......-55, and undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for a traumatic or degenerative meniscal tear (defined by a combination of age and symptom onset). INTERVENTIONS: Both participant groups underwent arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for a meniscal tear, with operating surgeons recording relevant information......% women) with a traumatic or degenerative meniscal tear (n=141, mean age 38.7 years (standard deviation 10.9); n=256, 46.6 years (6.4); respectively) were included in the main analysis. At 52 weeks after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, 55 (14%) patients were lost to follow-up. Statistically...

  19. Clinically relevant determinants of body composition, function and nutritional status as mortality predictors in lung cancer patients. (United States)

    Kovarik, Miroslav; Hronek, Miloslav; Zadak, Zdenek


    Lung cancer belongs to the type of tumors with a relatively high frequency of malnutrition, sarcopenia and cachexia, severe metabolic syndromes related to impairment of physical function and quality of life, resistance to therapy and short survival. Inexpensive and accessible methods of evaluating changes in body composition, physical function and nutrition status are for this reason of great importance for clinical practice to enable the early identification, monitoring, preventing and treatment of these nutritional deficiencies. This could lead to improved outcomes in the quality of life, physical performance and survival of patients with lung cancer. The aim of this article is to summarize the recent knowledge for the use of such methods, their predictability for patient outcomes and an association with other clinically relevant parameters, specifically with lung cancer patients, because such an article collectively describing their practical application in clinical practice is lacking. The interest of this article is in the use of anthropometry, handgrip dynamometry, bioelectrical impedance analysis derived phase angle and nutritional screening questionnaires in lung cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lisfranc injuries: patient- and physician-based functional outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, P A


    The purpose of this study was to assess functional outcome of patients with a Lisfranc fracture dislocation of the foot by applying validated patient- and physician-based scoring systems and to compare these outcome tools. Of 25 injuries sustained by 24 patients treated in our institution between January 1995 and June 2001, 16 were available for review with a mean follow-up period of 36 (10-74) months. Injuries were classified according to Myerson. Outcome instruments used were: (a) Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), (b) Baltimore Painful Foot score (PFS) and (c) American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) mid-foot scoring scale. Four patients had an excellent outcome on the PFS scale, seven were classified as good, three fair and two poor. There was a statistically significant correlation between the PFS and Role Physical (RP) element of the SF-36.

  1. Are existing outcome instruments suitable for assessment of spinal trauma patients? (United States)

    Stadhouder, Agnita; Buckens, Constantinus F M; Holtslag, Herman R; Oner, F Cumhur


    Valid outcome assessment tools specific for spinal trauma patients are necessary to establish the efficacy of different treatment options. So far, no validated specific outcome measures are available for this patient population. The purpose of this study was to assess the current state of outcome measurement in spinal trauma patients and to address the question of whether this group is adequately served by current disease-specific and generic health-related quality-of-life instruments. A number of widely used outcome measures deemed most appropriate were reviewed, and their applicability to spinal trauma outcome discussed. An overview of recent movements in the theoretical foundations of outcome assessment, as it pertains to spinal trauma patients has been attempted, along with a discussion of domains important for spinal trauma. Commonly used outcome measures that are recommended for use in trauma patients were reviewed from the perspective of spinal trauma. The authors further sought to select a number of spine trauma-relevant domains from the WHO's comprehensive International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a benchmark for assessing the content coverage of the commonly used outcome measurements reviewed. The study showed that there are no psychometrically validated outcome measurements for the spinal trauma population and there are no commonly used outcome measures that provide adequate content coverage for spinal trauma domains. Spinal trauma patients are currently followed either as a subset of the polytrauma population in the acute and early postacute setting or as a subset of neurological injury in the long-term revalidation medicine setting.

  2. Upper GI endoscopy in elderly patients: predictive factors of relevant endoscopic findings. (United States)

    Buri, Luigi; Zullo, Angelo; Hassan, Cesare; Bersani, Gianluca; Anti, Marcello; Bianco, Maria A; Cipolletta, Livio; Giulio, Emilio Di; Matteo, Giovanni Di; Familiari, Luigi; Ficano, Leonardo; Loriga, Piero; Morini, Sergio; Pietropaolo, Vincenzo; Zambelli, Alessandro; Grossi, Enzo; Tessari, Francesco; Intraligi, Marco; Buscema, Massimo


    Elderly patients are at increased risk for peptic ulcer and cancer. Predictive factors of relevant endoscopic findings at upper endoscopy in the elderly are unknown. This was a post hoc analysis of a nationwide, endoscopic study. A total of 3,147 elderly patients were selected. Demographic, clinical, and endoscopic data were systematically collected. Relevant findings and new diagnoses of peptic ulcer and malignancy were computed. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. A total of 1,559 (49.5%), 213 (6.8%), 93 (3%) relevant findings, peptic ulcers, and malignancies were detected. Peptic ulcers and malignancies were more frequent in >85-year-old patients (OR 3.1, 95% CI = 2.0-4.7, p = 0.001). The presence of dysphagia (OR = 5.15), weight loss (OR = 4.77), persistent vomiting (OR = 3.68), anaemia (OR = 1.83), and male gender (OR = 1.9) were significantly associated with a malignancy, whilst overt bleeding (OR = 6.66), NSAIDs use (OR = 2.23), and epigastric pain (OR = 1.90) were associated with the presence of peptic ulcer. Peptic ulcer or malignancies were detected in 10% of elderly patients, supporting the use of endoscopy in this age group. Very elderly patients appear to be at higher risk of such lesions.

  3. Poor outcomes and satisfaction in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis surgery: the relevance of the body mass index and self-image. (United States)

    Pérez-Prieto, Daniel; Sánchez-Soler, Juan Francisco; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Mojal, Sergi; Bagó, Joan; Cáceres, Enric; Ramírez, Manuel


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) to determine whether a low body mass index (BMI) influences surgery outcomes and satisfaction. There were 39 patients in this prospective 3-year cohort study. The BMI, Cobb angle, the Body Shape Questionnaire 14 (BSQ-14), the Scoliosis Research Society Questionnaire 22 (SRS-22) and eight satisfaction questions results were obtained. Having a BMI greater than or less than 18 kg/m(2) was used as a determiner to allocate patients to groups. As a low BMI is related to the presence of a disturbance in body perception, patients were also dichotomized by using the BSQ-14. All scales were worse in both slimmer patients and the group with a body perception disorder. The group with a BMI 18 kg/m(2) (p = 0.001). In terms of satisfaction, the percentage of patients that would undergo surgery again was 30.8 vs 69.2 % (p = 0.054). Patients with an alteration of physical perception obtained a total SRS-22 of 82.90 points versus 96.10 points in the control group (p < 0.001). No differences in terms of the Cobb correction (p = 0.29) or the percentage of correction (p = 0.841) were found in any case. The alteration of physical perception and a low BMI negatively affect the outcomes in AIS surgery, regardless of the curve magnitude and the percentage of correction. Considerable care should be taken in recommending surgical correction to these patients.

  4. Relevance of the body mass index in the cognitive status of diabetic patients with different alcohol-drinking patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacramioara Serban Ionela


    Full Text Available Nowadays the general relevance of alcohol consumption in diabetes is extremely controversial. There are recent reports that alcohol consumption could result in a decreased incidence of diabetes, as well as other studies demonstrating a positive association between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes; there are also reports arguing for an inverse association between the two or for no correlation at all. The different results obtained in these studies could be explained by the existence of several confounders that could influence the outcome of the aforementioned studies. In this paper, we studied the possible relevance of BMI as a confounder in the relationship between alcohol consumption in diabetes and cognitive function, by analyzing the correlations between BMI values in diabetic patients with different alcohol drinking patterns and the subdomains from some main psychometric tests, such as MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination and MOCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Our results provide evidence for BMI as a possible confounder of the relationship between alcohol consumption in diabetes and cognitive function. We found a significant increase (p<0.0001 in BMI values in patients with diabetes compared to our control group. Most importantly, significant correlations between BMI parameters in alcohol-consuming diabetic patients and most of the subdomains for psychometric testing.

  5. Relevance of plasma malondialdehyde level and severity of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients. (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Lan; Zhu, Xin-Yan; Zhang, Dong-Wei; Zhang, Zhao-Jie; Gao, Heng-Jun; Yang, Chang-Qing


    Portal hypertension is one of the death reasons for the liver cirrhosis patients. The oxidative stress is related to the occurrence and development of portal hypertension in cirrhosis. Malondialdehyde (MDA), one of the lipid peroxides, increases substantially in cirrhotic patients. To evaluate the relevance between the MDA level and portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients. 60 liver cirrhotic patients and 30 healthy controls were enrolled. The plasma MDA level and general blood tests including ALT, AST, ALB, total bilirubin, and platelet were measured. All people enrolled accepted endoscopic examination and B-Ultrasound check to evaluate the severity of portal hypertension. The MDA plasma level of cirrhotic patients was significantly higher than the controls (Pportal hypertension (Pportal vein (r=0.652, Pportal hypertension. Plasma MDA level may correlate with the severity of portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients.

  6. Ischemic stroke subtype is associated with outcome in thrombolyzed patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, Marie Louise; Simonsen, Claus Ziegler; Svendsen, M L


    OBJECTIVES: The impact of ischemic stroke subtype on clinical outcome in patients treated with intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) is sparsely examined. We studied the association between stroke subtype and clinical outcome in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-evaluated patients...... patients were more likely to achieve early neurological improvement and favorable outcome compared with LVD stroke following MRI-based IV-tPA treatment. This finding may reflect a difference in the effect of IV-tPA among stroke subtypes....

  7. Patient-reported outcome measures for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease : the exclusion of people with low literacy skills and learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahagirdar, D.; Kroll, T.; Ritchie, K.; Wyke, S.


    BACKGROUND: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are intended to reflect outcomes relevant to patients. They are increasingly used for healthcare quality improvement. To produce valid measures, patients should be involved in the development process but it is unclear whether this usually

  8. Nephrologists’ Perspectives on Defining and Applying Patient-Centered Outcomes in Hemodialysis (United States)

    Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.; Wheeler, David C.; van Biesen, Wim; Tugwell, Peter; Manns, Braden; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Harris, Tess; Crowe, Sally; Ju, Angela; O’Lone, Emma; Evangelidis, Nicole; Craig, Jonathan C.


    Background and objectives Patient centeredness is widely advocated as a cornerstone of health care, but it is yet to be fully realized, including in nephrology. Our study aims to describe nephrologists’ perspectives on defining and implementing patient-centered outcomes in hemodialysis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Face-to-face, semistructured interviews were conducted with 58 nephrologists from 27 dialysis units across nine countries, including the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Singapore, and New Zealand. Transcripts were thematically analyzed. Results We identified five themes on defining and implementing patient-centered outcomes in hemodialysis: explicitly prioritized by patients (articulated preferences and goals, ascertaining treatment burden, defining hemodialysis success, distinguishing a physician-patient dichotomy, and supporting shared decision making), optimizing wellbeing (respecting patient choice, focusing on symptomology, perceptible and tangible, and judging relevance and consequence), comprehending extensive heterogeneity of clinical and quality of life outcomes (distilling diverse priorities, highly individualized, attempting to specify outcomes, and broadening context), clinically hamstrung (professional deficiency, uncertainty and complexity in measurement, beyond medical purview, specificity of care, mechanistic mindset [focused on biochemical targets and comorbidities], avoiding alarm, and paradoxical dilemma), and undermined by system pressures (adhering to overarching policies, misalignment with mandates, and resource constraints). Conclusions Improving patient-centered outcomes is regarded by nephrologists to encompass strategies that address patient goals and improve wellbeing and treatment burden in patients on hemodialysis. However, efforts are hampered by ambiguities about how to prioritize, measure, and manage the plethora of critical comorbidities and broader

  9. Left septal atrial tachycardia after open-heart surgery: relevance to surgical approach, anatomical and electrophysiological characteristics associated with catheter ablation, and procedural outcomes. (United States)

    Adachi, Toru; Yoshida, Kentaro; Takeyasu, Noriyuki; Masuda, Keita; Sekiguchi, Yukio; Sato, Akira; Tada, Hiroshi; Nogami, Akihiko; Aonuma, Kazutaka


    Septal atrial tachycardia (AT) can occur in patients without structural heart disease and in patients with previous catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. We aimed to assess septal AT that occurs after open-heart surgery. This study comprised 20 consecutive patients undergoing catheter ablation of macroreentrant AT after open-heart surgery. Relevance to surgical approach, mechanisms, anatomic and electrophysiological characteristics, and outcomes were assessed. Septal AT was identified in 7 patients who had all undergone mitral valve surgery. All septal ATs were localized in the left atrial septum, whereas 10 of 13 nonseptal ATs originated from the right atrium. Patients with left septal AT had a thicker fossa ovalis (median, 4.0; 25th-75th percentile, 3.6-4.2 versus 2.3; 1.6-2.6 mm; P=0.006) and broader area of low voltage (open-heart surgery was characterized by a thicker septum, more scar burden in the septum, and repeated prolongations of the tachycardia cycle length during ablation. Such an arrhythmogenic substrate may interfere with transmural lesion formation by ablation and may account for higher likelihood of recurrence of left septal AT. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Outcomes-focused knowledge translation: a framework for knowledge translation and patient outcomes improvement. (United States)

    Doran, Diane M; Sidani, Souraya


    Regularly accessing information that is current and reliable continues to be a challenge for front-line staff nurses. Reconceptualizing how nurses access information and designing appropriate decision support systems to facilitate timely access to information may be important for increasing research utilization. An outcomes-focused knowledge translation framework was developed to guide the continuous improvement of patient care through the uptake of research evidence and feedback data about patient outcomes. The framework operationalizes the three elements of the PARIHS framework at the point of care. Outcomes-focused knowledge translation involves four components: (a) patient outcomes measurement and real-time feedback about outcomes achievement; (b) best-practice guidelines, embedded in decision support tools that deliver key messages in response to patient assessment data; (c) clarification of patients' preferences for care; and (d) facilitation by advanced practice nurses and practice leaders. In this paper the framework is described and evidence is provided to support theorized relationships among the concepts in the framework. The framework guided the design of a knowledge translation intervention aimed at continuous improvement of patient care and evidence-based practice, which are fostered through real-time feedback data about patient outcomes, electronic access to evidence-based resources at the point of care, and facilitation by advanced practice nurses. The propositions in the framework need to be empirically tested through future research.

  11. Patients' Preoperative Expectation and Outcome of Cataract Surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Patient's satisfaction for a given treatment is an important clinical outcome because a satisfied patient is more likely to comply with treatments, attend follow-ups and advocate the service to others. Therefore, knowing patients' expectations before a planned procedure or treatment and the actual level of ...

  12. Outcome of severe infections in afebrile neutropenic cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strojnik Ksenija


    Full Text Available In some neutropenic cancer patients fever may be absent despite microbiologically and/or clinically confirmed infection. We hypothesized that afebrile neutropenic cancer patients with severe infections have worse outcome as compared to cancer patients with febrile neutropenia.

  13. Outcome of Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy in Obese Patients. (United States)

    Paun, Diana; Petris, Rodica; Ganescu, Roxana; Paun, Sorin; Vartic, Mihaela; Beuran, Mircea


    To compare early morbidity of obese and nonobese patients with minimally invasive adrenalectomies. Retrospective study of a prospectively maintained database, between June 2003 - December 2012, in a universitary affiliated tertiary hospital. Selection criteria: Minimally invasive adrenalectomy. Obese patients were defined as BMI over 30 kg/m2. From 205 patient with laparoscopic adrenalectomies we counted 30 obese patients (OG), 25 of them female and only 5 men with a median age of 54,20 years versus 47,94 years for nonobese group (NOG) (p=0.008). In OG were 15 right sided tumor, 11 on the left side and 4 bilateral all treated with transperitoneal antero-lateral approach. Median operating time was 92.20 minutes for OG versus 91.13 minutes for NOG (p=0.924). In OG, 5 patients had previous abdominal surgeries and we counted 4 conversion to open surgery, 2 postoperative complications (6.6%) and no mortality. All OG patients have diverse comorbidities, 50% of them more then 3. Median specimen size was 5.92 cm for OG versus 4.85 cm for NOG (p=0.057). The histology of OG was: adenoma 11 cases, hiperplasia 13 cases and pheochromocytoma 6. In NOG we had: postoperative hospital stay was 6.57 days in OG versus 4.11 days in NOG (p=0.009). Although obese patients had a higher rate for early morbidities, the minimally invasive approach has particular benefits for them. Although postoperative hospital stay was significantly longer, we believe that advantages of minimal invasive surgery for obese patients remains valid even in a BMI over 30.

  14. Authentic leadership and nurse-assessed adverse patient outcomes. (United States)

    Wong, Carol A; Giallonardo, Lisa M


    Our purpose was to test a model examining relationships among authentic leadership, nurses' trust in their manager, areas of work life and nurse-assessed adverse patient outcomes. Although several work environment factors have been cited as critical to patient outcomes, studies linking nursing leadership styles with patient outcomes are limited suggesting the need for additional research to investigate the mechanisms by which leadership may influence patient outcomes. Secondary analysis of data collected in a cross-sectional survey of 280 (48% response rate) registered nurses working in acute care hospitals in Ontario was conducted using structural equation modelling. The final model fit the data acceptably (χ(2) = 1.30, df = 2, P = 0.52, IFI = 0.99, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA = 0.00). Authentic leadership was significantly associated with decreased adverse patient outcomes through trust in the manager and areas of work life. The findings suggest that nurses who see their managers as demonstrating high levels of authentic leadership report increased trust, greater congruence in the areas of work life and lower frequencies of adverse patient outcomes. Managers who emphasize transparency, balanced processing, self-awareness and high ethical standards in their interactions with nurses may contribute to safer work environments for patients and nurses. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Patient experiences with oily skin: The qualitative development of content for two new patient reported outcome questionnaires


    Arbuckle, Robert; Atkinson, Mark J; Clark, Marci; Abetz, Linda; Lohs, Jan; Kuhagen, Ilka; Harness, Jane; Draelos, Zoe; Thiboutot, Diane; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Copley-Merriman, Kati


    Abstract Objective To develop the content for two new patient reported outcome (PRO) measures to: a) assess the severity of symptoms; and b) the impact of facial skin oiliness on emotional wellbeing using qualitative data from face to face, and internet focus groups in Germany and the US. Methods Using input from initial treatment satisfaction focus groups (n = 42), a review of relevant literature and expert clinicians (n = 3), a discussion guide was developed to guide qualitative inquiry usi...

  16. Identification of relevant ICF categories in patients with chronic health conditions: a Delphi exercise. (United States)

    Weigl, Martin; Cieza, Alarcos; Andersen, Christina; Kollerits, Barbara; Amann, Edda; Stucki, Gerold


    To identify the most typical and relevant categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) for patients with low back pain, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, chronic generalized pain, stroke, depression, obesity, chronic ischaemic heart disease, obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, and breast cancer. An international expert survey using the Delphi technique was conducted. Data were collected in 3 rounds. Answers were linked to the ICF and analysed for the degree of consensus. Between 21 (osteoporosis, chronic ischaemic heart disease, and obstructive pulmonary disease) and 43 (stroke) experts responded in each of the conditions. In all conditions, with the exception of depression, there were categories in all ICF components that were considered typical and/or relevant by at least 80% of the responders. While all conditions had a distinct typical spectrum of relevant ICF categories, there were also some common relevant categories throughout the majority of conditions. Lists of ICF categories that are considered relevant and typical for specific conditions by international experts could be created. This is an important step towards identifying ICF Core Sets for chronic conditions.

  17. Long-term outcome in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, P; Hegaard, H; Herlin, Troels


    To evaluate a group of 53 patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM), on average 13.9 years after disease onset, in order to describe the long-term disease outcome and to identify disease-related parameters associated with poor disease outcome....

  18. Determinants of outcome in hip fracture patient care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vochteloo, Anne Jochem Hendrik


    In this thesis, clinical and functional outcomes of a large cohort of hip fracture patients are described, with regards to anemia, blood transfusion, concomitant fractures, loss of mobility and place of residence. Secondly, risk factors for poor outcome, both in a clinical and a functional

  19. Data collection of patient outcomes: one institution’s experience (United States)

    Whitaker, Thomas J; Mayo, Charles S; Ma, Daniel J; Haddock, Michael G; Miller, Robert C; Corbin, Kimberly S; Neben-Wittich, Michelle; Leenstra, James L; Laack, Nadia N; Fatyga, Mirek; Schild, Steven E; Vargas, Carlos E; Tzou, Katherine S; Hadley, Austin R; Buskirk, Steven J; Foote, Robert L


    Abstract Patient- and provider-reported outcomes are recognized as important in evaluating quality of care, guiding health care policy, comparative effectiveness research, and decision-making in radiation oncology. Combining patient and provider outcome data with a detailed description of disease and therapy is the basis for these analyses. We report on the combination of technical solutions and clinical process changes at our institution that were used in the collection and dissemination of this data. This initiative has resulted in the collection of treatment data for 23 541 patients, 20 465 patients with provider-based adverse event records, and patient-reported outcome surveys submitted by 5622 patients. All of the data is made accessible using a self-service web-based tool. PMID:29538757

  20. Data collection of patient outcomes: one institution's experience. (United States)

    Whitaker, Thomas J; Mayo, Charles S; Ma, Daniel J; Haddock, Michael G; Miller, Robert C; Corbin, Kimberly S; Neben-Wittich, Michelle; Leenstra, James L; Laack, Nadia N; Fatyga, Mirek; Schild, Steven E; Vargas, Carlos E; Tzou, Katherine S; Hadley, Austin R; Buskirk, Steven J; Foote, Robert L


    Patient- and provider-reported outcomes are recognized as important in evaluating quality of care, guiding health care policy, comparative effectiveness research, and decision-making in radiation oncology. Combining patient and provider outcome data with a detailed description of disease and therapy is the basis for these analyses. We report on the combination of technical solutions and clinical process changes at our institution that were used in the collection and dissemination of this data. This initiative has resulted in the collection of treatment data for 23 541 patients, 20 465 patients with provider-based adverse event records, and patient-reported outcome surveys submitted by 5622 patients. All of the data is made accessible using a self-service web-based tool.

  1. Utilizing a disease management approach to improve ESRD patient outcomes. (United States)

    Anand, Shaan; Nissenson, Allen R


    In this era of processes and systems to improve quality, disease management is one methodology to improve care delivery and outcomes for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In most disease management systems a senior renal nurse coordinates all aspects of the patient's care and ensures that the prescribed and necessary care is delivered for both CKD-related and comorbid conditions. The nurse also continually monitors outcomes on quality indicators and key performance measures. These outcome data are then aggregated and analyzed, are compared with local and national benchmarks, and drive the continuous quality improvement (CQI) process. Such a system attempts to centralize the currently fragmented care delivery system, continually improve patient outcomes, and conserve scarce economic resources. Early data suggest a disease management approach may improve both the morbidity and mortality of CKD patients.

  2. 5. Factors associated with Outcome in Patients Admitted with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    in-hospital outcomes of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) ... percentage points lower than an earlier study done at ... Severity of injury; this is determined by use of ..... 10. Management Protocol in head injured patients at. UTH. Neurosurgical unit ...

  3. Baseline Biomarkers for Outcome of Melanoma Patients Treated with Pembrolizumab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weide, Benjamin; Martens, Alexander; Hassel, Jessica C.; Berking, Carola; Postow, Michael A.; Bisschop, Kees; Simeone, Ester; Mangana, Johanna; Schilling, Bastian; Di Giacomo, Anna Maria; Brenner, Nicole; Kaehler, Katharina; Heinzerling, Lucie; Gutzmer, Ralf; Bender, Armin; Gebhardt, Christoffer; Romano, Emanuela; Meier, Friedegund; Martus, Peter; Maio, Michele; Blank, Christian; Schadendorf, Dirk; Dummer, Reinhard; Ascierto, Paolo A.; Hospers, Geke; Garbe, Claus; Wolchok, Jedd D.


    Purpose: Biomarkers for outcome after immune-checkpoint blockade are strongly needed as these may influence individual treatment selection or sequence. We aimed to identify baseline factors associated with overall survival (OS) after pembrolizumab treatment in melanoma patients. Experimental Design:

  4. Short-term outcome of patients with closed comminuted femoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short-term outcome of patients with closed comminuted femoral shaft fracture treated with locking intramedullary sign nail at Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute in Tanzania. Billy T. Haonga, Felix S. Mrita, Edmundo E. Ndalama, Jackline E. Makupa ...

  5. Pattern of admission and outcome of patients admitted into the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Feb 26, 2015 ... Objective: The objective was to determine the pattern of admission and outcome of patients .... Referred to Europe (London) .... In: A Concise Textbook. ... Khush KK, Rapaport E, Waters D. The history of the coronary care unit.

  6. Health-related quality of life of cranial WHO grade I meningioma patients: are current questionnaires relevant? (United States)

    Zamanipoor Najafabadi, Amir H; Peeters, Marthe C M; Lobatto, Daniel J; Broekman, Marieke L D; Smith, Timothy R; Biermasz, Nienke R; Peerdeman, Saskia M; Peul, Wilco C; Taphoorn, Martin J B; van Furth, Wouter R; Dirven, Linda


    The clinical relevance of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) in meningioma patients has been increasingly acknowledged in recent years. Various questionnaires have been used. However, almost none of these questionnaires has been particularly developed for and/or validated in this patient group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the relevance and comprehensiveness of existing HRQoL questionnaires used in meningioma research and to assess the agreement between patients and health care professionals (HCPs) on the most relevant and important HRQoL issues. A systematic literature search, following the PRISMA statement, was conducted to identify all HRQoL questionnaires used in meningioma research. Semi-structured interviews were organized with patients and HCPs to (1) assess the relevance of all issues covered by the questionnaires (score 0-3: not relevant-highly relevant), (2) assess the ten most important issues, and (3) identify new relevant HRQoL issues. Fourteen different questionnaires were found in the literature, comprising 140 unique issues. Interviews were conducted with 20 patients (median age 57, 71% female) and 10 HCPs (4 neurosurgeons, 2 neurologists, 2 radiotherapists, 1 rehabilitation specialist, 1 neuropsychologist; median experience 13 years). Meningioma patients rated 17-80% of the issues in each of the questionnaires as relevant, HCPs 90-100%. Patients and HCPs agreed on the relevance of only 49 issues (35%, Cohen's kappa: 0.027). Both patients and HCPs considered lack of energy the most important issue. Patients and HCPs suggested five additional relevant issues not covered by current HRQoL questionnaires. Existing HRQoL questionnaires currently used in meningioma patients do not fully cover all relevant issues to these patients. Agreement between patients and HCPs on the relevance of issues was poor. Both findings support the need to develop and validate a meningioma-specific HRQoL questionnaire.

  7. Promoting the use of personally relevant stimuli for investigating patients with disorders of consciousness. (United States)

    Perrin, Fabien; Castro, Maïté; Tillmann, Barbara; Luauté, Jacques


    Sensory stimuli are used to evaluate and to restore cognitive functions and consciousness in patients with a disorder of consciousness (DOC) following a severe brain injury. Although sophisticated protocols can help assessing higher order cognitive functions and awareness, one major drawback is their lack of sensitivity. The aim of the present review is to show that stimulus selection is crucial for an accurate evaluation of the state of patients with disorders of consciousness as it determines the levels of processing that the patient can have with stimulation from his/her environment. The probability to observe a behavioral response or a cerebral response is increased when her/his personal history and/or her/his personal preferences are taken into account. We show that personally relevant stimuli (i.e., with emotional, autobiographical, or self-related characteristics) are associated with clearer signs of perception than are irrelevant stimuli in patients with DOC. Among personally relevant stimuli, music appears to be a promising clinical tool as it boosts perception and cognition in patients with DOC and could also serve as a prognostic tool. We suggest that the effect of music on cerebral processes in patients might reflect the music's capacity to act both on the external and internal neural networks supporting consciousness.

  8. Promoting the use of personally-relevant stimuli for investigating patients with disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien ePerrin


    Full Text Available Sensory stimuli are used to evaluate and to restore cognitive functions and consciousness in patients with a disorder of consciousness (DOC following a severe brain injury. Although sophisticated protocols can help assessing higher order cognitive functions and awareness, one major drawback is their lack of sensitivity. The aim of the present review is to show that stimulus selection is crucial for an accurate evaluation of the state of patients with disorders of consciousness as it determines the levels of processing that the patient can have with stimulation from his/her environment. The probability to observe a behavioral response or a cerebral response is increased when her/his personal history and/or her/his personal preferences are taken into account. We show that personally-relevant stimuli (i.e. with emotional, autobiographical or self-related characteristics are associated with clearer signs of perception than are irrelevant stimuli in patients with DOC. Among personally-relevant stimuli, music appears to be a promising clinical tool as it boosts perception and cognition in patients with DOC and could also serve as a prognostic tool. We suggest that the effect of music on cerebral processes in patients might reflect the music’s capacity to act both on the external and internal neural networks supporting consciousness.

  9. Intercultural doctor-patient communication in daily outpatient care: relevant communication skills. (United States)

    Paternotte, Emma; Scheele, Fedde; Seeleman, Conny M; Bank, Lindsay; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van Dulmen, Sandra


    Intercultural communication (ICC) between doctors and patients is often associated with misunderstandings and dissatisfaction. To develop ICC-specific medical education, it is important to find out which ICC skills medical specialists currently apply in daily clinical consultations. Doctor-patient consultations of Dutch doctors with non-Dutch patients were videotaped in a multi-ethnic hospital in the Netherlands. The consultations were analyzed using the validated MAAS-Global assessment list in combination with factors influencing ICC, as described in the literature. In total, 39 videotaped consultations were analyzed. The doctors proved to be capable of practising many communication skills, such as listening and empathic communication behaviour. Other skills were not practised, such as being culturally aware and checking the patient's language ability. We showed that doctors did practice some but not all the relevant ICC skills and that the ICC style of the doctors was mainly biomedically centred. Furthermore, we discussed the possible overlap between intercultural and patient-centred communication. Implications for practice could be to implement the relevant ICC skills in the existing communication training or develop a communication training with a patient-centred approach including ICC skills.

  10. [SOX10 mutation is relevant to inner ear malformation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome]. (United States)

    Xu, G Y; Hao, Q Q; Zhong, L L; Ren, W; Yan, Y; Liu, R Y; Li, J N; Guo, W W; Zhao, H; Yang, S M


    Objective: To determine the relevance between the SOX 10 mutation and Waardenburg syndrome (WS) accompanied with inner ear abnormality by analyzing the inner ear imaging results and molecular and genetic results of the WS patients with the SOX 10 mutation. Methods: This study included 36 WS in patients during 2001 and 2015 in the department of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery, Chinese Peoples's Liberation Army General Hospital. The condition of the inner ear of each patient was assessed by analyzing HRCT scans of the temporal bone and MRI scans of the brain and internal auditory canal. Meanwhile, the possible pathogenic genes of WS, including SOX10, MITF , and PAX 3, were also screened. Patients were divided into two groups according to SOX 10 mutation.The Fisher accuracy test was used to determine statistical difference of inner ear deformation incidence between the two groups. Results: Among all 36 patients, 12 were found to have inner ear abnormality. Most abnormalities were posterior semicircular canal deformations, some accompanied with cochlear deformation and an enlarged vestibule. Among all patients, 9 patients were SOX 10 heterozygous mutation carriers, among which six showed bilateral inner ear abnormality. Fisher accuracy test results suggested a significant correlation between the SOX 10 mutation and inner ear abnormality in WS patients ( P =0.036). Conclusion: This study found that WS patients with the SOX 10 mutation are more likely to have deformed inner ears when compared to WS patients without the SOX 10 mutation.

  11. Patient-reported symptoms during radiotherapy : Clinically relevant symptom burden in patients treated with palliative and curative intent. (United States)

    Körner, Philipp; Ehrmann, Katja; Hartmannsgruber, Johann; Metz, Michaela; Steigerwald, Sabrina; Flentje, Michael; van Oorschot, Birgitt


    The benefits of patient-reported symptom assessment combined with integrated palliative care are well documented. This study assessed the symptom burden of palliative and curative-intent radiation oncology patients. Prior to first consultation and at the end of RT, all adult cancer patients planned to receive fractionated percutaneous radiotherapy (RT) were asked to answer the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS; nine symptoms from 0 = no symptoms to 10 = worst possible symptoms). Mean values were used for curative vs. palliative and pre-post comparisons, and the clinical relevance was evaluated (symptom values ≥ 4). Of 163 participating patients, 151 patients (90.9%) completed both surveys (116 curative and 35 palliative patients). Before beginning RT, 88.6% of palliative and 72.3% of curative patients showed at least one clinically relevant symptom. Curative patients most frequently named decreased general wellbeing (38.6%), followed by tiredness (35.0%), anxiety (32.4%), depression (30.0%), pain (26.3%), lack of appetite (23.5%), dyspnea (17.8%), drowsiness (8.0%) and nausea (6.1%). Palliative patients most frequently named decreased general wellbeing (62.8%), followed by pain (62.8%), tiredness (60.0%), lack of appetite (40.0%), anxiety (38.0%), depression (33.3%), dyspnea (28.5%), drowsiness (25.7%) and nausea (14.2%). At the end of RT, the proportion of curative and palliative patients with a clinically relevant symptom had increased significantly to 79.8 and 91.4%, respectively; whereas the proportion of patients reporting clinically relevant pain had decreased significantly (42.8 vs. 62.8%, respectively). Palliative patients had significantly increased tiredness. Curative patients reported significant increases in pain, tiredness, nausea, drowsiness, lack of appetite and restrictions in general wellbeing. Assessment of patient-reported symptoms was successfully realized in radiation oncology routine. Overall, both groups showed a high symptom

  12. Patient-reported symptoms during radiotherapy. Clinically relevant symptom burden in patients treated with palliative and curative intent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerner, Philipp; Ehrmann, Katja; Hartmannsgruber, Johann; Metz, Michaela; Steigerwald, Sabrina; Flentje, Michael; Oorschot, Birgitt van


    The benefits of patient-reported symptom assessment combined with integrated palliative care are well documented. This study assessed the symptom burden of palliative and curative-intent radiation oncology patients. Prior to first consultation and at the end of RT, all adult cancer patients planned to receive fractionated percutaneous radiotherapy (RT) were asked to answer the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS; nine symptoms from 0 = no symptoms to 10 = worst possible symptoms). Mean values were used for curative vs. palliative and pre-post comparisons, and the clinical relevance was evaluated (symptom values ≥ 4). Of 163 participating patients, 151 patients (90.9%) completed both surveys (116 curative and 35 palliative patients). Before beginning RT, 88.6% of palliative and 72.3% of curative patients showed at least one clinically relevant symptom. Curative patients most frequently named decreased general wellbeing (38.6%), followed by tiredness (35.0%), anxiety (32.4%), depression (30.0%), pain (26.3%), lack of appetite (23.5%), dyspnea (17.8%), drowsiness (8.0%) and nausea (6.1%). Palliative patients most frequently named decreased general wellbeing (62.8%), followed by pain (62.8%), tiredness (60.0%), lack of appetite (40.0%), anxiety (38.0%), depression (33.3%), dyspnea (28.5%), drowsiness (25.7%) and nausea (14.2%). At the end of RT, the proportion of curative and palliative patients with a clinically relevant symptom had increased significantly to 79.8 and 91.4%, respectively; whereas the proportion of patients reporting clinically relevant pain had decreased significantly (42.8 vs. 62.8%, respectively). Palliative patients had significantly increased tiredness. Curative patients reported significant increases in pain, tiredness, nausea, drowsiness, lack of appetite and restrictions in general wellbeing. Assessment of patient-reported symptoms was successfully realized in radiation oncology routine. Overall, both groups showed a high symptom burden

  13. Evidence-Based Indicators of Neuropsychological Change in the Individual Patient: Relevant Concepts and Methods (United States)

    Duff, Kevin


    Repeated assessments are a relatively common occurrence in clinical neuropsychology. The current paper will review some of the relevant concepts (e.g., reliability, practice effects, alternate forms) and methods (e.g., reliable change index, standardized based regression) that are used in repeated neuropsychological evaluations. The focus will be on the understanding and application of these concepts and methods in the evaluation of the individual patient through examples. Finally, some future directions for assessing change will be described. PMID:22382384

  14. Sublethal microcystin exposure and biochemical outcomes among hemodialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth D Hilborn

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria are commonly-occurring contaminants of surface waters worldwide. Microcystins, potent hepatotoxins, are among the best characterized cyanotoxins. During November, 2001, a group of 44 hemodialysis patients were exposed to microcystins via contaminated dialysate. Serum microcystin concentrations were quantified with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay which measures free serum microcystin LR equivalents (ME. We describe serum ME concentrations and biochemical outcomes among a subset of patients during 8 weeks following exposure. Thirteen patients were included; 6 were males, patients' median age was 45 years (range 16-80, one was seropositive for hepatitis B surface antigen. The median serum ME concentration was 0.33 ng/mL (range: <0.16-0.96. One hundred thirty nine blood samples were collected following exposure. Patients' biochemical outcomes varied, but overall indicated a mixed liver injury. Linear regression evaluated each patient's weekly mean biochemical outcome with their maximum serum ME concentration; a measure of the extrinsic pathway of clotting function, prothrombin time, was negatively and significantly associated with serum ME concentrations. This group of exposed patients' biochemical outcomes display evidence of a mixed liver injury temporally associated with microcystin exposure. Interpretation of biochemical outcomes are complicated by the study population's underlying chronic disease status. It is clear that dialysis patients are a distinct 'at risk' group for cyanotoxin exposures due to direct intravenous exposure to dialysate prepared from surface drinking water supplies. Careful monitoring and treatment of water supplies used to prepare dialysate is required to prevent future cyanotoxin exposure events.

  15. Focal cortical dysplasias: surgical outcome in 67 patients in relation to histological subtypes and dual pathology. (United States)

    Fauser, Susanne; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Honegger, Juergen; Carmona, Hans; Huppertz, Hans-Juergen; Pantazis, Georgios; Rona, Sabine; Bast, Thomas; Strobl, Karl; Steinhoff, Bernhard J; Korinthenberg, Rudolf; Rating, Dietz; Volk, Benedikt; Zentner, Josef


    almost constant with longer periods of follow-up. We conclude that patients with FCD type 1 and mMCD had a better outcome compared with those with more severe forms of cortical dysplasia. A higher incidence of FCD type 1 in temporal localization did not allow the effects of histological subtype and localization to be separated. A subanalysis of extratemporal FCDs, however, revealed a similar tendency for a better outcome with FCD type 1, suggesting that the histological subtype itself seems to be at least a relevant cofactor influencing postsurgical outcome.

  16. Outcomes of colon resection in patients with metastatic colon cancer. (United States)

    Moghadamyeghaneh, Zhobin; Hanna, Mark H; Hwang, Grace; Mills, Steven; Pigazzi, Alessio; Stamos, Michael J; Carmichael, Joseph C


    Patients with advanced colorectal cancer have a high incidence of postoperative complications. We sought to identify outcomes of patients who underwent resection for colon cancer by cancer stage. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to evaluate all patients who underwent colon resection with a diagnosis of colon cancer from 2012 to 2014. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate patient outcomes by cancer stage. A total of 7,786 colon cancer patients who underwent colon resection were identified. Of these, 10.8% had metastasis at the time of operation. Patients with metastatic disease had significantly increased risks of perioperative morbidity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.44, P = .01) and mortality (AOR: 3.72, P = .01). Patients with metastatic disease were significantly younger (AOR: .99, P colon cancer have metastatic disease. Postoperative morbidity and mortality are significantly higher than in patients with localized disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Improving outcomes in patients with psoriasis. (United States)

    Tidman, Michael J


    Psoriasis is a heterogeneous inflammatory disorder that targets the skin and joints. It affects 1.3-2% of the population. The diagnosis of plaque psoriasis is usually straightforward, a helpful diagnostic clue is the tendency for silver scales to appear after gentle scratching of a lesion. Stress, streptococcal infection and drugs including beta-blockers, antimalarials and lithium may precipitate or exacerbate psoriasis. Psoriasis, especially when severe, predisposes to metabolic syndrome, and patients with psoriasis are at increased risk of ischaemic heart disease, hypertension, stroke, type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidaemia. Additionally, psoriasis sufferers appear at increased risk of uveitis, inflammatory boweldisease, lymphoma, non-melanoma skin cancer, COPD and venous thromboembolism. Psoriasis should be assessed on the basis of: severity, impact on physical, psychological and social wellbeing, symptoms of arthritis and the presence of comorbidities. Poor response to topical therapy may be as much to do with lack of compliance as with lack of efficacy. The number of treatments each day should be kept to a minimum, and patients should be reviewed after four weeks when initiating or changing topical therapy to improve adherence to treatment and assess response. The majority of patients with psoriasis can be managed in primary care, although specialist care may be necessary at some point in up to 60% of cases. Patients with erythrodermic or generalised pustular psoriasis should be referred for a same day dermatological opinion, and if psoriatic arthritis is suspected, early referral for a rheumatological opinion is recommended.

  18. The functional relevance of diffusion tensor imaging in comparison to conventional MRI in patients with cervical compressive myelopathy

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    Yang, Young-Mi; Oh, Jae-Keun; Song, Ji-Sun [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Spine Center, Anyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Woo-Kyoung [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Anyang-si (Korea, Republic of); Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Hallym Institute for Translational Genomics and Bioinformatics, Anyang-si (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Je Hyun; Kwak, Yoon Hae [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Department of Orthopaedic surgery, Anyang-si (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Woo [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Spine Center, Anyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Department of Orthopaedic surgery, Anyang-si (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine the functional relevance of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics and conventional MRI (signal intensity change in T2, compression ratio) by measuring the correlation of these parameters with clinical outcome measured by the modified Japanese Orthopedic Association (mJOA) score. A total of 20 cervical myelopathy (CM) patients participated in this prospective cohort study. The severities of CM were assessed using the mJOA score. Conventional MRIs (T2-weighted images) measuring the signal changes of spinal cords and the degree of compression at the lesion level and DTI metrics [fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)] at each lesion and below each lesion (C7/T1) level were acquired using a 3-T Achieva MRI. These parameters were correlated with the mJOA scores to determine the functional relevance. Ninety percent of CM patients showed signal changes and 30 % of patients noted a more than 40% canal compression ratio in conventional MRIs at the lesion level; however, these findings were not correlated with the mJOA score (p < 0.05). In contrast, FA values on DTI showed high sensitivity to CM (100%), which was well correlated with the mJOA score (p = 0.034, r = 0.475) below the lesion level (C7/T1). This study showed a meaningful symptomatic correlation between mJOA scores and FA values below the lesion levels in CM patients. It could give us more understanding of the pathological changes in spinal cords matched with various clinical findings in CM patients than the results from conventional MRI. (orig.)

  19. How do aggregated patient-reported outcome measures data stimulate health care improvement? A realist synthesis (United States)

    Dalkin, Sonia; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Wright, Judy; Valderas, Jose Maria; Meads, David; Black, Nick


    Objectives Internationally, there has been considerable debate about the role of data in supporting quality improvement in health care. Our objective was to understand how, why and in what circumstances the feedback of aggregated patient-reported outcome measures data improved patient care. Methods We conducted a realist synthesis. We identified three main programme theories underlying the use of patient-reported outcome measures as a quality improvement strategy and expressed them as nine ‘if then’ propositions. We identified international evidence to test these propositions through searches of electronic databases and citation tracking, and supplemented our synthesis with evidence from similar forms of performance data. We synthesized this evidence through comparing the mechanisms and impact of patient-reported outcome measures and other performance data on quality improvement in different contexts. Results Three programme theories were identified: supporting patient choice, improving accountability and enabling providers to compare their performance with others. Relevant contextual factors were extent of public disclosure, use of financial incentives, perceived credibility of the data and the practicality of the results. Available evidence suggests that patients or their agents rarely use any published performance data when selecting a provider. The perceived motivation behind public reporting is an important determinant of how providers respond. When clinicians perceived that performance indicators were not credible but were incentivized to collect them, gaming or manipulation of data occurred. Outcome data do not provide information on the cause of poor care: providers needed to integrate and interpret patient-reported outcome measures and other outcome data in the context of other data. Lack of timeliness of performance data constrains their impact. Conclusions Although there is only limited research evidence to support some widely held theories of how

  20. Nurses' extended work hours: Patient, nurse and organizational outcomes. (United States)

    Kunaviktikul, W; Wichaikhum, O; Nantsupawat, A; Nantsupawat, R; Chontawan, R; Klunklin, A; Roongruangsri, S; Nantachaipan, P; Supamanee, T; Chitpakdee, B; Akkadechanunt, T; Sirakamon, S


    Nursing shortages have been associated with increased nurse workloads that may result in work errors, thus impacting patient, nurse and organizational outcomes. To examine for the first time in Thailand nurses' extended work hours (working more than 40 h per week) and its relationship to patient, nurse and organizational outcomes. Using multistage sampling, 1524 registered nurses working in 90 hospitals across Thailand completed demographic forms: the Nurses' Extended Work Hours Form; the Patient, Nurse, Organizational Outcomes Form; the Organizational Productivity Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Spearman's rank correlation and logistic regression. The average extended work hour of respondents was 18.82 h per week. About 80% worked two consecutive shifts. The extended work hours had a positive correlation with patient outcomes, such as patient identification errors, pressure ulcers, communication errors and patient complaints and with nurse outcomes of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between extended work hours and job satisfaction as a whole, intent to stay and organizational productivity. Nurses who had extended work hours of >16 h per week were significantly more likely to perceive all four adverse patient outcomes than participants working an extended ≤8 h per week. Patient outcomes were measured by respondents' self-reports. This may not always reflect the real occurrence of adverse events. Associations between extended work hours and outcomes for patients, nurses and the organization were found. The findings demonstrate that working two shifts (16 h) more than the regular work hours lead to negative outcomes for patients, nurses and the organization. Our findings add to increasing international evidence that nurses' poor working conditions result in negative outcomes for professionals, patients and health systems

  1. ERP investigation of attentional disengagement from suicide-relevant information in patients with major depressive disorder. (United States)

    Baik, Seung Yeon; Jeong, Minkyung; Kim, Hyang Sook; Lee, Seung-Hwan


    Previous studies suggest the presence of attentional bias towards suicide-relevant information in suicidal individuals. However, the findings are limited by their reliance on behavioral measures. This study investigates the role of difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli using the P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs). Forty-four adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were administered the spatial cueing task using suicide-relevant and negatively-valenced words as cue stimuli. Disengagement difficulty was measured using reaction time and P300 during invalid trials. P300 amplitudes at Pz were higher in suicide-relevant compared to negatively-valenced word condition on invalid trials for participants with low rates of suicidal behavior. However, no such difference was found among participants with high rates of suicidal behavior. P300 amplitudes for suicide-relevant word condition were negatively correlated with "lifetime suicide ideation and attempt" at Pz. No significant results were found for the reaction time data, indicating that the ERP may be more sensitive in capturing the attentional disengagement effect. The groups were divided according to Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) total score. Neutral stimulus was not included as cue stimuli. Most participants were under medication during the experiment. Our results indicate that patients with MDD and low rates of suicidal behavior show difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli. We suggest that suicide-specific disengagement difficulties may be related to recentness of suicide attempt and that acquired capability for suicide may contribute to reduced disengagement difficulties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Patient safety challenges in a case study hospital--of relevance for transfusion processes? (United States)

    Aase, Karina; Høyland, Sindre; Olsen, Espen; Wiig, Siri; Nilsen, Stein Tore


    The paper reports results from a research project with the objective of studying patient safety, and relates the finding to safety issues within transfusion medicine. The background is an increased focus on undesired events related to diagnosis, medication, and patient treatment in general in the healthcare sector. The study is designed as a case study within a regional Norwegian hospital conducting specialised health care services. The study includes multiple methods such as interviews, document analysis, analysis of error reports, and a questionnaire survey. Results show that the challenges for improved patient safety, based on employees' perceptions, are hospital management support, reporting of accidents/incidents, and collaboration across hospital units. Several of these generic safety challenges are also found to be of relevance for a hospital's transfusion service. Positive patient safety factors are identified as teamwork within hospital units, a non-punitive response to errors, and unit manager's actions promoting safety.

  3. Evaluating complementary and alternative medicine interventions: in search of appropriate patient-centered outcome measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallory Devon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central to the development of a sound evidence base for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM interventions is the need for valid, reliable and relevant outcome measures to assess whether the interventions work. We assessed the specific needs for a database that would cover a wide range of outcomes measures for CAM research and considered a framework for such a database. Methods The study was a survey of CAM researchers, practitioners and students. An online questionnaire was emailed to the members of the Canadian Interdisciplinary Network for CAM Research (IN-CAM and the CAM Education and Research Network of Alberta (CAMera. The majority of survey questions were open-ended and asked about outcome measures currently used, outcome measures' assessment criteria, sources of information, perceived barriers to finding outcome measures and outcome domains of importance. Descriptive quantitative analysis and qualitative content analysis were used. Results One hundred and sixty-four completed surveys were received. Of these, 62 respondents reported using outcome measures in their CAM research and identified 92 different specific outcomes. The most important barriers were the fact that, for many health concepts, outcome measures do not yet exist, as well as issues related to accessibility of instruments. Important outcome domains identified included physical, psychological, social, spiritual, quality of life and holistic measures. Participants also mentioned the importance of individualized measures that assess unique patient-centered outcomes for each research participant, and measures to assess the context of healing and the process of healing. Conclusion We have developed a preliminary framework that includes all components of health-related outcomes. The framework provides a foundation for a larger, comprehensive collection of CAM outcomes. It fits very well in a whole systems perspective, which requires an expanded set of

  4. Outcome of severe infections in afebrile neutropenic cancer patients (United States)

    Mahkovic-Hergouth, Ksenija; Novakovic, Barbara Jezersek; Seruga, Bostjan


    Abstract Background In some neutropenic cancer patients fever may be absent despite microbiologically and/or clinically confirmed infection. We hypothesized that afebrile neutropenic cancer patients with severe infections have worse outcome as compared to cancer patients with febrile neutropenia. Patients and methods We retrospectively analyzed all adult cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and severe infection, who were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit at our cancer center between 2000 and 2011. The outcome of interest was 30-day in-hospital mortality rate. Association between the febrile status and in-hospital mortality rate was evaluated by the Fisher’s exact test. Results We identified 69 episodes of severe neutropenic infections in 65 cancer patients. Among these, 9 (13%) episodes were afebrile. Patients with afebrile neutropenic infection presented with hypotension, severe fatigue with inappetence, shaking chills, altered mental state or cough and all of them eventually deteriorated to severe sepsis or septic shock. Overall 30-day in-hospital mortality rate was 55.1%. Patients with afebrile neutropenic infection had a trend for a higher 30-day in-hospital mortality rate as compared to patients with febrile neutropenic infection (78% vs. 52%, p = 0.17). Conclusions Afebrile cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and severe infections might have worse outcome as compared to cancer patients with febrile neutropenia. Patients should be informed that severe neutropenic infection without fever can occasionally occur during cancer treatment with chemotherapy. PMID:27904453

  5. Improving Outcomes in Patients With Sepsis. (United States)

    Armen, Scott B; Freer, Carol V; Showalter, John W; Crook, Tonya; Whitener, Cynthia J; West, Cheri; Terndrup, Thomas E; Grifasi, Marissa; DeFlitch, Christopher J; Hollenbeak, Christopher S


    Sepsis mortality may be improved by early recognition and appropriate treatment based on evidence-based guidelines. An intervention was developed that focused on earlier identification of sepsis, early antimicrobial administration, and an educational program that was disseminated throughout all hospital units and services. There were 1331 patients with sepsis during the intervention period and 1401 patients with sepsis during the control period. After controlling for expected mortality, patients in the intervention period had 30% lower odds of dying (odds ratio = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.57 to 0.84). They also had 1.07 fewer days on average in the intensive care unit (95% CI = -1.98 to -0.16), 2.15 fewer hospital days (95% CI = -3.45 to -0.86), and incurred on average $1949 less in hospital costs, although the effect on costs was not statistically significant. Continued incremental improvement and sustainment is anticipated through organizational oversight, continued education, and initiation of an automated electronic sepsis alert function. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Do large-scale hospital- and system-wide interventions improve patient outcomes: a systematic review. (United States)

    Clay-Williams, Robyn; Nosrati, Hadis; Cunningham, Frances C; Hillman, Kenneth; Braithwaite, Jeffrey


    While health care services are beginning to implement system-wide patient safety interventions, evidence on the efficacy of these interventions is sparse. We know that uptake can be variable, but we do not know the factors that affect uptake or how the interventions establish change and, in particular, whether they influence patient outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to identify how organisational and cultural factors mediate or are mediated by hospital-wide interventions, and to assess the effects of those factors on patient outcomes. A systematic review was conducted and reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Database searches were conducted using MEDLINE from 1946, CINAHL from 1991, EMBASE from 1947, Web of Science from 1934, PsycINFO from 1967, and Global Health from 1910 to September 2012. The Lancet, JAMA, BMJ, BMJ Quality and Safety, The New England Journal of Medicine and Implementation Science were also hand searched for relevant studies published over the last 5 years. Eligible studies were required to focus on organisational determinants of hospital- and system-wide interventions, and to provide patient outcome data before and after implementation of the intervention. Empirical, peer-reviewed studies reporting randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, observational, and controlled before and after studies were included in the review. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Improved outcomes were observed for studies where outcomes were measured at least two years after the intervention. Associations between organisational factors, intervention success and patient outcomes were undetermined: organisational culture and patient outcomes were rarely measured together, and measures for culture and outcome were not standardised. Common findings show the difficulty of introducing large-scale interventions, and that effective leadership and clinical champions, adequate

  7. Association between organisational and workplace cultures, and patient outcomes: systematic review. (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Herkes, Jessica; Ludlow, Kristiana; Testa, Luke; Lamprell, Gina


    Every organisation has a unique culture. There is a widely held view that a positive organisational culture is related to positive patient outcomes. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses statement, we systematically reviewed and synthesised the evidence on the extent to which organisational and workplace cultures are associated with patient outcomes. A variety of healthcare facilities, including hospitals, general practices, pharmacies, military hospitals, aged care facilities, mental health and other healthcare contexts. The articles included were heterogeneous in terms of participants. This was expected as we allowed scope for wide-ranging health contexts to be included in the review. Patient outcomes, inclusive of specific outcomes such as pain level, as well as broader outcomes such as patient experience. The search strategy identified 2049 relevant articles. A review of abstracts using the inclusion criteria yielded 204 articles eligible for full-text review. Sixty-two articles were included in the final analysis. We assessed studies for risk of bias and quality of evidence. The majority of studies (84%) were from North America or Europe, and conducted in hospital settings (89%). They were largely quantitative (94%) and cross-sectional (81%). The review identified four interventional studies, and no randomised controlled trials, but many good quality social science studies. We found that overall, positive organisational and workplace cultures were consistently associated with a wide range of patient outcomes such as reduced mortality rates, falls, hospital acquired infections and increased patient satisfaction. Synthesised, although there was no level 1 evidence, our review found a consistently positive association held between culture and outcomes across multiple studies, settings and countries. This supports the argument in favour of activities that promote positive cultures in order to enhance outcomes in healthcare

  8. Development and validation of a patient-reported outcome measure for stroke patients. (United States)

    Luo, Yanhong; Yang, Jie; Zhang, Yanbo


    Family support and patient satisfaction with treatment are crucial for aiding in the recovery from stroke. However, current validated stroke-specific questionnaires may not adequately capture the impact of these two variables on patients undergoing clinical trials of new drugs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a new stroke patient-reported outcome measure (Stroke-PROM) instrument for capturing more comprehensive effects of stroke on patients participating in clinical trials of new drugs. A conceptual framework and a pool of items for the preliminary Stroke-PROM were generated by consulting the relevant literature and other questionnaires created in China and other countries, and interviewing 20 patients and 4 experts to ensure that all germane parameters were included. During the first item-selection phase, classical test theory and item response theory were applied to an initial scale completed by 133 patients with stroke. During the item-revaluation phase, classical test theory and item response theory were used again, this time with 475 patients with stroke and 104 healthy participants. During the scale assessment phase, confirmatory factor analysis was applied to the final scale of the Stroke-PROM using the same study population as in the second item-selection phase. Reliability, validity, responsiveness and feasibility of the final scale were tested. The final scale of Stroke-PROM contained 46 items describing four domains (physiology, psychology, society and treatment). These four domains were subdivided into 10 subdomains. Cronbach's α coefficients for the four domains ranged from 0.861 to 0.908. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of the final scale, and the model fit index satisfied the criterion. Differences in the Stroke-PROM mean scores were significant between patients with stroke and healthy participants in nine subdomains (P < 0.001), indicating that the scale showed good responsiveness. The Stroke

  9. Patient-reported outcomes in borderline personality disorder (United States)

    Hasler, Gregor; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Jacob, Gitta A.; Brändle, Laura S.; Schulte-Vels, Thomas


    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) refers to measures that emphasize the subjective view of patients about their health-related conditions and behaviors. Typically, PROs include self-report questionnaires and clinical interviews. Defining PROs for borderline personality disorder (BPD) is particularly challenging given the disorder's high symptomatic heterogeneity, high comorbidity with other psychiatric conditions, highly fluctuating symptoms, weak correlations between symptoms and functional outcomes, and lack of valid and reliable experimental measures to complement self-report data. Here, we provide an overview of currently used BPD outcome measures and discuss them from clinical, psychometric, experimental, and patient perspectives. In addition, we review the most promising leads to improve BPD PROs, including the DSM-5 Section III, the Recovery Approach, Ecological Momentary Assessments, and novel experimental measures of social functioning that are associated with functional and social outcomes. PMID:25152662

  10. Overcoming barriers to implementing patient-reported outcomes in an electronic health record: a case report. (United States)

    Harle, Christopher A; Listhaus, Alyson; Covarrubias, Constanza M; Schmidt, Siegfried Of; Mackey, Sean; Carek, Peter J; Fillingim, Roger B; Hurley, Robert W


    In this case report, the authors describe the implementation of a system for collecting patient-reported outcomes and integrating results in an electronic health record. The objective was to identify lessons learned in overcoming barriers to collecting and integrating patient-reported outcomes in an electronic health record. The authors analyzed qualitative data in 42 documents collected from system development meetings, written feedback from users, and clinical observations with practice staff, providers, and patients. Guided by the Unified Theory on the Adoption and Use of Information Technology, 5 emergent themes were identified. Two barriers emerged: (i) uncertain clinical benefit and (ii) time, work flow, and effort constraints. Three facilitators emerged: (iii) process automation, (iv) usable system interfaces, and (v) collecting patient-reported outcomes for the right patient at the right time. For electronic health record-integrated patient-reported outcomes to succeed as useful clinical tools, system designers must ensure the clinical relevance of the information being collected while minimizing provider, staff, and patient burden. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  11. Safety Outcomes of Apixaban Compared With Warfarin in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease. (United States)

    Sarratt, Stefanie C; Nesbit, Ross; Moye, Robert


    Current guidelines make no specific recommendations on the selection of direct oral anticoagulants for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving hemodialysis. Based on these guidelines, warfarin remains the anticoagulant of choice in these patients. To compare bleeding rates in patients receiving apixaban or warfarin with ESRD undergoing chronic hemodialysis. This was a single-center, retrospective, institutional review board-approved cohort analysis. Patients with ESRD undergoing chronic hemodialysis and receiving anticoagulation therapy with either apixaban or warfarin were included in this study. All data were collected from paper charts and electronic medical records and included documentation of bleeding events and related interventions. The primary outcome of this study was clinically relevant major bleeding events. Secondary outcomes included clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events and minor bleeding events. A total of 160 patients were included in this study (warfarin group, n = 120; apixaban group, n = 40). There were 7 major bleeding events in the warfarin group compared with zero in the apixaban group ( P = 0.34). There were similar rates of clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events (12.5% vs 5.8%, P = 0.17) and minor bleeding (2.5% vs 2.5%, P = 0.74) events in patients receiving apixaban and warfarin. There were no observed differences in bleeding rates in patients receiving apixaban compared with those receiving warfarin. Apixaban may be a cautious consideration in hemodialysis patients until there is further insight into the effect of subsequent, multiple doses on drug accumulation and clinical outcomes.

  12. A novel clinically relevant segmentation method and corresponding maximal ischemia score to risk-stratify patients undergoing myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. (United States)

    Nudi, Francesco; Pinto, Annamaria; Procaccini, Enrica; Neri, Giandomenico; Vetere, Maurizio; Tomai, Fabrizio; Gaspardone, Achille; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Schillaci, Orazio


    Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) represents a key prognostic tool, but its predictive yield is far from perfect. We developed a novel clinically relevant segmentation method and a corresponding maximal ischemia score (MIS) in order to risk-stratify patients undergoing MPS. Patients referred for MPS were identified, excluding those with evidence of myocardial necrosis or prior revascularization. A seven-region segmentation approach was adopted for left ventricular myocardium, with a corresponding MIS distinguishing five groups (no, minimal, mild, moderate, or severe ischemia). The association between MIS and clinical events was assessed at 1 year and at long-term follow-up. A total of 8,714 patients were included, with a clinical follow-up of 31 ± 20 months. Unadjusted analyses showed that subjects with a higher MIS were significantly different for several baseline and test data, being older, having lower ejection fraction, and achieving lower workloads (P < .05 for all). Adverse outcomes were also more frequent in patients with higher levels of ischemia, including cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and their composites (P < .05 for all). Differences in adverse events remained significant even after extensive multivariable adjustment (hazard ratio for each MIS increment = 1.57 [1.29-1.90], P < .001 for cardiac death; 1.19 [1.04-1.36], P = .013 for MI; 1.23 [1.09-1.39], P = .001 for cardiac death/MI). Our novel segmentation method and corresponding MIS efficiently yield satisfactory prognostic information.

  13. Improving Nigerian health policymakers' capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop. (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima


    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers' ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop.

  14. Relevance of surgery in patients with non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (United States)

    Dango, S; Beißbarth, T; Weiss, E; Seif Amir Hosseini, A; Raddatz, D; Ellenrieder, V; Lotz, J; Ghadimi, B M; Beham, A


    Upper GI bleeding remains one of the most common emergencies with a substantial overall mortality rate of up to 30%. In severe ill patients, death does not occur due to failure of hemostasis, either medical or surgical, but mainly from comorbidities, treatment complications, and decreased tolerated blood loss. Management strategies have changed dramatically over the last two decades and include primarily endoscopic intervention in combination with acid-suppressive therapy and decrease in surgical intervention. Herein, we present one of the largest patient-based analysis assessing clinical parameters and outcome in patients undergoing endoscopy with an upper GI bleeding. Data were further analyzed to identify potential new risk factors and to investigate the role of surgery. In this retrospective study, we aimed to analyze outcome of patients with an UGIB and data were analyzed to identify potential new risk factors and the role of surgery. Data collection included demographic data, laboratory results, endoscopy reports, and details of management including blood administration, and surgery was carried out. Patient events were grouped and defined as "overall" events and "operated," "non-operated," and "operated and death" as well as "non-operated and death" where appropriate. Blatchford, clinical as well as complete Rockall-score analysis, risk stratification, and disease-related mortality rate were calculated for each group for comparison. Overall, 253 patients were eligible for analysis: endoscopy was carried out in 96% of all patients, 17% needed surgical intervention after endoscopic failure of bleeding control due to persistent bleeding, and the remaining 4% of patients were subjected directly to surgery. The median length of stay to discharge was 26 days. Overall mortality was 22%; out of them, almost 5% were operated and died. Anticoagulation was associated with a high in-hospital mortality risk (23%) and was increased once patients were taken to surgery (43

  15. Enrichment methods to detect bone marrow micrometastases in breast carcinoma patients: clinical relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choesmel, Valérie; Pierga, Jean-Yves; Nos, Claude; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte; Thiery, Jean-Paul; Blin, Nathalie


    Improving technologies for the detection and purification of bone marrow (BM) micrometastatic cells in breast cancer patients should lead to earlier prognosis of the risk of relapse and should make it possible to design more appropriate therapies. The technique used has to overcome the challenges resulting from the small number of target cells (one per million hematopoietic cells) and the heterogeneous expression of micrometastatic cell markers. In the present study, we have assessed the clinical relevance of current methods aimed at detecting rare disseminated carcinoma cells. BM aspirates from 32 carcinoma patients were screened for the presence of micrometastatic cells positive for epithelial cell adhesion molecule and positive for cytokeratins, using optimized immunodetection methods. A comparison with data obtained for 46 control BM aspirates and a correlation with the clinical status of patients were performed. We developed a sensitive and efficient immunomagnetic protocol for the enrichment of BM micrometastases. This method was used to divide 32 breast carcinoma patients into three categories according to their epithelial cell adhesion molecule status. These categories were highly correlated with the recently revised American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for breast cancer, demonstrating the clinical relevance of this simple and reliable immunomagnetic technique. We also evaluated immunocytochemical detection of cytokeratin-positive cells and cytomorphological parameters. Immunocytochemistry-based methods for the detection of BM micrometastases did not provide any information about the clinical status of patients, but helped to refine the immunomagnetic data by confirming the presence of micrometastases in some cases. We also tested a new density gradient centrifugation system, able to enrich the tumor fraction of BM specimens by twofold to threefold as compared with standard Ficoll methods. These improved methods for the detection of

  16. Patient reported outcomes: looking beyond the label claim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doward Lynda C


    Full Text Available Abstract The use of patient reported outcome scales in clinical trials conducted by the pharmaceutical industry has become more widespread in recent years. The use of such outcomes is particularly common for products developed to treat chronic, disabling conditions where the intention is not to cure but to ameliorate symptoms, facilitate functioning or, ultimately, to improve quality of life. In such cases, patient reported evidence is increasingly viewed as an essential complement to traditional clinical evidence for establishing a product's competitive advantage in the marketplace. In a commercial setting, the value of patient reported outcomes is viewed largely in terms of their potential for securing a labelling claim in the USA or inclusion in the summary of product characteristics in Europe. Although, the publication of the recent US Food and Drug Administration guidance makes it difficult for companies to make claims in the USA beyond symptom improvements, the value of these outcomes goes beyond satisfying requirements for a label claim. The European regulatory authorities, payers both in the US and Europe, clinicians and patients all play a part in determining both the availability and the pricing of medicinal products and all have an interest in patient-reported data that go beyond just symptoms. The purpose of the current paper is to highlight the potential added value of patient reported outcome data currently collected and held by the industry for these groups.

  17. Clinical outcomes in hypertensive or diabetes patients who ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The use of complementary medicines in addition to medical prescription by patients with hypertension, diabetes and other chronic diseases presents a challenge for healthcare providers in Nigeria and globally. There is very little data on the clinical outcomes in these patients. Objectives: To evaluate clinical ...

  18. Is there a relationship between patient satisfaction and favorable outcomes? (United States)

    Kennedy, Gregory D; Tevis, Sarah E; Kent, K Craig


    Patient satisfaction with the health care experience has become a top priority for Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. With resources and efforts directed at patient satisfaction, we evaluated whether high patient satisfaction measured by HCAHPS (Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems) surveys correlates with favorable outcomes. Medical centers were identified from the University HealthSystem Consortium database from 2011 to 2012. Variables included hospital characteristics, process measure compliance, and surgical outcomes. Chi-squared analysis was used to evaluate for variables associated with high patient satisfaction (defined as hospitals that scored above the 50th percentile of top box scores). We identified 171 hospitals with complete data. The following variables were significantly associated with high overall patient satisfaction: large hospitals, high surgical volume, and low mortality (P patient satisfaction. Low mortality index was consistently found to be associated with high satisfaction across 9 of 10 HCAHPS domains. We found that hospital size, surgical volume, and low mortality were associated with high overall patient satisfaction. However, with the exception of low mortality, favorable surgical outcomes were not consistently associated with high HCAHPS scores. With existing satisfaction surveys, we conclude that factors outside of surgical outcomes appear to influence patients' perceptions of their care.

  19. Outcome of anesthesia in elective surgical patients with comorbidities. (United States)

    Eyelade, Olayinka; Sanusi, Arinola; Adigun, Tinuola; Adejumo, Olufemi


    Presence of comorbidity in surgical patients may be associated with adverse perioperative events and increased the risk of morbidity and mortality. This audit was conducted to determine the frequencies of comorbidities in elective surgical patients and the outcome of anesthesia in a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria. Observational study of a cross-section of adult patients scheduled for elective surgery over a 6-month period. A standardized questionnaire was used to document patients' demographics, the presence of comorbidity and type, surgical diagnosis, anesthetic technique, intraoperative adverse events, and outcome of anesthesia. The questionnaire was administered pre- and post-operatively to determine the effects of the comorbidities on the outcome of anesthesia. One hundred and sixty-five adult patients aged between 18 and 84 years were studied. There were 89 (53.9%) females and 76 (46.1%) males. Forty-five (27.3%) have at least one comorbidity. Hypertension was the most common (48.8%) associated illness. Other comorbidities identified include anemia (17.8%), asthma (8.9%), diabetes mellitus (6.7%), chronic renal disease (6.7%), and others. The perioperative period was uneventful in majority of patients (80.6%) despite the presence of comorbidities. Intraoperative adverse events include hypotension, hypertension, shivering, and vomiting. No mortality was reported. Hypertension was the most common comorbidity in this cohort of patients. The presence of comorbidity did not significantly affect the outcome of anesthesia in elective surgical patients.

  20. Disease Patterns and Outcome for Medical Neurological Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To review the disease pattern and outcome for neurological patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria was undertaken. Patients and Methods: The hospital records (case notes ICU records) were reviewed retrospectively for five years and the ...

  1. Differences in access and patient outcomes across antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess differences in access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) and patient outcomes across public sector treatment facilities in the Free State province, South Africa. Design. Prospective cohort study with retrospective database linkage. We analysed data on patients enrolled in the treatment programme across ...

  2. Factors Influencing the Outcomes in Extradural Haematoma Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neurosurgical emergencies and are one of the most common causes of mortality and disability after traumatic brain injury. This study aimed at evaluating the current management and factors that influence outcome in patients treated for extradural hematoma in an African setting. Methods: A total of 224 consecutive patients ...

  3. Which aspects of functioning are relevant for patients with ankylosing spondylitis: results of focus group interviews. (United States)

    Boonen, Annelies; van Berkel, Monique; Cieza, Alarcos; Stucki, Gerold; van der Heijde, Désirée


    To investigate whether concepts important to patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are covered by disease-specific self-report health status instruments. A qualitative focus group study was conducted with AS patients on problems in daily functioning. Group sessions with 4 to 5 patients each were organized up to the point that no new information was brought forward. Group sessions were tape-recorded, transcribed, and divided into meaning units. Concepts contained in the meaning units were extracted. Self-report instruments on health status specific for AS were identified in a literature search. Using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a common reference, it was determined whether the concepts identified in the focus groups were covered by the instruments. Nineteen patients participated in 4 focus group interviews. In total, 332 unique meaning units were linked to 90 second-level ICF categories, of which 25 referred to body functions, 10 to body structures, 35 to activities and participation and 30 to environmental factors. In addition, several concepts relating to personal factors were identified. Only 47 categories were also covered by one of the self-report instruments in AS. Only a minority of concepts addressed by the AS-specific questionnaires were not revealed as relevant in the interviews. Relevant aspects of the influence of AS are not covered by the classic disease-specific instruments. In particular, the influence of AS on socializing and leisure and the relevance of environmental and personal factors are not adequately assessed by available instruments.

  4. Renal outcomes with aliskiren in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerspink, Hiddo J Lambers; Persson, Frederik; Brenner, Barry M


    ALTITUDE trial, 8561 patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease or cardiovascular disease were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive aliskiren 300 mg per day or placebo as an adjunct to ACE inhibitors or ARBs. Randomisation was stratified on the basis of baseline urinary albumin......Background: The primary results of the ALTITUDE trial showed no benefit of aliskiren on renal outcomes (doubling of serum creatinine and end-stage renal disease) when used as an adjunct to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) in patients with type 2...... diabetes and chronic kidney disease or cardiovascular disease. We did a prespecified analysis of the ALTITUDE trial to analyse the effects of aliskiren on surrogate renal outcomes in all patients and on primary renal outcomes in subgroups of patients. Methods: In the double-blind, randomised, controlled...

  5. Outcome among patients suffering from in-hospital cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpković Sladjana


    Full Text Available Introduction. In relation to pre-hospital treatment of patients with cardiac arrest (CA in the field where resuscitation is often started by nonprofessionals, resuscitation in hospital is most commonly performed by well-trained personnel. Objective. The aim was to define the factors associated with an improved outcome among patients suffering from the inhospital CA (IHCA. Methods. The prospective study included a total of 100 patients in the Emergency Center over two-year period. The patterns by the Utstein-Style guidelines recorded the following: age, sex, reason for hospital admission, comorbidity, cause and origin of CA, continuous monitoring, time of arrival of the medical emergency team and time of delivery of the first defibrillation shock (DC. Results. Most patients (61% had cardiac etiology. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC was achieved in 58% of patients. ROSC was more frequently achieved in younger patients (57.69±11.37, (p<0.05, non-surgical patients (76.1%, (p<0.01 and in patients who were in continuous monitoring (66.7% (p<0.05. The outcome of CPR was significantly better in patients who received advanced life support (ALS (76.6% (p<0.01. Time until the delivery of the first DC shock was significantly shorter in patients who achieved ROSC (1.67±1.13 min, (p<0.01. A total of 5% of IHCA patients survived to hospital discharge. Conclusion. In our study, the outcome of CPR was better in patients who were younger and with non-surgical diseases, which are prognostic factors that we cannot control. Factors associated with better outcome of IHCA patients were: continuous monitoring, shorter time until the delivery of the first DC and ALS. This means that better education of medical staff, better organization and up-to-dated technical equipment are needed.

  6. The relevance of psychodynamic psychotherapy to understanding therapist-patient sexual abuse and treatment of survivors. (United States)

    Yahav, Rivka; Oz, Sheri


    Regardless of the therapy modality, research continues to point to the therapeutic relationship as a major salient factor in clinical success or failure. When a patient is sexually abused by his or her therapist, this therapeutic relationship is cynically exploited in a way that does not properly serve the essential needs of the patient. When this patient then seeks reparative therapy, the subsequent therapist needs to pay close attention to issues of the relationship which were breached by the previous clinician. In this article, two case studies showing very different dynamics will be presented in order to demonstrate: (1) relevant factors related to transference, countertransference, projective identification, and the analytic third pertaining to the former, abusive therapy; and (2) needs versus wishes, and issues related to boundaries and self-disclosure in the corrective therapy.


    Petriček, G; Cerovečki, V; Adžić, Z Ožvačić


    Although survey results indicate clear connection between the physician-patient communication and health outcomes, mechanisms of their action are still insufficiently clear. The aim was to investigate the specificity of communication with patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases and the impact of good communication on measurable outcomes. We performed PubMed (Medline) search using the following key words: communication, health outcomes, and gastrointestinal diseases. Seven pathways through which communication can lead to better health include increased access to care, greater patient knowledge and shared understanding, higher quality medical decisions, enhanced therapeutic alliances, increased social support, patient agency and empowerment, and better management of emotions. Although these pathways were explored with respect to cancer care, they are certainly applicable to other health conditions as well, including the care of patients suffering from gastrointestinal diseases. Although proposing a number of pathways through which communication can lead to improved health, it should be emphasized that the relative importance of a particular pathway will depend on the outcome of interest, the health condition, where the patient is in the illness trajectory, and the patient’s life circumstances. Besides, research increasingly points to the importance of placebo effect, and it is recommended that health professionals encourage placebo effect by applying precisely targeted communication skills, as the unquestionable and successful part of many treatments. It is important that the clinician knows the possible positive and negative effects of communication on health outcomes, and in daily work consciously maximizes therapeutic effects of communication, reaching its proximal (understanding, satisfaction, clinician-patient agreement, trust, feeling known, rapport, motivation) and intermediate outcomes (access to care, quality medical decision, commitment to

  8. Patient-reported outcome after fast-track hip arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Torben B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fast-track intervention with a short preoperative optimization period and short postoperative hospitalization has a potential for reduced convalescence and thereby a reduced need for postoperative rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to describe patient-related outcomes, the need for additional rehabilitation after a fast-track total hip arthroplasty (THA, and the association between generic and disease specific outcomes. Methods The study consisted of 196 consecutive patients of which none received additional rehabilitation beyond an instructional exercise plan at discharge, which was adjusted at one in-patient visit. The patients filled in 3 questionnaires to measure health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL and hip specific function (EQ-5 D, SF36, and Harris Hip Score (HHS at 2 time points pre- and 2 time points postoperatively. The observed results were compared to normative population data for EQ-5 D, SF36, and HHS. Results 3-months postoperatively patients had reached a HRQOL level of 0.84 (SD, 0.14, which was similar to the population norm (P = 0.33, whereas they exceeded the population norm at 12 months postoperatively (P P P = 0.35. For HHS, patients never reached the population norm within 12 months postoperatively. Generic and disease specific outcomes were strongly associated. Conclusions If HRQOL is considered the primary outcome after THA, the need for additional postoperative rehabilitation for all THA patients following a fast-track intervention is questionable. However, a pre- or early postoperative physical intervention seems relevant if the PF of the population norm should be reached at 3 months. If disease specific outcome is considered the primary outcome after fast-track THA, clear goals for the rehabilitation must be established before patient selection, intervention type and timing of intervention can be made.

  9. Ability to Work among Patients with ESKD: Relevance of Quality Care Metrics. (United States)

    Kutner, Nancy G; Zhang, Rebecca


    Enabling patient ability to work was a key rationale for enacting the United States (US) Medicare program that provides financial entitlement to renal replacement therapy for persons with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). However, fewer than half of working-age individuals in the US report the ability to work after starting maintenance hemodialysis (HD). Quality improvement is a well-established objective in oversight of the dialysis program, but a more patient-centered quality assessment approach is increasingly advocated. The ESKD Quality Incentive Program (QIP) initiated in 2012 emphasizes clinical performance indicators, but a newly-added measure requires the monitoring of patient depression-an issue that is important for work ability and employment. We investigated depression scores and four dialysis-specific QIP measures in relation to work ability reported by a multi-clinic cohort of 528 working-age maintenance HD patients. The prevalence of elevated depression scores was substantially higher among patients who said they were not able to work, while only one of the four dialysis-specific clinical measures differed for patients able/not able to work. Ability to work may be among patients' top priorities. As the parameters of quality assessment continue to evolve, increased attention to patient priorities might facilitate work ability and employment outcomes.

  10. Clinical outcomes and survival in AA amyloidosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Ayar

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Amyloid A amyloidosis is a rare complication of chronic inflammatory conditions. Most patients with amyloid A amyloidosis present with nephropathy and it leads to renal failure and death. We studied clinical characteristics and survival in patients with amyloid A amyloidosis. Methods: A total of 81 patients (51 males, 30 females with renal biopsy proven amyloid A amyloidosis were analyzed retrospectively. The patients were divided into good and poor outcomes groups according to survival results. Results: Most of the patients (55.6% had nephrotic range proteinuria at diagnosis. Most frequent underlying disorders were familial Mediterranean fever (21.2% and rheumatoid arthritis (10.6% in the good outcome group and malignancy (20% in the poor outcome group. Only diastolic blood pressure in the good outcome group and phosphorus level in the poor outcome group was higher. Serum creatinine levels increased after treatment in both groups, while proteinuria in the good outcome group decreased. Increase in serum creatinine and decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate of the poor outcome group were more significant in the good outcome group. At the time of diagnosis 18.5% and 27.2% of all patients had advanced chronic kidney disease (stage 4 and 5, respectively. Median duration of renal survival was 65 ± 3.54 months. Among all patients, 27.1% were started dialysis treatment during the follow-up period and 7.4% of all patients underwent kidney transplantation. Higher levels of systolic blood pressure [hazard ratios 1.03, 95% confidence interval: 1-1.06, p = 0.036], serum creatinine (hazard ratios 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.46, p = 0.006 and urinary protein excretion (hazard ratios 1.08, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.16, p = 0.027 were predictors of end-stage renal disease. Median survival of patients with organ involvement was 50.3 ± 16 months. Conclusion Our study indicated that familial Mediterranean fever constituted

  11. Investigation of eating disorders in cancer patients and its relevance with body image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Abbas Hossein


    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorder is one of the most common health problems with clinical and psychological consequences, which can affect body image in cancer patients. Similar studies in this area for checking the status of this disorder and its relevance with body image in patients with cancer are limited. Therefore, this study was designed with the aim of determination of eating disorders in patients with cancer and their relevance with body image. Materials and Methods: The research was a cross-correlation study. It was carried out in Sayed-Al-Shohada Hospital affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Two hundred and ten patients with cancer were selected and were asked tocomplete the demographic and disease characteristics questionnaire, the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ, and eating disorders questionnaire. SPSS statistical software, version 14 was used for statistical analysis′-Test, analysis of variance (ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for analyzing the obtained data. Results: The mean values of age, body mass index (BMI, and duration of illness were 48.2 ± 13.20 years, 24.6 ± 4.6kg/m 2 , and 25.64 ± 21.24months, respectively. Most patients were married (87%, without university education (96%, unemployed (67%, and with incomes below their requirement (52%. Most patients were diagnosed with breast cancer (36.5%. They received chemotherapy as the main treatment (56.2%. In addition, mean ± SD of eating disorders and body image were 12.84 ± 4.7 and184.40 ± 43.68, respectively. Also, 49.7% of patients with cancer had an eating disorder. Among these, 29% had experiences of anorexia and 20.7% had bulimia. There was a significant negative correlation between the score of body image and eating disorders (r = −0.47, P = 0.01. Conclusions: Findings of this study showed that most patients with cancer had experienced symptoms of eating disorders. This may lead to a negative

  12. Patient-important outcomes in randomized controlled trials in critically ill patients: a systematic review. (United States)

    Gaudry, Stéphane; Messika, Jonathan; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Guillo, Sylvie; Pasquet, Blandine; Dubief, Emeline; Boukertouta, Tanissia; Dreyfuss, Didier; Tubach, Florence


    Intensivists' clinical decision making pursues two main goals for patients: to decrease mortality and to improve quality of life and functional status in survivors. Patient-important outcomes are gaining wide acceptance in most fields of clinical research. We sought to systematically review how well patient-important outcomes are reported in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in critically ill patients. Literature search was conducted to identify eligible trials indexed from January to December 2013. Articles were eligible if they reported an RCT involving critically ill adult patients. We excluded phase II, pilot and physiological crossover studies. We assessed study characteristics. All primary and secondary outcomes were collected, described and classified using six categories of outcomes including patient-important outcomes (involving mortality at any time on the one hand and quality of life, functional/cognitive/neurological outcomes assessed after ICU discharge on the other). Of the 716 articles retrieved in 2013, 112 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Most common topics were mechanical ventilation (27%), sepsis (19%) and nutrition (17%). Among the 112 primary outcomes, 27 (24%) were patient-important outcomes (mainly mortality, 21/27) but only six (5%) were patient-important outcomes besides mortality assessed after ICU discharge (functional disability = 4; quality of life = 2). Among the 598 secondary outcomes, 133 (22%) were patient-important outcomes (mainly mortality, 92/133) but only 41 (7%) were patient-important outcomes besides mortality assessed after ICU discharge (quality of life = 20, functional disability = 14; neurological/cognitive performance = 5; handicap = 1; post-traumatic stress = 1). Seventy-three RCTs (65%) reported at least one patient-important outcome but only 11 (10%) reported at least one patient-important outcome besides mortality assessed after ICU discharge. Patient-important outcomes are rarely primary

  13. Emerging versions of patient involvement with Patient Reported Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langstrup, Henriette

    It is a central argument in the growing Danish PRO-arena, that a large-scale collection of PRO from patients in the Danish Healthcare system will pave the way for more genuine patient involvement in clinical decision-making, quality management and governance of the health services. In this paper I...... discuss how patient involvement is being (re)configured when increasingly connected to national visions of participatory healthcare. A central discussion centers on ‘meaningful use’ of patient-generated data promoting patients’ expectations and experiences as a criterion for how to proceed...... with the national use of PRO. But how do assumptions of what constitutes meaning for patients interact with the kinds of roles that patients are expected to take on with PROtools? What forms of participation are assumed to be meaningful and thus good and which are not? In sketching emerging versions of patient...

  14. A review of the characteristics of dietary fibers relevant to appetite and energy intake outcomes in human intervention trials. (United States)

    Poutanen, Kaisa S; Dussort, Pierre; Erkner, Alfrun; Fiszman, Susana; Karnik, Kavita; Kristensen, Mette; Marsaux, Cyril Fm; Miquel-Kergoat, Sophie; Pentikäinen, Saara P; Putz, Peter; Slavin, Joanne L; Steinert, Robert E; Mela, David J


    Background: Many intervention studies have tested the effect of dietary fibers (DFs) on appetite-related outcomes, with inconsistent results. However, DFs comprise a wide range of compounds with diverse properties, and the specific contribution of these to appetite control is not well characterized. Objective: The influence of specific DF characteristics [i.e., viscosity, gel-forming capacity, fermentability, or molecular weight (MW)] on appetite-related outcomes was assessed in healthy humans. Design: Controlled human intervention trials that tested the effects of well-characterized DFs on appetite ratings or energy intake were identified from a systematic search of literature. Studies were included only if they reported 1 ) DF name and origin and 2 ) data on viscosity, gelling properties, fermentability, or MW of the DF materials or DF-containing matrixes. Results: A high proportion of the potentially relevant literature was excluded because of lack of adequate DF characterization. In total, 49 articles that met these criteria were identified, which reported 90 comparisons of various DFs in foods, beverages, or supplements in acute or sustained-exposure trials. In 51 of the 90 comparisons, the DF-containing material of interest was efficacious for ≥1 appetite-related outcome. Reported differences in material viscosity, MW, or fermentability did not clearly correspond to differences in efficacy, whereas gel-forming DF sources were consistently efficacious (but with very few comparisons). Conclusions: The overall inconsistent relations of DF properties with respect to efficacy may reflect variation in measurement methodology, nature of the DF preparation and matrix, and study designs. Methods of DF characterization, incorporation, and study design are too inconsistent to allow generalized conclusions about the effects of DF properties on appetite and preclude the development of reliable, predictive, structure-function relations. Improved standards for

  15. Measures and time points relevant for post-surgical follow-up in patients with inflammatory arthritis: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tägil Magnus


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatic diseases commonly affect joints and other structures in the hand. Surgery is a traditional way to treat hand problems in inflammatory rheumatic diseases with the purposes of pain relief, restore function and prevent progression. There are numerous measures to choose from, and a combination of outcome measures is recommended. This study evaluated if instruments commonly used in rheumatologic clinical practice are suitable to measure outcome of hand surgery and to identify time points relevant for follow-up. Methods Thirty-one patients (median age 56 years, median disease duration 15 years with inflammatory rheumatic disease and need for post-surgical occupational therapy intervention formed this pilot study group. Hand function was assessed regarding grip strength (Grippit, pain (VAS, range of motion (ROM (Signals of Functional Impairment (SOFI and grip ability (Grip Ability Test (GAT. Activities of daily life (ADL were assessed by means of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Outcome (DASH and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM. The instruments were evaluated by responsiveness and feasibility; follow-up points were 0, 3, 6 and 12 months. Results All instruments showed significant change at one or more follow-up points. Satisfaction with activities (COPM showed the best responsiveness (SMR>0.8, while ROM measured with SOFI had low responsiveness at most follow-up time points. The responsiveness of the instruments was stable between 6 and 12 month follow-up which imply that 6 month is an appropriate time for evaluating short-term effect of hand surgery in rheumatic diseases. Conclusion We suggest a core set of instruments measuring pain, grip strength, grip ability, perceived symptoms and self-defined daily activities. This study has shown that VAS pain, the Grippit instrument, GAT, DASH symptom scale and COPM are suitable outcome instruments for hand surgery, while SOFI may be a more insensitive

  16. Outcome after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in patients with congenital heart disease. (United States)

    Van Puyvelde, Tim; Ameloot, Koen; Roggen, Mieke; Troost, Els; Gewillig, Marc; Budts, Werner; Van De Bruaene, Alexander


    Outcome after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients with underlying congenital heart disease is uncertain. This study aimed at evaluating outcome after CPR in patients with underlying congenital heart disease, factors related to worse outcome after CPR and whether survivors of sudden cardiac death (SCD) have a worse outcome when compared to an age, gender and disease-matched control population. Between 1984 and 2015, all patients with congenital heart disease who received in or out-of-hospital CPR were identified from the database of congenital heart disease from the University Hospitals Leuven. Postoperative and neonatal (CPR was excluded. For each survivor of SCD, two control patients matched for gender, age and underlying heart defect were included in the study. Thirty-eight patients (66% men; median age 25 years (interquartile range 9-40); 68% out-of-hospital) were identified, of which 27 (66%) survived the event. The main cause of SCD was ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation ( n=21). Heart defect complexity (odds ratio (OR) 5.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-21.9; P=0.027), pulmonary hypertension (OR 13.8; 95% CI 2.1-89.5; P=0.006) and time to return of spontaneous circulation (OR 1.1; 95% CI 1.0-1.1; P=0.046) were related to worse outcome. Survivors of SCD had a worse prognosis when compared to an age, gender and disease-matched control group (5-year survival 76% vs. 98%; P=0.002). The complexity of underlying heart defect, pulmonary hypertension and time to return of spontaneous circulation are related to worse outcome in the case of CPR. Survivors of SCD have a worse outcome when compared to matched controls, indicating the need for adequate implantable cardioverter defibrillator indication assessment and for stringent follow-up of patients with worsening haemodynamics.

  17. Patterns and Outcome of Missed Injuries in Egyptians Polytrauma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Hamed Elbaih


    Full Text Available Introduction: “polytrauma” patients are higher risk of complications and death than the summation of expected mortality and morbidity of their individual injuries. The ideal goal in trauma resuscitation care is to identify and treat all injuries. With clinical and technological advanced imaging available for diagnosis and treatment of traumatic patients, missed injuries still significant affect modern trauma services and its outcome. Aim: to improve outcome and determine the incidence and nature of missed injuries in polytrauma patients. Methods: the study is a cross-sectional, prospective study included 600 polytraumatized patients admitted in Suez Canal University Hospital. Firstly assessed and treated accordingly to Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS guidelines and treat the life threading conditions if present with follow-up short outcome for 28 days. Results: The most common precipitate factor for missed injuries in my study was clinical evaluation error due to Inadequate diagnostic workup in 42.9%. And the second risk factor was Deficiency in Physical Examination in 35.7%. Lastly Incomplete assessment due to patient instability in 10.7% and incorrect interpretation of imaging10.7%.low rates of missed injuries (40.8% in patients arriving during the day compared with (59.2% of night arrivals. Conclusion: the incidence of missed injuries in the study is 9.0 % which is still high compared to many trauma centers. And mostly increase the period of stay in the hospital and affect the outcome of polytrauma patients.

  18. Clinical relevance of herpes simplex virus viremia in Intensive Care Unit patients. (United States)

    Lepiller, Q; Sueur, C; Solis, M; Barth, H; Glady, L; Lefebvre, F; Fafi-Kremer, S; Schneider, F; Stoll-Keller, F


    To determine the clinical relevance of herpes simplex virus (HSV) viremia episodes in critically ill adult patients. 1556 blood samples obtained for HSV PCR analysis in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients over 4 years were retrospectively analyzed, focusing on the comprehensive analysis of 88 HSV-viremic patients. HSV DNA was detected in 11.8% of samples from the ICU. HSV viral loads remained below 5×10(2) copies/ml in 68.2% of patients and exceeded 10(4) copies/ml in 7.9%. Episodes of HSV-viremia correlated with immunosuppressed status and mechanical ventilation in 79.5% and 65.9% of patients, respectively. Only a subset of patients exhibited HSV-related organ damage, including pneumonia and hepatitis (10.2% and 2.3%, respectively). The mortality rate in HSV-viremic patients was not significantly increased compared to the overall mortality rate in the ICU (27.3% vs. 22.9%, p = 0.33). Only patients with high HSV viral loads tended to have a higher, though non-significant, death rate (57.1%, p = 0.14). Our results suggest HSV viremia is common in ICU patients, potentially favored by immunocompromised status and mechanical ventilation. The global impact of HSV-viremia on mortality in the ICU was low. Quantifying HSV DNA may help identifying patients at-risk of severe HSV-induced symptoms. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biomechanical CT Metrics Are Associated With Patient Outcomes in COPD (United States)

    Bodduluri, Sandeep; Bhatt, Surya P; Hoffman, Eric A.; Newell, John D.; Martinez, Carlos H.; Dransfield, Mark T.; Han, Meilan K.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.


    Background Traditional metrics of lung disease such as those derived from spirometry and static single-volume CT images are used to explain respiratory morbidity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but are insufficient. We hypothesized that the mean Jacobian determinant, a measure of local lung expansion and contraction with respiration, would contribute independently to clinically relevant functional outcomes. Methods We applied image registration techniques to paired inspiratory-expiratory CT scans and derived the Jacobian determinant of the deformation field between the two lung volumes to map local volume change with respiration. We analyzed 490 participants with COPD with multivariable regression models to assess strengths of association between traditional CT metrics of disease and the Jacobian determinant with respiratory morbidity including dyspnea (mMRC), St Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score, six-minute walk distance (6MWD), and the BODE index, as well as all-cause mortality. Results The Jacobian determinant was significantly associated with SGRQ (adjusted regression co-efficient β = −11.75,95%CI −21.6 to −1.7;p=0.020), and with 6MWD (β=321.15, 95%CI 134.1 to 508.1;p<0.001), independent of age, sex, race, body-mass-index, FEV1, smoking pack-years, CT emphysema, CT gas trapping, airway wall thickness, and CT scanner protocol. The mean Jacobian determinant was also independently associated with the BODE index (β= −0.41, 95%CI −0.80 to −0.02; p = 0.039), and mortality on follow-up (adjusted hazards ratio = 4.26, 95%CI = 0.93 to 19.23; p = 0.064). Conclusion Biomechanical metrics representing local lung expansion and contraction improve prediction of respiratory morbidity and mortality and offer additional prognostic information beyond traditional measures of lung function and static single-volume CT metrics. PMID:28044005

  20. Readability, relevance and quality of the information in Spanish on the Web for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Castillo-Ortiz, Jose Dionisio; Valdivia-Nuno, Jose de Jesus; Ramirez-Gomez, Andrea; Garagarza-Mariscal, Heber; Gallegos-Rios, Carlos; Flores-Hernandez, Gabriel; Hernandez-Sanchez, Luis; Brambila-Barba, Victor; Castaneda-Sanchez, Jose Juan; Barajas-Ochoa, Zalathiel; Suarez-Rico, Angel; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Jorge Manuel; Ramos-Remus, Cesar

    Education is a major health determinant and one of the main independent outcome predictors in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The use of the Internet by patients has grown exponentially in the last decade. To assess the characteristics, legibility and quality of the information available in Spanish in the Internet regarding to rheumatoid arthritis. The search was performed in Google using the phrase rheumatoid arthritis. Information from the first 30 pages was evaluated according to a pre-established format (relevance, scope, authorship, type of publication and financial objective). The quality and legibility of the pages were assessed using two validated tools, DISCERN and INFLESZ respectively. Data extraction was performed by senior medical students and evaluation was achieved by consensus. The Google search returned 323 hits but only 63% were considered relevant; 80% of them were information sites (71% discussed exclusively RA, 44% conventional treatment and 12% alternative therapies) and 12.5% had a primary financial interest. 60% of the sites were created by nonprofit organizations and 15% by medical associations. Web sites posted by medical institutions from the United States of America were better positioned in Spanish (Arthritis Foundation 4th position and American College of Rheumatology 10th position) than web sites posted by Spanish speaking countries. There is a risk of disinformation for patients with RA that use the Internet. We identified a window of opportunity for rheumatology medical institutions from Spanish-speaking countries to have a more prominent societal involvement in the education of their patients with RA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristic and Outcome of Psoriatic Arthritis Patients with Hyperuricemia. (United States)

    AlJohani, Roa'A; Polachek, Ari; Ye, Justine Yang; Chandran, Vinod; Gladman, Dafna D


    To determine the characteristics of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) who have hyperuricemia (HUC) and their outcomes, especially cardiovascular (CVD) and kidney diseases. Patients have been followed prospectively at the PsA clinic according to a standard protocol at 6- to 12-month intervals. We defined HUC in men > 450 µ mol/l or women > 360 µ mol/l. We matched patients with HUC based on sex and age ± 5 years with normal uric acid patients. Demographics information and disease characteristics were reviewed. Outcomes of patients with HUC, especially CVD and kidney diseases, were recorded. Conditional logistic regression was performed to determine factors independently associated with HUC in patients with PsA. There were 325 (31.9%) out of 1019 patients with PsA who had HUC. Of these, 318 cases were matched to 318 controls. There were 11 (3.4%) out of 325 patients with HUC who had gout. Patients with HUC had longer disease duration and a higher Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. They had more concurrent comorbidities, including CVD and metabolic diseases, as well as higher prevalence of kidney stones and higher creatinine. Only 1 patient with HUC was treated with allopurinol at first evaluation visit and 7 patients during followup. Over the followup, 163 of the 318 patients had persistent HUC (pHUC) for more than 2 visits. Patients with pHUC developed more myocardial infarction, heart failure, and renal impairment. Multivariate analysis showed an association between pHUC, PsA disease duration, and obesity. HUC is common in patients with PsA, especially in those with longer disease duration and obesity. Proper control of HUC and metabolic diseases may play a preventive role in improving PsA outcomes.

  2. Patient characteristics and treatment outcome in functional anorectal pain. (United States)

    Atkin, Gary K; Suliman, Amna; Vaizey, Carolynne J


    Functional anorectal pain occurs in the absence of any clinical abnormality. It is common and disabling; it has previously been reported in only a few studies involving small patient numbers. This study aimed to report the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes for patients with functional anorectal pain. Patient demographics, clinical history, and tests results for all referrals for anorectal physiological testing between 1997 and 2009 were prospectively recorded. For patients with functional anorectal pain, further information was gained from clinical notes. Clinical history, anorectal physiology, and radiological imaging data were recorded for all patients; treatment outcome was noted for patients treated and followed up at the present unit. One hundred seventy patients, 99 female, with a median age of 48 years (range, 18-86), were studied. Patients were classified as having chronic proctalgia (pain duration ≥20 min, 158 patients) or proctalgia fugax (pain duration proctalgia fugax had a higher internal anal sphincter thickness and resting pressure than patients with chronic proctalgia, whereas patients with a family history of similar symptoms were more likely to have proctalgia fugax and higher resting pressures and internal anal sphincter thickness compared with those without a family history of these symptoms. Patients referred for treatment underwent a range of interventions including biofeedback (29 patients, 17 improved), tricyclic antidepressants (26 patients, 10 improved), Botox injection (9 patients, 5 improved), and sacral nerve stimulation (3 patients, 2 improved). Biofeedback had the greatest treatment effect, especially in patients with defecatory dysfunction. Biofeedback is beneficial in the subset of patients with functional anorectal pain and difficulty with defecation. Tricyclic antidepressants, Botox, and sacral nerve stimulation may also have a role.

  3. What Factors are Predictive of Patient-reported Outcomes? A Prospective Study of 337 Shoulder Arthroplasties. (United States)

    Matsen, Frederick A; Russ, Stacy M; Vu, Phuong T; Hsu, Jason E; Lucas, Robert M; Comstock, Bryan A


    Although shoulder arthroplasties generally are effective in improving patients' comfort and function, the results are variable for reasons that are not well understood. We posed two questions: (1) What factors are associated with better 2-year outcomes after shoulder arthroplasty? (2) What are the sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values of a multivariate predictive model for better outcome? Three hundred thirty-nine patients having a shoulder arthroplasty (hemiarthroplasty, arthroplasty for cuff tear arthropathy, ream and run arthroplasty, total shoulder or reverse total shoulder arthroplasty) between August 24, 2010 and December 31, 2012 consented to participate in this prospective study. Two patients were excluded because they were missing baseline variables. Forty-three patients were missing 2-year data. Univariate and multivariate analyses determined the relationship of baseline patient, shoulder, and surgical characteristics to a "better" outcome, defined as an improvement of at least 30% of the maximal possible improvement in the Simple Shoulder Test. The results were used to develop a predictive model, the accuracy of which was tested using a 10-fold cross-validation. After controlling for potentially relevant confounding variables, the multivariate analysis showed that the factors significantly associated with better outcomes were American Society of Anesthesiologists Class I (odds ratio [OR], 1.94; 95% CI, 1.03-3.65; p = 0.041), shoulder problem not related to work (OR, 5.36; 95% CI, 2.15-13.37; p factors listed above. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve generated from the cross-validated enhanced predictive model was 0.79 (generally values of 0.7 to 0.8 are considered fair and values of 0.8 to 0.9 are considered good). The false-positive fraction and the true-positive fraction depended on the cutoff probability selected (ie, the selected probability above which the prediction would be classified as

  4. Postoperative Haematocrit and Outcome in Critically Ill Surgical Patients. (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Martins; Silva, Diana; Sousa, Gabriela; Silva, Joana; Santos, Alice; Abelha, Fernando José


    Haematocrit has been studied as an outcome predictor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between low haematocrit at surgical intensive care unit admission and high disease scoring system score and early outcomes. This retrospective study included 4398 patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit between January 2006 and July 2013. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation and simplified acute physiology score II values were calculated and all variables entered as parameters were evaluated independently. Patients were classified as haematocrit if they had a haematocrit < 30% at surgical intensive care unit admission. The correlation between admission haematocrit and outcome was evaluated by univariate analysis and linear regression. A total of 1126 (25.6%) patients had haematocrit. These patients had higher rates of major cardiac events (4% vs 1.9%, p < 0.001), acute renal failure (11.5% vs 4.7%, p < 0.001), and mortality during surgical intensive care unit stay (3% vs 0.8%, p < 0.001) and hospital stay (12% vs 5.9%, p < 0.001). A haematocrit level < 30% at surgical intensive care unit admission was frequent and appears to be a predictor for poorer outcome in critical surgical patients. Patients with haematocrit had longer surgical intensive care unit and hospital stay lengths, more postoperative complications, and higher surgical intensive care unit and hospital mortality rates.

  5. Disparities in operative outcomes in patients with comorbid mental illness. (United States)

    Bailey, Elizabeth A; Wirtalla, Christopher; Sharoky, Catherine E; Kelz, Rachel R


    Patients with mental health disorders have worse medical outcomes and experience excess mortality compared with those without a mental health comorbidity. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between mental health comorbidities and surgical outcomes. This retrospective cohort study used the National Inpatient Sample (2009-2011) to select patients who underwent one of the 4 most common general surgery procedures (cholecystectomy and common duct exploration, colorectal resection, excision and lysis of peritoneal adhesions, and appendectomy). Patients with a concurrent mental health diagnosis were identified. Multivariable logistic regression examined outcomes, including prolonged length of stay, in-hospital mortality, and postoperative complications. Of the 579,851 patients included, 38,702 patients (6.7%) had a mental health diagnosis. Mood disorders were most prevalent (58.7%), followed by substance abuse (23.8%). After adjustment for confounders, including sex, race, number of comorbidities, admission status, open operations, insurance, and income quartile, we found that having a mental health diagnosis conferred a 40% greater odds of including prolonged length of stay (OR 1.41, P mental health diagnosis cohort. General surgery patients with comorbid mental disease experience a greater incidence of postoperative complications and longer hospitalizations. Recognizing these disparate outcomes is the first step in understanding how to optimize care for this frequently marginalized population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Second branchial cleft fistulae: patient characteristics and surgical outcome. (United States)

    Kajosaari, Lauri; Mäkitie, Antti; Salminen, Päivi; Klockars, Tuomas


    Second branchial cleft anomalies predispose to recurrent infections, and surgical resection is recommended as the treatment of choice. There is no clear consensus regarding the timing or surgical technique in the operative treatment of these anomalies. Our aim was to compare the effect of age and operative techniques to patient characteristics and treatment outcome. A retrospective study of pediatric patients treated for second branchial sinuses or fistulae during 1998-2012 at two departments in our academic tertiary care referral center. Comparison of patient characteristics, preoperative investigations, surgical techniques and postoperative sequelae. Our data is based on 68 patients, the largest series in the literature. One-fourth (24%) of patients had any infectious symptoms prior to operative treatment. Patient demographics, preoperative investigations, use of methylene blue, or tonsillectomy had no effect on the surgical outcome. There were no re-operations due to residual disease. Three complications were observed postoperatively. Our patient series of second branchial cleft sinuses/fistulae is the largest so far and enables analyses of patient characteristics and surgical outcomes more reliably than previously. Preoperative symptoms are infrequent and mild. There was no difference in clinical outcome between the observed departments. Performing ipsilateral tonsillectomy gave no outcome benefits. The operation may be delayed to an age of approximately three years when anesthesiological risks are and possible harms are best avoided. Considering postoperative pain and risk of postoperative hemorrhage a routine tonsillectomy should not be included to the operative treatment of second branchial cleft fistulae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cannabis Use and Outcomes in Patients With Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. (United States)

    Behrouz, Réza; Birnbaum, Lee; Grandhi, Ramesh; Johnson, Jeremiah; Misra, Vivek; Palacio, Santiago; Seifi, Ali; Topel, Christopher; Garvin, Rachel; Caron, Jean-Louis


    The incidence of cannabis use in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and its impact on morbidity, mortality, and outcomes are unknown. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between cannabis use and outcomes in patients with aSAH. Records of consecutive patients admitted with aSAH between 2010 and 2015 were reviewed. Clinical features and outcomes of aSAH patients with negative urine drug screen and cannabinoids-positive (CB+) were compared. Regression analyses were used to assess for associations. The study group consisted of 108 patients; 25.9% with CB+. Delayed cerebral ischemia was diagnosed in 50% of CB+ and 23.8% of urine drug screen negative patients (P=0.01). CB+ was independently associated with development of delayed cerebral ischemia (odds ratio, 2.68; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-6.99; P=0.01). A significantly higher number of CB+ than urine drug screen negative patients had poor outcome (35.7% versus 13.8%; P=0.01). In univariate analysis, CB+ was associated with the composite end point of hospital mortality/severe disability (odds ratio, 2.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-8.01; P=0.04). However, after adjusting for other predictors, this effect was no longer significant. We offer preliminary data that CB+ is independently associated with delayed cerebral ischemia and possibly poor outcome in patients with aSAH. Our findings add to the growing evidence on the association of cannabis with cerebrovascular risk. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Relevant patient characteristics for guiding tailored integrated diabetes primary care: a systematic review. (United States)

    Hertroijs, Dorijn F L; Elissen, Arianne M J; Brouwers, Martijn C G J; Schaper, Nicolaas C; Ruwaard, Dirk


    Aim To identify which patient-related effect modifiers influence the outcomes of integrated care programs for type 2 diabetes in primary care. Integrated care is a widespread management strategy for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, most integrated care programs are not tailored to patients' needs, preferences and abilities. There is increasing consensus that such a patient-centered approach could improve the management of type 2 diabetes. Thus far, it remains unclear which patient-related effect modifiers should guide such an approach. PubMed, CINAHL and EMBASE were searched for empirical studies published after 1998. A systematic literature review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Findings In total, 23 out of 1015 studies were included. A total of 21 studies measured the effects of integrated diabetes care programs on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and three on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure and health-care utilization. In total, 49 patient characteristics were assessed as potential effect modifiers with HbA1c as an outcome, of which 46 were person or health-related and only three were context-related. Younger age, insulin therapy and longer disease duration were associated with higher HbA1c levels in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Higher baseline HbA1c was associated with higher HbA1c at follow-up in longitudinal studies. Information on context- and person-related characteristics was limited, but is necessary to help identify the care needs of individual patients and implement an effective integrated type 2 diabetes tailored care program.

  9. Patient-Therapist Identification in Relation to Both Patient and Therapist Variables and Therapy Outcome (United States)

    Melnick, Barry


    The results of the study confirmed the hypothesis that greater patient identification with the therapist, as defined by increased similarity between the patient's and therapist's semantic differential ratings, moderately correlated with more successful therapy outcome. (Author)

  10. Clinical outcomes of hydronephrosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. (United States)

    Hong, Seokchan; Kim, Yong-Gil; Ahn, Soo Min; Bae, Seung-Hyeon; Lim, Doo-Ho; Kim, Jeong Kon; Lee, Chang-Keun; Yoo, Bin


    Hydronephrosis is a rare complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Bladder and/or gastrointestinal involvement in SLE are associated with development of hydronephrosis, but the management and treatment outcomes of hydronephrosis are largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the clinical manifestations and factors associated with the treatment response in patients with SLE complicated by hydronephrosis. A retrospective analysis was performed of all 634 SLE patients who underwent computed tomography and/or ultrasonography between January 1998 and December 2013. We reviewed the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients with SLE-associated hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis was identified in 15 patients with SLE complicated by cystitis and/or enteritis. All patients were treated initially with moderate to high doses of corticosteroids. A follow-up imaging study showed that 11 (73.3%) of 15 patients experienced improvements in hydronephrosis, and urinary obstruction was resolved without urological intervention in the majority of these patients (8/11, 72.7%). The four patients who experienced no improvement in hydronephrosis were older than those who responded to treatment (median age [interquartile range]; 43.0 [37.5-53.0] years vs. 28.0 [21.0-38.5] years; P = 0.026). In addition, delayed treatment (≥ 1 month after onset of symptoms) with corticosteroids was more frequently observed in the non-responding patients than in the responding patients (P = 0.011). Our findings suggest that treatment with corticosteroids alone leads to favorable outcomes in patients with SLE-associated hydronephrosis, except when treatment is delayed, particularly in elderly patients. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Predicting Outcome in Patients with Anti-GBM Glomerulonephritis. (United States)

    van Daalen, Emma E; Jennette, J Charles; McAdoo, Stephen P; Pusey, Charles D; Alba, Marco A; Poulton, Caroline J; Wolterbeek, Ron; Nguyen, Tri Q; Goldschmeding, Roel; Alchi, Bassam; Griffiths, Meryl; de Zoysa, Janak R; Vincent, Beula; Bruijn, Jan A; Bajema, Ingeborg M


    Large studies on long-term kidney outcome in patients with anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) GN are lacking. This study aimed to identify clinical and histopathologic parameters that predict kidney outcome in these patients. This retrospective analysis included a total of 123 patients with anti-GBM GN between 1986 and 2015 from six centers worldwide. Their kidney biopsy samples were classified according to the histopathologic classification for ANCA-associated GN. Clinical data such as details of treatment were retrieved from clinical records. The primary outcome parameter was the occurrence of ESRD. Kidney survival was analyzed using the log-rank test and Cox regression analyses. The 5-year kidney survival rate was 34%, with an improved rate observed among patients diagnosed after 2007 ( P =0.01). In patients with anti-GBM GN, histopathologic class and kidney survival were associated ( P GBM GN. Kidney outcome has improved during recent years; the success rate doubled after 2007. This article contains a podcast at Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. 2-year patient-related versus stent-related outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Christiansen, Evald Høj


    years were further assessed with specific focus on patient-related composite (all death, all MI, or any revascularization) and stent-related composite outcomes (cardiac death, target vessel MI, or symptom-driven target lesion revascularization). A total of 1,390 patients were assigned to receive the EES......, and 1,384 patients were assigned to receive the SES. RESULTS: At 2 years, the composite primary endpoint occurred in 8.3% in the EES group and in 8.7% in the SES group (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73 to 1.22). The patient-related outcome: 15.0% in the EES group versus 15.......80). CONCLUSIONS: At 2-year follow-up, the EES was found to be noninferior to the SES with regard to both patient-related and stent-related clinical outcomes. (Scandinavian Organization for Randomized Trials With Clinical Outcome IV [SORT OUT IV]; NCT00552877)....

  13. Montreal Accord on Patient-Reported Outcomes (PROs) use series - Paper 8: patient-reported outcomes in electronic health records can inform clinical and policy decisions. (United States)

    Ahmed, Sara; Ware, Patrick; Gardner, William; Witter, James; Bingham, Clifton O; Kairy, Dahlia; Bartlett, Susan J


    Given that the goal of health care systems is to improve and maintain the health of the populations they serve, the indicators of performance must include outcomes that are meaningful to patients. The growth of health technologies provides an unprecedented opportunity to integrate the patient voice into clinical care by linking electronic health records (EHRs) to patient-reported outcome (PRO) data collection. However, PRO data must be relevant, meaningful, and actionable for those who will have to invest the time and effort to collect it. In this study, we highlight opportunities to integrate PRO data collection into EHRs. We consider how stakeholder perspectives should influence the selection of PROs and ways to enhance engagement in and commitment to PRO implementation. We propose a research and policy agenda to address unanswered questions and facilitate the widespread adoption of PRO data collection into EHRs. Building a learning health care system that gathers PRO data in ways that can inform individual patient care, quality improvement, and comparative effectiveness research has the potential to accelerate the application of new evidence and knowledge to patient care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Digital audio recordings improve the outcomes of patient consultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolderslund, Maiken; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Holst, René


    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects on patients' outcome of the consultations when provided with: a Digital Audio Recording (DAR) of the consultation and a Question Prompt List (QPL). METHODS: This is a three-armed randomised controlled cluster trial. One group of patients received standard care......, while the other two groups received either the QPL in combination with a recording of their consultation or only the recording. Patients from four outpatient clinics participated: Paediatric, Orthopaedic, Internal Medicine, and Urology. The effects were evaluated by patient-administered questionnaires...

  15. [Outcome of eating disorder patients treated in tertiary care]. (United States)

    Suokas, Jaana; Gissler, Mika; Haukka, Jari; Linna, Milla; Raevuori, Anu; Suvisaari, Jaana


    We assessed the outcome of eating disorder patients treated in a specialized treatment setting. Register-based follow-up study of adults (n = 2 450, 95% women, age range 18-62 years). For each patient four background-matched controls were selected. The hazard ratio for all-cause mortality was 6.51 in anorexia, 2.97 in bulimia and 1.77 in BED. Autoimmune diseases were more common in patients than in controls. Bulimia and BED were associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. Pregnancy and childbirth rates were lower among patients than among controls. Eating disorders are associated with multiple health problems and increased mortality risk.

  16. Treatment of patients with hand osteoarthritis : outcome measures, patient satisfaction, and economic evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, Miriam


    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the limitations in daily life, outcome measures, clinical outcomes with the emphasis on patient satisfaction, and economic aspects of the treatment of hand osteoarthritis (OA). Patients with hand OA report severe restrictions in daily life, in particular in

  17. Aberrant neural networks for the recognition memory of socially relevant information in patients with schizophrenia. (United States)

    Oh, Jooyoung; Chun, Ji-Won; Kim, Eunseong; Park, Hae-Jeong; Lee, Boreom; Kim, Jae-Jin


    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit several cognitive deficits, including memory impairment. Problems with recognition memory can hinder socially adaptive behavior. Previous investigations have suggested that altered activation of the frontotemporal area plays an important role in recognition memory impairment. However, the cerebral networks related to these deficits are not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the brain networks required for recognizing socially relevant information in patients with schizophrenia performing an old-new recognition task. Sixteen patients with schizophrenia and 16 controls participated in this study. First, the subjects performed the theme-identification task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. In this task, pictures depicting social situations were presented with three words, and the subjects were asked to select the best theme word for each picture. The subjects then performed an old-new recognition task in which they were asked to discriminate whether the presented words were old or new. Task performance and neural responses in the old-new recognition task were compared between the subject groups. An independent component analysis of the functional connectivity was performed. The patients with schizophrenia exhibited decreased discriminability and increased activation of the right superior temporal gyrus compared with the controls during correct responses. Furthermore, aberrant network activities were found in the frontopolar and language comprehension networks in the patients. The functional connectivity analysis showed aberrant connectivity in the frontopolar and language comprehension networks in the patients with schizophrenia, and these aberrations possibly contribute to their low recognition performance and social dysfunction. These results suggest that the frontopolar and language comprehension networks are potential therapeutic targets in patients with schizophrenia.

  18. Is there a prognostic relevance of electrophysiological studies in bundle branch block patients? (United States)

    Bogossian, Harilaos; Frommeyer, Gerrit; Göbbert, Kornelius; Hasan, Fuad; Nguyen, Quy Suu; Ninios, Ilias; Mijic, Dejan; Bandorski, Dirk; Hoeltgen, Reinhard; Seyfarth, Melchior; Lemke, Bernd; Eckardt, Lars; Zarse, Markus


    The present European guidelines suggest a diagnostic electrophysiological (EP) study to determine indication for cardiac pacing in patients with bundle branch block and unexplained syncope. We evaluated the prognostic relevance of an EP study for mortality and the development of permanent complete atrioventricular (AV) block in patients with symptomatic bifascicular block and first-degree AV block. The HV interval is a poor prognostic marker to predict the development of permanent AV block in patients with symptomatic bifascicular block (BFB) and AV block I°. Thirty consecutive patients (mean age, 74.8 ± 8.6 years; 25 males) with symptomatic BFB and first-degree AV block underwent an EP study before device implantation, according to current guidelines. For 53 ± 31 months, patients underwent yearly follow-up screening for syncope or higher-degree AV block. Thirty patients presented with prolonged HV interval during the EP study (mean, 82.2 ± 20.1 ms; range, 57-142 ms), classified into 3 groups: group 1, 70 to ≤100 ms (mean, 80 ± 8 ms; range, 70-97 ms; n = 18), and group 3, >100 ms (mean, 119 ± 14 ms; range, 107-142 ms; n = 5). According to the guidelines, patients in groups 2 and 3 received a pacemaker. The length of the HV interval was not associated with the later development of third-degree AV block or with increased mortality. Our present study suggests that an indication for pacemaker implantation based solely on a diagnostic EP study with prolongation of the HV interval is not justified. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Outcome of Guillain–Barre syndrome patients with respiratory paralysis (United States)

    Kalita, J.; Ranjan, A.


    Background and Aims: To evaluate the outcome of patients with Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS) having respiratory failure treated with modified intubation policy. Design and Methods: Consecutive patients with GBS having single breath count below 12 and respiratory rate >30/min were included and their clinical details noted. The patients were intubated and mechanically ventilated (MV) if their PaO2 was  50 mmHg or pH < 7.3. Their electrophysiological subtypes and complications were noted. The hospital mortality and 3 months outcome were compared in MV and those could be managed without MV even with respiratory compromise. Results: Out of 369 patients, 102 (27.6%) patients had respiratory compromise who were included in this study. Of the patients with respiratory compromise, 44 (43.1%) were intubated and mechanically ventilated after a median of 4 days of hospitalization. The median duration of MV was 21 (range 1–88) days. The patients with autonomic dysfunction (56.8% vs. 19%), facial weakness (78% vs. 36.2%), bulbar weakness (81.8% vs. 31%), severe weakness (63.8% vs. 31%) and high transaminase level (47.7% vs. 25.9%) needed MV more frequently. In our study, 6.8% patients died and 26.6% had poor outcome which was similar between MV and non-MV patients. The MV patients had longer hospitalization and more complications compared with non-MV group. Conclusion: In GBS patients with respiratory compromise, conservative intubation does not increase mortality and disability. PMID:26475599


    Moores, B Michael


    An analysis and review of the fundamental psychological basis of decision making has been undertaken in respect of radiation protection of the patient in medicine. Both clinical and scientific aspects of patient protection have been considered. Every stage of the clinical process of radiological examinations, from referral through to diagnostic outcome, has been shown to be subject to proven psychological effects including biases, framing, anchoring and prospect theory, which deals with perceived gains and losses. Such factors also influence the scientific aspects of radiation protection of the patient. Justification for the use of single dose reference level (DRL) values has employed framing with substitution or manipulation by accessibility in order to promote their usefulness. The use of DRLs as presently proposed constrains a diverse patient population to a reference or representative person. This approach is shown to represent a public health initiative that largely ignores the ethical basis of patient protection inherent in the Hippocratic Oath. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  1. Clinicopathological variables of sporadic schwannomas of peripheral nerve in 291 patients and expression of biologically relevant markers. (United States)

    Young, Eric D; Ingram, Davis; Metcalf-Doetsch, William; Khan, Dilshad; Al Sannaa, Ghadah; Le Loarer, Francois; Lazar, Alexander J F; Slopis, John; Torres, Keila E; Lev, Dina; Pollock, Raphael E; McCutcheon, Ian E


    OBJECTIVE While sporadic peripheral schwannomas (SPSs) are generally well treated with surgery, their biology is not well understood. Consequently, treatment options are limited. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of SPS. The authors describe clinicopathological features and treatment outcomes of patients harboring these tumors, and they assess expression of biomarkers using a clinically annotated tissue microarray. Together, these data give new insight into the biology and management of SPS. METHODS Patients presenting with a primary SPS between 1993 and 2011 (n = 291) were selected from an institutional registry to construct a clinical database. All patients underwent follow-up, and short- and long-term outcomes were assessed. Expression of relevant biomarkers was assessed using a new tissue microarray (n = 121). RESULTS SPSs were generally large (mean 5.5 cm) and frequently painful at presentation (55%). Most patients were treated with surgery (80%), the majority of whom experienced complete resolution (52%) or improvement (18%) of their symptoms. Tumors that were completely resected (85%) did not recur. Some patients experienced short-term (16%) and long-term (4%) complications postoperatively. Schwannomas expressed higher levels of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (2.1) than malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) (1.5, p = 0.004) and neurofibromas (1.33, p = 0.007). Expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 was greater in SPSs (0.91) than in MPNSTs (0.33, p = 0.002) and neurofibromas (0.33, p = 0.026). Epidermal growth factor receptor was expressed in far fewer SPS cells (10%) than in MPNSTs (58%, p SPSs more frequently expressed cytoplasmic survivin (66% of tumor cells) than normal nerve (46% of cells), but SPS expressed nuclear survivin in fewer tumor cells than in MPNSTs (24% and 50%, respectively; p = 0.018). CONCLUSIONS Complete resection is curative for SPS. Left untreated, however, these

  2. Patient- and clinician- reported outcome in eating disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Laura Vad; Frølich, Jacob Stampe; Gudex, Claire


    Patient-reported outcome is increasingly applied in health sciences. Patients with eating disorders (EDs) characteristically have a different opinion of their needs to that of the health professionals, which can lead to ambivalence towards treatment and immense compliance difficulties. This cross....... This association was not observed in bulimia nervosa (BN). We did not find a correlation between SF-36 scores and BMI in any of the diagnostic groups....

  3. The role of total cell-free DNA in predicting outcomes among trauma patients in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögenur, Mikail; Burcharth, Jakob; Gögenur, Ismail


    searched Pubmed, Embase, Scopus and the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials and reference lists of relevant articles for studies that assessed the prognostic value of cell-free DNA detection in trauma patients in the intensive care unit. Outcomes of interest included survival, posttraumatic...

  4. Prediction of outcome in patients with low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Andersen, Cathrine Hedegaard; Mørk Hansen, Martin


    The clinical course of low back pain (LBP) cannot be accurately predicted by existing prediction tools. Therefore clinicians rely largely on their experience and clinical judgement. The objectives of this study were to investigate 1) which patient characteristics were associated with chiropractors...... intensity (0-10) and disability (RMDQ) after 2-weeks, 3-months, and 12-months. The course of LBP in 859 patients was predicted to be short (54%), prolonged (36%), or chronic (7%). Clinicians' expectations were most strongly associated with education, LBP history, radiating pain, and neurological signs......' expectations of outcome from a LBP episode, 2) if clinicians' expectations related to outcome, 3) how accurate clinical predictions were as compared to those of the STarT Back Screening Tool (SBT), and 4) if accuracy was improved by combining clinicians' expectations and the SBT. Outcomes were measured as LBP...

  5. Measuring Patient-Reported Outcomes: Key Metrics in Reconstructive Surgery. (United States)

    Voineskos, Sophocles H; Nelson, Jonas A; Klassen, Anne F; Pusic, Andrea L


    Satisfaction and improved quality of life are among the most important outcomes for patients undergoing plastic and reconstructive surgery for a variety of diseases and conditions. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are essential tools for evaluating the benefits of newly developed surgical techniques. Modern PROMs are being developed with new psychometric approaches, such as Rasch Measurement Theory, and their measurement properties (validity, reliability, responsiveness) are rigorously tested. These advances have resulted in the availability of PROMs that provide clinically meaningful data and effectively measure functional as well as psychosocial outcomes. This article guides the reader through the steps of creating a PROM and highlights the potential research and clinical uses of such instruments. Limitations of PROMs and anticipated future directions in this field are discussed.

  6. Identification errors in the blood transfusion laboratory: a still relevant issue for patient safety. (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Plebani, Mario


    Remarkable technological advances and increased awareness have both contributed to decrease substantially the uncertainty of the analytical phase, so that the manually intensive preanalytical activities currently represent the leading sources of errors in laboratory and transfusion medicine. Among preanalytical errors, misidentification and mistransfusion are still regarded as a considerable problem, posing serious risks for patient health and carrying huge expenses for the healthcare system. As such, a reliable policy of risk management should be readily implemented, developing through a multifaceted approach to prevent or limit the adverse outcomes related to transfusion reactions from blood incompatibility. This strategy encompasses root cause analysis, compliance with accreditation requirements, strict adherence to standard operating procedures, guidelines and recommendations for specimen collection, use of positive identification devices, rejection of potentially misidentified specimens, informatics data entry, query host communication, automated systems for patient identification and sample labeling and an adequate and safe environment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. admission patterns and outcomes of paediatric patients admitted at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OBJECTIVE To determine patterns of admissions due to diarrhea and their outcomes of paediatric patients at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH). METHODOLOGY A hospital-based prospective study including all children admitted to the Diarrhea Unit during the study period. Data was collected using content analysis ...

  8. Predictors of outcome among patients with obstructive jaundice at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite recent advances both in preoperative diagnosis and postoperative care, obstructive jaundice still contributes significantly to high morbidity and mortality. A prospective study was undertaken to identify predictors of outcome among patients with obstructive jaundice at Bugando Medical Centre in north-western ...

  9. Deep brain stimulation for dystonia: patient selection and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, J. D.; Contarino, M. F.; Schuurman, P. R.; Tijssen, M. A. J.; de Bie, R. M. A.


    In a literature survey, 341 patients with primary and 109 with secondary dystonias treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) were identified. In general, the outcomes for primary dystonias were more favourable compared to the secondary forms. For

  10. Deep brain stimulation for dystonia : Patient selection and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, J. D.; Contarino, M. F.; Schuurman, P. R.; Tijssen, M. A. J.; de Bie, R. M. A.

    In a literature survey, 341 patients with primary and 109 with secondary dystonias treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) were identified. In general, the outcomes for primary dystonias were more favourable compared to the secondary forms. For

  11. Profile and treatment outcomes of patients with tuberculosis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Data on the epidemiology of tuberculosis and its treatment outcomes were incomplete in the study area and this study was done to fill this gap. Methods: Institution based cross sectional study was conducted from January 2011 to December 2014. A total of 949 TB patients who were on treatment in North ...

  12. The eventual outcome of patients who had lower limb amputations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C De Klerk

    Background: Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) presenting with irreversible lower limb pathology has a high morbidity and mortality rate. This study aimed to determine the outcome of patients who underwent lower limb amputations (LLAs) because of PVD at Pelonomi Hospital, Bloemfontein, 2008–2011. Methods: ...

  13. Clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with upper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The common presentations were haematemesis and melaena, mainly in middle aged men with mortality in one out of seven patients. The high mortality may be due to co-morbidities and poor support services. Keywords: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding, Emergency department, Characteristics, Outcome ...

  14. Outcome of Pregnancy in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiong-Hee Wong


    Conclusion: Pregnancy is relatively safe in women with SLE in remission but should be considered as a high-risk pregnancy. APS is associated with poor pregnancy outcome. The patient needs to cooperate with obstetricians and physicians for optimal disease control and detailed monitoring throughout the gestation.

  15. Patient-reported outcome after fast-track knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kristian; Hansen, Torben B; Søballe, Kjeld


    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe patient-related functional outcomes after fast-track total knee arthroplasty and unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Furthermore, we wanted to assess physical areas where an additional need for rehabilitation could be identified, and finally, we...

  16. Epidemiology and Outcomes of Hospitalized Burn Patients in Gaza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUNG: Burns are serious health problems and leading causes of mortality and morbidity in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. This study aimed to overview the epidemiological profile and to present outcomes among hospitalized burn patients in AL Alamy burn center in Gaza. METHODS: This was a ...

  17. outcome of laparotomy for peritonitis in 302 consecutive patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 31, 2012 ... an adverse outcome and presentation with shock, anaemia, jaundice and oliguria. Conclusion: The factors influencing .... Cancer of the ascending colon. 3. 1.0. Ruptured mesenteric cyst ... 75(25.0%). Table 3: Pre and post-operative clinical and biochemical parameters of the patients. Parameters. P Value.

  18. Patient-reported outcomes for total hip and knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collins, Natalie J; Roos, Ewa M.


    Although the effectiveness of THA and TKA as interventions for end-stage degenerative joint disease has been well established, the use of instruments that measure outcome from the patient's perspective are relatively poorly investigated. Considering the increasing prevalence, associated risks, an...

  19. Instrument development and evaluation for patient-related outcomes assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnik M


    Full Text Available Małgorzata Farnik, Władysław PierzchałaDepartment of Pneumonology, Silesian University of Medicine, Katowice, PolandAbstract: Patient-related outcomes measures could provide important information for the current state of the art in medical care and even have an impact on macrodecisions in the health care system. Patient-related outcomes were initially defined as subjective health indicators that allow disability and illness to be assessed, based on patient, caregiver, or physician self-reports. As illness involves psychological and behavioral complex processes of care, a multidisciplinary approach in measuring patient-reported outcomes should be recommended, such as quality of life questionnaires. Patient-related outcomes measures should correspond to specific clinical situations and bring opportunities to improve quality of care. Objective measurements enable quantitative data to be collected and analyzed. Depending on the aim of the research, investigators can use existing methods or develop new tools. This publication presents a methodology for developing patient-related outcomes measures, based on a multistage procedure. The proper definition of specific study objectives and the methodology of instrument development are crucial for successfully transferring the study concept. The model of instrument development is the process of starting from the preliminary phase and includes questionnaire design and scaling, pilot testing (cognitive debriefing, revision of the preliminary version, evaluation of the new tool, and implementation. Validation of the new instrument includes reliability, reproducibility, internal consistency, and responsiveness. The process of designing the new tool should involve a panel of experts, including clinicians, psychologists (preliminary phase, and statisticians (scale development and scoring, and patients (cognitive debriefing. Implementation of a new tool should be followed by evaluation study – assessment of

  20. Nurse dose: linking staffing variables to adverse patient outcomes. (United States)

    Manojlovich, Milisa; Sidani, Souraya; Covell, Christine L; Antonakos, Cathy L


    Inconsistent findings in more than 100 studies have made it difficult to explain how variation in nurse staffing affects patient outcomes. Nurse dose, defined as the level of nurses required to provide patient care in hospital settings, draws on variables used in staffing studies to describe the influence of many staffing variables on outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine the construct validity of nurse dose by determining its association with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections and reported patient falls on a sample of inpatient adult acute care units. Staffing data came from 26 units in Ontario, Canada, and Michigan. Financial and human resource data were data sources for staffing variables. Sources of data for MRSA came from infection control departments. Incident reports were the data source for patient falls. Data analysis consisted of bivariate correlations and Poisson regression. Bivariate correlations revealed that nurse dose attributes (active ingredient and intensity) were associated significantly with both outcomes. Active ingredient (education, experience, skill mix) and intensity (full-time employees, registered nurse [RN]:patient ratio, RN hours per patient day) were significant predictors of MRSA. Coefficients for both attributes were negative and almost identical. Both attributes were significant predictors of reported patient falls, and coefficients were again negative, but coefficient sizes differed. By conceptualizing nurse and staffing variables (education, experience, skill mix, full-time employees, RN:patient ratio, RN hours per patient day) as attributes of nurse dose and by including these in the same analysis, it is possible to determine their relative influence on MRSA infections and reported patient falls.

  1. Outcomes in Newly Diagnosed Elderly Glioblastoma Patients after Concomitant Temozolomide Administration and Hypofractionated Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ludovic T. [Neurology Department, CHU Hautepierre, rue Molière, Strasbourg 67000 (France); Touch, Socheat [Radiation Oncology University Department, Paul Strauss Center, 3, rue de la Porte de l’Hôpital, BP 42, Strasbourg cedex 67065 (France); Radiation Oncology Department, Soviet-Khmer Friendship Hospital, Pnom-Pehn 12400 (Cambodia); Nehme-Schuster, Hélène [Oncology Geriatric Department, Paul Strauss Center, 3, rue de la Porte de l’Hôpital, BP 42, Strasbourg cedex 67065 (France); Antoni, Delphine [Radiation Oncology University Department, Paul Strauss Center, 3, rue de la Porte de l’Hôpital, BP 42, Strasbourg cedex 67065 (France); Eav, Sokha [Radiation Oncology Department, Soviet-Khmer Friendship Hospital, Pnom-Pehn 12400 (Cambodia); Clavier, Jean-Baptiste; Bauer, Nicolas; Vigneron, Céline [Radiation Oncology University Department, Paul Strauss Center, 3, rue de la Porte de l’Hôpital, BP 42, Strasbourg cedex 67065 (France); Schott, Roland [Oncology Department, Paul Strauss Center, 3, rue de la Porte de l’Hôpital, BP 42, Strasbourg cedex 67065 (France); Kehrli, Pierre [Neurosurgery Department, CHU Hautepierre, rue Molière, Strasbourg 67000 (France); Noël, Georges, E-mail: [Radiation Oncology University Department, Paul Strauss Center, 3, rue de la Porte de l’Hôpital, BP 42, Strasbourg cedex 67065 (France); Laboratoire EA 3430, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg (FMTS), Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg 67000 (France)


    This study aimed to analyze the treatment and outcomes of older glioblastoma patients. Forty-four patients older than 70 years of age were referred to the Paul Strauss Center for chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The median age was 75.5 years old (range: 70–84), and the patients included 18 females and 26 males. The median Karnofsky index (KI) was 70%. The Charlson indices varied from 4 to 6. All of the patients underwent surgery. O{sub 6}-methylguanine–DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status was determined in 25 patients. All of the patients received radiation therapy. Thirty-eight patients adhered to a hypofractionated radiation therapy schedule and six patients to a normofractionated schedule. Neoadjuvant, concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy regimens were administered to 12, 35 and 20 patients, respectively. At the time of this analysis, 41 patients had died. The median time to relapse was 6.7 months. Twenty-nine patients relapsed, and 10 patients received chemotherapy upon relapse. The median overall survival (OS) was 7.2 months and the one- and two-year OS rates were 32% and 12%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, only the Karnofsky index was a prognostic factor. Hypofractionated radiotherapy and chemotherapy with temozolomide are feasible and acceptably tolerated in older patients. However, relevant prognostic factors are needed to optimize treatment proposals.

  2. Outcomes in Newly Diagnosed Elderly Glioblastoma Patients after Concomitant Temozolomide Administration and Hypofractionated Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ludovic T.; Touch, Socheat; Nehme-Schuster, Hélène; Antoni, Delphine; Eav, Sokha; Clavier, Jean-Baptiste; Bauer, Nicolas; Vigneron, Céline; Schott, Roland; Kehrli, Pierre; Noël, Georges


    This study aimed to analyze the treatment and outcomes of older glioblastoma patients. Forty-four patients older than 70 years of age were referred to the Paul Strauss Center for chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The median age was 75.5 years old (range: 70–84), and the patients included 18 females and 26 males. The median Karnofsky index (KI) was 70%. The Charlson indices varied from 4 to 6. All of the patients underwent surgery. O 6 -methylguanine–DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) methylation status was determined in 25 patients. All of the patients received radiation therapy. Thirty-eight patients adhered to a hypofractionated radiation therapy schedule and six patients to a normofractionated schedule. Neoadjuvant, concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy regimens were administered to 12, 35 and 20 patients, respectively. At the time of this analysis, 41 patients had died. The median time to relapse was 6.7 months. Twenty-nine patients relapsed, and 10 patients received chemotherapy upon relapse. The median overall survival (OS) was 7.2 months and the one- and two-year OS rates were 32% and 12%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, only the Karnofsky index was a prognostic factor. Hypofractionated radiotherapy and chemotherapy with temozolomide are feasible and acceptably tolerated in older patients. However, relevant prognostic factors are needed to optimize treatment proposals

  3. The theoretical basis for practice-relevant medication use research: patient-centered/behavioral theories. (United States)

    Blalock, Susan J


    There is an urgent need for research to improve the quality of medication use among those who require pharmacotherapy. To describe how behavioral science theories can help to achieve this goal. We begin by describing what a theory is and the functions that theories serve. We then provide 8 guiding principles that are crucial for investigators to understand if they are to use theory appropriately. We conclude by discussing the need for a new model of patient medication self-management that incorporates information concerning factors operating at all levels of the ecological framework, ranging from patient-level to societal-level factors. The 8 guiding principles discussed are the following: (1) There is no single theory that is appropriate for guiding all medication use research; (2) Behavioral science theories are probabilistic, not deterministic; (3) When trying to influence a health behavior, the health behavior of interest must be defined precisely; (4) Many factors outside of patient control influence patient medication use; (5) Every patient is unique; (6) Patient motivation is a fundamental ingredient required to optimize medication use, especially when maintenance of long term behavior is the goal; (7) Health care providers can have a profound effect on patient medication use, and this effect can operate through several possible causal pathways; and (8) When planning an intervention to optimize medication use, it is important to develop a conceptual model that links intervention inputs to the ultimate outcomes that are desired. Medication use can be influenced by a wide variety of factors acting at different levels of the ecological model. The quality of research on medication use could be improved by development of an ecological model specific to medication self-management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Patient-reported outcome measures versus inertial performance-based outcome measures: A prospective study in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty. (United States)

    Bolink, S A A N; Grimm, B; Heyligers, I C


    Outcome assessment of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) by subjective patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) may not fully capture the functional (dis-)abilities of relevance. Objective performance-based outcome measures could provide distinct information. An ambulant inertial measurement unit (IMU) allows kinematic assessment of physical performance and could potentially be used for routine follow-up. To investigate the responsiveness of IMU measures in patients following TKA and compare outcomes with conventional PROMs. Patients with end stage knee OA (n=20, m/f=7/13; age=67.4 standard deviation 7.7 years) were measured preoperatively and one year postoperatively. IMU measures were derived during gait, sit-stand transfers and block step-up transfers. PROMs were assessed by using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Knee Society Score (KSS). Responsiveness was calculated by the effect size, correlations were calculated with Spearman's rho correlation coefficient. One year after TKA, patients performed significantly better at gait, sit-to-stand transfers and block step-up transfers. Measures of time and kinematic IMU measures demonstrated significant improvements postoperatively for each performance-based test. The largest improvement was found in block step-up transfers (effect size=0.56-1.20). WOMAC function score and KSS function score demonstrated moderate correlations (Spearman's rho=0.45-0.74) with some of the physical performance-based measures pre- and postoperatively. To characterize the changes in physical function after TKA, PROMs could be supplemented by performance-based measures, assessing function during different activities and allowing kinematic characterization with an ambulant IMU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Proceedings of Patient Reported Outcome Measure’s (PROMs Conference Sheffield 2016: advances in patient reported outcomes research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Croudace


    Full Text Available Table of contents S1 Using computerized adaptive testing Tim Croudace S2 Well-being: what is it, how does it compare to health and what are the implications of using it to inform health policy John Brazier O1 “Am I going to get better?”—Using PROMs to inform patients about the likely benefit of surgery Nils Gutacker, Andrew Street O2 Identifying Patient Reported Outcome Measures for an electronic Personal Health Record Dan Robotham, Samantha Waterman, Diana Rose, Safarina Satkunanathan, Til Wykes O3 Examining the change process over time qualitatively: transformative learning and response shift Nasrin Nasr, Pamela Enderby O4 Developing a PROM to evaluate self-management in diabetes (HASMID: giving patients a voice Jill Carlton, Donna Rowen, Jackie Elliott, John Brazier, Katherine Stevens, Hasan Basarir, Alex Labeit O5 Development of the Primary Care Outcomes Questionnaire (PCOQ Mairead Murphy, Sandra Hollinghurst, Chris Salisbury O6 Developing the PKEX score- a multimodal assessment tool for patients with shoulder problems Dominic Marley, James Wilson, Amy Barrat, Bibhas Roy O7 Applying multiple imputation to multi-item patient reported outcome measures: advantages and disadvantages of imputing at the item, sub-scale or score level Ines Rombach, Órlaith Burke, Crispin Jenkinson, Alastair Gray, Oliver Rivero-Arias O8 Integrating Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs into routine primary care for patients with multimorbidity: a feasibility study Ian Porter, Jaheeda Gangannagaripalli, Charlotte Bramwell, Jose M. Valderas O9 eRAPID: electronic self-report and management of adverse-events for pelvic radiotherapy (RT patients Patricia Holch, Susan Davidson, Jacki Routledge, Ann Henry, Kevin Franks, Alex Gilbert, Kate Absolom & Galina Velikova O10 Patient reported outcomes (PROMs based recommendation in clinical guidance for the management of chronic conditions in the United Kingdom Ian Porter, Jose M.Valderas O11 Cross-sectional and

  6. [Outcome Quality in Medical Rehabilitation: Relationship Between "Patient-Reported Outcomes" (PROs) and Social Security Contributions]. (United States)

    Nübling, R; Kaluscha, R; Krischak, G; Kriz, D; Martin, H; Müller, G; Renzland, J; Reuss-Borst, M; Schmidt, J; Kaiser, U; Toepler, E


    Aim of the Study The outcome quality of medical rehabilitation is evaluated often by "Patient Reported Outcomes" (PROs). It is examined to what extent these PROs are corresponding with "hard" or "objective" outcomes such as payments of contributions to social insurance. Methods The "rehabilitation QM outcome study" includes self-reports of patients as well as data from the Rehabilitation Statistics Database (RSD) of the German pension insurance Baden-Wurttemberg. The sample for the question posed includes N=2 947 insured who were treated in 2011 in 21 clinics of the "health quality network" and who were either employed or unemployed at the time of the rehabilitation application (e. g. the workforce or labour force group, response rate: 55%). The sample turned out widely representative for the population of the insured persons. Results PROs and payment of contributions to pension insurance clearly correspond. In the year after the rehabilitation improved vs. not improved rehabilitees differed clearly with regard to their payments of contributions. Conclusions The results support the validity of PROs. For a comprehensive depiction of the outcome quality of rehabilitation PROs and payments of contributions should be considered supplementary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. A Patient-Assessed Morbidity to Evaluate Outcome in Surgically Treated Vestibular Schwannomas. (United States)

    Al-Shudifat, Abdul Rahman; Kahlon, Babar; Höglund, Peter; Lindberg, Sven; Magnusson, Måns; Siesjo, Peter


    Outcome after treatment of vestibular schwannomas can be evaluated by health providers as mortality, recurrence, performance, and morbidity. Because mortality and recurrence are rare events, evaluation has to focus on performance and morbidity. The latter has mostly been reported by health providers. In the present study, we validate 2 new scales for patient-assessed performance and morbidity in comparison with different outcome tools, such as quality of life (QOL) (European Quality of Life-5 dimensions [EQ-5D]), facial nerve score, and work capacity. There were 167 total patients in a retrospective (n = 90) and prospective (n = 50) cohort of surgically treated vestibular schwannomas. A new patient-assessed morbidity score (paMS), a patient-assessed Karnofsky score (paKPS), the patient-assessed QOL (EQ-5D) score, work capacity, and the House-Brackmann facial nerve score were used as outcome measures. Analysis of paMS components and their relation to other outcomes was done as uni- and multivariate analysis. All outcome instruments, except EQ-5D and paKPS, showed a significant decrease postoperatively. Only the facial nerve score (House-Brackmann facial nerve score) differed significantly between the retrospective and prospective cohorts. Out of the 16 components of the paMS, hearing dysfunction, tear dysfunction, balance dysfunction, and eye irritation were most often reported. Both paMS and EQ-5D correlated significantly with work capacity. Standard QOL and performance instruments may not be sufficiently sensitive or specific to measure outcome at the cohort level after surgical treatment of vestibular schwannomas. A morbidity score may yield more detailed information on symptoms that can be relevant for rehabilitation and occupational training after surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Systematic review of psychosocial outcomes for patients with advanced melanoma. (United States)

    Dunn, Jeff; Watson, Maggie; Aitken, Joanne F; Hyde, Melissa K


    New advanced melanoma therapies are associated with improved survival; however, quality of survivorship, particularly psychosocial outcomes, for patients overall and those treated with newer therapies is unclear. Synthesize qualitative and quantitative evidence about psychosocial outcomes for advanced (stage III/IV) melanoma patients. Five databases were searched (01/01/1980 to 31/01/2016). Inclusion criteria were as follows: advanced melanoma patients or sub-group analysis; assessed psychosocial outcomes; and English language. Fifty-two studies met review criteria (4 qualitative, 48 quantitative). Trials comprise mostly medical not psychosocial interventions, with psychosocial outcomes assessed within broader quality of life measures. Patients receiving chemotherapy or IFN-alpha showed decreased emotional and social function and increased distress. Five trials of newer therapies appeared to show improvements in emotional and social function. Descriptive studies suggest that patients with advanced, versus localized disease, had decreased emotional and social function and increased distress. Contributors to distress were largely unexplored, and no clear framework described coping/adjustment trajectories. Patients with advanced versus localized disease had more supportive care needs, particularly amount, quality, and timing of melanoma-related information, communication with and emotional support from clinicians. Limitations included: lack of theoretical underpinnings guiding study design; inconsistent measurement approaches; small sample sizes; non-representative sampling; and cross-sectional design. Quality trial evidence is needed to clarify the impact of treatment innovations for advanced melanoma on patients' psychosocial well-being. Survivorship research and subsequent translation of that knowledge into programs and services currently lags behind gains in the medical treatment of advanced melanoma, a troubling circumstance that requires immediate and focused

  9. The readability of psychosocial wellness patient resources: improving surgical outcomes. (United States)

    Kugar, Meredith A; Cohen, Adam C; Wooden, William; Tholpady, Sunil S; Chu, Michael W


    Patient education is increasingly accessed with online resources and is essential for patient satisfaction and clinical outcomes. The average American adult reads at a seventh grade level, and the National Institute of Health (NIH) and the American Medical Association (AMA) recommend that information be written at a sixth-grade reading level. Health literacy plays an important role in the disease course and outcomes of all patients, including those with depression and likely other psychiatric disorders, although this is an area in need of further study. The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze written, online mental health resources on the Veterans Health Administration (VA) website, and other websites, using readability assessment instruments. An internet search was performed to identify written patient education information regarding mental health from the VA (the VA Mental Health Website) and top-rated psychiatric hospitals. Seven mental health topics were included in the analysis: generalized anxiety disorder, bipolar, major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, substance abuse, and suicide. Readability analyses were performed using the Gunning Fog Index, the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, the Coleman-Liau Index, the SMOG Readability Formula, and the Automated Readability Index. These scores were then combined into a Readability Consensus score. A two-tailed t-test was used to compare the mean values, and statistical significance was set at P readability consensus than six of the top psychiatric hospitals (P readability consensus for mental health information on all websites analyzed was 9.52. Online resources for mental health disorders are more complex than recommended by the NIH and AMA. Efforts to improve readability of mental health and psychosocial wellness resources could benefit patient understanding and outcomes, especially in patients with lower literacy. Surgical outcomes are correlated with patient mental

  10. Development of a patient-reported outcome instrument for patients with lumbar radicular pain


    Ibsen, Charlotte; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Handberg, Charlotte; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Hørder, Mogens; Maribo, Thomas


    Background Low back pain (LBP) is the leading cause to years lived with disability. 10–20% of patients with LBP experience radicular pain (lumbar radiculopathy). Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) play an important role in advancing patient-centered health care. Although patient involvement is essential to develop valid patient-centred PRO instruments patients are not always involved. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) are proposed to facilitate consist...

  11. Relevant outcomes for nutrition interventions to treat and prevent malnutrition in older people : a collaborative senator-ontop and manuel delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correa-Pérez, Andrea; Lozano-Montoya, Isabel; Volkert, Dorothee; Visser, Marjolein; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J.

    Background and aims: Research in malnutrition in older people is limited by the lack of consensus on relevant outcomes. Researchers of two European initiatives, the ‘Malnutrition in the Elderly (MaNuEL) Knowledge Hub’ (mostly experts in nutrition) and the Optimal Evidence-Based Non-drug Therapies in

  12. Which Domains of Thyroid-Related Quality of Life Are Most Relevant? Patients and Clinicians Provide Complementary Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Torquil; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh


    , 17 thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, and 16 primary hypothyroidism) were interviewed. METHODS: The relevance of 138 thyroid disease-related issues was rated during interviews. For each issue, three relevance measures were obtained: a diagnosis-specific patient rating, a diagnosis-specific expert...

  13. Validation of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Computerized Adaptive Tests Against the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score for 6 Common Foot and Ankle Pathologies. (United States)

    Koltsov, Jayme C B; Greenfield, Stephen T; Soukup, Dylan; Do, Huong T; Ellis, Scott J


    The field of foot and ankle surgery lacks a widely accepted gold-standard patient-reported outcome instrument. With the changing infrastructure of the medical profession, more efficient patient-reported outcome tools are needed to reduce respondent burden and increase participation while providing consistent and reliable measurement across multiple pathologies and disciplines. The primary purpose of the present study was to validate 3 Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System computer adaptive tests (CATs) most relevant to the foot and ankle discipline against the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and the Short Form 12 general health status survey in patients with 6 common foot and ankle pathologies. Patients (n = 240) indicated for operative treatment for 1 of 6 common foot and ankle pathologies completed the CATs, FAOS, and Short Form 12 at their preoperative surgical visits, 1 week subsequently (before surgery), and at 6 months postoperatively. The psychometric properties of the instruments were assessed and compared. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System CATs each took less than 1 minute to complete, whereas the FAOS took 6.5 minutes, and the Short Form 12 took 3 minutes. CAT scores were more normally distributed and had fewer floor and ceiling effects than those on the FAOS, which reached as high as 24%. The CATs were more precise than the FAOS and had similar responsiveness and test-retest reliability. The physical function and mobility CATs correlated strongly with the activities subscale of the FAOS, and the pain interference CAT correlated strongly with the pain subscale of the FAOS. The CATs and FAOS were responsive to changes with operative treatment for 6 common foot and ankle pathologies. The CATs performed as well as or better than the FAOS in all aspects of psychometric validity. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System CATs show tremendous potential for improving the study of patient

  14. Clinical outcome of patients with self-inflicted burns. (United States)

    Cornet, P A; Niemeijer, A S; Figaroa, G D; van Daalen, M A; Broersma, T W; van Baar, M E; Beerthuizen, G I J M; Nieuwenhuis, M K


    Patients with self-inflicted burns (SIB) are thought to have a longer length of stay compared to patients with accidental burns. However, other predictors for a longer length of stay are often not taken into account, e.g. percentage of the body surface area burned, age or comorbidities. Therefore, we wanted to study the outcome of patients with SIB at our burn center. A retrospective, observational study was conducted. All adult patients with acute burns admitted to the burn center of the Martini Hospital Groningen, between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013 were included. Data on characteristics of the patient, injury, and outcome (LOS, mortality, discharge destination) were collected. In patients with SIB, suicide attempts (SA) were distinguished from self-harm without the intention to die (non-suicidal self-injury, NSSI). To evaluate differences in outcome, each patient with SIB was matched on variables and total score of the Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI) to a patient with accidental burns (AB). In total 29 admissions (21 SA and 8 NSSI) were due to SIB and 528 due to accidents. Overall, when compared to AB, there were significant differences with respect to mortality and LOS for SA and/or NSSI. Mortality was higher in the SA group, while the LOS was higher in both the SA and NSSI groups compared to the AB group. However, after matching on ABSI, no statistical significant differences between the SA and SA-match or the NSSI and NSSI-match group were found. With the right and timely treatment, differences in mortality rate or length of stay in hospital could all be explained by the severity of the burn and the intention of the patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. Using patient-reported outcomes in schizophrenia: the Scottish Schizophrenia Outcomes Study. (United States)

    Hunter, Robert; Cameron, Rosie; Norrie, John


    The primary aim of the Scottish Schizophrenia Outcomes Study (SSOS) was to assess the feasibility and utility of routinely collecting outcome data in everyday clinical settings. Data were collected over three years in the Scottish National Health Service (NHS). There were two secondary aims of SSOS: first, to compare data from patient-rated, objective, and clinician-rated outcomes, and second, to describe trends in outcome data and service use across Scotland over the three years of the study (2002-2005). This study used a naturalistic, longitudinal, observational cohort design. A representative sample of 1,015 persons with ICD-10 F20-F29 diagnoses (schizophrenia, schizotypal disorders, or delusional disorders) was assessed annually using the clinician-rated measure, the Health of the Nation Outcome Scale (HoNOS), and the patient-reported assessment, the Avon Mental Health Measure (Avon). Objective outcomes data and information on services and interventions were collected. Data were analyzed with regression modeling. Of the 1,015 persons recruited, 78% of the cohort (N=789) completed the study. Over the study period, significant decreases were seen in the number of hospitalizations, incidence of attempted suicide and self-harm, and civil detentions. Avon scores indicated significant improvement on all subscales (behavior, social, access, and mental health) and on the total score. However, HoNOS scores on the behavior and symptom subscales did not change, scores on the impairment subscale increased significantly (indicating increased levels of impairment), and scores on the social subscale decreased significantly (indicating improved social functioning). This study has demonstrated that it is feasible within the Scottish NHS to routinely collect meaningful outcomes data in schizophrenia. Patient-reported assessments were also successfully collected and used in care plans. This model shows that it is possible to incorporate patient-reported assessments into routine

  16. The Relationships Between Doctor-Patient Affectionate Communication and Patient Perceptions and Outcomes. (United States)

    Hesse, Colin; Rauscher, Emily A


    The current article combines the literature on doctor-patient communication and affectionate communication. Using Affection Exchange Theory (AET), the study predicts that the need for affection and the benefits of affectionate communication translate to the doctor-patient setting, proposing a series of relationships from both perceived doctor affectionate communication and affection deprivation to several patient outcome variables (patient perception of the doctor, patient communication with the doctor, and patient satisfaction/adherence). The results strongly supported the predictions for both affectionate communication and affection deprivation, with affectionate communication positively relating to most outcome measures and affection deprivation negatively relating to most outcome measures. Affection deprivation served as a moderator for the relationship between provider competence and patient satisfaction, although affectionate communication moderated the relationship between provider competence and patient adherence. Implications and possible directions for future research are discussed.

  17. Effects of Screening for Psychological Distress on Patient Outcomes in Cancer: a Systematic Review (United States)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.


    Objective Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identified as distressed; and (2) effects of screening for distress on distress outcomes. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases were searched through April 6, 2011 with manual searches of 45 relevant journals, reference list review, citation tracking of included articles, and trial registry reviews through June 30, 2012. Articles in any language on cancer patients were included if they (1) compared treatment for patients with psychological distress to placebo or usual care in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); or (2) assessed the effect of screening on psychological distress in a RCT. Results There were 14 eligible RCTs for treatment of distress, and 1 RCT on the effects of screening on patient distress. Pharmacological, psychotherapy and collaborative care interventions generally reduced distress with small to moderate effects. One study investigated effects of screening for distress on psychological outcomes, and it found no improvement. Conclusion Treatment studies reported modest improvement in distress symptoms, but only a single eligible study was found on the effects of screening cancer patients for distress, and distress did not improve in screened patients versus those receiving usual care. Because of the lack of evidence of beneficial effects of screening cancer patients for distress, it is premature to recommend or mandate implementation of routine screening. PMID:23751231

  18. Multidisciplinary in-hospital teams improve patient outcomes: A review. (United States)

    Epstein, Nancy E


    The use of multidisciplinary in-hospital teams limits adverse events (AE), improves outcomes, and adds to patient and employee satisfaction. Acting like "well-oiled machines," multidisciplinary in-hospital teams include "staff" from different levels of the treatment pyramid (e.g. staff including nurses' aids, surgical technicians, nurses, anesthesiologists, attending physicians, and others). Their enhanced teamwork counters the "silo effect" by enhancing communication between the different levels of healthcare workers and thus reduces AE (e.g. morbidity/mortality) while improving patient and healthcare worker satisfaction. Multiple articles across diverse disciplines incorporate a variety of concepts of "teamwork" for staff covering emergency rooms (ERs), hospital wards, intensive care units (ICUs), and most critically, operating rooms (ORs). Cohesive teamwork improved communication between different levels of healthcare workers, and limited adverse events, improved outcomes, decreased the length of stay (LOS), and yielded greater patient "staff" satisfaction. Within hospitals, delivering the best medical/surgical care is a "team sport." The goals include: Maximizing patient safety (e.g. limiting AE) and satisfaction, decreasing the LOS, and increasing the quality of outcomes. Added benefits include optimizing healthcare workers' performance, reducing hospital costs/complications, and increasing job satisfaction. This review should remind hospital administrators of the critical need to keep multidisciplinary teams together, so that they can continue to operate their "well-oiled machines" enhancing the quality/safety of patient care, while enabling "staff" to optimize their performance and enhance their job satisfaction.

  19. Early rehabilitation outcome in patients with middle cerebral artery stroke. (United States)

    Balaban, Birol; Tok, Fatih; Yavuz, Ferdi; Yaşar, Evren; Alaca, Rıdvan


    Although important data on the prognosis and rehabilitation outcome in stroke patients have been reported, data on functional recovery according to stroke subtypes are limited. This retrospective study aimed to evaluate functional outcome in patients with middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke-the most common subtype of ischemic stroke. The records of stroke patients that underwent the rehabilitation program at our brain injury rehabilitation service between January 2007 and December 2008 were reviewed, and those with MCA stroke were included in the study. Patient demographic and clinical data, and Barthel Index (BI) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores at admission and discharge were collected. The study included 80 MCA stroke patients with a mean age of 63.54 years. FIM and BI scores improved significantly post rehabilitation (Prehabilitation had similar outcomes as those that had >1 month of inpatient rehabilitation (P>0.05). Length of time after stroke onset was not correlated with BI or FIM scores at admission. Regardless of initial functional status, prediction of discharge functional status was misleading. Physiatrists should keep in mind that functional improvement does not always increase with duration of inpatient therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical Presentation and Outcome of Patients With Optic Pathway Glioma. (United States)

    Robert-Boire, Viviane; Rosca, Lorena; Samson, Yvan; Ospina, Luis H; Perreault, Sébastien


    Optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) occur sporadically or in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical presentation at diagnosis and at progression of patients with OPGs. We conducted a chart review of patients with OPGs diagnosed in a single center over a period of 15 years. Demographic data including age, sex, NF1 status, clinical presentation, and outcome were collected. Of the 40 patients who were identified, 23 had sporadic tumors (57.5%) and 17 had NF1-related tumors (42.5%). Among the children with NF1, there was a significant overrepresentation of girls (82.3%) (P = 0.02), while among the children without NF1, there were slightly more boys (56.5%) than girls (43.5%). The presence of nystagmus was strongly associated with sporadic optic pathway gliomas. Poor visual outcome was related to tumor affecting both optic pathways, hydrocephalus at diagnosis, and optic nerve atrophy. Of the 40 patients, five died of OPG complications (12.5%) and all had sporadic tumors. Our cohort is one of the largest with OPGs and a detailed description of the clinical presentation both at diagnosis and at progression. We observed a significant difference between sporadic and NF1 optic pathway gliomas in terms of demographics, clinical presentation, and outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Diagnostic issues, clinical characteristics, and outcomes for patients with fungemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Sulim, Sofia; Holm, Anette


    This study investigated microbiological, clinical, and management issues and outcomes for Danish fungemia patients. Isolates and clinical information were collected at six centers. A total of 334 isolates, 316 episodes, and 305 patients were included, corresponding to 2/3 of the national episodes...... needed longer incubation. Species distribution varied by age, prior antifungal treatment (57% occurrence of C. glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or C. krusei in patients with prior antifungal treatment versus 28% occurrence in those without it; P = 0.007), and clinical specialty (61% occurrence of C...

  2. Diagnostic Issues, Clinical Characteristics, and Outcomes for Patients with Fungemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Sulim, Sofia; Holm, Anette


    This study investigated microbiological, clinical, and management issues and outcomes for Danish fungemia patients. Isolates and clinical information were collected at six centers. A total of 334 isolates, 316 episodes, and 305 patients were included, corresponding to 2/3 of the national episodes...... needed longer incubation. Species distribution varied by age, prior antifungal treatment (57% occurrence of C. glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or C. krusei in patients with prior antifungal treatment versus 28% occurrence in those without it; P = 0.007), and clinical specialty (61% occurrence of C...

  3. Effect of prehospital ultrasound on clinical outcomes of non-trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Søren Steemann; Sørensen, Martin Kryspin; Svane, Christian


    BACKGROUND: Advances in technology have made prehospital ultrasound (US) examination available. Whether US in the prehospital setting can lead to improvement in clinical outcomes is yet unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to assess whether prehospital US improves clinical...... studies for additional relevant studies. We then performed a risk of bias analysis and descriptive data analysis. RESULTS: We identified 1707 unique citations and included ten studies with a total of 1068 patients undergoing prehospital US examination. Included publications ranged from case series to non...... studies were of large heterogeneity and all showed a high risk of bias. We were thus unable to assess the effect of prehospital US on clinical outcomes. However, consistent reports suggested that US may improve patient management with respect to diagnosis, treatment, and hospital referral....

  4. Clinical relevancy and determinants of potential drug–drug interactions in chronic kidney disease patients: results from a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleem A


    Full Text Available Ahsan Saleem,1,2 Imran Masood,1 Tahir Mehmood Khan3 1Department of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan; 2Pharmacy Services Department, Integrated Medical Center, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan; 3School of Pharmacy, Monash University, Sunway Campus, Selangor, Malaysia Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD alters the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses of various renally excreted drugs and increases the risk of drug-related problems, such as drug–drug interactions.Objectives: To assess the pattern, determinants, and clinical relevancy of potential drug–drug interactions (pDDIs in CKD patients.Materials and methods: This study retrospectively reviewed medical charts of all CKD patients admitted in the nephrology unit of a tertiary care hospital in Pakistan from January 2013 to December 2014. The Micromedex Drug-Reax® system was used to screen patient profiles for pDDIs, and IBM SPSS version 20 was used to carry out statistical analysis.Results: We evaluated 209 medical charts and found pDDIs in nearly 78.5% CKD patients. Overall, 541 pDDIs were observed, of which, nearly 60.8% patients had moderate, 41.1% had minor, 27.8% had major, and 13.4% had contraindicated interactions. Among those interactions, 49.4% had good evidence, 44.0% had fair, 6.3% had excellent evidence, and 35.5% interactions had delayed onset of action. The potential adverse outcomes of pDDIs included postural hypotension, QT prolongation, ceftriaxone–calcium precipitation, cardiac arrhythmias, and reduction in therapeutic effectiveness. The occurrence of pDDIs was found strongly associated with the age of <60 years, number of prescribed medicines ≥5, hypertension, and the lengthy hospitalization of patients.Conclusion: The occurrence of pDDIs was high in CKD patients. It was observed that CKD patients with an older age, higher number of prescribed medicines, lengthy hospitalization, and hypertension were at

  5. Relevance of quality of life assessment for multiple sclerosis patients with memory impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Baumstarck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Memory disturbances, in particular episodic verbal memory dysfunction, are the most frequent cognitive impairment observed in multiple sclerosis (MS patients. The use of self-reported outcomes for evaluating treatment and managing care of these subjects has been questioned. The aim of this study was to provide new evidence about the suitability of self-reported outcomes for use in this impaired population by exploring the internal structure, reliability and external validity of a specific quality of life (QoL instrument, the Multiple Sclerosis International Quality of Life questionnaire (MusiQoL. METHODS: DESIGN: cross-sectional study. INCLUSION CRITERIA: MS patients of any disease subtype. DATA COLLECTION: sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, education level, and occupational activity and clinical data (MS subtype, Expanded Disability Status Scale, disease duration; QoL (MusiQoL and SF36; and memory performance (Grober and Buschke test. In accordance with the French norms of the memory test, non-impaired and impaired populations were defined for short- and long-delay free composites and for short- and long-delay total composites. For the 8 populations, psychometric properties were compared to those reported from the reference population assessed in the validation study. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: One hundred and twenty-four consecutive patients were enrolled. The analysis performed in the impaired populations showed that the questionnaire structure adequately matched the initial structure of the MusiQoL. The unidimensionality of the dimensions was preserved, and the internal/external validity indices were close to those of the reference population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that memory dysfunction did not compromise the reliability or validity of the self-reported QoL questionnaires.

  6. Proceedings of Patient Reported Outcome Measure’s (PROMs) Conference Oxford 2017: Advances in Patient Reported Outcomes Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikova, Galina; Valderas, Jose M.; Potter, Caroline; Batchelder, Laurie; A’Court, Christine; Baker, Matthew; Bostock, Jennifer; Coulter, Angela; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Forder, Julien; Fox, Diane; Geneen, Louise; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Jenkinson, Crispin; Jones, Karen; Kelly, Laura; Peters, Michele; Mulhern, Brendan; Labeit, Alexander; Rowen, Donna; Meadows, Keith; Elliott, Jackie; Brazier, John E.; Knowles, Emma; Keetharuth, Anju; Brazier, John E.; Connell, Janice; Carlton, Jill; Buck, Lizzie Taylor; Ricketts, Thomas; Barkham, Michael; Goswami, Pushpendra; Salek, Sam; Ionova, Tatyana; Oliva, Esther; Fielding, Adele K.; Karakantza, Marina; Al-Ismail, Saad; Collins, Graham P.; McConnell, Stewart; Langton, Catherine; Jennings, Daniel M.; Else, Roger; Kell, Jonathan; Ward, Helen; Day, Sophie; Lumley, Elizabeth; Phillips, Patrick; Duncan, Rosie; Buckley-Woods, Helen; Aber, Ahmed; Jones, Gerogina; Michaels, Jonathan; Porter, Ian; Gangannagaripalli, Jaheeda; Davey, Antoinette; Ricci-Cabello, Ignacio; Haywood, Kirstie; Hansen, Stine Thestrup; Valderas, Jose; Roberts, Deb; Gumber, Anil; Podmore, Bélène; Hutchings, Andrew; van der Meulen, Jan; Aggarwal, Ajay; Konan, Sujith; Price, Andrew; Jackson, William; Bottomley, Nick; Philiips, Michael; Knightley-Day, Toby; Beard, David; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Greenhalgh, Joanne; Gooding, Kate; Gibbons, Elizabeth; Valderas, Chema; Wright, Judy; Dalkin, Sonia; Meads, David; Black, Nick; Fawkes, Carol; Froud, Robert; Carnes, Dawn; Price, Andrew; Cook, Jonathan; Dakin, Helen; Smith, James; Kang, Sujin; Beard, David; Griffiths, Catrin; Guest, Ella; Harcourt, Diana; Murphy, Mairead; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Salisbury, Chris; Carlton, Jill; Elliott, Jackie; Rowen, Donna; Gao, Anqi; Price, Andrew; Beard, David; Lemanska, Agnieszka; Chen, Tao; Dearnaley, David P.; Jena, Rajesh; Sydes, Matthew; Faithfull, Sara; Ades, A. E.; Kounali, Daphne; Lu, Guobing; Rombach, Ines; Gray, Alastair; Jenkinson, Crispin; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Holch, Patricia; Holmes, Marie; Rodgers, Zoe; Dickinson, Sarah; Clayton, Beverly; Davidson, Susan; Routledge, Jacqui; Glennon, Julia; Henry, Ann M.; Franks, Kevin; Velikova, Galina; Maguire, Roma; McCann, Lisa; Young, Teresa; Armes, Jo; Harris, Jenny; Miaskowski, Christine; Kotronoulas, Grigorios; Miller, Morven; Ream, Emma; Patiraki, Elizabeth; Geiger, Alexander; Berg, Geir V.; Flowerday, Adrian; Donnan, Peter; McCrone, Paul; Apostolidis, Kathi; Fox, Patricia; Furlong, Eileen; Kearney, Nora; Gibbons, Chris; Fischer, Felix; Gibbons, Chris; Coste, Joel; Martinez, Jose Valderas; Rose, Matthias; Leplege, Alain; Shingler, Sarah; Aldhouse, Natalie; Al-Zubeidi, Tamara; Trigg, Andrew; Kitchen, Helen; Davey, Antoinette; Porter, Ian; Green, Colin; Valderas, Jose M.; Coast, Joanna; Smith, Sarah; Hendriks, Jolijn; Black, Nick; Shah, Koonal; Rivero-Arias, Oliver; Ramos-Goni, Juan-Manuel; Kreimeier, Simone; Herdman, Mike; Devlin, Nancy; Finch, Aureliano Paolo; Brazier, John E.; Mukuria, Clara; Zamora, Bernarda; Parkin, David; Feng, Yan; Bateman, Andrew; Herdman, Mike; Devlin, Nancy; Patton, Thomas; Gutacker, Nils; Shah, Koonal


    The proceedings contain 36 papers. The topics discussed include: using patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) in cancer care; validation of the long-term conditions questionnaire (LTCQ) in a diverse sample of health and social care users in England; the national institutes of health

  7. Measuring patients' perceptions of the outcomes of treatment for early prostate cancer. (United States)

    Clark, Jack A; Bokhour, Barbara G; Inui, Thomas S; Silliman, Rebecca A; Talcott, James A


    Compared with careful attention to the physical (eg, urinary, bowel, sexual) dysfunction that may follow treatment, little attention has been given to the behavioral, emotional, and interpersonal changes that the diagnosis of early prostate cancer and subsequent physical dysfunction may bring. To construct patient-centered measures of the outcomes of treatment for early prostate cancer. Qualitative study followed by survey of early prostate cancer patients and group of comparable patients with no history of prostate cancer. Analysis of focus groups identified relevant domains of quality of life, which were represented by Likert scale items included in survey questionnaires. Psychometric analyses of survey data defined scales evaluated with respect to internal consistency and validity. Qualitative analysis identified three domains: urinary control, sexuality, and uncertainty about the cancer and its treatment. Psychometric analysis defined 11 scales. Seven were generically relevant to most older men: urinary control (eg, embarrassment with leakage), sexual intimacy (eg, anxiety about completing intercourse), sexual confidence (eg, comfort with sexuality), marital affection (eg, emotional distance from spouse/partner), masculine self esteem (eg, feeling oneself a whole man), health worry (eg, apprehensiveness about health changes), and PSA concern (eg, closely attending to one's PSA). Four scales were specific to the treatment experience: perceived cancer control, quality of treatment decision making, regret of treatment choice, and cancer-related outlook. The scales provide definition and metrics for patient-centered research in this area. They complement measures of physical dysfunction and bring into resolution outcomes of treatment that have gone unnoticed in previous studies.

  8. Methods for interpreting change over time in patient-reported outcome measures. (United States)

    Wyrwich, K W; Norquist, J M; Lenderking, W R; Acaster, S


    Interpretation guidelines are needed for patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures' change scores to evaluate efficacy of an intervention and to communicate PRO results to regulators, patients, physicians, and providers. The 2009 Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Guidance for Industry Patient-Reported Outcomes (PRO) Measures: Use in Medical Product Development to Support Labeling Claims (hereafter referred to as the final FDA PRO Guidance) provides some recommendations for the interpretation of change in PRO scores as evidence of treatment efficacy. This article reviews the evolution of the methods and the terminology used to describe and aid in the communication of meaningful PRO change score thresholds. Anchor- and distribution-based methods have played important roles, and the FDA has recently stressed the importance of cross-sectional patient global assessments of concept as anchor-based methods for estimation of the responder definition, which describes an individual-level treatment benefit. The final FDA PRO Guidance proposes the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of responses as a useful method to depict the effect of treatments across the study population. While CDFs serve an important role, they should not be a replacement for the careful investigation of a PRO's relevant responder definition using anchor-based methods and providing stakeholders with a relevant threshold for the interpretation of change over time.

  9. Long-term Outcome of Patients With Undiagnosed Pleural Effusion. (United States)

    Gunluoglu, Gulsah; Olcmen, Aysun; Gunluoglu, Mehmet Zeki; Dincer, Ibrahim; Sayar, Adnan; Camsari, Gungor; Yilmaz, Veysel; Altin, Sedat


    The cause of exudative pleural effusion cannot be determined in some patients. The longterm outcomes of patients with undiagnosed pleural effusion were analyzed. Patients with exudative pleural effusion whose diagnostic procedures included pleural biopsy using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery carried out between 2008 and 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. Patients diagnosed with non-specific pleuritis were included. Fifty-three patients with available follow-up data were included in the study. Forty men and 13 women (mean age 53.9±13.9 years) were included. Median follow-up time was 24 months. No diagnosis was given in 27 patients (51%), and a clinical diagnosis was given in 26 patients (49%) during the follow-up period. Malignant disease (malignant mesothelioma) was diagnosed in 2 (3.7%) patients. Other diseases were parapneumonic effusion in 12, congestive heart failure in 8, and miscellaneous in 4 patients. Volume of effusion at the time of initial examination and re-accumulation of fluid after video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery were associated with malignant disease (P=.004 and .0001, respectively). Although the probability is low, some patients with exudative pleural effusion undiagnosed after pleural biopsy via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery may have malignant disease. Patients with an initially large volume of effusion that re-accumulates after examination should be closely monitored. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Determinants of outcomes in patients with simple gastroschisis. (United States)

    Youssef, Fouad; Laberge, Jean-Martin; Puligandla, Pramod; Emil, Sherif


    We analyzed the determinants of outcomes in simple gastroschisis (GS) not complicated by intestinal atresia, perforation, or necrosis. All simple GS patients enrolled in a national prospective registry from 2005 to 2013 were studied. Patients below the median for total parenteral nutrition (TPN) duration (26days) and hospital stay (34days) were compared to those above. Univariate and multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were employed using maternal, patient, postnatal, and treatment variables. Of 700 patients with simple GS, representing 76.8% of all GS patients, 690 (98.6%) survived. TPN was used in 352 (51.6%) and 330 (48.4%) patients for ≤26 and >26days, respectively. Hospital stay for 356 (51.9%) and 330 (48.1%) infants was ≤34 and >34days, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences in several patient, treatment, and postnatal factors. On multivariate analysis, prenatal sonographic bowel dilation, older age at closure, necrotizing enterocolitis, longer mechanical ventilation, and central-line associated blood stream infection (CLABSI) were independently associated with longer TPN duration and hospital stay, with CLABSI being the strongest predictor. Prenatal bowel dilation is associated with increased morbidity in simple GS. CLABSI is the strongest predictor of outcomes. Bowel matting is not an independent risk factor. 2c. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidemiology and outcome in patients of diabetic foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.N.; Rehman, K.U.; Malik, K.I.; Iqbal, G.S.


    Background: The aim of study was detailed analysis of the presentation of diabetic foot ulcers, characteristics and predictors of outcome (incidence of amputation in neuropathic, ischemic, neuro ischemic) in patients presenting with diabetic foot at our hospital. Methods: This prospective analytic study was conducted from January 2009-August 2010 at POF Hospital Wah Cantt. Diabetic patients who presented with foot ulcers were enrolled in this study. Demographics of patients along with ulcer size, type, site and Grade according to Wagner Classification were recorded. Wounds were managed with daily dressings, nursing care and de-sloughing of necrotic tissue along with appropriate antibiotic cover. Patients were followed over period until wound healed completely or a lower limb amputation performed, the outcome noted and patient was deemed to have completed study. Results: One hundred and fifteen patients with mean age 55.46 +- 8.23 years, both male and female were included in this study. Out of 115 patients 111 patients had Type-II diabetes while only 4 presented with Type-I. Mean Duration of diabetes was 14.61 +- 2.17 years. With respect to underlying causes 18.3% foot ulcers were ischemic, 22.6% were neuropathic and 59% were neuro-ischemic. Median ulcer size was 74% of ulcer classified as Wagner grade-II and III while 24% were of Grade-V. Lower limb amputation were performed in 25% of patients whereas limb salvage achieved in 75% of patients with wounds healed (median healing time 5 (3-10 weeks). Conclusion: Preservation of the limb function without endangering the patient must be a goal of treating diabetic foot. Once foot amputation is successful, rehabilitation with orthotic or prosthetic devices may allow years of a functional extremity along with preventive measures like cessation of smoking, daily foot hygiene and foot inspection. (author)

  12. Outcomes of decompressive craniectomy in patients after traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Nambiar, Mithun; MacIsaac, Christopher; Grabinski, Rafal; Liew, Danny; Kavar, Bhadrakant


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can result in cerebral oedema and vascular changes resulting in an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP), which can lead to further secondary damage. Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a surgical option in the management of ICP. We aimed to investigate outcomes of DC after TBI. We performed a retrospective audit of 57 adult patients (aged > 15 years) who underwent DC after TBI, at the Royal Melbourne Hospital from 1 January 2005 to 30 June 2011. Our functional outcome measure was the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOSE). Patients had a median age of 30 years (range, 17- 73 years). The hospital mortality rate was 47% (27 patients). A higher postoperative median ICP was the most significant predictor of hospital mortality (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1-1.3). There was a mean decrease of 7.7mmHg in ICP between the mean preoperative and postoperative ICP values (95% CI, - 10.5 to - 5.0mmHg). There was a mean decrease of 3.5mmHg in the mean cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) from preoperative to postoperative CPP values (95% CI, - 6.2 to - 0.8mmHg). At the 6-month follow-up, a poor outcome (GOSE score, 1-4) was seen in 39 patients (68%), while a good outcome (GOSE score, 5- 8) was noted in 15 patients (26%). A high APACHE II score on admission was the most significant predictor of a worse GOSE score at 6 months (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5). Analysis of the APACHE II and IMPACT scores as models for predicting mortality at 6 months showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.792 and 0.805, respectively, and for predicting poor outcome at 6 months, showed an AUC of 0.862 and 0.883, respectively. DC decreased ICP postoperatively. The IMPACT and APACHE II scores are good models for prediction of death and poor outcome at 6 months.

  13. Palbociclib has no clinically relevant effect on the QTc interval in patients with advanced breast cancer. (United States)

    Durairaj, Chandrasekar; Ruiz-Garcia, Ana; Gauthier, Eric R; Huang, Xin; Lu, Dongrui R; Hoffman, Justin T; Finn, Richard S; Joy, Anil A; Ettl, Johannes; Rugo, Hope S; Zheng, Jenny; Wilner, Keith D; Wang, Diane D


    The aim of this study was to assess the potential effects of palbociclib in combination with letrozole on QTc. PALOMA-2, a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, compared palbociclib plus letrozole with placebo plus letrozole in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer. The study included a QTc evaluation substudy carried out as a definitive QT interval prolongation assessment for palbociclib. Time-matched triplicate ECGs were performed at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h at baseline (Day 0) and on Cycle 1 Day 14. Additional ECGs were collected from all patients for safety monitoring. The QT interval was corrected for heart rate using Fridericia's correction (QTcF), Bazett's correction (QTcB), and a study-specific correction factor (QTcS). In total, 666 patients were randomized 2 : 1 to palbociclib plus letrozole or placebo plus letrozole. Of these, 125 patients were enrolled in the QTc evaluation substudy. No patients in the palbociclib plus letrozole arm of the substudy (N=77) had a maximum postbaseline QTcS or QTcF value of ≥ 480 ms, or a maximum increase from clock time-matched baseline for QTcS or QTcF values of ≥ 60 ms. The upper bounds of the one-sided 95% confidence interval for the mean change from time-matched baseline for QTcS, QTcF, and QTcB at all time points and at steady-state Cmax following repeated administration of 125 mg palbociclib were less than 10 ms. Palbociclib, when administered with letrozole at the recommended therapeutic dosing regimen, did not prolong the QT interval to a clinically relevant extent.

  14. Motivation factors for suicidal behavior and their clinical relevance in admitted psychiatric patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Hayashi

    Full Text Available Suicidal behavior (SB is a major, worldwide health concern. To date there is limited understanding of the associated motivational aspects which accompany this self-initiated conduct.To develop a method for identifying motivational features associated with SB by studying admitted psychiatric patients, and to examine their clinical relevance.By performing a factor analytic study using data obtained from a patient sample exhibiting high suicidality and a variety of SB methods, Motivations for SB Scale (MSBS was constructed to measure the features. Data included assessments of DSM-IV psychiatric and personality disorders, suicide intent, depressive symptomatology, overt aggression, recent life events (RLEs and methods of SB, collated from structured interviews. Association of identified features with clinical variables was examined by correlation analyses and MANCOVA.Factor analyses elicited a 4-factor solution composed of Interpersonal-testing (IT, Interpersonal-change (IC, Self-renunciation (SR and Self-sustenance (SS. These factors were classified according to two distinctions, namely interpersonal vs. intra-personal directedness, and the level of assumed influence by SB or the relationship to prevailing emotions. Analyses revealed meaningful links between patient features and clinical variables. Interpersonal-motivations (IT and IC were associated with overt aggression, low suicidality and RLE discord or conflict, while SR was associated with depression, high suicidality and RLE separation or death. Borderline personality disorder showed association with IC and SS. When self-strangulation was set as a reference SB method, self-cutting and overdose-taking were linked to IT and SS, respectively.The factors extracted in this study largely corresponded to factors from previous studies, implying that they may be useful in a wider clinical context. The association of these features with SB-related factors suggests that they constitute an integral part

  15. [Improving care for cleft lip and palate patients: uniform and patient-orientated outcome measures]. (United States)

    Haj, M; de Gier, H H W; van Veen-van der Hoek, M; Versnel, S L; van Adrichem, L N; Wolvius, E B; Hazelzet, J A; Koudstaal, M J


    The quality of care for patients with cleft lip and palate is extremely variable across the world. Treatment protocols differ and methods of data registration are not uniform. Improving this care by means of comparative research is challenging. The best treatment programmes can be identified by uniformly registering patient-orientated outcomes and comparing the outcomes with those of other treatment centres. That knowledge can be used to improve one's own care. An international team consisting of specialists and cleft lip and palate patients has developed a set of outcome measures that are considered by patients to be most important. This team is coordinated by the International Consortium of Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM). The cleft lip and palate outcome set can be used by all centres worldwide in following up on cleft lip and palate patients. In the Erasmus Medical Centre in Rotterdam, the 'Zorgmonitor Schisis' (Care Monitor Cleft Lip and Palate) has been built, an application in which these outcome measures are collected at fixed times. Implementing this set of outcome measures in other cleft lip and palate treatment centres and using the outcomes as (inter)national benchmarks will result in transparency and the improvement of the treatment of cleft lip and palate worldwide.

  16. Measurement properties of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMS) in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: a systematic review. (United States)

    Green, Andrew; Liles, Clive; Rushton, Alison; Kyte, Derek G


    This systematic review investigated the measurement properties of disease-specific patient-reported outcome measures used in Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome. Two independent reviewers conducted a systematic search of key databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, CINHAL+ and the Cochrane Library from inception to August 2013) to identify relevant studies. A third reviewer mediated in the event of disagreement. Methodological quality was evaluated using the validated COSMIN (Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments) tool. Data synthesis across studies determined the level of evidence for each patient-reported outcome measure. The search strategy returned 2177 citations. Following the eligibility review phase, seven studies, evaluating twelve different patient-reported outcome measures, met inclusion criteria. A 'moderate' level of evidence supported the structural validity of several measures: the Flandry Questionnaire, Anterior Knee Pain Scale, Functional Index Questionnaire, Eng and Pierrynowski Questionnaire and Visual Analogue Scales for 'usual' and 'worst' pain. In addition, there was a 'Limited' level of evidence supporting the test-retest reliability and validity (cross-cultural, hypothesis testing) of the Persian version of the Anterior Knee Pain Scale. Other measurement properties were evaluated with poor methodological quality, and many properties were not evaluated in any of the included papers. Current disease-specific outcome measures for Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome require further investigation. Future studies should evaluate all important measurement properties, utilising an appropriate framework such as COSMIN to guide study design, to facilitate optimal methodological quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Teamwork, organizational learning, patient safety and job outcomes. (United States)

    Goh, Swee C; Chan, Christopher; Kuziemsky, Craig


    This article aims to encourage healthcare administrators to consider the learning organization concept and foster collaborative learning among teams in their attempt to improve patient safety. Relevant healthcare, organizational behavior and human resource management literature was reviewed. A patient safety culture, fostered by healthcare leaders, should include an organizational culture that encourages collaborative learning, replaces the blame culture, prioritizes patient safety and rewards individuals who identify serious mistakes. As healthcare institution staffs are being asked to deliver more complex medical services with fewer resources, there is a need to understand how hospital staff can learn from other organizational settings, especially the non-healthcare sectors. The paper provides suggestions for improving patient safety which are drawn from the health and business management literature.

  18. Inpatient rehabilitation outcomes of patients with apraxia after stroke. (United States)

    Wu, Andy J; Burgard, Emily; Radel, Jeff


    Stroke-induced paresis commands much attention during rehabilitation; other stroke-related consequences receive less consideration. Apraxia is a stroke disorder that may have important implications for rehabilitation and recovery. To investigate association of apraxia with stroke rehabilitation outcomes during inpatient rehabilitation. This cohort study compared patients with and without apraxia after a first left hemispheric stroke. All study patients received standard of care. Clinical measures were the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and the upper extremity section of the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) administered upon admission and at discharge. Length of stay was also documented. Florida Apraxia Battery subtests were used to classify patients with apraxia. Fifteen patients were included in this study, 10 of whom had apraxia. Data analysis revealed that patients with apraxia exhibited improvement from admission to discharge in clinical measures; however, admission FIM score was significantly lower compared to patients without apraxia. There was no statistically significant difference between groups on FMA score, length of stay, or amount of change on clinical measures. This study of acute patients found those with apraxia to be significantly less independent upon admission to inpatient rehabilitation compared to patients without apraxia. Although both groups improved a similar amount during rehabilitation, patients with apraxia discharged at a level of independence comparable to patients without apraxia upon admission. Such disparity in independence is of concern, and apraxia as a factor in stroke rehabilitation and recovery deserves further attention.

  19. Factors affecting intellectual outcome in pediatric brain tumor patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellenberg, L.; McComb, J.G.; Siegel, S.E.; Stowe, S.


    A prospective study utilizing repeated intellectual testing was undertaken in 73 children with brain tumors consecutively admitted to Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles over a 3-year period to determine the effect of tumor location, extent of surgical resection, hydrocephalus, age of the child, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy on cognitive outcome. Forty-three patients were followed for at least two sequential intellectual assessments and provide the data for this study. Children with hemispheric tumors had the most general cognitive impairment. The degree of tumor resection, adequately treated hydrocephalus, and chemotherapy had no bearing on intellectual outcome. Age of the child affected outcome mainly as it related to radiation. Whole brain radiation therapy was associated with cognitive decline. This was especially true in children below 7 years of age, who experienced a very significant loss of function after whole brain radiation therapy

  20. Patient-reported outcome measures in arthroplasty registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfson, Ola; Eresian Chenok, Kate; Bohm, Eric


    survey (SF-12) or the similar Veterans RAND 12-item health survey (VR-12). The most common specific PROMs were the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), the Oxford Hip Score (OHS), the Oxford Knee Score (OKS), the Western Ontario...... of PROMs for hip and knee arthroplasty in registries worldwide. The 2 main types of PROMs include generic (general health) PROMs, which provide a measure of general health for any health state, and specific PROMs, which focus on specific symptoms, diseases, organs, body regions, or body functions...... all elective hip or knee arthroplasty patients and 6 registries collected PROMs for sample populations; 1 other registry had planned but had not started collection of PROMs. The most common generic instruments used were the EuroQol 5 dimension health outcome survey (EQ-5D) and the Short Form 12 health...

  1. Clinical relevance of hemoglobin level in cervical cancer patients administered definitive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkies, Krystyna; Badzio, Andrzej; Jassem, Jacek


    The prognostic impact of pretreatment hemoglobin (Hb) level and its changes during definitive radiotherapy was evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis in the group of 453 FIGO IB-IIIB cervical cancer patients. Pretreatment anemia (Hb 12 g/dl; p∼0.001). Baseline Hb =12 g/dl was also associated with longer disease-free survival and improved local control. Declining Hb level during radiotherapy predicted for impaired 5-year disease-free survival and local control probability. In multivariate analysis, low pretreatment Hb level remained associated with worse overall and disease-free survival, whereas adverse impact of declining Hb level on outcome was not observed. With regard to other clinical factors, stage and tumor extension (uni- or bilateral parametrium involvement for Stage III) were the only independent determinants of prognosis

  2. Clinical outcome in measles patients hospitalized with complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, A.U.; Saeed, T.


    Measles is a highly communicable viral illness and is common cause of childhood mortality and morbidity. Keeping in view the high prevalence of measles in the developing world, we carried out this study to look into the complicated measles cases and clinical outcome in patients admitted in children ward of Ayub Teaching Hospital. Detailed history and physical examination of all the hospitalized patients with complication of measles were recorded in a proforma. Immunization and nutritional status of each admitted patient was assessed and the clinical outcome of measles was compared with demographic profile. one hundred thirty six hospitalized patients with complications of measles were studied. There was 60.3% male and 57.3% of patients were vaccinated against measles. Malnourished patients were 71.35% and had longer hospital stay (>5 days). Pneumonia (39.7%) and diarrhoea (38.2%) were the commonest complications. Seven children died and encephalitis (57.1%) was the commonest cause of death. The most common complications of measles are pneumonia and diarrhoea with dehydration requiring admission. Malnutrition results in more complications and longer hospital stay. Mortality is significantly associated with encephalitis. (author)

  3. Rib fractures in trauma patients: does operative fixation improve outcome? (United States)

    Majak, Peter; Næss, Pål A


    Renewed interest in surgical fixation of rib fractures has emerged. However, conservative treatment is still preferred at most surgical departments. We wanted to evaluate whether operative treatment of rib fractures may benefit severely injured patients. Several studies report a reduction in mechanical ventilation time, ICU length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, pneumonia, need for tracheostomy, pain and costs in operatively treated patients with multiple rib fractures compared with patients treated nonoperatively. Although patient selection and timing of the operation seem crucial for successful outcome, no consensus exists. Mortality reduction has only been shown in a few studies. Most studies are retrospective cohort and case-control studies. Only four randomized control trials exist. Conservative treatment, consisting of respiratory assistance and pain control, is still the treatment of choice in the vast majority of patients with multiple rib fractures. In selected patients, operative fixation of fractured ribs within 72 h postinjury may lead to better outcome. More randomized control trials are needed to further determine who benefits from surgical fixation of rib fractures.

  4. Cardiac asthma in elderly patients: incidence, clinical presentation and outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Patrick


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac asthma is common, but has been poorly investigated. The objective was to compare the characteristics and outcome of cardiac asthma with that of classical congestive heart failure (CHF in elderly patients. Methods Prospective study in an 1,800-bed teaching hospital. Results Two hundred and twelve consecutive patients aged ≥ 65 years presenting with dyspnea due to CHF (mean age of 82 ± 8 years were included. Findings of cardiac echocardiography and natriuretic peptides levels were used to confirm CHF. Cardiac asthma patients were defined as a patient with CHF and wheezing reported by attending physician upon admission to the emergency department. The CHF group (n = 137 and the cardiac asthma group (n = 75, differed for tobacco use (34% vs. 59%, p 2 (47 ± 15 vs. 41 ± 11 mmHg, p Conclusion Patients with cardiac asthma represented one third of CHF in elderly patients. They were more hypercapnic and experienced more distal airway obstruction. However, outcomes were similar.

  5. Precision Oncology Medicine: The Clinical Relevance of Patient-Specific Biomarkers Used to Optimize Cancer Treatment. (United States)

    Schmidt, Keith T; Chau, Cindy H; Price, Douglas K; Figg, William D


    Precision medicine in oncology is the result of an increasing awareness of patient-specific clinical features coupled with the development of genomic-based diagnostics and targeted therapeutics. Companion diagnostics designed for specific drug-target pairs were the first to widely utilize clinically applicable tumor biomarkers (eg, HER2, EGFR), directing treatment for patients whose tumors exhibit a mutation susceptible to an FDA-approved targeted therapy (eg, trastuzumab, erlotinib). Clinically relevant germline mutations in drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (eg, TPMT, DPYD) have been shown to impact drug response, providing a rationale for individualized dosing to optimize treatment. The use of multigene expression-based assays to analyze an array of prognostic biomarkers has been shown to help direct treatment decisions, especially in breast cancer (eg, Oncotype DX). More recently, the use of next-generation sequencing to detect many potential "actionable" cancer molecular alterations is further shifting the 1 gene-1 drug paradigm toward a more comprehensive, multigene approach. Currently, many clinical trials (eg, NCI-MATCH, NCI-MPACT) are assessing novel diagnostic tools with a combination of different targeted therapeutics while also examining tumor biomarkers that were previously unexplored in a variety of cancer histologies. Results from ongoing trials such as the NCI-MATCH will help determine the clinical utility and future development of the precision-medicine approach. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  6. Rotational patient setup errors in IGRT with XVI system in Elekta Synergy and their clinical relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhusudhana Sresty, N.V.N.; Muralidhar, K.R.; Raju, A.K.; Sha, R.L.; Ramanjappa


    The goal of Image Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) is to improve the accuracy of treatment delivery. In this technique, it is possible to get volumetric images of patient anatomy before delivery of treatment.XVI( release 3.5) system in Elekta Synergy linear accelerator (Elekta,Crawley,UK) has the potential to ensure that, the relative positions of the target volume is same as in the treatment plan. It involves acquiring planar images produced by a kilo Voltage cone beam rotating about the patient in the treatment position. After 3 dimensional match between reference and localization images, the system gives rotational errors also along with translational shifts. One can easily perform translational shifts with treatment couch. But rotational shifts cannot be performed. Most of the studies dealt with translational shifts only. Few studies reported regarding rotational errors. It is found that in the treatment of elongated targets, even small rotational errors can show difference in results. The main objectives of this study is 1) To verify the magnitude of rotational errors in different clinical sites observed and to compare with the other reports. 2) To find its clinical relevance 3) To find difference in rotational shift results with improper selection of kV collimator

  7. Improving a newly developed patient-reported outcome for thyroid patients, using cognitive interviewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Torquil; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh; Groenvold, Mogens


    Objective To improve a newly developed patient-reported outcome measure for thyroid patients using cognitive interviewing. Methods Thirty-one interviews using immediate retrospective and expansive probing were conducted among patients with non-toxic goiter (n = 4), nodular toxic goiter (n = 5) Gr...

  8. [The relevance of body composition in cancer patients: what is the evidence?]. (United States)

    Coronha, Ana Lúcia; Camilo, Maria Ermelinda; Ravasco, Paula


    In the past few years, there has been a growing interest on body composition changes of cancer patients. Muscle mass and fat mass are pointed out as the most important compartments from a physiological point of view, as their changes are the ones with the most impact on disease. The excess of fat mass is related with increased risk of incidence and recurrence of some types of cancer, and some studies identify it as a major contributing factor for increased morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Weight loss in cancer is frequent and is associated with symptoms, circulating pro-cachectic substances produced by the tumour, and/or hypermetabolism states, not compensated with adequate intake. Muscle mass depletion is the most worrying, and has been associated with decreased functional capacity, increased toxicity of anti-neoplastic treatments, longer length of stay and higher risk of nosocomial infections. In end stage disease, some patients may develop cancer cachexia, an irreversible condition highly associated with mortality. Of note that, lean body mass depletion may occur with excess fat mass (sarcopenic obesity), a condition that combines the health risks of obesity and those of sarcopenia. The high prevalence of malnutrition in cancer patients justifies its relevance. Many patients point it as a cause for the reduction of physical, cognitive, emotional and social functions, as well as anorexia, fatigue, dyspnoea, insomnia, gastrointestinal symptoms and worse Quality of Life. Additionally, body composition may be affected by nutrition, lifestyles and physical activity; therefore, any approach to the patient should include all these dimensions, with special emphasis on individualised nutritional intervention. Therefore, nutritional therapy should be adjuvant to any treatment, as it is essential in all stages of the disease: for its development, during the treatment(s) and in the follow-up period. The aim of nutritional intervention is to promote changes in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Hanmant Shejal


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acute Kidney Injury (AKI is a common complication in patients with cirrhosis leading to high mortality. Creatinine-based criteria for defining AKI are validated in general hospitalised patients, but their application to cirrhotic patients is less certain. This study was undertaken to evaluate current definition of AKI by International Club of Ascites (ICA and assess clinical course of hospitalised cirrhosis patients with AKI and to study the impact of AKI on mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS We prospectively studied patients with AKI and cirrhosis for a period of 1 year and assessed the association between AKI severity and progression with complications, including death. RESULTS 48 cirrhotic patients with AKI were enrolled in the study period. Mean age of patients was 56.81 ± 9.78 years. The aetiology of cirrhosis included alcohol (52.1%, HBV (2.2%, HCV (4.2%, NASH (27.1% and cryptogenic (14.6%. 13 patients (27.1% had mortality while 35 patients (72.9% survived. 39 patients (81.25% had AKI at admission while 9 patients (18.75% developed later after admission. Patients achieved a peak severity of AKI stage 1, 10.41%; stage 2, 60.41%; and stage 3, 37.5%. The incidence of mortality, increased with severity of AKI in stepwise manner with peak AKI stage 1 has no mortality; stage 2 has 4 (30.76%; stage 3, 9 (69.23%. SIRS was present in 17 patients (35.4% and was significantly associated with mortality. CONCLUSION AKI, as defined by new ICA criteria, in patients with cirrhosis is associated with mortality in a stage-dependent fashion. Early intervention and preventing progression by timely and specific treatment may improve outcomes.

  10. How pharmacy's adoption of social media can enhance patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell M


    Full Text Available Maria Bell, Jan Douglas, Christopher CuttsCentre for Pharmacy Postgraduate Education, Manchester Pharmacy School, University of Manchester, Manchester, UKAbstract: Social media is progressively being used for sharing health information and for networking among health professionals and patients; this is particularly evident among the younger age groups. There is great potential for pharmacy to engage in the utilization of such platforms to improve health outcomes, and this paper explores some of the areas where social media is already in use in pharmacy and potential areas where using social media could make a positive impact on the determinants of health. The literature around this subject is limited; nevertheless, the number of published studies has increased in recent years. This paper concentrates on the use and application of social media by pharmacy to improve health outcomes. The subject was explored in five main areas: provision of medicines information, safer use of medicines, medicines use in chronic disease, implementation of evidence-based medicine and guidelines, and finally clinical research. In each of these areas, there is an increase in uptake and use of social media platforms by pharmacists and other health care professionals to improve patient outcomes. A variety of the more popular social media platforms have been used by health care professionals and the relative merits of these are discussed within each of the subject areas and consideration given to their application in pharmacy practice. It is evident that the majority of social media users fall into the younger age bracket, which is understandable. However, the majority of patients living with long-term conditions typically fall into the older age bracket (over 65 years of age and this should be taken into account when utilizing social media platforms to improve health outcomes.Keywords: social media, pharmacy, outcomes, impact, health

  11. Dynamic prediction of patient outcomes during ongoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (United States)

    Kim, Joonghee; Kim, Kyuseok; Callaway, Clifton W; Doh, Kibbeum; Choi, Jungho; Park, Jongdae; Jo, You Hwan; Lee, Jae Hyuk


    The probability of the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and subsequent favourable outcomes changes dynamically during advanced cardiac life support (ACLS). We sought to model these changes using time-to-event analysis in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. Adult (≥18 years old), non-traumatic OHCA patients without prehospital ROSC were included. Utstein variables and initial arterial blood gas measurements were used as predictors. The incidence rate of ROSC during the first 30min of ACLS in the emergency department (ED) was modelled using spline-based parametric survival analysis. Conditional probabilities of subsequent outcomes after ROSC (1-week and 1-month survival and 6-month neurologic recovery) were modelled using multivariable logistic regression. The ROSC and conditional probability models were then combined to estimate the likelihood of achieving ROSC and subsequent outcomes by providing k additional minutes of effort. A total of 727 patients were analyzed. The incidence rate of ROSC increased rapidly until the 10th minute of ED ACLS, and it subsequently decreased. The conditional probabilities of subsequent outcomes after ROSC were also dependent on the duration of resuscitation with odds ratios for 1-week and 1-month survival and neurologic recovery of 0.93 (95% CI: 0.90-0.96, p<0.001), 0.93 (0.88-0.97, p=0.001) and 0.93 (0.87-0.99, p=0.031) per 1-min increase, respectively. Calibration testing of the combined models showed good correlation between mean predicted probability and actual prevalence. The probability of ROSC and favourable subsequent outcomes changed according to a multiphasic pattern over the first 30min of ACLS, and modelling of the dynamic changes was feasible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clinical predictors of outcome in patients with inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Karatolios

    Full Text Available The study objectives were to identify predictors of outcome in patients with inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMi.From 2004 to 2008, 55 patients with biopsy-proven DCMi were identified and followed up for 58.2±19.8 months. Predictors of outcome were identified in a multivariable analysis with a Cox proportional hazards analysis. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, heart transplantation and hospitalization for heart failure or ventricular arrhythmias.For the primary endpoint, a QTc interval >440msec (HR 2.84; 95% CI 1.03-7.87; p = 0.044, a glomerular filtration rate (GFR 440msec, a GFR<60ml/min/1.73m2 and worsening of NYHA classification during follow-up were univariate predictors of adverse prognosis. In contrast, NYHA classification at baseline, left ventricular ejection fraction, atrial fibrillation, treatment with digitalis or viral genome detection were not related to outcome. After multivariable analysis, a GFR <60ml/min/1.73m2 remained independently associated with adverse outcome.

  13. Influential factors of clinical outcome of local intra-arterial thrombolysis using urokinase in patients with hyperacute ischemic stroke

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    Song, Jae Min; Yoon, Woong; Kim, Jae Kyu; Seo, Jeong Jin; Heo, Sook Hee; Park, Jin Gyoon; Jeong, Yoon Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonam University Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the clinical outcome and other relevant factors in cases where local intra-arterial thrombolysis (LIT) is used for the treatment of hyperacute ischemic stroke. Forty-eight hyperacute ischemic stroke patients were treated by LIT, using urokinase, within six hours of ictus, and for evaluation of their neurological status, the national institutes of health stroke scale (NIHSS) score was used. Angiography recanalization was classified according to Mori recanalization grades. Three months after LIT, the outcome was assessed by clinical examination using the modified rankin scale (good outcome: RS=0-3; poor outcome: RS=4-6). In all patients, the findings of pre- and post- LIT CT, and angiography, as well as neurological status and hemorrhagic complications, were also analysed. Thirty-three patients had occlusions of the middle cerebral artery (MCA), and 15, of the internal carotid artery (ICA). The NIHSS score averaged 16.9 at the onset of therapy and 13.5 at 24 hours later. Successful recanalization (Mori grade 3,4) was achieved in 28 (58.3%) of 48 patients, but in 20 (41.7%) the attempt failed. Twenty-two (45.8%) of the 48 patients had a good outcome, but in (54.2%) the outcome was poor. Thirteen (40.6%) of 32 patients with MCA occlusions and 13 (81.2%) of 16 with ICA occlusions had a poor outcome. Eight patients (16.7%) died. Overall, hemorrhages occured in 20 (41.7%) of 48 patients, with symptomatic hemorrhage in ten. Five (50%) of these ten died. LIT using urokinase for hyperacute ischemic stroke is feasible; patients with MCA occlusions had better outcomes than those with ICA occlusions. Hemorrhagic complications of LIT were frequent, and in cases of symptomatic hemorrhage a fatal outcome may be expected.

  14. Patient Characteristics and Outcomes After Hemorrhagic Stroke in Pregnancy. (United States)

    Leffert, Lisa R; Clancy, Caitlin R; Bateman, Brian T; Cox, Margueritte; Schulte, Phillip J; Smith, Eric E; Fonarow, Gregg C; Schwamm, Lee H; Kuklina, Elena V; George, Mary G


    Hospitalizations for pregnancy-related stroke are rare but increasing. Hemorrhagic stroke (HS), ie, subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage, is more common than ischemic stroke in pregnant versus nonpregnant women, reflecting different phenotypes or risk factors. We compared stroke risk factors and outcomes in pregnant versus nonpregnant HS in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke Registry. Using medical history or International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision codes, we identified 330 pregnant and 10 562 nonpregnant female patients aged 18 to 44 years with HS in Get With The Guidelines-Stroke (2008-2014). Differences in patient and care characteristics were compared by χ(2) or Fisher exact test (categorical variables) or Wilcoxon rank-sum (continuous variables) tests. Conditional logistic regression assessed the association of pregnancy with outcomes conditional on categorical age and further adjusted for patient and hospital characteristics. Pregnant versus nonpregnant HS patients were younger with fewer pre-existing stroke risk factors and medications. Pregnant versus nonpregnant subarachnoid hemorrhage patients were less impaired at arrival, and less than half met blood pressure criteria for severe preeclampsia. In-hospital mortality was lower in pregnant versus nonpregnant HS patients: adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) for subarachnoid hemorrhage 0.17 (0.06-0.45) and intracerebral hemorrhage 0.57 (0.34-0.94). Pregnant subarachnoid hemorrhage patients also had a higher likelihood of home discharge (2.60 [1.67-4.06]) and independent ambulation at discharge (2.40 [1.56-3.70]). Pregnant HS patients are younger and have fewer risk factors than their nonpregnant counterparts, and risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality is lower. Our findings suggest possible differences in underlying disease pathophysiology and challenges to identifying at-risk patients. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Outcomes of Total Knee Arthroplasty in Patients With Poliomyelitis. (United States)

    Gan, Zhi-Wei Jonathan; Pang, Hee Nee


    We report our experience with outcomes of poliomyelitis in the Asian population. Sixteen total knee replacements in 14 patients with polio-affected knees were followed up for at least 18 months. Follow-up assessment included scoring with the American Knee Society Score (AKSS), Oxford knee score, and Short Form 36 Health Survey scores. The mean AKSS improved from 25.59 preoperatively to 82.94 at 24 months, with greater improvement in the knee score. The mean Oxford knee score improved from 40.82 preoperatively to 20.53 at 24 months. The mean AKSS pain score rose from 2.35 to 47.66 at 24 months. The Short Form 36 Health Survey physical functioning and bodily pain scores improved for all patients. Primary total knee arthroplasty of poliomyelitis-affected limbs shows good outcomes, improving quality of life, and decreasing pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cardiac Surgery Outcomes in Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. (United States)

    Zhu, Yuanjia; Toth, Andrew J; Lowry, Ashley M; Blackstone, Eugene H; Hill, Brian T; Mick, Stephanie L


    Surgical outcomes of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) undergoing cardiac surgery are limited. Our objectives were to investigate hospital morbidity and mortality after open cardiac surgery in CLL versus non-CLL patients. From May 1995 to May 2015, 157 patients with CLL and 55,917 without and older than 47 years underwent elective cardiac surgery at Cleveland Clinic. By Rai criteria, 79 CLL patients (56%) were low risk (class 0), 13 (9.1%) intermediate risk (classes I and II), and 38 (27%) high risk (classes III and IV); 12 (8.5%) were in remission. Mean age of CLL patients was 72 ± 9.0 years, and 18% were women. CLL patients were propensity-score matched to 3 non-CLL patients to compare surgical outcomes. High-risk CLL patients received more blood products than matched non-CLL patients (33/38 [87%] versus 74/114 [65%], p = 0.01), but were less likely to receive cryoprecipitate (0% versus 15/114 [13%], p = .02). Intermediate-risk CLL patients received more platelet units, mean 12 versus 4.6 (p = 0.008). Occurrence of deep sternal wound infection (0% versus 5/471 [1.1%]), septicemia (5/157 [3.2%] versus 14/471 [3.0%]), and hospital mortality (4/157 [2.5%] versus 14/471 [3.0%]) were similar (p > 0.3), independent of prior chemotherapy treatment for CLL. Although CLL patients did not have higher hospital mortality than non-CLL patients, high-risk CLL patients were more likely to receive blood products. Risks associated with transfusion should be considered when evaluating CLL patients for elective cardiac surgery. Appropriate preoperative management, such as blood product transfusions, and alternative treatment options that decrease blood loss, should be considered for high-risk patients. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pancreatic duct stones in patients with chronic pancreatitis: surgical outcomes. (United States)

    Liu, Bo-Nan; Zhang, Tai-Ping; Zhao, Yu-Pei; Liao, Quan; Dai, Meng-Hua; Zhan, Han-Xiang


    Pancreatic duct stone (PDS) is a common complication of chronic pancreatitis. Surgery is a common therapeutic option for PDS. In this study we assessed the surgical procedures for PDS in patients with chronic pancreatitis at our hospital. Between January 2004 and September 2009, medical records from 35 patients diagnosed with PDS associated with chronic pancreatitis were retrospectively reviewed and the patients were followed up for up to 67 months. The 35 patients underwent ultrasonography, computed tomography, or both, with an overall accuracy rate of 85.7%. Of these patients, 31 underwent the modified Puestow procedure, 2 underwent the Whipple procedure, 1 underwent simple stone removal by duct incision, and 1 underwent pancreatic abscess drainage. Of the 35 patients, 28 were followed up for 4-67 months. There was no postoperative death before discharge or during follow-up. After the modified Puestow procedure, abdominal pain was reduced in patients with complete or incomplete stone clearance (P>0.05). Steatorrhea and diabetes mellitus developed in several patients during a long-term follow-up. Surgery, especially the modified Puestow procedure, is effective and safe for patients with PDS associated with chronic pancreatitis. Decompression of intraductal pressure rather than complete clearance of all stones predicts postoperative outcome.

  18. Patient-reported symptoms during radiotherapy. Clinically relevant symptom burden in patients treated with palliative and curative intent

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    Koerner, Philipp [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum Palliativmedizin, Wuerzburg (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Wuerzburg (Germany); Ehrmann, Katja [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Medizinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie, Medizinische Soziologie und Rehabilitationswissenschaften, Wuerzburg (Germany); Hartmannsgruber, Johann [Praxis Landshut, Kinderzahnheilkunde, Landshut (Germany); Metz, Michaela; Steigerwald, Sabrina; Flentje, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Wuerzburg (Germany); Oorschot, Birgitt van [Universitaetsklinikum Wuerzburg, Interdisziplinaeres Zentrum Palliativmedizin, Wuerzburg (Germany)


    The benefits of patient-reported symptom assessment combined with integrated palliative care are well documented. This study assessed the symptom burden of palliative and curative-intent radiation oncology patients. Prior to first consultation and at the end of RT, all adult cancer patients planned to receive fractionated percutaneous radiotherapy (RT) were asked to answer the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS; nine symptoms from 0 = no symptoms to 10 = worst possible symptoms). Mean values were used for curative vs. palliative and pre-post comparisons, and the clinical relevance was evaluated (symptom values ≥ 4). Of 163 participating patients, 151 patients (90.9%) completed both surveys (116 curative and 35 palliative patients). Before beginning RT, 88.6% of palliative and 72.3% of curative patients showed at least one clinically relevant symptom. Curative patients most frequently named decreased general wellbeing (38.6%), followed by tiredness (35.0%), anxiety (32.4%), depression (30.0%), pain (26.3%), lack of appetite (23.5%), dyspnea (17.8%), drowsiness (8.0%) and nausea (6.1%). Palliative patients most frequently named decreased general wellbeing (62.8%), followed by pain (62.8%), tiredness (60.0%), lack of appetite (40.0%), anxiety (38.0%), depression (33.3%), dyspnea (28.5%), drowsiness (25.7%) and nausea (14.2%). At the end of RT, the proportion of curative and palliative patients with a clinically relevant symptom had increased significantly to 79.8 and 91.4%, respectively; whereas the proportion of patients reporting clinically relevant pain had decreased significantly (42.8 vs. 62.8%, respectively). Palliative patients had significantly increased tiredness. Curative patients reported significant increases in pain, tiredness, nausea, drowsiness, lack of appetite and restrictions in general wellbeing. Assessment of patient-reported symptoms was successfully realized in radiation oncology routine. Overall, both groups showed a high symptom burden

  19. Analysis of outcome in patients reirradiated for brain metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, William W.; Schild, Steven E.; Sawyer, Timothy E.; Shaw, Edward G.


    radiation related changes. One patient had symptoms of dementia that was thought to be caused by radiotherapy. Various potential prognostic factors were evaluated for possible associations with survival, including age, sex, primary site, tumor histology, performance status, neurological function class, presence of extracranial metastases, number of brain metastases, and the dose of reirradiation. Patients with solitary brain metastasis survived significantly longer than those with multiple brain metastases (median survival = 5.75 vs 3.5 months, p = 0.03 [log rank test]). Patients receiving more than 20 Gy at reirradiation also appeared to survive longer than those who received lower doses (median survival = 4.5 vs 3.5 months [log-rank test: p<0.06, Wilcoxon test: p<0.033]). Conclusion: This represents the largest published series of patients reirradiated for brain metastases. The median survival of 4 months after reirradiation is comparable to most series when patients were treated with WBRT after initial diagnosis of brain metastases. The majority of patients in our series had favorable symptomatic responses. Clinically significant complications are minimal. Reirradiation should be offered to patients who develop progressive brain metastases. Doses of greater than 20 Gy may provide a better outcome than lower doses

  20. Commitment to COT verification improves patient outcomes and financial performance. (United States)

    Maggio, Paul M; Brundage, Susan I; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Spain, David A


    After an unsuccessful American College of Surgery Committee on Trauma visit, our level I trauma center initiated an improvement program that included (1) hiring new personnel (trauma director and surgeons, nurse coordinator, orthopedic trauma surgeon, and registry staff), (2) correcting deficiencies in trauma quality assurance and process improvement programs, and (3) development of an outreach program. Subsequently, our trauma center had two successful verifications. We examined the longitudinal effects of these efforts on volume, patient outcomes and finances. The Trauma Registry was used to derive data for all trauma patients evaluated in the emergency department from 2001 to 2007. Clinical data analyzed included number of admissions, interfacility transfers, injury severity scores (ISS), length of stay, and mortality for 2001 to 2007. Financial performance was assessed for fiscal years 2001 to 2007. Data were divided into patients discharged from the emergency department and those admitted to the hospital. Admissions increased 30%, representing a 7.6% annual increase (p = 0.004), mostly due to a nearly fivefold increase in interfacility transfers. Severe trauma patients (ISS >24) increased 106% and mortality rate for ISS >24 decreased by 47% to almost half the average of the National Trauma Database. There was a 78% increase in revenue and a sustained increase in hospital profitability. A major hospital commitment to Committee on Trauma verification had several salient outcomes; increased admissions, interfacility transfers, and acuity. Despite more seriously injured patients, there has been a major, sustained reduction in mortality and a trend toward decreased intensive care unit length of stay. This resulted in a substantial increase in contribution to margin (CTM), net profit, and revenues. With a high level of commitment and favorable payer mix, trauma center verification improves outcomes for both patients and the hospital.

  1. Magnesium, hemostasis, and outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage. (United States)

    Liotta, Eric M; Prabhakaran, Shyam; Sangha, Rajbeer S; Bush, Robin A; Long, Alan E; Trevick, Stephen A; Potts, Matthew B; Jahromi, Babak S; Kim, Minjee; Manno, Edward M; Sorond, Farzaneh A; Naidech, Andrew M; Maas, Matthew B


    We tested the hypothesis that admission serum magnesium levels are associated with hematoma volume, hematoma growth, and functional outcomes in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Patients presenting with spontaneous ICH were enrolled in an observational cohort study that prospectively collected demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiographic, and outcome data. We performed univariate and adjusted multivariate analyses to assess for associations between serum magnesium levels and initial hematoma volume, final hematoma volume, and in-hospital hematoma growth as radiographic measures of hemostasis, and functional outcome measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 3 months. We included 290 patients for analysis. Admission serum magnesium was 2.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL. Lower admission magnesium levels were associated with larger initial hematoma volumes on univariate ( p = 0.02), parsimoniously adjusted ( p = 0.002), and fully adjusted models ( p = 0.006), as well as greater hematoma growth ( p = 0.004, p = 0.005, and p = 0.008, respectively) and larger final hematoma volumes ( p = 0.02, p = 0.001, and p = 0.002, respectively). Lower admission magnesium level was associated with worse functional outcomes at 3 months (i.e., higher mRS; odds ratio 0.14, 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.64, p = 0.011) after adjustment for age, admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, initial hematoma volume, time from symptom onset to initial CT, and hematoma growth, with evidence that the effect of magnesium is mediated through hematoma growth. These data support the hypothesis that magnesium exerts a clinically meaningful influence on hemostasis in patients with ICH. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  2. Predictive factors of visual outcome of Malaysian cataract patients: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanigasalam Thevi


    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the associations between various characteristics of Malaysian cataract patients and their management, and their post-operative visual outcomes, to inform relevant bodies to reduce cataract-related blindness. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive secondary data analysis of cataract surgery patients in Melaka Hospital, from 2007 to 2014 using the National Eye Database (NED. Patient-related factors (demographic features, systemic and ocular comorbidities and management-related factors (surgical duration, type of surgery, type of lens were analysed for their association with visual outcome (acuity. RESULTS: Most patients were Malays (48.23% and Chinese (38.55% aged 60-79y (range 0-100y. Hypertension (58.61% and diabetes (44.89% were major systemic comorbidities. Glaucoma (6.71% and diabetic retinopathy (10.12% were the main ocular comorbidities. Other comorbidities were age-related macular degeneration, pterygium, corneal opacities, macula diseases, vitreous haemorrhage, retinal detachment and pseudoexfoliation (0.70%-1.60%. Preoperatively 7150 (55.03% eyes presented with poor vision. Uncomplicated phacoemulsification performed quickly with foldable lenses gave good results. CONCLUSION: Primary care physicians should initiate early detection to prevent late presentation of cataracts causing poor vision and should discuss the risks and benefits of cataract surgery while emphasizing the role of pre-existing comorbidities which may affect the visual outcomes. For good results, phacoemulsification should be done within 30min, without complications, using foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens.

  3. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in chronic urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Kristian; Ghazanfar, Misbah N.; Thomsen, Simon F.


    Chronic urticaria is an itching skin disease which persists for more than 6 weeks. Chronic urticaria has great impact on the daily life of the patient, and the fluctuating nature of the symptoms complicates the monitoring and treatment of the disease. Currently, there are no reliable biomarkers...... to identify and measure disease activity in chronic spontaneous urticaria. Consequently, use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is crucial when evaluating and monitoring different aspects of chronic urticaria such as disease activity/severity, disease control, and quality of life. We present an overview...... of seven different PROs used in chronic urticaria and highlight their strengths, limitations, and use in clinical practice and research....

  4. Collecting Patient Reported Outcomes in the Wild: Opportunities and Challenges. (United States)

    Cabitza, Federico; Dui, Linda Greta


    Collecting Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs) is generally seen as an effective way to assess the efficacy and appropriateness of medical interventions, from the patients' perspective. In 2016 the Galeazzi Orthopaedic Institute established a digitized program of PROs collection from spine, hip and knee surgery patients. In this work, we re-port the findings from the data analysis of the responses collected so far about the complementarity of PROs with respect to the data reported by the clinicians, and about the main biases that can undermine their validity and reliability. Although PROs collection is recognized as being far more complex than just asking the patients "how they feel" on a regular basis and it entails costs and devoted electronic platforms, we advocate their further diffusion for the assessment of health technology and clinical procedures.

  5. Semaglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marso, Steven P; Bain, Stephen C; Consoli, Agostino


    BACKGROUND: Regulatory guidance specifies the need to establish cardiovascular safety of new diabetes therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes in order to rule out excess cardiovascular risk. The cardiovascular effects of semaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue with an extended half......-life of approximately 1 week, in type 2 diabetes are unknown. METHODS: We randomly assigned 3297 patients with type 2 diabetes who were on a standard-care regimen to receive once-weekly semaglutide (0.5 mg or 1.0 mg) or placebo for 104 weeks. The primary composite outcome was the first occurrence of cardiovascular...... significantly higher (hazard ratio, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.78; P=0.02). Fewer serious adverse events occurred in the semaglutide group, although more patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events, mainly gastrointestinal. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with type 2 diabetes who were at high cardiovascular...

  6. Outcomes of patients who commit suicide by burning. (United States)

    Castana, O; Kourakos, P; Moutafidis, M; Stampolidis, N; Triantafyllou, V; Pallantzas, Ath; Filippa, E; Alexandropoulos, C


    Cases in which people use fire when attempting or committing suicide are not common but nevertheless constitute a cause of admission to burns units worldwide. Usually these people are suffering from stress and have been diagnosed as mentally ill. Schizophrenia, depression, and personality disorders are the most frequently diagnosed conditions. The psychological problems appear to have been overlooked by the family or not to have been presented to them. The aim of this study is to present the clinical features, characteristics, and outcomes of patients burned during a suicide attempt. The role of the psychiatrist is important, starting in the emergency room. The incidence of patients committing self-injury by burning appears to be higher in women burn patients. Deceased patients usually have a larger extent of burns and a higher incidence of other injuries and require more surgical procedures and longer hospitalization times. The problems for burn unit staff and qualified psychiatric care are discussed.

  7. Outcomes of patients who commit suicide by burning (United States)

    Castana, O.; Kourakos, P.; Moutafidis, M.; Stampolidis, N.; Triantafyllou, V.; Pallantzas, Ath.; Filippa, E.; Alexandropoulos, C.


    Summary Cases in which people use fire when attempting or committing suicide are not common but nevertheless constitute a cause of admission to burns units worldwide. Usually these people are suffering from stress and have been diagnosed as mentally ill. Schizophrenia, depression, and personality disorders are the most frequently diagnosed conditions. The psychological problems appear to have been overlooked by the family or not to have been presented to them. The aim of this study is to present the clinical features, characteristics, and outcomes of patients burned during a suicide attempt. The role of the psychiatrist is important, starting in the emergency room. The incidence of patients committing self-injury by burning appears to be higher in women burn patients. Deceased patients usually have a larger extent of burns and a higher incidence of other injuries and require more surgical procedures and longer hospitalization times. The problems for burn unit staff and qualified psychiatric care are discussed. PMID:23966897

  8. Per-beam, planar IMRT QA passing rates do not predict clinically relevant patient dose errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelms, Benjamin E.; Zhen Heming; Tome, Wolfgang A. [Canis Lupus LLC and Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Merrimac, Wisconsin 53561 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Departments of Human Oncology, Medical Physics, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States)


    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to determine the statistical correlation between per-beam, planar IMRT QA passing rates and several clinically relevant, anatomy-based dose errors for per-patient IMRT QA. The intent is to assess the predictive power of a common conventional IMRT QA performance metric, the Gamma passing rate per beam. Methods: Ninety-six unique data sets were created by inducing four types of dose errors in 24 clinical head and neck IMRT plans, each planned with 6 MV Varian 120-leaf MLC linear accelerators using a commercial treatment planning system and step-and-shoot delivery. The error-free beams/plans were used as ''simulated measurements'' (for generating the IMRT QA dose planes and the anatomy dose metrics) to compare to the corresponding data calculated by the error-induced plans. The degree of the induced errors was tuned to mimic IMRT QA passing rates that are commonly achieved using conventional methods. Results: Analysis of clinical metrics (parotid mean doses, spinal cord max and D1cc, CTV D95, and larynx mean) vs IMRT QA Gamma analysis (3%/3 mm, 2/2, 1/1) showed that in all cases, there were only weak to moderate correlations (range of Pearson's r-values: -0.295 to 0.653). Moreover, the moderate correlations actually had positive Pearson's r-values (i.e., clinically relevant metric differences increased with increasing IMRT QA passing rate), indicating that some of the largest anatomy-based dose differences occurred in the cases of high IMRT QA passing rates, which may be called ''false negatives.'' The results also show numerous instances of false positives or cases where low IMRT QA passing rates do not imply large errors in anatomy dose metrics. In none of the cases was there correlation consistent with high predictive power of planar IMRT passing rates, i.e., in none of the cases did high IMRT QA Gamma passing rates predict low errors in anatomy dose metrics or vice versa

  9. Per-beam, planar IMRT QA passing rates do not predict clinically relevant patient dose errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelms, Benjamin E.; Zhen Heming; Tome, Wolfgang A.


    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to determine the statistical correlation between per-beam, planar IMRT QA passing rates and several clinically relevant, anatomy-based dose errors for per-patient IMRT QA. The intent is to assess the predictive power of a common conventional IMRT QA performance metric, the Gamma passing rate per beam. Methods: Ninety-six unique data sets were created by inducing four types of dose errors in 24 clinical head and neck IMRT plans, each planned with 6 MV Varian 120-leaf MLC linear accelerators using a commercial treatment planning system and step-and-shoot delivery. The error-free beams/plans were used as ''simulated measurements'' (for generating the IMRT QA dose planes and the anatomy dose metrics) to compare to the corresponding data calculated by the error-induced plans. The degree of the induced errors was tuned to mimic IMRT QA passing rates that are commonly achieved using conventional methods. Results: Analysis of clinical metrics (parotid mean doses, spinal cord max and D1cc, CTV D95, and larynx mean) vs IMRT QA Gamma analysis (3%/3 mm, 2/2, 1/1) showed that in all cases, there were only weak to moderate correlations (range of Pearson's r-values: -0.295 to 0.653). Moreover, the moderate correlations actually had positive Pearson's r-values (i.e., clinically relevant metric differences increased with increasing IMRT QA passing rate), indicating that some of the largest anatomy-based dose differences occurred in the cases of high IMRT QA passing rates, which may be called ''false negatives.'' The results also show numerous instances of false positives or cases where low IMRT QA passing rates do not imply large errors in anatomy dose metrics. In none of the cases was there correlation consistent with high predictive power of planar IMRT passing rates, i.e., in none of the cases did high IMRT QA Gamma passing rates predict low errors in anatomy dose metrics or vice versa. Conclusions: There is a lack of correlation between

  10. Conceptual framework for patient-important treatment outcomes for pelvic organ prolapse. (United States)

    Sung, Vivian W; Rogers, Rebecca G; Barber, Matthew D; Clark, Melissa A


    To develop a comprehensive conceptual framework representing the most important outcomes for women seeking treatment for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Twenty-five women with POP were recruited and participated in four semi-structured focus groups to refine and assess the content validity of a conceptual framework representing patient-important outcomes for POP. Specifically, the focus groups addressed the following three aims: (1) to evaluate the content and appropriateness of domains in our framework; (2) to identify gaps in the framework; and (3) to determine the relative importance of our framework domains from the patient perspective. Sessions were transcribed, coded, and qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed using analytic induction and deductive analysis to identify themes and domains relevant to women with POP. Our focus groups confirmed the importance of vaginal bulge symptoms (discomfort, bother, and adaptation), and the overarching domains and subdomains of physical (physical function and participation), social (social function, relationships, and sexual function), and mental health (emotional distress, preoccupation, and body image). Patients ranked outcomes in the following order of importance: (1) the resolution of vaginal bulge symptoms, (2) improvement in physical function; (3) improvement in sexual function; (4) improvement in body image perception; and (5) improvement in social function. We developed a conceptual framework for patient important outcomes of women seeking treatment for POP. This framework can improve the transparency and interpretation of POP study findings from the patient perspective. Vaginal bulge and its associated discomfort are most important for the definition of POP treatment success from the patient perspective. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Can pegylated interferon improve the outcome of polycythemia vera patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Crisà


    Full Text Available Abstract Pegylated interferon (peg-IFN was proven by phase II trials to be effective in polycythemia vera (PV; however, it is not clear whether it could improve patient outcome compared to hydroxyurea (HU. Here, we present an observational study on 65 PV patients aged 65 years or younger, who received either peg-IFN (30 or HU (35 according to the physician choice. Median follow-up was 75 months. The two cohorts were comparable for patient and disease characteristics. Eighty-seven percent of the patients treated with peg-INF responded, with a CR rate of 70% as compared to 100 and 49% with HU, respectively. Discontinuation rate was similar in the two groups (20% in peg-IFN vs 17% in HU. JAK2 allele burden was monitored in peg-INF arm only, and a reduction was observed in 88% of the patients. No thrombotic events were observed during peg-IFN treatment compared to three on HU. Disease progression to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia occurred to a patient only in peg-INF, compared to three in HU. Overall, three second malignancies were observed during the study, two in patients who received HU only, and one in a patient largely treated HU who received also peg-IFN for 3 months. Overall survival was significantly better for peg-IFN patients compared to HU, p = 0.027. Our study, albeit limited by small patient and event number and lack of randomization, confirms the efficacy of peg-INF in PV and shows a significant survival advantage for peg-INF-treated patients. Waiting for confirming data from the ongoing phase III trials, our study can support peg-INF as a first-line treatment option for PV, at least for younger patients.

  12. Increasing uptake of comparative effectiveness and patient-centered outcomes research among stakeholders: insights from conference discussion. (United States)

    Law, Ernest; Harrington, Rachel; Alexander, G Caleb; Saha, Soumi; Oehrlein, Elisabeth; Perfetto, Eleanor M


    The goal of comparative effectiveness research (CER) and patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) is to improve health outcomes by providing stakeholders with evidence directly relevant to decision making. In January 2017, the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers Association Foundation, alongside the Academy for Managed Care Pharmacy, organized a conference aimed at engaging experts and opinion leaders representing clinicians, patients and payers to identify and discuss barriers and strategies to enhancing uptake and use of CER/PCOR. This report summarizes the conference discussion in the following sections: preconference survey; summary of barriers and strategies to the uptake of CER/PCOR identified by conference attendees; and future perspectives on the field.

  13. Factors associated with outcomes in ruptured aneurysmal patients: Clinical Study of 80 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfotih Gobran Taha Ahmed


    Full Text Available Background: Due to insufficient data in the literature, the optimal timing for surgical intervention for ruptured intracranial aneurysms is still controversial. Some practitioners advocate early surgery, but others not. It is important to identify other factors that can be used to predict poor prognosis in ruptured intracranial aneurysm patients. Objective: To determine the influence of timing of clipping surgery, and other factors on the outcomes of ruptured intracranial aneurysms in Hunt & Hess I~III grade patients. Method: We have performed a retrospective study involving 80 patients who were surgically treated for ruptured intracranial aneurysm between 2007 and 2012. The patient population consisted of 50(62.5% females and 30(37.5% males, with an age range of 12 to 75 years old, mean age 52.33 ± 10.63 years. We measured association between the Glasgow Outcome Scores and Sex, timing of clipping surgery, aneurysm location and pre-operative patient's neurological condition using famous Hunt and Hess grade system. Results: We did not find any correlation between the outcomes of ruptured intracranial aneurysm patients and timing (early, intermediate, late stage of clipping, sex, aneurysm location. Whereas there is a significant correlation between patients outcomes and pre-operative patient neurological condition (Hunt & Hess grade. Conclusion: Timing of Surgery (early, intermediate, late does not affect outcomes in low Hunt and Hess grade patients I~III. Whereas neurological condition (Hunt & Hess has strong impact on postoperative outcomes. Others factors like sex, Age, Aneurysm location have no effect on outcomes in ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

  14. Outcomes in nursing home patients with traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Lueckel, Stephanie N; Kosar, Cyrus M; Teno, Joan M; Monaghan, Sean F; Heffernan, Daithi S; Cioffi, William G; Thomas, Kali S


    Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. In survivors, traumatic brain injury remains a leading contributor to long-term disability and results in many patients being admitted to skilled nursing facilities for postacute care. Despite this very large population of traumatic brain injury patients, very little is known about the long-term outcomes of traumatic brain injury survivors, including rates of discharge to home or risk of death in long-term nursing facilities. We hypothesized that patient demographics and functional status influence outcomes of patients with traumatic brain injury admitted to skilled nursing facilities. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 65 and older discharged alive and directly from hospital to a skilled nursing facility between 2011 and 2014 using the prospectively maintained Federal Minimum Data Set combined with Medicare claims data and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Vital Status files. Records were reviewed for demographic and clinical characteristics at admission to the skilled nursing facility, including age, sex, cognitive function, ability to communicate, and motor function. Activities of daily living were reassessed at discharge to calculate functional improvement. We used robust Poisson regression with skilled nursing facility fixed effects to calculate relative risks and 99% confidence intervals for mortality and functional improvement associated with the demographic and clinical characteristics present at admission. Linear regression was used to calculate adjusted mean duration of stay. Overall, 87,292 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries with traumatic brain injury were admitted to skilled nursing facilities. The mean age was 84 years, with 74% of patients older than age 80. Generally, older age, male sex, and poor cognitive or functional status at admission to a skilled nursing facility were associated with

  15. Patient reported outcomes in patients undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for traumatic or degenerative meniscal tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Englund, Martin; Christensen, Robin


    orthopaedic departments in the Region of Southern Denmark. Participants were recruited between 1 February 2013 and 31 January 2014, and at one of the original four hospitals from 1 February 2014 to 31 January 2015. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals selected from Knee Arthroscopy Cohort Southern Denmark, aged 18...... on knee pathology. Patient reported outcomes were recorded via online questionnaires. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was the average between-group difference in change on four of five subscales of the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS). The four subscales covered pain, symptoms...

  16. Does adding a dietician to the liaison team after discharge of geriatric patients improve nutritional outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Tolstrup Andersen, Ulla; Leedo, Eva


    (70 + years and at nutritional risk) at discharge. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomly allocated to receive discharge Liaison-Team vs. discharge Liaison-Team in cooperation with a dietician. The dietician performed a total of three home visits with the aim of developing and implementing......OBJECTIVES: The objective was to test whether adding a dietician to a discharge Liaison-Team after discharge of geriatric patients improves nutritional status, muscle strength and patient relevant outcomes. DESIGN: Twelve-week randomized controlled trial. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Geriatric patients...... an individual nutritional care plan. The first visit took place at the day of discharge together with the discharge Liaison-Team while the remaining visits took place approximately three and eight weeks after discharge and were performed by a dietician alone. MAIN MEASURES: Nutritional status (weight...

  17. Analysis of ancestral and functionally relevant CD5 variants in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Cenit

    Full Text Available CD5 plays a crucial role in autoimmunity and is a well-established genetic risk factor of developing RA. Recently, evidence of positive selection has been provided for the CD5 Pro224-Val471 haplotype in East Asian populations. The aim of the present work was to further analyze the functional relevance of non-synonymous CD5 polymorphisms conforming the ancestral and the newly derived haplotypes (Pro224-Ala471 and Pro224-Val471, respectively as well as to investigate the potential role of CD5 on the development of SLE and/or SLE nephritis.The CD5 SNPs rs2241002 (C/T; Pro224Leu and rs2229177 (C/T; Ala471Val were genotyped using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays in a total of 1,324 controls and 681 SLE patients of Spanish origin. In vitro analysis of CD3-mediated T cell proliferative and cytokine response profiles of healthy volunteers homozygous for the above mentioned CD5 haplotypes were also analyzed.T-cell proliferation and cytokine release were significantly increased showing a bias towards to a Th2 profile after CD3 cross-linking of peripheral mononuclear cells from healthy individuals homozygous for the ancestral Pro224-Ala471 (CC haplotype, compared to the more recently derived Pro224-Val471 (CT. The same allelic combination was statistically associated with Lupus nephritis.The ancestral Ala471 CD5 allele confers lymphocyte hyper-responsiveness to TCR/CD3 cross-linking and is associated with nephritis in SLE patients.

  18. Impact of the emergency department streaming decision on patients' outcomes. (United States)

    Kim, S W; Horwood, C; Li, J Y; Hakendorf, P H; Teubner, D J O; Thompson, C H


    Streaming occurs in emergency department (ED) to reduce crowding, but misallocation of patients may impact patients' outcome. The study aims to determine the outcomes of patients misallocated by the ED process of streaming into likely admission or discharge. This is a retrospective cohort study, at an Australian, urban, tertiary referral hospital's ED between January 2010 and March 2012, using propensity score matching for comparison. Total and partitioned ED lengths of stay, inpatient length of stay, in-hospital mortality and 7- and 28-day unplanned readmission rate were compared between patients who were streamed to be admitted against those streamed to be discharged. Total ED length of stay did not differ significantly for admitted patients if allocated to the wrong stream (median 7.6 h, interquartile range 5.7-10.6, cf. 7.5 h, 5.3-11.2; P = 0.34). The median inpatient length of stay was shorter for those initially misallocated to the discharge stream (1.8 days, 1.1-3.0, cf. 2.4 days, 1.4-3.9; P stream stayed in the ED longer than those appropriately allocated (5.2 h, 3.7-7.3, cf. 4.6 h, 3.3-6.4; P streaming process. Patients' discharge from the ED was slower if they had been allocated to the admission stream. Streaming carries few risks for patients misallocated by such a process. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. Achieving optimal delivery of follow-up care for prostate cancer survivors: improving patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson SV


    Full Text Available Shawna V Hudson,1 Denalee M O’Malley,2 Suzanne M Miller3 1Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Somerset, 2Rutgers School of Social Work, New Brunswick, NJ, 3Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center/Temple University Health System, Philadelphia, PA, USA Background: Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men in the US, and the second most prevalent cancer in men worldwide. High incidence and survival rates for prostate cancer have resulted in a large and growing population of long-term prostate cancer survivors. Long-term follow-up guidelines have only recently been developed to inform approaches to this phase of care for the prostate cancer population. Methods: A PubMed search of English literature through August 2014 was performed. Articles were retrieved and reviewed to confirm their relevance. Patient-reported measures that were used in studies of long-term prostate cancer survivors (ie, at least 2 years posttreatment were reviewed and included in the review. Results: A total of 343 abstracts were initially identified from the database search. After abstract review, 105 full-text articles were reviewed of which seven met inclusion criteria. An additional 22 articles were identified from the references of the included articles, and 29 were retained. From the 29 articles, 68 patient-reported outcome measures were identified. The majority (75% were multi-item scales that had been previously validated in existing literature. We identified four main areas of assessment: 1 physical health; 2 quality of life – general, physical, and psychosocial; 3 health promotion – physical activity, diet, and tobacco cessation; and 4 care quality outcomes. Conclusion: There are a number of well-validated measures that assess patient-reported outcomes that document key aspects of long-term follow-up with respect to patient symptoms and quality of life. However

  20. Outcomes after autologous SCT in lymphoma patients grouped by weight. (United States)

    Lau, J E; Weber, C; Earl, M; Rybicki, L A; Carlstrom, K D; Wenzell, C M; Hill, B T; Majhail, N S; Kalaycio, M


    Obesity continues to be an increasing global health issue contributing to the complexity of chemotherapy dosing in the field of SCT. Investigation into the optimal dosing weight used to calculate chemotherapy doses in obese patients undergoing SCT is limited and inconclusive. Our single-center, retrospective study compared safety and efficacy outcomes by body mass index (BMI) for 476 adult lymphoma patients who underwent auto-SCT with a myeloablative chemotherapeutic regimen of BU, CY and etoposide dosed using adjusted body weight. Three weight groups categorized based on BMI were defined: normal/underweight ⩽24.9 kg/m(2), overweight 25-29.9 kg/m(2) and obese ⩾30 kg/m(2). Severity of mucositis, incidence of secondary malignancy, incidence of bacteremia and median hospital length of stay did not differ among the groups. The median times to absolute neutrophil count and platelet recovery were 10 days (P=0.75) and 14 days (P=0.17), respectively. Obese patients had a lower 100-day mortality compared with other weight groups, although this did not translate into an OS benefit. OS and disease relapse were similar among the groups. Our study demonstrates that use of adjusted body weight to calculate chemotherapy doses does not negatively have an impact on outcomes in obese patients undergoing auto-SCT with BU, CY and etoposide.

  1. Forecasting patient outcomes in the management of hyperlipidemia. (United States)

    Brier, K L; Tornow, J J; Ries, A J; Weber, M P; Downs, J R


    To forecast adult patient outcomes in the management of hyperlipidemia using adult National Health and Examination Survey III (NHANES III) population statistics and National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) guidelines for goals of therapy. Review of the hyperlipidemia drug therapy English-language medical literature with emphasis on randomized controlled trials of more than 6 weeks' duration published in the last 7 years, product package inserts, US Food and Drug Administration submission information, and NHANES III population statistics. Data were extracted from studies of lipid-lowering therapy to modify low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels for primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. The data that were evaluated included sample size, study design, therapeutic intervention, length of study, percentage change in LDL levels, and patient demographics. Cumulative frequency curves of the LDL distribution among the US adult population were constructed. The mean efficacy of drug therapy from qualified studies was used to extrapolate the percentage of the population expected to respond to the intervention and to forecast the patient outcome. A useful tool for clinicians was constructed to approximate the percentage of patients, based on risk stratification, who would reach NCEP target goal after a given pharmacotherapeutic intervention to decrease LDL levels.

  2. Proceedings of Patient Reported Outcome Measure?s (PROMs) Conference Sheffield 2016: advances in patient reported outcomes research


    Croudace, Tim; Brazier, John; Gutacker, Nils; Street, Andrew; Robotham, Dan; Waterman, Samantha; Rose, Diana; Satkunanathan, Safarina; Wykes, Til; Nasr, Nasrin; Enderby, Pamela; Carlton, Jill; Rowen, Donna; Elliott, Jackie; Brazier, John


    Table of contents S1 Using computerized adaptive testing Tim Croudace S2 Well-being: what is it, how does it compare to health and what are the implications of using it to inform health policy John Brazier O1 “Am I going to get better?”—Using PROMs to inform patients about the likely benefit of surgery Nils Gutacker, Andrew Street O2 Identifying Patient Reported Outcome Measures for an electronic Personal Health Record Dan Robotham, Samantha Waterman, Diana Rose, Safarina Satkunanathan, Til W...

  3. Patient outcomes with teaching versus nonteaching healthcare: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis N Papanikolaou


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extensive debate exists in the healthcare community over whether outcomes of medical care at teaching hospitals and other healthcare units are better or worse than those at the respective nonteaching ones. Thus, our goal was to systematically evaluate the evidence pertaining to this question. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We reviewed all studies that compared teaching versus nonteaching healthcare structures for mortality or any other patient outcome, regardless of health condition. Studies were retrieved from PubMed, contact with experts, and literature cross-referencing. Data were extracted on setting, patients, data sources, author affiliations, definition of compared groups, types of diagnoses considered, adjusting covariates, and estimates of effect for mortality and for each other outcome. Overall, 132 eligible studies were identified, including 93 on mortality and 61 on other eligible outcomes (22 addressed both. Synthesis of the available adjusted estimates on mortality yielded a summary relative risk of 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93-1.00 for teaching versus nonteaching healthcare structures and 1.04 (95% CI, 0.99-1.10 for minor teaching versus nonteaching ones. There was considerable heterogeneity between studies (I(2 = 72% for the main analysis. Results were similar in studies using clinical and those using administrative databases. No differences were seen in the 14 studies fully adjusting for volume/experience, severity, and comorbidity (relative risk 1.01. Smaller studies did not differ in their results from larger studies. Differences were seen for some diagnoses (e.g., significantly better survival for breast cancer and cerebrovascular accidents in teaching hospitals and significantly better survival from cholecystectomy in nonteaching hospitals, but these were small in magnitude. Other outcomes were diverse, but typically teaching healthcare structures did not do better than nonteaching ones. CONCLUSIONS: The

  4. Outcomes following splenectomy in patients with myeloid neoplasms. (United States)

    Rialon, Kristy L; Speicher, Paul J; Ceppa, Eugene P; Rendell, Victoria R; Vaslef, Steven N; Beaven, Anne; Tyler, Douglas S; Blazer, Dan G


    Myeloid neoplasms are classified into five major categories. These patients may develop splenomegaly and require splenectomy to alleviate mechanical symptoms, to ameliorate transfusion-dependent cytopenias, or to enhance stem cell transplantation. The objective of this study was to determine which clinical variables significantly impacted morbidity, mortality, and survival in patients with myeloid neoplasms undergoing splenectomy, and to determine if operative outcomes have improved over time. The records of all patients with myeloid neoplasms undergoing splenectomy from 1993 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Eighty-nine patients (n = 89) underwent splenectomy for myeloid neoplasms. Over half of patients who had symptoms preoperatively had resolution of their symptoms post-splenectomy. The morbidity rate was 38%, with the most common complications being bleeding (14%) or infection (20%). Thirty-day mortality rate was 18% and median survival after splenectomy was 278 days. Decreased survival was associated with a diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome/myeloproliferative neoplasm, anemia, abnormal white blood cell count, and hypoalbuminemia. Patients who underwent stem cell transplantation did not show an increased risk for morbidity or mortality. Patients with myeloid neoplasms have a poor prognosis after splenectomy and the decision to operate is a difficult one, associated with high morbidity and mortality. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A Draft Conceptual Framework of Relevant Theories to Inform Future Rigorous Research on Student Service-Learning Outcomes (United States)

    Whitley, Meredith A.


    While the quality and quantity of research on service-learning has increased considerably over the past 20 years, researchers as well as governmental and funding agencies have called for more rigor in service-learning research. One key variable in improving rigor is using relevant existing theories to improve the research. The purpose of this…

  6. Predictors of posttreatment drinking outcomes in patients with alcohol dependence. (United States)

    Flórez, Gerardo; Saiz, Pilar A; García-Portilla, Paz; De Cos, Francisco J; Dapía, Sonia; Alvarez, Sandra; Nogueiras, Luis; Bobes, Julio


    This cohort study examined how predictors of alcohol dependence treatment outcomes work together over time by comparing pretreatment and posttreatment predictors. A sample of 274 alcohol-dependent patients was recruited and assessed at baseline, 6 months after treatment initiation (end of the active intervention phase), and 18 months after treatment initiation (end of the 12-month research follow-up phase). At each assessment point, the participants completed a battery of standardized tests [European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI), Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS), Alcohol Timeline Followback (TLFB), Fagerström, and International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE)] that measured symptom severity and consequences; biological markers of alcohol consumption were also tested at each assessment point. A sequential strategy with univariate and multivariate analyses was used to identify how pretreatment and posttreatment predictors influence outcomes up to 1 year after treatment. Pretreatment variables had less predictive power than posttreatment ones. OCDS scores and biological markers of alcohol consumption were the most significant variables for the prediction of posttreatment outcomes. Prior pharmacotherapy treatment and relapse prevention interventions were also associated with posttreatment outcomes. The findings highlight the positive impact of pharmacotherapy during the first 6 months after treatment initiation and of relapse prevention during the first year after treatment and how posttreatment predictors are more important than pretreatment predictors.

  7. Visual outcome in Japanese patients with Acanthamoeba keratitis. (United States)

    Yamazoe, K; Yamamoto, Y; Shimazaki-Den, S; Shimazaki, J


    To identify prognostic factors affecting visual outcome in Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) treated with topical chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG). A total of 35 eyes in 34 patients with AK were treated with 0.02% topical CHG. Patients were divided into two groups according to the final visual outcome: Group 1, final visual acuity (VA) of 20/25 or greater (22 eyes); Group 2, less than 20/25 (13 eyes). We compared these groups and evaluated the effectiveness of topical CHG compared with outcomes in previous reports. Ring infiltrate was observed more often in Group 2 (4.5% vs 61.5%, OR 33.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-333.9, PAK was significantly longer (24.9 days vs 48.4 days, OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.06, P = 0.04) and VA at initial examination (log MAR) significantly lower (0.47 vs 1.59, OR 25.5, 95% CI 3.4-186.7, PAK. Topical CHG was comparably effective to other treatments, including polyhexamethyl biguanide and propamidine isethionate.

  8. Using Outcomes to Analyze Patients Rather than Patients to Analyze Outcomes: A Step toward Pragmatism in Benefit:risk Evaluation (United States)

    Evans, Scott R.; Follmann, Dean


    In the future, clinical trials will have an increased emphasis on pragmatism, providing a practical description of the effects of new treatments in realistic clinical settings. Accomplishing pragmatism requires better summaries of the totality of the evidence in ways that clinical trials consumers---patients, physicians, insurers---find transparent and allow for informed benefit:risk decision-making. The current approach to the analysis of clinical trials is to analyze efficacy and safety separately and then combine these analyses into a benefit:risk assessment. Many assume that this will effectively describe the impact on patients. But this approach is suboptimal for evaluating the totality of effects on patients. We discuss methods for benefit:risk assessment that have greater pragmatism than methods that separately analyze efficacy and safety. These include the concepts of within-patient analyses and composite benefit:risk endpoints with a goal of understanding how to analyze one patient before trying to figure out how to analyze many. We discuss the desirability of outcome ranking (DOOR) and introduce the partial credit strategy using an example in a clinical trial evaluating the effects of a new antibiotic. As part of the example we introduce a strategy to engage patients as a resource to inform benefit:risk analyses consistent with the goal of measuring and weighing outcomes that are most important from the patient’s perspective. We describe a broad vision for the future of clinical trials consistent with increased pragmatism. Greater focus on using endpoints to analyze patients rather than patients to analyze endpoints particularly in late-phase/stage clinical trials is an important part of this vision. PMID:28435515

  9. Perceived Social Isolation and Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure. (United States)

    Manemann, Sheila M; Chamberlain, Alanna M; Roger, Véronique L; Griffin, Joan M; Boyd, Cynthia M; Cudjoe, Thomas K M; Jensen, Daniel; Weston, Susan A; Fabbri, Matteo; Jiang, Ruoxiang; Finney Rutten, Lila J


    Perceived social isolation has been shown to have a negative impact on health outcomes, particularly among older adults. However, these relationships have not been fully examined among patients with heart failure. Residents from 11 southeast Minnesota counties with a first-ever International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision ( ICD-9 ) code 428 for heart failure between January 1, 2013, and March 31, 2015 (N=3867), were prospectively surveyed to measure perceived social isolation. A total of 2003 patients returned the survey (response rate, 52%); 1681 patients completed all questions and were retained for analysis. Among these patients (53% men; mean age, 73 years), ≈19% (n=312) had moderate perceived social isolation and 6% (n=108) had high perceived social isolation. After adjustment, patients reporting moderate perceived social isolation did not have an increased risk of death, hospitalizations, or emergency department visits compared with patients reporting low perceived social isolation; however, patients reporting high perceived social isolation had >3.5 times increased risk of death (hazard ratio, 3.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.82-7.70), 68% increased risk of hospitalization (hazard ratio, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.18-2.39), and 57% increased risk of emergency department visits (hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.09-2.27). Compared with patients who self-reported low perceived social isolation, patients reporting moderate perceived social isolation had a 16% increased risk of outpatient visits (rate ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.03-1.31), whereas those reporting high perceived social isolation had a 26% increased risk (rate ratio, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04-1.53). In patients with heart failure, greater perceived social isolation is associated with an increased risk of death and healthcare use. Assessing perceived social isolation during the clinical encounter with a brief screening tool may help identify patients with heart failure at greater risk of poor outcomes.

  10. Hearing outcomes in patients with cleft lip/palate. (United States)

    Skuladottir, Hildur; Sivertsen, Ase; Assmus, Jorg; Remme, Asa Rommetveit; Dahlen, Marianne; Vindenes, Hallvard


    Objective : Children with cleft lip and palate or cleft palate only have a high incidence of conductive hearing loss from otitis media with effusion. Studies demonstrating longitudinal results are lacking. This study was undertaken to investigate long-term longitudinal hearing outcomes of children with cleft lip and/or cleft palate and cleft palate only. Design : Retrospective chart review. Setting : Clinical charts of patients born with cleft lip and palate or cleft palate only in 1985 to 1994 who were referred to the cleft team in Bergen, Norway. Study findings include 15 years of follow-up. Participants : The study population consisted of 317 children of whom 159 had nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate and 158 had nonsyndromic cleft palate. Main Outcome Measures : Pure tone average calculated from pure tone audiometry at ages 4, 6, and 15 years. Results : The median pure tone average significantly improved with increasing age. For the cleft lip and palate group, the median pure tone average at ages 4, 6, and 15 years was 16 dB hearing level (HL), 13 dB HL, and 9 dB HL, respectively (P ≤ .001). In the cleft palate group the median pure tone average at ages 4, 6, and 15 years was 15 dB HL, 12 dB HL, and 9 dB HL, respectively (P ≤ .001). There was no significant difference in the hearing levels between the two groups. Patients who had surgical closure of the palate at age 18 months had a significantly better pure tone average outcome at age 15 compared with patients who had surgery at 12 months. Conclusions : Hearing improves significantly from childhood to adolescence in patients with cleft lip and palate and cleft palate only.

  11. Ceftizoxime use in trauma celiotomy: pharmacokinetics and patient outcomes. (United States)

    Rosemurgy, A S; Dillon, K R; Kurto, H A; Albrink, M H


    Seriously injured patients undergo vigorous resuscitation upon arrival at the emergency department and through the immediate perioperative period. Although resuscitation leads to volume loading and fluid shifts, drug dosing and dosing intervals are often not altered to account for changes in total body volume or circulatory volume. To address this, a prospective study of pharmacokinetics of ceftizoxime in 53 injured adults who underwent emergency celiotomy was conducted. Further, the relationship between serum ceftizoxime concentrations and infectious outcomes was evaluated. Per protocol, injured adults undergoing emergency celiotomy received prophylactic ceftizoxime treatment according to standard dosing regimens. Of the patients, 6 (11.5%) experienced postoperative infections and had lower peak serum ceftizoxime levels in the recovery room than patients not experiencing infection. For severely injured adults with extensive blood loss or undergoing lengthy operations requiring rigorous volume resuscitation, doses of ceftizoxime, and indeed all antibiotics, may need to be increased beyond conventional standards to minimize infectious complications.

  12. Identification and content validation of wound therapy clinical endpoints relevant to clinical practice and patient values for FDA approval. Part 1. Survey of the wound care community. (United States)

    Driver, Vickie R; Gould, Lisa J; Dotson, Peggy; Gibbons, Gary W; Li, William W; Ennis, William J; Kirsner, Robert S; Eaglstein, William H; Bolton, Laura L; Carter, Marissa J


    Wounds that exhibit delayed healing add extraordinary clinical, economic, and personal burdens to patients, as well as to increasing financial costs to health systems. New interventions designed to ease such burdens for patients with cancer, renal, or ophthalmologic conditions are often cleared for approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) using multiple endpoints but the requirement of complete healing as a primary endpoint for wound products impedes FDA clearance of interventions that can provide other clinical or patient-centered benefits for persons with wounds. A multidisciplinary group of wound experts undertook an initiative, in collaboration with the FDA, to identify and content validate supporting FDA criteria for qualifying wound endpoints relevant to clinical practice (CP) and patient-centered outcomes (PCO) as primary outcomes in clinical trials. As part of the initiative, a research study was conducted involving 628 multidisciplinary expert wound clinicians and researchers from 4 different groups: the interdisciplinary core advisory team; attendees of the Spring 2015 Symposium on Advanced Wound Care (SAWC); clinicians employed by a national network of specialty clinics focused on comprehensive wound care; and Association for the Advancement of Wound Care (AAWC) and Wound Healing Society (WHS) members who had not previously completed the survey. The online survey assessed 28 literature-based wound care endpoints for their relevance and importance to clinical practice and clinical research. Fifteen of the endpoints were evaluated for their relevance to improving quality of life. Twenty-two endpoints had content validity indexes (CVI) ≥ 0.75, and 15 were selected as meriting potential inclusion as additional endpoints for FDA approval of future wound care interventions. This study represents an important first step in identifying and validating new measurable wound care endpoints for clinical research and practice and for regulatory

  13. Initial constructs for patient-centered outcome measures to evaluate brain-computer interfaces. (United States)

    Andresen, Elena M; Fried-Oken, Melanie; Peters, Betts; Patrick, Donald L


    The authors describe preliminary work toward the creation of patient-centered outcome (PCO) measures to evaluate brain-computer interface (BCI) as an assistive technology (AT) for individuals with severe speech and physical impairments (SSPI). In Phase 1, 591 items from 15 existing measures were mapped to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). In Phase 2, qualitative interviews were conducted with eight people with SSPI and seven caregivers. Resulting text data were coded in an iterative analysis. Most items (79%) were mapped to the ICF environmental domain; over half (53%) were mapped to more than one domain. The ICF framework was well suited for mapping items related to body functions and structures, but less so for items in other areas, including personal factors. Two constructs emerged from qualitative data: quality of life (QOL) and AT. Component domains and themes were identified for each. Preliminary constructs, domains and themes were generated for future PCO measures relevant to BCI. Existing instruments are sufficient for initial items but do not adequately match the values of people with SSPI and their caregivers. Field methods for interviewing people with SSPI were successful, and support the inclusion of these individuals in PCO research. Implications for Rehabilitation Adapted interview methods allow people with severe speech and physical impairments to participate in patient-centered outcomes research. Patient-centered outcome measures are needed to evaluate the clinical implementation of brain-computer interface as an assistive technology.

  14. High intensity exercise or conventional exercise for patients with rheumatoid arthritis? Outcome expectations of patients, rheumatologists, and physiotherapists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, M.; de Jong, Z.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Ronday, H. K.; van den Ende, C. H. M.; Vliet Vlieland, T. P. M.; Hazes, J. M. W.


    OBJECTIVE: To examine the outcome expectations of RA patients, rheumatologists, and physiotherapists regarding high intensity exercise programmes compared with conventional exercise programmes. METHODS: An exercise outcome expectations questionnaire was administered to 807 RA patients, 153

  15. Characteristics and Outcomes of Elderly Patients Refused to ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Consuelo Pintado


    Full Text Available Background. There are few data regarding the process of deciding which elderly patients are refused to ICU admission, their characteristics, and outcome. Methods. Prospective longitudinal observational cohort study. We included all consecutive patients older than 75 years, who were evaluated for admission to but were refused to treatment in ICU, during 18 months, with 12-month followup. We collected demographic data, ICU admission/refusal reasons, previous functional and cognitive status, comorbidity, severity of illness, and hospital and 12-month mortality. Results. 338 elderly patients were evaluated for ICU admission and 88 were refused to ICU (26%. Patients refused because they were “too ill to benefit” had more comorbidity and worse functional and mental situation than those admitted to ICU; there were no differences in illness severity. Hospital mortality rate of the whole study cohort was 36.3%, higher in patients “too ill to benefit” (55.6% versus 35.8%, P<0.01, which also have higher 1-year mortality (73.7% versus 42.5%, P<0.01. High comorbidity, low functional status, unavailable ICU beds, and age were associated with refusal decision on multivariate analysis. Conclusions. Prior functional status and comorbidity, not only the age or severity of illness, can help us more to make the right decision of admitting or refusing to ICU patients older than 75 years.

  16. Patient- and clinician- reported outcome in eating disorders. (United States)

    Winkler, Laura Al-Dakhiel; Frølich, Jacob Stampe; Gudex, Claire; Hørder, Kirsten; Bilenberg, Niels; Støving, René Klinkby


    Patient-reported outcome is increasingly applied in health sciences. Patients with eating disorders (EDs) characteristically have a different opinion of their needs to that of the health professionals, which can lead to ambivalence towards treatment and immense compliance difficulties. This cross-sectional study compared data assessed by the clinician to patient-reported measures in patients with a history of EDs. We included data from a cohort of patients with EDs (n=544) referred to a specialized ED unit in Denmark. Patient-reported measures included the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2) and the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and clinical data included remission status and body mass index (BMI). We found a positive association between BMI and EDI-2 scores for anorexia nervosa (AN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), reflecting increasing ED symptomatology with increasing BMI. This association was not observed in bulimia nervosa (BN). We did not find a correlation between SF-36 scores and BMI in any of the diagnostic groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hypoalbuminaemia predicts outcome in adult patients with congenital heart disease (United States)

    Kempny, Aleksander; Diller, Gerhard-Paul; Alonso-Gonzalez, Rafael; Uebing, Anselm; Rafiq, Isma; Li, Wei; Swan, Lorna; Hooper, James; Donovan, Jackie; Wort, Stephen J; Gatzoulis, Michael A; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos


    Background In patients with acquired heart failure, hypoalbuminaemia is associated with increased risk of death. The prevalence of hypoproteinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia and their relation to outcome in adult patients with congenital heart disease (ACHD) remains, however, unknown. Methods Data on patients with ACHD who underwent blood testing in our centre within the last 14 years were collected. The relation between laboratory, clinical or demographic parameters at baseline and mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results A total of 2886 patients with ACHD were included. Mean age was 33.3 years (23.6–44.7) and 50.1% patients were men. Median plasma albumin concentration was 41.0 g/L (38.0–44.0), whereas hypoalbuminaemia (disease complexity, hypoalbuminaemia remained a significant predictor of death. Conclusions Hypoalbuminaemia is common in patients with ACHD and is associated with a threefold increased risk of risk of death. Hypoalbuminaemia, therefore, should be included in risk-stratification algorithms as it may assist management decisions and timing of interventions in the growing ACHD population. PMID:25736048

  18. Does outcome of neuropsychological treatment in patients with unilateral spatial neglect after stroke affect functional outcome? (United States)

    Matano, A; Iosa, M; Guariglia, C; Pizzamiglio, L; Paolucci, S


    Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) after stroke is associated to severe disability and to a poor rehabilitation outcome. However it is still unclear if a reduction of USN after a specific neurophsycological treatment could also favor the functional recovery. The first aim of this study was to determine if low responders to neuropsychological treatment of unilateral spatial neglect may have a worse functional prognosis for activities of daily living. The second aim was to investigate which variables can predict a low response to neuropsychological treatment. Observational study. Neurorehabilitation hospital in Italy. Two hundred inpatients with the diagnosis of ischemic stroke were screened in this observational study. Inclusion criteria were: patients in subacute phase of first ischemic stroke in right hemisphere. Exclusion criteria were: presence of previous and/or other disabling pathologies, medical conditions contraindicating physical therapy. Data of 73 patients who performed neurorehabilitation and visual scanning training for reducing USN were analysed, while the remaining others were excluded for at least one of the following reasons: hemorrhagic lesions, presence of other chronic disabling pathologies, contraindications for therapy. USN was evaluated using: Letter Cancellation Test, Barrage Test, Sentence Reading Test and Wundt-Jastrow Area Illusion Test. Barthel Index (BI), Beck Depression Inventory, and Canadian Neurological Scale were also administered. According to the aim of the study, forward binary logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the effects of different factors on functional recovery. Three factors were identified as predictors of low effectiveness in terms of BI-score: older age (odds ratio OR=9.882, P=0.002), severity of disease at admission (OR=12.594, P=0.002) and being low responders to neuropsychological treatment (OR=3.847, P=0.027). Further, the initial barrage score (OR=3.313, P=0.027) and the initial BI-score (OR=3.252, P=0

  19. Treatment outcomes of definitive chemoradiotherapy for patients with hypopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Rie; Kodaira, Takeshi; Furutani, Kazuhisa


    We analyzed the efficacy of definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for patients with hypopharyngeal cancer (HPC). Subjects comprised 97 patients who were treated with definitive CRT from 1990 to 2006. Sixty-one patients (62.9%) with resectable disease who aimed to preserve the larynx received induction chemotherapy (ICT), whereas 36 patients (37.1%) with resectable disease who refused an operation or who had unresectable disease received primary alternating CRT or concurrent CRT (non-ICT). The median dose to the primary lesion was 66 Gy. The median follow-up time was 77 months. The 5-year rates of overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), local control (LC), and laryngeal preservation were 68.7%, 57.5%, 79.1%, and 70.3%, respectively. The T-stage was a significant prognostic factor in terms of OS, PFS and LC in both univariate and multivariate analyses. The 5-year rates of PFS were 45.4% for the ICT group and 81.9% for the non-ICT group. The difference between these groups was significant with univariate analysis (P=0.006). Acute toxicity of Grade 3 to 4 was observed in 34 patients (35.1%). Grade 3 dysphagia occurred in 20 patients (20.6%). Twenty-nine (29.8%) of 44 patients with second primary cancer had esophageal cancer. Seventeen of 29 patients had manageable superficial esophageal cancer. The clinical efficacy of definitive CRT for HPC is thought to be promising in terms of not only organ preservation but also disease control. Second primary cancer may have a clinical impact on the outcome for HPC patients, and special care should be taken when screening at follow-up. (author)

  20. Obesity and Outcomes among Patients with Established Atrial Fibrillation (United States)

    Ardestani, Afrooz; Hoffman, Heather J.; Cooper, Howard A.


    Atrial fibrillation (AF) and obesity have both reached epidemic proportions. The impact of obesity on clinical outcomes in patients with established AF is unknown. We analyzed 2492 patients in the Atrial Fibrillation Follow-Up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) study. Body mass index (BMI) was evaluated as a categorical variable (normal: 18.5 to <25; overweight: 25 to <30; obese: ≥ 30). The rate of death from any cause was higher in the normal BMI group (5.8 per 100 patient-years) than in the overweight and obese groups (3.9 and 3.7, respectively). The cardiovascular death rate was highest in the normal BMI group (3.1 per 100 patient-years), lowest in the overweight group (1.5 per 100 patient-years), and intermediate in the obese group (2.1 per 100 patient-years). After adjustment for baseline factors, differences in the risk of death from any cause were no longer significant. However, overweight remained associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular death (Hazard ratio 0.47, p=0.002). Obese patients were more likely to have an uncontrolled resting heart rate, but rhythm control strategy success was similar across BMI categories. In each of the BMI categories, the risk of death from any cause was similar for patients randomized to a rhythm or a rate control strategy. In conclusion, among patients with established AF, overweight and obesity do not adversely affect overall survival. Obesity does not appear to impact the relative benefit of a rate or rhythm control strategy. PMID:20643247

  1. Severe Blunt Hepatic Trauma in Polytrauma Patient - Management and Outcome. (United States)

    Doklestić, Krstina; Djukić, Vladimir; Ivančević, Nenad; Gregorić, Pavle; Lončar, Zlatibor; Stefanović, Branislava; Jovanović, Dušan; Karamarković, Aleksandar


    Despite the fact that treatment of liver injuries has dramatically evolved, severe liver traumas in polytraumatic patients still have a significant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine the options for surgical management of severe liver trauma as well as the outcome. In this retrospective study 70 polytraumatic patients with severe (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma [AAST] grade III-V) blunt liver injuries were operated on at the Clinic for Emergency Surgery. Mean age of patients was 48.26±16.80 years; 82.8% of patients were male. Road traffic accident was the leading cause of trauma, seen in 63 patients (90.0%). Primary repair was performed in 36 patients (51.4%), while damage control with perihepatic packing was done in 34 (48.6%). Complications related to the liver occurred in 14 patients (20.0%). Liver related mortality was 17.1%. Non-survivors had a significantly higher AAST grade (p=0.0001), higher aspartate aminotransferase level (p=0.01), lower hemoglobin level (p=0.0001), associated brain injury (p=0.0001), perioperative complications (p=0.001) and higher transfusion score (p=0.0001). The most common cause of mortality in the "early period" was uncontrolled bleeding, in the "late period" mortality was caused by sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Patients with high-grade liver trauma who present with hemorrhagic shock and associated severe injury should be managed operatively. Mortality from liver trauma is high for patients with higher AAST grade of injury, associated brain injury and massive transfusion score.

  2. Patient outcomes using Wii-enhanced rehabilitation after total knee replacement - the TKR-POWER study. (United States)

    Negus, J J; Cawthorne, D P; Chen, J S; Scholes, C J; Parker, D A; March, L M


    Home-based rehabilitation following total knee replacement surgery can be as effective as clinic-based or in-patient rehabilitation. The use of the Nintendo Wii has been postulated as a novel rehabilitation tool that adds an additional focus on balance and proprioception into the recovery protocol. The aim of the proposed clinical trial is to investigate the effectiveness of this novel rehabilitation tool, used at home for three months after total knee replacement surgery and to assess any lasting improvements in functional outcome at one year. This will be a randomised controlled trial of 128 patients undergoing primary total knee replacement. The participants will be recruited preoperatively from three surgeons at a single centre. There will be no change to the usual care provided until 6 weeks after the operation. Then participants will be randomised to either the Wii-Fit group or usual rehabilitative care group. Outcomes will be assessed preoperatively, a 6-week post surgery baseline and then at 18 weeks, 6 months and 1 year. The primary outcome is the change in self-reported WOMAC total score from week 6 to 18 weeks. Secondary outcomes include objective measures of strength, function and satisfaction scores. The results of this clinical trial will be directly relevant for implementation into clinical practice. If beneficial, this affordable technology could be used by many patients to rehabilitate at home. Not only could it optimize the outcomes from their total knee replacement surgery but decrease the need for clinic-based or outpatient therapy for the majority. (ACTRN12611000291987). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Peripheral Venous Access Ports: Outcomes Analysis in 109 Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodner, Leonard J.; Nosher, John L.; Patel, Kaushik M.; Siegel, Randall L.; Biswal, Rajiv; Gribbin, Christopher E.; Tokarz, Robert


    Purpose: To perform a retrospective outcomes analysis of central venous catheters with peripheral venous access ports, with comparison to published data.Methods: One hundred and twelve central venous catheters with peripherally placed access ports were placed under sonographic guidance in 109 patients over a 4-year period. Ports were placed for the administration of chemotherapy, hyperalimentation, long-term antibiotic therapy, gamma-globulin therapy, and frequent blood sampling. A vein in the upper arm was accessed in each case and the catheter was passed to the superior vena cava or right atrium. Povidone iodine skin preparation was used in the first 65 port insertions. A combination of Iodophor solution and povidone iodine solution was used in the last 47 port insertions. Forty patients received low-dose (1 mg) warfarin sodium beginning the day after port insertion. Three patients received higher doses of warfarin sodium for preexistent venous thrombosis. Catheter performance and complications were assessed and compared with published data.Results: Access into the basilic or brachial veins was obtained in all cases. Ports remained functional for a total of 28,936 patient days. The port functioned in 50% of patients until completion of therapy, or the patient's expiration. Ports were removed prior to completion of therapy in 18% of patients. Eleven patients (9.9% of ports placed) suffered an infectious complication (0.38 per thousand catheter-days)-in nine, at the port implantation site, in two along the catheter. In all 11 instances the port was removed. Port pocket infection in the early postoperative period occurred in three patients (4.7%) receiving a Betadine prep vs two patients (4.2%) receiving a standard O.R. prep. This difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.9). Venous thrombosis occurred in three patients (6.8%) receiving warfarin sodium and in two patients (3%) not receiving warfarin sodium. This difference was not statistically significant

  4. Patient reported outcome measures in male incontinence surgery. (United States)

    Tran, M G B; Yip, J; Uveili, K; Biers, S M; Thiruchelvam, N


    Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) were used to evaluate outcomes of the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) and the AdVance™ (American Medical Systems, Minnetonka, MN, US) male sling system (AVMS) for the symptomatic management of male stress urinary incontinence. All male patients with stress urinary incontinence referred to our specialist clinic over a two-year period completed the ICIQ-UI SF (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire on Urinary Incontinence Short Form) and the ICIQ-MLUTS LF (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire on Male Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Long Form) at consultation as well as at subsequent follow-up appointments. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test for non-parametric paired data was used for pre and postoperative comparisons. The chi-squared test was used for categorical variables. Thirty-seven patients (forty surgical cases) completed a preoperative and at least one follow-up questionnaire. There was a statistically significant improvement in PROMs postoperatively, regardless of mode of surgery (p25) had greater improvement with an AUS than with the AVMS (p<0.01). This prospective study shows that completion and collection of PROMs as part of routine clinical practice is achievable and useful in the assessment of male stress incontinence surgery. PROMs are important instruments to assess effectiveness of healthcare intervention and they are useful adjuncts in surgical studies.


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    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the Outcome of pregnancy in patients with threatened abortion. METHODS: A Prospective observational study was done on 106 pregnant women with threatened abortion. Out comes in the form of antenatal complications, mode of delivery and postnatal co mplications were noted. Analysis of the data was done using SPSS version 13. RESULTS: In the study of 106 patients 18% had spontaneous abortion. Pre - labour rupture of membranes were seen in 20% of patients and 21% had preterm labour. Threatened abortion di d not affect mode of delivery. PPROM, preterm births were more in women presenting with first trimester bleeding; PIH, PROM, and postpartum complications were more in women presenting beyond 20 weeks gestation though statistically not significant. 13.2% of women had heavy bleeding at admission out of which 50% aborted subsequently – significantly higher than the light bleeding group. CONCLUSION: The overall maternal and perinatal outcome in women with threatened abortion is suboptimal. Women with heavy blee ding are more likely to abort than women with light bleeding. Among the prognostic factors, only the amount of bleeding had significant prognostic accuracy

  6. Provider and Patient Directed Financial Incentives to Improve Care and Outcomes for Patients with Diabetes (United States)

    Lorincz, Ilona S.; Lawson, Brittany C. T.


    Incentive programs directed at both providers and patients have become increasingly widespread. Pay-for-performance (P4P) where providers receive financial incentives to carry out specific care or improve clinical outcomes has been widely implemented. The existing literature indicates they probably spur initial gains which then level off or partially revert if incentives are withdrawn. The literature also indicates that process measures are easier to influence through P4P programs but that intermediate outcomes such as glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol control are harder to influence, and the long term impact of P4P programs on health is largely unknown. Programs directed at patients show greater promise as a means to influence patient behavior and intermediate outcomes such as weight loss; however, the evidence for long term effects are lacking. In combination, both patient and provider incentives are potentially powerful tools but whether they are cost-effective has yet to be determined. PMID:23225214

  7. Treatment choices and outcomes of patients with manometrically diagnosed achalasia. (United States)

    Yeung, J C; Finley, C; Hanna, W C; Miller, L; Ferri, L; Urbach, D R; Darling, G E


    This prospective population-based study was designed to evaluate treatment choices in patients with new manometrically diagnosed achalasia and their outcomes. Patients referred to the esophageal function laboratory were enrolled after a new manometric diagnosis of achalasia. Patients completed an initial achalasia symptom score validated questionnaire on their symptom severity, duration, treatment pre-diagnosis and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form (SF-36) survey. Treatment decisions were made by the referring physician and the patient. Follow-up questionnaires were completed every 3 months for 1 year. Patients who chose not to undergo treatment at 1-year follow-up completed another questionnaire after 5 years. Between January 2004 and January 2005, 83 of 124 eligible patients were enrolled. Heller myotomy was performed on 31 patients, three patients received botulinum toxin injections, and 25 patients received 29 pneumatic balloon dilatations. Twenty-four patients chose to receive no treatment. Following treatment, patients treated with surgery, dilatation and botulinum toxin had an average improvement in achalasia symptom score of 23 +/- 12.2, 17 +/- 10.9, and 9 +/- 14, respectively. Patients receiving no treatment had worsening symptoms with a symptom score change of -3.5 +/- 11.4. Surgery and dilatation resulted in significant improvement (P treatment. In univariate logistic regression, symptom severity score (odds ratio [OR] 1.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00 to 1.08), sphincter tone (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.09), difficulty swallowing liquids (OR 3.21, 95% 1.15 to 8.99), waking from sleep (OR 2.75, 95% 1.00 to 7.61), and weight loss (OR 5.99, 95% CI 1.93 to 18.58) were all significant in predicting that patients would select treatment. In the multivariate analysis, older age (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.09) and weight loss (OR 3.91, 95% CI 1.02 to 15.2) were statistically significant for undergoing treatment. At 5 years, five (21%) of those who

  8. Impact of Molecular Diagnostics for Tuberculosis on Patient-Important Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Study Methodologies.

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    Samuel G Schumacher

    Full Text Available Several reviews on the accuracy of Tuberculosis (TB Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests (NAATs have been performed but the evidence on their impact on patient-important outcomes has not been systematically reviewed. Given the recent increase in research evaluating such outcomes and the growing list of TB NAATs that will reach the market over the coming years, there is a need to bring together the existing evidence on impact, rather than accuracy. We aimed to assess the approaches that have been employed to measure the impact of TB NAATs on patient-important outcomes in adults with possible pulmonary TB and/or drug-resistant TB.We first develop a conceptual framework to clarify through which mechanisms the improved technical performance of a novel TB test may lead to improved patient outcomes and outline which designs may be used to measure them. We then systematically review the literature on studies attempting to assess the impact of molecular TB diagnostics on such outcomes and provide a narrative synthesis of designs used, outcomes assessed and risk of bias across different study designs.We found 25 eligible studies that assessed a wide range of outcomes and utilized a variety of experimental and observational study designs. Many potentially strong design options have never been used. We found that much of the available evidence on patient-important outcomes comes from a small number of settings with particular epidemiological and operational context and that confounding, time trends and incomplete outcome data receive insufficient attention.A broader range of designs should be considered when designing studies to assess the impact of TB diagnostics on patient outcomes and more attention needs to be paid to the analysis as concerns about confounding and selection bias become relevant in addition to those on measurement that are of greatest concern in accuracy studies.

  9. Epidemiology and outcome of tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients. (United States)

    Metry, Abdul Massiah; Al Salmi, Issa; Al-Abri, Seif; Al Ismaili, Faisal; Al Mahrouqi, Yaqoub; Hola, Alan; Shaheen, Faissal A M


    The United States Renal Data System showed 1.2% and 1.6% incidences of tuberculosis (TB) in patients on peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis (HD), respectively. Kidney transplant (KTX) patients have higher rates. We studied the epidemiology and outcome of TB in patients with kidney dysfunction in a tertiary care hospital in the past decade. We examined data of patients with TB with and without kidney dysfunction from 2006 to 2015 through an electronic system. Statistical analysis was completed using Stata software, Chicago, IL, USA. We found 581 patients with active TB of whom 37 had renal dysfunction including chronic kidney disease, HD, and KTX. No difference was found in the prevalence, age, or gender predilection. The age ranged from 1 to 95 with a mean (standard deviation) of 38.6 (21.1) years. The incidence of TB is 3 per 100,000. The number of patients per year with active TB ranges from 52 to 128 and 3 to 4 in the general population and kidney dysfunction group, respectively. Sixty-five percent of patients with kidney dysfunction had pulmonary TB, 5% had pleurisy, and 30% had extrapulmonary TB. Eighty-four percent of patients with kidney dysfunction completed the course of treatment with 16% treatment failure and 0.4% developed multidrug-resistant TB; 8% were lost to follow-up and 8% died during the treatment period. This study showed no gender predilection for TB in the general population and immunocompromised. Duration of symptoms before diagnosis of TB was shorter in kidney dysfunction patients in comparison to the general population. TB cultures were the most positive tests whereas bronchoalveolar lavage and skin test were the least positive for detecting TB in the kidney dysfunction group. Improvement in registries and screening is required to enhance the capturing rate and detection among this group, as well as providing accurate data to health authorities and the public about the magnitude, future trends, treatments, and outcomes regarding TB in

  10. Epidemiology and outcome of tuberculosis in immunocompromised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Massiah Metry


    Full Text Available The United States Renal Data System showed 1.2% and 1.6% incidences of tuberculosis (TB in patients on peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis (HD, respectively. Kidney transplant (KTX patients have higher rates. We studied the epidemiology and outcome of TB in patients with kidney dysfunction in a tertiary care hospital in the past decade. We examined data of patients with TB with and without kidney dysfunction from 2006 to 2015 through an electronic system. Statistical analysis was completed using Stata software, Chicago, IL, USA. We found 581 patients with active TB of whom 37 had renal dysfunction including chronic kidney disease, HD, and KTX. No difference was found in the prevalence, age, or gender predilection. The age ranged from 1 to 95 with a mean (standard deviation of 38.6 (21.1 years. The incidence of TB is 3 per 100,000. The number of patients per year with active TB ranges from 52 to 128 and 3 to 4 in the general population and kidney dysfunction group, respectively. Sixty-five percent of patients with kidney dysfunction had pulmonary TB, 5% had pleurisy, and 30% had extrapulmonary TB. Eighty-four percent of patients with kidney dysfunction completed the course of treatment with 16% treatment failure and 0.4% developed multidrug-resistant TB; 8% were lost to follow-up and 8% died during the treatment period. This study showed no gender predilection for TB in the general population and immunocompromised. Duration of symptoms before diagnosis of TB was shorter in kidney dysfunction patients in comparison to the general population. TB cultures were the most positive tests whereas bronchoalveolar lavage and skin test were the least positive for detecting TB in the kidney dysfunction group. Improvement in registries and screening is required to enhance the capturing rate and detection among this group, as well as providing accurate data to health authorities and the public about the magnitude, future trends, treatments, and outcomes

  11. Outcomes in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Orbital Atherectomy System. (United States)

    Lee, Michael S; Shlofmitz, Evan; Nguyen, Heajung; Shlofmitz, Richard A


    We evaluated the angiographic and clinical outcomes of orbital atherectomy to treat severely calcified coronary lesions in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Diabetics have increased risk for death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization after percutaneous coronary intervention. Severely calcified coronary lesions are associated with increased cardiac events. Orbital atherectomy facilitates stent delivery and optimizes stent expansion by modifying severely calcified plaque. Outcomes in diabetic patients who undergo orbital atherectomy have not been reported. Our retrospective multicenter registry included 458 consecutive real-world patients with severely calcified coronary arteries who underwent orbital atherectomy. The primary safety endpoint was the rate of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events at 30 days. Diabetics represented 42.1% (193/458) of the entire cohort. The primary endpoint was similar in diabetics and non-diabetics (1.0% vs. 3.0%%, P = 0.20), as were 30-day rates of death (0.5% vs. 1.9%, P = 0.41), myocardial infarction (0.5% vs. 1.5%, P = 0.40), target vessel revascularization (0% vs. 0%, P = 1), and stroke (0% vs. 0.4%, P > 0.9). Angiographic complications and stent thrombosis rate were low and did not differ between the 2 groups. Diabetics represented a sizeable portion of patients who underwent orbital atherectomy. Diabetics who had severely calcified coronary arteries and underwent orbital atherectomy had low event rates that were similar to non-diabetics. Orbital atherectomy appears to be a viable treatment strategy for diabetic patients. Randomized trials with longer-term follow-up are needed to determine the ideal treatment strategy for diabetics. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Impact of weight bias and stigma on quality of care and outcomes for patients with obesity. (United States)

    Phelan, S M; Burgess, D J; Yeazel, M W; Hellerstedt, W L; Griffin, J M; van Ryn, M


    The objective of this study was to critically review the empirical evidence from all relevant disciplines regarding obesity stigma in order to (i) determine the implications of obesity stigma for healthcare providers and their patients with obesity and (ii) identify strategies to improve care for patients with obesity. We conducted a search of Medline and PsychInfo for all peer-reviewed papers presenting original empirical data relevant to stigma, bias, discrimination, prejudice and medical care. We then performed a narrative review of the existing empirical evidence regarding the impact of obesity stigma and weight bias for healthcare quality and outcomes. Many healthcare providers hold strong negative attitudes and stereotypes about people with obesity. There is considerable evidence that such attitudes influence person-perceptions, judgment, interpersonal behaviour and decision-making. These attitudes may impact the care they provide. Experiences of or expectations for poor treatment may cause stress and avoidance of care, mistrust of doctors and poor adherence among patients with obesity. Stigma can reduce the quality of care for patients with obesity despite the best intentions of healthcare providers to provide high-quality care. There are several potential intervention strategies that may reduce the impact of obesity stigma on quality of care. © 2015 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Association for the Study of Obesity (IASO).

  13. Outcomes of Corpectomy in Patients with Metastatic Cancer. (United States)

    Guzik, Grzegorz


    The objective of surgical management of spinal metastases is to reduce pain and improve the patient's quality of life. The operation should restore spinal stability and decompress neural structures. One surgical technique is corpectomy followed by vertebral body reconstruction and stabilisation of the spine. The procedure may be performed in patients in overall good health and a good survival prognosis. The aim of this paper is to present the outcomes of surgical management of spinal metastases in patients who underwent corpectomy followed by vertebral body reconstruction and stabilisation of the spine. The aim of the study was achieved by analysing medical histories of 124 patients with spinal metastases treated in the Oncological Orthopaedics Department in Brzozów in the period 2010-2015. The majority of patients in the group were women, who represented 64% of all the subjects. The average age was 63 years for women and 67 for men. The metastases were most frequently produced by breast cancer (36%) and myeloma (22%). A total of 87% of the group were diagnosed with pathologic fractures and 92% had spinal instability. Stenosis of the spinal canal was found in 78% of the patients. The surgeries were performed in 18 persons with metastases to the cervical spine, 69 patients with metastases to the thoracic spine and 37 participants with metastases to the lumbar spine. Single-level corpectomies were performed in 83 patients and multilevel corpectomies in 41 persons. Parameters analysed comprised overall health condition, neurological function (the Frankel Grade) and performance status (the Karnofsky score) of the patients. A VAS was used to assess the intensity of pain. The course of the operation and complications were also analysed. Following the surgeries, the average VAS pain score decreased from 7.2 to 3.8. Performance improved from a Karnofsky score of 50.26 to 68.65. Neurological function improved in 21 out of 34 patients with pareses. The average duration of

  14. Association between organisational and workplace cultures, and patient outcomes: systematic review protocol. (United States)

    Braithwaite, J; Herkes, J; Ludlow, K; Lamprell, G; Testa, L


    Despite widespread interest in the topic, no current synthesis of research is available analysing the linkages between organisational or workplace cultures on the one hand, and patient outcomes on the other. This protocol proposes a systematic review to analyse and synthesise the literature to date on this topic. The resulting review will discuss characteristics of included studies in terms of the type of healthcare settings researched, the measurements of organisational and workplace culture, patient outcomes measured and the influence of these cultures on patient outcomes. A systematic review will be conducted aiming to examine the associations between organisational and workplace cultures, and patient outcomes, guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) statement. An English language search of abstracts will be executed using the following academic databases: CINAHL, EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science and PsycINFO. The review will include relevant peer-reviewed articles from randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-RCTs, controlled before and after studies, interrupted time series studies, cross-sectional analyses, qualitative studies and mixed-method studies. Multiple researchers will be involved in assessing the quality of articles for inclusion in the review. This protocol documents a detailed search strategy, including terms and inclusion criteria, which will form the basis of the subsequent systematic review. Ethics approval is not required as no primary data will be collected. Results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and conference presentations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  15. The impact of patient-reported outcome measures in clinical practice for pain: a systematic review. (United States)

    Holmes, Michelle M; Lewith, George; Newell, David; Field, Jonathan; Bishop, Felicity L


    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) have increasingly been incorporated into clinical practice. Research suggests that PROMs could be viewed as active components of complex interventions and may affect the process and outcome of care. This systematic review examines PROMs in the context of treatment for non-malignant pain. An electronic search on: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Cochrane Library and Web of Science identified relevant papers (February 2015). The inclusion criteria were: focused on implementing PROMs into clinical practice, adults, and primary data studies. Critical interpretive synthesis was used to synthesise qualitative and quantitative findings into a theoretical argument. Thirteen eligible studies were identified. Synthesis suggested that PROMs may be included in the initial consultation to assess patients and for shared decision-making regarding patient care. During the course of treatment, PROMs can be used to track progress, evaluate treatment, and change the course of care; using PROMs may also influence the therapeutic relationship. Post-treatment, using PROMs might directly influence other outcomes such as pain and patient satisfaction. However, although studies have investigated these areas, evidence is weak and inconclusive. Due to the poor quality, lack of generalisability and heterogeneity of these studies, it is not possible to provide a comprehensive understanding of how PROMs may impact clinical treatment of non-malignant pain. The literature suggests that PROMs enable pain assessment, decision-making, the therapeutic relationship, evaluation of treatment and may influence outcomes. Further research is needed to provide better evidence as to whether PROMs do indeed have any effects on these domains.

  16. Outcomes of Late Implantation in Usher Syndrome Patients. (United States)

    Hoshino, Ana Cristina H; Echegoyen, Agustina; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valéria Schmidt; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira


    Introduction  Usher syndrome (US) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hearing loss and progressive visual impairment. Some deaf Usher syndrome patients learn to communicate using sign language. During adolescence, as they start losing vision, they are usually referred to cochlear implantation as a salvage for their new condition. Is a late implantation beneficial to these children? Objective  The objective of this study is to describe the outcomes of US patients who received cochlear implants at a later age. Methods  This is a retrospective study of ten patients diagnosed with US1. We collected pure-tone thresholds and speech perception tests from pre and one-year post implant. Results  Average age at implantation was 18.9 years (5-49). Aided average thresholds were 103 dB HL and 35 dB HL pre and one-year post implant, respectively. Speech perception was only possible to be measured in four patients preoperatively, who scored 13.3; 26.67; 46% vowels and 56% 4-choice. All patients except one had some kind of communication. Two were bilingual. After one year of using the device, seven patients were able to perform the speech tests (from four-choice to close set sentences) and three patients abandoned the use of the implant. Conclusion  We observed that detection of sounds can be achieved with late implantation, but speech recognition is only possible in patients with previous hearing stimulation, since it depends on the development of hearing skills and the maturation of the auditory pathways.

  17. Prognostic relevance of FDG PET in patients with neurofibromatosis type-1 and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, Winfried; Buchert, Ralph; Clausen, Malte; Friedrich, Reinhard E.; Mautner, Victor F.; Gawad, Karim A.; Hagel, Christian; Deimling, Andreas von; Wit, Maike de


    In patients with neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1) and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (MPNSTs), survival rates are low and time to death is often less than 2 years. However, there are patients with a more favourable prognosis who develop metastases rather late or not at all. Since histopathology and tumour grading are not well correlated with prognosis, we aimed to evaluate the potential of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) for prediction of patient outcome in MPNST. FDG PET was performed in 16 patients with NF1 and MPNSTs. Standardised uptake values (SUVs) were calculated for each tumour and correlated to tumour grade and patient outcome in terms of survival or death. Three patients with tumour grade II had an SUV 3. Only one of these patients is still alive after 20 months; the remaining 12 died within 4-33 months. SUV predicted long-term survival with an accuracy of 94%, compared with 69% for tumour grade. In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, patients with an SUV >3 had a significantly shorter mean survival time, 13 months, than patients with an SUV <3, in whom the mean survival time was 52 months. Tumour grading did not reveal differences in survival time (15 vs 12 months). Tumour SUV obtained by FDG PET was a significant parameter for prediction of survival in NF1 patients with MPNSTs while histopathological tumour grading did not predict outcome. (orig.)

  18. Syncope paradox in the outcome of patients with pulmonary thromboembolism: short-term and midterm outcome. (United States)

    Seyyedi, Seyyed-reza; Jenab, Yaser; Tokaldany, Masoumeh Lotfi; Shirani, Shapoor; Sadeghian, Saeed; Jalali, Arash


    We compare the early and midterm outcomes of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) in patients with and without syncope in our single-center registry. Between December 2006 and May 2013, 351 consecutive patients (mean age = 60.21 ± 16.91 years, 55.3% male) with confirmed acute symptomatic PTE were divided in with and without syncope groups. Groups were compared in terms of the effect of syncope on 30-day mortality and adverse events, and mortality in a median follow-up time of 16.9 months. From 351 patients, 39 (11.1%) had syncope and 312 (88.9%) did not. Syncope group had less frequently chest pain (30.8% vs 51.4%; P value = 0.015). Also, the rates of 30-day adverse events and mortality were 12.8% and 5.1% for the group with syncope, and 14.4% and 10.3% for the group without syncope, respectively, with no significant difference. At follow up, 65 patients died and mortality was 18.5% for 351 patients (5.1% in the group with syncope and 20.2% for the other group). After adjustment for confounding factors, the effect of syncope on 30-day adverse events and mortality remained non-significant and on the midterm mortality was significant, showing that the presence of syncope was associated with lower midterm mortality (P value = 0.038). Among PTE patients in our registry, 11.1% presented with syncope. Relationship between syncope and 30-day adverse events and mortality remained non-significant after adjustments for other factors. However, in midterm follow up, patients with syncope were significantly at decreased risk of mortality compared to those without syncope. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Predictors of a favourable outcome in patients with fibromyalgia: results of 1-year follow-up. (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Dong-Jin; Choi, Sung-Eun; Kang, Ji-Hyoun; Yim, Yi-Rang; Lee, Jeong-Won; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Wen, Lihui; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Lee, Shin-Seok


    To determine the outcomes of Korean patients with fibromyalgia (FM) and to identify prognostic factors associated with improvement at 1-year follow-up. Forty-eight patients with FM were enrolled and examined every 3 months for 1 year. At the time of enrollment, we interviewed all patients using a structured questionnaire that recorded socio-demographic data, current or past FM symptoms, and current use of relevant medications. Tender point counts and scores were assessed by thumb palpation. Patients were asked to complete the Korean versions of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), the Brief Fatigue Inventory, the SF-36, the Beck Depression Inventory, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Social Support Scale. Tender points, FIQ scores, and the use of relevant medications were recorded during one year of follow-up. Of the 48 patients, 32 (66.7%) had improved FIQ scores 1 year after enrollment. Improved patients had higher baseline FIQ scores (68.4±13.9 vs. 48.4±20.8, p=0.001) and STAI-II scores (55.8±10.9 vs. 11.5±11.5, p=0.022). Patients treated with pregabalin were more likely to improve after 1 year, based on the FIQ scores (71.9% vs. 37.5%, p=0.031). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, a higher STAI-II score at the time of enrollment and pregabalin treatment during one year of follow-up were the predictors of improvement. Two-thirds of our Korean FM patients experienced some clinical improvement by 1-year follow-up. A high baseline STAI-II score and treatment with pregabalin were the important predictor of improved FM.

  20. Quality of life outcomes in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofilou Paraskevi


    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life is now considered an important endpoint in cancer clinical trials. It has been shown that assessing quality of life in cancer patients could contribute to improved treatment and could even serve as a prognostic factor along with medical parameters. This paper presents a review of quality of life outcomes in patients with breast cancer according to previous descriptive findings. This is a bibliographic review of the literature covering publications that appeared in English language biomedical journals between 1987 and 2008. The search strategy included a combination of the key words quality of life and breast cancer in the titles of published articles. The major findings are summarized and presented under different headings: evaluation of health-related quality of life i at the time of diagnosis, ii during treatment, and iii after the completion of treatment. Breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy might experience several side-effects and symptoms that have a negative effect on their quality of life. Also adjuvant hormonal therapies were found to have a similar negative impact on quality of life. Psychological distress-anxiety and depression were found to be common among breast cancer patients. Symptoms-pain, fatigue, and insomnia were among the most common symptoms reported. There was quite an extensive body of literature on quality of life in breast cancer patients. These papers have made a considerable contribution to improving breast cancer care.

  1. Individual Prognosis of Symptom Burden and Functioning in Chronic Diseases: A Generic Method Based on Patient-Reported Outcome (PRO) Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, Niels Henrik Ingvar


    BACKGROUND: Information to the patient about the long-term prognosis of symptom burden and functioning is an integrated part of clinical practice, but relies mostly on the clinician’s personal experience. Relevant prognostic models based on patient-reported outcome (PRO) data with repeated measur...

  2. Gene expression profiling to identify potentially relevant disease outcomes and support human health risk assessment for carbon black nanoparticle exposure. (United States)

    Bourdon, Julie A; Williams, Andrew; Kuo, Byron; Moffat, Ivy; White, Paul A; Halappanavar, Sabina; Vogel, Ulla; Wallin, Håkan; Yauk, Carole L


    New approaches are urgently needed to evaluate potential hazards posed by exposure to nanomaterials. Gene expression profiling provides information on potential modes of action and human relevance, and tools have recently become available for pathway-based quantitative risk assessment. The objective of this study was to use toxicogenomics in the context of human health risk assessment. We explore the utility of toxicogenomics in risk assessment, using published gene expression data from C57BL/6 mice exposed to 18, 54 and 162 μg Printex 90 carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP). Analysis of CBNP-perturbed pathways, networks and transcription factors revealed concomitant changes in predicted phenotypes (e.g., pulmonary inflammation and genotoxicity), that correlated with dose and time. Benchmark doses (BMDs) for apical endpoints were comparable to minimum BMDs for relevant pathway-specific expression changes. Comparison to inflammatory lung disease models (i.e., allergic airway inflammation, bacterial infection and tissue injury and fibrosis) and human disease profiles revealed that induced gene expression changes in Printex 90 exposed mice were similar to those typical for pulmonary injury and fibrosis. Very similar fibrotic pathways were perturbed in CBNP-exposed mice and human fibrosis disease models. Our synthesis demonstrates how toxicogenomic profiles may be used in human health risk assessment of nanoparticles and constitutes an important step forward in the ultimate recognition of toxicogenomic endpoints in human health risk. As our knowledge of molecular pathways, dose-response characteristics and relevance to human disease continues to grow, we anticipate that toxicogenomics will become increasingly useful in assessing chemical toxicities and in human health risk assessment. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The importance of patient-reported outcome measures in reconstructive urology. (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew J; N'Dow, James; Pickard, Rob


    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are now recognised as the most appropriate instruments to assess the effectiveness of healthcare interventions from the patient's perspective. The purpose of this review was to identify recent publications describing the use of PROMs following reconstructive urological surgery. A wide systematic search identified only three original articles published in the last 2 years that prospectively assessed effectiveness using a patient-completed condition-specific or generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument. These publications illustrate the need to administer PROMs at a postoperative interval relevant to the anticipated recovery phase of individual procedures. They also highlight the difference in responsiveness of generic HRQoL instruments to symptomatic improvement between straightforward conditions such as pelviureteric junction obstruction and complex multidimensional conditions such as meningomyelocele. PROMs uptake and awareness is increasing in reconstructive urology but more work is required to demonstrate the effectiveness of surgical procedures for patients and healthcare funders alike. Healthcare policy-makers now rely on these measures to determine whether specific treatments are worth financing and to compare outcomes between institutions.

  4. Does surgical sympathectomy improve clinical outcomes in patients with refractory angina pectoris? (United States)

    Holland, Luke C; Navaratnarajah, Manoraj; Taggart, David P


    A best evidence topic in cardiothoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: In patients with angina pectoris refractory to medical therapy, does surgical sympathectomy improve clinical outcomes? A total of 528 papers were identified using the search protocol described, of which 6 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. There were 5 case series and 1 prospective cohort study. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. All 5 of the case series demonstrated an improvement in symptoms, exercise tolerance or quality of life in patients undergoing surgical sympathectomy. An early case series investigating an open approach had a high morbidity and mortality rate, but the 4 other series used a minimally invasive technique and had low morbidity and zero perioperative mortality rates. The cohort study compared surgical sympathectomy with transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) and concluded TMR to be superior. However, this study looked only at unilateral sympathectomy, whereas all 5 case series focused on bilateral surgery. We conclude that the best currently available evidence does suggest that patients report an improvement in their symptoms and quality of life following surgical sympathectomy, but the low level of this evidence does not allow for a statistically proved recommendation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  5. A systematic review of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) used in child and adolescent burn research. (United States)

    Griffiths, C; Armstrong-James, L; White, P; Rumsey, N; Pleat, J; Harcourt, D


    Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) can identify important information about patient needs and therapeutic progress. The aim of this review was to identify the PROMs that are being used in child and adolescent burn care and to determine the quality of such scales. Computerised and manual bibliographic searches of Medline, Social Sciences Index, Cinahl, Psychinfo, Psycharticles, AMED, and HAPI, were used to identify English-language articles using English-language PROMs from January 2001 to March 2013. The psychometric quality of the PROMs was assessed. 23 studies met the entry criteria and identified 32 different PROMs (31 generic, 1 burns-specific). Overall, the psychometric quality of the PROMs was low; only two generic scales (the Perceived Stigmatisation Questionnaire and the Social Comfort Scale) and only one burns-specific scale (the Children Burn Outcomes Questionnaire for children aged 5-18) had psychometric evidence relevant to this population. The majority of PROMs did not have psychometric evidence for their use with child or adolescent burn patients. To appropriately identify the needs and treatment progress of child and adolescent burn patients, new burns-specific PROMs need to be developed and validated to reflect issues that are of importance to this population. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Patient-reported outcome measures in arthroplasty registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfson, Ola; Bohm, Eric; Franklin, Patricia


    The International Society of Arthroplasty Registries (ISAR) Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) Working Group have evaluated and recommended best practices in the selection, administration, and interpretation of PROMs for hip and knee arthroplasty registries. The 2 generic PROMs in common use...... are the Short Form health surveys (SF-36 or SF-12) and EuroQol 5-dimension (EQ-5D). The Working Group recommends that registries should choose specific PROMs that have been appropriately developed with good measurement properties for arthroplasty patients. The Working Group recommend the use of a 1-item pain...... should consider the absolute level of pain, function, and general health status as well as improvement, missing data, approaches to analysis and case-mix adjustment, minimal clinically important difference, and minimal detectable change. The Working Group recommends data collection immediately before...

  7. Relevant areas of functioning in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health: The patients' perspective. (United States)

    Du, Chunping; Yu, Jiadan; Zhang, Jiaqi; Jiang, Jiaojiao; Lai, Huabin; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yang; Li, Hao; Wang, Pu


    To investigate relevant aspects of functioning and disability, and environmental factors in people with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis according to patients' self-reports based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY). Multicentre, empirical, cross-sectional study. Four departments of orthopaedics in 4 hospitals, and 5 departments of rehabilitation medicine in 5 hospitals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 975 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis from 5 hospitals according to the patients' self-reporting. In addition, patients were divided into 3 groups according to clinical outcome. Participant information included demographic and disease-related characteristics. Three adolescent idiopathic scoliosis groups were then compared with respect to the problems identified. Interviews were transcribed verbatim. Categories identified by qualitative analysis were subsequently mapped to the ICF-CY using established linking rules. In order to enrich these findings, we also translated the Scoliosis Research Society 22 Patient Questionnaire (SRS-22 PQ) into the language of the ICF-CY, based on ICF linking rules. A total of 1278 themes that linked to 54 ICF-CY cate-gories from 18 chapters were identified. Twenty-two (41%) categories were identified as Body Functions, 7 (13%) as Body Structures, 15 (27%) as Activities and Participation, and 10 (19%) as Environmental Factors. Of the 54 categories, 45 (83%) were second-level, 5 (9%) were third-level, and 4 (7%) were fourth-level. Differences between the SRS-22 PQ results and our findings were observed for several ICF-CY categories. Patients with AIS reported activity limitations and participation restrictions combined with impaired body structures and functions. Environmental factors may act as a barrier to, or facilitator of, patient functioning in daily life. The ICF-CY provides a valuable framework for representing the complexity and

  8. Effective intervention strategies to improve health outcomes for cardiovascular disease patients with low health literacy skills: a systematic review. (United States)

    Lee, Tae Wha; Lee, Seon Heui; Kim, Hye Hyun; Kang, Soo Jin


    Systematic studies on the relationship between health literacy and health outcomes demonstrate that as health literacy declines, patients engage in fewer preventive health and self-care behaviors and have worse disease-related knowledge. The purpose of this study was to identify effective intervention strategies to improve health outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease and low literacy skills. This study employs the following criteria recommended by Khan Kunz, Keijnen, and Antes (2003) for systematic review: framing question, identifying relevant literature, assessing quality of the literature, summarizing the evidence, and interpreting the finding. A total of 235 articles were reviewed by the research team, and 9 articles met inclusion criteria. Although nine studies were reviewed for their health outcomes, only six studies, which had a positive quality grade evaluation were used to recommend effective intervention strategies. Interventions were categorized into three groups: tailored counseling, self-monitoring, and periodic reminder. The main strategies used to improve health outcomes of low literacy patients included tailored counseling, improved provider-patient interactions, organizing information by patient preference, self-care algorithms, and self-directed learning. Specific strategies included written materials tailored to appropriate reading levels, materials using plain language, emphasizing key points with large font size, and using visual items such as icons or color codes. With evidence-driven strategies, health care professionals can use tailored interventions to provide better health education and counseling that meets patient needs and improves health outcomes. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Added Value of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Stroke Clinical Practice. (United States)

    Katzan, Irene L; Thompson, Nicolas R; Lapin, Brittany; Uchino, Ken


    There is uncertainty regarding the clinical utility of the data obtained from patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for patient care. We evaluated the incremental information obtained by PROMs compared to the clinician-reported modified Rankin Scale (mRS). This was an observational study of 3283 ischemic stroke patients seen in a cerebrovascular clinic from September 14, 2012 to June 16, 2015 who completed the routinely collected PROMs: Stroke Impact Scale-16 (SIS-16), EQ-5D, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, PROMIS Physical Function, and PROMIS fatigue. The amount of variation in the PROMs explained by mRS was determined using r 2 after adjustment for age and level of stroke impairment. The proportion with meaningful change was calculated for patients with ≥2 visits. Concordance with change in the other scales and the ability to discriminate changes in health state as measured by c-statistic was evaluated for mRS versus SIS-16. Correlation between PROMs and mRS was highest for SIS-16 ( r =-0.64, P measures. PROMs provide additional valuable information compared to the mRS alone in stroke patients seen in the ambulatory setting. SIS-16 may have a better ability to identify change than mRS in health status of relevance to the patient. PROMs may be a useful addition to mRS in the assessment of health status in clinical practice. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  10. Psychometric properties of patient-reported outcome measures for hip arthroscopic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, Joanne L; Collins, Natalie J; Roos, Ewa M.


    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are considered the gold standard when evaluating outcomes in a surgical population. While the psychometric properties of some PROs have been tested, the properties of newer PROs in patients undergoing hip arthroscopic surgery remain somewhat unknown.......Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are considered the gold standard when evaluating outcomes in a surgical population. While the psychometric properties of some PROs have been tested, the properties of newer PROs in patients undergoing hip arthroscopic surgery remain somewhat unknown....

  11. [Diagnosis of acute heart failure and relevance of biomarkers in elderly patients]. (United States)

    Ruiz Ortega, Raúl Antonio; Manzano, Luis; Montero-Pérez-Barquero, Manuel


    Diagnosis of acute heart failure (HF) is difficult in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities. Risk scales and classification criteria based exclusively on clinical manifestations, such as the Framingham scales, lack sufficient specificity. In addition to clinical manifestations, diagnosis should be based on two key factors: natriuretic peptides and echocardiographic study. When there is clinical suspicion of acute HF, a normal natriuretic peptide level will rule out this process. When a consistent clinical suspicion is present, an echocardiographic study should also be performed. Diagnosis of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HF/pEF) requires detection of an enlarged left atrium or the presence of parameters of diastolic dysfunction. Elevation of cardiac biomarkers seems to be due to myocardial injury and the compensatory mechanisms of the body against this injury (hormone and inflammatory response and repair mechanisms). Elevation of markers of cardiac damage (troponins and natriuretic peptides) have been shown to be useful both in the diagnosis of acute HF and in prediction of outcome. MMP-2 could be useful in the diagnosis of HF/pEF. In addition to biomarkers with diagnostic value, other biomarkers are helpful in prognosis in the acute phase of HF, such as biomarkers of renal failure (eGFR, cystatin and urea), inflammation (cytokines and CRP), and the cell regeneration marker, galectin-3. A promising idea that is under investigation is the use of panels of biomarkers, which could allow more accurate diagnosis and prognosis of acute HF. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Lack of Clinical Relevance of ANA and ASMA Positivity in Patients with Liver Transplantation without a History of Autoimmune Diseases. (United States)

    Pellegrini, Lucienne; Parrilli, Gianpaolo; Santonicola, Antonella; Cinquanta, Luigi; Caputo, Cesare; Ciacci, Carolina; Zingone, Fabiana


    The relevance of isolated autoimmunity elevation in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients is unknown. Our aim was to analyse how serum autoantibodies change in time and to evaluate their clinical relevance in OLT patients. Patients were invited to provide samples to evaluate ANA, AMA, ASMA, and LKM at the time of enrolment ( T 0), after 6 months ( T 6), and after 12 months ( T 12). We included 114 patients in the study (76% males, median age 62.5 years), finding isolated elevation of at least one serum antibody in up to 80% of them. We described fluctuating positive autoantibodies in the one year of observation, with only 45.6% of patients positive for ANA and less than 2% positive for ASMA, at all three times. Isolated elevation of tissue antibodies was not related to gender, age, HCC at transplant, early rejection, cause of transplantation, immunotherapy taken, and age at the time of the study. We did not detect a higher prevalence of positive autoimmunity in patients with signs of liver injury. ANA and ASMA evaluation in patients with liver transplantation and no history of autoimmune disease has no clinical relevance, since it varies in time and is not related to any risk factors or liver injury. Routine autoimmunity evaluation should be avoided.

  13. An Integrated Care Initiative to Improve Patient Outcome in Schizophrenia. (United States)

    Mayer-Amberg, Norbert; Woltmann, Rainer; Walther, Stefanie


    The optimal treatment of schizophrenia patients requires integration of medical and psychosocial inputs. In Germany, various health-care service providers and institutions are involved in the treatment process. Early and continuous treatment is important but often not possible because of the fragmented medical care system in Germany. The Integrated Care Initiative Schizophrenia has implemented a networked care concept in the German federal state of Lower Saxony that integrates various stakeholders of the health care system. In this initiative, office-based psychiatrists, specialized nursing staff, psychologists, social workers, hospitals, psychiatric institutional outpatient's departments, and other community-based mental health services work together in an interdisciplinary approach. Much emphasis is placed on psychoeducation. Additional efforts cover socio-therapy, visiting care, and family support. During the period from October 2010 (start of the initiative) to December 2012, first experiences and results of quality indicators were collected of 713 registered patients and summarized in a quality monitoring report. In addition, standardized patient interviews were conducted, and duration of hospital days was recorded in 2013. By the end of 2012, patients had been enrolled for an average of 18.7 months. The overall patient satisfaction measured in a patient survey in June 2013 was high and the duration of hospital days measured in a pre-post analysis in July 2013 was reduced by 44%. Two years earlier than planned, the insurance fund will continue the successfully implemented Integrated Care Initiative and adopt it in the regular care setting. This initiative can serve as a learning case for how to set up and measure integrated care systems that may improve outcomes for patients suffering from schizophrenia.

  14. An Integrated Care Initiative to Improve Patient Outcome in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert eMayer-Amberg


    Full Text Available The optimal treatment of schizophrenia patients requires integration of medical and psychosocial inputs. In Germany, various healthcare service providers and institutions are involved in the treatment process. Early and continuous treatment is important but often not possible because of the fragmented medical care system in Germany. The current work is a quality monitoring report of a novel care setting, called Integrated Care Initiative Schizophrenia. It has implemented a networked care concept in the German federal state of Lower Saxony that integrates various stakeholders of the health care system. In this initiative, office-based psychiatrists, specialised nursing staff, psychologists, social workers, hospitals, psychiatric institutional outpatient’s departments and other community-based mental health services work together in an interdisciplinary approach. Much emphasis is placed on psychoeducation. Additional efforts cover socio-therapy, visiting care, and family support. During the period from October 2010 (start of the initiative to December 2012, first experiences and results of quality indicators were collected of 713 registered patients and summarised in a quality monitoring report. In addition, standardised patient interviews were conducted, and duration of hospital days was recorded in 2013. By the end of 2012, patients had been enrolled for an average of 18.7 months. The overall patient satisfaction measured in a patient survey in June 2013 was high and the duration of hospital days measured in a pre-post analysis in July 2013 was reduced by 44%. Two years earlier than planned, the insurance fund will continue the successfully implemented integrated care initiative and adopt it in the regular care setting. This initiative can serve as a learning case for how to set up and measure integrated care systems that may improve outcomes for patients suffering from schizophrenia.

  15. Self-efficacy and arthritis disability: An updated synthesis of the evidence base and its relevance to optimal patient care (United States)


    Self-efficacy, denoting the degree of confidence an individual has in carrying out a specific activity, was initially discussed in the 1970s as a potential correlate of disease outcomes. Drawn from 35 years of related research, this review provides an updated understanding of the concept of self-efficacy and its relevance for arthritis management. There is a consistent link between self-efficacy, arthritis pain and disability, and adherence to recommended therapeutic strategies. A wide variety of intervention strategies improve arthritis self-efficacy, as well as outcomes. Steps to assess and intervene thoughtfully to maximize self-efficacy beliefs are likely to impact arthritis disability outcomes quite favorably and significantly, regardless of disease type, duration, or sociodemographic factors. PMID:28070346

  16. Clinical outcomes following unilateral adrenalectomy in patients with primary aldosteronism. (United States)

    Hannon, M J; Sze, W C; Carpenter, R; Parvanta, L; Matson, M; Sahdev, A; Druce, M R; Berney, D M; Waterhouse, M; Akker, S A; Drake, W M


    In approximately half of cases of primary aldosteronism (PA), the cause is a surgically-resectable unilateral aldosterone-producing adrenal adenoma. However, long-term data on surgical outcomes are sparse. We report on clinical outcomes post-adrenalectomy in a cohort of patients with PA who underwent surgery. Retrospective review of patients treated for PA in a single UK tertiary centre. Of 120 consecutive patients investigated for PA, 52 (30 male, median age 54, range 30-74) underwent unilateral complete adrenalectomy. Blood pressure, number of antihypertensive medications, and serum potassium were recorded before adrenalectomy, and after a median follow-up period of 50 months (range 7-115). Recumbent renin and aldosterone were measured, in the absence of interfering antihypertensive medication, ≥3months after surgery, to determine if PA had been biochemically cured. Overall, blood pressure improved from a median (range) 160/95 mmHg (120/80-250/150) pre-operatively to 130/80 mmHg (110/70-160/93), P < 0.0001. 24/52 patients (46.2%) had cured hypertension, with a normal blood pressure post-operatively on no medication. 26/52 (50%) had improved hypertension. 2/52 patients (3.8%) showed no improvement in blood pressure post-operatively. Median (range) serum potassium level increased from 3.2 (2.3-4.7) mmol/l pre-operatively to 4.4 mmol/l (3.3-5.3) post-operatively, P < 0.0001). Median (range) number of antihypertensive medications used fell from 3 (0-6) pre- to 1 post-operatively (range 0-4), P < 0.0001. Unilateral adrenalectomy provides excellent long-term improvements in blood pressure control, polypharmacy and hypokalaemia in patients with lateralizing PA. These data may help inform discussions with patients contemplating surgery. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  17. Nutritional screening for improving professional practice for patient outcomes in hospital and primary care settings. (United States)

    Omidvari, Amir-Houshang; Vali, Yasaman; Murray, Susan M; Wonderling, David; Rashidian, Arash


    Given the prevalence of under-nutrition and reports of inadequate nutritional management of patients in hospitals and the community, nutritional screening may play a role in reducing the risks of malnutrition. Screening programmes can invoke costs to health systems and patients. It is therefore important to assess the effectiveness of nutritional screening programmes. To examine the effectiveness of nutritional screening in improving quality of care (professional practice) and patient outcomes compared with usual care. We searched the following databases: CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL up to June 2012 to find relevant studies. Randomised controlled studies, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series studies assessing the effectiveness of nutritional screening were eligible for inclusion in the review. We considered process outcomes (for example patient identification, referral to dietitian) and patient outcomes (for example mortality, change in body mass index (BMI)). Participants were adult patients aged 16 years or over. We included studies conducted in different settings, including hospitals, out-patient clinics, primary care or long term care settings. We independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data from the included studies. Meta-analysis was considered but was not conducted due to the discrepancies between the studies. The studies were heterogeneous in their design, setting, intervention and outcomes. We analysed the data using a narrative synthesis approach. After conducting initial searches and screening the titles and abstracts of the identified literature, 77 full text papers were retrieved and read. Ultimately three studies were included. Two controlled before-after studies were conducted in hospital settings (one in the UK and one in the Netherlands) and one cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in a primary care setting (in the USA).The study conducted in

  18. Cognitive reserve and patient-reported outcomes in multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Snook, Erin; Quaranto, Brian; Benedict, Ralph H B; Vollmer, Timothy


    Adaptation and compensation in the face of changing pathology may be better understood by considering the concept of cognitive reserve, which may protect against disability in multiple sclerosis (MS). The present work investigates the relationship between cognitive reserve and demographic characteristics, health behaviors, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs). Cross-sectional data (n=1142) were drawn from the North American Research Committee on MS (NARCOMS) Registry, from whom additional survey data were collected. Cognitive reserve was measured using the Stern and Sole-Padulles measures, the O*NET occupational classification system, and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. PROs were assessed using generic (SF -12v2, Perceived Deficits Questionnaire, Ryff Psychological Well-Being, Diener Satisfaction with Life Scale) and disease-specific (Patient-Determined Disease Steps, Performance Scales) measures. Psychometric analysis created unidimensional cognitive reserve subscales. Regression models examined relationships between cognitive reserve, demographic characteristics, and PROs. The cognitive reserve measures assessed distinct but related constructs. Individuals with high cognitive reserve were more likely to report lower levels of perceived disability and perceived cognitive deficits, and higher levels of physical health, mental health, and well-being. Both active and passive reserve are associated with better outcomes, independent of demographic factors, and these associations apply to both generic and disease-specific outcomes. This expanded measurement of cognitive reserve captures both the passive and active aspects of the construct, and there is a consistent and substantial relationship with PROs. Individuals with high passive and/or active reserve are healthier and experience higher levels of well-being.

  19. [Prostate cancer patients with lymph node metastasis. Outcome in a consecutive group of 59 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roder, M.A.; Reinhardt, S.; Brasso, K.


    INTRODUCTION: The optimal management of prostate cancer patients with lymph node metastasis remains controversial. In this article, the outcome in a consecutive group of patients with newly diagnosed lymph node positive prostate cancer is presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 59 patients...... with histological verified lymph node positive disease but without osseous metastasis, outcome is described by time to biochemical progression, time to metastasis and survival. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 62 years. Median pre-treatment PSA was 21 ng/ml. Endocrine treatment was initiated within median 2...... patients died during follow-up, 15 deaths were attributable to prostate cancer. Estimated median survival was 5.5 years. CONCLUSION: Despite early androgen deprivation therapy, patients with lymph node positive prostate cancer have a grave prognosis with a high risk of progression and disease...

  20. Rationale for Using Social Media to Collect Patient-Reported Outcomes in Patients with Celiac Disease. (United States)

    Park, Kt; Harris, Merissa; Khavari, Nasim; Khosla, Chaitan


    Patients with celiac disease (CD) are increasingly interconnected through social media, exchanging patient experiences and health-tracking information between individuals through various web-based platforms. Social media represents potentially unique communication interface between gastroenterologists and active social media users - especially young adults and adolescents with celiac disease-regarding adherence to the strict gluten-free diet, gastrointestinal symptoms, and meaningful discussion about disease management. Yet, various social media platforms may be underutilized for research purposes to collect patient-reported outcomes data. In this commentary, we summarize the scientific rationale and potential for future growth of social media in patient-reported outcomes research, focusing on college freshmen with celiac disease as a case study and provide overview of the methodological approach. Finally, we discuss how social media may impact patient care in the future through increasing mobile technology use.

  1. Perspectives of patients and professionals on the use of patient reported outcome measures in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porter, Ian; Gangannagaripalli, Jaheeda; Davey, Antoinette


    /or healthcare professional’s perspectives on the clinical utility of using PROMs in clinical practice. Results: 19 studies met the inclusion criteria (4 after 2012), 11 of which were conducted in the UK, reporting on the views of professionals (8), patients (5), and both (7). The majority of studies (12...... communication it was also noted that they undermined the human element of consultations, along with professional intuition and judgement. Burden on GP time was also noted. Conclusions: Patients and professionals highlighted a number of benefits of using PROMs in clinical practice, particularly in terms......A71 Perspectives of patients and professionals on the use of patient-reported outcome measures in primary care: a systematic review of qualitative studies Background: Although the use of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in healthcare settings has increased substantially over recent years...

  2. Basophil Activation Test is a Relevant Biomarker of the Outcome of Rapid Desensitization in Platinum Compounds-Allergy. (United States)

    Giavina-Bianchi, Pedro; Galvão, Violeta Régnier; Picard, Matthieu; Caiado, Joana; Castells, Mariana C

    Rapid drug desensitization (RDD) has become a cornerstone in the management of immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) to chemotherapeutic agents. Because of the inherent risk of anaphylaxis during RDD, biomarkers to predict patients at risk of developing such severe reactions are needed. The basophil activation test (BAT) has been used in DHRs as a diagnostic tool. We evaluated basophil CD63 and CD203c expression (BAT) as a biomarker to assess the safety and effectiveness of RDD in platinum compounds-allergic patients. Patients allergic to platinum compounds (n = 15) undergoing RDD were assessed through clinical history, skin testing, serum tryptase levels, and BAT. BAT was performed immediately before RDD, assessing CD203c and CD63 expression on basophils. BAT was also performed in 6 patients tolerant to platinum compounds and in 6 healthy volunteers. BAT was positive to CD203c or CD63 in 11 out of 15 patients allergic to platinum compounds (73%), with increased expression of CD203c and CD63 in 11 (73%) and 6 (40%) patients, respectively. Increased CD63 expression tended to be associated with more severe initial reactions. All controls had negative test results. Reactions during RDD were associated with BAT positivity and increased tryptase levels. Only 1 of 4 patients with negative BAT had a mild reaction during RDD. BAT remained positive in multiple sequential RDD. BAT identified patients allergic to platinum compounds with an increased risk of reactions during desensitization and higher CD63 expression was observed in severe reactions. Multiple RDDs to platinum compounds did not induce persistent hyporesponsiveness on basophils. BAT is a potential biomarker for RDD. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Setting the vision: applied patient-reported outcomes and smart, connected digital healthcare systems to improve patient-centered outcomes prediction in critical illness. (United States)

    Wysham, Nicholas G; Abernethy, Amy P; Cox, Christopher E


    Prediction models in critical illness are generally limited to short-term mortality and uncommonly include patient-centered outcomes. Current outcome prediction tools are also insensitive to individual context or evolution in healthcare practice, potentially limiting their value over time. Improved prognostication of patient-centered outcomes in critical illness could enhance decision-making quality in the ICU. Patient-reported outcomes have emerged as precise methodological measures of patient-centered variables and have been successfully employed using diverse platforms and technologies, enhancing the value of research in critical illness survivorship and in direct patient care. The learning health system is an emerging ideal characterized by integration of multiple data sources into a smart and interconnected health information technology infrastructure with the goal of rapidly optimizing patient care. We propose a vision of a smart, interconnected learning health system with integrated electronic patient-reported outcomes to optimize patient-centered care, including critical care outcome prediction. A learning health system infrastructure integrating electronic patient-reported outcomes may aid in the management of critical illness-associated conditions and yield tools to improve prognostication of patient-centered outcomes in critical illness.

  4. Comparison of models for predicting outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease focusing on microsimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Amiri


    Full Text Available Background: Physicians have difficulty to subjectively estimate the cardiovascular risk of their patients. Using an estimate of global cardiovascular risk could be more relevant to guide decisions than using binary representation (presence or absence of risk factors data. The main aim of the paper is to compare different models of predicting the progress of a coronary artery diseases (CAD to help the decision making of physician. Methods: There are different standard models for predicting risk factors such as models based on logistic regression model, Cox regression model, dynamic logistic regression model, and simulation models such as Markov model and microsimulation model. Each model has its own application which can or cannot use by physicians to make a decision on treatment of each patient. Results: There are five main common models for predicting of outcomes, including models based on logistic regression model (for short-term outcomes, Cox regression model (for intermediate-term outcomes, dynamic logistic regression model, and simulation models such as Markov and microsimulation models (for long-term outcomes. The advantages and disadvantages of these models have been discussed and summarized. Conclusion: Given the complex medical decisions that physicians face in everyday practice, the multiple interrelated factors that play a role in choosing the optimal treatment, and the continuously accumulating new evidence on determinants of outcome and treatment options for CAD, physicians may potentially benefit from a clinical decision support system that accounts for all these considerations. The microsimulation model could provide cardiologists, researchers, and medical students a user-friendly software, which can be used as an intelligent interventional simulator.

  5. Engaging Stakeholders in Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Regarding School-Based Sealant Programs. (United States)

    Chi, Donald L; Milgrom, Peter; Gillette, Jane


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use qualitative methods to describe the key lessons learned during the stakeholder engagement stage of planning a randomized clinical trial comparing outcomes of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) as an alternative to pit-and-fissure sealants in a school-based delivery system. Methods: Eighteen caregivers and community-based stakeholders with involvement in the school-based sealant program Sealants for Smiles from the state of Montana, were recruited for this qualitative study. United States (U.S.) Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) methodology standards were used to develop two semi-structured interview guides consisting of 6 questions. One interview guide was used for telephone interviews with caregivers and the second was used for a stakeholder focus group. Content analytic methods were used to analyze the data. Results: All participants believed that a study comparing SDF and sealants was clinically relevant. Non-caregiver stakeholders agreed with the proposed primary outcome of the study (caries prevention) whereas caregivers also emphasized the importance of child-centered outcomes such as minimizing dental anxiety associated with dental care. Stakeholders described potential concerns associated with SDF such as staining and perceptions of safety and discussed ways to address these concerns through community engagement, appropriate framing of the study, proper consent procedures, and ongoing safety monitoring during the trial. Finally, stakeholders suggested dissemination strategies such as direct communication of findings through professional organizations and encouraging insurance plans to incentivize SDF use by reimbursing dental providers. Conclusions: Involving key stakeholders in early planning is essential in developing patient-centered research questions, outcomes measures, study protocols, and dissemination plans for oral health research involving a school-based delivery system. Copyright © 2018

  6. [Relevance between expectations before treatment, new symptoms and satisfaction after treatment in patients with pelvic organ prolapse]. (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Han, Jinsong; Zhang, Kun; Zhu, Fuli; Yang, Junfang; Wang, Yiting


    To investigate the relevance between expectations before treatment, new symptoms and satisfaction after treatment of the pelvic organ prolapse (POP) patients. Made a collection of 75 cases of POP patients at Peking University Third Hospital, who were affected by the POP symptoms and came to our clinic for treatment from January to December in 2013. Prospectively investigate the patients' expectations before treatment, which were the most troubling symptoms to be solved. According to treatment we divided the patients into surgery and pessary groups. Two groups were followed up with the degree to achieve the desired goals using patient global impression of improvement (PGI-I), new symptoms and satisfaction after treatment, try to find the relevance between expectations before treatment, new symptoms and satisfaction after treatment. There were 47 (63%, 47/75) patients in the surgical group and 28 (37%, 28/75) patients in the pessary group. The top three problems for patients were friction when walking (25%, 19/75), dysuria (23%, 17/75) and the feeling of vaginal prolapse (19%, 14/75). The follow-up rate was of 93% (70/75), follow-up time was (5 ± 4) months. Satisfaction score after treatment of surgical group was higher than that of pessary group [(4.9 ± 0.4) versus (4.0 ± 1.3) scores, P satisfaction scores was relevant (P = 0.021). The availability of new symptoms and satisfaction scores was relevant (P = 0.001). When achieving higher expectations to the treatment and no more new symptoms, the satisfaction score after treatment is higher.

  7. Clinical and patient reported outcomes of bleaching effectiveness. (United States)

    Klaric Sever, Eva; Budimir, Zrinka; Cerovac, Matea; Stambuk, Mario; Par, Matej; Negovetic Vranic, Dubravka; Tarle, Zrinka


    The objective of this study is to evaluate clinical and patient reported outcomes of different bleaching products. Thirty participants were randomly divided into three bleaching groups (n = 10). Bleaching was performed with high concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (HP) - Boost (40%) and Dash (30%), and with prefabricated splints Bite&White (6% HP). Tooth colour was measured before, immediately after, and 1 and 6 months after the bleaching by using classical shade guide and spectrophotometer. Tooth hypersensitivity was self-rated by patients on the Wong-Baker's face scale. Patient satisfaction was evaluated on a 7-point Likert-type scales that measured perceived performance and importance of different characteristics of bleaching treatment. All products were effective in teeth colour change (ΔE > 3.3), which was significantly higher for Boost (p = .016) and Dash (p = .024) than Bite&White treatment. Perception of hypersensitivity was the highest in Boost group, followed by Dash and Bite&White treatment. Most of the patients were satisfied with final tooth colour, length and comfort during treatment, but were dissatisfied with the stability of bleached tooth colour. Materials with the higher concentrations of bleaching agent demonstrated greater bleaching effectiveness than at-home bleaching product, but also a greater hypersensitivity. Lengthening the treatment process, but achieving a more stable tooth colour may improve the perceived value of a bleaching service.

  8. Arterial carboxyhemoglobin level and outcome in critically ill patients. (United States)

    Melley, Daniel D; Finney, Simon J; Elia, Androula; Lagan, Anna L; Quinlan, Gregory J; Evans, Timothy W


    Arterial carboxyhemoglobin is elevated in patients with critical illness. It is an indicator of the endogenous production of carbon monoxide by the enzyme heme oxygenase, which modulates the response to oxidant stress. The objective was to explore the hypothesis that arterial carboxyhemoglobin level is associated with inflammation and survival in patients requiring cardiothoracic intensive care. Prospective, observational study. A cardiothoracic intensive care unit. All patients admitted over a 15-month period. None. Arterial carboxyhemoglobin, bilirubin, and standard biochemical, hematologic, and physiologic markers of inflammation were measured in 1,267 patients. Associations were sought between levels of arterial carboxyhemoglobin, markers of the inflammatory response, and clinical outcome. Intensive care unit mortality was associated with lower minimum and greater maximal carboxyhemoglobin levels (p carboxyhemoglobin was associated with an increased risk of death from all causes (odds risk of death, 0.391; 95% confidence interval, 0.190-0.807; p = .011). Arterial carboxyhemoglobin correlated with markers of the inflammatory response. Both low minimum and high maximum levels of arterial carboxyhemoglobin were associated with increased intensive care mortality. Although the heme oxygenase system is protective, excessive induction may be deleterious. This suggests that there may be an optimal range for heme oxygenase-1 induction.

  9. Are patient-reported outcomes predictive of patient satisfaction 5 years after anterior cervical spine surgery? (United States)

    Schroeder, Gregory D; Coric, Dom; Kim, Han Jo; Albert, Todd J; Radcliff, Kris E


    Patient satisfaction is becoming an increasing common proxy for surgical quality; however, the correlation between patient satisfaction and surgical outcomes 2 and 5 years after anterior cervical surgery has not been evaluated. The study aimed to determine if patient satisfaction is predicted by improvement in patient-reported outcomes (PRO) 2 and 5 years after anterior cervical spine surgery. This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. The sample included patients enrolled in the Food and Drug Administration investigational device exemption clinical trial comparing total disc replacement with Mobi-C cervical artificial disc and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. The outcome measures were visual analog scale (VAS) neck pain score, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Short-Form 12-Item scores, as well as patient satisfaction. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to determine if improvement in different PRO metrics can accurately identify patient satisfaction. Additionally, a logistic regression analysis was performed on the results at 24 months and 60 months to identify independent predictors of patient satisfaction. This research was supported by LDR (Zimmer Biomet) 13785 Research Boulevard - Suite 200 Austin, TX 78750. Data were available for 512 patients at 60 months. At 24 months postoperatively, NDI score improvement (area under the curve [AUC]=0.806), absolute NDI score (AUC=0.823), and absolute VAS neck pain score (AUC=0.808) were all excellent predictors of patient satisfaction. At 60 months postoperatively, NDI score improvement (AUC=0.815), absolute NDI score (AUC=0.839), VAS neck pain score improvement (AUC=0.803), and absolute VAS neck pain score (AUC=0.861) were all excellent predictors of patient satisfaction. In patients undergoing one- and two-level anterior cervical spine surgery, between 2 and 5 years postoperatively, patient satisfaction is significantly predicted by PROs, including the VAS neck score and the

  10. Free software to analyse the clinical relevance of drug interactions with antiretroviral agents (SIMARV®) in patients with HIV/AIDS. (United States)

    Giraldo, N A; Amariles, P; Monsalve, M; Faus, M J

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy has extended the expected lifespan of patients with HIV/AIDS. However, the therapeutic benefits of some drugs used simultaneously with highly active antiretroviral therapy may be adversely affected by drug interactions. The goal was to design and develop a free software to facilitate analysis, assessment, and clinical decision making according to the clinical relevance of drug interactions in patients with HIV/AIDS. A comprehensive Medline/PubMed database search of drug interactions was performed. Articles that recognized any drug interactions in HIV disease were selected. The publications accessed were limited to human studies in English or Spanish, with full texts retrieved. Drug interactions were analyzed, assessed, and grouped into four levels of clinical relevance according to gravity and probability. Software to systematize the information regarding drug interactions and their clinical relevance was designed and developed. Overall, 952 different references were retrieved and 446 selected; in addition, 67 articles were selected from the citation lists of identified articles. A total of 2119 pairs of drug interactions were identified; of this group, 2006 (94.7%) were drug-drug interactions, 1982 (93.5%) had an identified pharmacokinetic mechanism, and 1409 (66.5%) were mediated by enzyme inhibition. In terms of clinical relevance, 1285 (60.6%) drug interactions were clinically significant in patients with HIV (levels 1 and 2). With this information, a software program that facilitates identification and assessment of the clinical relevance of antiretroviral drug interactions (SIMARV ® ) was developed. A free software package with information on 2119 pairs of antiretroviral drug interactions was designed and developed that could facilitate analysis, assessment, and clinical decision making according to the clinical relevance of drug interactions in patients with HIV/AIDS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Selecting relevant and feasible measurement instruments for the revised Dutch clinical practice guideline for physical therapy in patients after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otterman, Nicoline; Veerbeek, Janne; Schiemanck, Sven; van der Wees, Philip; Nollet, Frans; Kwakkel, Gert


    Purpose: To select relevant and feasible instruments for the revision of the Dutch clinical practice guideline for physical therapy in patients with stroke. Methods: In this implementation study a comprehensive proposal for ICF categories and matching instruments was developed, based on reliability

  12. Selecting relevant and feasible measurement instruments for the revised Dutch clinical practice guideline for physical therapy in patients after stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otterman, N.; Veerbeek, J.; Schiemanck, S.; Wees, P.J. van der; Nollet, F.; Kwakkel, G.


    PURPOSE: To select relevant and feasible instruments for the revision of the Dutch clinical practice guideline for physical therapy in patients with stroke. METHODS: In this implementation study a comprehensive proposal for ICF categories and matching instruments was developed, based on reliability

  13. Outcomes of photorefractive keratectomy in patients with atypical topography. (United States)

    Movahedan, Hossein; Namvar, Ehsan; Farvardin, Mohsen


    Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) is at risk of serious complications such as corneal ectasia, which can reduce corrected distance visual acuity. The rate of complications of PRK is higher in patients with atypical topography. To determine the outcomes of photorefractive keratectomy in patients with atypical topography. This cross-sectional study was done in 2015 in Shiraz in Iran. We included 85 eyes in this study. The samples were selected using a simple random sampling method. All patients were under evaluation for uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, manifest refraction, corneal topography, central corneal thickness using pentacam, slit-lamp microscopy, and detailed fondus evaluation. The postoperative examination was done 1-7 years after surgery. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS 21.0 version. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation), chi-square, and independent samples t-test were used. We studied 85 eyes. Among the patients, 23 (27.1%) were male and 62 (72.9%) were female. Mean age of the participants was 28.25±5.55 years. Mean postoperative refraction was - 0.37±0.55 diopters. Keratoconus or corneal ectasia was not reported in any patient in this study. There was no statistically significant difference between SI index before and after operation (p=0.736). Mean preoperative refraction was -3.84 ± 1.46 diopters in males and -4.20±1.96 diopters in females; thus there was not statistically significant difference (p = 0.435). PRK is a safe and efficient photorefractive surgery and is associated with low complication rate in patients with atypical topography.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana VIEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG is a gold standard for long term enteral feeding. Neurologic dysphagia and head/neck cancer are the most common indications for PEG as they can lead to protein-energy malnutrition and serum electrolyte abnormalities, with potential negative impact on metabolic balance. Refeeding syndrome may also be related with severe electrolyte changes in PEG-fed patients and contribute to poor prognosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the changes in serum concentrations of the main electrolytes and its possible association with the outcome. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients followed in our Artificial Nutrition Clinic, submitted to PEG from 2010 to 2016, having head/neck cancer or neurologic dysphagia, who died under PEG feeding. Serum electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chlorine, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus were evaluated immediately before the gastrostomy procedure. Survival after PEG until death was recorded in months. RESULTS: We evaluated 101 patients, 59 with electrolyte alterations at the moment of the gastrostomy. Sodium was altered in 32 (31.7%, magnesium in 21 (20.8%, chlorine in 21 (20.8%, potassium in 14 (13.8%, calcium in 11 (10.9 % and phosphorus in 11 (10.9%. The survival of patients with low sodium (<135 mmol/L was significantly lower when compared to patients with normal/high values, 2.76 months vs 7.80 months, respectively (P=0.007. CONCLUSION: Changes in serum electrolytes of patients undergoing PEG were very common. More than half showed at least one abnormality, at the time of the procedure. The most frequent was hyponatremia, which was associated with significantly shorter survival, probably reflecting severe systemic metabolic distress.

  15. Postoperative delirium in intensive care patients: risk factors and outcome. (United States)

    Veiga, Dalila; Luis, Clara; Parente, Daniela; Fernandes, Vera; Botelho, Miguela; Santos, Patricia; Abelha, Fernando


    Postoperative delirium (POD) in Surgical Intensive Care patients is an important independent outcome determinant. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the incidence and determinants of POD. Prospective cohort study conducted during a period of 10 months in a Post-Anesthesia Care Unit (PACU) with five intensive care beds. All consecutive adult patients submitted to major surgery were enrolled. Demographic data, perioperative variables, length of stay (LOS) and the mortality at PACU, hospital and at 6-months follow-up were recorded. Postoperative delirium was evaluated using the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist (ICDSC). Descriptive analyses were conducted and the Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used for comparisons. Logistic regression analysis evaluated the determinants of POD with calculation of odds ratio (OR) and its confidence interval 95% (95% CI). There were 775 adult PACU admissions and 95 patients had exclusion criteria. Of the remaining 680 patients, 128 (18.8%) developed POD. Independent determinants of POD identified were age, ASA-PS, emergency surgery and total amount of fresh frozen plasma administered during surgery. Patients with delirium had higher mortality rates, were more severely ill and stayed longer at the PACU and in the hospital. POD was an independent risk factor for hospital mortality There was a high incidence of delirium had a high incidence in intensive care surgical patients. POD was associated with worse severity of disease scores, longer LOS in hospital, and in PACU and higher mortality rates. The independent risk factors for POD were age, ASAPS, emergency surgery and the amount of plasma administered during surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Lck is a relevant target in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cells whose expression variance is unrelated to disease outcome. (United States)

    Till, Kathleen J; Allen, John C; Talab, Fatima; Lin, Ke; Allsup, David; Cawkwell, Lynn; Bentley, Alison; Ringshausen, Ingo; Duckworth, Andrew D; Pettitt, Andrew R; Kalakonda, Nagesh; Slupsky, Joseph R


    Pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is contingent upon antigen receptor (BCR) expressed by malignant cells of this disease. Studies on somatic hypermutation of the antigen binding region, receptor expression levels and signal capacity have all linked BCR on CLL cells to disease prognosis. Our previous work showed that the src-family kinase Lck is a targetable mediator of BCR signalling in CLL cells, and that variance in Lck expression associated with ability of BCR to induce signal upon engagement. This latter finding makes Lck similar to ZAP70, another T-cell kinase whose aberrant expression in CLL cells also associates with BCR signalling capacity, but also different because ZAP70 is not easily pharmacologically targetable. Here we describe a robust method of measuring Lck expression in CLL cells using flow cytometry. However, unlike ZAP70 whose expression in CLL cells predicts prognosis, we find Lck expression and disease outcome in CLL are unrelated despite observations that its inhibition produces effects that biologically resemble the egress phenotype taken on by CLL cells treated with idelalisib. Taken together, our findings provide insight into the pathobiology of CLL to suggest a more complex relationship between expression of molecules within the BCR signalling pathway and disease outcome.

  17. Effects of Mindfulness Practice on Performance-Relevant Parameters and Performance Outcomes in Sports: A Meta-Analytical Review. (United States)

    Bühlmayer, Lucia; Birrer, Daniel; Röthlin, Philipp; Faude, Oliver; Donath, Lars


    Mindfulness as a present-oriented form of mental training affects cognitive processes and is increasingly considered meaningful for sport psychological training approaches. However, few intervention studies have examined the effects of mindfulness practice on physiological and psychological performance surrogates or on performance outcomes in sports. The aim of the present meta-analytical review was to examine the effects of mindfulness practice or mindfulness-based interventions on physiological and psychological performance surrogates and on performance outcomes in sports in athletes over 15 years of age. A structured literature search was conducted in six electronic databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus). The following search terms were used with Boolean conjunction: (mindful* OR meditat* OR yoga) AND (sport* OR train* OR exercis* OR intervent* OR perform* OR capacity OR skill*) AND (health* OR adult* OR athlete*). Randomized and non-randomized controlled studies that compared mindfulness practice techniques as an intervention with an inactive control or a control that followed another psychological training program in healthy sportive participants were screened for eligibility. Eligibility and study quality [Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro)] scales were independently assessed by two researchers. A third independent researcher was consulted to achieve final consensus in case of disagreement between both researchers. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated as weighted Hedges' g and served as the main outcomes in comparing mindfulness practice versus control. Statistical analyses were conducted using a random-effects inverse-variance model. Nine trials of fair study quality (mean PEDro score 5.4, standard deviation 1.1) with 290 healthy sportive participants (athletics, cyclists, dart throwers, hammer throwers, hockey players, hurdlers, judo fighters, rugby players, middle-distance runners, long

  18. Treatment outcomes of MDR-tuberculosis patients in Brazil: a retrospective cohort analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Lisboa Bastos


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is a threat for the global TB epidemic control. Despite existing evidence that individualized treatment of MDR-TB is superior to standardized regimens, the latter are recommended in Brazil, mainly because drug-susceptibility tests (DST are often restricted to first-line drugs in public laboratories. We compared treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients using standardized versus individualized regimens in Brazil, a high TB-burden, low resistance setting. Methods The 2007–2013 cohort of the national electronic database (SITE-TB, which records all special treatments including drug-resistance, was analysed. Patients classified as MDR-TB in SITE-TB were eligible. Treatment outcomes were classified as successful (cure/treatment completed or unsuccessful (failure/relapse/death/loss to follow-up. The odds for successful treatment according to type of regimen were controlled for demographic and clinical variables. Results Out of 4029 registered patients, we included 1972 recorded from 2010 to 2012, who had more complete outcome data. The overall success proportion was 60%. Success was more likely in non-HIV patients, sputum-negative at baseline, with unilateral disease and without prior DR-TB. Adjusted for these variables, those receiving standardized regimens had 2.7-fold odds of success compared to those receiving individualized treatments when failure/relapse were considered, and 1.4-fold odds of success when death was included as an unsuccessful outcome. When loss to follow-up was added, no difference between types of treatment was observed. Patients who used levofloxacin instead of ofloxacin had 1.5-fold odds of success. Conclusion In this large cohort of MDR-TB patients with a low proportion of successful outcomes, standardized regimens had superior efficacy than individualized regimens, when adjusted for relevant variables. In addition to the limitations of any retrospective observational

  19. Development of a patient-reported outcome instrument for patients with lumbar radicular pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Charlotte; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Handberg, Charlotte

    and ICF Rehabilitation Set. Items in the ICF-PRO are developed within methods and terminology of The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®). The development process contains five phases (figure 1). Results This poster presents preliminary results from phase 1-3. 89...... the focus group identified three themes: 'Simplicity', 'Application' and 'Individuality' representing elements of most importance for the patients toward a patient centered consultation (figure 2). Conclusions We found that ‘Simplicity’, ‘Application’ and ‘Individuality’ was essential to patients to lead...

  20. Marital Status and Outcomes in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease. (United States)

    Schultz, William M; Hayek, Salim S; Samman Tahhan, Ayman; Ko, Yi-An; Sandesara, Pratik; Awad, Mosaab; Mohammed, Kareem H; Patel, Keyur; Yuan, Michael; Zheng, Shuai; Topel, Matthew L; Hartsfield, Joy; Bhimani, Ravila; Varghese, Tina; Kim, Jonathan H; Shaw, Leslee; Wilson, Peter; Vaccarino, Viola; Quyyumi, Arshed A


    Being unmarried is associated with decreased survival in the general population. Whether married, divorced, separated, widowed, or never-married status affects outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease has not been well characterized. A prospective cohort (inception period 2003-2015) of 6051 patients (mean age 63 years, 64% male, 23% black) undergoing cardiac catheterization for suspected or confirmed coronary artery disease was followed for a median of 3.7 years (interquartile range: 1.7-6.7 years). Marital status was stratified as married (n=4088) versus unmarried (n=1963), which included those who were never married (n=451), divorced or separated (n=842), or widowed (n=670). The relationship between marital status and primary outcome of cardiovascular death and myocardial infarction was examined using Cox regression models adjusted for clinical characteristics. There were 1085 (18%) deaths from all causes, 688 (11%) cardiovascular-related deaths, and 272 (4.5%) incident myocardial infarction events. Compared with married participants, being unmarried was associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.47), cardiovascular death (HR: 1.45; 95% CI, 1.18-1.78), and cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction (HR: 1.52; 95% CI, 1.27-1.83). Compared with married participants, the increase in cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction was similar for the participants who were divorced or separated (HR: 1.41; 95% CI, 1.10-1.81), widowed (HR: 1.71; 95% CI, 1.32-2.20), or never married (HR: 1.40; 95% CI, 0.97-2.03). The findings persisted after adjustment for medications and other socioeconomic factors. Marital status is independently associated with cardiovascular outcomes in patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular disease, with higher mortality in the unmarried population. The mechanisms responsible for this increased risk require further study. © 2017 The Authors. Published on

  1. Comparative clinical outcomes between pediatric and young adult dialysis patients. (United States)

    Atkinson, Meredith A; Lestz, Rachel M; Fivush, Barbara A; Silverstein, Douglas M


    Published data on the comparative achievement of The Kidney Disease Dialysis Outcome Quality Initiative (KDOQI) recommended clinical performance targets between children and young adults on dialysis are scarce. To characterize the achievement of KDOQI targets among children (young adults (18-24 years) with prevalent end stage renal disease (ESRD), we performed a cross-sectional analysis of data collected by the Mid-Atlantic Renal Coalition, in conjunction with the 2007 and 2008 ESRD Clinical Performance Measures Projects. Data on all enrolled pediatric dialysis patients, categorized into three age groups (0-8, 9-12, 13-17 years), and on a random sample of 5% of patients ≥ 18 years in ESRD Network 5 were examined for two study periods: hemodialysis (HD) data were collected from October to December 2006 and from October to December 2007 and peritoneal dialysis (PD) data were collected from October 2006 to March 2007 and from October 2007 to March 2008. In total, 114 unique patients were enrolled the study, of whom 41.2% (47/114) were on HD and 58.8% (67/114) on PD. Compared to the pediatric patients, young adults were less likely to achieve the KDOQI recommended serum phosphorus levels and serum calcium × phosphorus product values, with less than one-quarter demonstrating values at or below each goal. Multivariate analysis revealed that both young adults and 13- to 17-year-olds were less likely to achieve target values for phosphorus [young adults: odds ratio (OR) 0.04, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.01-0.19, p young adults: OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.002-0.09, p young adult ESRD patients.

  2. Clinical analysis of the outcome of patients with brainstem hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimoto, Hirohiko; Takasato, Yoshio; Masaoka, Hiroyuki


    To identify prognostic factors in patients with brainstem hemorrhage, we analyzed their clinical symptoms and laboratory data on admission to our hospital. In 70 patients with brainstem hemorrhage (51 men and 19 women aged 29-93, with a mean of 59 gears) who had been admitted to our hospital from 1995 to 2000, we statistically evaluated the association of the outcome with their age and clinical symptoms on admission, blood glucose levels and white blood counts within 6 hours of admission, and the volume and extent of hematoma, concomitant hydrocephalus, and intraventricular perforation on admission CT scans. The mortality tended to be higher, but not significantly (P=0.07), in patients aged 70 years or older (83%) than in those aged less than 70 years (55%). Quadriplegia or decerebrate rigidity (P 2 or higher (P<0.01) on admission were significantly correlated with the prognosis. Hematoma volumes of 6 ml or larger on CT scans were most strongly correlated with the prognosis (P<0.001). Central hematoma and hematoma with extension to the midbrain, thalamus, or medulla oblongata (P<0.05), as well as hemorrhage complicated by hydrocephalus or intraventricular perforation (P<0.01), were correlated with the prognosis. (author)

  3. Machine learning landscapes and predictions for patient outcomes (United States)

    Das, Ritankar; Wales, David J.


    The theory and computational tools developed to interpret and explore energy landscapes in molecular science are applied to the landscapes defined by local minima for neural networks. These machine learning landscapes correspond to fits of training data, where the inputs are vital signs and laboratory measurements for a database of patients, and the objective is to predict a clinical outcome. In this contribution, we test the predictions obtained by fitting to single measurements, and then to combinations of between 2 and 10 different patient medical data items. The effect of including measurements over different time intervals from the 48 h period in question is analysed, and the most recent values are found to be the most important. We also compare results obtained for neural networks as a function of the number of hidden nodes, and for different values of a regularization parameter. The predictions are compared with an alternative convex fitting function, and a strong correlation is observed. The dependence of these results on the patients randomly selected for training and testing decreases systematically with the size of the database available. The machine learning landscapes defined by neural network fits in this investigation have single-funnel character, which probably explains why it is relatively straightforward to obtain the global minimum solution, or a fit that behaves similarly to this optimal parameterization.

  4. Does CPAP Affect Patient-Reported Voice Outcomes? (United States)

    Hartke, Vance; Gillespie, Amanda; Smith, Libby J; Soose, Ryan J


    Upper aerodigestive tract symptoms are common in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). It remains unclear whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) improves or worsens these otolaryngology symptoms. As therapy-related side effects limit CPAP adherence, this study aimed to determine if CPAP negatively affects voice, sinonasal, and reflux symptoms of the upper airway. Case series with planned data collection was performed at an academic otolaryngology sleep center. Newly diagnosed patients with OSA were evaluated before and 6 months after initiating CPAP therapy. Data collected included CPAP data download, Reflux Symptom Index (RSI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Voice Handicap Index 10 (VHI-10), Sino-Nasal Questionnaire (SNQ), and oral dryness visual analog scale (VAS). For the 11 CPAP-adherent participants, the RSI significantly improved with CPAP (mean RSI, 22.0-9.5; P = .002); however, the VAS, VHI-10, and SNQ did not change after 6 months of CPAP therapy. In a small sample size, patient-reported voice outcomes (VHI-10) and other upper aerodigestive tract symptoms did not worsen with CPAP; rather, CPAP therapy was associated with a reduction in reflux symptoms.

  5. Common minor histocompatibility antigen discovery based upon patient clinical outcomes and genomic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Armistead

    Full Text Available Minor histocompatibility antigens (mHA mediate much of the graft vs. leukemia (GvL effect and graft vs. host disease (GvHD in patients who undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT. Therapeutic decision making and treatments based upon mHAs will require the evaluation of multiple candidate mHAs and the selection of those with the potential to have the greatest impact on clinical outcomes. We hypothesized that common, immunodominant mHAs, which are presented by HLA-A, B, and C molecules, can mediate clinically significant GvL and/or GvHD, and that these mHAs can be identified through association of genomic data with clinical outcomes.Because most mHAs result from donor/recipient cSNP disparities, we genotyped 57 myeloid leukemia patients and their donors at 13,917 cSNPs. We correlated the frequency of genetically predicted mHA disparities with clinical evidence of an immune response and then computationally screened all peptides mapping to the highly associated cSNPs for their ability to bind to HLA molecules. As proof-of-concept, we analyzed one predicted antigen, T4A, whose mHA mismatch trended towards improved overall and disease free survival in our cohort. T4A mHA mismatches occurred at the maximum theoretical frequency for any given SCT. T4A-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTLs were detected in 3 of 4 evaluable post-transplant patients predicted to have a T4A mismatch.Our method is the first to combine clinical outcomes data with genomics and bioinformatics methods to predict and confirm a mHA. Refinement of this method should enable the discovery of clinically relevant mHAs in the majority of transplant patients and possibly lead to novel immunotherapeutics.

  6. Clinical outcome of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisumoto, Koji; Okami, Kenji; Sakai, Akihiro; Atsumi, Taku; Maki, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Ryosuke; Iida, Masahiro


    The objective of this study was to investigate therapeutic strategies for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma based on an examination of clinical outcomes in our department. The patients were 99 cases with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated in our hospital from March 2000 to March 2009. Five-year overall survival (OS) and 5-year cause-specific survival (CSS) were examined by the Kaplan-Meier survival curve. Subsite, stage, treatment (surgery group or radiotherapy or/and chemotherapy group) and prognosis were reviewed retrospectively. Five-year OS and 5-year CSS were 50% and 59%. Compared with the Stage I and II groups, the prognosis of Stage III and IV groups was significantly worse. As for the treatment, 5-year CSS of the surgery group was 76%, while that of the radiotherapy or/and chemotherapy group was 52%. Regarding the subsite, 5-year CSS of the lateral wall type Stage I and II groups was 90% (surgery group: 100%, radiotherapy or/and chemotherapy group: 83%), and that of the Stage III and IV groups was 63% (surgery group: 87%, radiotherapy or/and chemotherapy group: 55%). Five-year CSS of the superior wall type Stage I and II groups was 85% (surgery group: 100%, radiotherapy or/and chemotherapy group: 66%), and that of the Stage III and IV groups was 50% (surgery group: 75%, 5-year CSS was not obtained in the radiotherapy or/and chemotherapy group). The good outcome of the surgery group suggests that the indications for the operation were appropriate, and expansion of transoral resection should be considered in the near future. The outcomes of the radiotherapy or/and chemotherapy group require improvement. (author)

  7. Patient Satisfaction with Collection of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures in Routine Care. (United States)

    Recinos, Pablo F; Dunphy, Cheryl J; Thompson, Nicolas; Schuschu, Jesse; Urchek, John L; Katzan, Irene L


    Systematic collection of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) during ambulatory clinic visits can enhance communication between patient and provider, and provide the ability to evaluate outcomes of care. Little is known about patient satisfaction of PROM data collection in routine clinical care. To evaluate patient reaction to the routine collection of PROMs in the ambulatory setting. Before all ambulatory clinic visits at our neurological institute, patients electronically complete health status questionnaires. We administered an 8-question patient satisfaction survey to a sample of patients seen across the institute after their clinical visit. Of 343 patients approached, 323 agreed to participate. The majority responded that the questionnaire system was easy to use, was an appropriate length, and benefited their care overall (strongly agree or agree = 92.3%, 87.6%, and 77.3%, respectively). Provider review of the PROMs with the patient during the clinic visit was associated with significantly higher positive responses to all questions, even those regarding logistical aspects of the collection process. There were significant age and race differences in response to perceived benefit: those in the Black/other race category had a markedly lower probability of viewing the process favorably with increasing age. Systematic collection of PROMs via an electronic questionnaire appears to be well accepted by patients. A minority of patients did not feel the questionnaire content applied to their appointment or that the system was a beneficial feature of the clinical practice. The provider can significantly improve the patient's perception of PROM collection and the patient-physician encounter by reviewing the questionnaire results with the patient.

  8. Smoking and Adverse Outcomes in Patients With CKD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staplin, Natalie; Haynes, Richard; Herrington, William G


    enrolled in SHARP. PREDICTOR: Baseline smoking status (current, former, and never). OUTCOMES: Vascular events, site-specific cancer, ESRD, rate of change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and cause-specific mortality. RESULTS: At baseline, 1,243 (13%) participants were current smokers (median....... For 6,245 patients not receiving dialysis at baseline, ESRD incidence did not differ significantly between current and never smokers (2,141 events; RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.89-1.17), nor did estimated rate of change in eGFR (current smokers, -1.77±0.14 [SE]; never smokers, -1.70±0.07mL/min/1.73m(2) per year...

  9. Long-term outcome of pediatric patients with intracranial germinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinguji, Shinya; Yoshimura, Junichi; Aoki, Hiroshi; Natsumeda, Manabu; Yoneoka, Yuichiro; Nishiyama, Kenichi; Fujii, Yukihiko; Nagasaki, Keisuke


    Intracranial germinomas are sensitive to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. For this reason, long-term survival or cure rate is excellent. It is therefore important for such patients, especially for younger children, to keep a high quality of life (QOL) after the treatment. Recently, whole ventricle radiotherapy with chemotherapy has been the treatment of choice for these tumors. However, in our institute, we perform radiotherapy alone as a standard treatment, using prophylactic craniospinal irradiation (CSI) or whole brain irradiation (WBI) with local tumor booster. The purpose of this study is to assess the long-term outcome of pediatric patients with intracranial germinomas in our institute. Twenty-three young patients (17 males and 6 females) ranging from 5 to 15 years were treated between 1990 and 2009 at University of Niigata. Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 10.7 years. Tumor locations were as follows: pineal regions in 6, suprasellar in 6, basal ganglia in 4, ventricles in 1, bifocal regions (pineal and suprasellar) in 2, and dissemination in 4 patients. Twenty (88%) patients had received radiotherapy alone: 15 (66%) with CSI, and 5 (22%) with WBI. Median doses for the whole brain, spine, and primary site were 26.6 Gy (range, 23.8-35.0), 25.9 Gy (range, 23.8-30.6), 49.8 Gy (range, 44.7-52.8), respectively. Three (12%) received chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. We analyzed the survival and long-term QOL including hormonal sequel after the above treatments. The median follow-up period was 126 months (26 to 235 months). None of the 20 patients with radiotherapy alone suffered tumor recurrence, while 2 of the 3 with chemotherapy developed recurrences. Eleven (48%), including 9 with supurasellar region required hormone replacement therapy. Two (9%) were short stature compared with normal (mean-2 standard deviation). One (4%) developed a possible radiation-induced menigioma. In 15 patients aged 19 years or older, 13 (87%) graduated from senior high

  10. Migration Phenotype of Brain-Cancer Cells Predicts Patient Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L. Smith


    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme is a heterogeneous and infiltrative cancer with dismal prognosis. Studying the migratory behavior of tumor-derived cell populations can be informative, but it places a high premium on the precision of in vitro methods and the relevance of in vivo conditions. In particular, the analysis of 2D cell migration may not reflect invasion into 3D extracellular matrices in vivo. Here, we describe a method that allows time-resolved studies of primary cell migration with single-cell resolution on a fibrillar surface that closely mimics in vivo 3D migration. We used this platform to screen 14 patient-derived glioblastoma samples. We observed that the migratory phenotype of a subset of cells in response to platelet-derived growth factor was highly predictive of tumor location and recurrence in the clinic. Therefore, migratory phenotypic classifiers analyzed at the single-cell level in a patient-specific way can provide high diagnostic and prognostic value for invasive cancers.

  11. Clinical Outcomes of Lung Transplantation in Patients with Telomerase Mutations (United States)

    Tokman, Sofya; Singer, Jonathan P.; Devine, Megan S.; Westall, Glen P.; Aubert, John-David; Tamm, Michael; Snell, Gregory I.; Lee, Joyce S.; Goldberg, Hilary J.; Kukreja, Jasleen; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Leard, Lorriana E.; Garcia, Christine K.; Hays, Steven R.


    Background Successful lung transplantation (LT) for patients with pulmonary fibrosis from telomerase mutations is limited by systemic complications of telomerase dysfunction including myelosuppression, cirrhosis, and malignancy. We describe clinical outcomes among 14 LT recipients with telomerase mutations. Methods Subjects underwent LT between February 2005 and April 2014 at 5 LT centers. We abstracted data from medical records, focusing on outcomes reflecting post-LT treatment effects likely to be complicated by telomerase mutations. Results The median age of subjects was 60.5 years (IQR 52.0–62.0), 64.3% were male, and the mean post-LT observation time was 3.2 years (SD ±2.9). Eleven subjects had a mutation in telomerase reverse transcriptase, 2 in telomerase RNA component, and 1 had an uncharacterized mutation. Ten subjects were leukopenic post-LT; leukopenia prompted cessation of mycophenolate mofetil in 5 and treatment with filgrastim in 4. Six subjects had recurrent lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), 7 had acute cellular rejection (ACR) (A1), and 4 developed chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD). Ten LT recipients developed chronic renal insufficiency and 8 experienced acute, reversible renal failure. Three developed cancer, none had cirrhosis. Thirteen subjects were alive at data censorship. Conclusions The clinical course for LT recipients with telomerase mutations is complicated by renal disease, leukopenia prompting a change in the immunosuppressive regimen, and recurrent LTRI. In contrast, cirrhosis was absent, ACR was mild, and development of CLAD was comparable to other LT populations. While posing challenges, lung transplantation may be feasible for patients with pulmonary fibrosis due to telomerase mutations. PMID:26169663

  12. Toxicogenomic outcomes predictive of forestomach carcinogenesis following exposure to benzo(a)pyrene: Relevance to human cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labib, Sarah, E-mail:; Guo, Charles H., E-mail:; Williams, Andrew, E-mail:; Yauk, Carole L., E-mail:; White, Paul A., E-mail:; Halappanavar, Sabina, E-mail:


    Forestomach tumors are observed in mice exposed to environmental carcinogens. However, the relevance of this data to humans is controversial because humans lack a forestomach. We hypothesize that an understanding of early molecular changes after exposure to a carcinogen in the forestomach will provide mode-of-action information to evaluate the applicability of forestomach cancers to human cancer risk assessment. In the present study we exposed mice to benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), an environmental carcinogen commonly associated with tumors of the rodent forestomach. Toxicogenomic tools were used to profile gene expression response in the forestomach. Adult Muta™Mouse males were orally exposed to 25, 50, and 75 mg BaP/kg-body-weight/day for 28 consecutive days. The forestomach was collected three days post-exposure. DNA microarrays, real-time RT-qPCR arrays, and protein analyses were employed to characterize responses in the forestomach. Microarray results showed altered expression of 414 genes across all treatment groups (± 1.5 fold; false discovery rate adjusted P ≤ 0.05). Significant downregulation of genes associated with phase II xenobiotic metabolism and increased expression of genes implicated in antigen processing and presentation, immune response, chemotaxis, and keratinocyte differentiation were observed in treated groups in a dose-dependent manner. A systematic comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the forestomach from the present study to differentially expressed genes identified in human diseases including human gastrointestinal tract cancers using the NextBio Human Disease Atlas showed significant commonalities between the two models. Our results provide molecular evidence supporting the use of the mouse forestomach model to evaluate chemically-induced gastrointestinal carcinogenesis in humans. - Highlights: • Benzo(a)pyrene-mediated transcriptomic response in the forestomach was examined. • The immunoproteosome subunits and MHC class I

  13. Transfer of Patients in a Telestroke Network: What Are the Relevant Factors for Making This Decision? (United States)

    Klingner, Carsten M; Brodoehl, Stefan; Funck, Laura; Klingner, Caroline C; Berrouschot, Jörg; Witte, Otto W; Günther, Albrecht


    Background/Introduction: Current telestroke network consultations are focused on decision-making in the hyperacute stage of stroke management. The two main questions in telestroke consultations are whether thrombolysis should be initiated and whether the patient should be transferred to a hub hospital. Although guidelines exist for initiating intravenous thrombolytic therapy, the question of whether patients should be transferred is far more elusive. In this study, we investigated the factors involved in the decision to transfer stroke patients to a hub hospital. We were particularly interested in identifying factors that promote or impede the transfer of patients. We enrolled 1,615 cases of telestroke consultation of the University Hospital Jena. The two main factors that independently influenced the probability of transferring a patient were the patient's age and the identification of a proximal vessel occlusion. Interestingly, factors such as the severity of symptoms and the time elapsed from symptom onset were not found to have an independent influence on the decision to transfer a patient. The transfer of most patients was justified by the possibility of performing interventional reperfusion therapy. We discuss the effectiveness of the current decision-making process and possible ways to improve decision-making for a more effective selection of patients who would benefit from transfer. The decision-making process to a transfer patient is not standardized and constitutes a trade-off between the intention to treat all possible patients while avoiding the transfer of patients without treatment options.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Nodimar


    We confirm that PD is associated with changes in BC, whether for incident or prevalent patients. The BCM®, a simple, reproducible and inexpensive technique, could be proposed in the systematic nutritional monitoring of PD patients, in order to detect early modification of nutritional status in those patients and then to adapt clinical management.

  15. Prognostic relevance of sunitinib toxicities and comparison of continuous vs. intermittent sunitinib dosing schedule in metastatic renal cell cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetin Ordu


    Full Text Available Aim of the study : Sunitinib-related side effects may develop as a result of the pharmacokinetic pathway affects the of the drug. Material and methods : Data on mRCC patients were obtained from the hospital archives. Outcomes of patients were evaluated in terms of related prognostic factors, sunitinib adverse events during the treatment, and two different sunitinib dosing schedules. Results : Seventy patients diagnosed with mRCC and treated with sunitinib were analyzed for prognostic factors and survival rates. During the mean follow-up of 33.5 months, 38 (54% patients were alive and 32 (46% patients died. The median time of overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS was 27 months (12–61 and 19 months (5–45, respectively. In univariate analysis, good prognostic risk group according to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC, hypothyroidism as sunitinib toxicity and patients on sunitinib treatment more than 1 year were favorable prognostic factors for OS. Leukopenia and fatigue as sunitinib toxicity were poor prognostic factors for OS. PFS and OS of the patients were not significantly different when we compared intermittent (4/2 vs. continuous treatment dosing schedules. Conclusions : As a result of this trial, having hypothyroidism as an adverse effect of sunitinib was a favorable prognostic factor for OS and PFS in mRCC patients. It was also found that 4/2 and continuous dosing schedules of sunitinib did not give rise to different outcomes in mRCC patients.

  16. Outcomes of 50 patients entering an adolescent bariatric surgery programme. (United States)

    White, Billy; Doyle, Jacqueline; Matschull, Kirsten; Adamo, Marco; Christie, Deborah; Nicholls, Dasha; Kinra, Sanjay; Wong, Ian Chi Kei; Viner, Russell M


    Bariatric surgery is the most effective intervention for weight loss and obesity-related comorbidities currently available. Little is known about adolescents entering National Health Service (NHS) bariatric programmes. We aimed to characterise those entering a pathway and report their outcomes. Prospective service evaluation of patients assessed within a single NHS adolescent bariatric service. 50 patients assessed between 26 July 2007 and 27 January 2014; 6 (12%) were not eligible for surgery, 7 (14%) actively opted out, 8 (16%) were lost to follow-up and 29 (58%) underwent surgery (18 sleeve gastrectomy (SG) 11 Roux-en-y gastric bypass (RYGB) and 0 adjustable gastric band). Mean (SD) age at initial assessment was 16.0 (1.3) years and 18.3 (1.3) at surgery (youngest 15.7 years). Mean time taken to surgery was 1.8 years; longer in those with higher body mass index (BMI) and aged below 14 at first assessment. Mean (SD) BMI at surgery was 53.1 (8.3) kg/m 2 , lower in those undergoing RYGB (-5.2, 95% CI -11.6 to 1.13). Follow-up was inconsistent and challenging; 1/29 (3.5%) was transferred to a regional centre, 10/29 (34.5%) attended ongoing follow-up within our protocol, 6/29 (20.7%) had intermittent monitoring and 12/29 (41.4%) were lost to follow-up. Mean BMI change at 1 year (-14.0 kg/m 2 ) and complications were similar to published cohorts. Data from 11 lost to follow-up were obtained and outcomes appeared similar to those who actively followed up. Adolescent bariatric surgery in the NHS appears effective, with outcomes similar to those reported internationally. Further work is needed to optimise postsurgical surveillance and reduce age at surgery. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Stress associated gene expression in blood cells is related to outcome in radiotherapy treated head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bøhn, Siv K; Blomhoff, Rune; Russnes, Kjell M; Sakhi, Amrit K; Thoresen, Magne; Holden, Marit; Moskaug, JanØ; Myhrstad, Mari C; Olstad, Ole K; Smeland, Sigbjørn


    We previously observed that a radiotherapy-induced biochemical response in plasma was associated with favourable outcome in head and neck squamous carcinoma cancer (HNSCC) patients. The aim of the present study was to compare stress associated blood cell gene expression between two sub-groups of HNSCC patients with different biochemical responses to radiotherapy. Out of 87 patients (histologically verified), 10 biochemical ‘responders’ having a high relative increase in plasma oxidative damage and a concomitant decrease in plasma antioxidants during radiotherapy and 10 ‘poor-responders’ were selected for gene-expression analysis and compared using gene set enrichment analysis. There was a significant induction of stress-relevant gene-sets in the responders following radiotherapy compared to the poor-responders. The relevance of the involvement of similar stress associated gene expression for HNSCC cancer and radioresistance was verified using two publicly available data sets of 42 HNSCC cases and 14 controls (GEO GSE6791), and radiation resistant and radiation sensitive HNSCC xenografts (E-GEOD-9716). Radiotherapy induces a systemic stress response, as revealed by induction of stress relevant gene expression in blood cells, which is associated to favourable outcome in a cohort of 87 HNSCC patients. Whether these changes in gene expression reflects a systemic effect or are biomarkers of the tumour micro-environmental status needs further study. Raw data are available at ArrayExpress under accession number E-MEXP-2460

  18. Electronic patient records in action: Transforming information into professionally relevant knowledge. (United States)

    Winman, Thomas; Rystedt, Hans


    The implementation of generic models for organizing information in complex institutions like those in healthcare creates a gap between standardization and the need for locally relevant knowledge. The present study addresses how this gap can be bridged by focusing on the practical work of healthcare staff in transforming information in EPRs into knowledge that is useful for everyday work. Video recording of shift handovers on a rehabilitation ward serves as the empirical case. The results show how extensive selections and reorganizations of information in EPRs are carried out in order to transform information into professionally relevant accounts. We argue that knowledge about the institutional obligations and professional ways of construing information are fundamental for these transitions. The findings point to the need to consider the role of professional knowledge inherent in unpacking information in efforts to develop information systems intended to bridge between institutional and professional boundaries in healthcare. © The Author(s) 2011.

  19. Does the applied polytrauma definition notably influence outcome and patient population? - a retrospective analysis. (United States)

    Frenzel, Stephan; Krenn, Philipp; Heinz, Thomas; Negrin, Lukas Leopold


    Although the term "polytrauma" has been in use for decades, no generally accepted definition exists. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that different polytrauma definitions applied to a specific patient population result in diverse subgroups of individuals, who in turn present a varying outcome. All patients (≥18 years) treated at our level I trauma center within a time period of three years were classified according to 11 selected polytrauma definitions and included in our study, if they were rated "polytraumatized" by at least one of these definitions. All patients, who met the criteria of a certain definition, were combined to the relevant definition-positive group, thus resulting in 11 patient subgroups. Their demographic data (number of patients, mean patient age, mean Injury Severity Score value, median number of ventilator days, median length of stay at the intensive care unit and at the hospital, mortality rate and odds ratio) were statistically compared. Three hundred seventy-five patients (73% male) with a mean age of 47 years met the inclusion criteria and were allocated to the relevant subgroups; their patient number varied from 55 to 346 and their mean Injury Severity Score value ranged from 4 to 75. Not surprisingly, all examined parameters were subject to variations. Whereas most definition-positive groups showed a mortality rate of about 21% to 30%, 18% of the individuals, who met the criteria according to Blacker, and 40% of the polytrauma victims according to Schalamon died. The Pape 1-, Schalamon-, and Berlin-positive groups presented a significant odds ratio with regard to mortality that considerably exceeded 1. A polytrauma definition can only be a reliable tool in classifying trauma victims if it provides a significant odds ratio with regard to mortality that considerably exceeds 1 and if it succeeds in capturing patients with multiple severe injuries and a higher mortality rate without reducing the number of polytraumatized

  20. Capturing and missing the patient's story through outcome measures: A thematic comparison of patient-generated items in PSYCHLOPS with CORE-OM and PHQ-9. (United States)

    Sales, Célia Md; Neves, Inês Td; Alves, Paula G; Ashworth, Mark


    There is increasing interest in individualized patient-reported outcome measures (I-PROMS), where patients themselves indicate the specific problems they want to address in therapy and these problems are used as items within the outcome measurement tool. This paper examined the extent to which 279 items reported in an I-PROM (PSYCHLOPS) added qualitative information which was not captured by two well-established outcome measures (CORE-OM and PHQ-9). Comparison of items was only conducted for patients scoring above the "caseness" threshold on the standardized measures. 107 patients were participating in therapy within addiction and general psychiatric clinical settings. Almost every patient (95%) reported at least one item whose content was not covered by PHQ-9, and 71% reported at least one item not covered by CORE-OM. Results demonstrate the relevance of individualized outcome assessment for capturing data describing the issues of greatest concern to patients, as nomothetic measures do not always seem to capture the whole story. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Choroid plexus carcinomas in children: MRI features and patient outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Steven P. [University of Rochester School of Medicine, Strong Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Rochester, NY (United States); University of Rochester Medical Center, Department of Radiology, 601 Elmwood Avenue, P.O. Box 648, Rochester, NY (United States); Khademian, Zarir P.; Zimmerman, Robert A. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Chuang, Sylvester H. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Pollack, Ian F. [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Korones, David N. [University of Rochester School of Medicine, Strong Memorial Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Rochester, NY (United States)


    Choroid plexus carcinomas (CPC) are rare malignant intracranial neoplasms usually occurring in young children. The objectives of this study were to characterize the preoperative MRI features of CPC, determine the frequency of disseminated disease in the CNS at diagnosis, and assess patient outcomes. The preoperative cranial MR images of 11 patients with CPC were retrospectively reviewed for lesion location, lesion size, un-enhanced and enhanced MRI signal characteristics, and presence of disseminated intracranial tumor. Postoperative cranial and spinal MRI images were reviewed for residual, recurrent, and/or disseminated tumor. The study group included six male and five female patients ranging in age from 5 months to 5.3 years (median=1.8 years). CPC were located in the lateral (n=8), fourth (n=1), and third (n=1) ventricles, and foramen of Luschka (n=1). Mean tumor size was 5.2cm x 4.9cm x 5.0 cm. On short-TR images, CPC had heterogeneous, predominantly intermediate signal with foci of high signal in 45% of lesions from areas of hemorrhage. On long-TR/long-TE images, solid portions of CPC typically had heterogeneous, intermediate-to-slightly-high signal. Small zones of low signal on long-TR/long-TE images were seen in 55% of the lesions secondary to areas of hemorrhage and/or calcifications. Tubular flow voids representing blood vessels were seen in 55% of the lesions. Zones of high signal comparable to CSF were seen in 64% of CPC secondary to cystic/necrotic zones. All CPC showed prominent contrast enhancement. Irregular enhancing margins suggesting subependymal invasion were seen in 73% of the lesions. Findings consistent with edema in the brain adjacent to the enhancing lesions were seen in 73% of CPC. CPC caused hydrocephalus in 82% of patients at diagnosis. Two patients died from hemorrhagic complications from surgical biopsies. Disseminated tumor in the leptomeninges was present in 45% of patients at diagnosis and was associated with a poor prognosis. The 1

  2. A Tissue Relevance and Meshing Method for Computing Patient-Specific Anatomical Models in Endoscopic Sinus Surgery Simulation (United States)

    Audette, M. A.; Hertel, I.; Burgert, O.; Strauss, G.

    This paper presents on-going work on a method for determining which subvolumes of a patient-specific tissue map, extracted from CT data of the head, are relevant to simulating endoscopic sinus surgery of that individual, and for decomposing these relevant tissues into triangles and tetrahedra whose mesh size is well controlled. The overall goal is to limit the complexity of the real-time biomechanical interaction while ensuring the clinical relevance of the simulation. Relevant tissues are determined as the union of the pathology present in the patient, of critical tissues deemed to be near the intended surgical path or pathology, and of bone and soft tissue near the intended path, pathology or critical tissues. The processing of tissues, prior to meshing, is based on the Fast Marching method applied under various guises, in a conditional manner that is related to tissue classes. The meshing is based on an adaptation of a meshing method of ours, which combines the Marching Tetrahedra method and the discrete Simplex mesh surface model to produce a topologically faithful surface mesh with well controlled edge and face size as a first stage, and Almost-regular Tetrahedralization of the same prescribed mesh size as a last stage.

  3. Speed of Language Comprehension at 18 Months Old Predicts School-Relevant Outcomes at 54 Months Old in Children Born Preterm. (United States)

    Marchman, Virginia A; Loi, Elizabeth C; Adams, Katherine A; Ashland, Melanie; Fernald, Anne; Feldman, Heidi M


    Identifying which preterm (PT) children are at increased risk of language and learning differences increases opportunities for participation in interventions that improve outcomes. Speed in spoken language comprehension at early stages of language development requires information processing skills that may form the foundation for later language and school-relevant skills. In children born full-term, speed of comprehending words in an eye-tracking task at 2 years old predicted language and nonverbal cognition at 8 years old. Here, we explore the extent to which speed of language comprehension at 1.5 years old predicts both verbal and nonverbal outcomes at 4.5 years old in children born PT. Participants were children born PT (n = 47; ≤32 weeks gestation). Children were tested in the "looking-while-listening" task at 18 months old, adjusted for prematurity, to generate a measure of speed of language comprehension. Parent report and direct assessments of language were also administered. Children were later retested on a test battery of school-relevant skills at 4.5 years old. Speed of language comprehension at 18 months old predicted significant unique variance (12%-31%) in receptive vocabulary, global language abilities, and nonverbal intelligence quotient (IQ) at 4.5 years, controlling for socioeconomic status, gestational age, and medical complications of PT birth. Speed of language comprehension remained uniquely predictive (5%-12%) when also controlling for children's language skills at 18 months old. Individual differences in speed of spoken language comprehension may serve as a marker for neuropsychological processes that are critical for the development of school-relevant linguistic skills and nonverbal IQ in children born PT.

  4. Outcomes from patients with presumed drug resistant tuberculosis in five reference centers in Brazil. (United States)

    Ramalho, D M P; Miranda, P F C; Andrade, M K; Brígido, T; Dalcolmo, M P; Mesquita, E; Dias, C F; Gambirasio, A N; Ueleres Braga, J; Detjen, A; Phillips, P P J; Langley, I; Fujiwara, P I; Squire, S B; Oliveira, M M; Kritski, A L


    The implementation of rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) is a current global priority for TB control. However, data are scarce on patient-relevant outcomes for presumptive diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis (pDR-TB) evaluated under field conditions in high burden countries. Observational study of pDR-TB patients referred by primary and secondary health units. TB reference centers addressing DR-TB in five cities in Brazil. Patients age 18 years and older were eligible if pDR-TB, culture positive results for Mycobacterium tuberculosis and, if no prior DST results from another laboratory were used by a physician to start anti-TB treatment. The outcome measures were median time from triage to initiating appropriate anti-TB treatment, empirical treatment and, the treatment outcomes. Between February,16th, 2011 and February, 15th, 2012, among 175 pDR TB cases, 110 (63.0%) confirmed TB cases with DST results were enrolled. Among study participants, 72 (65.5%) were male and 62 (56.4%) aged 26 to 45 years. At triage, empirical treatment was given to 106 (96.0%) subjects. Among those, 85 were treated with first line drugs and 21 with second line. Median time for DST results was 69.5 [interquartile - IQR: 35.7-111.0] days and, for initiating appropriate anti-TB treatment, the median time was 1.0 (IQR: 0-41.2) days. Among 95 patients that were followed-up during the first 6 month period, 24 (25.3%; IC: 17.5%-34.9%) changed or initiated the treatment after DST results: 16/29 MDRTB, 5/21 DR-TB and 3/45 DS-TB cases. Comparing the treatment outcome to DS-TB cases, MDRTB had higher proportions changing or initiating treatment after DST results (p = 0.01) and favorable outcomes (p = 0.07). This study shows a high rate of empirical treatment and long delay for DST results. Strategies to speed up the detection and early treatment of drug resistant TB should be prioritized.

  5. Distinct mutation profile and prognostic relevance in patients with hypoplastic myelodysplastic syndromes (h-MDS). (United States)

    Yao, Chi-Yuan; Hou, Hsin-An; Lin, Tzung-Yi; Lin, Chien-Chin; Chou, Wen-Chien; Tseng, Mei-Hsuan; Chiang, Ying-Chieh; Liu, Ming-Chih; Liu, Chia-Wen; Kuo, Yuan-Yeh; Wu, Shang-Ju; Liao, Xiu-Wen; Lin, Chien-Ting; Ko, Bor-Shen; Chen, Chien-Yuan; Hsu, Szu-Chun; Li, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shang-Yi; Yao, Ming; Tang, Jih-Luh; Tsay, Woei; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Tien, Hwei-Fang


    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of hematologic malignancies. Although most MDS patients have normal or increased BM cellularity (NH-MDS), some have hypocellular BM (h-MDS). The reports concerning the differences in genetic alterations between h-MDS and NH-MDS patients are limited. In this study, 369 MDS patients diagnosed according to the WHO 2008 criteria were recruited. h-MDS patients had lower PB white blood cell and blast counts, and lower BM blast percentages, than those with NH-MDS. h-MDS was closely associated with lower-risk MDS, defined by the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) and revised IPSS (IPSS-R). IPSS-R could properly predict the prognosis in h-MDS (PMDS patients. The h-MDS patients had lower incidences of RUNX1, ASXL1, DNMT3A, EZH2 and TP53 mutations than NH-MDS patients. The cumulated incidence of acute leukemic transformation at 5 years was 19.3% for h-MDS and 40.4% for NH-MDS patients (P= 0.001). Further, the patients with h-MDS had longer overall survival (OS) than those with NH-MDS (P= 0.001), and BM hypocellularity remains an independent favorable prognostic factor for OS irrespective of age, IPSS-R, and gene mutations. Our findings provide evidence that h-MDS indeed represent a distinct clinico-biological subgroup of MDS and can predict better leukemia-free survival and OS.

  6. Analyzing differences between patient and proxy on Patient Reported Outcomes in multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Sonder, Judith M; Holman, Rebecca; Knol, Dirk L; Bosma, Libertje V A E; Polman, Chris H; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J


    Proxy respondents, partners of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, can provide valuable information on the MS patients' disease. In an earlier publication we found relatively good agreement on patient reported outcomes (PROs) measuring physical impact and functioning, but we found large differences on (neuro)psychological scales. We aim to identify patient and proxy related variables explaining differences between patients' and proxies' ratings on five PROs. We report on data from 175 MS patients and proxy respondents. Regression analyses were performed, using as dependent variable the mean differences on five scales: Physical and Psychological scale of the Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29), the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS), Guy's Neurological Disability Scale (GNDS) and the Multiple Sclerosis Neuropsychological Screening Questionnaire (MSNQ). The independent variables were patient, proxy and disease related variables. Caregiver strain was significantly related to differences between patient and proxy scores for all five PROs. A higher level of patient anxiety on the HADS was linked to larger differences on all PROs except the GNDS. In addition, cognitive functioning, proxy depression, walking ability, proxy gender and MS related disability were contributing to the discrepancies. We found several patient and proxy factors that may contribute to discrepancies between patient and proxy scores on MS PROs. The most important factor is caregiver burden. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pectus patient information website has improved access to care and patient reported outcomes. (United States)

    Tikka, Theofano; Webb, Joanne; Agostini, Paula; Kerr, Amy; Mannion, Glenn; Steyn, Richard S; Bishay, Ehab; Kalkat, Maninder S; Rajesh, Pala B; Naidu, Babu


    Pectus is the most common congenital disorder. Awareness amongst primary care physicians and the general public is poor. NHS commissioning bodies plan to withdraw funding for this surgery because they deem a lack of sufficient evidence of benefit. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of introducing a patient information website on referral and activity patterns and on patients reported outcomes. We produced an innovative information website, , accessible to the general public, providing information about pectus deformities; management options and advice about surgery. Referral patterns and number of cases where studied before and after the introduction of the website in 2010. Patients' satisfaction post-op was assessed using the Brompton's single step questionnaire (SSQ). The website had considerable traffic with 2179 hits in 2012, 4983 in 2013 and 7416 in 2014. This has led to 1421 contacts and 372 email enquiries. These emails have resulted in an increased number of patients who have been assessed and go on to have surgery. We asked 59 pectus excavatum patients who were operated from 2008 to 2014 to complete the SSQ. We received 32 replies. Eighty-four percent (16/19) of patients who visited the website and then underwent surgery, found the website useful. All patients scored satisfactorily in SSQ. Even though those who visited the website tended to be more satisfied with the surgical outcomes this did not reach statistical significance. This group of patients said that would have the operation again given the option compared to 76.9 % of the group who did not visit the website before surgery (p=0.031). Despite the fact that patients who visited the website experienced more post-operative complications were equally or more satisfied with post-operative outcomes. The overall SSQ obtainable score was not different for the two subgroups, being more widespread in the group that did not visit the website. The introduction of a pectus

  8. Improving health outcomes with better patient understanding and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert John Adams


    Full Text Available Robert John AdamsThe Health Observatory, The Queen Elizabeth Hospital Campus, The University of Adelaide, Woodville, South Australia, AustraliaAbstract: A central plank of health care reform is an expanded role for educated consumers interacting with responsive health care teams. However, for individuals to realize the benefits of health education also requires a high level of engagement. Population studies have documented a gap between expectations and the actual performance of behaviours related to participation in health care and prevention. Interventions to improve self-care have shown improvements in self-efficacy, patient satisfaction, coping skills, and perceptions of social support. Significant clinical benefits have been seen from trials of self-management or lifestyle interventions across conditions such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the focus of many studies has been on short-term outcomes rather that long term effects. There is also some evidence that participation in patient education programs is not spread evenly across socio economic groups. This review considers three other issues that may be important in increasing the public health impact of patient education. The first is health literacy, which is the capacity to seek, understand and act on health information. Although health literacy involves an individual’s competencies, the health system has a primary responsibility in setting the parameters of the health interaction and the style, content and mode of information. Secondly, much patient education work has focused on factors such as attitudes and beliefs. That small changes in physical environments can have large effects on behavior and can be utilized in self-management and chronic disease research. Choice architecture involves reconfiguring the context or physical environment in a way that makes it more likely that people will choose certain behaviours. Thirdly

  9. Validity of a simple Internet-based outcome-prediction tool in patients with total hip replacement: a pilot study. (United States)

    Stöckli, Cornel; Theiler, Robert; Sidelnikov, Eduard; Balsiger, Maria; Ferrari, Stephen M; Buchzig, Beatus; Uehlinger, Kurt; Riniker, Christoph; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A


    We developed a user-friendly Internet-based tool for patients undergoing total hip replacement (THR) due to osteoarthritis to predict their pain and function after surgery. In the first step, the key questions were identified by statistical modelling in a data set of 375 patients undergoing THR. Based on multiple regression, we identified the two most predictive WOMAC questions for pain and the three most predictive WOMAC questions for functional outcome, while controlling for comorbidity, body mass index, age, gender and specific comorbidities relevant to the outcome. In the second step, a pilot study was performed to validate the resulting tool against the full WOMAC questionnaire among 108 patients undergoing THR. The mean difference between observed (WOMAC) and model-predicted value was -1.1 points (95% confidence interval, CI -3.8, 1.5) for pain and -2.5 points (95% CI -5.3, 0.3) for function. The model-predicted value was within 20% of the observed value in 48% of cases for pain and in 57% of cases for function. The tool demonstrated moderate validity, but performed weakly for patients with extreme levels of pain and extreme functional limitations at 3 months post surgery. This may have been partly due to early complications after surgery. However, the outcome-prediction tool may be useful in helping patients to become better informed about the realistic outcome of their THR.

  10. Outcomes following the main treatment options in patients with a leaking esophagus: a systematic literature review. (United States)

    Persson, S; Rouvelas, I; Irino, T; Lundell, L


    Leakage from the esophagus and gastroesophageal junction can be lethal due to uncontrolled contamination of the mediastinum. The most predominant risk factors for the subsequent clinical outcome are the patients' delay as well as the delay of diagnosis. Two major therapeutic concepts have been advocated: either prompt closure of the leakage by insertion of a self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) or more traditionally, surgical exploration. The objective of this review is to carefully scrutinize the recent literature and assess the outcomes of these two therapeutic alternatives in the management of iatrogenic perforation-spontaneous esophageal rupture as separated from those with anastomotic leak. A systematic web-based search using PubMed and the Cochrane Library was performed, reviewing literature published between January 2005 and December 2015. Eligible studies included all studies that presented data on the outcome of SEMS or surgical exploration in case of esophageal leak (including >3 patients). Only patients older than 15 years of age by the time of admission were included. Articles in other languages but English were excluded. Treatment failure was defined as a need for change in therapeutic strategy due to uncontrolled sepsis and mediastinitis, which usually meant rescue esophagectomy with end esophagostomy, death occurring as a consequence of the leakage or development of an esophagorespiratory fistula and/or other serious life threatening complications. Accordingly, the corresponding success rate is composed of cases where none of the failures above occurred. Regarding SEMS treatment, 201 articles were found, of which 48 were deemed relevant and of these, 17 articles were further analyzed. As for surgical management, 785 articles were retrieved, of which 82 were considered relevant, and 17 were included in the final analysis. It was not possible to specifically extract detailed clinical outcomes in sufficient numbers, when we tried to separately analyze the

  11. Interstitial brachytherapy for eyelid carcinoma. Outcome analysis in 60 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krengli, M.; Deantonio, L. [University Hospital ' ' Maggiore della Carita' ' , Division of Radiotherapy, Novara (Italy); University of ' ' Piemonte Orientale' ' , Department of Translational Medicine, Novara (Italy); Masini, L.; Filomeno, A.; Gambaro, G. [University Hospital ' ' Maggiore della Carita' ' , Division of Radiotherapy, Novara (Italy); Comoli, A.M. [University Hospital Maggiore della Carita, Ophthalmology, Novara (Italy); Negri, E. [University Hospital Maggiore della Carita, Medical Physics, Novara (Italy)


    Eyelid cancer is a therapeutic challenge due to the cosmetic and functional implications of this anatomical region and the objectives of therapy are tumor control, functional and cosmetic outcome. The present study was performed to analyze local control, toxicity, functional and cosmetic results in patients with eyelid carcinoma treated by interstitial brachytherapy. In this study 60 patients with eyelid carcinoma were treated by interstitial brachytherapy using iridium ({sup 192}Ir) wires with a linear activity of 1.2-1.7 mCi/cm. The prescription dose was 51-70 Gy (mean 65 Gy, median 66 Gy). Of the 60 patients 51 (85.0 %) had received no prior treatment, 4 (6.7 %) had received previous surgery with positive or close margins and 5 (8.3 %) had suffered local recurrence after surgery. Of the tumors 52 (86.7 %) were basal cell carcinoma, 7 (11.7 %) squamous cell carcinoma and 1 (1.7 %) Merkel cell carcinoma. Clinical stage of the 51 previously untreated tumors was 38 T1N0, 12 T2N0 and 1 T3N0. Mean follow-up was 92 months (range 6-253 months). Local control was maintained in 96.7 % of patients. Late effects higher than grade 2 were observed in 3.0 % of cases. Functional and cosmetic outcomes were optimal in 68.4 % of patients. Interstitial brachytherapy for carcinoma of the eyelid can achieve local control, cosmetic and functional results comparable to those of surgery. (orig.) [German] Das Karzinom des Augenlids stellt aufgrund der funktionellen und kosmetischen Beeintraechtigungen dieser anatomischen Region eine therapeutische Herausforderung dar. Ziele der Therapie sind sowohl die Tumorkontrolle als auch ein gutes funktionelles und kosmetisches Ergebnis. Lokale Kontrolle, Toxizitaet sowie funktionelle und kosmetische Ergebnisse bei Patienten mit Karzinom des Augenlids, die mit interstitieller Brachytherapie behandelt wurden, sollten analysiert werden. Sechzig Patienten mit Karzinom des Augenlids wurden mit interstitieller Brachytherapie mit Iridium-192-Draehten

  12. Patient Care Outcomes: Implications for the Military Health Services Systems (United States)


    regionalization as a data driven decision. There is a growing body of information that supports the use of regionalization.7- 13 Overall, higher volume is...outcomes. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 45, 1376-1378. 59. Epstein, A. M. (1990). The outcomes movement --will it get us where we want to go...Outcome assessment. (1987). New England Journal of Medicine, 317(4), 251-252. 177. Partridge, C. J. (1982). The outcome of physiotherapy and its

  13. Long-term renal outcome in patients with malignant hypertension: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amraoui, Fouad; Bos, Sarah; Vogt, Liffert; van den Born, Bert-Jan


    Background: Malignant hypertension is frequently complicated by renal insufficiency. Although the survival of this hypertensive emergency has improved, recent data on renal outcome and its predictors are lacking. We assessed renal outcome and its predictors in patients with malignant hypertension.

  14. Ultrasonographic Findings of the Gallbladder in Patients with Acute Hepatitis A: Do They Have Clinical Relevance?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Ji Young; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Dong Ho; Lim, Joo Won; Ko, Young Tae; Choi, Bong Keun [Dept. of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To determine the association of gallbladder (GB) abnormalities on ultrasonography (US) of patients with acute hepatitis A with demographic, clinical, and biochemical factors, and with other US findings. This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board, which waived the requirement for informed consent. We retrospectively evaluated 152 consecutive patients with acute hepatitis A who underwent US. The diagnosis of acute hepatitis A was made during acute illness by demonstrating anti- HAV of the IgM class. US images were reviewed simultaneously by two abdominal radiologists and a consensus was reached for GB wall thickening, GB collapse, lymphadenopathy, and hepatic echogenicity. The associations between demographic, clinical, biochemical, and US findings and GB wall thickening or collapse were then assessed. GB wall thickening was present in 123 (81%) and GB collapse in 96 (63%) of the 152 patients. Total bilirubin level and GB collapse differed significantly (p < 0.05) between patients with and without GB wall thickening. Gender ratio, total and peak total bilirubin level, and GB wall thickness differed significantly (p < 0.05) between patients with and without GB collapse. Multivariate analysis showed that GB wall thickening was associated with GB collapse and vice versa. GB wall thickening and GB collapse are common US abnormalities associated with each other in patients with acute hepatitis A. However, GB wall thickening or collapse is not associated with any demographic, clinical, or biochemical factors, or with other US findings, in patients with acute hepatitis A.

  15. Study Gaps Relevant to Use of Complementary Medicine in Patients With Leukemia: A Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Context A review of the literature of recent decades has shown that few studies have been conducted on the effects of various types of complementary medicine on patients with leukemia. Therefore, the present study aimed to find research gaps in the use of different types of complementary medicine in patients with leukemia to be applied in future studies. Evidence Acquisition The present study was a review-type design based on a review of the literature on different types of complementary medicine in patients with leukemia, up to 2015. The search was conducted through electronic databases and search engines. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 8 studies which had been conducted on the use of complementary medicine in patients with leukemia were selected for the identification of gaps. Results The overall results showed that few studies have been conducted on the use of exercise, massage therapy, music therapy, acupressure, and healing touch in patients with leukemia, and these subjects are potential research areas for many different studies. However, no studies have been carried out on the effects of acupuncture, relaxation, and yoga on these patients. Conclusions The results of this review showed that the number of studies on the use of complementary medicine in leukemia patients is very limited (especially in Iran, and it can be the subject of numerous studies in the future.

  16. Ultrasonographic Findings of the Gallbladder in Patients with Acute Hepatitis A: Do They Have Clinical Relevance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Ji Young; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, Dong Ho; Lim, Joo Won; Ko, Young Tae; Choi, Bong Keun


    To determine the association of gallbladder (GB) abnormalities on ultrasonography (US) of patients with acute hepatitis A with demographic, clinical, and biochemical factors, and with other US findings. This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board, which waived the requirement for informed consent. We retrospectively evaluated 152 consecutive patients with acute hepatitis A who underwent US. The diagnosis of acute hepatitis A was made during acute illness by demonstrating anti- HAV of the IgM class. US images were reviewed simultaneously by two abdominal radiologists and a consensus was reached for GB wall thickening, GB collapse, lymphadenopathy, and hepatic echogenicity. The associations between demographic, clinical, biochemical, and US findings and GB wall thickening or collapse were then assessed. GB wall thickening was present in 123 (81%) and GB collapse in 96 (63%) of the 152 patients. Total bilirubin level and GB collapse differed significantly (p < 0.05) between patients with and without GB wall thickening. Gender ratio, total and peak total bilirubin level, and GB wall thickness differed significantly (p < 0.05) between patients with and without GB collapse. Multivariate analysis showed that GB wall thickening was associated with GB collapse and vice versa. GB wall thickening and GB collapse are common US abnormalities associated with each other in patients with acute hepatitis A. However, GB wall thickening or collapse is not associated with any demographic, clinical, or biochemical factors, or with other US findings, in patients with acute hepatitis A.

  17. A systematic review of web-based interventions for patient empowerment and physical activity in chronic diseases: relevance for cancer survivors. (United States)

    Kuijpers, Wilma; Groen, Wim G; Aaronson, Neil K; van Harten, Wim H


    Patient empowerment reflects the ability of patients to positively influence their health and health behavior such as physical activity. While interactive Web-based interventions are increasingly used in various chronic disease settings to enhance empowerment and physical activity, such interventions are still uncommon for cancer survivors. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding interactive Web-based interventions. We focused on interventions aimed at increasing patient empowerment and physical activity for various chronic conditions, and explored their possible relevance for cancer survivors. Searches were performed in PubMed, Embase, and Scopus to identify peer-reviewed papers reporting on randomized controlled trials that studied the effects of Web-based interventions. These interventions were developed for adults with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, or cancer. Intervention characteristics, effects on patient empowerment and physical activity, information on barriers to and facilitators of intervention use, users' experiences, and methodological quality were assessed. Results were summarized in a qualitative way. We used the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) regarding cancer survivorship care to explore the relevance of the interventions for cancer survivors. We included 19 papers reporting on trials with 18 unique studies. Significant, positive effects on patient empowerment were reported by 4 studies and 2 studies reported positive effects on physical activity. The remaining studies yielded mixed results or no significant group differences in these outcomes (ie, no change or improvement for all groups). Although the content, duration, and frequency of interventions varied considerably across studies, commonly used elements included education, self-monitoring, feedback/tailored information, self-management training, personal exercise program, and

  18. Long-term mortality and renal outcome in a cohort of 100 patients with lupus nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurschou, Mikkel; Dreyer, Lene; Kamper, Anne-Lise


    To evaluate the long-term mortality and renal outcome in a cohort of Danish patients with lupus nephritis (LN) and to identify outcome predictors among findings registered at the time of the first renal biopsy.......To evaluate the long-term mortality and renal outcome in a cohort of Danish patients with lupus nephritis (LN) and to identify outcome predictors among findings registered at the time of the first renal biopsy....

  19. Relevance of a laboratory physician's report to patient care in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice ... When both are provided for a test done, reports offer in depth information, explanation and clarification of results. ... benefits such an investigation reporting system will have on patient management.

  20. Intercultural doctor-patient communication in daily outpatient care: relevant communication skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternotte, E.; Scheele, F.; Seeleman, C.M.; Bank, L.; Scherpbier, A.J.; Dulmen, S. van


    INTRODUCTION: Intercultural communication (ICC) between doctors and patients is often associated with misunderstandings and dissatisfaction. To develop ICC-specific medical education, it is important to find out which ICC skills medical specialists currently apply in daily clinical consultations.

  1. Clinical Relevance of Trace Bands on Serum Electrophoresis in Patients Without a History of Gammopathy (United States)

    Gwathmey, TanYa M.; Willis, Monte S.; Tatreau, Jason; Wang, Shaobin; McCudden, Christopher R.


    Serum protein electrophoresis (SPE) and immunofixation is commonly used to screen for plasma cell dyscrasias. Interpretation of these tests is qualitative by nature and can yield trace, faint, or scarcely visible immunoglobulin bands (TFS), which can be difficult to classify. Whether these bands should be reported at all is challenging given their unknown clinical significance. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed 14,036 physician-ordered protein SPE and immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) tests on serum and urine specimens (from 4,091 patients) during the period of 2000-2010. We found that 17% of all IFE results evaluated for the presence of monoclonal gammopathies (2,389 out of 14,036) contained TFS bands, representing 4.2% (173 out of 4091) of all patients evaluated. Sixty of these patients (42%) had no previous history of gammopathy, and were clinically evaluated over a mean period of up to five years from the original diagnosis of plasma cell pathology. None of these patients had progressed to multiple myeloma, lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma, plasmacytoma, or leukemia. The remaining 82 patients (58%) had a previous history of gammopathy, but had not progressed to any symptomatic plasma cell dyscrasia. Evaluation of these patients was followed for a median period of 4.3 years, with a mean of 21.5 IFE tests per individual. These data suggest that for patients without a previous history of gammopathy, the presence of TFS bands on serum protein electrophoresis does not warrant frequent follow up investigation as commonly practiced. Routine follow up of patients with a prior history of gammopathy, conversely, are warranted and may contribute to overall survival with multiple treatment options now available. For those interpreting IFE results, it may be worth considering these data when composing comments regarding suggested repeat testing frequency by SPE/IFE or alternate test methods. PMID:27683487

  2. Identification of relevant ICF categories by patients in the acute hospital. (United States)

    Grill, Eva; Huber, Erika Omega; Stucki, Gerold; Herceg, Malvina; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Quittan, Michael

    To describe functioning and health of patients in the acute hospital and to identify the most common problems using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Cross-sectional survey in a convenience sample of neurological, musculoskeletal and cardiopulmonary patients requiring rehabilitation in the acute hospital. The second level categories of the ICF were used to collect information on patients' problems. For the ICF components Body Functions, Body Structures and Activities and Participation absolute and relative frequencies of impairments/limitations in the study population were reported. For the component Environmental Factors absolute and relative frequencies of perceived barriers or facilitators were reported. The mean age in the sample was 57.6 years with a median age of 60.5, 49% of the patients were female. In 101 patients with neurological conditions, 115 ICF categories had a prevalence of 30% and more: 32 categories of Body Functions, 13 categories of Body Structures, 32 categories of Activities and Participation and 38 categories of Environmental Factors. In 105 patients with cardiopulmonary conditions, 80 categories had a prevalence of 30% and more: 36 categories of Body Functions, eight categories of Body Structures, 10 categories of Activities and Participation and 26 categories of Environmental Factors. In 90 patients with musculoskeletal conditions, 61 categories had a prevalence of 30% and more: 14 categories of Body Functions, five categories of Body Structures, 16 categories of Activities and Participation and 26 categories of Environmental Factors. This study is a first step towards the development of ICF Core Sets for patients in the acute hospital.

  3. Frequency and Prognostic Relevance of FLT3 Mutations in Saudi Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaleb Elyamany


    Full Text Available The Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3 is a receptor tyrosine kinase that plays a key role in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells. Mutations of FLT3 were first described in 1997 and account for the most frequent molecular mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML. AML patients with FLT3 internal tandem duplication (ITD mutations have poor cure rates the prognostic significance of point mutations; tyrosine kinase domain (TKD is still unclear. We analyzed the frequency of FLT3 mutations (ITD and D835 in patients with AML at diagnosis; no sufficient data currently exist regarding FLT3 mutations in Saudi AML patients. This study was aimed at evaluating the frequency of FLT3 mutations in patients with AML and its significance for prognosis. The frequency of FLT3 mutations in our study (18.56% was lower than many of the reported studies, FLT3-ITD mutations were observed in 14.4%, and FLT3-TKD in 4.1%, of 97 newly diagnosed AML patients (82 adult and 15 pediatric. Our data show significant increase of FLT3 mutations in male more than female (13 male, 5 female. Our results support the view that FLT3-ITD mutation has strong prognostic factor in AML patients and is associated with high rate of relapse, and high leucocytes and blast count at diagnosis and relapse.

  4. Identification of relevant ICF categories by geriatric patients in an early post-acute rehabilitation facility. (United States)

    Grill, Eva; Stucki, Gerold; Boldt, Christine; Joisten, Susanne; Swoboda, Walter

    To describe functioning and health of elderly patients in an early post-acute rehabilitation facility and to identify the most common problems using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Cross-sectional survey in a convenience sample of elderly patients requiring rehabilitation in an early post-acute rehabilitation facility. The second-level categories of the ICF were used to collect information on patients' problems. For the ICF components Body Functions, Body Structures and Activities and Participation, absolute and relative frequencies of impairments/limitations in the study population were reported. For the component Environmental Factors absolute and relative frequencies of perceived barriers or facilitators were reported. The mean age in the sample was 79.9 years. Sixty-nine percent of the patients were female. In 150 patients, 82 ICF categories (34%) had a prevalence of 30% or above. The 82 categories included 22 categories (45%) of the component Body Functions, six categories (15%) of the component Body Structures, 25 categories (34%) of the component Activities and Participation and 29 (57%) categories of the component Environmental Factors. This study is a first step towards the development of ICF Core Sets for geriatric patients in early post-acute rehabilitation facilities.

  5. Relevance of a molecular tumour board (MTB) for patients' enrolment in clinical trials: experience of the Institut Curie. (United States)

    Basse, Clémence; Morel, Claire; Alt, Marie; Sablin, Marie Paule; Franck, Coralie; Pierron, Gaëlle; Callens, Céline; Melaabi, Samia; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Bataillon, Guillaume; Gardrat, Sophie; Lavigne, Marion; Bonsang, Benjamin; Vaflard, Pauline; Pons Tostivint, Elvire; Dubot, Coraline; Loirat, Delphine; Marous, Miguelle; Geiss, Romain; Clément, Nathalie; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Kamoun, Choumouss; Girard, Elodie; Ardin, Maude; Benoist, Camille; Bernard, Virginie; Mariani, Odette; Rouzier, Roman; Tresca, Patricia; Servois, Vincent; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Bieche, Ivan; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Kamal, Maud


    High throughput molecular screening techniques allow the identification of multiple molecular alterations, some of which are actionable and can be targeted by molecularly targeted agents (MTA). We aimed at evaluating the relevance of using this approach in the frame of Institut Curie Molecular Tumor Board (MTB) to guide patients with cancer to clinical trials with MTAs. We included all patients presented at Institut Curie MTB from 4 October 2014 to 31 October 2017. The following information was extracted from the chart: decision to perform tumour profiling, types of molecular analyses, samples used, molecular alterations identified and those which are actionable, and inclusion in a clinical trial with matched MTA. 736 patients were presented at the MTB. Molecular analyses were performed in 442 patients (60%). Techniques used included next-generation sequencing, comparative genomic hybridisation array and/or other techniques including immunohistochemistry in 78%, 51% and 58% of patients, respectively. Analyses were performed on a fresh frozen biopsy in 91 patients (21%), on archival tissue (fixed or frozen) in 326 patients (74%) and on both archival and fresh frozen biopsy in 25 patients (6%). At least one molecular alteration was identified in 280 analysed patients (63%). An actionable molecular alteration was identified in 207 analysed patients (47%). Forty-five analysed patients (10%) were enrolled in a clinical trial with matched MTA and 29 additional patients were oriented and included in a clinical trial based on a molecular alteration identified prior to the MTB analysis. Median time between date of specimen reception and molecular results was 28 days (range: 5-168). The implementation of an MTB at Institut Curie enabled the inclusion of 10% of patients into a clinical trial with matched therapy.

  6. No relevant impact of ambient temperature on disability measurements in a large cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis. (United States)

    Stellmann, J-P; Young, K L; Vettorazzi, E; Pöttgen, J; Heesen, C


    Many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) report a worsening of symptoms due to high ambient temperatures, but objective data about this association are rare and contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ambient temperature on standard clinical tests. We extracted the Symbol Digit Modality Test, Nine Hole Peg Test, Timed 25 Foot Walk (T25FW), Timed Tandem Walk, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and quality-of-life items on cognition, fatigue and depression from our clinical database and matched them to historical temperatures. We used linear mixed-effect models to investigate the association between temperature and outcomes. A total of 1254 patients with MS (mean age, 42.7 years; 69.9% females; 52.1% relapsing-remitting MS, mean EDSS, 3.8) had 5751 assessments between 1996 and 2012. We observed a worsening in the T25FW with higher ambient temperatures in moderately disabled patients (EDSS ≥ 4) but not in less disabled patients. However, an increase of 10°C prolonged the T25FW by just 0.4 s. Other outcomes were not associated with ambient temperatures. Higher ambient temperature might compromise walking capabilities in patients with MS with a manifest walking impairment. However, effects are small and not detectable in mildly disabled patients. Hand function, cognition, mood and fatigue do not appear to be correlated with ambient temperature. © 2017 EAN.

  7. Digital versus conventional implant impressions for edentulous patients: accuracy outcomes. (United States)

    Papaspyridakos, Panos; Gallucci, German O; Chen, Chun-Jung; Hanssen, Stijn; Naert, Ignace; Vandenberghe, Bart


    To compare the accuracy of digital and conventional impression techniques for completely edentulous patients and to determine the effect of different variables on the accuracy outcomes. A stone cast of an edentulous mandible with five implants was fabricated to serve as master cast (control) for both implant- and abutment-level impressions. Digital impressions (n = 10) were taken with an intraoral optical scanner (TRIOS, 3shape, Denmark) after connecting polymer scan bodies. For the conventional polyether impressions of the master cast, a splinted and a non-splinted technique were used for implant-level and abutment-level impressions (4 cast groups, n = 10 each). Master casts and conventional impression casts were digitized with an extraoral high-resolution scanner (IScan D103i, Imetric, Courgenay, Switzerland) to obtain digital volumes. Standard tessellation language (STL) datasets from the five groups of digital and conventional impressions were superimposed with the STL dataset from the master cast to assess the 3D (global) deviations. To compare the master cast with digital and conventional impressions at the implant level, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Scheffe's post hoc test was used, while Wilcoxon's rank-sum test was used for testing the difference between abutment-level conventional impressions. Significant 3D deviations (P impressions (P > 0.001). Digital implant impressions are as accurate as conventional implant impressions. The splinted, implant-level impression technique is more accurate than the non-splinted one for completely edentulous patients, whereas there was no difference in the accuracy at the abutment level. The implant angulation up to 15° did not affect the accuracy of implant impressions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Toric Intraocular Lens Outcomes in Patients With Glaucoma. (United States)

    Brown, Reay H; Zhong, Le; Bozeman, Caroline W; Lynch, Mary G


    To report the outcomes of toric intraocular lens implantation in patients with glaucoma and corneal astigmatism. One hundred twenty-six eyes of 87 patients with glaucoma and corneal astigmatism that underwent cataract surgery with an AcrySof toric intraocular lens (Alcon Laboratories, Inc., Fort Worth, TX) implant were selected for this single-center, retrospective case series. Corrected distance visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and refractive astigmatism were measured in each eye preoperatively and postoperatively. Uncorrected distance visual acuity and toric alignment were measured postoperatively. The uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.04 ± 0.08 logMAR (20/22 Snellen) for all eyes. Ninety-eight percent of all eyes achieved an uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/40 or better, with 76% achieving 20/25 or better and 47% achieving 20/20. The corrected distance visual acuity for all eyes was 0.01 ± 0.03 logMAR (20/20.5 Snellen) postoperatively. The refractive cylinder improved from 1.47 ± 1.10 diopters preoperatively to 0.31 ± 0.37 diopters postoperatively. The residual refractive cylinder was 1.00 diopter or less in 97% of eyes, 0.75 diopters or less in 90% of eyes, and 0.50 diopters or less in 83% of eyes. Mean misalignment was 4.4° ± 5.1°. Intraocular pressure decreased by a mean of 2.3 ± 3.3 mm Hg following the surgery. Toric intraocular lenses can reliably reduce astigmatism and improve uncorrected vision in eyes with cataract and glaucoma. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. [The impact of particular factors on the outcome of treatment of patients with craniocerebral injury]. (United States)

    Kindarov, Z B; Kazatchenko, O A; Soloviyeva, N B


    The article considers the relationship between outcomes of treatment of craniocerebral injuries in hospital and gender and age of hospitalized patients, mode of traumatization, time of visiting the physician for medical care, severity of patient condition, duration of stay in hospital. The analysis results demonstrated rather accurate picture of outcomes of treatment of patients with craniocerebral injuries in the Republic of Chechnya.

  10. Patient Characteristics and Outcomes in Institutional and Community Long-Term Care. (United States)

    Braun, Kathryn L.; And Others


    Examined three-way relationships among patient characteristics, type of care (admission to nursing home or community setting), and 6-month outcomes of 352 long-term care patients. Found that patient characteristics influenced type of care received and that substantial portions of variance in outcomes were attributable to initial differences among…

  11. Risk factors and short-term outcome in patients with angiographically negative subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbjerg, Sara Maria; Larsen, Carl Christian; Romner, Bertil


    The objective of this study was to identify prognostic factors for clinical outcome in patients with non-traumatic, angiographically negative subarachnoid hemorrhage. Furthermore, the aim was to investigate if patients on anticoagulant therapy may have a more unfavorable outcome than patients...

  12. Localized prostate cancer in elderly patients. Outcome after radiation therapy compared to matched younger patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguenin, P.U.; Bitterli, M.; Luetolf, U.M.; Glanzmann, C.; Bernhard, J.


    Purpose: To detect a difference in outcome (disease-specific survival, local tumor progression, late toxicity, quality of life) after curative radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer in elderly as compared to younger patients. Patients and methods: In a retrospective analysis 59 elderly patients (>74 years old) were matched 1:2 with younger patients from the data base according to tumor stage, grading, pre-treatment PSA values and year of radiotherapy. Surviving patients were contacted to fill in a validated questionnaire for quality of life measurement (EORTC QLQ-C30). Median follow-up for elderly and younger patients was 5.2 and 4.5 years, respectively. Results: Overall survival at 5 years was 66% for the elderly and 80% for younger patients. Intercurrent deaths were observed more frequently in the elderly population. There was no age-specific difference in disease-specific survival (78% vs 82%), late toxicity or quality of life. Clinically meaningful local tumor progression was observed in 15% and 14%, respectively, corresponding to data from the literature following hormonal ablation. Conclusions: There is no obvious difference in outcome including disease-specific survival, late toxicity and quality of life in elderly patients, compared to a matched younger population. A clinically meaningful local tumor progression following radiotherapy or hormonal ablation only is rare. Local radiotherapy or, alternatively, hormonal ablation is recommended to preserve local progression-free survival in elderly patients except for very early stage of disease (i.e. T1 G1-2 M0). (orig.) [de

  13. Shock as a determinant of poor patient-centered outcomes in implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Van Den Broek, Krista C; Van Den Berg, Martha


    as an outcome, and compare the influence of ICD shock with other factors (e.g., heart failure and psychological factors) as determinants of outcomes, with a view to providing recommendations for clinical practice and future research. Based on the large-scale primary and secondary prevention trials (i.e., CABG......-PATCH, CIDS, AVID, AMIOVIRT, SCD-HeFT, MADIT-II, and DEFINITE), evidence for an association between ICD shocks and quality of life is mixed, with some indication that the influence of shocks may depend largely on the interval between shocks and assessment of quality of life. In order to improve the clinical...... management of ICD patients, we need to adopt a more rigorous and standardized methodology in future studies in order to be able to draw firm conclusions about the impact of ICD shocks on individual patients. We also need to acknowledge that the impact of shocks on psychological functioning and quality...

  14. [Hereditary heterozygous factor VII deficiency in patients undergoing surgery : Clinical relevance]. (United States)

    Woehrle, D; Martinez, M; Bolliger, D


    A hereditary deficiency in coagulation factor VII (FVII) may affect the international normalized ratio (INR) value. However, FVII deficiency is occasionally associated with a tendency to bleed spontaneously. We hypothesized that perioperative substitution with coagulation factor concentrates might not be indicated in most patients. In this retrospective data analysis, we included all patients with hereditary heterozygous FVII deficiency who underwent surgical procedures at the University Hospital Basel between December 2010 and November 2015. In addition, by searching the literature, we identified publications reporting patients with FVII deficiency undergoing surgical procedures without perioperative substitution. We identified 22 patients undergoing 46 surgical procedures, resulting in a prevalence of 1:1500-2000. Coagulation factor concentrates were administered during the perioperative period in 15 procedures (33 %), whereas in the other 31 procedures (66 %), FVII deficiency was not substituted. No postoperative bleeding or thromboembolic events were reported. In addition, we found no differences in pre- and postoperative hemoglobin and coagulation parameters, with the exception of an improved postoperative INR value in the substituted group. In the literature review, we identified five publications, including 125 patients with FVII deficiency, undergoing 213 surgical procedures with no perioperative substitution. Preoperative substitution using coagulation factor concentrates does not seem to be mandatory in patients with an FVII level ≥15 %. For decision-making on preoperative substitution, patient history of an increased tendency to bleed may be more important than the FVII level or increased INR value.

  15. Septic liver - Clinical relevance of early inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver in patients with acute pyelonephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Ga Jin; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Suk [Dept. of Radiology, Biomedical Research Inst., Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Pusan National Univ. School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)], e-mail:; Kim, Tae Un [Dept. of Radiology, Pusan National Univ. Yangsan Hospital, Pusan National Univ. School of Medicine, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Sang Heon [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Biomedical Research Inst., Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Pusan National Univ. School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Sung; Jo, Hong Jae [Dept. of Surgery, Biomedical Research Inst., Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Pusan National Univ. School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Background: CT scans of patients with febrile illness occasionally show hepatobiliary changes, although infection does not originate in the hepatobiliary system. These findings may cause radiologists and clinicians to misrecognize hepatobiliary diseases and initiate an inappropriate treatment. Thus, it is important to recognize hepatobiliary CT findings in cases of extrahepatobiliary infectious disease. Purpose: To evaluate extrarenal CT manifestations in patients with acute pyelonephritis and to determine the correlation between these extrarenal CT findings and septic liver based on laboratory parameters of sepsis. Material and Methods: This study included 157 retrospectively identified patients with confirmed acute pyelonephritis based on CT imaging and urine test, and who had also undergone multi-phase dynamic contrast-enhanced CT scan. Two radiologists reviewed CT findings including early inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver, periportal low density and gallbladder edema, which were correlated with laboratory data including liver function enzymes, albumin, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and results of a blood culture by using the Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Forty-six patients (29.3%) showed early inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver, which was associated with increased C-reactive protein (P < 0.001), a positive blood culture (P < 0.005), and decreased albumin level (P < 0.002). The periportal low density and gallbladder wall edema were noted in 15 patients (9.6%) and six patients (3.8%), respectively. These two CT findings were significantly associated with only decreased albumin level (P < 0.001 and P < 0.040). Conclusion: Early inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver in patients with acute pyelonephritis was significantly associated with increased CRP level, a positive blood culture and decreased albumin level, reflecting sepsis and sepsis-associated liver dysfunction, requiring rapid and appropriate intensive

  16. Relevance of prostate cancer in patients with synchronous invasive bladder urothelial carcinoma: a monocentric retrospective analysis

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    Lucio Dell’Atti


    Full Text Available Objectives: We retrospectively reviewed data of patients with incidental prostate cancer (PCa who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP for invasive bladder cancer and we analyzed their features with regard to incidence, pathologic characteristics, clinical significance, and implications for management. Material and Methods: Clinical data and pathological features of 64 patients who underwent standard RCP for bladder cancer were included in this study. Besides the urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder, the location and tumor volume of the PCa, prostate apex involvement, Gleason score, pathological staging and surgical margins were evaluated. Clinically significant PCa was defined as a tumor with a Gleason 4 or 5 pattern, stage ≥ pT3, lymph node involvement, positive surgical margin or multifocality of three or more lesions. Postoperative follow-up was scheduled every 3 months in the first year, every 6 months in the second and third year, annually thereafter. Results: 11 out of 64 patients (17.2% who underwent RCP had incidentally diagnosed PCa. 3 cases (27.3% were diagnosed as significant PCa, while 8 cases (72.7% were clinically insignificant. The positive surgical margin of PCa was detected in 1 patient with significant disease. The prostate apex involvement was present in 1 patient of the significant PCa group. Median follow-up period was 47.8 ± 29.2 (range 4-79. During the follow-up, biochemical recurrence occurred in 1 patient (9%. Concernig the cancer specific survival there was no statistical significance (P = 0.326 between the clinically significant and clinical insignificant cancer group. Conclusions: In line with published studies, incidental PCa does not impact on the prognosis of bladder cancer of patients undergoing RCP.

  17. Septic liver - Clinical relevance of early inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver in patients with acute pyelonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Ga Jin; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Suk; Kim, Tae Un; Song, Sang Heon; Kim, Hyun Sung; Jo, Hong Jae


    Background: CT scans of patients with febrile illness occasionally show hepatobiliary changes, although infection does not originate in the hepatobiliary system. These findings may cause radiologists and clinicians to misrecognize hepatobiliary diseases and initiate an inappropriate treatment. Thus, it is important to recognize hepatobiliary CT findings in cases of extrahepatobiliary infectious disease. Purpose: To evaluate extrarenal CT manifestations in patients with acute pyelonephritis and to determine the correlation between these extrarenal CT findings and septic liver based on laboratory parameters of sepsis. Material and Methods: This study included 157 retrospectively identified patients with confirmed acute pyelonephritis based on CT imaging and urine test, and who had also undergone multi-phase dynamic contrast-enhanced CT scan. Two radiologists reviewed CT findings including early inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver, periportal low density and gallbladder edema, which were correlated with laboratory data including liver function enzymes, albumin, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and results of a blood culture by using the Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Forty-six patients (29.3%) showed early inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver, which was associated with increased C-reactive protein (P < 0.001), a positive blood culture (P < 0.005), and decreased albumin level (P < 0.002). The periportal low density and gallbladder wall edema were noted in 15 patients (9.6%) and six patients (3.8%), respectively. These two CT findings were significantly associated with only decreased albumin level (P < 0.001 and P < 0.040). Conclusion: Early inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver in patients with acute pyelonephritis was significantly associated with increased CRP level, a positive blood culture and decreased albumin level, reflecting sepsis and sepsis-associated liver dysfunction, requiring rapid and appropriate intensive

  18. Interprofessional Collaborative Practice to Improve Patient Outcomes: A Pilot Study

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    Jennifer Styron


    Full Text Available This project focused on a pilot project implemented during the 2013-2014 academic year. The overall purpose was to facilitate interprofessional collaborative practice innovations through the development of leadership, core competencies, and the use of technology, especially among nurses. Nursing, medicine, and physician assistant students were educated on the IOM competencies for interprofessional teams and the core competencies identified by the Interprofessional Education Collaborative Expert Panel [1] to develop knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed to practice in the collaborative practice environments. The project addressed four goals: Develop faculty expertise and leadership in interprofessional collaborative practice to provide a current, high quality education to nursing, physician assistant, and medical students; Implement a culturally responsive and respectful collaborative interprofessional practice curriculum to prepare nurses, physician assistants, and medical students to deliver high quality, efficient, team-based care in a dynamically evolving environment; Focus interprofessional collaborative practice education on models and practices that lead to improvement in patient outcomes; and Evaluate the program and disseminate best practices. Findings from this pilot include strategies to engage different health professions' students and faculty, partnering with community agencies, building an effective interprofessional team to guide the project, and seeking funding for extension and expansion of the offerings.

  19. Factors Affecting the Outcome of Bronchiectasis in Pediatric Patients

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    Nemat Bilan


    Full Text Available Introduction: Bronchiectasis is a common problem in children and early diagnosis can lead to early treatment and prevent of its complications. This study was aimed to evaluate factors effective on outcome of bronchiectasis in children. Methods: In an analytical cross-sectional study, 347 children with bronchiectasis Underwent the study. the patients were diagnosed based on chronic suppurative cough and CT scan findings. . Results: Disease etiology was asthma in 55.6%, Gastroesophagial reflux (GERD in 7.8%, Cystic fibrosis (CF in 4.8%, other causes in 11.2% and idiopathic in 20.6%. All cases complained of chronic cough. The most common sign was daily sputum production (79.1% and common symptoms were ral/crackle in 47.1% and wheezing in 25.4%. Mean treatment period was 32.82±11.56 months. At the end of follow-up, complete improvement occurred in 35.6%, partial improvement in 40.9% and no improvement in 23.5%. Conclusion: In children with chronic cough and crackle in physical examination, consideration of bronchiectasis could be helpful in early diagnosis and complementary evaluations and treatment initiation. Treating the underlying disease could prevent the occurrence and increase the response to treatment of bronchiectasis.

  20. Psychosocial outcomes and counselee satisfaction following genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: A patient-reported outcome study. (United States)

    Oberguggenberger, Anne; Sztankay, Monika; Morscher, Raphael Johannes; Sperner-Unterweger, Barbara; Weber, Ingrid; Hubalek, Michael; Kemmler, Georg; Zschocke, Johannes; Martini, Caroline; Egle, Daniel; Dünser, Martina; Gamper, Eva; Meraner, Verena


    We investigated the psychosocial consequences of genetic counseling and testing (GCT) for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) at follow-up in a "real-life" sample of counselees at an Austrian tertiary care center. The study cohort included counselees who had undergone genetic counseling for HBOC and completed a follow-up self-report questionnaire battery on psychosocial outcomes (quality of life, psychological distress, satisfaction with counseling and decisions). For comparison of distress, we recruited a reference sample of breast cancer survivors (BCS; n=665) who had not requested GCT in the same setting. Overall, counselees did not exhibit increased levels of anxiety and depression when compared to BCS. No specific follow-up deleterious psychosocial consequences were detected among the former group. Of the 137 counselees, 22.6% and 9.8% experienced clinically relevant levels of anxiety and depression, respectively, at an average follow-up time of 1.8years. However, both anxiety and depression significantly decreased with time and were alike between counselees with and