WorldWideScience

Sample records for patient protect human

  1. Identifying the gaps: Armenian health care legislation and human rights in patient care protections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zopunyan, Violeta; Krmoyan, Suren; Quinn, Ryan

    2013-12-12

    Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Armenia has undergone an extensive legislative overhaul. Although a number of developments have aimed to improve the quality and accessibility of Armenia's health care system, a host of factors has prevented the country from fully introducing measures to ensure respect for human rights in patient care. In particular, inadequate health care financing continues to oblige patients to make both formal and informal payments to obtain basic medical care and services. More generally, a lack of oversight and monitoring mechanisms has obstructed the implementation of Armenia's commitments to human rights in several international agreements. Within the framework of a broader project on promoting human rights in patient care, research was carried out to examine Armenia’s health care legislation with the aim of identifying gaps in comparison with international and regional standards. This research was designed using the 14 rights enshrined in the European Charter on Patient Rights as guiding principles, along with domestic legal acts relevant to the rights of health care providers. The gaps analysis revealed numerous problems with Armenian legislation governing the relationships between stakeholders in health care service delivery. It also identified several practical inconsistencies with the international legal instruments ratified by the Armenian government. These legislative shortcomings are illustrated by highlighting key health-related rights violations experienced by patients and their health care providers, and by indicating opportunities for improved rights protections. A full list of human rights relevant to patient care and recommendations for promoting them in the Armenian context is provided in Tables 1 and 2. A number of initiatives must be undertaken in order to promote the full spectrum of human rights in patient care in Armenia. This section highlights certain recommendations flowing from the findings of

  2. Radiation protection for human spaceflight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Cosmic radiation exposure is one of the most significant risks associated with human space exploration. Except for the principles of justification and optimization (ALARA), the concepts of terrestrial radiation protection are of limited applicability to human spaceflight, as until now only few experimentally verified data on the biological effectiveness of heavy ions and the dose distribution within the human body exist. Instead of applying the annual dose limits for workers on ground also to astronauts, whose careers are of comparatively short duration, the overall lifetime risk is used as a measure. For long-term missions outside Earth's magnetic field, the acceptable level of risk has not yet been defined, since there is not enough information available to estimate the risk of effects to the central nervous system and of potential non-cancer radiation health hazards. (orig.)

  3. Radiological protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niroomand-Rad, A.

    2003-01-01

    The benefits of ionizing radiation in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, as well as other conditions such as cardiac ablation, are well established. However determination, monitoring, and evaluation of patient doses is not as easy task. Furthermore, radiation doses for individual patients may vary greatly from one radiological procedure to another. Attention is needed to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure to patients from All types of radiation producing machines and equipment. The patient risk from radiation injury-stochastic and/or deterministic must be weighted against the benefits of a proper medical examination or treatment as well as the risk of depriving the patient from the necessary medical care. Arbitrary reduction of radiological patient doses without regard to final outcome is determined to proper medical care provided to the patient. Sacrificing image quality in order to reduce patient dose is potentially harmful to the patient as well. Furthermore, the role of radiation exposure incurred from screening procedures such as mammography, needs to be properly considered and differentiated from medically indicated procedures. A known radiation induced risk needs to be balanced against diagnostic efficacy of a screening procedure. In these cases, regulations on standards and guidelines for determination, monitoring, and evaluation of patient doses may be appropriate. In this paper, the technical data collected in the United States have been compared with the corresponding data in Canada. However, even here, it has been recognized that we can not assume that one dose limit fits all. It is advisable to consider individual patient specifics if it means the difference between detection and miss

  4. Protection of patients in dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selato Selato, P.

    2013-04-01

    Current literature on dental radiology was reviewed in order to seek justification for radiological protection of patients in dental radiography, to explore the different factors affecting patient dose and to derive practical guidance on how to achieve radiological protection of patients in dentistry. Individual doses incurred in dental radiology are in general relatively low, however it is generally accepted that there is no safe level of radiation dose and that no matter how low the doses received are, there is a mathematical probability of an effect. Hence appropriate patient protection measures must be instituted to keep the exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). The literature review demonstrated that there is considerable scope for significant dose reductions in dental radiology using the techniques of optimisation of protection. The techniques of optimization of protection that can be used to ensure patient dose is as low as reasonably achievable whilst achieving clinically adequate image quality include the following: image receptor selection, image receptor holders, collimation, beam filtration, operating potential and exposure time, patient protective equipment, film exposure and processing, film storage, image viewing, quality assurance, diagnostic reference levels, technique charts and training and education.(au)

  5. Radiation protection of non-human species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leith, I.S.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of radiation on non-human species, both animals and plants, have long been investigated. In the disposal of radioactive wastes, the protection of non-human species has been investigated. Yet no radiation protection standard for exposure of animals and plants per se has been agreed. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has long taken the view that, if human beings are properly protected from radiation, other species will thereby be protected to the extent necessary for their preservation. However, the International Atomic Energy Agency has found it necessary to investigate the protection of non-human species where radioactivity is released to an environment unpopulated by human beings. It is proposed that the basis of such protection, and the knowledge of radiation effects on non-human species on which it is based, suggest a practical radiation protection standard for non-human species. (1 tab.)

  6. Protection of patient In radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deiyi, P.

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to clarify some aspects about protection of patient in radiotherapy. Therefore, some basic information about how the use of ionizing radiation in medicine has brought tremendous health benefits to the population globally, the requirement of radiation protection (Justification of practices, Dose limitation and Optimization of protection), and the deterministic and stochastic effects of radiation are presented. The aim of radiotherapy is to use ionizing radiation to cure diseases or make the symptoms of a disease less severe. Also presented are layout of a radiotherapy facility (controlled areas, supervised areas, mazes, door and interlocks, patient observation and communication, and warning sign and lights), radionuclides commonly used for radiation therapy and their main emissions, equipment and devices used in radiotherapy, aspect of protection of patient in radiotherapy such as: leakage test, source on/off, emergency buttons, radiation oncology team, treatment planning, room monitoring, equipment or for protection and Cobalt-60 unit stuck source. The advantages of brachytherapy, leakage from the treatment head and radiation incidents resulting from incorrect dose calibration are discussed. The importance of minimization dose exposure, by considering the basic principles of: time, distance and shielding are also stated. These principles prevent deterministic effects and limit stochastic effects of radiation. (author)

  7. Patient Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Role of Radiotherapy is treatment modalities for cancer which is generally assumed that 50 to 60% of cancer patients will benefit from radiotherapy. It constitutes a peaceful application of ionizing radiation and an essential part of cancer management. The two aims of radiation protection Prevention is of deterministic effect and Reduction of the probability of stochastic effects. The Shielding fundamentals is to limit radiation exposure of staff, patients, visitors and the public to acceptable levels it also optimize protection of patients, staff and the public. Diagnosis is important for target design and the dose required for cure or palliation while Simulator is often used twice in the radiotherapy process where Patient data acquisition - target localization, contours, outlines and Verification. The Prescription is the responsibility of individual clinicians, depending on the patient’s condition, equipment available, experience and training. An ultimate check of the actual treatment given can only be made by using in vivo dosimetry. Treatment records must be kept of all relevant aspects of the treatment – including Session and Summary Record information, Records all treatment parameters, Dose Calculations and Dose Measurements

  8. Radiation protection for human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenigsberg, Ya.Eh.; Bogdevich, I.M.; Rolevich, I.V.; Sharovarov, G.A.; Skurat, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1996 on the following directions: study of features of formation of the population irradiation doze; definition of collective irradiation dozes of the population of Belarus for 10 years after the Chernobyl accident and forecast of risk of radiation induced diseases; study of influence of the radioactive contamination on agricultural ecosystems; development of technologies of manufacture on the contaminated soils of plant and cattle-breeding production and food products with the permissible contents of radionuclides in according to the requirements of radiation protection; development and perfection of complex technologies, ways and means of decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes; development and substantiation of actions for increase of radiation security of the population of Belarus; development of combined system of an estimation on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories

  9. Radiation protection for human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdevich, I.M.; Kenigsberg, Ya.Eh.; Minenko, V.F.; Mrochek, A.G.; Rolevich, I.V.; Skurat, V.V.; Sharovarov, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of researches is development of methods and means of reduction of radiation risk caused by the Chernobyl accident consequences by means of decrease of both individual and collective dozes by realization of special protective measures. The reconstruction of average collective accumulated irradiation dozes of the inhabitants of the contaminated populated localities of Belarus is carried out; the forecast of development of radiation induced oncologic diseases is given. The laws of formation of annual irradiation dozes are investigated; the prevailing role of internal irradiation dozes in formation of total dose loadings is detected. On this basis a number of practical projects directed on creation of effective land tenure and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production, as well as decontamination technologies and radioactive waste management are executed. Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1997 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories

  10. Thematic course: patient radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoliani, Y.S.

    2009-01-01

    The ratio benefit/risk of radiological examinations, especially with the multislice scanner cannot be ensured only if the principles of justification and optimization are rigorously respected. The justification relies on the reference to the guide of the appropriate use of imaging examinations and compliance with the Public Health Code which requires a written information exchange between the applicant and who will realizes the examination. The optimization relies on the dosimetry evaluation of our practice and the comparison with the diagnosis reference levels, to realize the examinations at the radiation lowest cost. the stakes are the insurance does not harm our patients, the rehabilitation of the radiologist in his role of consultant rather than performer and the protection against eventual legal consequences. (N.C.)

  11. Decellularized human amniotic membrane: more is needed for an efficient dressing for protection of burns against antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipourmalekabadi, M; Bandehpour, M; Mozafari, M; Hashemi, A; Ghanbarian, H; Sameni, M; Salimi, M; Gholami, M; Samadikuchaksaraei, A

    2015-11-01

    Human amniotic membranes (HAMs) have attracted the attention of burn surgeons for decades due to favorable properties such as their antibacterial activity and promising support of cell proliferation. On the other hand, as a major implication in the health of burn patients, the prevalence of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics is increasing due to overuse of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HAMs (both fresh and acellular) are an effective antibacterial agent against antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from burn patients. Therefore, a HAM was decellularized and tested for its antibacterial activity. Decellularization of the tissue was confirmed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. In addition, the cyto-biocompatibility of the acellular HAM was proven by the cell viability test (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide, MTT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resistant bacteria were isolated from burns, identified, and tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics using both the antibiogram and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Among the isolated bacteria, three blaIMP gene-positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were chosen for their high resistance to the tested antibiotics. The antibacterial activity of the HAM was also tested for Klebsiella pneumoniae (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 700603) as a resistant ATCC bacterium; Staphylococcus aureus (mecA positive); and three standard strains of ATCC bacteria including Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27833), and S. aureus (ATCC 25923). Antibacterial assay revealed that only the latter three bacteria were susceptible to the HAM. All the data obtained from this study suggest that an alternative strategy is required to complement HAM grafting in order to fully protect burns from nosocomial infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Human Milk Glycoproteins Protect Infants Against Human Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Breastfeeding protects the neonate against pathogen infection. Major mechanisms of protection include human milk glycoconjugates functioning as soluble receptor mimetics that inhibit pathogen binding to the mucosal cell surface, prebiotic stimulation of gut colonization by favorable microbiota, immunomodulation, and as a substrate for bacterial fermentation products in the gut. Human milk proteins are predominantly glycosylated, and some biological functions of these human milk glycoproteins (HMGPs) have been reported. HMGPs range in size from 14 kDa to 2,000 kDa and include mucins, secretory immunoglobulin A, bile salt-stimulated lipase, lactoferrin, butyrophilin, lactadherin, leptin, and adiponectin. This review summarizes known biological roles of HMGPs that may contribute to the ability of human milk to protect neonates from disease. PMID:23697737

  13. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  14. International Responses to Human Protection Crises: Responsibility to Protect and the Emerging Protection Regime*

    OpenAIRE

    Bellamy, Alex J.

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines contemporary debates about human protection by the UN Security Council and others in response to major humanitarian crises. It argues that there are clear signs of an emerging international human protection regime in the evolving practice of the Security Council and suggests that this regime is based on an accommodation between different moral accounts of humanitarian intervention. The first section examines some of the legal and moral debates that have arisen with respect...

  15. Radiological protection of the radiotherapy patient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waligorski, M.P.R.; Lesiak, J.

    2001-01-01

    We propose that the system and concepts of radiation protection should not be used with reference to radiotherapy patients. We justify this on conceptual grounds. The patient undergoing radiotherapy procedures, as prescribed by the medical practitioner, is protected by the quality assurance system legally required for medical exposures. (author)

  16. Patient care and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharko, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter deals with important aspects of patient care, which may become the radiographer's responsibility in the absence of dedicated nursing staff. Although large pediatric centers usually employ nurses for bedside patient management, the general radiographer should be familiar with some aspects of routine patient care. This knowledge guarantees the safety and well-being of children entrusted to the technologist

  17. Perioperative lung protective ventilation in obese patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Hashimoto, Soshi; Serpa Neto, Ary; Moine, Pierre; Vidal Melo, Marcos F.; Repine, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The perioperative use and relevance of protective ventilation in surgical patients is being increasingly recognized. Obesity poses particular challenges to adequate mechanical ventilation in addition to surgical constraints, primarily by restricted lung mechanics due to excessive adiposity, frequent

  18. Protected areas as frontiers for human migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zommers, Zinta; MacDonald, David W

    2012-06-01

    Causes of human population growth near protected areas have been much debated. We conducted 821 interviews in 16 villages around Budongo Forest Reserve, Masindi district, Uganda, to explore the causes of human migration to protected areas and to identify differences in forest use between migrant and nonmigrant communities. We asked subjects for information about birthplace, migration, household assets, household activities, and forest use. Interview subjects were categorized as nonmigrants (born in one of the interview villages), socioeconomic migrants (chose to emigrate for economic or social reasons) from within Masindi district (i.e., local migrants) and from outside the Masindi district (i.e., regional migrants), or forced migrants (i.e., refugees or internally displaced individuals who emigrated as a result of conflict, human rights abuses, or natural disaster). Only 198 respondents were born in interview villages, indicating high rates of migration between 1998 and 2008. Migrants were drawn to Budongo Forest because they thought land was available (268 individuals) or had family in the area (161 individuals). A greater number of regional migrants settled in villages near Lake Albert than did forced and local migrants. Migration category was also associated with differences in sources of livelihood. Of forced migrants 40.5% earned wages through labor, whereas 25.5% of local and 14.5% of regional migrants engaged in wage labor. Migrant groups appeared to have different effects on the environment. Of respondents that hunted, 72.7% were regional migrants. Principal component analyses indicated households of regional migrants were more likely to be associated with deforestation. Our results revealed gaps in current models of human population growth around protected areas. By highlighting the importance of social networks and livelihood choices, our results contribute to a more nuanced understanding of causes of migration and of the environmental effects of

  19. Radiation protection in BNCT patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaumann, Hernan R.; Scharnichia, E.; Levanon, I.; Fernandez, C.; Facchini, Guillermo; Longhino, J.; Calzetta, Osvaldo; Pereira, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a technique that selectively targets cancer cells while sparing normal tissues by virtue of the differential uptake of a 10 B carrier compound in tumor. The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and the Oncology Institute 'Angel H. Roffo' (IOAR) began a BNCT programme in 2003 for treating cutaneous skin melanomas in extremities. The neutron beam used is the hyperthermal one developed at the RA-6 Reactor of the Bariloche Atomic Centre (CAB). The prescribed dose is delivered in one fraction and therefore patient positioning and knowledge of the dose received by normal tissue are crucial. 10 irradiations have been done since 2003, all of them in legs and feet and the dose prescription was determined by the maximum tolerable skin dose. Due to the characteristics of this treatment the patient body might be exposed not only to the primary beam but also to the secondary photon beam produced by neutron capture at the target itself. Thus a patient radiation-monitoring plan was implemented in order to evaluate the gamma dose delivered to sensible organs of each patient. An acrylic water-filled whole body phantom was used for preliminary gamma dose and thermal neutron flux measurements at positions related to patient's body sensible organs considering tentative patient positions. The beam port shielding was, in this way, optimized. TLD-700 and Manganese foils were used for gamma and thermal neutron detection. The TLD-700 thermal neutron response was previously evaluated by using the in-phantom beam dosimetry characterization. In-vivo dosimetry with TLD is routinely implemented in order to evaluate gamma dose to sensible organs of each patient. These organs are chosen depending on its distance from the zone to be irradiated and its radio-sensibility. All TLDs have been positioned well outside the irradiation field. Maximum gamma dose received outside the radiation field in healthy tissues was well below tolerance dose for

  20. Patient advocacy versus employer protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deubner, David; Sturm, Richard E

    2002-01-01

    In a departure from the usual Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews article, this piece comprises responses from two occupational physicians to the question of how balance is achieved between employer and patient interests in occupational medicine. The authors discuss the ethical dilemmas that may arise in such relationships, negotiation of confrontations, physician responsibilities, and conflict resolution.

  1. Radiological protection of paediatric patients: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringertz, H.G.; Bremmer, S.

    2001-01-01

    Paediatric patients require special attention with respect to radiation protection, for various reasons. The difference between a 1 kg premature baby and a 100 kg teenager puts special demands on the radiographic techniques used, and the increased radiosensitivity of growing tissue and the patients' longer life expectancy put greater demands on the justification of the procedures to be carried out. The optimization procedure involves practical aspects such as immobilization, body build specific exposure parameters and body build specific anatomical knowledge. These and other aspects of paediatric radiological protection are discussed in this overview. (author)

  2. Perioperative lung protective ventilation in obese patients

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Hashimoto, Soshi; Serpa Neto, Ary; Moine, Pierre; Vidal Melo, Marcos F; Repine, John E

    2015-01-01

    The perioperative use and relevance of protective ventilation in surgical patients is being increasingly recognized. Obesity poses particular challenges to adequate mechanical ventilation in addition to surgical constraints, primarily by restricted lung mechanics due to excessive adiposity, frequent respiratory comorbidities (i.e. sleep apnea, asthma), and concerns of postoperative respiratory depression and other pulmonary complications. The number of surgical patients with obesity is increa...

  3. Radiation Protection of Patients program (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, R.; Perez, M. R.; Buzzi, A.; Andisco, D.

    2006-01-01

    After an initial period of conviction for installing an active discussion on Radiation Protection of Patients inside the medical community, there were organized working groups in Radiodiagnosis, Radiotherapy, Nuclear Medicine and on radiation protection of pregnant women. These groups began systematical activities, which received a strong institutional support of the Argentine Society of Radiology, toward the implementation of a Program of RPP that is being put nowadays into practice. This program has three aims and a series of targets to be fulfilled in successive stages: Basic aims and short term targets: 1) To guarantee the Justification. First goal: Development of the Prescription Guide (achieve) 2) To optimize the radioprotection: First goal: Development of a Manual of Procedures (achieved) 3) To prevent potential exposures. First goal: Design of a Basic Quality System in Health (achieved) The effective participation of the professional's and technician's associations in the development of the program of radiological protection of the patient is a key aspect for the success. (Author)

  4. Protecting Patient Privacy in Cyber Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.C.M. Aarts (Jos); S.A. Adams (Samantha); B. Kaplan (Bonnie); P.R. DeMuro (Paul); A.E. Solomonides (Anthony)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractConfidentiality in the medical encounter is crucial to providing adequate patient care. Health data is therefore privileged and protected by legal mechanisms. Health systems use electronic records and large-scale databases. Increasingly consumers use also IT to collect, store and share

  5. Gonad protection for the paediatric patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyll, C.

    1988-01-01

    A brief article gives examples of hip radiographs of paediatric patients showing misplacement of shields for gonad protection. Shields cut out of lead-PVC sheeting or the fenestration method of shielding are proposed as more successful methods of gonad shielding. (UK)

  6. Human rights: implications for patients and staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreezen, I; Nys, H

    2003-01-01

    Originating from wider declarations of fundamental human rights, individual human rights in the field of health care, also called patients' rights, have been elaborated, developed and implemented by most international organisations, including the European Union and the World Health Organisation. The Council of Europe is however, particularly prominent in its work in the field of human rights, having drawn up a number of vital international treaties, among them and most importantly the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, which strengthens internationally the legal position of the patient and the research subject in setting a minimum level of protection in respect of individual human rights and health and is binding upon the member states that have ratified it. Nonetheless, it needs to be examined to see if the European Union would be a better alternative to regulate these patients' rights.

  7. Protection of the patient in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In ICRP Publication 52, the 'Protection of the Patient in Nuclear Medicine', is concerned with exposures of patients resulting from the administration of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic, therapeutic and research purposes. The report includes guidelines for nuclear medicine physicians, radiologists, medical physicists and technologists on the factors that influence absorbed doses to patients from different types of nuclear medicine examinations. Other topics in the report include education and training, estimates of absorbed dose, design of facilities, instrumentation, quality assurance and control and preparation, quality assurance and control of radiopharmaceuticals. (U.K.)

  8. Perioperative lung protective ventilation in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Hashimoto, Soshi; Serpa Neto, Ary; Moine, Pierre; Vidal Melo, Marcos F; Repine, John E

    2015-05-06

    The perioperative use and relevance of protective ventilation in surgical patients is being increasingly recognized. Obesity poses particular challenges to adequate mechanical ventilation in addition to surgical constraints, primarily by restricted lung mechanics due to excessive adiposity, frequent respiratory comorbidities (i.e. sleep apnea, asthma), and concerns of postoperative respiratory depression and other pulmonary complications. The number of surgical patients with obesity is increasing, and facing these challenges is common in the operating rooms and critical care units worldwide. In this review we summarize the existing literature which supports the following recommendations for the perioperative ventilation in obese patients: (1) the use of protective ventilation with low tidal volumes (approximately 8 mL/kg, calculated based on predicted -not actual- body weight) to avoid volutrauma; (2) a focus on lung recruitment by utilizing PEEP (8-15 cmH2O) in addition to recruitment maneuvers during the intraoperative period, as well as incentivized deep breathing and noninvasive ventilation early in the postoperative period, to avoid atelectasis, hypoxemia and atelectrauma; and (3) a judicious oxygen use (ideally less than 0.8) to avoid hypoxemia but also possible reabsorption atelectasis. Obesity poses an additional challenge for achieving adequate protective ventilation during one-lung ventilation, but different lung isolation techniques have been adequately performed in obese patients by experienced providers. Postoperative efforts should be directed to avoid hypoventilation, atelectasis and hypoxemia. Further studies are needed to better define optimum protective ventilation strategies and analyze their impact on the perioperative outcomes of surgical patients with obesity.

  9. Human physiology as the determining factor in protective clothing design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Protective clothing is designed to protect humans against risks like fire, chemicals or blunt impact. Although protect¡ve clothing diminishes the effects of external risks, it may hinder people in functioning and it may also introduce new (internal) risks. Manufacturers are often not aware of the

  10. Program of radiation protection of patients (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, Rodolfo E.; Buzzi, Alfredo; Rojas, Roberto; Andisco Daniel

    2008-01-01

    After an initial period of conviction for installing an active discussion on Radiation Protection of Patients inside the medical community, there were organized 'working groups' in Radiodiagnosis, Radiotherapy, Nuclear Medicine and on radiation protection of pregnant women. These groups began systematical activities, which received a strong institutional support of the Argentine Society of Radiology, toward the implementation of a 'Program of RPP' that is being put nowadays into practice. The rapid advances which are present in medicine today, both in equipment and work protocol, determine that 'norms and regulations never arrive on time' which is why it is paramount that health services have 'systems of dynamic quality' and 'continual improvement' that can be adapted quickly to changes. This program has 6 principal aims and a series of targets to be fulfilled in successive stages: Basic aims and short term targets: 1) To guarantee the Justification. First goal: Development of the 'Prescription Guide' (achieved); 2) To optimize the radioprotection: First goal: Development of a 'Manual of Procedures' (In process); 3) To prevent potential exposures. First goal: Design of a 'Basic Quality System' in Health (achieved); 4) To achieve a qualification of the professionals by means of a process of certification and re-certification (In process); 5) To spread PRP's criteria by means of chats, meetings and the use of the media and graphical means. (Partially fulfilled); 6) To establish criteria for the protection of patient and operators in Interventional Radiology by creating a referral service. Strategies to cope with different interests within society are described. Main problems, failures and difficulties are also described. The effective participation of the professional and technicians' associations in the development of the program for radiation protection of the patient is a key aspect for the success of the whole national programme. (author)

  11. Radiological Protection of Patients in Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: This lecture aims at presenting the state of the art of radiological protection of patients in nuclear medicine focusing on three aspects of interest where to achieve improvement. The hierarchy of the justification principle of the radiation protection is one of them. There seems for a change to be presented in the paradigm of the radiological protection of patients. The role of the physician who prescribes the medical practice becomes more relevant, together with the nuclear medicine specialist who should be co-responsible for the application of this justification principle. Regarding the doses optimization and the implementation of Dose Reference Level the involvement extends far beyond the physician and radioprotection officer. It is clear that the Medical Physicist is to play a very relevant role in the coordination of actions, as the nuclear medicine technician is to execute them. Another aspect to consider is patient specific dosimetry. It should become a routine practice through calculation of the absorbed dose based on biodistribution data. It should be assessed for each individual patient, as it depends on a number of patient-specific parameters, such as gender, size and the amount of fatty tissue in the body, as well as the extent and nature of the disease. In most cases, dosimetry calculations are not carried out and patients are administered standard levels of activity. There may be situations with a lack of knowledge on internal dosimetry as in many centers either none or only one or two medical physics experts are available. It shows that a formal training for experts in internal dosimetry at national level is required. However up to now, there has been no satisfactory correlation between absorbed dose estimates and patient response. Moreover, the radiation protection for the patient is not assured, as the dose values given are often numbers without connection to radiobiological and/or hematological findings. Pending tasks related to

  12. 34 CFR 75.681 - Protection of human research subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Other Requirements for Certain Projects § 75.681 Protection of human research subjects. If a grantee uses a human subject in a research project, the grantee shall protect the person from physical, psychological, or social injury resulting from the project. (Authority: 20 U.S.C...

  13. Neutron effects in humans: protection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Committee I of the International Commission on Radiological Protection has recommended that the Quality Factor for neutrons should be changed from 10 to 20. This article is an interesting recount of the tale of Q from the viewpoint of an observer which illustrates many of the problems that the selection of protection standards pose. 32 refs., 5 tabs

  14. Gonad protection in young orthopaedic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, N; Hill, J

    1992-05-30

    To determine whether gonad shields are correctly positioned on the pelvic radiographs of children with slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Retrospective study of radiographs taken of children treated by in situ pinning of slipped capital femoral epiphysis between 1 January 1983 and 31 December 1988. Three teaching hospitals in north west England. 32 patients with complete set of radiographs. An average of 10.8 anteroposterior pelvic radiographs plus 8.9 lateral hip radiographs had been performed per patient. Gonad shields had been completely omitted in 137 (40%) anteroposterior pelvic radiographs performed on the 32 patients at the time of completion of the study. In 100 (29%) the gonad shields were adequately protecting the gonads, but in 109 (31%) the gonad shields were not protecting the gonads due to incorrect positioning of the shield. The incorrect positioning of the gonad shields was more commonly found in girls than boys (64 vs 45; p less than 0.012), presumably because of the difficulty in determining gonadal position in relation to surface landmarks. Absence of gonad shields was also more commonly seen in girls (82 v 55; p less than 0.005), but this is not easily explained. Gonad shields are not protecting the gonads in a large percentage of anteroposterior pelvic radiographs (71%) because they have been omitted or inadequately placed. This avoidable excess radiation exposure to the gonads, combined with the inability to shield the gonads in lateral hip radiographs and the large number of radiographs performed, results in the gonads receiving a higher dose of radiation than may otherwise be the case, and may increase the potential for disease in the future offspring of these patients.

  15. 76 FR 54408 - Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 50 and 56 Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing Burden, Delay, and Ambiguity for Investigators; Extension of... Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in coordination with the Office of Science...

  16. Role of the IAEA in the radiological protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz Lopez, P.; Wrixon, A.D.; Meghzifene, A.; Izewska, J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of the IAEA in relation to the radiological protection of patients. Within the IAEA there are two major programmes which have an impact on the protection of the patient. Firstly, patient protection is part of the programme on radiation safety; secondly, the human health programme contains a number of activities related to quality assurance (QA), and these also contribute to the protection of patients. A function of the IAEA, as stipulated in its Statute, is 'to establish or adopt, in consultation and, where appropriate, in collaboration with the competent organs of the United Nations and with the specialized agencies concerned, standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property' and to provide for the application of these standards...'. There are three different levels of the IAEA Safety Standards: Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. The Standards are supported by other documents such as Safety Reports. There are five means used by the IAEA in providing for the application of the Standards: co-ordinating research, promoting education and training, providing assistance, fostering information exchange and rendering services to its Member States. All these means are used in the programme on radiological protection of patients as described in the paper. The IAEA is assisting its Member Sates in the development and implementation of QA programmes. These activities help disseminate not only the technical knowledge but also the basic ingredients of the QA culture. The IAEA assistance is directed at: (1) national regulatory bodies for the establishment of a regulatory framework which complies with the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources; (2) standards laboratories for metrological traceability; and (3) end users at medical institutions for the development and implementation of QA programmes

  17. Issues in protection of human subjects in internet research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chee, Wonshik

    2002-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of the Internet among nurses, the use of the Internet in nursing research has been rarely discussed and critiqued in terms of issues in protection of human subjects. In this article, issues in protection of human subjects in Internet research are explored by analyzing an Internet study to propose directions for human protection in Internet research. Issues raised through the study include those related to (a) anonymity and confidentiality, (b) security, (c) self-determination and authenticity, (d) full disclosure, and (e) fair treatment. Based on discussion of the five issues, development of standardized guidelines, investigator triangulation, and information sharing are proposed as directions for protection of human subjects in Internet research.

  18. Institutional Mechanisms for Human Rights Protection in Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... This paper has focused on the institutional mechanisms for human rights protection ... is discussed in line with its powers and duties under the law that established it.

  19. Assessment of patient radiation protection in external radiotherapy departments after inspections performed by the ASN 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchi, Vincent; Marchal, Carole

    2009-10-01

    This report proposes an assessment of patient radiation protection in external radiotherapy. It is based on inter-regional syntheses of inspections performed by the ASN in external radiotherapy departments during 2008. It addresses 6 main themes related to patient radiation protection: human and material resources, organisation of medical physics, training in patient radiation protection, mastering of equipment (maintenance, internal quality controls of medical devices), safety and care quality management (formalization of the patient care process and definition of responsibilities, patient identity control, treatment preparation, and treatment execution), and risk management (a priori risk analysis, declaration, recording and internal processing of dysfunctions, improvements of care quality and safety management system)

  20. Radiation protection of patients in epiescleral brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frutos, J.M. de; Sanchez, G.; Sendon, J.R.; Castillo, A. del; Hernando, I.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction. Choroidal melanoma and other ophthalmic tumors are treated with episcleral plaques. Optimisation and other criteria are necessary to avoid damage in eye and visual function preservation. Purpose. To study the dosimetric phases to apply radiation protection criteria. To determine procedures for quality assurance of applicators, sources and treatment prescription and planning. Method. We have revised treatment procedure. First, aspects shared for all the patients. Then treatment planning and applicator assembling. After that, we study insertion and treatment. Finally, we check the chart flow to modify, if necessary. It necessary consider normative and recommendations. Results and conclusions. Quality assurance of sources (calibration, autoradiography), applicator (effects, dose distribution) and treatment planning are revised. Appropriate patient data acquisition is essential due the special characteristics of tumor and eye. Treatment planning involves optimisation as a factor. Seed selection is very important to avoid misadministration. Next procedure is applicator assembling. We must care to choose the same as dosimetry and to carry out its verification. Sources insertion is a surgical procedure. It is essential in accurate placement. Desinsertion is also surgical, and must be adapted to dosimetry and prescription. Flow chart is modified adding two staff meetings to discuss about patient data and doses. (author)

  1. Human rights protection under the FDRE and the Oromia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper makes a comparative analysis of human rights protection as provided under the 1995 Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopian Constitution (FDRE Constitution) and the 2001 Oromia Regional State Revised Constitution with its amendments (OromiaConstitution). Guided by the principle of a better protection of ...

  2. Method of protecting human skin from actinic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusaro, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    Enhanced protection from sunlight is achieved by applying to human skin beforehand separate, time-spaced applications of (1) a carbonyl compound which is reactive with amino groups in human skin, for example dihydroxyacetone, and (2) a benzo- or naptho-quinone such as lawsone. Preferably several sequential applications of each active component in a separate carrier are made the evening before the first exposure, and protection is thereafter maintained by applying each component separately each evening

  3. Polyclonal immunoglobulins from a chronic hepatitis C virus patient protect human liver-chimeric mice from infection with a homologous hepatitis C virus strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanwolleghem, Thomas; Bukh, Jens; Meuleman, Philip

    2008-01-01

    The role of the humoral immune response in the natural course of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is widely debated. Most chronically infected patients have immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies capable of neutralizing HCV pseudoparticles (HCVpp) in vitro. It is, however, not clear whether these Ig...... were loaded with chronic phase polyclonal IgG and challenged 3 days later with a 100% infectious dose of the acute phase H77C virus, both originating from patient H. Passive immunization induced sterilizing immunity in five of eight challenged animals. In the three nonprotected animals, the HCV...... infection was attenuated, as evidenced by altered viral kinetics in comparison with five control IgG-treated animals. Plasma samples obtained from the mice at viral challenge neutralized H77C-HCVpp at dilutions as high as 1/400. Infection was completely prevented when, before administration to naïve...

  4. IAEA Patient Protection Effort Reaches Key Milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) effort to help people track their radiation exposure from medical procedures achieved a significant milestone this week. The Agency received the final approval from a group of medical oversight organizations for the 'Joint Position Statement on the IAEA Patient Radiation Exposure Tracking', a set of principles to guide patient protection efforts at the sub-national, national, and international level. The joint statement endorses the IAEA's three-year-old Smart Card/SmartRadTrack project, which aims to help nations develop systems to track medical radiation procedures and radiation doses. The statement has been agreed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Society of Radiology (ESR), the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), the International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT), and the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, USA (CRCPD). 'This system is critical if the medical community is going to keep patients safe when they are being referred for more and more diagnostic scans. These scans, over the years, are made using more and more powerful machines', said Madan Rehani, Radiation Safety Specialist in the IAEA's Radiation Protection of Patients Unit. 'The tracking system will draw doctors' attention to previous radiological examinations, both in terms of clinical information and radiation dose and thus help them assess whether the 11th or 20th CT scan is really appropriate, whether it will do more good than harm.' Advances in radiation-based diagnostic technologies, such as the CT scan, have led to patients receiving such procedures more frequently. The convenience of CT with the added advantage of increased information has resulted in increased usage to the point that there are instances of patients getting tens of CT scans in a few years, not all of which may be justified, or getting CT

  5. Mitochondrial transcription factor A protects human retinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), as a modulator of NF-κB, on proliferation of hypoxia-induced human retinal endothelial cell (HREC), and the probable mechanism. Methods: After exposure to hypoxia (1 % O2) for 5 days, cell proliferation and cell cycle of HREC were ...

  6. Protecting human research subjects: the past defines the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Joseph L

    2006-01-01

    The creation of Institutional Review Boards to assure the protection of research subjects came out of terrible research abuses that resulted in the Belmont Report and federal regulations establishing rules for federally funded research and its independent review. The Common Rule became widely accepted as the way to oversee human research that is funded by federal agencies, or used in FDA submissions. The Office of Human Research Protections, now under the Secretary of DHHS, created Federalwide Assurances with groups that receive federal funding and others, the vast majority of which have agreed to apply the same ethical rules to all research regardless of funding source. There are controversies over the best methods to protect human research subjects, confusion about how to handle some of the gray areas, increased regulatory burdens, and debates about the adequacy of the IRB system. New exciting directions have evolved and overall, research subjects appear better protected than ever.

  7. Patient Safety Data Sharing and Protection From Legal Discovery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suydam, Steven; Liang, Bryan A; Anderson, Storm; Weinger, Matthew B

    2004-01-01

    .... Nevertheless, existing State and Federal law may offer some protection. The most promising source of existing protection for all members of patient safety collaboratives is 42 U.S.C. SS299c-3(c...

  8. Radiation protection of patients: need of a paradigm change?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, Pablo A.; Perez, Maria del R.

    2004-01-01

    Radiological protection of patients is founded on two basic principles: optimization and justification. However, the justification used to be an 'exclusion zone' observed as a foreign territory by radiation protection officers. Inspired in the Council Directive 97/43/EURATOM, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) from Argentina has decided to perform a National Programme of Radiation Protection of Patients. Along with the regulation of medical practices in its particular fields of competence, the ARN will play a role in coordinating the actions with scientific associations representing health professionals involved in the medical uses of ionizing radiation. This programme, which includes three working groups (dosimetry, justification and optimization), will be developed in three stages. The first stage will consider the adaptation of the principles for validation of practices to local conditions, the adoption of a system for sorting medical practices according to prescription criteria taking into account alternative methods, the utilization of the dosimetric studies carried out by the ARN, the determination of diagnostic reference levels for pediatric and adult populations and the improvement of quality assurance concerning equipment and procedures. In cooperation with national sanitary authorities as the Health Ministry, the second stage will concern the elaboration of specific requirements regarding the justification of practices. The last stage will be addressed to the diffusion of the information and the promotion of continuing education and training of human resources. Is it a new paradigm focused on justification? A justification applied to a rational medical prescription where the 'obvious' does not always imply the 'need'. (author)

  9. An Overview of Human Rights and Intellectual Property Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa Said Bydoon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to discuss the legal framework of human rights and intellectual property in terms of state obligations to afford a protection for both human rights and intellectual property. The relationship between intellectual property and human rights, under bilateral, regional and multilateral treaties, is a matter of concern. In focusing on the relationship between intellectual property and human rights, this article argues that there are many challenges on the wide use of Intellectual property rights that given possible conflict between intellectual property and human rights.

  10. Intestinal mucus protects Giardia lamblia from killing by human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenian, A J; Gillin, F D

    1987-02-01

    We have previously shown that nonimmune human milk kills Giardia lamblia trophozoites in vitro. Killing requires a bile salt and the activity of the milk bile salt-stimulated lipase. We now show that human small-intestinal mucus protects trophozoites from killing by milk. Parasite survival increased with mucus concentration, but protection was overcome during longer incubation times or with greater milk concentrations. Trophozoites preincubated with mucus and then washed were not protected. Protective activity was associated with non-mucin CsCl density gradient fractions. Moreover, it was heat-stable, non-dialyzable, and non-lipid. Whereas whole mucus inhibited milk lipolytic activity, protective mucus fractions did not inhibit the enzyme. Furthermore, mucus partially protected G. lamblia trophozoites against the toxicity of oleic acid, a fatty acid which is released from milk triglycerides by lipase. These studies show that mucus protects G. lamblia both by inhibiting lipase activity and by decreasing the toxicity of products of lipolysis. The ability of mucus to protect G. lamblia from toxic lipolytic products may help to promote intestinal colonization by this parasite.

  11. Some human-related problems in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo

    1980-01-01

    Radiation protection includes both human and source-related problems. The human problems have not only medical but also social aspects, such as labor management. Special attention should be paid to the fact that the subject of radiation protection is not a human being as living thing but as member of society. ICRP recommended that conditions of work can be divided into two classed, working condition A and B, according to annual exposure. This application is of great value to radiation protection practice. Nevertheless the legal regulations do not adopt it yet. The present condition of the medical surveillance of radiation workers is not appropriate from the scientific standpoint. This is the difficult problem which is caused by the delay of the legal application of ICRP recommendation. Compensation for occupational radiation hazards should be overlooked. This problem have been investigated by an authorized committee, but a number of unsolved problems still remain. (author)

  12. Degradation and protection of DNAzymes on human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Kay; Eicher, Anna-Carola; Dobler, Dorota; Höfer, Frank; Schmidts, Thomas; Schäfer, Jens; Renz, Harald; Runkel, Frank

    2016-10-01

    DNAzymes are catalytic nucleic acid based molecules that have become a new class of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). Until now, five DNAzymes have entered clinical trials. Two of them were tested for topical application, whereby dermally applied DNAzymes had been prone to enzymatic degradation. To protect the DNAzymes the enzymatic activity of human skin has to be examined. Therefore, the enzymatic activity of human skin was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Activity similar to that of DNase II could be identified and the specific activity was determined to be 0.59Units/mg. These results were used to develop an in vitro degradation assay to screen different kinds of protective systems on human skin. The chosen protective systems consisted of biodegradable chitosans or polyethylenimine, which forms polyplexes when combined with DNAzymes. The polyplexes were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, stability and degree of complexation. The screening revealed that the protective efficiency of the polyplexes depended on the polycation and the charge ratio (ξ). At a critical ξ ratio between 1.0 and 4.1 and at a maximal zeta potential, sufficient protection of the DNAzyme was achieved. The results of this study will be helpful for the development of a protective dermal drug delivery systems using polyplexes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions: Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret S. (Editor); Johnson, James E. (Editor); Spry, James A. (Editor); Siegel, Bette; Conley, Catharine A.

    2015-01-01

    This report on Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions summarizes the presentations, deliberations and findings of a workshop at NASA Ames Research Center, March 24-26, 2015, which was attended by more than 100 participants representing a diverse mix of science, engineering, technology, and policy areas. The main objective of the three-day workshop was to identify specific knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to make incremental progress towards the development of NASA Procedural Requirements (NPRs) for Planetary Protection during human missions to Mars.

  14. Radiation protection for human interplanetary spaceflight and planetary surface operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, B.C. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)]|[DLR Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne (Germany)]|[NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Radiation protection issues are reviewed for five categories of radiation exposure during human missions to the moon and Mars: trapped radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, solar flare particle events, planetary surface emissions, and on-board radiation sources. Relative hazards are dependent upon spacecraft and vehicle configurations, flight trajectories, human susceptibility, shielding effectiveness, monitoring and warning systems, and other factors. Crew cabins, interplanetary mission modules, surface habitats, planetary rovers, and extravehicular mobility units (spacesuits) provide various degrees of protection. Countermeasures that may be taken are reviewed relative to added complexity and risks that they could entail, with suggestions for future research and analysis.

  15. Radiation Protection of Patients in Croatian Legislative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, M.; Molnar, M.; Kozuh, D.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The value of radiological examinations has been established over the last 100 years by custom and practice. Problem often occurs when scientific initiatives affect usual philosophy and tradition. At present, to many X-ray examinations are performed which are not clinically justified. In some counties in Croatia there are about 1000 examinations per 1000 inhabitants. Whereas in others, as well as in developed countries, it is at the 500 - 600 level. There is still a need to know what is the desirable level of radiological practice. Subsidiary is often used as an excuse not to take any action at all. Criteria are needed for deciding on the optimum number for particular procedures like CT or the length of time for fluoroscopy. Europe has repeatedly been the scene for harmonised improvements in medical exposure through introduction of its Medical Exposure Directive (1997). To be in a line Croatian authorities issued Regulation on Patient Protection (1999) based on this Directive and ICRP Publication 73. This Regulation includes a number of issues which have potential to improve the safety and quality of medical use of ionising radiation. Introduced diagnostic dose reference values are related to clinical questions and radiographic techniques as recommended in European or similar guidelines. These are supplementary to clinical judgement on image quality. Quality assurance programmes should be in place and these should be audited. There should be inspections of X-ray departments by the competent authorities and there should be clinical evaluation of the outcomes of various radiological examinations. Equipment must be quality assured on a regular basis. It must be capable of producing satisfactory images within reference levels set down at national level. Every effort should be made to avoid high and unnecessary exposures.(author)

  16. 78 FR 37031 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, Premium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... in the private market, were previously proposed through the Blueprint process, discussed in agency... Vol. 78 Wednesday, No. 118 June 19, 2013 Part III Department of Health and Human Services 45 CFR... HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 144, 147, 153, 155, and 156 [CMS-9957-P] RIN 0938-AR82 Patient Protection...

  17. Protective mechanism against cancer found in progeria patient cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have studied cells of patients with an extremely rare genetic disease that is characterized by drastic premature aging and discovered a new protective cellular mechanism against cancer. They found that cells from patients with Hutchinson Gi

  18. Limited protective effect of the CCR5Delta32/CCR5Delta32 genotype on human immunodeficiency virus infection incidence in a cohort of patients with hemophilia and selection for genotypic X4 virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Astrid K N; Christiansen, Claus Bohn; Attermann, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    The relationship among CCR5 genotype, cytomegalovirus infection, and disease progression and death was studied among 159 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with hemophilia. One patient (0.6%) had the CCR5Delta32/CCR5Delta32 genotype (which occurs in approximately 2% of the Scand......The relationship among CCR5 genotype, cytomegalovirus infection, and disease progression and death was studied among 159 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with hemophilia. One patient (0.6%) had the CCR5Delta32/CCR5Delta32 genotype (which occurs in approximately 2...

  19. United States Federal Guidance on Witness Protection in Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    York Hotel and Towers, New York, NY, 25 September 2012), accessed 21 March 2015, http://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press- office/2012/09/ 25/remarks...with law enforcement for greater societal good will not come before the satisfaction of more basic human survival needs, including protection from...of Homeland Security (DHS) DHS: Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) Investigations (22 U.S.C. 7110(i)) $18.0 $10.0 DHS: Human Smuggling and

  20. A DNA Vaccine Protects Human Immune Cells against Zika Virus Infection in Humanized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohua Yi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A DNA vaccine encoding prM and E protein has been shown to induce protection against Zika virus (ZIKV infection in mice and monkeys. However, its effectiveness in humans remains undefined. Moreover, identification of which immune cell types are specifically infected in humans is unclear. We show that human myeloid cells and B cells are primary targets of ZIKV in humanized mice. We also show that a DNA vaccine encoding full length prM and E protein protects humanized mice from ZIKV infection. Following administration of the DNA vaccine, humanized DRAG mice developed antibodies targeting ZIKV as measured by ELISA and neutralization assays. Moreover, following ZIKV challenge, vaccinated animals presented virtually no detectable virus in human cells and in serum, whereas unvaccinated animals displayed robust infection, as measured by qRT-PCR. Our results utilizing humanized mice show potential efficacy for a targeted DNA vaccine against ZIKV in humans.

  1. Limited protective effect of the CCR5Δ32/CCR5Δ32 genotype on human immunodeficiency virus infection incidence in a cohort of patients with hemophilia and selection for genotypic X4 virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Astrid K. N.; Christiansen, Claus Bohn; Attermann, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    The relationship among CCR5 genotype, cytomegalovirus infection, and disease progression and death was studied among 159 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected patients with hemophilia. One patient (0.6%) had the CCR5Δ32/CCR5Δ32 genotype (which occurs in ∼2% of the Scandinavian population...

  2. The interaction of human population, food production, and biodiversity protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Eileen; Mora, Camilo; Engelman, Robert

    2017-04-21

    Research suggests that the scale of human population and the current pace of its growth contribute substantially to the loss of biological diversity. Although technological change and unequal consumption inextricably mingle with demographic impacts on the environment, the needs of all human beings-especially for food-imply that projected population growth will undermine protection of the natural world. Numerous solutions have been proposed to boost food production while protecting biodiversity, but alone these proposals are unlikely to staunch biodiversity loss. An important approach to sustaining biodiversity and human well-being is through actions that can slow and eventually reverse population growth: investing in universal access to reproductive health services and contraceptive technologies, advancing women's education, and achieving gender equality. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Accreditation of human research protection program: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K L Bairy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing number of clinical trials being placed in India, it is the collective responsibility of the Investigator sites, Government, Ethics Committees, and Sponsors to ensure that the trial subjects are protected from risks these studies can have, that subjects are duly compensated, and credible data generated. Most importantly, each institution/hospital should have a strong Human Research Protection Program to safe guard the trial subjects. In order to look at research with a comprehensive objective approach, there is a need for a formal auditing and review system by a recognized body. As of now, only the sponsors are monitoring/auditing their respective trials; however, there is an increasing need to perform a more detailed review and assessment of processes of the institution and the Ethics Committee. This challenge can be addressed by going for accreditation by a reputed association that encompasses-the institutions, the ethics committees, and researcher/research staff. Starting their journey for the accreditation process in late 2010, Kasturba Medical College and Hospital [KMC], Manipal, and Manipal Hospital Bangalore [MHB] received full Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programs (AAHRPP accreditation in Dec 2011-a first in India. This article delves into the steps involved in applying for AAHRPP accreditation from an Indian Perspective, the challenges, advantages, and testimonials from the two hospitals on the application experience and how the accreditation has improved the Human Research Protection Program at these hospitals.

  4. Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) protects human hepatocytes against apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilowski, Maren; Kleespies, Axel; Toni, Enrico N. de; Donabauer, Barbara; Jauch, Karl-Walter; Hengstler, Jan G.; Thasler, Wolfgang E.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → ALR decreases cytochrome c release from mitochondria. → ALR protects hepatocytes against apoptosis induction by ethanol, TRAIL, anti-Apo, TGF-β and actinomycin D. → ALR exerts a liver-specific anti-apoptotic effect. → A possible medical usage of ALR regarding protection of liver cells during apoptosis inducing therapies. -- Abstract: Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) is known to support liver regeneration and to stimulate proliferation of hepatocytes. However, it is not known if ALR exerts anti-apoptotic effects in human hepatocytes and whether this protective effect is cell type specific. This is relevant, because compounds that protect the liver against apoptosis without undesired effects, such as protection of metastatic tumour cells, would be appreciated in several clinical settings. Primary human hepatocytes (phH) and organotypic cancer cell lines were exposed to different concentrations of apoptosis inducers (ethanol, TRAIL, anti-Apo, TGF-β, actinomycin D) and cultured with or without recombinant human ALR (rhALR). Apoptosis was evaluated by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and by FACS with propidium iodide (PI) staining. ALR significantly decreased apoptosis induced by ethanol, TRAIL, anti-Apo, TGF-β and actinomycin D. Further, the anti-apoptotic effect of ALR was observed in primary human hepatocytes and in HepG2 cells but not in bronchial (BC1), colonic (SW480), gastric (GC1) and pancreatic (L3.6PL) cell lines. Therefore, the hepatotrophic growth factor ALR acts in a liver specific manner with regards to both its mitogenic and its anti-apoptotic effect. Unlike the growth factors HGF and EGF, rhALR acts in a liver specific manner. Therefore, ALR is a promising candidate for further evaluation as a possible hepatoprotective factor in clinical settings.

  5. Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) protects human hepatocytes against apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilowski, Maren [Liver Regeneration Group, Department of Surgery, Grosshadern Hospital, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Kleespies, Axel [Department of Surgery, Grosshadern Hospital, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Toni, Enrico N. de [Department of Medicine II, Grosshadern Hospital, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Donabauer, Barbara [Liver Regeneration Group, Department of Surgery, Grosshadern Hospital, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Jauch, Karl-Walter [Department of Surgery, Grosshadern Hospital, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Hengstler, Jan G. [Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors, Technical University, Dortmund (Germany); Thasler, Wolfgang E., E-mail: wolfgang.thasler@med.uni-muenchen.de [Liver Regeneration Group, Department of Surgery, Grosshadern Hospital, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Department of Surgery, Grosshadern Hospital, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} ALR decreases cytochrome c release from mitochondria. {yields} ALR protects hepatocytes against apoptosis induction by ethanol, TRAIL, anti-Apo, TGF-{beta} and actinomycin D. {yields} ALR exerts a liver-specific anti-apoptotic effect. {yields} A possible medical usage of ALR regarding protection of liver cells during apoptosis inducing therapies. -- Abstract: Augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) is known to support liver regeneration and to stimulate proliferation of hepatocytes. However, it is not known if ALR exerts anti-apoptotic effects in human hepatocytes and whether this protective effect is cell type specific. This is relevant, because compounds that protect the liver against apoptosis without undesired effects, such as protection of metastatic tumour cells, would be appreciated in several clinical settings. Primary human hepatocytes (phH) and organotypic cancer cell lines were exposed to different concentrations of apoptosis inducers (ethanol, TRAIL, anti-Apo, TGF-{beta}, actinomycin D) and cultured with or without recombinant human ALR (rhALR). Apoptosis was evaluated by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and by FACS with propidium iodide (PI) staining. ALR significantly decreased apoptosis induced by ethanol, TRAIL, anti-Apo, TGF-{beta} and actinomycin D. Further, the anti-apoptotic effect of ALR was observed in primary human hepatocytes and in HepG2 cells but not in bronchial (BC1), colonic (SW480), gastric (GC1) and pancreatic (L3.6PL) cell lines. Therefore, the hepatotrophic growth factor ALR acts in a liver specific manner with regards to both its mitogenic and its anti-apoptotic effect. Unlike the growth factors HGF and EGF, rhALR acts in a liver specific manner. Therefore, ALR is a promising candidate for further evaluation as a possible hepatoprotective factor in clinical settings.

  6. Planetary Protection Issues in the Human Exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Race, M. S.; Rummel, J. D.; Baker, A.

    2005-01-01

    This workshop report, long delayed, is the first 21st century contribution to what will likely be a series of reports examining the effects of human exploration on the overall scientific study of Mars. The considerations of human-associated microbial contamination were last studied in a 1990 workshop ("Planetary Protection Issues and Future Mars Missions," NASA CP-10086, 1991), but the timing of that workshop allowed neither a careful examination of the full range of issues, nor an appreciation for the Mars that has been revealed by the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Pathfinder missions. Future workshops will also have the advantage of Mars Odyssey, the Mars Exploration Rover missions, and ESA's Mars Express, but the Pingree Park workshop reported here had both the NCR's (1992) concern that "Missions carrying humans to Mars will contaminate the planet" and over a decade of careful study of human exploration objectives to guide them and to reconcile. A daunting challenge, and one that is not going to be simple (as the working title of this meeting, "When Ecologies Collide?" might suggest), it is clear that the planetary protection issues will have to be addressed to enable human explorers to safely and competently extend out knowledge about Mars, and its potential as a home for life whether martian or human.

  7. Impacts of human recreation on carnivores in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Angela Darnell; Leberg, Paul L

    2018-01-01

    Mammalian carnivores can be particularly sensitive to human disturbance, even within protected areas (PAs). Our objective was to understand how human disturbance affects carnivore communities in southern Arizona, USA by studying habitat occupancy based on data collected using non-invasive methods in three PAs with different levels of human disturbance. Carnivore occupancy varied based on human disturbance variables (i.e., roads, trails, etc.). Common carnivore species (coyotes, gray foxes, and bobcats) had high occupancy probability in highly disturbed sites, while all other carnivore species had a higher probability of occupancy in low disturbance protected areas. Additionally, overall carnivore diversity was higher in PAs with low human disturbance. Edges of PAs appeared to negatively impact occupancy of nearly all carnivore species. We also found the presence of roads and trails, and not necessarily how much they are used, had a significant negative impact on the occupancy of most carnivore species. Furthermore, the overall level of disturbance within a PA influenced how sensitive carnivores were to human disturbance variables. Carnivores were more sensitive in PAs with higher levels of disturbance and were relatively unaffected by disturbance variables in a PA with low base levels of disturbance. Increased visitation to PAs, expected with the region's high level of population growth, is likely to cause shifts in the carnivore communities favoring species that are less sensitive to disturbance.

  8. Planetary protection issues linked to human missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, A.

    According to United Nations Treaties and handled presently by the Committee of Space Research COSPAR the exploration of the Solar System has to comply with planetary protection requirements The goal of planetary protection is to protect celestial bodies from terrestrial contamination and also to protect the Earth environment from an eventual biocontamination carried by return samples or by space systems returning to the Earth Mars is presently one of the main target at exobiology point of view and a lot of missions are operating on travel or scheduled for its exploration Some of them include payload dedicated to the search of life or traces of life and one of the goals of these missions is also to prepare sample return missions with the ultimate objective to walk on Mars Robotic missions to Mars have to comply with planetary protection specifications well known presently and planetary protection programs are implemented with a very good reliability taking into account an experience of 40 years now For sample return missions a set of stringent requirements have been approved by the COSPAR and technical challenges have now to be won in order to preserve Earth biosphere from an eventual contamination risk Sending astronauts on Mars will gather all these constraints added with the human dimension of the mission The fact that the astronauts are huge contamination sources for Mars and that they are also potential carrier of a contamination risk back to Earth add also ethical considerations to be considered For the preparation of a such

  9. [Risk and protection of fertility in male cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Gan; Xiu, Zi-Chao; Wang, Pei-Tao; Wang, Xin-Sheng

    2017-03-01

    Gonad damage is one of the major complications of chemotherapy, radiotherapy or surgery in male cancer patients. For those who wish for childbearing after treatment, it is of great significance how to protect the reproductive function of the cancer patients. The main strategy for fertility protection is to optimize the treatment protocol, hormone therapy, antioxidant therapy, and the preservation of sperm and testicular tissue. This article presents an overview on the pathogenesis of gonadal damage induced by different treatments and protection of the reproductive function of the patient.

  10. Planetary protection issues related to human missions to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, A.; Arnould, J.

    2008-09-01

    In accordance with the United Nations Outer Space Treaties [United Nations, Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, UN doc A/RES/34/68, resolution 38/68 of December 1979], currently maintained and promulgated by the Committee on Space Research [COSPAR Planetary Protection Panel, Planetary Protection Policy accepted by the COSPAR Council and Bureau, 20 October 2002, amended 24 March 2005, http://www.cosparhq.org/scistr/PPPolicy.htm], missions exploring the Solar system must meet planetary protection requirements. Planetary protection aims to protect celestial bodies from terrestrial contamination and to protect the Earth environment from potential biological contamination carried by returned samples or space systems that have been in contact with an extraterrestrial environment. From an exobiology perspective, Mars is one of the major targets, and several missions are currently in operation, in transit, or scheduled for its exploration. Some of them include payloads dedicated to the detection of life or traces of life. The next step, over the coming years, will be to return samples from Mars to Earth, with a view to increasing our knowledge in preparation for the first manned mission that is likely to take place within the next few decades. Robotic missions to Mars shall meet planetary protection specifications, currently well documented, and planetary protection programs are implemented in a very reliable manner given that experience in the field spans some 40 years. With regards to sample return missions, a set of stringent requirements has been approved by COSPAR [COSPAR Planetary Protection Panel, Planetary Protection Policy accepted by the COSPAR Council and Bureau, 20 October 2002, amended 24 March 2005, http://www.cosparhq.org/scistr/PPPolicy.htm], and technical challenges must now be overcome in order to preserve the Earth’s biosphere from any eventual contamination risk. In addition to the human dimension of

  11. Issues around radiological protection of the environment and its integration with protection of humans: promoting debate on the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownless, G P

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores issues to consider around integrating direct, explicit protection of the environment into the current system of radiological protection, which is focused on the protection of humans. Many issues around environmental radiological protection have been discussed, and ready-to-use toolboxes have been constructed for assessing harm to non-human biota, but it is not clear how (or even if) these should be fitted into the current system of protection. Starting from the position that the current approach to protecting the environment (namely that it follows from adequately protecting humans) is generally effective, this paper considers how explicit radiological protection of the environment can be integrated with the current system, through developing a 'worked example' of how this could be done and highlighting issues peculiar to protection of the environment. The aim of the paper is to promote debate on this topic, with the ultimate aim of ensuring that any changes to the system are consensual and robust

  12. Effectiveness of Human Research Protection Program Performance Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsan, Min-Fu; Nguyen, Yen

    2017-10-01

    We analyzed human research protection program performance metric data of all Department of Veterans Affairs research facilities obtained from 2010 to 2016. Among a total of 25 performance metrics, 21 (84%) showed improvement, four (16%) remained unchanged, and none deteriorated during the study period. The overall improvement from these 21 performance metrics was 81.1% ± 18.7% (mean ± SD), with a range of 30% to 100%. The four performance metrics that did not show improvement all had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance metrics that showed improvement ranged from 0.05% to 60%. However, of the 21 performance metrics that showed improvement, 10 had initial noncompliance/incidence rates of performance measurement is an effective tool in improving the performance of human research protection programs.

  13. Exploring Responsibility. Public and Private in Human Rights Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Bexell, Magdalena

    2005-01-01

    The theory and practice of international relations are replete with dilemmas related to the distribution of responsibility for human rights protection. Institutionalized notions of public and private empower and shape knowledge of what the spheres of responsibility signify for different kinds of actors. This study examines how the public-private distinction is manifested in controversy concerning the character of corporate social responsibility. The study develops a conceptual framework cente...

  14. Legal regulation of the protection of animals in human care

    OpenAIRE

    Kubánková, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    This diploma thesis summarizes regulation of animal in human care protection. It describes international conventions and also European Union and Czech laws. It includes definition of animal and categorizations of animals. The status of animal in Czech civil law is content of this thesis too. On international level are the most important conventions of Council of Europe. The part of this work concerning European Union includes conceptual tools, primary law and secondary law. The main law in Cz...

  15. Ecohealth Chair on Human and Animal Health in Protected ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will help establish an Ecohealth Chair in Human and Animal Health in Protected Ecosystems to improve the sustainability of conservation areas and the health of local ... Le nouveau site Web facilitera l'enregistrement des événements démographiques afin d'améliorer l'accès aux services pour tous. Le nouveau ...

  16. Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiseman, Elisa

    2001-03-01

    Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in

  17. Protect Patients from Antibiotic Resistance PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the March 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Patients can get serious healthcare-associated infections, or HAIs, while receiving medical treatment in a healthcare facility. Learn how to prevent healthcare-associated infections.

  18. Gonad protection in young orthopaedic patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, N.; Hill, J.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether gonad shields are correctly positioned on the pelvic radiographs of children with slipped capital femoral epiphysis. DESIGN--Retrospective study of radiographs taken of children treated by in situ pinning of slipped capital femoral epiphysis between 1 January 1983 and 31 December 1988. SETTING--Three teaching hospitals in north west England. PATIENTS--32 patients with complete set of radiographs. RESULTS--An average of 10.8 anteroposterior pelvic radiographs pl...

  19. Protection of persons occupationally exposed to radiation and of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    The experiences of the last ten years have shown that the measures of the First Radiation Protection Ordinance generally proved to be sufficient for the protection of the employed or of the patients. They had to be amended in so far as the exposure to radiation for those occupationally exposed can be reduced. This results in changes to the regulations so that certain groups of persons can also be effectively controlled. The recognition that medical supervision for radiation protection reasons is reasonable only if exposure has occurred should be additionally utilized in the regulations if the Euratom standards make this possible. The protection of patients attains some new rules which can be derived from handling and from therapeutical use. In this case too experience resulted in a more reasonable application of ionizing radiation and radioactive materials than was expected when the First Radiation Protection Ordinance was issued. (orig.) [de

  20. Radiation protection of patients during radiotherapy treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, Josef

    2008-01-01

    The focus of the lecture was on concomitant doses. The learning objectives were as follows: (1) to investigate the origin of concomitant doses; (2) to assess concomitant doses from different sources; (3) to evaluate potential risk from patient from concomitant doses; and (4) to learn procedures for reduction and optimisation of concomitant doses. (P.A.)

  1. Radiation protection for human spaceflight; Strahlenschutz in der bemannten Weltraumfahrt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajek, M. [Atominstitut, Technische Univ. Wien (Austria)

    2009-07-01

    Cosmic radiation exposure is one of the most significant risks associated with human space exploration. Except for the principles of justification and optimization (ALARA), the concepts of terrestrial radiation protection are of limited applicability to human spaceflight, as until now only few experimentally verified data on the biological effectiveness of heavy ions and the dose distribution within the human body exist. Instead of applying the annual dose limits for workers on ground also to astronauts, whose careers are of comparatively short duration, the overall lifetime risk is used as a measure. For long-term missions outside Earth's magnetic field, the acceptable level of risk has not yet been defined, since there is not enough information available to estimate the risk of effects to the central nervous system and of potential non-cancer radiation health hazards. (orig.)

  2. Radiation protection of the patient radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, J.; Tarakanath, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    Systematic studies of gonadal doses to patients undergoing therapy on 60 Co and X-ray machines were carried out using thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD). Phantom and in vivo measurements were performed for various field sizes and for different positions of the centre of the field on the patient's body with the exception of fields including the gonads during radiotherapeutic treatment. It was shown that there is no effect of various SSD and that most radiation reaching gonads is transmitted axially through the body and therefore, it is impossible to reduce this dose with a simple shielding. The figures presented allow prediction of gonadal doses at various conditions. The efficiency of lung, mouth etc. shielding during radiotherapy was also investigated. (orig.) [de

  3. Radiological protection of patients in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.

    2001-01-01

    The key factor in medical exposure is justification, that is ensuring that the benefit exceeds the risk. Nuclear medicine studies are comparable in cost to more sophisticated radiological tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance. Radiation doses are similar from X ray and nuclear medicine procedures. Having justified exposures the next step is optimization, namely using a radiation dose as low as is reasonably practicable. Diagnostic reference levels may be set nationally or locally such that the balance of diagnostic quality and radiation burden is optimized. In therapy the aim is to achieve a therapeutic dose while keeping the dose to non-target tissues as low as reasonably practicable. Variations in activities may be required for overweight patients, those in severe pain, those with certain conditions and in the case of tomography. Any woman who has missed a period should be assumed to be pregnant; there should be notices to patients emphasizing this. Following the administration of longer lived pharmaceuticals it is important to avoid pregnancy for a time such that the dose to a foetus will not exceed 1 mGy. A similar situation applies to a child who is being breastfed when a mother receives a radiopharmaceutical. In the case of children undergoing investigations the activity needs to be reduced to maintain the same count density as in adults. With the administration of an incorrect pharmaceutical an attempt should be made to enhance excretion, and the referring doctor and the patient should be informed. Extravasation usually requires no action. Positron emission tomography results in higher doses both to staff and patients. Research should use subjects over the age of 50, and avoid anyone who is pregnant or is a child. Nuclear medicine procedures result in a very small loss in life expectancy compared with other common risks. (author)

  4. Protect Patients from Antibiotic Resistance PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-03-03

    This podcast is based on the March 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Patients can get serious healthcare-associated infections, or HAIs, while receiving medical treatment in a healthcare facility. Learn how to prevent healthcare-associated infections.  Created: 3/3/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/3/2016.

  5. 78 FR 76212 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Maximizing January 1, 2014 Coverage Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Parts 147, 155 and 156 [CMS-9945-IFC] RIN 0938-AS17 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Maximizing January 1, 2014 Coverage Opportunities AGENCY... meeting the size standards of the Small Business Administration (SBA); (2) a not-for-profit organization...

  6. 78 FR 13405 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Parts 144, 147, 150, et al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules... Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule implements provisions related to fair health insurance premiums, guaranteed...

  7. Radiological protection of patients in brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacc, Ricardo; Herrero, Flavia

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The prefix 'brachy' means short-range, so brachytherapy is the administration of radiation therapy using small radioactive sources in the form of needles, tubes, wires or seeds, which are placed within the tumor -interstitial form- or very near of it, superficially or in an endo-cavity form. This technique, which was limited by the size of the primary tumor, has the advantage, that the radiation, can be adjusted to the size and shape of the tumor volume and the radioisotope used, - short range -, is selected with the criteria of getting the dose in the organs at risk, as low as possible, making what it is known as conformal radiotherapy. Radioactive sources may be permanent or temporary implants. The application of radioactive material, can be manually or automatically. In the first case, a major breakthrough from the radioprotection point of view, was the use of afterloading devices, methodology highly recommended to reduce the radiation exposure to staff. With the development of technology, remotely controlled afterloading devices were introduced, which in addition to complying with the above requirement, allow the source to move in different positions along catheters housed in one or more channels, making therapeutic brachytherapy treatments in tumor volumes possible, that due to its length, decades ago would have been an unthinkable deal. In all cases, sources, which may vary from the 3 mm in length, 125 Iodine or 198 Gold seeds, to extensive wires of 192 Iridium, are encapsulated for two main purposes: preventing leakage of radioactive material and absorption of unwanted radiation, alpha and beta, produced by the radioactive decay. Consequently, it should be highly unlikely that the radioactive material, could be lost or located in the patient, in a different place of the one that was planned. However, history shows us the opposite. Its is known the kind of deterministic effect that radiation is going to produce in the tumor, where the severity of

  8. Protection of the patient in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In the ICRP report (ICRP-Pub-44) a broad picture of radiotheraphy is presented useful to all involved in the care of cancer patients, for instance to physicians, including medical oncologists, and to medical physicists, radiographers, dosimetrists, and administrators. Information is given on the general principles of radiation therapy including external beam therapy and brachytherapy; the accuracy of radiation delivery and quality assurance; the biological radiation response; the expected risk to specific organs or tissues from therapeutic irradiation; the absorbed dose to tissues inside and outside the useful radiation beams; the organization and planning of radiation oncology services; radiation therapy staff education, training and duties; and finally medical research involving the use of radiation therapy. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Ethics, the law, and prisoners: protecting society, changing human behavior, and protecting human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trestman, Robert L

    2014-09-01

    Restricting a person's liberty presents society with many inherent ethical challenges. The historical purposes of confinement have included punishment, penitence, containment, rehabilitation, and habilitation. While the purposes are indeed complex, multifaceted, and at times ambiguous or contradictory, the fact of incarceration intrinsically creates many ethical challenges for psychiatrists working in correctional settings. Role definition of a psychiatrist may be ambiguous, with potential tensions between forensic and therapeutic demands. Privacy may be limited or absent and confidentiality may be compromised. Patient autonomy may be threatened to address real or perceived security concerns. Care delivery may actually have harmful consequences in court cases for pretrial detainees or lethal consequences for those under a death sentence. An absence of data and targeted research hampers the development of evidence-based care delivery for the disenfranchised, understudied, and disproportionately ill prisoner population. In this review paper, I discuss a few of the challenges and dilemmas routinely faced and present a series of questions. Where feasible, proposed resolutions are offered.

  10. Phytochemicals in Human Milk and Their Potential Antioxidative Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apollinaire Tsopmo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Diets contain secondary plant metabolites commonly referred to as phytochemicals. Many of them are believed to impact human health through various mechanisms, including protection against oxidative stress and inflammation, and decreased risks of developing chronic diseases. For mothers and other people, phytochemical intake occurs through the consumption of foods such as fruits, vegetables, and grains. Research has shown that some these phytochemicals are present in the mother’s milk and can contribute to its oxidative stability. For infants, human milk (HM represents the primary and preferred source of nutrition because it is a complete food. Studies have reported that the benefit provided by HM goes beyond basic nutrition. It can, for example, reduce oxidative stress in infants, thereby reducing the risk of lung and intestinal diseases in infants. This paper summarizes the phytochemicals present in HM and their potential contribution to infant health.

  11. General comments on radiological patient protection in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellez de Cepeda, M.; Plaza, R.; Corredoira, E.; Martin Curto, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an observation series about different aspects of the radiological protection of the patient in nuclear medicine is provided. It includes: The specific legislation contribution, the justification and, especially, optimization, as a fundamental base of the quality guarantee program, the importance of the fulfillment of the program and the importance of getting done the corresponding internal audits of the pursuit, the communication between the different groups of professionals implicated and between these and the patient, the volunteers who collaborate in the patient's care and the people in the patient's environment, knowing that the patient is a source of external radiation and contamination. (author) [es

  12. Human anti-plague monoclonal antibodies protect mice from Yersinia pestis in a bubonic plague model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Xiao

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Yersinia pestis is the etiologic agent of plague that has killed more than 200 million people throughout the recorded history of mankind. Antibiotics may provide little immediate relief to patients who have a high bacteremia or to patients infected with an antibiotic resistant strain of plague. Two virulent factors of Y. pestis are the capsid F1 protein and the low-calcium response (Lcr V-protein or V-antigen that have been proven to be the targets for both active and passive immunization. There are mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs against the F1- and V-antigens that can passively protect mice in a murine model of plague; however, there are no anti-Yersinia pestis monoclonal antibodies available for prophylactic or therapeutic treatment in humans. We identified one anti-F1-specific human mAb (m252 and two anti-V-specific human mAb (m253, m254 by panning a naïve phage-displayed Fab library against the F1- and V-antigens. The Fabs were converted to IgG1s and their binding and protective activities were evaluated. M252 bound weakly to peptides located at the F1 N-terminus where a protective mouse anti-F1 mAb also binds. M253 bound strongly to a V-antigen peptide indicating a linear epitope; m254 did not bind to any peptide from a panel of 53 peptides suggesting that its epitope may be conformational. M252 showed better protection than m253 and m254 against a Y, pestis challenge in a plague mouse model. A synergistic effect was observed when the three antibodies were combined. Incomplete to complete protection was achieved when m252 was given at different times post-challenge. These antibodies can be further studied to determine their potential as therapeutics or prophylactics in Y. pestis infection in humans.

  13. Planetary health: protecting human health on a rapidly changing planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Samuel S

    2018-12-23

    The impact of human activities on our planet's natural systems has been intensifying rapidly in the past several decades, leading to disruption and transformation of most natural systems. These disruptions in the atmosphere, oceans, and across the terrestrial land surface are not only driving species to extinction, they pose serious threats to human health and wellbeing. Characterising and addressing these threats requires a paradigm shift. In a lecture delivered to the Academy of Medical Sciences on Nov 13, 2017, I describe the scale of human impacts on natural systems and the extensive associated health effects across nearly every dimension of human health. I highlight several overarching themes that emerge from planetary health and suggest advances in the way we train, reward, promote, and fund the generation of health scientists who will be tasked with breaking out of their disciplinary silos to address this urgent constellation of health threats. I propose that protecting the health of future generations requires taking better care of Earth's natural systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Australia's proactive approach to radiation protection of the environment: how integrated is it with radiation protection of humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirth, G A; Grzechnik, M; Tinker, R; Larsson, C M

    2018-01-01

    Australia's regulatory framework has evolved over the past decade from the assumption that protection of humans implies protection of the environment to the situation now where radiological impacts on non-human species (wildlife) are considered in their own right. In an Australian context, there was a recognised need for specific national guidance on protection of non-human species, for which the uranium mining industry provides the major backdrop. National guidance supported by publications of the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (Radiation Protection Series) provides clear and consistent advice to operators and regulators on protection of non-human species, including advice on specific assessment methods and models, and how these might be applied in an Australian context. These approaches and the supporting assessment tools provide a mechanism for industry to assess and demonstrate compliance with the environmental protection objectives of relevant legislation, and to meet stakeholder expectations that radiological protection of the environment is taken into consideration in accordance with international best practice. Experiences from the past 5-10 years, and examples of where the approach to radiation protection of the environment has been well integrated or presented some challenges will be discussed. Future challenges in addressing protection of the environment in existing exposure situations will also be discussed.

  15. Bioscavengers for the protection of humans against organophosphate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Bhupendra P; Saxena, Ashima

    2005-12-15

    Current antidotes for organophosphorus compounds (OP) poisoning consist of a combination of pretreatment with carbamates (pyridostigmine bromide), to protect acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from irreversible inhibition by OP compounds, and post-exposure therapy with anti-cholinergic drugs (atropine sulfate) to counteract the effects of excess acetylcholine and oximes (e.g., 2-PAM chloride) to reactivate OP-inhibited AChE. These antidotes are effective in preventing lethality from OP poisoning, but they do not prevent post-exposure incapacitation, convulsions, seizures, performance decrements, or in many cases permanent brain damage. These symptoms are commonly observed in experimental animals and are likely to occur in humans. The problems intrinsic to these antidotes stimulated attempts to develop a single protective drug, itself devoid of pharmacological effects, which would provide protection against the lethality of OP compounds and prevent post-exposure incapacitation. One approach is the use of enzymes such as cholinesterases (ChEs), beta-esterases in general, as single pretreatment drugs to sequester highly toxic OP anti-ChEs before they reach their physiological targets. This approach turns the irreversible nature of the OP: ChE interaction from disadvantage to an advantage; instead of focusing on OP as an anti-ChE, one can use ChE as an anti-OP. Using this approach, it was shown that administration of fetal bovine serum AChE (FBSAChE) or equine serum butyrylcholinesterase (EqBChE) or human serum BChE (HuBChE) protected the animals from multiple LD50s of a variety of highly toxic OPs without any toxic effects or performance decrements. The bioscavengers that have been explored to date for the detoxification of OPs fall into three categories: (A) those that can catalytically hydrolyze OPs and thus render them non-toxic, such as OP hydrolase and OP anhydrase; (B) those that stoichiometrically bind to OPs, that is, 1 mol of enzyme neutralizes one or 2 mol of OP

  16. Human rights in patient care: a theoretical and practical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jonathan; Ezer, Tamar

    2013-12-12

    The concept of "human rights in patient care" refers to the application of human rights principles to the context of patient care. It provides a principled alternative to the growing discourse of "patients' rights" that has evolved in response to widespread and severe human rights violations in health settings. Unlike "patients' rights," which is rooted in a consumer framework, this concept derives from inherent human dignity and neutrally applies universal, legally recognized human rights principles, protecting both patients and providers and admitting of limitations that can be justified by human rights norms. It recognizes the interrelation between patient and provider rights, particularly in contexts where providers face simultaneous obligations to patients and the state ("dual loyalty") and may be pressured to abet human rights violations. The human rights lens provides a means to examine systemic issues and state responsibility. Human rights principles that apply to patient care include both the right to the highest attainable standard of health, which covers both positive and negative guarantees in respect of health, as well as civil and political rights ranging from the patient's right to be free from torture and inhumane treatment to liberty and security of person. They also focus attention on the right of socially excluded groups to be free from discrimination in the delivery of health care. Critical rights relevant to providers include freedom of association and the enjoyment of decent work conditions. Some, but not all, of these human rights correspond to rights that have been articulated in "patients' rights" charters. Complementary to—but distinct from—bioethics, human rights in patient care carry legal force and can be applied through judicial action. They also provide a powerful language to articulate and mobilize around justice concerns, and to engage in advocacy through the media and political negotiation. As "patients' rights" movements and

  17. Impact of protected mealtimes on ward mealtime environment, patient experience and nutrient intake in hospitalised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickson, M; Connolly, A; Whelan, K

    2011-08-01

    Malnutrition is a common problem in hospitalised inpatients, resulting in a range of negative clinical, patient-centred and economic sequelae. Protected mealtimes (PM) aim to enhance the quality of the mealtime experience and maximise nutrient intake in hospitalised patients. The present study aimed to measure mealtime environment, patient experience and nutrient intake before and after the implementation of PM.   PM were implemented in a large teaching hospital through a range of different approaches. Direct observations were used to assess ward-level mealtime environment (e.g. dining room use, removal of distractions) (40 versus 34 wards) and individual patient experience (e.g. assistance with eating, visitors present) (253 versus 237 patients), and nutrient intake was assessed with a weighed food intake at lunch (39 versus 60 patients) at baseline and after the implementation of PM, respectively. Mealtime experience showed improvements in three objectives: more patients were monitored using food/fluid charts (32% versus 43%, P = 0.02), more were offered the opportunity to wash hands (30% versus 40%, P = 0.03) and more were served meals at uncluttered tables (54% versus 64%, P = 0.04). There was no difference in the number of patients experiencing mealtime interruptions (32% versus 25%, P = 0.14). There was no difference in energy intake (1088 versus 837 kJ, P = 0.25) and a decrease in protein intake (14.0 versus 7.5 g, P = 0.04) after PM. Only minor improvements in mealtime experience were made after the implementation of PM and so it is not unexpected that macronutrient intake did not improve. The implementation of PM needs to be evaluated to ensure improvements in mealtime experience are made such that measurable improvements in nutritional and clinical outcomes ensue. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  18. Hydroxytyrosol Protects against Oxidative DNA Damage in Human Breast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Gaforio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, several studies have related olive oil ingestion to a low incidence of several diseases, including breast cancer. Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol are two of the major phenols present in virgin olive oils. Despite the fact that they have been linked to cancer prevention, there is no evidence that clarifies their effect in human breast tumor and non-tumor cells. In the present work, we present hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol’s effects in human breast cell lines. Our results show that hydroxytyrosol acts as a more efficient free radical scavenger than tyrosol, but both fail to affect cell proliferation rates, cell cycle profile or cell apoptosis in human mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A or breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 and MCF7. We found that hydroxytyrosol decreases the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS level in MCF10A cells but not in MCF7 or MDA-MB-231 cells while very high amounts of tyrosol is needed to decrease the ROS level in MCF10A cells. Interestingly, hydroxytyrosol prevents oxidative DNA damage in the three breast cell lines. Therefore, our data suggest that simple phenol hydroxytyrosol could contribute to a lower incidence of breast cancer in populations that consume virgin olive oil due to its antioxidant activity and its protection against oxidative DNA damage in mammary cells.

  19. Protection of patients in the first radiotherapy standard in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Quijada, R.

    2001-01-01

    The evolution of control measures on radiotherapy activities between 1980 and 2000 are reviewed. An increasing in the scope toward the patient protection was observed along these years. After approving the last main regulation on radiation safety the issuing of a specific rule for protection and radiation safety in radiotherapy with emphasis on the patient protection was needed. The proposed specific rules on radiotherapy were reviewed and discussed jointly with the radiotherapy users before approving, and modifications were made in order to reach consistency with the national situation. A summary comparison is made between some requisites as proposed at the beginning and as modified after discussions. Modifications were made because of the current social and economic conditions in the country and taking into consideration another reasons related to the medicine practice. It is suggested to make a revision to the rules and their results after a period of application. (author)

  20. Protection of patients in the first radiotherapy standard in Peru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Quijada, R [Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear (Peru)

    2001-03-01

    The evolution of control measures on radiotherapy activities between 1980 and 2000 are reviewed. An increasing in the scope toward the patient protection was observed along these years. After approving the last main regulation on radiation safety the issuing of a specific rule for protection and radiation safety in radiotherapy with emphasis on the patient protection was needed. The proposed specific rules on radiotherapy were reviewed and discussed jointly with the radiotherapy users before approving, and modifications were made in order to reach consistency with the national situation. A summary comparison is made between some requisites as proposed at the beginning and as modified after discussions. Modifications were made because of the current social and economic conditions in the country and taking into consideration another reasons related to the medicine practice. It is suggested to make a revision to the rules and their results after a period of application. (author)

  1. Optimization and radiation protection of the patient in medical exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mwambinga, S.A.

    2012-04-01

    Radiography has been an established imaging modality for over a century, continuous developments have led to improvements in technique resulting in improved image quality at reduced patient dose. If one compares the technique used by Roentgen with the methods used today, one finds that a radiograph can now be obtained at a dose which is smaller. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a statutory responsibility to establish standards for the protection of people against exposure to ionising radiation and to provide for the worldwide application of those standards. A fundamental requirement of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS) is the optimization of radiological protection of patients undergoing medical exposure. By using technique such as added filtration, use of high kVp techniques, low mAs, use of appropriate screen-film combination and making sure that all practices and any exposure to patient are justified, using ALARA principles and diagnostic Reference Levels, patient protection can be optimised. (author)

  2. Implementation of the CEC Directive on patient protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    A report on a lecture given on the implementation in the UK of the CEC Directive on patient protection is given. After outlining the history of legislation on the medical uses of ionizing radiations, the current Directive and the Department of Health and Social Security's specific proposals to meet its requirements are presented. (UK)

  3. Radiation protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morkunas, G.; Ziliukas, J.

    2001-01-01

    The situation in control of exposure due to general diagnostic radiological examinations in Lithuania is described. Experience in creation of legal basis for radiation protection, results of measurements of patients' doses and quality control tests of x-ray units are given. The main problems encountered in implementation of international recommendations and requirements of European Medical Exposure Directive are discussed. (author)

  4. Does biodiversity protect humans against infectious disease? Reply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Young, Hillary S.; Hudson, Peter J.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2016-01-01

    The dilution effect is the sort of idea that everyone wants to be true. If nature protects humans against infectious disease, imagine the implications: nature's value could be tallied in terms of human suffering avoided. This makes a potent argument for conservation, convincing even to those who would otherwise be disinclined to support conservation initiatives. The appeal of the dilution effect has been recognized by others: “the desire to make the case for conservation has led to broad claims regarding the benefits of nature conservation for human health” (Bauch et al. 2015). Randolph and Dobson (2012) were among the first to critique these claims, making the case that promotion of conservation to reduce Lyme disease risk, although well intentioned, was flawed. Along with Randolph and Dobson's critique, there have been several calls for a more nuanced scientific assessment of the relationship between biodiversity and disease transmission (Dunn 2010, Salkeld et al. 2013, Wood and Lafferty 2013, Young et al. 2013). In response, supporters of the dilution effect have instead increased the scope of their generalizations with review papers, press releases, and, like Levi et al. (2015), letters. These responses have been successful; it is not uncommon to read papers that repeat the assertion that biodiversity generally interferes with disease transmission and that conservation will therefore generally benefit human health. Here, we explain how Levi et al. (2015) and other, similar commentaries use selective interpretation and shifting definitions to argue for the generality of the dilution effect hypothesis.

  5. Patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-12-01

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Twelve presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Medical exposure of the French population: methodology and results (Bernard Aubert, IRSN); 2 - What indicators for the medical exposure? (Cecile Etard, IRSN); 3 - Guidebook of correct usage of medical imaging examination (Philippe Grenier, Pitie-Salpetriere hospital); 4 - Radiation protection optimization in pediatric imaging (Hubert Ducou-Le-Pointe, Aurelien Bouette (Armand-Trousseau children hospital); 5 - Children's exposure to image scanners: epidemiological survey (Marie-Odile Bernier, IRSN); 6 - Management of patient's irradiation: from image quality to good practice (Thierry Solaire, General Electric); 7 - Dose optimization in radiology (Cecile Salvat (Lariboisiere hospital); 8 - Cancer detection in the breast cancer planned screening program - 2004-2009 era (Agnes Rogel, InVS); 9 - Mammographic exposures - radiobiological effects - radio-induced DNA damages (Catherine Colin, Lyon Sud hospital); 10 - Breast cancer screening program - importance of non-irradiating techniques (Anne Tardivon, Institut Curie); 11 - Radiation protection justification for the medical imaging of patients over the age of 50 (Michel Bourguignon, ASN); 12 - Search for a molecular imprint for the discrimination between radio-induced and sporadic tumors (Sylvie Chevillard, CEA)

  6. The radiologist's responsibilities for the radiation protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etard, C.

    2010-01-01

    The obligations of the radiologist for the radiation protection of patients include a review of the appropriateness of the examination and optimization of the protocol. Both internal and external quality assurance programs are mandatory. The specific tasks and their frequency are defined by the AFSSAPS. The radiology report of procedures performed over radiosensitive regions must include the delivered dose. The imaging technique must be optimized based on published guidelines or law for the most frequent examinations. All radiologists should be familiar with radiation protection. Incidents should be reported to the Nuclear Safety Authority. (author)

  7. 21 century perspective in radiation protection of humans and human population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilev, G.

    2003-01-01

    In 21 century ionizing radiation is applied in all field of human activities. In parallel, the radiobiology and radiation medicine are developing as separate branches for the purposes of the radiation protection: for risk estimation and regulation of the human irradiation. Main features of radiation protection at the beginning of the century are: 1.Well developed conservative theoretical background, based on the linear non-threshold concept 'dose-effect' towards the carcinogenesis and genetic effects; 2. Developed international and national structures, including organizations as ICRP, UNSCEAR, ICRU, IAEA, WHO, FAO, BEIR, OECD/NEA, ILO, NCRP, NRPB etc. 3. Detailed regulative legislation for all cases of human irradiation, combines with effective control structures. Ionizing radiation is the most strictly regulated factor affecting humans among the all adverse impacts of the living environment. The expectations for the radiation protection in 21 century are: 1. A radical reassessment of the concept for low doses and the linear non-threshold concept since data for existing of a threshold on the human population level. 2. Taking into consideration of the the adaptation to the irradiation, comparable with the natural radiation background. 3. Taking into consideration of the radiation hormesis, which are now ignored by the risk theory. 4. Clarification of the questions of the genetic effects, which are not yet determined for the human population. 5. Radical solutions of the radioactive waste problem, which will be crucial for the future of the nuclear energy production. 6. Gradual overcoming of the fear from ionizing radiation, which is an important social factor

  8. Protecting Human Health in a Changing Environment: 2018 Summer Enrichment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Research Triangle Park, NC is offering a free 1-week Summer Enrichment Program to educate students about how the Agency protects human health and the environment.

  9. 75 FR 62738 - Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... addressed in EPA science and ethics reviews of proposed and completed human research for pesticides, based... Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides; Notification to... protection of human subjects of research that apply to third parties who conduct or support research for...

  10. 42 CFR 3.208 - Continued protection of patient safety work product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Continued protection of patient safety work product... GENERAL PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Confidentiality and Privilege Protections of Patient Safety Work Product § 3.208 Continued protection of patient safety work...

  11. [USE OF PROTECTIVE LUNG VENTILATION REGIMEN IN CARDIAC SURGERY PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenichniy, T A; Akselrod, B A; Titova, I V; Trekova, N A; Khrustaleva, M V

    2017-09-01

    In cardiac surgery, protective lung ventilation and/or preventive brdnchoscopy (PB) are able to decrease lung injury effects of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and mechanical ventilation. define lung complication risks, evaluate the effect ofprotective lung ventilation (PLV) on lung functioning, and investigate the feasibility ofpreventive PB in higher pulmonary risk (PR) patients. 66 patients participated in prospective randomized research. Allocation was based on PR and intraoperative mechanical ventilation type. PLV includedfollowing parameters: PCK PIP - up to 20 cm H20, Vt - 6 ml/ kg of PBW, PEEP - 5-10 cm H20, IE ratio - 1:1.5-1:1, EtCO2 - 35-42 mm Hg, FiO2 - 45-60%, lung ventilation during CPB, alveolar recruitment. Four groups were formed: A - higher PR plus PLV- B - higher PR plus conventional LV (CLV), C - lower PR plus PLV- D - lower PR plus CLV PIP PEEP dynamic compliance, p/f ratio and intrapulmonary shunt (Qs/Qt) were recorded. Seventeen patients of group A underwent PB. Advanced dynamic compliance, higher p/f ratio and lower Qs/Qt were seen in group A, in comparison with group B (pProtective lung ventilation improves lung biomechanics and oxygenating function in higher risk patients and decreases intrapulmonary shunt fraction in higher and lower risk patients. Addictive preventive bronchoscopy can be successfully used in higher risk patients.

  12. Human factors and safe patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Beverley

    2009-03-01

    This paper aims to introduce the topic of human factors to nursing management and to identify areas where it can be applied to patient safety. Human factors is a discipline established in most safety critical industries and uses knowledge about human behaviour in the analysis and design of complex systems, yet it is relatively new to many in healthcare. Most safety critical industries have developed tools and techniques to apply human factors to system design, and these have been reviewed together with those resources already available for use in healthcare. Models of human behaviour such as the nature and patterns of human error, information processing, decision-making and team work have clear applications to healthcare. Human factors focus on a system view of safety, and propose that safety should, where possible, be 'designed in'. Other interventions such as building defences, mitigating hazards and education and training should only be used where design solutions cannot be found. Simple human factors principles such as: designing for standardization; the involvement of users and staff in designing services and procuring equipment; understanding how errors occur; and the workarounds that staff will inevitably take are vital considerations in improving patient safety. Opportunities for the application of human factors to healthcare and improved patient safety are discussed. Some existing tools and techniques for applying human factors in nursing management are also presented.

  13. Privacy protection for patients with substance use problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Lianne Lian; Sparenborg, Steven; Tai, Betty

    2011-01-01

    Lianne Lian Hu1, Steven Sparenborg2, Betty Tai21Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 2Center for the Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MDAbstract: Many Americans with substance use problems will have opportunities to receive coordinated health care through the integration of primary care and specialty care for substance use disorders under the Patient Protection...

  14. Regulatory Politic for the radiological protection to the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt Hernandez, L.A.; De la Fuente Puch, A.; Jerez Vegueria, P.

    1998-01-01

    The present work has as objective to propose on based to the national experience the Regulatory Authority, the reach the competition to this authorization in the regulation to the topics with the patients protection and to base starting from the content the apendice II to the Basic Standards, the approaches in those that it should impact directly in the acting give their functions to assure it

  15. Radiation protection of patients in diagnostic radiology in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippova, I.

    2001-01-01

    The medical use of ionizing radiation started at the beginning of the century. It has always been considered necessary, as well as for diagnostic applications where exposure to the patient is the price to pay in order to obtain useful images, as for therapy where the patient is exposed on purpose, in order to kill malignant cells. It is nowadays the major man-made contribution to the population dose. Even with the developments of substitutive imaging or treatment techniques, there is still an increasing demand and many organizations are joining their efforts to try to keep the dose to the patient 'as low as reasonably achievable'. This is particularly the case for the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) which recommended in publication 26 to follow three main principles: justification, optimisation and limitation. Limitation, however, does not apply to patients since the individuals exposed are expected to benefit from this exposure, but justification and optimization are relevant. (author)

  16. Human migration, protected areas, and conservation outreach in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jonathan D; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Kefauver, Shawn C

    2014-06-01

    A recent discussion debates the extent of human in-migration around protected areas (PAs) in the tropics. One proposed argument is that rural migrants move to bordering areas to access conservation outreach benefits. A counter proposal maintains that PAs have largely negative effects on local populations and that outreach initiatives even if successful present insufficient benefits to drive in-migration. Using data from Tanzania, we examined merits of statistical tests and spatial methods used previously to evaluate migration near PAs and applied hierarchical modeling with appropriate controls for demographic and geographic factors to advance the debate. Areas bordering national parks in Tanzania did not have elevated rates of in-migration. Low baseline population density and high vegetation productivity with low interannual variation rather than conservation outreach explained observed migration patterns. More generally we argue that to produce results of conservation policy significance, analyses must be conducted at appropriate scales, and we caution against use of demographic data without appropriate controls when drawing conclusions about migration dynamics. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Ebselen exhibits glycation-inhibiting properties and protects against osmotic fragility of human erythrocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Julio C M; Folmer, Vanderlei; Da Rocha, João B T; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2014-05-01

    Diabetic status is associated with an increase on oxidative stress markers in humans and animal models. We have investigated the in vitro effects of high concentrations of glucose on the profile of oxidative stress and osmotic fragility of blood from control and diabetic patients; we considered whether its antioxidant properties could afford some protection against glucose-induced osmotic fragility, and whether ebselen could act as an inhibitor of hemoglobin glycation. Raising blood glucose to 5-100 mmol/L resulted in a concentration-dependent increase of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c; P Ebselen significantly reduced the glucose-induced increase in osmotic fragility and inhibited HbA1c formation (P < 0.0001). These results indicate that blood from patients with uncontrolled diabetes are more sensitive to osmotic shock than from patients with controlled diabetes and control subjects in relation to increased production of free radicals in vivo. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  18. Evolving International Practices for Protection of Human Rights- the UN Human Rights Advisory Panel and EU Human Rights Review Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remzije ISTREFI

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the unique development of the international human rights non judicial protection mechanism in Kosovo. Since 1999 Kosovo has been placed under international supervision carried out by international organizations, namely the United Nations and the European Union. The UN’s Mission in Kosovo (UNMK was unprecedented both in scope and structural complexity. After the Declaration of Independence by Kosovo authorities on 17 February 2008, the European Union Rule of Law Mission in Kosovo EULEX took over to assist and support the Kosovo authorities in the rule of law area, specifically in the areas of the police, the judiciary and customs. The UNMIK’s extensive mandate and EULEXs limited executive powers in practice have affected human rights of Kosovars as a consequence of the UNMIK and EULEX actions and inactions in the course of exercise of their mandates. This study will try to reveal the processes that lead to establishment of these two unique international human rights Panels and their impact on human rights protection of individuals under international administration. The main question to be addressed is if these two human rights panels are providing the adequate remedy for addressing human rights violations by international actors in a post conflict Kosovo.

  19. The Functions of Selected Human Rights Institutions and Related Role-Players in the Protection of Human Rights in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Chitimira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Various violations of the human rights of ordinary people and human rights defenders have been reported in Zimbabwe since the late 1980s. It is widely acknowledged that such violations have been perpetrated mostly by the government through its different organs for political and other related reasons. Human rights violations were also easily committed against ordinary people and human rights defenders because there was no Constitution that adequately protected such people's fundamental human rights (including their civil and political rights and their socio-economic rights in Zimbabwe. Given this background, the article discusses the protection of human rights in Zimbabwe, in the light of the Zimbabwe Constitution Amendment Act 20 of 2013 (Zimbabwe Constitution 2013. This is done in order to investigate whether the promotion, protection, enforcement and respect for human rights in Zimbabwe has now improved. To this end, the functions of selected national human rights institutions and other related role-players, namely civil society, the judiciary, the law enforcement organs and the Zimbabwe Human Rights Commission, are briefly discussed first. Secondly, the functions of selected regional and international institutions, namely the Southern African Development Community, the African Union and the United Nations are discussed in relation to the protection of human rights in Zimbabwe. Thereafter, concluding remarks and possible recommendations that could be utilised to combat human rights violations and enhance the protection of human rights in Zimbabwe are provided.

  20. Selective blockade of protein kinase B protects the rat and human myocardium against ischaemic injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares-Palomino, José; Husainy, Muhammad A; Lai, Vien K; Dickenson, John M; Galiñanes, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) plays a critical role in cell survival but the investigation of its involvement has been limited by the lack of specific pharmacological agents. In this study, using novel PKB inhibitors (VIII and XI), we investigated the role of PKB in cardioprotection of the rat and human myocardium, the location of PKB in relation to mitoKATP channels and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and whether the manipulation of PKB can overcome the unresponsiveness to protection of the diabetic myocardium. Myocardial slices from rat left ventricle and from the right atrial appendage of patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery were subjected to 90 min ischaemia/120 min reoxygenation at 37°C. Tissue injury was assessed by creatine kinase (CK) released and determination of cell necrosis and apoptosis. The results showed that blockade of PKB activity caused significant reduction of CK release and cell death, a benefit that was as potent as ischaemic preconditioning and could be reproduced by blockade of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI-3K) with wortmannin and LY 294002. The protection was time dependent with maximal benefit seen when PKB and PI-3K were inhibited before ischaemia or during both ischaemia and reoxygenation. In addition, it was revealed that PKB is located downstream of mitoKATP channels but upstream of p38 MAPK. PKB inhibition induced a similar degree of protection in the human and rat myocardium and, importantly, it reversed the unresponsiveness to protection of the diabetic myocardium. In conclusion, inhibition of PKB plays a critical role in protection of the mammalian myocardium and may represent a clinical target for the reduction of ischaemic injury. PMID:20403980

  1. Radiological protection of patients: conceptual framework and new international recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisone, Pablo A.; Perez, Maria del R.

    2005-01-01

    Medical exposures represent the largest man-made source of radiation exposure. Within the concept medical exposures includes different kind of exposure: of patients as part of their own medical diagnosis or treatment; of individuals as part of occupational health surveillance; of individuals as part of health screening programs; of volunteers participating in biomedical research programs; of individuals as part of medico-legal procedures and of voluntary patient caregivers (relatives or friends). Radiological protection of patients (RPP) is founded on two basic principles: justification and optimization. The justification of a medical exposure is founded in the consideration that it will give a sufficient net benefit, including the direct health benefits to the patients and the potential benefits to society, against the individual detriment that the exposure might cause, taking into account the efficacy, benefits and risks of available alternative techniques having the same objective but involving no or less exposure to ionizing radiation. Concerning optimization in diagnosis, the radiological protection objective is to keep doses as low as reasonably achievable while obtaining the necessary diagnostic information. In therapy, the objective is to ensure that the target tissue is given the prescribed dose while minimizing the dose to surrounding healthy tissue. In this presentation we analyze new international recommendations concerning RPP, with emphasis in the Directive 97/43/EURATOM. The importance of referral guidelines to help physicians during the process of justification and use of diagnostic reference levels (to help in optimization) is discussed. (author)

  2. Program for radiation protection of the patient (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, Rodolfo E.; Perez, Maria del R.; Alfredo Buzzi; Andisco, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    After an initial period of conviction for installing an active discussion on radiation protection of patients inside the medical community, there were organized 'working groups' in radiodiagnosis, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and on radiation protection of pregnant women. These groups began systematical activities, which received a strong institutional support of the Argentine Society of Radiology, toward the implementation of a 'Program of RPP' that is being put nowadays into practice. This program has three aims and a series of targets to be fulfilled in successive stages: basic aims and short term targets: 1) To guarantee the justification: first goal: development of the 'Prescription Guide' (achieved); 2) To optimize the radioprotection: first goal: Development of a 'Manual of Procedures' (achieved); 3) To prevent potential exposures: first goal: Design of a 'Basic quality system' in Health (achieved). The effective participation of the professional's and technician's associations in the development of the program of radiological protection of the patient is a key aspect for the success. (author) [es

  3. Protective effects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide in perioperative period during open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunbin; Li, Yong; Bao, Weiguo; Qiu, Shi

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects and safety aspects of recombinant human brain natriuretic peptide (rhBNP) on cardiac functions of patients undergoing open-heart surgery during perioperative period. In total, 150 patients undergoing open heart surgery in the Second Hospital of Shandong Universty from August 2015 to July 2016 were randomly divided into control group and observation group each with 75 cases. Patients in control group were treated by routine rehabilitation while patients in the observation group were treated by both the routine rehabilitation and rhBNP. All the observations were made before operation, after operation and 7 days after operation. The changes of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) of patients, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), cardiac function [Cardiac output (CO), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PAWP) and central venous pressure (CVP)] of patients were measured. Further, respirator support time, ICU stay time, incidence of complications and vital signs (BP, HR, SaO2) of patients in the two groups were also compared. NT-proBNP levels of all patients improved after operation but it decreased in both groups after 7 days of operation. The decrease of NT-proBNP levels in observation group was significantly higher than that of control group. Whereas, LVEF, CO, PAWP and CVP of patients in both the groups increased after operation but effects were significantly higher in the observation group after 7 days of medication. Respirator support time and ICU stay time of patients in observation group were significantly shorter than those in control group, and the incidence of postoperative complications of patients in the observation group were significantly lower than the control group. Moreover, BP, HR and SaO2 of patients in observation group were significantly elevated in comparison to control group (Popen heart surgery, and is safe as well as reliable.

  4. Risk and Protective Factors for Suicide in Patients with Alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Sher

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is associated with a high risk for suicidal behavior. Up to 40% of persons with alcoholism attempt suicide at some time and 7% end their lives by committing suicide. Risk factors include being male, older than 50 years of age, living alone, being unemployed, poor social support, interpersonal losses, continued drinking, consumption of a greater amount of alcohol when drinking, a recent alcohol binge, previous alcohol treatment, a family history of alcoholism, a history of comorbid substance abuse (especially cocaine, a major depressive episode, serious medical illness, suicidal communication, and prior suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior is especially frequent in patients with comorbid alcoholism and major depression. However, all patients with alcoholism should be evaluated for suicide risk. Understanding of risk and vulnerability to suicidal behavior in alcoholism still outweighs our knowledge of protective factors and resilience. Knowledge of protective factors for suicide may help to prevent and/or predict suicidal behavior. Protective factors for suicide in alcoholism are quite varied and include an individual's biological and behavioral characteristics, as well as attributes of the environment and culture. Protective factors include effective clinical care for psychiatric (including alcoholism and drug abuse and physical disorders, easy access to a variety of clinical interventions and support for seeking help, restricted access to highly lethal means of suicide, strong connections to family and community support, skills in problem solving and conflict resolution, cultural and religious beliefs that discourage suicide and support self-preservation. Future studies are necessary to determine which interventions may reduce suicidal behavior in alcoholism.

  5. Mathematical human phantoms and their application to radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro

    1998-01-01

    This review described the characteristics of mathematical phantoms, their history over 30 years and their application. Mathematical phantoms are classified into two models of formula and voxel types. In the former, human body and organs are described by 2- and/or 3-D mathematical formula and can be seen as a combination of solid bodies like spheres, cubes and ovals. The phantom is composed from three tissue components (bone, lung and soft tissue) and made on data on Reference Man in ICRP Publ. 23. The latter voxel (volume pixel) phantom consists from a number of small cubes based on CT and MRI images of a certain man. For instance, the phantom CHILD, 1.54 x 1.54 x 8.00 mm 3 in size, is based on a 7-year old child, which consisting from about one million voxels. The mathematical phantom was first made in Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the middle of the nineteen-sixties, which have undergone various improvements to reach MIRD-5 phantom. Thereafter, many similitude phantoms have been made as a variation of MIRD-5, depending on age and sex (e.g., ADAM and EVA). Voxel phantom was made in the middle of nineteen-eighties and have undergone improvements which are continued even currently in Japan, U.S. etc. The mathematical phantoms are used for calculation of radiation transport program by Monte Carlo method in the field of radiation protection. Also in the field of medicine, the phantom is used for calculation of internal and external exposure doses, of correction constants of externally measuring instruments, of doses for neutron capture therapy and of A-bomb exposure doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for reevaluation. Recently, the development of phantom is in the current from formula phantom to voxel one due to the purpose of precision and standardization. (K.H.)

  6. Declining human population but increasing residential development around protected areas in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Castro-Prieto; S. Martinuzzi; V.C. Radeloff; D.P. Helmers; M. Quiñones; W.A. Gould

    2017-01-01

    Increasing residential development around protected areas is a major threat for protected areas worldwide, and human population growth is often the most important cause. However, population is decreasing in many regions as a result of socio-economic changes, and it is unclear how residential development around protected areas is affected in these situations. We...

  7. Evolving International Practices for Protection of Human Rights- the UN Human Rights Advisory Panel and EU Human Rights Review Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Remzije ISTREFI

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the unique development of the international human rights non judicial protection mechanism in Kosovo. Since 1999 Kosovo has been placed under international supervision carried out by international organizations, namely the United Nations and the European Union. The UN’s Mission in Kosovo (UNMK) was unprecedented both in scope and structural complexity. After the Declaration of Independence by Kosovo authorities on 17 February 2008, the European Union Rule ...

  8. Secondary radiation from supervoltage accelerators - its implications in patient protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    If the collimator and compensator of a supervoltage accelerator are made of high atomic number material they will tend to interact with the high energy photon beam predominantly by pair production. Associated with pair-production is a cascade formation resulting in a variety of radiations which may be serious from the point of view of patient protection, particularly if the field of treatment is close to some superficially located critical organ such as the lens of the eye or the gonads. Gonadal doses of about 15% of the mid-depth dose were measured on a young male patient undergoing treatment of the prostate by a 42MV X-ray beam from a Siemen's betatron. A lead block 1.5 cm thick placed over the patient's thighs covering the scrotum reduced the gonadal dose to less than 2% of the mid-depth dose. A similar set of measurements made on a specially constructed scrotum-penis phantom confirmed these results, and showed that the lead block must be placed close to the phantom to be effective. Comparative measurements made just outside a cobalt 60 beam showed that the doses were far smaller than those outside the 42MeV X-ray beam. Recommendations are therefore made for the thickness and positioning of lead shielding required to protect critical organs from secondary radiation in radiotherapy. (U.K.)

  9. Reporting of ethical protection in recent oral and maxillofacial surgery research involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitak-Arnnop, P; Sader, R; Hervé, C; Dhanuthai, K; Bertrand, J-Ch; Hemprich, A

    2009-07-01

    This retrospective observational study investigated the frequency of reporting ethical approval and informed consent in recently published oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) research involving human subjects. All research involving human subjects published in the International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery during January to June 2005-2007 were analysed for disclosure of ethical approval by a local ethical committee and obtaining informed consent from the subjects. 534 articles were identified; ethical approval was documented in 118 (22%) and individual patient consent in 135 (25%). 355 reports (67%) did not include a statement on ethical approval or informed consent and only 74 reports (14%) disclosed statements of both. Ethical documentation in retrospective and observational studies was scant; 12% of randomised controlled trials and 38% of non-random trials did not report both of ethical protections. Most recent OMS publications involving humans failed to mention ethical review or subjects' consent. Authors must adhere to the international research ethics guidelines and journal instructions, while editors should play a gatekeeper role to protect research participants, uphold scientific integrity and maintain public trust in the experimental process and OMS profession.

  10. The Impact of the Protection of Human Subjects on Research. Working Paper No. 70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Andrew S.

    The author discusses the experimenter's responsibility for the protection of human subjects (such as the handicapped) in research and the impact of this responsibility on methods of doing research. Considered are the types of human rights that are most frequently in need of protection within a research setting (such as the right to privacy); the…

  11. Heart valve prostheses: who protects our patients, and from what?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, A C

    1977-01-01

    Phenomenal advances in the development of cardiac valve prostheses have taken place in less than two decades. However, the currently prevailing atmosphere of consumer protectionism in existence 20 years ago probably would have made such developments impossible. Recent passage of the Medical Device Amendments of 1976 (P.L. 94-295) will not only make future development extremely difficult, but also may force the field of cardiac valve replacement back into the era of the 1950s. Regulations implementing this legislation may be even more disastrous. It is time for someone to protect patients from their so-called protectors.

  12. Radiation Protection of the Young Patient: Kenya perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wambani, S.

    2015-01-01

    The human body anatomy and health issues are universal. Radionuclide and ionizing radiation are used in a variety of techniques in research, primary and secondary healthcare. One out of every five patients attending a hospital in Kenya benefits from some type of nuclear procedure. In 2013 over 3.5 million Kenyans benefited from nuclear applications in medicine. The radiographer patient workload is 189,300 examinations while that of each radiologist approximately 325,000 per year. There is need for catalyzed effort in the transition to the state-of-the-art nuclear techniques/equipment to Kenya and development of quality assurance program in diagnostic and therapeutic radiology. Develop the manpower/human resource and Policies that lower expenses and increase availability of nuclear techniques in medicine

  13. General comments on radiological patient protection in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez de Cepeda, M; Plaza, R; Corredoira, E [Servicio de Radiofisica y Radioproteccion, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (Spain); Martin Curto, L M [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-03-01

    In this paper an observation series about different aspects of the radiological protection of the patient in nuclear medicine is provided. It includes: The specific legislation contribution, the justification and, especially, optimization, as a fundamental base of the quality guarantee program, the importance of the fulfillment of the program and the importance of getting done the corresponding internal audits of the pursuit, the communication between the different groups of professionals implicated and between these and the patient, the volunteers who collaborate in the patient's care and the people in the patient's environment, knowing that the patient is a source of external radiation and contamination. (author) [Spanish] Se resumen en este trabajo, una serie de observaciones sobre distintos aspectos de la proteccion radiologica del paciente en Medicina Nuclear que incluyen: El aporte de la legislacion especifica, los principios de justificacion y optimizacion (en especial este ultimo) como base fundamental del programa de garantia de calidad asi como la importancia de que dicho programa se cumpla y se lleven a cabo las correspondientes auditorias internas de seguimiento, la comunicacion tanto entre los diferentes grupos de profesionales implicados como entre estos y el paciente, los voluntarios que colaboran en su cuidado y las personas de su entorno, teniendo en cuenta que el paciente es una fuente de radiacion externa y contaminacion. (author)

  14. Privacy protection for patients with substance use problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu LL

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lianne Lian Hu1, Steven Sparenborg2, Betty Tai21Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, 2Center for the Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MDAbstract: Many Americans with substance use problems will have opportunities to receive coordinated health care through the integration of primary care and specialty care for substance use disorders under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Sharing of patient health records among care providers is essential to realize the benefits of electronic health records. Health information exchange through meaningful use of electronic health records can improve health care safety, quality, and efficiency. Implementation of electronic health records and health information exchange presents great opportunities for health care integration, but also makes patient privacy potentially vulnerable. Privacy issues are paramount for patients with substance use problems. This paper discusses major differences between two federal privacy laws associated with health care for substance use disorders, identifies health care problems created by privacy policies, and describes potential solutions to these problems through technology innovation and policy improvement.Keywords: substance abuse, patient privacy, electronic health records, health information exchange

  15. Are natural killer cells protecting the metabolically healthy obese patient?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lynch, Lydia A

    2012-02-01

    With the emerging obesity pandemic, identifying those who appear to be protected from adverse consequences such as type 2 diabetes and certain malignancies will become important. We propose that the circulating immune system plays a role in the development of these comorbidities. Clinical data and blood samples were collected from 52 patients with severe obesity attending a hospital weight-management clinic and 11 lean healthy controls. Patients were classified into metabolically "healthy obese" (n = 26; mean age 42.6 years, mean BMI 46.8 kg\\/m(2)) or "unhealthy obese" (n = 26; mean age 45 years, mean BMI 47.5 kg\\/m(2)) groups, based upon standard cutoff points for blood pressure, lipid profile, and fasting glucose. Circulating lymphoid populations and phenotypes were assessed by flow cytometry. Obese patients had significantly less circulating natural killer (NK) and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) compared to lean controls. There were significantly higher levels of NK cells and CTLs in the healthy obese group compared to the unhealthy obese group (NK: 11.7% vs. 6.5%, P < 0.0001, CD8 13.4% vs. 9.3%, P = 0.04), independent of age and BMI and these NK cells were also less activated in the healthy compared to the unhealthy group (CD69, 4.1% vs. 11.8%, P = 0.03). This is the first time that quantitative differences in the circulating immune system of obese patients with similar BMI but different metabolic profiles have been described. The significantly higher levels of CTLs and NK cells, which express fewer inhibitory molecules, could protect against malignancy, infection, and metabolic disease seen in obesity.

  16. Correlates of protection against human rotavirus disease and the factors influencing protection in low-income settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, E; Desselberger, U

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RV) are the leading cause of gastroenteritis in infants and children worldwide and are associated with high mortality predominately in low-income settings. The virus is classified into G and P serotypes and further into P genotypes based on differences in the surface-exposed proteins VP7 and VP4, respectively. Infection results in a variable level of protection from subsequent reinfection and disease. This protection is predominantly homotypic in some settings, whereas broader heterotypic protection is reported in other cohorts. Two antigenically distinct oral RV vaccines are licensed and are being rolled out widely, including in resource-poor setting, with funding provided by the GAVI alliance. First is a monovalent vaccine derived from a live-attenuated human RV strain, whereas the second is a pentavalent bovine-human reassortment vaccine. Both vaccines are highly efficacious in high-income settings, but greatly reduced levels of protection are reported in low-income countries. Here, the current challenges facing mucosal immunologists and vaccinologists aiming to define immunological correlates and to understand the variable levels of protection conferred by these vaccines in humans is considered. Such understanding is critical to maximize the public health impact of the current vaccines and also to the development of the next generation of RV vaccines, which are needed.

  17. HIPAA-protecting patient confidentiality or covering something else?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A case of a physician fired from the Veterans Administration (VA for violation of the Health Care Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA illustrates a problem with both the law and the VA. Anil Parikh, a VA physician at the Jesse Brown VA in Chicago, was dismissed on a charge of making unauthorized disclosures of confidential patient information on October 19, 2007. On January 3, 2011 the Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB reversed Dr. Parikh’s removal. Dr. Parikh's initially made disclosures to the VA Office of Inspector General and to Senator Barack Obama and Congressman Luis Gutierrez, in whose district the Jesse Brown VA lies. Dr. Parikh alleged that there were systematic problems within the Jesse Brown VA that resulted in untimely and inadequate patient care. The confidential patient information Parikh disclosed included examples of the misdiagnoses and misdirection of patients within the hospital. Specifically, Dr. Parikh alleged that …

  18. Protection of non-human primates against rabies with an adenovirus recombinant vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang, Z.Q.; Greenberg, L.; Ertl, H.C.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. - Highlights: • Pre-exposure vaccination with vaccine based on a chimpanzee derived adenovirus protects against rabies. • Protection is sustained. • Protection is achieved with single low-dose of vaccine given intramuscularly. • Protection is not affected by pre-existing antibodies to common human serotypes of adenovirus

  19. Protection of non-human primates against rabies with an adenovirus recombinant vaccine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Z.Q. [The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Greenberg, L. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ertl, H.C., E-mail: ertl@wistar.upenn.edu [The Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rupprecht, C.E. [The Global Alliance for Rabies Control, Manhattan, KS (United States); Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Basseterre (Saint Kitts and Nevis)

    2014-02-15

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. - Highlights: • Pre-exposure vaccination with vaccine based on a chimpanzee derived adenovirus protects against rabies. • Protection is sustained. • Protection is achieved with single low-dose of vaccine given intramuscularly. • Protection is not affected by pre-existing antibodies to common human serotypes of adenovirus.

  20. LEGAL PROTECTION AGAINST CHILDREN WHO ARE VICTIMS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN CIANJUR DISTRICT STUDIED BY HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Henny Nuraeny; Tanti Kirana Utami

    2015-01-01

    Trafficking in persons is a modern form of slavery. The eradication of human trafficking has been on the agenda in law enforcement because of its effects can interfere with social welfare. One form of trafficking in persons who lately is rampant child trafficking. The problems that can be studied is how the perspective of Human Rights in providing protection to children who are victims of trafficking and whether the implementation of legal protection for child victims of trafficki...

  1. Antimicrobials from human skin commensal bacteria protect against Staphylococcus aureus and are deficient in atopic dermatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Chen, Tiffany H.; Narala, Saisindhu; Chun, Kimberly A.; Two, Aimee M.; Yun, Tong; Shafiq, Faiza; Kotol, Paul F.; Bouslimani, Amina; Melnik, Alexey V.; Latif, Haythem; Kim, Ji-Nu; Lockhart, Alexandre; Artis, Keli; David, Gloria; Taylor, Patricia; Streib, Joanne; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Grier, Alex; Gill, Steven R.; Zengler, Karsten; Hata, Tissa R.; Leung, Donald Y. M.; Gallo, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    The microbiome can promote or disrupt human health by influencing both adaptive and innate immune functions. We tested whether bacteria that normally reside on human skin participate in host defense by killing Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen commonly found in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and an important factor that exacerbates this disease. High-throughput screening for antimicrobial activity against S.aureus was performed on isolates of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) collected from the skin of healthy and AD subjects. CoNS strains with antimicrobial activity were common on the normal population but rare on AD subjects. A low frequency of strains with antimicrobial activity correlated with colonization by S.aureus. The antimicrobial activity was identified as previously unknown antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by CoNS species including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus hominis. These AMPs were strain-specific, highly potent, selectively killed S.aureus, and synergized with the human AMP LL-37. Application of these CoNS strains to mice confirmed their defense function in vivo relative to application of nonactive strains. Strikingly, reintroduction of antimicrobial CoNS strains to human subjects with AD decreased colonization by S.aureus. These findings show how commensal skin bacteria protect against pathogens and demonstrate how dysbiosis of the skin microbiome can lead to disease. PMID:28228596

  2. Sunscreens: topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against harmful effects of solar radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    This review deals with topical and systemic approaches for protection of human skin against the harmful effects of solar radiation. Two concerns about the deleterious effects of sun exposure involve: (1) acute effects (e.g., sunburn and drug-induced phototoxicity) and (2) potential long-term risks of repeated sun exposures leading to development of solar elastosis, keratoses, induction of both nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer, and alteration of immune responses and functions. Action spectra of normal and abnormal reactions of human skin to acute and chronic effects of solar radiation are presented with a view to helping the physician prescribe the appropriate sunscreens. Factors that influence acute effects of sunburn are reviewed. Various artificial methods effective in minimizing or preventing harmful effects of solar radiation, both in normal individuals and in patients with photosensitivity-related problems, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the commercially available chemical sunscreens and their properties. Sun protection factor (SPF) values of several brand-name formulations determined with a solar simulator under indoor conditions (laboratory) and with solar radiation under natural, field conditions are presented. Factors responsible for variations of SPF values observed under indoor and outdoor conditions are reviewed. Systemic photoprotective agents and their limitations are outlined. The photobiology of melanin pigmentation (the tanning reaction) is briefly discussed, with emphasis on the dangers of using quick-tanning lotions for stimulation of the tanning reaction

  3. Does protecting humans protect the environment? A crude examination for UK nuclear power plants and the marine environment using information in the public domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownless, G P

    2008-01-01

    Current activity around radiological protection of the environment implies concerns over the effectiveness of the current approach to this-namely if humans are adequately protected, then so are non-human species. This study uses models and data currently available in the public domain to carry out a 'quick and dirty' examination of whether protecting humans does indeed imply that other species are well protected. Using marine discharges and human habits data for operational coastal UK nuclear power stations, this study compares doses to humans and a set of reference non-human species. The study concludes that the availability of data and models, and consequent ease of studying potential effects on non-humans (as well as humans), vindicates recent efforts in this area, and that these imply a high level of protection, in general, for non-human biota from UK nuclear power station marine discharges. In general terms, the study finds that protection of non-human biota relies on taking ingestion and external exposure doses to humans into account; where only one of these pathways is considered, the level of protection of non-human biota through protection of humans would depend on the radionuclide(s) in question.

  4. Ethical and social implications of microdosing clinical trial (3). Radiological protection of human subjects in research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Chieko

    2008-01-01

    Internal irradiation of human subjects in research is discussed. Radiological protection of human subjects in medical research in a framework of radiation protection is surveyed from a viewpoint of general life-ethics and research-ethics. A workshop 'On the internal irradiation of human subjects' to summarize special and systematic knowledge was organized by Research Center for Radiation Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences in the beginning of 2008. Activities of this workshop are introduced. Discussion covers also (1) Research ethics and radiation protection, (2) Fundamentals and applications of risk-benefit assessment, (3) Human subjects risk assessment in ICRP recommendation, (4) Mechanism of human subjects internal irradiation assessment, and (5) Present status and future prospects in Japan. (K.Y.)

  5. The Human Genome Project: how do we protect Australians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott Despoja, N

    It is the moon landing of the nineties: the ambitious Human Genome Project--identifying the up to 100,000 genes that make up human DNA and the sequences of the three billion base-pairs that comprise the human genome. However, unlike the moon landing, the effects of the genome project will have a fundamental impact on the way we see ourselves and each other.

  6. LEGAL PROTECTION AGAINST CHILDREN WHO ARE VICTIMS OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN CIANJUR DISTRICT STUDIED BY HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Nuraeny

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Trafficking in persons is a modern form of slavery. The eradication of human trafficking has been on the agenda in law enforcement because of its effects can interfere with social welfare. One form of trafficking in persons who lately is rampant child trafficking. The problems that can be studied is how the perspective of Human Rights in providing protection to children who are victims of trafficking and whether the implementation of legal protection for child victims of trafficking in Cianjur is in line with the concept of human rights. This study uses normative juridical approach and specification of descriptive analysis. Results from this study is the protection of child victims of trafficking in persons has been referred to the concept of human rights which the regional government make policies on prevention of trafficking, rehabilitation, counseling and empowerment of victims of human trafficking.

  7. 76 FR 5735 - Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... addressed in EPA science and ethics reviews of proposed and completed human research with pesticides, drawn..., which suggest ethical considerations relevant to evaluation of human studies. Third, Petitioners argued... Revisions to EPA's Rule on Protections for Subjects in Human Research Involving Pesticides AGENCY...

  8. Radiation protection for human missions to the Moon and Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsen, L.C.; Nealy, J.E.

    1991-02-01

    Radiation protection assessments are performed for advanced Lunar and Mars manned missions. The Langley cosmic ray transport code and the nucleon transport code are used to quantify the transport and attenuation of galactic cosmic rays and solar proton flares through various shielding media. Galactic cosmic radiation at solar maximum and minimum, as well as various flare scenarios are considered. Propagation data for water, aluminum, liquid hydrogen, lithium hydride, lead, and lunar and Martian regolith (soil) are included. Shield thickness and shield mass estimates required to maintain incurred doses below 30 day and annual limits (as set for Space Station Freedom and used as a guide for space exploration) are determined for simple geometry transfer vehicles. On the surface of Mars, dose estimates are presented for crews with their only protection being the carbon dioxide atmosphere and for crews protected by shielding provided by Martian regolith for a candidate habitat

  9. When does quality improvement count as research? Human subject protection and theories of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, J

    2004-02-01

    The publication of insights from a quality improvement project recently precipitated a ruling by the lead federal regulatory agency that regulations providing protection for human subjects of research should apply. The required research review process did not match the rapid changes, small samples, limited documentation, clinician management, and type of information commonly used in quality improvement. Yet quality improvement can risk harm to patients, so some review might be in order. The boundaries and processes are not clear. Efforts have been made to determine what constitutes "research", but this has proved difficult and often yields irrational guidance with regard to protection of patients. Society needs a workable way to separate activities that will improve care, on the one hand, and those that constitute research, on the other. Practitioners who lead both quality improvement and research projects claim that those which rapidly give feedback to the care system that generated the data, aiming to change practices within that system, are "quality improvement" no matter whether the findings are published, whether the project is grant funded, and whether contemporaneous controls do not have the intervention. This criterion has not previously been proposed as a possible demarcation. The quandaries of which projects to put through research review and how to ensure ethical implementation of quality improvement need to be resolved.

  10. The protection of the patient for x radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delhove, J.

    1977-01-01

    At the level of the individual, the benefit form the examination is out of all proportion to the hazard involved; it should be primarily aimed at a best possible radiological information. At the level of the community, it is necessary to eliminate any undue irradiation of the patient, causing an unbearable potential increase of the genetic or somatic load. Facing the specific problems of protection against radiation, the English-speaking countries have already since long initiated a multidisciplinary cooperation between the doctor and the radiological safety officer. In Belgium this cooperation either fits into the task of the physical control officer attached to the establishment itself, or is being ordered by a private organization for physical controls. Some results of physical controls carried out during the past ten years now being illustrated. (author)

  11. institutional mechanisms for human rights protection in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mofasony

    Commission, the Public Complaints Commission and the Truth and .... The Legislative and Institutional Framework of Environmental Protection in the Oil … ... includes strategies targeted at promoting democracy and good governance, rights of ... administrative action of any public authority and companies or their officials ...

  12. Managing Human Activities in Antarctica : Should Wilderness Protection Count?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Antarctica is often described as one of the world's last wildernesses. In harmony with this general perception, the wilderness values of Antarctica received legal status with the adoption of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Article 3(1) of the Protocol obliges each

  13. Problems with radiation protection concerning volunteers accompanying radiological patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian Daoud

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The purpose of this work is to point out, within the framework of the Radiation Protection guidelines, the irregular situation of the 'volunteer' or 'accompanying person' who accompanies anyone requiring medical treatment with ionising radiation, as well as to suggest a possible justification for such role. It should be noted that most of these persons are subject to ionising radiation without knowing anything about the effects that it could cause on them, so that their condition could be hardly considered as 'voluntary'. There are several circumstances under which the presence of accompanying persons is required, being different among them. Several examples could be mentioned such as: those who are accompanying a direct relative (family bonds), those who are acting in service during their normal work (social workers, policemen) and even those who are forced by unusual under an accidental situation. The qualitative classification that radiological protection established in society concerning radiation risks for people in general enables to set mechanisms of justification, optimisation and dose limitation for each category, being perfectly identified which of them each person belongs to. But the figure of 'accompanying person' has been excluded from such characterisation. They are subject to radiation exposure without knowing it, or without having any information concerning the potential risks. For them, no balance between the net benefit of an adequate medical treatment versus potential health detriment may be applied as for the case of a patient. Thus, their exposure could be not justified. It is not the purpose of this work to question radiological medicine or its practices, but to clarify certain aspects involving members of the public in general, patients and members of the radiological community, as well as to propose lines of action concerning this subject. We conclude that it is not the volunteer who should decide about medical actions, a role

  14. Ecohealth Chair on Human and Animal Health in Protected ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This has led to more frequent interaction and conflict between human populations and wildlife. ... Applying ecohealth research to benefit local communities The Chair's ... to encompass relevant social, economic, and environmental dimensions.

  15. [Human cloning and the protection of women's interests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canabes, Marcela Ahumada

    2008-01-01

    The Human Cloning, both therapeutic and full birth cloning, involves and affects women in a special way. The United Nation's Declaration on the Cloning of Human Beings includes a special clause referred to them. Also the Spanish law does it. This works pretend to analyse the meaning of the inclusion of women's interests in this document. At the same time, I will consider the foundations and the importance of the reference to the women.

  16. Protection of asylum seekers and illegal migrants human rights: Practice of the European Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukanović Anđela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of asylum seeker and Illegal migrants human rights, has often been difficult due to the need of states to regulate unwanted migration flows. European Court of Human Rights plays an important role in protecting the rights of these individuals, through a set of human rights. Requests for interim measures under Rule 39 of the Rules of Court also have great importance. In cases involving illegal migrants and asylum-seekers, Court was often in difficult position, given the contradictions that could arise from the protection of human rights and the legitimate aim of the Contracting States to control the entry, residence and expulsion of aliens. Recent Courts judgment in case of M. S. S. against Belgium is particularly important, because of its remarkable influence on the perception of a common asylum system in the EU, as well as the judgment in the case of Jama Hirsi and Others v. Italy.

  17. ASPECTS OF THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS PROTECTION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE PURDĂ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human rights protection within the European Community and the European Union has developed judicially, the human rights being protected by the Community Courts as general principles of Community law. The Treaty of Maastricht and the Treaty of Amsterdam have codified the Community law within the area of human rights. The codification of European Union’s concept of human rights in a single document was realized by adopting the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, on 7 December 2000 in Nice, whose provisions acquired legally binding under the Treaty of Lisbon.

  18. Understanding the transformative aspects of the Wilderness and Protected Lands experience upon human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Ewert; Jillisa Overholt; Alison Voight; Chun Chieh Wang

    2011-01-01

    Wilderness and Protected Landscapes (WPLs) have long been considered special areas for a variety of reasons including baseline data, impact analyses, protected zones, and other tangible and intangible values. Another salient, and some would argue, a more important value offered through WPLs is that of human transformation. Accordingly, three theories have provided the...

  19. The Evolution of Human Rights Protection within the EU Legal System

    OpenAIRE

    Tăbușcă Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Having in mind the EU’s policy to rebuild the democratic systems within the former Europeancommunist countries and its involvement in international actions regarding human rights enforcement, thereis no doubt about the importance of individuals rights protection in the European Union’s legal system. In thisrespect, the present paper analyzes the evolution of the principle of EU’s human rights protection. Theresearch done on the EU legislation and courts’ jurisprudence shows that there are thr...

  20. Strengthening the human rights framework to protect breastfeeding: a focus on CEDAW

    OpenAIRE

    Galtry, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Background There have been recent calls for increased recognition of breastfeeding as a human right. The United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1979 (CEDAW) is the core human rights treaty on women. CEDAW?s approach to breastfeeding is considered from an historical perspective. A comparison is drawn with breastfeeding protection previously outlined in the International Labour Organization?s Maternity Protection Convention, 1919 (ILO C3), and...

  1. The study of patient exposure and protection from dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tae Won

    1979-01-01

    The utilization of x-ray for diagnosis and examination is increasing by about 5-15% every year, therefore, it would be mandatory to protect the patients from exposures and so, studies in this field are performed even now. In dental field, the area of irradiation is limited any to the head and neck area, but the irradiated angle is varied following the objected tooth, so the adjacent structures lens and thyroid gland would be fragile to radiation. And the scattered radiation is one of the complicated problems in the protection because of specificity of dental x-ray and its object structures. The author, by using TLD(Thermoluminescent Dosimeter; Teledyne Isotopes Model 7300, Element; TLD 200(CaF2: Dy) and Capintec(Capintec Model 192, PM-30 Diagnostic chamber 28 ml active volume), tried a measurement of air dose distribution of the scattered radiation and the irradiated dose of lens and thyroid gland under the condition of taking the film on the left maxillary molar. The results were as follows: 1. The half value layer of adapted dental x-ray machine was measured, and is 1.44 mm Al. 2. The time of irradiation on the left maxillary molar in the Alderson Rando Phantom, the measured doses of left and right lens, and thyroid gland were 8, 9 mR, 1, 2 mR and 2, 8 mR. Under the same conditions, the scattered radiation at the distance of 1 meter from the phantom were 84 μR at the front side, 11 μR at the back side, 18 μR at the right side and 72 μR at the left side. 3. Under the same conditions, the dose showed higher value by about 5% in the presence of object(phantom) than in the case of absence.

  2. International conference to explore ways to improve radiological protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The first international conference specifically focused on the radiological protection of patients will be held in Torremolinos (Malaga), Spain, next week, from 26 to 30 March 2001. The conference, formally titled, 'International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy', is being organized by the IAEA, hosted by the Government of Spain and co-sponsored by the European Commission, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization. Medical applications of ionizing radiation are accepted world-wide as essential tools for keeping or restoring human health. However, they also represent by far the largest man-made source of radiation exposure. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) estimates that diagnostic medical applications of radiation account for about 95% of the exposure to radiation from man-made sources of radiation and about 12% of total exposure, which includes the exposures received from natural sources. More than 900 participants from 80 countries are expected to attend the conference. They cover a broad spectrum of expertise, including radiologists, nuclear medicine specialists, radiation oncologists, medical physicists, technologists/radiographers, radiological protection officers, equipment manufacturers, experts who develop standards for radiological equipment, hospital administrators and public health officials and representatives of professional societies. In addition, a number of patients who have undergone radiation treatment will represent patients' interests and a patient will chair one of the round table debates. The conclusions of the Conference will be incorporated into the IAEA's programme of work in the field of radiation safety and will be reported to the IAEA General Conference at its next meeting in September 2001

  3. Protection of the human research participant: A structured review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related or social-science research involves a human participant. This ... quantitative studies, as well as review articles, were included, to enhance ... In the study by Gremillion et al.,[7] comparison was made between .... research stakeholders, who took part in interviews and focus- .... Contact persons ... Face to face.

  4. 77 FR 58383 - Secretary's Advisory Committee on Human Research Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... the public who wish to have printed materials distributed to SACHRP members for this scheduled meeting should submit materials to the Executive Director, SACHRP, prior to the close of business October 1, 2012... human subjects research adopted by various agencies or offices within HHS would benefit from...

  5. Direct human DNA protection by Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Lau, Po Chun; Kalle, Wouter; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2013-07-01

    Scientific evidence has shown Coriolus versicolor (L. ex Fr.) Quel (also known as Yunzhi) has the role of immunomodulator in therapeutic effect. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the antioxidative effect of Yunzhi and to explore the mechanisms behind its DNA protection. Commercial Yunzhi extract was dissolved in water and diluted in five concentrations (10(1)-10(5) μg/L) with appropriate buffers. Lymphocytes harvested from three healthy subjects were incubated with Yunzhi extract for 30 min. Cells were then subjected to 5 min oxidant challenge by 45 μM hydrogen peroxide. The standard alkaline comet (SAC) assay and lysed cell comet (LCC) assay were performed in parallel. DNA damage of each treatment was scored under a fluorescence microscope and compared with the cells without Yunzhi pretreatment. U-shaped dose-response was seen in both versions of the comet assay. Yunzhi at 10(4) μg/L demonstrated a genoprotective effect against oxidative damage in the SAC assay (25% decrease in comet score). In the LCC assay, a trend of protection in lymphocytes was observed but it did not reach statistical significance. A direct antioxidant effect of Yunzhi against oxidant challenge on the DNA of lymphocytes was evidenced. The active component in Yunzhi was likely to be membrane permeable.

  6. ICRP 's view on protection of non-human species from ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, L.E.

    2003-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently reviewing its existing recommendations for radiological protection. Up till now, it has not published any recommendations as to how assessment or management of radiation effects in non-human organisms should be carried out. The Commission set up a Task Group in the year 2000 to address this issue, and recently adopted the Task Group's report. The report addresses the role that ICRP could play in this important and developing area, building on the approach that has been developed for human protection. ICRP will develop a small set of Reference Fauna and Flora, plus their relevant databases to serve as a basis for the more fundamental understanding and interpretation of the relationships between exposure and dose, and between dose and certain categories of effect. The concept of Reference Fauna and Flora is similar to that of Reference Man used for human radiological protection, in that it is intended to act as a basis for calculations and decision-making. The decision by the Commission to develop a framework for the assessment of radiation effects in non-human species has not been driven by any particular concern over environmental radiation hazards. It has rather been developed to fill a conceptual gap in radiological protection, and to clarify how ICRP can contribute to the attainment of society's goals of environmental protection by developing a protection policy based on scientific and ethical-philosophical principles. (author)

  7. Human Secretory IgM Antibodies Activate Human Complement and Offer Protection at Mucosal Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, T E; Emilsen, S; Sandin, R H; Granerud, B K; Bratlie, D; Ihle, O; Sandlie, I

    2017-01-01

    IgM molecules circulate in serum as large polymers, mainly pentamers, which can be transported by the poly-Ig receptor (pIgR) across epithelial cells to mucosal surfaces and released as secretory IgM (SIgM). The mucosal SIgM molecules have non-covalently attached secretory component (SC), which is the extracellular part of pIgR which is cleaved from the epithelial cell membrane. Serum IgM antibodies do not contain SC and have previously been shown to make a conformational change from 'a star' to a 'staple' conformation upon reaction with antigens on a cell surface, enabling them to activate complement. However, it is not clear whether SIgM similarly can induce complement activation. To clarify this issue, we constructed recombinant chimeric (mouse/human) IgM antibodies against hapten 5-iodo-4-hydroxy-3-nitro-phenacetyl (NIP) and in addition studied polyclonal IgM formed after immunization with a meningococcal group B vaccine. The monoclonal and polyclonal IgM molecules were purified by affinity chromatography on a column containing human SC in order to isolate joining-chain (J-chain) containing IgM, followed by addition of excess amounts of soluble SC to create SIgM (IgM J+ SC+). These SIgM preparations were tested for complement activation ability and shown to be nearly as active as the parental IgM J+ molecules. Thus, SIgM may offer protection against pathogens at mucosal surface by complement-mediated cell lysis or by phagocytosis mediated by complement receptors present on effector cells on mucosa. © 2016 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  8. New methodologies of biological dosimetry applied to human protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catena, C.; Parasacchi, P.; Conti, D.; Righi, E.

    1995-04-01

    Biological dosimetry is a diagnostic methodology for the measurement of the individual dose absorbed in the case of accidental overexposition to ionizing radiation. It is demonstrated how in vitro radiobiological and chemobiological studies using cytogenetic methods (count of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei) on human lymphocytes from healthy subjects and individuals undergoing radiotherapy or chemotherapy, as well as on lymphocytes of mammals other than man (comparative cytogenetics), can help to increase the basic radiobiological and chemobiological scientific information. Such information gives a valid contribution to understanding of the action of ionizing radiation or of pharmaceuticals on cells and, in return, can be of value to human radioprotection and chemoprotection. Cytogenetic studies can be summerized as follows: a) biodosimetry (estimate of dose received after accidental events); b) individual radiosensitivity (level of individual response); c) clinical radiobiology and chemobiology (individual response to radiopharmaceuticals, to radiotherapy and to chemopharmaceuticals); d) comparative radiobiology (cytogenetic studies on species other than man); e) animal model in the environmental surveillance

  9. Fall Protection Characteristics of Safety Belts and Human Impact Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2014-08-23

    Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt 1) , which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness 2, 3) , which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for impact trauma, this study discusses features of safety belts with reference 4-9) to relevant studies in the medical science, automobile crash safety, and aircrew safety. For this purpose, simple drop tests were carried out in a virtual workplace to measure impact load, head acceleration, and posture in the experiments, the Hybrid-III pedestrian model 10) was used as a human dummy. Hybrid-III is typically employed in official automobile crash tests (New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) and is currently recognized as a model that faithfully reproduces dynamic responses. Experimental results shows that safety performance strongly depends on both the variety of safety belts used and the shock absorbers attached onto lanyards. These findings indicate that fall prevention equipment, such as safety belts, lanyards, and shock absorbers, must be improved to reduce impact injuries to the human head and body during falls.

  10. Role and responsibilities of medical physicists in radiological protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niroomand-Rad, A.

    2001-01-01

    The paper provides a brief history of the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), followed by some general comments on the radiological protection of patients. The importance of establishing scientific guidelines and professional standards is emphasized, as is the need to ensure the protection of patients undergoing radiation therapy. The responsibility of qualified medical physicists in the protection of patients in nuclear medicine and in diagnostic and interventional radiology is also discussed. (author)

  11. Radiological protection of the patient in the diagnostic X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.M.C. de

    1983-01-01

    Measures and procedures are given in relation to the radiological protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology. Technical and physical factors of the patient protection are discussed, as radiation beam properties, size of the irradiation field, shieldings, control of the scattered radiation that reaches the imaging record system, films, ecrans and radiographic film processing. General recommendations about the radiation protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology are given. (M.A.) [pt

  12. Vanillin protects human keratinocyte stem cells against ultraviolet B irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jienny; Cho, Jae Youl; Lee, Sang Yeol; Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lee, Jongsung; Song, Jae-Young

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation is one of major factors which induce cellular damages in the epidermis. We investigated protective effects and mechanisms of vanillin, a main constituent of vanilla beans, against UVB-induced cellular damages in keratinocyte stem cells (KSC). Here, vanillin significantly attenuated UVB irradiation-induced cytotoxicity. The vanillin effects were also demonstrated by the results of the senescence-associated β-galactosidase and alkaline comet assays. In addition, vanillin induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Attempts to elucidate a possible mechanism underlying the vanillin-mediated effects revealed that vanillin significantly reduced UVB-induced phosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), serine threonine kinase checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), tumor suppressor protein 53 (p53), p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK), S6 ribosomal protein (S6RP), and histone 2A family member X (H2A.X). UVB-induced activation of p53 luciferase reporter was also significantly inhibited by vanillin. In addition, while ATM inhibitor had no effect on the vanillin effects, mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) inhibitor significantly attenuated suppressive effects of vanillin on UVB-induced activation of p53 reporter in KSC. Taken together, these findings suggest that vanillin protects KSC from UVB irradiation and its effects may occur through the suppression of downstream step of MDM2 in UVB irradiation-induced p53 activation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The inhibitory effect of ionizing radiation on Fc and C3 receptors on mouse and human leukocytes, and the protective potential of human albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, M.A.; Diaz-Perches, R.; Gutierrez, M.; Gamminio, E.; Liera, C.; Nieto, P.; Weiss-Steider, B.

    1990-01-01

    The effect that ionizing radiation has in vitro on Fc and C3 receptors was evaluated at various doses and measured by means of erythrocytes coated with antibody (EA) and erythrocytes coated with antibody and complement (EAC) rosettes on human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and on mouse bone marrow cells (BMC) and PBL. We found that the number of cells with either EA and EAC rosettes decreased as the radiation doses increased, and that they were almost absent when the highest doses were employed. We obtained evidence that albumin is a natural source of radio-protection for Fc and C3 receptors, and we showed that by increasing the amount of this molecule we could completely protect receptors for EA and EAC in vitro. Finally, the possible therapeutic value of the administration of human albumin to patients undergoing radiotherapy is discussed

  14. Human rights in patient care and public health-a common ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled-Raz, Maya

    2017-01-01

    Medical law and public health law have both served extensively as instruments of health protection and promotion-yet both are limited in their effect and scope and do not sufficiently cover nor supply a remedy to systematic, rather than anecdotal, mistreatments in the health care system. A possible solution to this deficiency may be found in the human rights in patient care legal approach. The concept of human rights in patient care is a reframing of international human rights law, as well as constitutional thought and tools, into a coherent approach aimed at the protection and furthering of both personal and communal health. It applies human rights discourse and human rights law onto the patient care setting while moving away from the narrow consumeristic view of health care delivery. By applying human rights in patient care approach, both national and international courts may and should serve as policy influencing instruments, protecting the rights of the most vulnerable and prejudiced against groups, which are want of a remedy through traditional patients' rights legal schemes.

  15. Protective potential of antioxidant enzymes as vaccines for schistosomiasis in a non-human primate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eCarvalho-Queiroz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis remains a major cause of morbidity in the world. The challenge today is not so much in the clinical management of individual patients, but rather in population-based control of transmission in endemic areas. Recent large-scale efforts aimed at limiting schistosomiasis have produced limited success. There is an urgent need for complementary approaches, such as vaccines. We demonstrated previously that anti-oxidant enzymes such as Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione S peroxidase (GPX, when administered as DNA-based vaccines induced significant levels of protection in inbred mice, greater than the target 40% reduction in worm burden compared to controls set as a minimum by the WHO. These results led us to investigate if immunization of non-human primates with antioxidants would stimulate an immune response that could confer protection, as a prelude for human trials. Issues of vaccine toxicity and safety that were difficult to address in mice were also investigated. All baboons in the study were examined clinically throughout the study and no adverse reactions occurred to the immunization. When our outbred baboons were vaccinated with two different formulations of SOD (SmCT-SOD and SmEC-SOD or one of GPX (SmGPX, they showed a reduction in worm number to varying degrees, when compared with the control group. More pronounced, vaccinated animals showed decreased bloody diarrhea, days of diarrhea and egg excretion (transmission, as well as reduction of eggs in the liver tissue and in the large intestine (pathology compared to controls. Specific IgG antibodies were present in sera after immunizations and 10 weeks after challenge infection compared to controls. PBMC, mesenteric and inguinal node cells from vaccinated animals proliferated and produced high levels of cytokines and chemokines in response to crude and recombinant antigens compared with controls. These data demonstrate the potential of antioxidants as vaccine

  16. Integrating human and environmental health in antibiotic risk assessment: A critical analysis of protection goals, species sensitivity and antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Page, Gareth; Gunnarsson, Lina; Snape, Jason; Tyler, Charles R

    2017-12-01

    Antibiotics are vital in the treatment of bacterial infectious diseases but when released into the environment they may impact non-target organisms that perform vital ecosystem services and enhance antimicrobial resistance development with significant consequences for human health. We evaluate whether the current environmental risk assessment regulatory guidance is protective of antibiotic impacts on the environment, protective of antimicrobial resistance, and propose science-based protection goals for antibiotic manufacturing discharges. A review and meta-analysis was conducted of aquatic ecotoxicity data for antibiotics and for minimum selective concentration data derived from clinically relevant bacteria. Relative species sensitivity was investigated applying general linear models, and predicted no effect concentrations were generated for toxicity to aquatic organisms and compared with predicted no effect concentrations for resistance development. Prokaryotes were most sensitive to antibiotics but the range of sensitivities spanned up to several orders of magnitude. We show reliance on one species of (cyano)bacteria and the 'activated sludge respiration inhibition test' is not sufficient to set protection levels for the environment. Individually, neither traditional aquatic predicted no effect concentrations nor predicted no effect concentrations suggested to safeguard for antimicrobial resistance, protect against environmental or human health effects (via antimicrobial resistance development). Including data from clinically relevant bacteria and also more species of environmentally relevant bacteria in the regulatory framework would help in defining safe discharge concentrations for antibiotics for patient use and manufacturing that would protect environmental and human health. It would also support ending unnecessary testing on metazoan species. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Advances on human milk hormones and protection against obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, F; Benetti, S; Liguori, S A; Sorrenti, M; Cordero Di Montezemolo, L

    2013-11-03

    Extensive research shows that breast milk could have positive health effects not limited to infancy, but extend into childhood and adulthood. Recently many studies have provided new evidence on the long—term positive effects of breastfeeding, in particular protection against obesity and type 2 diabetes, suggesting that breast milk may have a role in the programming of later metabolic diseases. The mechanism throughout breastfeeding that exerts these effects has been a major focus of interest for researchers and it is still not completely known. There are some hints for biological plausibility of beneficial effects of breastfeeding including macronutrient intake, hormonal and behavioural mechanisms related to breast milk composition. Breast milk biochemical components, such as protein quantity and quality, polyunsaturated fatty acids, oligosaccharides, cytokines and hormones, in particular leptin, adiponectin and resistin together with the breastfeeding practice itself can influence infants feeding behaviour and regulation of growth and appetite control later in life. Further research is needed to confirm the possibility that hormones present in breast milk exert a metabolic and beneficial effects.

  18. In Vitro Protective Effect and Antioxidant Mechanism of Resveratrol Induced by Dapsone Hydroxylamine in Human Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosyana V Albuquerque

    Full Text Available Dapsone (DDS hydroxylamine metabolites cause oxidative stress- linked adverse effects in patients, such as methemoglobin formation and DNA damage. This study evaluated the ameliorating effect of the antioxidant resveratrol (RSV on DDS hydroxylamine (DDS-NHOH mediated toxicity in vitro using human erythrocytes and lymphocytes. The antioxidant mechanism was also studied using in-silico methods. In addition, RSV provided intracellular protection by inhibiting DNA damage in human lymphocytes induced by DDS-NHOH. However, whilst pretreatment with RSV (10-1000 μM significantly attenuated DDS-NHOH-induced methemoglobinemia, but it was not only significantly less effective than methylene blue (MET, but also post-treatment with RSV did not reverse methemoglobin formation, contrarily to that observed with MET. DDS-NHOH inhibited catalase (CAT activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, but did not alter superoxide dismutase (SOD activity in erythrocytes. Pretreatment with RSV did not alter these antioxidant enzymes activities in erythrocytes treated with DDS-NHOH. Theoretical calculations using density functional theory methods showed that DDS-NHOH has a pro-oxidant effect, whereas RSV and MET have antioxidant effect on ROS. The effect on methemoglobinemia reversion for MET was significantly higher than that of RSV. These data suggest that the pretreatment with resveratrol may decrease heme-iron oxidation and DNA damage through reduction of ROS generated in cells during DDS therapy.

  19. Protective effects of tea, red wine and cocoa in diabetes. Evidences from human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maria Angeles; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2017-11-01

    Prevention of diabetes through the diet has recently received an increasing interest, and polyphenolic compounds, such as flavanols, have become important potential chemopreventive natural agents due to their proved benefits on health, with low toxicity and cost. Tea, red wine and cocoa are good sources of flavanols and these highly consumed foods might contribute to prevent diabetes. In this regard, there is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea, red wine and cocoa consumption against this disorder. This review summarizes the available epidemiological and interventional human studies providing evidence for and against this effect. Overall observational data suggest a benefit, but results are still equivocal and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of data indicate favourable effects on diabetes risk factors for tea, red wine and cocoa intake, and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in human studies. However, despite the growing evidence it remains uncertain whether tea, red wine and cocoa consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce the risk of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiological protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    An International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and co-sponsored by the European Commission, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization was held in Malaga, Spain, from 26 to 30 March 2001. The Government of Spain hosted this Conference through the Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, the Junta de Andalucia, the Universidad de Malaga and the Grupo de Investigacion en Proteccion Radiologica de la Universidad de Malaga (PRUMA). The Conference was organized in co-operation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the following professional societies: International Organization of Medical Physicists (IOMP), International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), International Society of Radiation Oncology (ISRO), International Society of Radiology (ISR), International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT) and World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB). This publication contains contributed papers submitted to the Conference Programme Committee. The papers are in one of the two working languages of this Conference, English and Spanish. The topics covered by the Conference are as follows: Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology (radiography), Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology (fluoroscopy), Radiological protection issues in specific uses of diagnostic radiology, such as mammography and computed tomography (with special consideration of the impact of digital techniques), Radiological protection in interventional radiology, including fluoroscopy not carried out by radiologists, Radiological protection of patients in nuclear medicine, Developing and

  1. Radiological protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An International Conference on the Radiological Protection of Patients in Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency and co-sponsored by the European Commission, the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization was held in Malaga, Spain, from 26 to 30 March 2001. The Government of Spain hosted this Conference through the Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo, the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, the Junta de Andalucia, the Universidad de Malaga and the Grupo de Investigacion en Proteccion Radiologica de la Universidad de Malaga (PRUMA). The Conference was organized in co-operation with the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the following professional societies: International Organization of Medical Physicists (IOMP), International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), International Society of Radiation Oncology (ISRO), International Society of Radiology (ISR), International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT) and World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB). This publication contains contributed papers submitted to the Conference Programme Committee. The papers are in one of the two working languages of this Conference, English and Spanish. The topics covered by the Conference are as follows: Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology (radiography), Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology (fluoroscopy), Radiological protection issues in specific uses of diagnostic radiology, such as mammography and computed tomography (with special consideration of the impact of digital techniques), Radiological protection in interventional radiology, including fluoroscopy not carried out by radiologists, Radiological protection of patients in nuclear medicine, Developing and

  2. Heat Exchange in “Human body - Thermal protection - Environment” System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khromova, I. V.

    2017-11-01

    This article is devoted to the issues of simulation and calculation of thermal processes in the system called “Human body - Thermal protection - Environment” under low temperature conditions. It considers internal heat sources and convective heat transfer between calculated elements. Overall this is important for the Heat Transfer Theory. The article introduces complex heat transfer calculation method and local thermophysical parameters calculation method in the system called «Human body - Thermal protection - Environment», considering passive and active thermal protections, thermophysical and geometric properties of calculated elements in a wide range of environmental parameters (water, air). It also includes research on the influence that thermal resistance of modern materials, used in special protective clothes development, has on heat transfer in the system “Human body - Thermal protection - Environment”. Analysis of the obtained results allows adding of the computer research data to experiments and optimizing of individual life-support system elements, which are intended to protect human body from exposure to external factors.

  3. Erosion protection conferred by whole human saliva, dialysed saliva, and artificial saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, T.; Kozik, J.; Lussi, A.; Carvalho, T. S.

    2016-10-01

    During dental erosion, tooth minerals are dissolved, leading to a softening of the surface and consequently to irreversible surface loss. Components from human saliva form a pellicle on the tooth surface, providing some protection against erosion. To assess the effect of different components and compositions of saliva on the protective potential of the pellicle against enamel erosion, we prepared four different kinds of saliva: human whole stimulated saliva (HS), artificial saliva containing only ions (AS), human saliva dialysed against artificial saliva, containing salivary proteins and ions (HS/AS), and human saliva dialysed against deionised water, containing only salivary proteins but no ions (HS/DW). Enamel specimens underwent four cycles of immersion in either HS, AS, HS/AS, HS/DW, or a humid chamber (Ctrl), followed by erosion with citric acid. During the cycling process, the surface hardness and the calcium released from the surface of the specimens were measured. The different kinds of saliva provided different levels of protection, HS/DW exhibiting significantly better protection than all the other groups (p < 0.0001). Different components of saliva, therefore, have different effects on the protective properties of the pellicle and the right proportions of these components in saliva are critical for the ability to form a protective pellicle.

  4. Cyclic GMP protects human macrophages against peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Catherine A; Webb, David J; Rossi, Adriano G; Megson, Ian L

    2009-05-07

    Nitric oxide (NO) can be both pro- and anti-apoptotic in various cell types, including macrophages. This apparent paradox may result from the actions of NO-related species generated in the microenvironment of the cell, for example the formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO-). In this study we have examined the ability of NO and ONOO- to evoke apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMvarphi), and investigated whether preconditioning by cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is able to limit apoptosis in this cell type. Characterisation of the NO-related species generated by (Z)-1- [2-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DETA/NO) and 1,2,3,4-oxatriazolium, 5-amino-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-, chloride (GEA-3162) was performed by electrochemistry using an isolated NO electrode and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry. Mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and cultured to allow differentiation into MDMvarphi. Resultant MDMvarphi were treated for 24 h with DETA/NO (100 - 1000 muM) or GEA-3162 (10 - 300 muM) in the presence or absence of BAY 41-2272 (1 muM), isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX; 1 muM), 1H- [1,2,4]oxadiazolo [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 20 muM) or 8-bromo-cGMP (1 mM). Apoptosis in MDMvarphi was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of annexin V binding in combination with propidium iodide staining. Electrochemistry and EPR revealed that DETA/NO liberated free NO radical, whilst GEA-3162 concomitantly released NO and O2-, and is therefore a ONOO- generator. NO (DETA/NO) had no effect on cell viability, but ONOO- (GEA-3162) caused a concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis in MDMvarphi. Preconditioning of MDMvarphi with NO in combination with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), or the NO-independent stimulator of soluble guanylate cyclase, BAY 41-2272, significantly attenuated ONOO--induced apoptosis in a cGMP-dependent manner. These results

  5. Cyclic GMP protects human macrophages against peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Adriano G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO can be both pro- and anti-apoptotic in various cell types, including macrophages. This apparent paradox may result from the actions of NO-related species generated in the microenvironment of the cell, for example the formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO-. In this study we have examined the ability of NO and ONOO- to evoke apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMϕ, and investigated whether preconditioning by cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP is able to limit apoptosis in this cell type. Methods Characterisation of the NO-related species generated by (Z-1- [2-(2-aminoethyl-N-(2-ammonioethylamino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DETA/NO and 1,2,3,4-oxatriazolium, 5-amino-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-, chloride (GEA-3162 was performed by electrochemistry using an isolated NO electrode and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectrometry. Mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and cultured to allow differentiation into MDMϕ. Resultant MDMϕ were treated for 24 h with DETA/NO (100 – 1000 μM or GEA-3162 (10 – 300 μM in the presence or absence of BAY 41–2272 (1 μM, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX; 1 μM, 1H- [1,2,4]oxadiazolo [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 20 μM or 8-bromo-cGMP (1 mM. Apoptosis in MDMϕ was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of annexin V binding in combination with propidium iodide staining. Results Electrochemistry and EPR revealed that DETA/NO liberated free NO radical, whilst GEA-3162 concomitantly released NO and O2-, and is therefore a ONOO- generator. NO (DETA/NO had no effect on cell viability, but ONOO- (GEA-3162 caused a concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis in MDMϕ. Preconditioning of MDMϕ with NO in combination with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX, or the NO-independent stimulator of soluble guanylate cyclase, BAY 41–2272, significantly attenuated ONOO--induced apoptosis in a cGMP-dependent manner

  6. Integrated protection of humans and the environment: a view from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, K

    2018-01-01

    Six and a half years after the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, an area of existing exposure situation remains. One of the main concerns of people is the higher level of ionising radiation than before the accident, although this is not expected to have any discernible health effect. Since the accident, several 'abnormalities' in environmental organisms have been reported. It is still not clear if these abnormalities were induced by radiation. It appears that the impact of the released radioactivity has not been sufficient to threaten the maintenance of biological diversity, the conservation of species, or the health and status of natural habitats, which are the focus in environmental protection. This highlights a difference between the protection of humans and protection of the environment (individuals for humans and populations/species for the environment). The system for protection of the environment has been developed with a similar approach as the system for protection of humans. Reference Animals and Plants (RAPs) were introduced to connect exposure and doses in a way similar to that for Reference Male and Reference Female. RAPs can also be used as a tool to associate the level of radiation (dose rate) with the biological effects on an organism. A difference between the protection of humans and that of the environment was identified: an effect on humans is measured in terms of dose, and an effect on the environment is measured in terms of dose rate. In other words, protection criteria for humans are expressed in term of dose (as dose limits, dose constraints, and reference levels), whereas those for the environment are expressed in terms of dose rate (as derived consideration reference levels).

  7. A Path to Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Exploration: A Literature Review and Systems Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James E.; Conley, Cassie; Siegel, Bette

    2015-01-01

    As systems, technologies, and plans for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit begin to coalesce, it is imperative that frequent and early consideration is given to how planetary protection practices and policy will be upheld. While the development of formal planetary protection requirements for future human space systems and operations may still be a few years from fruition, guidance to appropriately influence mission and system design will be needed soon to avoid costly design and operational changes. The path to constructing such requirements is a journey that espouses key systems engineering practices of understanding shared goals, objectives and concerns, identifying key stakeholders, and iterating a draft requirement set to gain community consensus. This paper traces through each of these practices, beginning with a literature review of nearly three decades of publications addressing planetary protection concerns with respect to human exploration. Key goals, objectives and concerns, particularly with respect to notional requirements, required studies and research, and technology development needs have been compiled and categorized to provide a current 'state of knowledge'. This information, combined with the identification of key stakeholders in upholding planetary protection concerns for human missions, has yielded a draft requirement set that might feed future iteration among space system designers, exploration scientists, and the mission operations community. Combining the information collected with a proposed forward path will hopefully yield a mutually agreeable set of timely, verifiable, and practical requirements for human space exploration that will uphold international commitment to planetary protection.

  8. A common approach for radiological protection of humans and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, L.-E.

    2004-01-01

    Protection of the environment is developing rapidly at the national and international level, but there are still no internationally agreed recommendations as to how radiological protection of the environment should be carried out. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently reviewing its existing recommendations for human protection. It has set up a task group with the aim of developing a protection policy for, and suggesting a framework of, the protection of the environment that could feed into its recommendations at the start of the 21st century. The task group will propose a framework for the protection of the environment from harmful effects of radiation, harmonising with the principles for the protection of humans. Although the task group has not yet finalised on the objectives for the environment, these might be to safeguard the environment by preventing or reducing the frequency of effects likely to cause early mortality, reduced reproductive success, or the occurrence of scorable DNA damage in individual fauna and flora to a level where they would have a negligible impact on conservation of species, maintenance of biodiversity, or the health and status of natural habitats or communities. To achieve these objectives, a set of reference dose models, reference dose per unit intake and reference organisms will be required

  9. Expression of Prostacyclin-Synthase in Human Breast Cancer: Negative Prognostic Factor and Protection against Cell Death In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Klein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenously formed prostacyclin (PGI2 and synthetic PGI2 analogues have recently been shown to regulate cell survival in various cell lines. To elucidate the significance of PGI2 in human breast cancer, we performed immunohistochemistry to analyze expression of prostacyclin-synthase (PGIS in 248 human breast cancer specimens obtained from surgical pathology files. We examined patients’ 10-year survival retrospectively by sending a questionnaire to their general practitioners and performed univariate analysis to determine whether PGIS expression correlated with patient survival. Lastly, the effects of PGI2 and its analogues on cell death were examined in a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7 and a human T-cell leukemia cell line (CCRF-CEM. PGIS expression was observed in tumor cells in 48.7% of samples and was associated with a statistically significant reduction in 10-year survival (P=0.038; n=193. Transient transfection of PGIS into MCF-7 cells exposed to sulindac increased cell viability by 50% and exposure to carbaprostacyclin protected against sulindac sulfone induced apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells. Expression of PGIS is correlated with a reduced patient survival and protects against cell death in vitro, suggesting that PGIS is a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer.

  10. Patient-oncologist alliance as protection against suicidal ideation in young adults with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Kelly M; Abbott, Caroline H; Fisch, Michael J; Friedlander, Robert J; Duberstein, Paul R; Prigerson, Holly G

    2014-08-01

    Young adults with cancer are at an increased risk of suicidal ideation. To the authors' knowledge, the impact of the patient-oncologist alliance on suicidal ideation has not been examined to date. The current study examined the relationship between the patient-oncologist therapeutic alliance and suicidal ideation in young adults with advanced cancer. A total of 93 young adult patients (aged 20 years-40 years) with incurable, recurrent, or metastatic cancer were evaluated by trained interviewers. Suicidal ideation was assessed with the Yale Evaluation of Suicidality scale, dichotomized into a positive and negative score. Predictors included diagnoses of major depressive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, physical quality of life, social support, and use of mental health and supportive care services. The Human Connection Scale, dichotomized into a strong (upper third) and weak (lower two-thirds) therapeutic alliance, assessed the strength of the patients' perceived oncologist alliance. Approximately 22.6% of patients screened positive for suicidal ideation. Patients with a strong therapeutic alliance were found to be at reduced risk of suicidal ideation after controlling for confounding influences of cancer diagnosis, Karnofsky performance status, number of physical symptoms, physical quality of life, major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and social support. A strong therapeutic alliance was also associated with a reduced risk of suicidal ideation after controlling for mental health discussions with health care providers and use of mental health interventions. The patient-oncologist alliance was found to be a robust predictor of suicidal ideation and provided better protection against suicidal ideation than mental health interventions, including psychotropic medications. Oncologists may significantly influence patients' mental health and may benefit from training and guidance in building strong alliances with their young adult patients.

  11. Implications of human tissue studies for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Through radiochemical analysis of voluntary tissue donations, the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTR) are gaining improved understanding of the distribution and biokinetics of actinide elements in occupationally exposed persons. Evaluation of the first two whole-body contributions to the USTR revealed an inverse proportionality between actinide concentration and bone ash. The analysis of a whole body with significant 241 Am deposition indicated a significantly shorter half-time in liver and a greater fraction resident in the skeleton than predicted by existing models. Other studies with tissues obtained at autopsy suggest that existing biokinetic models for 238 Pu and 241 Am and the currently accepted models and limits on intake, which use these models as their basis, may be inaccurately implying that revisions of existing safety standards may be necessary. Other studies of the registries are designed to evaluate in-vivo estimates of actinide deposition with those derived from postmortem tissue analysis, to compare results of animal experiments with human data, and to review histopathologic slides for tissue changes that might be attributable to exposure to transuranic elements. The implications of these recent findings and other work of the registries is discussed from the standpoint of this potential effect on biokinetic modeling, internal dose assessment, and safety standards and operational health physics practices

  12. Implications of human tissue studies for radiation protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathren, R L

    1988-08-01

    Through radiochemical analysis of voluntary tissue donations, the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTR) are gaining improved understanding of the distribution and biokinetics of actinide elements in occupationally exposed persons. Evaluation of the first two whole-body contributions to the USTR revealed an inverse proportionality between actinide concentration and bone ash. The analysis of a whole body with significant 241Am deposition indicated a significantly shorter half-time in liver and a greater fraction resident in the skeleton than predicted by existing models. Other studies with tissues obtained at autopsy suggest that existing biokinetic models for 238Pu and 241Am and the currently accepted models and limits on intake, which use these models as their basis, may be inaccurately implying that revisions of existing safety standards may be necessary. Other studies of the registries are designed to evaluate in-vivo estimates of actinide deposition with those derived from postmortem tissue analysis, to compare results of animal experiments with human data, and to review histopathologic slides for tissue changes that might be attributable to exposure to transuranic elements. The implications of these recent findings and other work of the registries is discussed from the standpoint of this potential effect on biokinetic modeling, internal dose assessment, and safety standards and operational health physics practices.

  13. Protection from psychosocial risks at work under the European Convention on Human Rights: is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychenko, Elena

    2016-09-01

    This paper argues the possibility of establishing common principles of protection from psychosocial risks (PSR) on the basis of the legal positions of the European Court of Human Rights (the Court) expressed in recent cases on degrading treatment and occupational health. The author focuses on the positive obligations of the States to ensure the protection of the right for life and of the right to respect for private life. The prohibition of degrading treatment in relations between private persons is also considered as relevant to the issue of the protection from PSR. Analyzing the Court's case law (judgments of the Court) we substantiate the possibility of claiming protection from PSR under the European Convention on Human Rights, namely, articles 2, 3 and 6, 8.

  14. Planetary Protection Knowledge Gaps for Human Extraterrestrial Missions Workshop Booklet - 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Although NASA's preparations for the Apollo lunar missions had only a limited time to consider issues associated with the protection of the Moon from biological contamination and the quarantine of the astronauts returning to Earth, they learned many valuable lessons (both positive and negative) in the process. As such, those efforts represent the baseline of planetary protection preparations for sending humans to Mars. Neither the post-Apollo experience or the Shuttle and other follow-on missions of either the US or Russian human spaceflight programs could add many additional insights to that baseline. Current mission designers have had the intervening four decades for their consideration, and in that time there has been much learned about human-associated microbes, about Mars, and about humans in space that has helped prepare us for a broad spectrum of considerations regarding potential biological contamination in human Mars missions and how to control it. This paper will review the approaches used in getting this far, and highlight some implications of this history for the future development of planetary protection provisions for human missions to Mars. The role of NASA and ESA's planetary protection offices, and the aegis of COSPAR have been particularly important in the ongoing process.

  15. Support of protective work of human error in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yuriko

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear power plant human factor group of the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Ltd. supports various protective work of human error conducted at the nuclear power plant. Its main researching theme are studies on human factor on operation of a nuclear power plant, and on recovery and common basic study on human factor. In addition, on a base of the obtained informations, assistance to protective work of human error conducted at the nuclear power plant as well as development for its actual use was also promoted. Especially, for actions sharing some dangerous informations, various assistances such as a proposal on actual example analytical method to effectively understand a dangerous information not facially but faithfully, construction of a data base to conveniently share such dangerous information, and practice on non-accident business survey for a hint of effective promotion of the protection work, were promoted. Here were introduced on assistance and investigation for effective sharing of the dangerous informations for various actions on protection of human error mainly conducted in nuclear power plant. (G.K.)

  16. Autophagy as a Molecular Target of Flavonoids Underlying their Protective Effects in Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Domínguez, Nestor; Garcia-Mediavilla, Maria V; Sanchez-Campos, Sonia; Mauriz, Jose L; Gonzalez-Gallego, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular pathway with the ability to maintain cell homeostasis through the elimination of damaged or useless cellular components, and its deregulation may initiate or aggravate different human diseases. Flavonoids, a group of plant metabolites, are able to modulate different molecular and cellular processes including autophagy. To review the effects of flavonoids on autophagy pathway in both invasive and noninvasive human diseases, focusing on the global outcomes in their progression. Moreover, the efficacy of the combination of flavonoids with drugs or other natural nontoxic compounds was also reviewed. A literature search was performed to identify and analyze peer-reviewed publications containing in vitro and in vivo studies focused on autophagy deregulation in different proliferative and non-proliferative pathologies and the potential protective effects of flavonoids. Analyzed publications indicated that imbalance between cell death and survival induced by changes in autophagy play an important role in the pathophysiology of a number of human diseases. The use of different flavonoids as autophagy modulators, alone or in combination with other molecules, might be a worthy strategy in the treatment of cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular diseases, hepatic diseases, leishmaniasis, influenza, gastric ulcers produced by Helicobacter pylori infection, diabetes, asthma, age-related macular degeneration or osteoporosis. Flavonoids could potentially constitute important adjuvant agents of conventional therapies in the treatment of autophagy deregulation-related diseases. Moreover, combined therapy may help to diminish the doses of those conventional treatments, leading to reduced drug-derivative side effects and to improved patients' survival. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Does the KIR2DS5 gene protect from some human diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Nowak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: KIR2DS5 gene encodes an activating natural killer cell receptor whose ligand is not known. It was recently reported to affect the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In our studies on KIR2DS5 gene associations with human diseases, we compared the frequencies of this gene in patients and relevant controls. Typing for KIR2DS5 gene was performed by either individual or multiplex polymerase chain reactions which, when compared in the same samples, gave concordant results. We noted an apparently protective effect of KIR2DS5 gene presence in several clinical conditions, but not in others. Namely, this effect was observed in ankylosing spondylitis (p=0.003, odds ratio [OR]=0.47, confidence interval [CI]=0.28-0.79, endometriosis (p=0.03, OR=0.25, CI = 0.07-0.82 and acute rejection of kidney graft (p=0.0056, OR=0.44, CI=0.24-0.80, but not in non-small-cell lung carcinoma, rheumatoid arthritis, spontaneous abortion, or leukemia (all p>0.05. In addition, the simultaneous presence of KIR2DS5 gene and HLA-C C1 allotype exhibited an even stronger protective effect on ankylosing spondylitis (p=0.0003, OR=0.35, CI=0.19-0.65, whereas a lack of KIR2DS5 and the presence of the HLA-C C2 allotype was associated with ankylosing spondylitis (p=0.0017, OR=1.92, CI=1.28-2.89, whereas a lack of KIR2DS5 and presence of C1 allotype was associated with rheumatoid arthritis (p=0.005, OR=1.47, CI=1.13-1.92. The presence of both KIR2DS5 and C1 seemed to protect from acute kidney graft rejection (p=0.017, OR=0.47, CI=0.25-0.89, whereas lack of KIR2DS5 and presence of C2 seemed to favor rejection (p=0.0015, OR=2.13, CI=1.34-3.37. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that KIR2DS5 may protect from endometriosis, ankylosing spondylitis, and acute rejection of kidney graft.

  18. 77 FR 70583 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Parts 144, 147, 150, et al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules... and 156 [CMS-9972-P] RIN 0938-AR40 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market... Affordable Care Act with respect to health insurance issuers and group health plans that are non-federal...

  19. Protection of Human Beings Trafficked for the Purpose of Organ Removal: Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascalev, Assya; Van Assche, Kristof; Sándor, Judit; Codreanu, Natalia; Naqvi, Anwar; Gunnarson, Martin; Frunza, Mihaela; Yankov, Jordan

    2016-02-01

    This report presents a comprehensive set of recommendations for protection of human beings who are trafficked for the purpose of organ removal or are targeted for such trafficking. Developed by an interdisciplinary group of international experts under the auspices of the project Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal (also known as the HOTT project), these recommendations are grounded in the view that an individual who parts with an organ for money within an illegal scheme is ipso facto a victim and that the crime of trafficking in human beings for the purpose of organ removal (THBOR) intersects with the crime of trafficking in organs. Consequently, the protection of victims should be a priority for all actors involved in antitrafficking activities: those combating organ-related crimes, such as health organizations and survivor support services, and those combating trafficking in human beings, such as the criminal justice sectors. Taking into account the special characteristics of THBOR, the authors identify 5 key stakeholders in the protection of human beings trafficked for organ removal or targeted for such trafficking: states, law enforcement agencies and judiciary, nongovernmental organizations working in the areas of human rights and antitrafficking, transplant centers and health professionals involved in transplant medicine, and oversight bodies. For each stakeholder, the authors identify key areas of concern and concrete measures to identify and protect the victims of THBOR. The aim of the recommendations is to contribute to the development of a nonlegislative response to THBOR, to promote the exchange of knowledge and best practices in the area of victim protection, and to facilitate the development of a policy-driven action plan for the protection of THBOR victims in the European Union and worldwide.

  20. Rethinking Data Sharing and Human Participant Protection in Social Science Research: Applications from the Qualitative Realm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessi Kirilova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While data sharing is becoming increasingly common in quantitative social inquiry, qualitative data are rarely shared. One factor inhibiting data sharing is a concern about human participant protections and privacy. Protecting the confidentiality and safety of research participants is a concern for both quantitative and qualitative researchers, but it raises specific concerns within the epistemic context of qualitative research. Thus, the applicability of emerging protection models from the quantitative realm must be carefully evaluated for application to the qualitative realm. At the same time, qualitative scholars already employ a variety of strategies for human-participant protection implicitly or informally during the research process. In this practice paper, we assess available strategies for protecting human participants and how they can be deployed. We describe a spectrum of possible data management options, such as de-identification and applying access controls, including some already employed by the Qualitative Data Repository (QDR in tandem with its pilot depositors. Throughout the discussion, we consider the tension between modifying data or restricting access to them, and retaining their analytic value. We argue that developing explicit guidelines for sharing qualitative data generated through interaction with humans will allow scholars to address privacy concerns and increase the secondary use of their data.

  1. Respecting patient autonomy versus protecting the patient's health: a dilemma for healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, James M; Ladd, Rosalind Ekman; Adler, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A 74-year-old man with multiple chronic medical problems was hospitalized for respiratory distress. He experienced recurrent aspiration and required frequent suctioning and endotracheal intubation on several occasions. The patient was deemed competent and steadfastly refused feeding tube placement. The patient demanded that he be allowed to eat a normal diet despite being told that it could lead to his death. The patient wanted to go home, but there was no one there to care for him. Additionally, neither a nursing home nor hospice would accept him in his present condition. The case is especially interesting because of the symbolic value of food and the plight of the patient who has no alternative to hospitalization. The hospital staff experienced considerable stress at having to care for him. They were uncertain whether their obligation was to respect his autonomy and continue to provide food or to protect his health by avoiding aspiration, pneumonia, and possible death by denying him food. This ethical dilemma posed by the professionals' duty to do what is in the patient's best interest versus the patient's right to decide treatment serves as the focus for this case study. Ethical, legal, and healthcare practitioners' considerations are explored. The case study concludes with specific recommendations for treatment.

  2. A humanized anti-M2 scFv shows protective in vitro activity against influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Velappan, Nileena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmidt, Jurgen G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    M2 is one of the most conserved influenza proteins, and has been widely prospected as a potential universal vaccine target, with protection predominantly mediated by antibodies. In this paper we describe the creation of a humanized single chain Fv from 14C2, a potent monoclonal antibody against M2. We show that the humanized scFv demonstrates similar activity to the parental mAb: it is able to recognize M2 in its native context on cell surfaces and is able to show protective in vitro activity against influenza, and so represents a potential lead antibody candidate for universal prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in influenza.

  3. The Corruption of Systemic Contour in Brazil and its Effects on the Protection of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Sachsida Junqueira Carneiro

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the connection involving corruption and Human Rights' protection, approaching the evolution of corruption's characteristics until today's experience of what is called institutionalized corruption. The knowledge of systemic corruption preeminent particularities are achieved through a series of data obtained in researches made by Centro de Referência do Interesse Público of UFMG, CNJ, Controladoria Geral da União, Fiesp, Ministério Público Federal and extensive survey on doctrine, jurisprudence, and legislation. We have introduced major flaws in the controlling system and shown the resultant repercussion to specify the leading consequences of corruption on the protection and guarantee of Human Rights.

  4. Human Rights and the Environmental Protection: The Naïveté in Environmental Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Adhitya Anggriawan Wisadha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There are growing trends in the human rights to substantially extend the values to protect the environment or moreover to welcome the ideas of the rights to environment, not to mention the rights of environment. The purpose is to inclusively embrace the environmental problems wherein the humanity challenges posited on, but this agenda may leave a room of doubt how far the human rights body can address the environmental destruction as it needs the interplay of culture and environmental ethics to promoting such concepts. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the justification of how human rights in the environmental protection in the contemporary discourse are bringing to light, as many current cases attempt to linkage the environmental approach to the human rights instrument, such as the rights to life, healthy environment, and intergenerational equity. To analyse further, the theoretical framework in this paper will be explicated by environmental culture paradigm which illustrates the egalitarian concept between human and environment to elicit the clear thoughts of how human rights is naïve to protect the environment. This article will firstly depict the human rights and the environmental protection discourse and then, explore the naïveté narratives of environmental culture about the ecological crisis roots that are fundamentally anthropogenic, as to reflect the ground realities how this nexus will play out. Finally, this paper found the moral justification per se relies on the effort of elaborating the human prudence in their relationship with nature, albeit bringing the naïveté.

  5. Protection of the right to privacy in the practice of the European Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenov Marijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The right to privacy is a fundamental human right and an essential component of the protection of human autonomy and freedom. The development of science and information systems creates various opportunities for interferences with physical and moral integrity of a person. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the precise content of the right to privacy. The European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms guarantees this right under Article 8. The European Court of Human Rights did not precisely define the content of the right to privacy and thereby the applicants could bring different aspects of life into the scope of respect for private life. According to the Court, the concept of privacy and private life includes the following areas of human life: the right to establish and maintain relationships with other human beings, protection of the physical and moral integrity of persons, protection of personal data, change of personal name, various issues related to sexual orientation and transgender. The subject of this paper is referring to previously mentioned spheres of human life in the light of interpretation of Article 8 of the Convention.

  6. MO-E-213-02: Medical Physicist Involvement in Implementing Patient Protection Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibert, J.

    2015-01-01

    The focus of work of medical physicists in 1980’s was on quality control and quality assurance. Radiation safety was important but was dominated by occupational radiation protection. A series of over exposures of patients in radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and observation of skin injuries among patients undergoing interventional procedures in 1990’s started creating the need for focus on patient protection. It gave medical physicists new directions to develop expertise in patient dosimetry and dose management. Publications creating awareness on cancer risks from CT in early part of the current century and over exposures in CT in 2008 brought radiation risks in public domain and created challenging situations for medical physicists. Increasing multiple exposures of individual patient and patient doses of few tens of mSv or exceeding 100 mSv are increasing the role of medical physicists. Expansion of usage of fluoroscopy in the hands of clinical professionals with hardly any training in radiation protection shall require further role for medical physicists. The increasing publications in journals, recent changes in Safety Standards, California law, all increase responsibilities of medical physicists in patient protection. Newer technological developments in dose efficiency and protective devices increase percentage of time devoted by medical physicists on radiation protection activities. Without radiation protection, the roles, responsibilities and day-to-day involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic radiology becomes questionable. In coming years either medical radiation protection may emerge as a specialty or medical physicists will have to keep major part of day-to-day work on radiation protection. Learning Objectives: To understand how radiation protection has been increasing its role in day-to-day activities of medical physicist To be aware about international safety Standards, national and State regulations that require higher attention to radiation

  7. MO-E-213-02: Medical Physicist Involvement in Implementing Patient Protection Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, J. [UC Davis Medical Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The focus of work of medical physicists in 1980’s was on quality control and quality assurance. Radiation safety was important but was dominated by occupational radiation protection. A series of over exposures of patients in radiotherapy, nuclear medicine and observation of skin injuries among patients undergoing interventional procedures in 1990’s started creating the need for focus on patient protection. It gave medical physicists new directions to develop expertise in patient dosimetry and dose management. Publications creating awareness on cancer risks from CT in early part of the current century and over exposures in CT in 2008 brought radiation risks in public domain and created challenging situations for medical physicists. Increasing multiple exposures of individual patient and patient doses of few tens of mSv or exceeding 100 mSv are increasing the role of medical physicists. Expansion of usage of fluoroscopy in the hands of clinical professionals with hardly any training in radiation protection shall require further role for medical physicists. The increasing publications in journals, recent changes in Safety Standards, California law, all increase responsibilities of medical physicists in patient protection. Newer technological developments in dose efficiency and protective devices increase percentage of time devoted by medical physicists on radiation protection activities. Without radiation protection, the roles, responsibilities and day-to-day involvement of medical physicists in diagnostic radiology becomes questionable. In coming years either medical radiation protection may emerge as a specialty or medical physicists will have to keep major part of day-to-day work on radiation protection. Learning Objectives: To understand how radiation protection has been increasing its role in day-to-day activities of medical physicist To be aware about international safety Standards, national and State regulations that require higher attention to radiation

  8. 78 FR 29755 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0473] Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure... an opportunity for public comment on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Patient-Focused Drug...

  9. 78 FR 46969 - Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0473] Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patient-Focused Drug Development and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Cure... for the notice of public meeting entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Patient-Focused Drug...

  10. The protection of the accused in international criminal law according to the Human Rights Law Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Kremens

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper discusses the influence of international human rights law on international criminal law. It tries to give an answer to the question of whether rules protecting the accused in international criminal proceedings meet the human rights law standard provided by international declarations and covenants. Meaning, if the proceedings before the International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia (ICTY, International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR and International Criminal Court (ICC meet the standard provided by international human rights law, in particular the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The paper proves that international human rights law has affected international criminal law tremendously. Moreover, it is argued that the protection of the accused in the law of the international courts and tribunals with regard to his rights has improved when compared to the international human rights law standard. In particular the Rome Statute of the ICC provides the accused with the most comprehensive protection. This is especially visible in the case of such rights as the presumption of innocence, right to an interpreter and right to remain silent. Nevertheless, some shortcomings in the law of the ad hoc tribunals and ICC can be observed, in particular when it comes to identifying the commencement of protection of the accused.

  11. Perioperative erythropoietin protects the CNS against ischemic lesions in patients after open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakič, Nikola; Mrak, Miha; Šušteršič, Miha; Rakovec, Peter; Bunc, Matjaž

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish erythropoietin as a protective factor against brain ischemia during open heart surgery. A total of 36 consecutive patients scheduled for revascularization heart surgery were included in the study. Of the patients 18 received 3 intravenous doses of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo, 24,000 IU) and 18 patients received a placebo. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect new brain ischemic lesions was performed. Additionally, S100A, S100B, neuron-specific enolase A and B (NSE-A and B) and the concentration of antibodies against N‑methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) to identify new neurological complications were determined. Patients who received rHuEpo showed no postoperative ischemic changes in the brain on MRI images. In the control group 5 (27.8 %) new ischemic lesions were found. The NMDAR antibody concentration, S100A, S100B and NSE showed no significant differences between the groups for new cerebral ischemia. High levels of lactate before and after external aortic compression (p = 0.022 and p = 0.048, respectively) and duration of operation could predict new ischemic lesions (p = 0.009). The addition of rHuEpo reduced the formation of lesions detectable by MRI in the brain and could be used clinically as neuroprotection in cardiac surgery.

  12. Protection Against Lung Cancer Patient Plasma-Induced Lymphocyte Suppression by Ganoderma Lucidum Polysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Xin Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study was conducted to determine the potential of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (Gl-PS in protection against lung cancer patient plasma-induced suppression of lymphocytes. Lung cancer is a major cause of disease and loss of life in the United States and worldwide. Cancer cells release immunosuppressive mediators, such as PGE2, TGF-β, IL-10, and VEGF, to inhibit the immune response to escape from immune surveillance. Gl-PS has been shown to counteract this immune inhibition in an animal cell culture model, and thus to facilitate tumor control. The present study explored whether or not such an effect could also be demonstrated in human lung cancer patients. Methods: Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, MTT, immunocytochemistry, and western blot analysis were used to assess lymphocyte activation with PHA. Results: The plasma of lung cancer patients suppressed proliferation, CD69 expression, and perforin and granzyme B production in lymphocytes upon activation by PHA, effects that were partially of fully reversed by Gl-PS. Conclusion: Lung cancer patient plasma-induced suppression of lymphocyte activation by phytohemagglutinin may be antagonized fully or partially by Gl-PS, an observation suggesting the potential of Gl-PS in cancer therapy.

  13. The indivisibility of human rights and the Decent Work Protection in a Globalized World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival José de Oliveira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The initial premise is limited to the finding that the production procedures interna- tionalized. Consequently, from the production sharing or defined spaces, was obtained as one of the main results the precariousness of human labor, considering that at the natio- nal level, given the liberalizing policies, is not making it possible to ensure the national state minimum safeguards to protect the work. To address this reality, this paper proposes the construction of new public spaces, with the participation of several international actors, no longer confining to existing international public entities, and the protection of human work should be promoted, provided as a human right and a fundamental right, taking into account the global context and the thematic multidisciplinary. It is the job of the holistic view, which assumes the interdependence and indivisibility of human rights as a prerequisite in order to balance economic development with social development internationally.

  14. Neonatal protection by an innate immune system of human milk consisting of oligosaccharides and glycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburg, D S

    2009-04-01

    This review discusses the role of human milk glycans in protecting infants, but the conclusion that the human milk glycans constitute an innate immune system whereby the mother protects her offspring may have general applicability in all mammals, including species of commercial importance. Infants that are not breastfed have a greater incidence of severe diarrhea and respiratory diseases than those who are breastfed. In the past, this had been attributed primarily to human milk secretory antibodies. However, the oligosaccharides are major components of human milk, and milk is also rich in other glycans, including glycoproteins, mucins, glycosaminoglycans, and glycolipids. These milk glycans, especially the oligosaccharides, are composed of thousands of components. The milk factor that promotes gut colonization by Bifidobacterium bifidum was found to be a glycan, and such prebiotic characteristics may contribute to protection against infectious agents. However, the ability of human milk glycans to protect the neonate seems primarily to be due to their inhibition of pathogen binding to their host cell target ligands. Many such examples include specific fucosylated oligosaccharides and glycans that inhibit specific pathogens. Most human milk oligosaccharides are fucosylated, and their production depends on fucosyltransferase enzymes; mutations in these fucosyltransferase genes are common and underlie the various Lewis blood types in humans. Variable expression of specific fucosylated oligosaccharides in milk, also a function of these genes (and maternal Lewis blood type), is significantly associated with the risk of infectious disease in breastfed infants. Human milk also contains major quantities and large numbers of sialylated oligosaccharides, many of which are also present in bovine colostrum. These could similarly inhibit several common viral pathogens. Moreover, human milk oligosaccharides strongly attenuate inflammatory processes in the intestinal mucosa. These

  15. Protection of Human Beings Trafficked for the Purpose of Organ Removal: Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Pascalev, Assya; Van Assche, Kristof; S?ndor, Judit; Codreanu, Natalia; Naqvi, Anwar; Gunnarson, Martin; Frunza, Mihaela; Yankov, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This report presents a comprehensive set of recommendations for protection of human beings who are trafficked for the purpose of organ removal or are targeted for such trafficking. Developed by an interdisciplinary group of international experts under the auspices of the project Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal (also known as the HOTT project), these recommendations are grounded in the view that an individual who parts with an organ for money within an ill...

  16. Radiological protection of patients in general diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karigi, A.W.

    2001-01-01

    With medical radiation exposures to mankind ranking the highest among man-made radiation, radiation protection safeguards have to be put in place in all countries. Competent authorities should have the legal legislation and adequate infrastructure to ensure implementation, enforcement and compliance with the radiation protection standards. Justification, optimization, quality assurance and control are to be the guiding ideals for those who prescribe and/or carry out radiographic procedures. Radiation dose limitation in medical practices is to be encouraged so far as it does not compromise image quality and the provision of a direct benefit to the exposed individual. (author)

  17. Training of human resources on radiation protection and safe use of radiation sources. Argentine experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaggio, Alfredo L.; Nasazzi, Nora B.; Arias, Cesar

    2004-01-01

    Argentina has a long experience in Radiation Protection training since 25 years ago. In the present work we analyse those variable and non variable training aspects according to scientific development, increasing radiation source diversity (including new concepts like orphan sources and security), mayor concern about patient in Radiation Protection, previous exposures, etc. We comment what we consider the main steps in the training of Radiation Protection specialists, like university degree, post graduate education distinguishing between formative and informative contents and on the job training. Moreover, we point out the trainees aptitudes and attitudes to be developed in order to work properly in this interdisciplinary field. (author)

  18. The ICRP principles applied to radiation protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, S.; Mattsson, S.

    1994-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) has published new recommendations in Publication 60. These take account of the new biological information and trends in the setting of radiation protection standards since 1977. The main principle for radiation protection of the patient is that the exposure should be justified not only at a broad level but also with respect to the individual patient. Protection arrangements should be optimised using reference dose levels as an upper bound of the optimisation process. The reference levels should be applied with flexibility and based on sound clinical judgement. (authors)

  19. The ICRP principles applied to radiation protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, S [Department of Medical Physics, s-451 80 Uddevalla (Sweden); Mattsson, S [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Lund, S-214 01 Malmo (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    The International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) has published new recommendations in Publication 60. These take account of the new biological information and trends in the setting of radiation protection standards since 1977. The main principle for radiation protection of the patient is that the exposure should be justified not only at a broad level but also with respect to the individual patient. Protection arrangements should be optimised using reference dose levels as an upper bound of the optimisation process. The reference levels should be applied with flexibility and based on sound clinical judgement. (authors). 7 refs.

  20. The objectives of the directive on radiation protection for patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courades, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Improvement of the quality of medical uses of radiation and avoiding unnecessary exposure are the main objectives of the 1984 Directive laying down basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment. This paper explains how these goals have been achieved through the implementation of the various provisions of the Community act since its adoption

  1. The objectives of the Directive on radiation protection for patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courades, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Improvement of the quality of medical uses of radiation and avoiding unnecessary exposure are the main objectives of the 1984 Directive laying down basic measures for the radiation protection of persons undergoing medical examination or treatment. This paper explains how these goals have been achieved through the implementation of the various provisions of the Community act since its adoption. (author)

  2. Protecting the Home and Adequate Housing - Living in a Caravan or Trailer as a Human Right

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donders, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Many Roma, gypsies and travellers live in caravans or trailers, sometimes in together trailer parks or camps. This article analyses how this specific lifestyle connected to their housing is protected under the various regimes and provisions of international human rights law. Home and adequate

  3. Analyzing risks to protected areas using the human modification framework: a Colorado case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Theobald; Alisa Wade; Grant Wilcox; Nate. Peterson

    2010-01-01

    A framework that organizes natural and protected areas is often used to help understand the potential risks to natural areas and aspects of their ecological and human dimensions. The spatial (or landscape) context of these dynamics is also a critical, but, rarely considered, factor. Common classification systems include the U.S. Geological (USGS) Gap Analysis Program...

  4. 75 FR 71443 - Renewal of Charter for the Secretary's Advisory Committee on Human Research Protections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... Secretary, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: As stipulated by the..., Office for Human Research Protections or Julia Gorey, J.D., Executive Director, SACHRP; U.S. Department... there are individually identifiable samples, data, or information; and investigator conflicts of...

  5. Spotted hyaena space use in relation to human infrastructure inside a protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Lydia E; Cameron, Elissa Z; Dalerum, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Increasing human population growth has led to elevated levels of human-carnivore conflict. However, some carnivore populations have adapted to urban environments and the resources they supply. Such associations may influence carnivore ecology, behaviour and life-history. Pockets of urbanisation sometimes occur within protected areas, so that anthropogenic influences on carnivore biology are not necessarily confined to unprotected areas. In this study we evaluated associations between human infrastructure and related activity and space use of spotted hyaenas within one of the largest protected areas in South Africa, the Kruger National Park. Home range size was smaller for the dominant female of a clan living in close proximity to humans than that of the dominant female of a clan without direct access to human infrastructure. The home range including human infrastructure was also used less evenly during the night, presumably when the animals were active. Within this home range, a village area was preferred during the night, when the least modified areas within the village were preferred and administration and highly modified areas were avoided. During the day, however, there were no preference or avoidance of the village area, but all habitats except unmodified habitats within the village area were avoided. We suggest that human infrastructure and associated activity influenced hyaena space use, primarily through alterations in the spatial distribution of food. However, these effects may have been indirectly caused by habitat modification that generated favourable hunting habitat rather than a direct effect caused by access to human food such as garbage. Because of the often pivotal effects of apex predators in terrestrial ecosystems, we encourage further work aimed to quantify how human presence influences large carnivores and associated ecosystem processes within protected areas.

  6. Human fibrinogen and thrombin patch for extraluminal protection of intestinal anastomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gustavo Kotze

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In spite of recent advances regarding equipment and surgical techniques in colorectal surgery, rates of anastomotic dehiscence (AD have remained stable throughout the years. The development of products to protect anastomosis aiming the reduction of AD rates has shown to be promising. Human fibrinogen and thrombin patch (HFTP Tachosil® have been used in experimental studies in animals and small case series in humans, with promising results. In this study, the authors describe the technique of HFTP use in details, aiming the protection of colorectal anastomosis, and retrospectively demonstrate the preliminary results in a pilot case series. HFTP was used in 4 patients submitted to conventional surgery. The procedures performed were: left colon resection, segmental colectomy (both for colorectal cancer, enteral anastomosis for fistula closure and right ileocolectomy. Anastomotic healing and absence of complications were observed in 3 patients, and the patient submitted to right ileocolectomy developed AD and died after reoperation. The use of HFTP is safe and can be indicated in selected cases. However, AD can occur even after the use of this strategy. Randomized controlled trials with larger samples of patients are needed in order to properly define the real benefits of this strategy in dehiscence prevention Resumo: Apesar dos avanços em equipamentos e técnica cirúrgica na cirurgia colorretal, os índices de deiscência de anastomose (DA tem permanecido estáveis nos últimos anos. O desenvolvimento de produtos que visam proteção das anastomoses para redução das taxas de DA tem se mostrado promissor. A membrana de fibrinogênio e trombina humanos (MFTH vem sendo utilizada em estudos experimentais e em pequenas séries de casos em humanos, com resultados promissores. Neste artigo os autores detalham a descrição técnica da utilização da MFTH na proteção de anastomoses colorretais, e demonstram os resultados preliminares em uma s

  7. Protection of Non-Human Primates against Rabies with an Adenovirus Recombinant Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Z.Q.; Greenberg, L.; Ertl, H. C.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    Rabies remains a major neglected global zoonosis. New vaccine strategies are needed for human rabies prophylaxis. A single intramuscular immunization with a moderate dose of an experimental chimpanzee adenovirus (Ad) vector serotype SAd-V24, also termed AdC68, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein, resulted in sustained titers of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and protection against a lethal rabies virus challenge infection in a non-human primate model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the recombinant Ad-rabies vector for further consideration in human clinical trials. PMID:24503087

  8. Legal Protection to Watchdogs in South of Brazil: a question of empathy born of Non-Human Animal Protection Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Albuquerque

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of animal rights is an ongoing process. The Brazilian Federal Constitution prohibits cruel practices against non-human animals. However, it has become a common business practice the rental of dogs for asset security. Renting watchdogs offends the principle of the dignity of life. The animals were kept in degrading situation. Different actors were protagonists of the movement to protect watchdogs and joined each other in the fight to ban the rental of guard dogs for property security. The issue mobilized society through a social network, the basic emergency action packed emotions, empathy, and processes of political tolerance and of reciprocity.

  9. Protecting patient privacy when sharing patient-level data from clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Katherine; Branson, Janice; Dilleen, Maria; Hollis, Sally; Loughlin, Paul; Nixon, Mark J; Williams, Zoë

    2016-07-08

    Greater transparency and, in particular, sharing of patient-level data for further scientific research is an increasingly important topic for the pharmaceutical industry and other organisations who sponsor and conduct clinical trials as well as generally in the interests of patients participating in studies. A concern remains, however, over how to appropriately prepare and share clinical trial data with third party researchers, whilst maintaining patient confidentiality. Clinical trial datasets contain very detailed information on each participant. Risk to patient privacy can be mitigated by data reduction techniques. However, retention of data utility is important in order to allow meaningful scientific research. In addition, for clinical trial data, an excessive application of such techniques may pose a public health risk if misleading results are produced. After considering existing guidance, this article makes recommendations with the aim of promoting an approach that balances data utility and privacy risk and is applicable across clinical trial data holders. Our key recommendations are as follows: 1. Data anonymisation/de-identification: Data holders are responsible for generating de-identified datasets which are intended to offer increased protection for patient privacy through masking or generalisation of direct and some indirect identifiers. 2. Controlled access to data, including use of a data sharing agreement: A legally binding data sharing agreement should be in place, including agreements not to download or further share data and not to attempt to seek to identify patients. Appropriate levels of security should be used for transferring data or providing access; one solution is use of a secure 'locked box' system which provides additional safeguards. This article provides recommendations on best practices to de-identify/anonymise clinical trial data for sharing with third-party researchers, as well as controlled access to data and data sharing

  10. The Role of Human Factor in Radiation Protection of Children During Chest X Ray Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, N.; Knezevic, Z.; Miljanic, S.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Milkovic, Dj.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation protection depends on many factors. Our study deals with the human factor, the radiology technicians' routine work. If all technical malfunctions are excluded they are responsible for the patient dose. Depending on their education and experience, technicians perform X ray examinations with various end results: image quality, entrance surface dose, patient interaction etc. In hospital setting we have consecutively chosen the study group of 20 children that had a clinical indication for a chest X ray examination (standard PA radiogram), for each of three technicians working at the radiology ward. A Shimadzu X ray machine was used in all cases. 60 children were from 6 to 12 years old and all parents were informed about the aim and the experimental details of the study. All of them gave their informed consent. Radiophotoluminescent (RPL) and thermoluminescent (TLD) dosimeters were applied at the entrance of the beam in the center of the X ray field to measure the entrance surface dose (ESD). Three differently experienced technicians were unaware of the objective of the study. Parameters that were noted were the kV, mAs and the size of the radiation field. The results show a good correlation in ESD between two technicians. Doses were significantly higher for the third one. After the results were known, protocols were designed and after educational interference, we continued to measure ESD again on a group of 40 children. The doses were reduced and there was a good correlation between all three technicians. With this work we want to clarify and show the importance of continuous education and good teamwork for dose reduction. In a sequel study, with the same three technicians, we hope to have results that would show a better dose reduction. (author)

  11. Studies on optimization of radiation protection for patients in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Z.; Zhang, Q.; Li, W.; Li, K.; Wei, L.; Zong, X.; Qiang, Z.; Wu, Y.

    1994-01-01

    For the exposure of patients in diagnostic radiology, individual dose limit does not apply, but optimization of radiological protection may play a major role. This project has been carried out with the purpose of improving the protection of patients in medical diagnostic radiology in China utilizing the principles of optimization. Taking Sichuan, Shandong and Beijing as surveyed areas, we investigated the present situation of the protection of patients. In the survey, the patient doses were classified into practical dose, justified dose and optimized dose to evaluate the influences of managerial and equipment factors separately. The results show that there are some urgent protection problems in X-ray protection to be solved in the surveyed regions. This paper, however, points out that the prospects of reducing patient doses are encouraging provided that appropriate measures are adopted. For instance, taking proper managerial measures without radical change of existing equipments may reduce patient doses in chest fluoroscopy and radiography by 40% and 18% respectively; refitting some equipment may reduce the doses by 82.4% in chest fluoroscopy, 66% in chest radiography, and 80% in barium meal examination of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Using chest radiography instead of fluoroscopy supplemented by other protection measures may reduce the doses by 91.7%. Optimization analysis shows that adoption of the above measures conforms to the principle of optimization of radiation protection. (authors). 5 refs., 7 tabs

  12. ICRP proposal on radiation protection of non-human species - with TAEA perspective-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okyar, H. B.

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the protection of the environment has greatly increased in recent years, in relation to all aspects of human activities. Such interest has been accompanied by the development and application of various means of assessing and managing the many forms of human impact upon it. Up to now, the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) has not published any recommendations on how to assess or manage radiation effects in non-human species. The Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) which is the regulatory body of Turkey in radiation protection also recognises that there is a current lack of consistency at international level with respect to addressing such issues in relation to radioactivity, and therefore believes that a more proactive approach is now necessary. The Commission has decided to develop a framework for the assessment of radiation effects in non-human species in order to fill a conceptual gap in radiation protection. The proposed system does not intend to set regulatory standards, but rather to provide guidance and help regulators and operators demonstrate compliance with existing legislation. ICRP developed a small set of reference animals and plants, plus their relevant data bases to serve as a basis for the more fundamental understanding and interpretation of the relationships between exposure and dose, and between dose and certain categories of effect. This concept is similar to that of the reference individual (reference man) used for human radiological protection, in that it is intended to act as a basis for calculations and decisions. The Commission has now established a system to continue the work with defining effects end-points of interest, the types of reference organisms to be used by ICRP, and defining a set of reference dose models for assessing and managing radiation exposure in non-human species. This talk will provide a review of ICRP proposed framework for radiation protection of the environment with TAEA comments

  13. Protection of human research participants: accreditation of programmes in the Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhosale, Neelambari; Nigar, Shagoofa; Das, Soma; Divate, Uma; Divate, Pathik

    2014-01-01

    The recent negative media reports on the status of participants in clinical trials in India, together with the concerns expressed by the regulatory bodies, have raised questions regarding India's credibility in the conduct of clinical research. Even though the regulations require the registration of trials with the Clinical Trial Registry-India and despite the recently mandated registration of ethics committees (ECs) with the Drugs Controller General of India, the lack of governmental audit and accreditation procedures and bodies has resulted in inadequate protection of human participants in clinical research. Institutions and research sites would benefit by implementing a human research protection programme, which would safeguard the rights, safety and wellbeing of participants in clinical trials, in addition to improving the processes and procedures for the conduct of the trial. The Jehangir Clinical Development Centre, Pune has received accreditation from the Association for the Accreditation of Human Research Protection Programme (AAHRPP). A unique feature of the AAHRPP is the integrative nature of the programme, wherein the sponsors of the trial, investigators, EC members and institution work towards the common goal of protecting research participants. Here, we discuss the improvement needed in the quality standards of institutions for them to be able to meet the requirements of the AAHRPP. We also suggest the need for a governmental accreditation body, which will be required for the future promotion of and improvement in the standards for clinical practice in India.

  14. Human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II exhibit different DNase I protection patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, R.; Harrich, D.; Garcia, J.A.; Gaynor, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus types I (HTLV-I) and II (HTLV-II) are human retroviruses which normally infect T-lymphoid cells. HTLV-I infection is associated with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, and HTLV-II is associated with an indolent form of hairy-cell leukemia. To identify potential transcriptional regulatory elements of these two related human retroviruses, the authors performed DNase I footprinting of both the HTLV-I and HTLV-II long terminal repeats (LTRs) by using extracts prepared from uninfected T cells, HTLV-I and HTLV-II transformed T cells, and HeLa cells. Five regions of the HTLV-I LTR and three regions of the HTLV-II LTR showed protection by DNase I footprinting. All three of the 21-base-pair repeats previously shown to be important in HTLV transcriptional regulation were protected in the HTLV-I LTR, whereas only one of these repeats was protected in the HTLV-II LTR. Several regions exhibited altered protection in extracts prepared from lymphoid cells as compared with HeLa cells, but there were minimal differences in the protection patterns between HTLV-infected and uninfected lymphoid extracts. A number of HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTR fragments which contained regions showing protection in DNase I footprinting were able to function as inducible enhancer elements in transient CAT gene expression assays in the presence of the HTLV-II tat protein. The alterations in the pattern of the cellular proteins which bind to the HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTRs may in part be responsible for differences in the transcriptional regulation of these two related viruses

  15. Male nurses and the protection of female patient dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prideaux, Antony

    Nurses need to be aware of their professional, legal and ethical responsibilities towards patients. Male nurses in particular face problems in their practice as a result of their gender and the stereotypes associated with male nurses. Such stereotypes can act as a barrier to their duty of care. This article examines the challenges associated with male nurses carrying out intimate, physical care. It discusses the ethical, legal and professional issues that male nurses should consider in relation to maintenance of patient dignity during nursing care provision, particularly in relation to female patients.

  16. Fetal Microchimerism in Cancer Protection and Promotion: Current Understanding in Dogs and the Implications for Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Jeffrey N

    2015-05-01

    Fetal microchimerism is the co-existence of small numbers of cells from genetically distinct individuals living within a mother's body following pregnancy. During pregnancy, bi-directional exchange of cells occurs resulting in maternal microchimerism and even sibling microchimerism in offspring. The presence of fetal microchimerism has been identified with lower frequency in patients with cancers such as breast and lymphoma and with higher frequency in patients with colon cancer and autoimmune diseases. Microchimeric cells have been identified in healing and healed tissues as well as normal and tumor tissues. This has led to the hypothesis that fetal microchimerism may play a protective role in some cancers and may provoke other cancers or autoimmune disease. The long periods of risk for these diseases make it a challenge to prospectively study this phenomenon in human populations. Dogs get similar cancers as humans, share our homes and environmental exposures, and live compressed life-spans, allowing easier prospective study of disease development. This review describes the current state of understanding of fetal microchimerism in humans and dogs and highlights the similarities of the common cancers mammary carcinoma, lymphoma, and colon cancer between the two species. Study of fetal microchimerism in dogs might hold the key to characterization of the type and function of microchimeric cells and their role in health and disease. Such an understanding could then be applied to preventing and treating disease in humans.

  17. Portulaca oleracea extracts protect human keratinocytes and fibroblasts from UV-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suyeon; Kim, Ki Ho; Park, Changhoon; Lee, Jong-Suk; Kim, Young Heui

    2014-10-01

    Portulaca oleracea extracts, known as Ma Chi Hyun in the traditional Korean medicine, show a variety of biomedical efficacies including those in anti-inflammation and anti-allergy. In this study, we investigate the protective activity of the P. oleracea extracts against UVB-induced damage in human epithelial keratinocytes and fibroblasts by several apoptosis-related tests. The results suggest that P. oleracea extracts have protective effects from UVB-induced apoptosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Protecting Children Victims of Crimes of Human Trafficking in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minodora-Ioana Balan-Rusu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the paper there were examined the main provisions of the European legislative act framework in the domain of protecting children victims of human trafficking offenses, with some critical remarks. The paper can be useful to the European and Romanian legislator, practitioners and academics in the field. The novelty consists of analyzing the provisions of the European legislative act, focusing on the practical ways provided for the protection of children victims of this kind of crime, and the formulated critical remarks.

  19. CDC Vital Signs-Protect Patients from Antibiotic Resistance

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the March 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Patients can get serious healthcare-associated infections, or HAIs, while receiving medical treatment in a healthcare facility. Learn how to prevent healthcare-associated infections.

  20. Mum's the Word: Feds Are Serious About Protecting Patients' Privacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Crystal

    2010-08-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act significantly changes HIPAA privacy and security policies that affect physicians. Chief among the changes are the new breach notification regulations, developed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office for Civil Rights. The Texas Medical Association has developed resources to help physicians comply with the new HIPAA regulations.

  1. Two-dose strategies for human papillomavirus vaccination: how well do they need to protect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jit, Mark; Choi, Yoon Hong; Laprise, Jean-François; Boily, Marie-Claude; Drolet, Mélanie; Brisson, Marc

    2014-05-30

    Two-dose human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine schedules may provide short-term protection but their long-term population impact is unknown. Two models of HPV transmission and associated cervical disease (squamous and glandular, neoplasia and cancer) were fitted to data from England and Canada on HPV epidemiology, sexual behaviour, cervical screening outcomes and cervical cancer incidence. Models suggest that at 40-80% coverage, if two-dose schedules protect vaccinees for 20 years, then the benefits of the third dose are small. If two doses protect for 10 years, then the third dose may prevent as many cancers as the first two. At 80% coverage, numbers needed to receive a third dose to prevent an additional cancer are 5900-110,000 (England), 3000-5100 (Canada) with 20 years two-dose protection, and 2000-5300 (England), 760-950 (Canada) with 10 years two-dose protection. Results enable decision makers to quantify risks associated with two-dose schedules despite remaining uncertainties in vaccine duration and cross-protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Strengthening the human rights framework to protect breastfeeding: a focus on CEDAW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtry, Judith

    2015-01-01

    There have been recent calls for increased recognition of breastfeeding as a human right. The United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1979 (CEDAW) is the core human rights treaty on women. CEDAW's approach to breastfeeding is considered from an historical perspective. A comparison is drawn with breastfeeding protection previously outlined in the International Labour Organization's Maternity Protection Convention, 1919 (ILO C3), and its 1952 revision (ILO C103), and subsequently, in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989 (CRC). Despite breastfeeding's sex-specific significance to an international human rights treaty on women and CEDAW's emphasis on facilitating women's employment, CEDAW is, in reality, a relatively weak instrument for breastfeeding protection. In both its text and subsequent interpretations explicit recognition of breastfeeding is minimal or nonexistent. Explanations for this are proposed and contextualised in relation to various political, social and economic forces, especially those influencing notions of gender equality. During the mid to late 1970s -when CEDAW was formulated - breastfeeding posed a strategic challenge for key feminist goals, particularly those of equal employment opportunity, gender neutral childrearing policy and reproductive rights. Protective legislation aimed at working women had been rejected as outdated and oppressive. Moreover, the right of women to breastfeed was generally assumed, with choice over infant feeding practices often perceived as the right NOT to breastfeed. There was also little awareness or analysis of the various structural obstacles to breastfeeding's practice, such as lack of workplace support, that undermine 'choice'. Subsequent interpretations of CEDAW show that despite significant advances in scientific and epidemiological knowledge about breastfeeding's importance for short-term and long-term maternal health, breastfeeding

  3. Human subjects protection training for community workers: an example from "Faith Moves Mountains".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Jennifer; Schoenberg, Nancy E

    2007-01-01

    Despite widespread agreement on the necessity of protecting human subjects, questions regarding ethical treatment and protection of human subjects remain and are particularly vexing for community-based participatory research (CBPR). There has been a notable lack of attention paid to what type of training should be provided and how to balance "real-life" concerns with official requirements. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how, in consultation with the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) at our institution and our community partners, we developed training that overcame concerns related to instruction of community workers on protection of human subjects. We developed a training module written in lay terms and containing only information pertinent to non-key personnel and their role in the CBPR project. We designed and piloted this material in collaboration with our community partners who work with us to recruit and train lay health advisors (LHAs) and oversee the day-to-day operations of the CBPR project. The educational module was presented to the community workers as a part of a day-long training session. The written materials were a part of a notebook of information accompanied by an oral Power Point presentation. Each of the workers was given a written test to evaluate knowledge of the content presented. The test was administered by the project director, a community member herself, and then sent to our institution for grading by personnel not involved in this project. To date, all community workers have passed the written test. The community members, research partners, and the ORI are satisfied with the scope and simplicity of the training program developed. Our team's collaborative approach to community-based human subjects training contributes to advancing a grounded, feasible, and rigorous process of protecting human subjects while implementing CBPR ideals.

  4. Privacy preservation and information security protection for patients' portable electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu-Chou; Chu, Huei-Chung; Lien, Chung-Yueh; Hsiao, Chia-Hung; Kao, Tsair

    2009-09-01

    As patients face the possibility of copying and keeping their electronic health records (EHRs) through portable storage media, they will encounter new risks to the protection of their private information. In this study, we propose a method to preserve the privacy and security of patients' portable medical records in portable storage media to avoid any inappropriate or unintentional disclosure. Following HIPAA guidelines, the method is designed to protect, recover and verify patient's identifiers in portable EHRs. The results of this study show that our methods are effective in ensuring both information security and privacy preservation for patients through portable storage medium.

  5. Skin protection behaviour and sex differences in melanoma location in patients with multiple primary melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Matthew; McMeniman, Erin; Adams, Agnieszka; De'Ambrosis, Brian

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that sunscreen usage, sun-protection measures and self-examination rates in patients with single primary melanomas (SPM) are similar to that in the general population. This study hypothesises that these rates would be different in a population with multiple primary melanomas (MPM). We further hypothesise that there would be a sex difference in melanoma location in patients with MPM. The objectives of this study were to determine skin protection measures, self-examinations and melanoma location in a cohort of patients with MPM. A survey was conducted on 137 patients with MPM examining their sun-protection measures, skin self-examination rates and medical and phenotypic characteristics. These data were combined with a review of their medical records to examine the patients' skin cancer history. Patients with MPM had higher rates of skin self-evaluation (74% vs 22%), sunscreen usage (70% vs 45%) and other sun-protection measures (95% vs 46%) than has been published for patients with a history of a SPM. We have also shown that women have a higher risk of developing melanomas on their arms (p skin self-examination, sunscreen usage and other sun-protection methods in patients with MPM is higher than in studies of patients with SPM. It also highlighted sex differences in terms of melanoma location for patients with MPM. Further studies to examine the cause of the differences in these forms of protective behaviour could help improve the utilisation of these important preventative measures in all patients. © 2015 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  6. Sun protection and sunbathing practices among at-risk family members of patients with melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Despite the increased level of familial risk, research indicates that family members of patients with melanoma engage in relatively low levels of sun protection and high levels of sun exposure. The goal of this study was to evaluate a broad range of demographic, medical, psychological, knowledge, and social influence correlates of sun protection and sunbathing practices among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of melanoma patients and to determine if correlates of sun protection and sunbathing were unique. Methods We evaluated correlates of sun protection and sunbathing among FDRs of melanoma patients who were at increased disease risk due to low compliance with sun protection and skin surveillance behaviors. Participants (N = 545) completed a phone survey. Results FDRs who reported higher sun protection had a higher education level, lower benefits of sunbathing, greater sunscreen self-efficacy, greater concerns about photo-aging and greater sun protection norms. FDRs who reported higher sunbathing were younger, more likely to be female, endorsed fewer sunscreen barriers, perceived more benefits of sunbathing, had lower image norms for tanness, and endorsed higher sunbathing norms. Conclusion Interventions for family members at risk for melanoma might benefit from improving sun protection self-efficacy, reducing perceived sunbathing benefits, and targeting normative influences to sunbathe. PMID:21338483

  7. Radiological protection in two types of human activities and from potential exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Deping

    1991-01-01

    The new ICPR recommendations emphasize the distinction in radiological protection in two different types of human activities, practice and intervention. The purpose of emphases and measures for controlling or reduction of exposure for each type of activity are discussed. Potential exposure is regarded as an part of radiological protection system in this new recommendations, in a practice, it can be significantly reduced by proper prevention and mitigation measures in design and management. It is pointed out that with modern safety technology, the probability of potential exposure situations can be lowered to many orders of magnitude, even though the estimated value of probability is not accurate. Situations requiring intervention and the principles in protection are also discussed

  8. Human milk 90K (Mac-2 BP): possible protective effects against acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornarini, B; Iacobelli, S; Tinari, N; Natoli, C; De Martino, M; Sabatino, G

    1999-01-01

    Eighty-six children fed human milk were followed prospectively from birth to 12 months of age to assess the effect of milk 90K, a secreted glycoprotein with immune-stimulatory properties, on development of acute respiratory infections (ARI). The level of human milk 90K was inversely related to episodes of ARI (r = - 0.34; P = 0.001). The average 90K level in human milk fed to children who did not develop ARI was significantly higher than in milk fed to children in whom infection occurred on multiple occasions (156.6 +/- 144.8 microg/ml versus 70.9 +/- 92.3 microg/ml; P = 0.001). These data suggest that the protective effects of human milk against ARI may be due in part to immune maturation effects by secreted 90K.

  9. International conference on electromagnetic fields hazard protection of the human being

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, Yu.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Second International conference concerning the problems of electromagnetic protection of the human being, fundamental and applied studies, normalization of the EMP: philosophy, criteria and harmonization which took place in Moscow in September 1999 is reported. The topics of reports covered both the mechanism of biological action of electromagnetic fields and aspects of impact of electromagnetic fields from various household appliances on the health of practically all modern people (television, radio, energetic, communication). The plenary section on evaluation of hazards of the mobile communication electromagnetic fields and the round table meeting dealing with evaluation of hazards of electromagnetic fields of the cellular communication base stations were conducted in the course of the conference. The plenary meetings were devoted to harmonization of the electromagnetic protection standards of Russia and western countries. The above conference constitutes one of the stages of the WHO international program concerning electromagnetic fields and the human being [ru

  10. Semicarbazone EGA Inhibits Uptake of Diphtheria Toxin into Human Cells and Protects Cells from Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Schnell

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diphtheria toxin is a single-chain protein toxin that invades human cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. In acidic endosomes, its translocation domain inserts into endosomal membranes and facilitates the transport of the catalytic domain (DTA from endosomal lumen into the host cell cytosol. Here, DTA ADP-ribosylates elongation factor 2 inhibits protein synthesis and leads to cell death. The compound 4-bromobenzaldehyde N-(2,6-dimethylphenylsemicarbazone (EGA has been previously shown to protect cells from various bacterial protein toxins which deliver their enzymatic subunits from acidic endosomes to the cytosol, including Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin and the binary clostridial actin ADP-ribosylating toxins C2, iota and Clostridium difficile binary toxin (CDT. Here, we demonstrate that EGA also protects human cells from diphtheria toxin by inhibiting the pH-dependent translocation of DTA across cell membranes. The results suggest that EGA might serve for treatment and/or prevention of the severe disease diphtheria.

  11. Nrf2 protects human bladder urothelial cells from arsenite and monomethylarsonous acid toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaojun; Sun Zheng; Chen Weimin; Eblin, Kylee E.; Gandolfi, Jay A.; Zhang, Donna D.

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic is widely spread in our living environment and imposes a big challenge on human health worldwide. Arsenic damages biological systems through multiple mechanisms including the generation of reactive oxygen species. The transcription factor Nrf2 regulates the cellular antioxidant response that protects cells from various insults. In this study, the protective role of Nrf2 in arsenic toxicity was investigated in a human bladder urothelial cell line, UROtsa. Using a UROtsa cell line stably infected with Nrf2-siRNA, we clearly demonstrate that compromised Nrf2 expression sensitized the cells to As(III)- and MMA(III)-induced toxicity. On the other hand, the activation of the Nrf2 pathway by tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) and sulforaphane (SF), the known Nrf2-inducers, rendered UROtsa cells more resistant to As(III) and MMA(III). Furthermore, the wild-type mouse embryo fibroblast (WT-MEF) cells were protected from As(III)- and MMA(III)-induced toxicity following Nrf2 activation by tBHQ or SF, whereas neither tBHQ nor SF conferred protection in the Nrf2 -/- MEF cells, demonstrating that tBHQ- or SF-mediated protection against As(III)- and MMA(III)-induced toxicity depends on Nrf2 activation. These results, obtained by both loss of function and gain of function analyses, clearly demonstrate the protective role of Nrf2 in arsenic-induced toxicity. The current work lays the groundwork for using Nrf2 activators for therapeutic and dietary interventions against adverse effects of arsenic

  12. The evolution of the Constitutional Protection of Women’s Human Rights in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra MORENO FLÓREZ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Human rights were first acknowledged in Colombia in the 1991 Constitution, bringing up a catalogue of specific rights in favour of the female population whose implementation has been possible thanks to the Constitutional Court’s decisive compromise on the struggle against gender discrimination. This way, since the incorporation of the gender perspective in the Colombian Law, great progress has been obtained in the effectiveness of the constitutional normative framework and in the consequent effective protection of women’s human rights in legally relevant different ambits of life.

  13. Human skin is protected by four functionally and phenotypically discrete populations of resident and recirculating memory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Rei; Gehad, Ahmed; Yang, Chao; Campbell, Laura; Teague, Jessica E.; Schlapbach, Christoph; Elco, Christopher; Huang, Victor; Matos, Tiago R.; Kupper, Thomas S.; Clark, Rachael A.

    2015-01-01

    The skin of an adult human contains approximately 20 billion memory T cells. Epithelial barrier tissues are infiltrated by a combination of resident and recirculating T cells in mice but the relative proportions and functional activities of resident versus recirculating T cells have not been evaluated in human skin. We discriminated resident from recirculating T cells in human engrafted mice and lymphoma patients using alemtuzumab, a medication that depletes recirculating T cells from skin, and then analyzed these T cell populations in healthy human skin. All non-recirculating resident memory T cells (TRM) expressed CD69, but the majority were CD4+, CD103− and located in the dermis, in contrast to studies in mice. Both CD4+ and CD8+ CD103+ TRM were enriched in the epidermis, had potent effector functions and had a limited proliferative capacity compared to CD103− TRM. TRM of both types had more potent effector functions than recirculating T cells. Induction of CD103 on human T cells was enhanced by keratinocyte contact, depended on TGFβ and was independent of T cell keratinocyte adhesive interactions. We observed two distinct populations of recirculating T cells, CCR7+/L-selectin+ central memory T cells (TCM) and CCR7+/L-selectin− T cells, which we term migratory memory T cells (TMM). Circulating skin-tropic TMM were intermediate in cytokine production between TCM and effector memory T cells. In patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma, malignant TCM and TMM induced distinct inflammatory skin lesions and TMM were depleted more slowly from skin after alemtuzumab, suggesting TMM may recirculate more slowly. In summary, human skin is protected by four functionally distinct populations of T cells, two resident and two recirculating, with differing territories of migration and distinct functional activities. PMID:25787765

  14. A decision model for the sustainable protection of human rights in Italian Prison System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Maturo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The work starts from an analysis of the critical problems of the prison system in Italy. It aims to develop a decision-making model to address the issue of sustainable protection of human rights in prisons. It shows how, using the Saaty AHP procedure, it is possible to have an analytical reasoning guideline for the understanding of the validity of the various alternative choices, in order to facilitate the situation of the prisoners and their reintegration into society.

  15. Ultraviolet-B Protective Effect of Flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata on Human Dermal Fibroblast Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Patwardhan, Juilee; Bhatt, Purvi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The exposure of skin to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiations leads to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and can induce production of free radicals which imbalance the redox status of the cell and lead to increased oxidative stress. Clove has been traditionally used for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-viral, and antiseptic effects. Objective: To evaluate the UV-B protective activity of flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata (clove) buds on human dermal fibroblast c...

  16. The environmental protection in the jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio de Oliveira Mazzuoli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the interconnections between environmental issues and the protection of human rights, in a process that began in the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm, 1972 and has been developed by the greening of the regional human rights systems. In the Inter-American system the article 11 of the Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1988 — the Protocol of San Salvador — guarantees the right to a healthy environment. However the American Convention (on its arts. 3-25, 44-51 and 61-69 and its Additional Protocol (on its arts. 8, 13 and 19.6 only allow the submission of individual petitions to the Inter-American Commission and the possible acting of the Inter-American Court, in complaints containing alleged violations of civil and political rights, trade union rights and the right to education. Despite the lack of devices that are capable to ensure an effective protection to the right to a healthy environment, by itself, the Inter-American Court has demonstrated the greening of the human rights, which means, in other words, that it is quite possible to protect environmental issues by the demonstration of its interconnections with civil and political rights that are directly protected by the inter-American system. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the contributions of the jurisprudence of the Inter-American Court in the strengthening of the civil and political rights in cases related to environmental issues.

  17. An Extended Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Game on Addressing Uncertainties of Human Adversaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengqiu; Chen, Bin; Qiu, Sihang; Wang, Rongxiao; Chen, Feiran; Wang, Yiping; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2018-03-27

    Chemical production activities in industrial districts pose great threats to the surrounding atmospheric environment and human health. Therefore, developing appropriate and intelligent pollution controlling strategies for the management team to monitor chemical production processes is significantly essential in a chemical industrial district. The literature shows that playing a chemical plant environmental protection (CPEP) game can force the chemical plants to be more compliant with environmental protection authorities and reduce the potential risks of hazardous gas dispersion accidents. However, results of the current literature strictly rely on several perfect assumptions which rarely hold in real-world domains, especially when dealing with human adversaries. To address bounded rationality and limited observability in human cognition, the CPEP game is extended to generate robust schedules of inspection resources for inspection agencies. The present paper is innovative on the following contributions: (i) The CPEP model is extended by taking observation frequency and observation cost of adversaries into account, and thus better reflects the industrial reality; (ii) Uncertainties such as attackers with bounded rationality, attackers with limited observation and incomplete information (i.e., the attacker's parameters) are integrated into the extended CPEP model; (iii) Learning curve theory is employed to determine the attacker's observability in the game solver. Results in the case study imply that this work improves the decision-making process for environmental protection authorities in practical fields by bringing more rewards to the inspection agencies and by acquiring more compliance from chemical plants.

  18. An Extended Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Game on Addressing Uncertainties of Human Adversaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongxiao; Chen, Feiran; Wang, Yiping; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2018-01-01

    Chemical production activities in industrial districts pose great threats to the surrounding atmospheric environment and human health. Therefore, developing appropriate and intelligent pollution controlling strategies for the management team to monitor chemical production processes is significantly essential in a chemical industrial district. The literature shows that playing a chemical plant environmental protection (CPEP) game can force the chemical plants to be more compliant with environmental protection authorities and reduce the potential risks of hazardous gas dispersion accidents. However, results of the current literature strictly rely on several perfect assumptions which rarely hold in real-world domains, especially when dealing with human adversaries. To address bounded rationality and limited observability in human cognition, the CPEP game is extended to generate robust schedules of inspection resources for inspection agencies. The present paper is innovative on the following contributions: (i) The CPEP model is extended by taking observation frequency and observation cost of adversaries into account, and thus better reflects the industrial reality; (ii) Uncertainties such as attackers with bounded rationality, attackers with limited observation and incomplete information (i.e., the attacker’s parameters) are integrated into the extended CPEP model; (iii) Learning curve theory is employed to determine the attacker’s observability in the game solver. Results in the case study imply that this work improves the decision-making process for environmental protection authorities in practical fields by bringing more rewards to the inspection agencies and by acquiring more compliance from chemical plants. PMID:29584679

  19. An Extended Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Game on Addressing Uncertainties of Human Adversaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqiu Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical production activities in industrial districts pose great threats to the surrounding atmospheric environment and human health. Therefore, developing appropriate and intelligent pollution controlling strategies for the management team to monitor chemical production processes is significantly essential in a chemical industrial district. The literature shows that playing a chemical plant environmental protection (CPEP game can force the chemical plants to be more compliant with environmental protection authorities and reduce the potential risks of hazardous gas dispersion accidents. However, results of the current literature strictly rely on several perfect assumptions which rarely hold in real-world domains, especially when dealing with human adversaries. To address bounded rationality and limited observability in human cognition, the CPEP game is extended to generate robust schedules of inspection resources for inspection agencies. The present paper is innovative on the following contributions: (i The CPEP model is extended by taking observation frequency and observation cost of adversaries into account, and thus better reflects the industrial reality; (ii Uncertainties such as attackers with bounded rationality, attackers with limited observation and incomplete information (i.e., the attacker’s parameters are integrated into the extended CPEP model; (iii Learning curve theory is employed to determine the attacker’s observability in the game solver. Results in the case study imply that this work improves the decision-making process for environmental protection authorities in practical fields by bringing more rewards to the inspection agencies and by acquiring more compliance from chemical plants.

  20. Radiation exposure in gastroenterology: improving patient and staff protection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ho, Immanuel K H

    2014-08-01

    Medical imaging involving the use of ionizing radiation has brought enormous benefits to society and patients. In the past several decades, exposure to medical radiation has increased markedly, driven primarily by the use of computed tomography. Ionizing radiation has been linked to carcinogenesis. Whether low-dose medical radiation exposure will result in the development of malignancy is uncertain. This paper reviews the current evidence for such risk, and aims to inform the gastroenterologist of dosages of radiation associated with commonly ordered procedures and diagnostic tests in clinical practice. The use of medical radiation must always be justified and must enable patients to be exposed at the lowest reasonable dose. Recommendations provided herein for minimizing radiation exposure are based on currently available evidence and Working Party expert consensus.

  1. Regulation of radiological protection for patients under radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacovenco, Alejandro; Ferreira, R.S.; Souza, A.C.A.

    1997-01-01

    Face to the increasing exposition of the population to ionizing radiations and the needs to fulfill user's rights, political and scientific efforts have been made in order to improve image quality and reduce risks to patients. A proposal to create a National Reference Laboratory to survey, supervise and evaluate the implementation of norms which require the control of physical parameters of the radiological equipment is presented. Aspects related to the profile of the Medical Physicist are also discussed. (author)

  2. CDC Vital Signs-Protect Patients from Antibiotic Resistance

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-03-03

    This podcast is based on the March 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Patients can get serious healthcare-associated infections, or HAIs, while receiving medical treatment in a healthcare facility. Learn how to prevent healthcare-associated infections.  Created: 3/3/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/3/2016.

  3. Radiation protection of patients in X-ray diagnostic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardt, P.

    1975-01-01

    The author states as a result that the care taken by the physician and the technical assistant is the most important factor in reducing the radiation exposure of patients. A fair relation between efficiency and possible unnecessary exposure is provided by careful and conscientious work which has to be based on sound knowledge of the effects of ionizing radiation on the organism and of the possibilities of reducing the doses responsible for these effects. (orig./AK) [de

  4. [Protection of reproductive functions in patients with tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snajderová, M; Mardesić, T; Ganevová, M; Malinová, B

    2002-08-16

    Survival from cancer continues to improve. Antimitotic therapy can induce failure of spermatogenesis and oogenesis, gonadal disturbances and infertility. Recent advances in reproductive medicine have opened opportunities for the preservation of reproductive potential of patients with cancer. The aim of our study was to analyse by a multidisciplinary team the contemporary state of art and proposal of the Czech model of fertility preservation starting in childhood and continuing through the whole reproductive period. This paper highlights the problems associated with gonadal failure as a consequence of therapy for malignancy in childhood, adolescence and adulthood. Analysis of these problems served as a principle for the management strategy for fertility preservation. Patients undergoing treatment for malignancy are at the high risk of gonadal damage and infertility. Therefore, alternative treatments with less gonadal toxicity and different treatment protocols were evaluated. Fertility can be preserved with the freezing and banking of spermatozoa, embryos, and oocytes obtained prior to the cancer treatment. In female patients (starting in puberty) pharmacological preservation of gonads with gonadoliberin analogues is also possible. Chance for the future fertility preservation for children offers freezing and thawing of primordial follicles and spermatozoa obtained during the gonadal biopsies. Long-term follow-up study by a multidisciplinary medical team is necessary.

  5. Human resources of local governments as motivators of participation of businesses and citizens in protecting of environment

    OpenAIRE

    NIKOLIĆ N.; GAJOVIĆ A.; PAUNOVIĆ V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of human resources of local governments in the motivation of businesses and citizens in protecting the environment. The inability to absorb current problems caused by inadequate and incomplete arrangement of utilization of human resources of the local government of Lučani caused the redefining of strategic priorities of environmental protection. The motivational power of human resources of local governments expressed through interaction with the population ...

  6. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protects against radiation-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocyte (RBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subhashis

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the radioprotective actions of the grape extracts of two different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless (green) and Kishmish chorni (black) in human erythrocytes. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuates oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy-radiation in human erythrocytes in vitro. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. Effects of grape extracts of different cultivars on protein content, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and activities of Catalase, Nitrite, GST, GR in human erythrocytes against -radiation exposure at a dose of 4 Gy are investigated. The grape extracts did not appear to alter the viability of human erythrocytes. Exposure of erythrocytes to the -irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy significantly increased the extent of formation of TBARS, while decreased the level of GSH and activities of CAT, GSSG , GST, GR in the erythrocytes as compared to the non-irradiated control counterparts. This was significantly attenuated by the pretreatment with the grape seed extracts (p<0.001) and significantly with the skin extracts (p<0.05) compared to the ionizing radiation exposed group. Moreover, protection offered by the seed extracts was found significantly better than that was offered by the pulp extract of the same cultivar. In conclusion, our results suggested that the grape extracts significantly attenuated IR induced oxidative stress and

  7. Minor Capsid Protein L2 Polytope Induces Broad Protection against Oncogenic and Mucosal Human Papillomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyanfard, Somayeh; Spagnoli, Gloria; Bulli, Lorenzo; Balz, Kathrin; Yang, Fan; Odenwald, Caroline; Seitz, Hanna; Mariz, Filipe C; Bolchi, Angelo; Ottonello, Simone; Müller, Martin

    2018-02-15

    The amino terminus of the human papillomavirus (HPV) minor capsid protein L2 contains a major cross-neutralization epitope which provides the basis for the development of a broadly protecting HPV vaccine. A wide range of protection against different HPV types would eliminate one of the major drawbacks of the commercial, L1-based prophylactic vaccines. Previously, we have reported that insertion of the L2 epitope into a scaffold composed of bacterial thioredoxin protein generates a potent antigen inducing comprehensive protection against different animal and human papillomaviruses. We also reported, however, that although protection is broad, some oncogenic HPV types escape the neutralizing antibody response, if L2 epitopes from single HPV types are used as immunogen. We were able to compensate for this by applying a mix of thioredoxin proteins carrying L2 epitopes from HPV16, -31, and -51. As the development of a cost-efficient HPV prophylactic vaccines is one of our objectives, this approach is not feasible as it requires the development of multiple good manufacturing production processes in combination with a complex vaccine formulation. Here, we report the development of a thermostable thioredoxin-based single-peptide vaccine carrying an L2 polytope of up to 11 different HPV types. The L2 polytope antigens have excellent abilities in respect to broadness of protection and robustness of induced immune responses. To further increase immunogenicity, we fused the thioredoxin L2 polytope antigen with a heptamerization domain. In the final vaccine design, we achieve protective responses against all 14 oncogenic HPV types that we have analyzed plus the low-risk HPVs 6 and 11 and a number of cutaneous HPVs. IMPORTANCE Infections by a large number of human papillomaviruses lead to malignant and nonmalignant disease. Current commercial vaccines based on virus-like particles (VLPs) effectively protect against some HPV types but fail to do so for most others. Further, only

  8. Gender Reassignment Surgery in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Patients: A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Kwun Kim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is believed that surgery on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients is dangerous and should be avoided due to the possibility of postoperative infection of the patients or HIV occupational transmission to the medical staff. We discuss here the preparations and measures needed to conduct surgery safely on HIV-positive patients, based on our experience. We performed sex reassignment surgery on two HIV-positive patients from January 2013 to January 2015. Both of them were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy and were asymptomatic, with a normal CD4 count (>500 cells/µL. The HIV-RNA was undetectable within the bloodstream. All the staff wore protective clothing, glasses, and three pairs of protective gloves in the operating room because of the possibility of transmission. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered to the patients, and antiviral therapy was performed during their perioperative course. Neither of the patients had postoperative complications, and none of the medical staff experienced accidental exposure. Both patients had satisfactory surgery outcomes without complications. HIV-positive patients can undergo surgery safely without increased risk of postoperative complications or HIV transmission to the staff through the proper use of antibiotics, active antiretroviral therapy, and supplemental protective measures with post-exposure prophylaxis for the staff in case of HIV exposure.

  9. Protective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessam M. Abdel-Wahab

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many active ingredients extracted from herbal and medicinal plants are extensively studied for their beneficial effects. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging properties of thymoquinone (TQ have been reported. The present study evaluated the possible protective effects of TQ against the toxicity and oxidative stress of sodium fluoride (NaF in the liver of rats. Rats were divided into four groups, the first group served as the control group and was administered distilled water whereas the NaF group received NaF orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 4 weeks, TQ group was administered TQ orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg for 5 weeks, and the NaF-TQ group was first given TQ for 1 week and was secondly administered 10 mg/kg/day NaF in association with 10 mg/kg TQ for 4 weeks. Rats intoxicated with NaF showed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation whereas the level of reduced glutathione (GSH and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione S-transferase (GST and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were reduced in hepatic tissues. The proper functioning of the liver was also disrupted as indicated by alterations in the measured liver function indices and biochemical parameters. TQ supplementation counteracted the NaF-induced hepatotoxicity probably due to its strong antioxidant activity. In conclusion, the results obtained clearly indicated the role of oxidative stress in the induction of NaF toxicity and suggested hepatoprotective effects of TQ against the toxicity of fluoride compounds.

  10. Proceedings of the International Conference on Modern Radiotherapy. Advances and Challenges in Radiation Protection of Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in medicine has led to major improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases. While bringing new benefits for cancer treatment, modern radiotherapy also poses new challenges in terms of radiation protection of patients. Prevention of radiotherapy incidents and accidents is a major issue in this area. In December 2009, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) organised the 1. international conference on radiation protection of patients in radiotherapy. The major objective of the conference was to provide a platform for exchanging experience, and reviewing the actions implemented to improve the radiation safety in radiotherapy both at national and international level. The expected result was: - to reach a consensus about the necessity to strengthen existing international actions for prevention of incidents and accidents, - to set up an international cooperation to improve management for overexposed patients, - to outline a strategy for strengthening regulation, - to contribute to the elaboration of an international scale to rate patient related events for communication and reporting purpose. 360 delegates from 50 countries across the world participated at the 3-day conference. 41 presentations were made and 67 posters were displayed. The conference brought together a broad spectrum of expertise: scientists, health professionals, medical devices manufacturers, risk management specialists, radiation protection experts, representatives from Radiation Protection and Health Authorities as well as patient's associations. The programme covered both scientific and medical issues, such as patient sensitivity to ionising radiation and the treatment of complications. It also provided scope to discuss the benefits and risks of modern radiotherapy and to explore treatment safety issues from various perspectives, including human resources, expertise, education and training along with control and prevention strategies. The conference

  11. The importance of human FcgammaRI in mediating protection to malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S McIntosh

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The success of passive immunization suggests that antibody-based therapies will be effective at controlling malaria. We describe the development of fully human antibodies specific for Plasmodium falciparum by antibody repertoire cloning from phage display libraries generated from immune Gambian adults. Although these novel reagents bind with strong affinity to malaria parasites, it remains unclear if in vitro assays are predictive of functional immunity in humans, due to the lack of suitable animal models permissive for P. falciparum. A potentially useful solution described herein allows the antimalarial efficacy of human antibodies to be determined using rodent malaria parasites transgenic for P. falciparum antigens in mice also transgenic for human Fc-receptors. These human IgG1s cured animals of an otherwise lethal malaria infection, and protection was crucially dependent on human FcgammaRI. This important finding documents the capacity of FcgammaRI to mediate potent antimalaria immunity and supports the development of FcgammaRI-directed therapy for human malaria.

  12. Protective buffering and emotional desynchrony among spousal caregivers of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L; Rudd, Michael E; Syrjala, Karen L

    2007-09-01

    To examine protective buffering and emotional desynchrony among spousal caregivers of cancer survivors. Repeated measures; 42 caregivers engaged in 2 videotaped, oral emotional expression exercises: 1 in the presence of their patient and 1 in the absence of their patient. Felt emotion (self-report) and expressed emotion (lexical expression or words uttered and coder-derived facial expression). Other measures assessed mental and physical health, dyadic satisfaction, and dispositional emotional inhibition. Protective buffering differed by communicative channel (lexical vs. facial). Caregivers' facial expressions were more positive when the patient was present versus absent. In contrast, the valence of caregivers' words did not differ per patient presence. Facial protective buffering was unrelated to health and dyadic outcomes. Lexical protective buffering was inversely related to both caregiver and patient marital satisfaction. Dispositional emotional inhibition was inversely related to caregiver mental health and marital satisfaction. Desynchrony occurred when the patient was present but was counter to prediction; felt emotion was more positive than expressed emotion. Results provide behavioral evidence of facial protective buffering. To the extent that lexical buffering occurs, it poses a dyadic risk, and chronic inhibition poses both psychological and dyadic risks. Future research is needed to refine the operational definition of desynchrony and to examine the biopsychosocial sequelae of buffering. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Radiation hazards and protection of patient in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Y.C.; Haldar, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Biological radiation effects such as somatic certainty effects, somatic stochastic effects and genetic effects are described. Diagnostic radiology, therefore, involves risk to the patient in case of undesirable exposures and in particular to the fetus. Gonad doses in diagnostic radiology which may lead to genetic effects have been found to vary within a wide range. To avoid somatic certainty and to keep genetic effects to a minimum, some suggestions are enumerated. They deal with the choice of technique, proper positioning, use of calibrated equipment and use of techniques like xerography, ultrasonography, thermography etc. (M.G.B.)

  14. 78 FR 54069 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, and Eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... Qualified Health Plans; Exchange Standards for Employers, 77 FR 18310 (March 27, 2012). \\2\\ Patient..., including States, health insurance issuers, consumer groups, agents and brokers, provider groups, Members of....120(c) to Exchange consumer assistance entities, please see the recent final rule, Patient Protection...

  15. [Individual prevention of occupational contact dermatitis: protective gloves and skin protection recommendations as part of the patient management scheme by the public statutory employers' liability insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, A; Skudlik, C; Sonsmann, F K

    2018-05-02

    The dermatologist's procedure is a pivotal tool for early recognition of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD), for reporting OCD cases to the statutory accident insurance and for treating the diseases. The employer is in charge of implementing skin protection measures at the workplace. However, in terms of an individual prevention approach it may be necessary to propose targeted skin protection recommendations in specific patient cases. The patient's own skin protection behavior significantly contributes to regenerating and maintaining healthy skin. This behavior includes the use of occupational skin products, and in particular the correct use of appropriately selected protective gloves. Protective gloves are the most important personal protective measure in the prevention of OCD. Prevention services, occupational health and safety specialists, occupational physicians and centers specialized in occupational dermatology can support the identification of suitable protective measures. Nowadays, suitable protective gloves exist for (almost) every occupational activity and exposure. However, improper use in practice can become a risk factor by itself for the skin (e. g., incorrectly used gloves). Therefore, it is of utmost importance to identify application errors, to educate patients in terms of skin protection and to motivate them to perform an appropriate skin protection behavior. With particular focus on protective gloves, this article gives an overview of various types, materials and potentially glove-related allergens, presents strategies for reducing occlusion effects and discusses some typical application errors and solutions.

  16. The patient radiation protection in external radiotherapy: specificity and methods; La radioprotection du patient en radiotherapie externe: specificites et methodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvais March, H. [Hopital Val de Grace, 75 - Paris (France)

    1999-07-01

    The daily use of high level radiation doses to fight against carcinomas has often led to consider radiation protection as a marginal problem, in this area. But the therapeutic advances, by increasing the life time and life quality have made the side effects unacceptable and revealed the appearance of radioinduced carcinomas. So, it is necessary to practice a patient radiation protection. The general principles of radiation protection are applicable to radiotherapy. (justification, optimization and dose limit, planning of the treatment, quality control of installations). (N.C.)

  17. Proposed radiological protection rules for patients in radiodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yacovenco, A.; Souza, A.C.A.; Ferreira, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    Faced with the increasing exposure of the population to ionizing radiations and the need to respect users' rights, political and scientific efforts have been undertaken in order to improve image quality in radiodiagnostics and reduce risks to patients. In Brazil, in the past 20 years, a low rate of investment in this area and inadequate health policies have lead to diagnostic radiology services of poor quality. For their part, scientific societies, professional associations and the Ministry of Health have issued federal and state norms which require the control of physical parameters of the radiological equipment. Consequently, there is a need to create a National Reference Laboratory to oversee, inspect and evaluate the implementation of such norms. Another topic addressed in this article is the professional profile of the Medical Physics Specialist. (author)

  18. Protection of the human race against natural hazards (asteroids, comets, volcanoes, earthquakes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph V.

    1985-10-01

    Although we justifiably worry about the danger of nuclear war to civilization, and perhaps even to survival of the human race, we tend to consider natural hazards (e.g., comets, asteroids, volcanoes, earthquakes) as unavoidable acts of God. In any human lifetime, a truly catastrophic natural event is very unlikely, but ultimately one will occur. For the first time in human history we have sufficient technical skills to begin protection of Earth from some natural hazards. We could decide collectively throughout the world to reassign resources: in particular, reduction of nuclear and conventional weapons to a less dangerous level would allow concomitant increase of international programs for detection and prevention of natural hazards. Worldwide cooperation to mitigate natural hazards might help psychologically to lead us away from the divisive bickering that triggers wars. Future generations could hail us as pioneers of peace and safety rather than curse us as agents of death and destruction.

  19. THE RESPONSIBILITY OF PROTECTING (R2P HUMAN RIGHTS AND SECURITY COUNCIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ULDARICIO FIGUEROA PLÁ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption in 1948 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide seemed to open a new era in the international scenario in which these kind of practices apparently are left in the historic past. Reality has shown us that this international instrument was not enough to face arbitrary measures of some Governments. Nevertheless, genocide actions continuing to be performed, and in order to decrease human suffering, “humanitarian intervention” was thought as a response to the ineffectiveness of the Security Council which also brought along arbitrary actions in its invocation, discrediting it. Before the reiterated calls of the Secretary General of the United Nations to prevent and detain massive violations to human rights, an effort has been made in order to standardizing a type of interventions that can respond to massive violations of human rights. This has been called Responsibility to Protect.

  20. Human Milk Feeding as a Protective Factor for Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianguo; Shukla, Vivek V; John, Denny; Chen, Chao

    2015-12-01

    Studies have suggested that human milk feeding decreases the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP); however, conflicting results have been reported. The aim of this meta-analysis was to pool currently available data on incidence of ROP in infants fed human milk versus formula. Medline, PubMed, and EBSCO were searched for articles published through February 2015. Longitudinal studies comparing the incidence of ROP in infants who were fed human milk and formula were selected. Studies involving donor milk were not included. Two independent reviewers conducted the searches and extracted data. Meta-analysis used odds ratios (ORs), and subgroup analyses were performed. Five studies with 2208 preterm infants were included. Searches including various proportions of human milk versus formula, any-stage ROP, and severe ROP were defined to pool data for analyses. For any-stage ROP, the ORs (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) were as follows: exclusive human milk versus any formula, 0.29 (0.12 to 0.72); mainly human milk versus mainly formula, 0.51 (0.26 to 1.03); any human milk versus exclusive formula, 0.54 (0.15 to 1.96); and exclusive human milk versus exclusive formula, 0.25 (0.13 to 0.49). For severe ROP, they were 0.11 (0.04 to 0.30), 0.16 (0.06 to 0.43), 0.42 (0.08 to 2.18), and 0.10 (0.04 to 0.29), respectively. Prospective randomized studies being impossible because of ethical issues, we chose observational studies for analysis. A few studies involving subgroup analyses presented high heterogeneity. Based on current limited evidence, in very preterm newborns, human milk feeding potentially plays a protective role in preventing any-stage ROP and severe ROP. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Induction and Subversion of Human Protective Immunity: Contrasting Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, Stephanie; Paterson, Suzanna; Chiu, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza are among the most important causes of severe respiratory disease worldwide. Despite the clinical need, barriers to developing reliably effective vaccines against these viruses have remained firmly in place for decades. Overcoming these hurdles requires better understanding of human immunity and the strategies by which these pathogens evade it. Although superficially similar, the virology and host response to RSV and influenza are strikingly distinct. Influenza induces robust strain-specific immunity following natural infection, although protection by current vaccines is short-lived. In contrast, even strain-specific protection is incomplete after RSV and there are currently no licensed RSV vaccines. Although animal models have been critical for developing a fundamental understanding of antiviral immunity, extrapolating to human disease has been problematic. It is only with recent translational advances (such as controlled human infection models and high-dimensional technologies) that the mechanisms responsible for differences in protection against RSV compared to influenza have begun to be elucidated in the human context. Influenza infection elicits high-affinity IgA in the respiratory tract and virus-specific IgG, which correlates with protection. Long-lived influenza-specific T cells have also been shown to ameliorate disease. This robust immunity promotes rapid emergence of antigenic variants leading to immune escape. RSV differs markedly, as reinfection with similar strains occurs despite natural infection inducing high levels of antibody against conserved antigens. The immunomodulatory mechanisms of RSV are thus highly effective in inhibiting long-term protection, with disturbance of type I interferon signaling, antigen presentation and chemokine-induced inflammation possibly all contributing. These lead to widespread effects on adaptive immunity with impaired B cell memory and reduced T cell generation and

  2. Induction and Subversion of Human Protective Immunity: Contrasting Influenza and Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ascough

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV and influenza are among the most important causes of severe respiratory disease worldwide. Despite the clinical need, barriers to developing reliably effective vaccines against these viruses have remained firmly in place for decades. Overcoming these hurdles requires better understanding of human immunity and the strategies by which these pathogens evade it. Although superficially similar, the virology and host response to RSV and influenza are strikingly distinct. Influenza induces robust strain-specific immunity following natural infection, although protection by current vaccines is short-lived. In contrast, even strain-specific protection is incomplete after RSV and there are currently no licensed RSV vaccines. Although animal models have been critical for developing a fundamental understanding of antiviral immunity, extrapolating to human disease has been problematic. It is only with recent translational advances (such as controlled human infection models and high-dimensional technologies that the mechanisms responsible for differences in protection against RSV compared to influenza have begun to be elucidated in the human context. Influenza infection elicits high-affinity IgA in the respiratory tract and virus-specific IgG, which correlates with protection. Long-lived influenza-specific T cells have also been shown to ameliorate disease. This robust immunity promotes rapid emergence of antigenic variants leading to immune escape. RSV differs markedly, as reinfection with similar strains occurs despite natural infection inducing high levels of antibody against conserved antigens. The immunomodulatory mechanisms of RSV are thus highly effective in inhibiting long-term protection, with disturbance of type I interferon signaling, antigen presentation and chemokine-induced inflammation possibly all contributing. These lead to widespread effects on adaptive immunity with impaired B cell memory and reduced T cell

  3. Intra- and Inter-personal Consequences of Protective Buffering among Cancer Patients and Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Shelby L.; Brown, Jonathon D.; Syrjala, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Protective buffering refers to hiding cancer-related thoughts and concerns from one’s spouse or partner. This study sought to examine the intra- and inter-personal consequences of protective buffering and motivations for such (desire to shield partner from distress, desire to shield self from distress). METHODS Eighty hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients and their spousal caregivers/ partners completed measures designed to assess protective buffering and relationship satisfaction at two time points: prior to the transplant (T1) and 50 days post-transplant (T2). Overall mental health was also assessed at T2. RESULTS There was moderate agreement between one dyad member’s reported buffering of his/ her partner, and the partner’s perception of the extent to which s/he felt buffered. Caregivers buffered patients more than patients buffered caregivers, especially at T2. The more participants buffered their partners at T2, and the more they felt buffered, the lower their concurrent relationship satisfaction and the poorer their mental health. The latter effect was particularly true for patients who buffered, and patients who felt buffered. With respect to motivations, patients who buffered primarily to protect their partner at T1 reported increases in relationship satisfaction over time, but when they did so at T2, their caregiver reported concurrent decreases in relationship satisfaction. CONCLUSIONS Protective buffering is costly, in that those who buffer and those who feel buffered report adverse psychosocial outcomes. In addition, buffering enacted by patients with an intention to help may prove counterproductive, ultimately hurting the object of such protection. PMID:19731352

  4. Radiation protection of the patient during medical uses of ionizing radiation in the GDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, D.

    1987-01-01

    Section 18 of the new Radiation Protection Ordinance of the GDR defines basic principles for the radiation protection of patients undergoing diagnostic examinations or treatments with ionizing radiation, including, for example, the requirements that necessary exposures should be justifiable in terms of the benefit to be expected and that doses administered should be limited to as low an amount as possible. An outline is given of these principles, their importance and enforcement. (author)

  5. 78 FR 15553 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Establishment of Exchanges and Qualified Health Plans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-11

    ... & Medicaid Services, Department of Health and Human Services, Attention: CMS-9964-P2, P.O. Box 8016..., Attention: CMS-9964-P2, Mail Stop C4-26-05, 7500 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21244-1850. 4. By hand or... procedure, Advertising, Advisory Committees, Brokers, Conflict of interest, Consumer protection, Grant...

  6. NLRP3 polymorphism is associated with protection against human T-lymphotropic virus 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Jiro Kamada

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Inter-individual heterogeneity in the response to human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1 infection has been partially attributed to host genetic background. The antiviral activity of the inflammasome cytoplasmic complex recognises viral molecular patterns and regulates immune responses via the activation of interleukin (IL-1 family (IL-1, IL-18 and IL-33 members. The association between polymorphisms in the inflammasome receptors NLRP1 and NLRP3 and HTLV-1 infection was evaluated in a northeastern Brazilian population (84 HTLV-1 carriers and 155 healthy controls. NLRP3 rs10754558 G/G was associated with protection against HTLV-1 infection (p = 0.012; odds ratio = 0.37. rs10754558 affects NLRP3 mRNA stability; therefore, our results suggest that higher NLRP3 expression may augment first-line defences, leading to the effective protection against HTLV-1 infection.

  7. Formation of a protection film on the human skin by microparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lademann, J; Schanzer, S; Richter, H; Knorr, F; Sterry, W; Patzelt, A; Antoniou, C

    2008-01-01

    Laser scanning microscopy and tape stripping, in combination with optical methods, were used to analyze the distribution and penetration of a barrier cream into the horny layer (stratum corneum) of the human skin under in vivo conditions. The barrier cream contained microparticles of 10 – 100 μm loaded with antioxidant substances. The cream was designed for protection of the skin surface against the destructive action of free radicals, produced by systemically applied chemotherapeutic agents reaching the skin surface via the sweat. Both methods were able to demonstrate that the barrier cream was distributed homogeneously on the skin surface forming a protection film. A penetration into deeper parts of the stratum corneum (SC) was not observed

  8. Rosiglitazone protects human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Tae Woo; Lee, Ji Young; Shim, Wan Sub; Kang, Eun Seok; Kim, Soo Kyung; Ahn, Chul Woo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2006-01-01

    Acetaldehyde, an inhibitor of mitochondrial function, has been widely used as a neurotoxin because it elicits a severe Parkinson's disease-like syndrome with elevation of the intracellular reactive oxygen species level and apoptosis. Rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist, has been known to show various non-hypoglycemic effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and anti-apoptotic. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of rosiglitazone on acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and attempted to examine its mechanism. Acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis was moderately reversed by rosiglitazone treatment. Our results suggest that the protective effects of rosiglitazone on acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis may be ascribed to ability to induce the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes and to regulate Bcl-2 and Bax expression. These data indicate that rosiglitazone may provide a useful therapeutic strategy for the prevention of progressive neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson's disease

  9. Assessment and protection of esophageal mucosal integrity in patients with heartburn without esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, Philip; Lee, Chung; Duraisamy, Yasotha; Duraysami, Yasotha; Farré, Ricard; Dettmar, Peter; Sifrim, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Intact esophageal mucosal integrity is essential to prevent symptoms during gastroesophageal reflux events. Approximately 70% of patients with heartburn have macroscopically normal esophageal mucosa. In patients with heartburn, persistent functional impairment of esophageal mucosal barrier integrity may underlie remaining symptoms. Topical protection of a functionally vulnerable mucosa may be an attractive therapeutic strategy. We aimed to evaluate esophageal mucosal functional integrity in patients with heartburn without esophagitis, and test the feasibility of an alginate-based topical mucosal protection. Three distal esophageal biopsies were obtained from 22 patients with heartburn symptoms, and 22 control subjects. In mini-Ussing chambers, the change in transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) of biopsies when exposed to neutral, weakly acidic, and acidic solutions was measured. The experiment was repeated in a further 10 patients after pretreatment of biopsies with sodium alginate, viscous control, or liquid control "protectant" solutions. Biopsy exposure to neutral solution caused no change in TER. Exposure to weakly acidic and acidic solutions caused a greater reduction in TER in patients than in controls (weakly acid -7.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) -9.9 to -4.5) vs. 3.2% (-2.2 to 8.6), Pheartburn without esophagitis shows distinct vulnerability to acid and weakly acidic exposures. Experiments in vitro suggest that such vulnerable mucosa may be protected by application of an alginate-containing topical solution.

  10. Human alpha-defensin-1 protects cells from intoxication with Clostridium perfringens iota toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Stephan; Popoff, Michel R; Barth, Holger

    2018-03-01

    Iota toxin is produced by Clostridium perfringens type E strains and associated with diarrhea in cattle and lambs. This binary protein toxin comprises the enzyme component iota a (Ia), which ADP-ribosylates G-actin, and the separate transport component iota b (Ib), which delivers Ia into the cytosol of target cells. Ib binds to cell receptors and forms biologically active toxin complexes with Ia, which cause rounding of adherent cells due to the destruction of the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we report that the human peptide α-defensin-1 protects cultured cells including human colon cells from intoxication with iota toxin. In contrast, the related ß-defensin-1 had no effect, indicating a specific mode of action. The α-defensin-1 did not inhibit ADP-ribosylation of actin by Ia in vitro. Pretreatment of Ib with α-defensin-1 prior to addition of Ia prevented intoxication. Additionally, α-defensin-1 protected cells from cytotoxic effects mediated by Ib in the absence of Ia, implicating that α-defensin-1 interacts with Ib to prevent the formation of biologically active iota toxin on cells. In conclusion, the findings contribute to a better understanding of the functions of α-defensin-1 and suggest that this human peptide might be an attractive starting point to develop novel pharmacological options to treat/prevent diseases associated with iota toxin-producing Clostridium perfringens strains.

  11. Culture media from hypoxia conditioned endothelial cells protect human intestinal cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummitzsch, Lars; Zitta, Karina; Bein, Berthold; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

    2014-03-10

    Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a phenomenon, whereby short episodes of non-lethal ischemia to an organ or tissue exert protection against ischemia/reperfusion injury in a distant organ. However, there is still an apparent lack of knowledge concerning the RIPC-mediated mechanisms within the target organ and the released factors. Here we established a human cell culture model to investigate cellular and molecular effects of RIPC and to identify factors responsible for RIPC-mediated intestinal protection. Human umbilical vein cells (HUVEC) were exposed to repeated episodes of hypoxia (3 × 15 min) and conditioned culture media (CM) were collected after 24h. Human intestinal cells (CaCo-2) were cultured with or without CM and subjected to 90 min of hypoxia/reoxygenation injury. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, gelatin zymography, hydrogen peroxide measurements and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays were performed. In HUVEC cultures hypoxic conditioning did not influence the profile of secreted proteins but led to an increased gelatinase activity (Pcultures 90 min of hypoxia/reoxygenation resulted in morphological signs of cell damage, increased LDH levels (Pculture model may help to unravel RIPC-mediated cellular events and to identify molecules released by RIPC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic simulation and finite element analysis of the human mandible injury protected by polyvinyl alcohol sponge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi, E-mail: mnavid@iust.ac.ir; Razaghi, Reza

    2014-09-01

    There have been intensive efforts to find a suitable kinetic energy absorbing material for helmet and bulletproof vest design. Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge is currently in extensive use as scaffolding material for tissue engineering applications. PVA can also be employed instead of commonly use kinetic energy absorbing materials to increase the kinetic energy absorption capacity of current helmet and bulletproof vest materials owing to its excellent mechanical properties. In this study, a combined hexahedral finite element (FE) model is established to determine the potential protection ability of PVA sponge in controlling the level of injury for gunshot wounds to the human mandible. Digital computed tomography data for the human mandible are used to establish a three-dimensional FE model of the human mandible. The mechanism by which a gunshot injures the protected mandible by PVA sponge is dynamically simulated using the LS-DYNA code under two different shot angles. The stress distributions in different parts of the mandible and sponge after injury are also simulated. The modeling results regardless of shot angle reveal that the substantial amount of kinetic energy of the steel ball (67%) is absorbed by the PVA sponge and, consequently, injury severity of the mandible is significantly decreased. The highest energy loss (170 J) is observed for the impact at entry angle of 70°. The results suggest the application of the PVA sponge as an alternative reinforcement material in helmet and bulletproof vest design to absorb most of the impact energy and reduce the transmitted load. - Highlights: • The ability of PVA sponge to control the injury to the human mandible is computed. • A hexahedral FE model for gunshot wounds to the human mandible is established. • The kinetic energy and injury severity of the mandible is minimized by the sponge. • The highest energy loss (170 J) is observed for the impact at entry angle of 70°. • PVA suggests as an alternative

  13. Human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells protect against UVA irradiation-induced human dermal fibroblast senescence, in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunli; Yuchi, Haishen; Sun, Lu; Zhou, Xiaoli; Lin, Jinde

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine if human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) exert a protective effect on ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation-induced human dermal fibroblast (HDF) senescence. A senescence model was constructed as follows: HDFs (104–106 cells/well) were cultured in a six-well plate in vitro and then exposed to UVA irradiation at 9 J/cm2 for 30 min. Following the irradiation period, HDFs were co-cultured with HAMSCs, which were seeded on transwells. A total of 72 h following the co-culturing, senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining was performed and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were detected in the HDFs via flow cytometric analysis. The results demonstrated that the percentage of HDFs, detected via staining with X-gal, were markedly decreased when co-cultured with human HAMSCs, compared with the group that were not co-cultured. The ROS content was decreased and the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) recovered in cells treated with UVA and HAMSCs, compared with that of cells treated with UVA alone. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed the significant effects of HAMSCs on the HDF senescence marker genes p53 and matrix metalloproteinase-1 mRNA expression. In addition to this, western blot analysis verified the effects of HAMSCs on UVA induced senescence, providing a foundation for novel regenerative therapeutic methods. Furthermore, the results suggested that activation of the extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 mitogen activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway, is essential for the HAMSC-mediated UVA protective effects. The decrease in ROS content additionally indicated that HAMSCs may exhibit the potential to treat oxidative stress-mediated UVA skin senescence in the future. PMID:28627622

  14. Real-time sun protection decisions in first-degree relatives of melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer L; Shuk, Elyse; Schofield, Elizabeth; Loeb, Rebecca; Holland, Susan; Burkhalter, Jack; Li, Yuelin

    2017-09-01

    Melanoma is the most serious skin cancer, and consistent use of sun protection is recommended to reduce risk. Yet sun protection use is generally inconsistent. Understanding the decisional factors driving sun protection choices could aid in intervention development to promote sun protection maintenance. In 59 first-degree relatives of melanoma patients, an interactive voice response system (IVRS) on participants' cell phones was used to assess twice daily (morning, afternoon) real-time sun protection usage (sunscreen, shade, hats, protective clothing) and decision factors (weather, type of activity, convenience, social support) over a 14-day summer interval where morning and afternoon outdoor exposures were anticipated. Generalized estimating equations and hierarchical linear models were used to examine the effect of demographics and decisional factors on sun protection choices over time. Sun protection use was inconsistent (e.g., 61% used sunscreen inconsistently). Most strategies were used independently, with the exception of moderate overlap of sunscreen and hat usage. Decision factors were highly relevant for sun protection. For instance, sunscreen use was related to the perception of having adequate time to apply it, whereas shade and hat usage were each related to convenience. Few findings emerged by gender, age, time of day, or year. Significant within-subject variation remained, however. The findings support continued examination of decision factors in understanding sun protection consistency in real time. Interventions where cues to action and environmental supports work together in varied settings can be developed to improve sun protection maintenance in populations at risk for this common disease. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Edaravone Protects against Methylglyoxal-Induced Barrier Damage in Human Brain Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Andrea E.; Walter, Fruzsina R.; Bocsik, Alexandra; Sántha, Petra; Veszelka, Szilvia; Nagy, Lajos; Puskás, László G.; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Takata, Fuyuko; Dohgu, Shinya; Kataoka, Yasufumi; Deli, Mária A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Elevated level of reactive carbonyl species, such as methylglyoxal, triggers carbonyl stress and activates a series of inflammatory responses leading to accelerated vascular damage. Edaravone is the active substance of a Japanese medicine, which aids neurological recovery following acute brain ischemia and subsequent cerebral infarction. Our aim was to test whether edaravone can exert a protective effect on the barrier properties of human brain endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3 cell line) treated with methylglyoxal. Methodology Cell viability was monitored in real-time by impedance-based cell electronic sensing. The barrier function of the monolayer was characterized by measurement of resistance and flux of permeability markers, and visualized by immunohistochemistry for claudin-5 and β-catenin. Cell morphology was also examined by holographic phase imaging. Principal Findings Methylglyoxal exerted a time- and dose-dependent toxicity on cultured human brain endothelial cells: a concentration of 600 µM resulted in about 50% toxicity, significantly reduced the integrity and increased the permeability of the barrier. The cell morphology also changed dramatically: the area of cells decreased, their optical height significantly increased. Edaravone (3 mM) provided a complete protection against the toxic effect of methylglyoxal. Co-administration of edaravone restored cell viability, barrier integrity and functions of brain endothelial cells. Similar protection was obtained by the well-known antiglycating molecule, aminoguanidine, our reference compound. Conclusion These results indicate for the first time that edaravone is protective in carbonyl stress induced barrier damage. Our data may contribute to the development of compounds to treat brain endothelial dysfunction in carbonyl stress related diseases. PMID:25033388

  16. Edaravone protects against methylglyoxal-induced barrier damage in human brain endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Tóth

    Full Text Available Elevated level of reactive carbonyl species, such as methylglyoxal, triggers carbonyl stress and activates a series of inflammatory responses leading to accelerated vascular damage. Edaravone is the active substance of a Japanese medicine, which aids neurological recovery following acute brain ischemia and subsequent cerebral infarction. Our aim was to test whether edaravone can exert a protective effect on the barrier properties of human brain endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3 cell line treated with methylglyoxal.Cell viability was monitored in real-time by impedance-based cell electronic sensing. The barrier function of the monolayer was characterized by measurement of resistance and flux of permeability markers, and visualized by immunohistochemistry for claudin-5 and β-catenin. Cell morphology was also examined by holographic phase imaging.Methylglyoxal exerted a time- and dose-dependent toxicity on cultured human brain endothelial cells: a concentration of 600 µM resulted in about 50% toxicity, significantly reduced the integrity and increased the permeability of the barrier. The cell morphology also changed dramatically: the area of cells decreased, their optical height significantly increased. Edaravone (3 mM provided a complete protection against the toxic effect of methylglyoxal. Co-administration of edaravone restored cell viability, barrier integrity and functions of brain endothelial cells. Similar protection was obtained by the well-known antiglycating molecule, aminoguanidine, our reference compound.These results indicate for the first time that edaravone is protective in carbonyl stress induced barrier damage. Our data may contribute to the development of compounds to treat brain endothelial dysfunction in carbonyl stress related diseases.

  17. Academic training of radiation protection human resources in the X-ray medical diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.

    2008-12-01

    The current regulation, established by NOM-229-SSA1-2002 standard, T echnical requirements for facilities, health responsibilities, technical specifications for equipment and facilities for radiation protection in medical diagnosis with X-rays, t hat should be credited refresher courses, and training in radiation safety in accordance with current regulations, however, has been observed that the assistance and accreditation of courses is basically to cover administrative and regulatory requirements and therefore does not necessarily cover needs of the patient to radiation protection in the use of old and new technologies. David Brenner and Eric Hall claim that between 1.5 and 2% of all cancers in the USA may be attributable to exposure to X-ray computerized tomography techniques, given the intensive use of these techniques and the patient dose ranges in which incurred. While this is not debatable, if it is, the alternative does not seem to be abandoning the use of computerized tomography, because it gives them undoubted benefits with respect to invasive procedures. Deserves mention concerns the use of computerized tomography in children using scanning protocols designed for adults, in which case it incurs in 5 times higher dose. An additional warning about unwarranted use of computerized tomography is a procedure of this technique in abdomen resulting in an equivalent dose to 298 times that of a mammogram. Additional aspects such as biological effects (including deterministic) of both medical staff and patients of interventional procedures further reinforces the idea that there are education programs in radiation protection. Attention must put in the new generations, including in the curricula of medical residencies in radiology, endoscopy, cardiology and orthopedic, the education (no emerging courses) in radiation protection, radiobiology, radiology physics, and other topics, but previously must have medical physicists in radiology available to train new

  18. Airway skills training using a human patient simulator

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thesegan Moodley

    2016-04-11

    Apr 11, 2016 ... Airway management problems may be particularly challenging to junior doctors.1 ... They respond to real-time, real-life clinical ... Keywords: human patient simulator, simulation, airway management, psychomotor skills.

  19. Glutaredoxin-2 controls cardiac mitochondrial dynamics and energetics in mice, and protects against human cardiac pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges N. Kanaan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Glutaredoxin 2 (GRX2, a mitochondrial glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase, is central to glutathione homeostasis and mitochondrial redox, which is crucial in highly metabolic tissues like the heart. Previous research showed that absence of Grx2, leads to impaired mitochondrial complex I function, hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in mice but the impact on mitochondrial structure and function in intact cardiomyocytes and in humans has not been explored. We hypothesized that Grx2 controls cardiac mitochondrial dynamics and function in cellular and mouse models, and that low expression is associated with human cardiac dysfunction. Here we show that Grx2 absence impairs mitochondrial fusion, ultrastructure and energetics in primary cardiomyocytes and cardiac tissue. Moreover, provision of the glutathione precursor, N-acetylcysteine (NAC to Grx2-/- mice did not restore glutathione redox or prevent impairments. Using genetic and histopathological data from the human Genotype-Tissue Expression consortium we demonstrate that low GRX2 is associated with fibrosis, hypertrophy, and infarct in the left ventricle. Altogether, GRX2 is important in the control of cardiac mitochondrial structure and function, and protects against human cardiac pathologies. Keywords: Human heart, Mitochondria, Oxidative stress, Redox, Cardiac metabolism, Cardiac hypertrophy

  20. Special procedural measures and the protection of human rights
    General report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A.E. Vervaele

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the general report is to conduct a comparative analysis of the national reports in order to trace transformation processes in domestic criminal justice systems, in particular criminal process, as special procedural measures are introduced to deal with terrorism and organised crime, and to map whether this has led countries to depart from their own fundamental rules, procedures, principles and applicable human rights standards. Starting from the premise that the integrated system of criminal law has three dimensions – the protection of individuals (the shield dimension, the provision of instruments of law enforcement (the sword dimension, and of checks and balances/trias politica (the constitutional dimension – the report provides a comprehensive overview of interrelated transformations, mostly in the pre-trial setting, that have affected all three in three waves of ‘war’ (on drugs, organised crime and terrorism. In many countries, procedural guarantees and principles that protect against the infringement of fair trial rights are considered a burden to the efficiency of serious crime enforcement. These reforms have resulted in a clear expansion of the punitive state and a blurring of classic distinctions, and do not favour the rule of law. The focus on public security and preventive coercive investigation undermines the criminal justice system. With the criminal justice system increasingly used as an instrument to regulate the present and/or the future rather than to punish past behaviour, and a criminal process in which pre-trial investigation is not about truth-finding related to committed crime, but about the construction and de-construction of social dangerousness, the interests of national security may be said to be prevailing over justice and to be threatening due process and the protection of human rights – notwithstanding that general principles of criminal procedure seem to have become more important in the reporting

  1. Towards modelling flood protection investment as a coupled human and natural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, P. E.; O'Donnell, G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to a number of recent high-profile flood events and the apparent threat from global warming, governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains. However, adopting a proactive approach as a universal strategy is not affordable. It has been argued that delaying expensive and essentially irreversible capital decisions could be a prudent strategy in situations with high future uncertainty. This paper firstly uses Monte Carlo simulation to explore the performance of proactive and reactive investment strategies using a rational cost-benefit approach in a natural system with varying levels of persistence/interannual variability in annual maximum floods. It is found that, as persistence increases, there is a change in investment strategy optimality from proactive to reactive. This could have implications for investment strategies under the increasingly variable climate that is expected with global warming. As part of the emerging holistic approaches to flood risk management, there is increasing emphasis on stakeholder participation in determining where and when flood protection investments are made, and so flood risk management is becoming more people-centred. As a consequence, multiple actors are involved in the decision-making process, and the social sciences are assuming an increasingly important role in flood risk management. There is a need for modelling approaches which can couple the natural and human system elements. It is proposed that coupled human and natural system (CHANS) modelling could play an important role in understanding the motivations, actions and influence of citizens and institutions and how these impact on the effective delivery of flood protection investment. A framework for using agent-based modelling of human activities leading to flood investments is outlined, and some of the challenges associated with implementation are discussed.

  2. [Legislative and legal security of supervisory activities in the sphere of protection of consumers' rights and human well-being].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiantsev, G I; Kutsenko, G I; Polesskiĭ, V A

    2007-01-01

    Sanitary legislation plays an important role in supervisory activities ensuring the protection of consumers' rights and human well-being. The paper considers the basic laws and standard acts allowing for legal regulation in this sphere of activities.

  3. Protecting polar wilderness : Just a western philosophical idea or a useful concept for regulating human activities in the polar regions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, Kees; Leary, D.; Koivurova, T.; Alfredsson, G.

    2009-01-01

    Governments involved in Arctic and Antarctic governance have been well aware of the increasing human pressure on the Polar Regions and particularly the last two decades many initiatives have been taken to protect the Arctic and Antarctic environment. But what values are to be protected? This paper

  4. Privacy as human flourishing: could a shift towards virtue ethics strengthen privacy protection in the age of Big Data?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sloot, B.

    2014-01-01

    Privacy is commonly seen as an instrumental value in relation to negative freedom, human dignity and personal autonomy. Article 8 ECHR, protecting the right to privacy, was originally coined as a doctrine protecting the negative freedom of citizens in vertical relations, that is between citizen and

  5. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF DECISION MAKING AND ITS RELEVANCE TO RADIATION PROTECTION OF THE PATIENT IN MEDICINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, B Michael

    2018-02-01

    An analysis and review of the fundamental psychological basis of decision making has been undertaken in respect of radiation protection of the patient in medicine. Both clinical and scientific aspects of patient protection have been considered. Every stage of the clinical process of radiological examinations, from referral through to diagnostic outcome, has been shown to be subject to proven psychological effects including biases, framing, anchoring and prospect theory, which deals with perceived gains and losses. Such factors also influence the scientific aspects of radiation protection of the patient. Justification for the use of single dose reference level (DRL) values has employed framing with substitution or manipulation by accessibility in order to promote their usefulness. The use of DRLs as presently proposed constrains a diverse patient population to a reference or representative person. This approach is shown to represent a public health initiative that largely ignores the ethical basis of patient protection inherent in the Hippocratic Oath. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. About role of human factors in the building of physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.

    2001-01-01

    In our opinion, our contribution to the fight against the illicit turnover has to be focused on ensuring the safe keeping and integrity of nuclear material and radiation sources and on creating powerful and highly efficient physical protection systems. A special role in establishing the physical protection system (at all levels) pertains to the human factor. The nuclear energy sector security (as well as of other national industry sectors) is based on the people: developers, personnel, different level management responsible for decision-making process, the representative of regulatory, controlling and legal structures, and therefore, in general, the role of the human factor can be considered to be significant. After having analyzed, even in a general way, the status of the affairs we can see: 1) the stage of designing and development of facilities is actually completed; 2) the existing concept of protection does not meet current requirements of the physical protection; 3) the next period is the operation when it is necessary to adapt with using capabilities available to the today requirements and to establish conditions under which the human factor could compensate technical backwardness; 4) the final stage is the ChNPP decommissioning, the Object Shelter problem. It is obvious that the ChNPP decommissioning process will increase acuteness of the problem related to the physical protection of this facility. The operative situation while being formed during the physical protection ensuring, first of all, is affected by the following factors: 1) political factors: changes in the geopolitical situation caused by fundamental changes, formation of a national state based on a principle of democracy and law, etc.; 2) social and economic factors: difficulties originated during the period of transition towards the market economy, decrease in the standard of living; increase in the crime rate and criminalization of social relations and others; 3) spiritual wealth and cultural

  7. Human Factors Support in the Design and Evaluation of the Reactor Protection System Cabinet Operator Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Jung Woon

    2005-01-01

    A Korean project group, KNICS, is developing a new digitalized reactor protection system (RPS) and the developed system will be packaged into a cabinet with several racks. The cabinet of the RPS is used for the RPS function testing and monitoring by maintenance operators and is equipped with a flat panel display (FPD) with a touch screen capability as a main user interface for the RPS operation. This paper describes the human factors activities involved in the development process of the RPS: conceptual design, design guidance, and evaluation. The activities include a functional requirements analysis and task analysis, user interface style guide for the RPS cabinet operator module (COM), and a human factors evaluation through an experiment and questionnaires

  8. Sun Exposure and Protection Habits in Pediatric Patients with a History of Malignancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Levy-Shraga

    Full Text Available Survivors of childhood cancer are at high risk for developing non-melanoma skin cancer and therefore are firmly advised to avoid or minimize sun exposure and adopt skin protection measures. We aimed to compare sun exposure and protection habits in a cohort of pediatric patients with a history of malignancy to those of healthy controls.Case-control study of 143 pediatric patients with a history of malignancy (aged 11.2±4.6 y, Male = 68, mean interval from diagnosis 4.4±3.8 y and 150 healthy controls (aged 10.4±4.8 y, Male = 67. Sun exposure and protection habits were assessed using validated questionnaires.Patients and controls reported similar sun exposure time during weekdays (94±82 minutes/day vs. 81±65 minutes/day; p = 0.83, while during weekends patients spent significantly less time outside compared to controls (103±85 minutes/day vs. 124±87 minutes/day; p = 0.02. Time elapsed from diagnosis positively correlated with time spent outside both during weekdays (r = 0.194, p = 0.02 and weekends (r = 0.217, p = 0.01, and there was a step-up in sun exposure starting three years after diagnosis. There was no significant difference regarding composite sun protection score between patients and controls. Age was positively correlated with number of sunburns per year and sun exposure for the purpose of tanning, and was negatively correlated with the use of sun protection measures.Although childhood cancer survivors are firmly instructed to adopt sun protection habits, the adherence to these instructions is incomplete, and more attention should be paid to improve these habits throughout their lives. Since sunlight avoidance may results in vitamin D deficiency, dietary supplementation will likely be needed.

  9. Sun Exposure and Protection Habits in Pediatric Patients with a History of Malignancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Shraga, Yael; Cohen, Rinat; Ben Ami, Michal; Yeshayahu, Yonatan; Temam, Vered; Modan-Moses, Dalit

    2015-01-01

    Background Survivors of childhood cancer are at high risk for developing non-melanoma skin cancer and therefore are firmly advised to avoid or minimize sun exposure and adopt skin protection measures. We aimed to compare sun exposure and protection habits in a cohort of pediatric patients with a history of malignancy to those of healthy controls. Methods Case-control study of 143 pediatric patients with a history of malignancy (aged 11.2±4.6y, Male = 68, mean interval from diagnosis 4.4±3.8y) and 150 healthy controls (aged 10.4±4.8y, Male = 67). Sun exposure and protection habits were assessed using validated questionnaires. Results Patients and controls reported similar sun exposure time during weekdays (94±82minutes/day vs. 81±65minutes/day; p = 0.83), while during weekends patients spent significantly less time outside compared to controls (103±85minutes/day vs. 124±87minutes/day; p = 0.02). Time elapsed from diagnosis positively correlated with time spent outside both during weekdays (r = 0.194, p = 0.02) and weekends (r = 0.217, p = 0.01), and there was a step-up in sun exposure starting three years after diagnosis. There was no significant difference regarding composite sun protection score between patients and controls. Age was positively correlated with number of sunburns per year and sun exposure for the purpose of tanning, and was negatively correlated with the use of sun protection measures. Conclusions Although childhood cancer survivors are firmly instructed to adopt sun protection habits, the adherence to these instructions is incomplete, and more attention should be paid to improve these habits throughout their lives. Since sunlight avoidance may results in vitamin D deficiency, dietary supplementation will likely be needed. PMID:26348212

  10. Human skin in vitro permeation of bentazon and isoproturon formulations with or without protective clothing suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Aurélie; Hopf, Nancy B; Miles, Alexandra; Spring, Philipp; Charrière, Nicole; Garrigou, Alain; Baldi, Isabelle; Vernez, David

    2014-01-01

    Skin exposures to chemicals may lead, through percutaneous permeation, to a significant increase in systemic circulation. Skin is the primary route of entry during some occupational activities, especially in agriculture. To reduce skin exposures, the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is recommended. PPE efficiency is characterized as the time until products permeate through material (lag time, Tlag). Both skin and PPE permeations are assessed using similar in vitro methods; the diffusion cell system. Flow-through diffusion cells were used in this study to assess the permeation of two herbicides, bentazon and isoproturon, as well as four related commercial formulations (Basagran(®), Basamais(®), Arelon(®) and Matara(®)). Permeation was measured through fresh excised human skin, protective clothing suits (suits) (Microchem(®) 3000, AgriSafe Pro(®), Proshield(®) and Microgard(®) 2000 Plus Green), and a combination of skin and suits. Both herbicides, tested by itself or as an active ingredient in formulations, permeated readily through human skin and tested suits (Tlag < 2 h). High permeation coefficients were obtained regardless of formulations or tested membranes, except for Microchem(®) 3000. Short Tlag, were observed even when skin was covered with suits, except for Microchem(®) 3000. Kp values tended to decrease when suits covered the skin (except when Arelon(®) was applied to skin covered with AgriSafe Pro and Microgard(®) 2000), suggesting that Tlag alone is insufficient in characterizing suits. To better estimate human skin permeations, in vitro experiments should not only use human skin but also consider the intended use of the suit, i.e., the active ingredient concentrations and type of formulations, which significantly affect skin permeation.

  11. Evaluation of the knowledge of physicians prescribing CT examinations on the radiation protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervaise, A.; Pernin, M.; Naulet, P.; Portron, Y.; Lapierre-Combes, M.; Esperabe-Vignau, F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the knowledge of physicians prescribing CT examinations on the radiation protection of patients. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was distributed to all clinicians on medical staff who prescribe CT examinations. Several questions related to their prescription pattern and their knowledge of radiation protection. Results: Forty-four questionnaires were analyzed. While 70% of physicians claimed that they considered the risks from exposure to ionizing radiation when prescribing a CT examination, only 25% informed their patients about those risks. Knowledge of the radiation dose delivered during CT evaluation of the abdomen and pelvis was poorly understood and the risks related to small doses of radiation were grossly underestimated. Finally, only a third of clinicians had received training with regards to radiation protection. Conclusion: While most clinicians claim that they consider the risks from exposure to ionizing radiation when prescribing a CT examination, the risks are either not well known or not known at all. Increased formation of clinicians with regards to the radiation protection of patients, maybe through a dedicated clinical rotation while in medical school, could be a solution to improve the knowledge of hospital clinicians with regards to radiation protection. (authors)

  12. [Evaluation of the knowledge of physicians prescribing CT examinations on the radiation protection of patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaise, A; Esperabe-Vignau, F; Pernin, M; Naulet, P; Portron, Y; Lapierre-Combes, M

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledge of physicians prescribing CT examinations on the radiation protection of patients. A questionnaire was distributed to all clinicians on medical staff who prescribe CT examinations. Several questions related to their prescription pattern and their knowledge of radiation protection. Forty-four questionnaires were analyzed. While 70% of physicians claimed that they considered the risks from exposure to ionizing radiation when prescribing a CT examination, only 25% informed their patients about those risks. Knowledge of the radiation dose delivered during CT evaluation of the abdomen and pelvis was poorly understood and the risks related to small doses of radiation were grossly underestimated. Finally, only a third of clinicians had received training with regards to radiation protection. While most clinicians claim that they consider the risks from exposure to ionizing radiation when prescribing a CT examination, the risks are either not well known or not known at all. Increased formation of clinicians with regards to the radiation protection of patients, maybe through a dedicated clinical rotation while in medical school, could be a solution to improve the knowledge of hospital clinicians with regards to radiation protection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS and Éditions françaises de radiologie. All rights reserved.

  13. Uses of the cost of human life in protection against ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, Ph.; Dupuis-Ligieza, E.

    1998-01-01

    Management of radiation protection is based on the assumption that there is no safe level of exposure. Rathier, the risk (e.g. probability of induction of fatal cancers) is assumed to decrease in a linear way with the dose (measured by the effective dose in Sievert: Sv). Therefore, regulations state that all doses must be kept As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) ranges among the methods that allow identification of an 'optimum' protection level, balancing the risk reduction against the costs. That can be derived from exposure, expressed as a 'collective dose', with the help of the dose exposure relationship (100 Person-Sievert leads to 5 lethal cancers plus 2.2' equivalent lethal cancers 'due to non fatal cancers and heredity effect). Thus the 'Value of the Collective Dose', the usual parameter in decision making, is assigned a monetary value, and it is linked to the 'Value of Human Life'. Nevertheless, Cost Benefit Analysis is not the only possible method and pricing the Person-Sievert is therefore not necessary. Traditional pragmatic approaches and engineering judgement can be used. At present there is a development within Europe of CBA in radiation protection and 'Value of Person-Sievert' is put forward. A study was conducted in order better to understand what figures are cited, in which conditions those figures are really used, and what perspectives may be offered. (authors)

  14. Cervicovaginal secretions protect from human papillomavirus infection: effects of vaginal douching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Tang-Yuan; Chang, Ying-Cheng; Ding, Dah-Ching

    2013-06-01

    Cervicovaginal secretions (CVSs) are reported to protect against human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Although vaginal douching is known to clear both viral inoculants and CVSs, its effect on CVSs in women with HPV infection is unknown. The in vitro HPV pseudovirus infection system was used to test the protective activity of CVSs against HPV infection in samples collected before and after vaginal douching. To simulate different time points of vaginal douching in relation to viral exposure, the cell CVS reconstitute was washed after different viral exposure durations. In the CVSs of premenopausal and postmenopausal women who did not perform douching, the CVSs inhibited HPV infection by 56.7 ± 1.8% and 53.6 ± 2.5%, respectively; in women who had performed douching, the CVSs inhibited HPV infection by only 31.2 ± 7.1%, which was significantly lower (p infection existed for up to 8 hours after HPV exposure, and cell washing increased the clearance to up to 82-93% of the infectious load. This study confirms the protective activity of CVSs against HPV infection regardless of age. In this in vitro study, the net effect of douching was found to be beneficial. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. The protective effect of resveratrol on human lens epithelial cells against ultraviolet-induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue - Fang Chen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the protective effect of resveratrol on human lens epithelial cells against ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. METHODS:Subcultured human lens epithelial cell line, ultraviolet induced cell apoptosis, 20μmol/L resveratrol pretreated cell, the indicators change was observed: rate of apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and apoptosis-related factors of caspses-3 and caspase-9 were detected by colorimetric detection, ultrastructure changes were observed under transmission electron microscope. RESULTS: Flow cytometry instrument testing found that resveratrol can suppress the apoptosis induced by ultraviolet irradiation, caspses-3 and caspase-9 content in positive control group were significantly higher than that of the negative control group at the same time period, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05; caspses-3 and caspase-9 content in experimental group were lower than that in the positive control group at the same time, the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05. In addition, the damage of human lens epithelial cells was alleviated with the incubation time of resveratrol elongated. CONCLUSION:Resveratrol may inhibit ultraviolet-induced apoptosis of human lens epithelial cells, it has preventive function against radioactive cataract, and it can provide reliable evidence for pursuing effective medicine to prevent and treat cataract.

  16. ASSERTING AND DEVELOPING THE IDEA OF LEGAL OBLIGATION, FOR ENSURING AND PROTECTING THE HUMAN RIGHTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena MARIN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have been written about human rights and freedoms. Addressing this issue appears to be within everyone’s reach and everyone seems to be good at launching discussions about human rights and freedoms. When we are given the opportunity of collecting information about these concepts or of expressing a point of view, we should first refer to the concept itself, as researched by scholars, and then see how these studies can be found in practice, in everyday life. Otherwise, purely theoretical studies and Abstract: analyzes do not have any sense; do not produce any effect, facts which would render them useless. In this paper we aim at analyzing the concepts of legal obligation, of ensuring and protecting the human rights, viewed as a whole, as a unit, just as an idea is perceived. Thus, we are going to place human rights and freedoms in relation to legal normativity, to theory and their legal regulation on the one hand, and, on the other hand, we are going to focus on the materialization and implementation of these concepts, particularly within the national borders, but also in the European Union.

  17. Radiation Protection of Environment under the Light of the New Concept of Radiation Protection of Non-Human Species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansruedi Voelkle

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the question of whether radiation protection should be extended to plants and animals. Until now the recommendations of ICRP have been focused exclusively on the protection of man from ionizing radiation. It was assumed that, if man is protected, the quality of the living environment is not impaired. In recent years adequate principles, recommendations and laws have become necessary in order to protect the environment from man made toxins. These recommendations aimed to conserve plants and animals, to maintain the diversity of species, the health and status of natural habitats and the natural resources of our planet, to warrant natural evolution and selection processes in order to transmit a healthy world to future generations. Reflections have been made as to whether particular protection of fauna and flora from ionizing radiation should be included. This article presents some considerations from the point of view of operational radiation protection and some comments to the work already done by ICRP committee 5. The final purpose is to invite the audience to make its own reflections and to communicate any criticisms, comments or suggestions to committee 5 of ICRP. (author)

  18. Radiation Protection of Environment under the Light of the New Concept of Radiation Protection of Non-Human Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansruedi Voelkle [Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Environmental Radioactivity Section, c/o Physics Department, University of Fribourg Chemin du Musee 3, 1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the question of whether radiation protection should be extended to plants and animals. Until now the recommendations of ICRP have been focused exclusively on the protection of man from ionizing radiation. It was assumed that, if man is protected, the quality of the living environment is not impaired. In recent years adequate principles, recommendations and laws have become necessary in order to protect the environment from man made toxins. These recommendations aimed to conserve plants and animals, to maintain the diversity of species, the health and status of natural habitats and the natural resources of our planet, to warrant natural evolution and selection processes in order to transmit a healthy world to future generations. Reflections have been made as to whether particular protection of fauna and flora from ionizing radiation should be included. This article presents some considerations from the point of view of operational radiation protection and some comments to the work already done by ICRP committee 5. The final purpose is to invite the audience to make its own reflections and to communicate any criticisms, comments or suggestions to committee 5 of ICRP. (author)

  19. Donor Human Milk Protects against Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor-Martínez, Eduardo; Pierro, Maria; Cavallaro, Giacomo; Mosca, Fabio; Kramer, Boris W; Villamor, Eduardo

    2018-02-20

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication after preterm birth. Pasteurized donor human milk (DHM) has increasingly become the standard of care for very preterm infants over the use of preterm formula (PF) if the mother's own milk (MOM) is unavailable. Studies have reported beneficial effects of DHM on BPD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies on the effects of DHM on BPD and other respiratory outcomes. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of RCTs could not demonstrate that supplementation of MOM with DHM reduced BPD when compared to PF (three studies, risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60-1.32). However, meta-analysis of observational studies showed that DHM supplementation reduced BPD (8 studies, RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67-0.90). An exclusive human milk diet reduced the risk of BPD, compared to a diet with PF and/or bovine milk-based fortifier (three studies, RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68-0.95). Feeding raw MOM, compared to feeding pasteurized MOM, protected against BPD (two studies, RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62-0.96). In conclusion, our data suggest that DHM protects against BPD in very preterm infants.

  20. Protective effect of grape seed extracts on human lymphocytes: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Lee, Kit Yee; Kalle, Wouter; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2013-03-01

    Grape seed extracts (GSEs) possess a broad spectrum of antioxidative properties that protects various cells from free radicals and oxidative stress. In this study, the genoprotective effect of GSE on human lymphocytic DNA was studied using standard and lysed cell comet assays. Lymphocytes from 5 healthy subjects were pretreated with GSE in different concentrations. The standard and lysed cell comet assays were performed on treated, untreated, challenged, and unchallenged cells in parallel. Cells were then subjected to an oxidant challenge induced with 5-min exposures to hydrogen peroxide. In the standard comet assay, GSE significantly diminished hydrogen-peroxide-induced DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. In the lysed cell assay, however, the antioxidant effect was diminished at a higher GSE concentration. Data indicate that the cell membrane might play a role in limiting cellular access to antioxidants, which directly affects the genoprotective or potential pro-oxidant effect of antioxidants on human DNA. Using both standard and lysed cell comet assays in parallel could be a useful way to elucidate the mechanism of protection or damage by antioxidants.

  1. BDNF/TrkB signaling protects HT-29 human colon cancer cells from EGFR inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetto de Farias, Caroline; Heinen, Tiago Elias; Pereira dos Santos, Rafael; Abujamra, Ana Lucia; Schwartsmann, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► BDNF protected HT-29 colorectal cancer cells from the antitumor effect of cetuximab. ► TrkB inhibition potentiated the antitumor effect of cetuximab. ► BDNF/TrkB signaling might be involved in resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. -- Abstract: The clinical success of targeted treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) is often limited by resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB have recently emerged as anticancer targets, and we have previously shown increased BDNF levels in CRC tumor samples. Here we report the findings from in vitro experiments suggesting that BDNF/TrkB signaling can protect CRC cells from the antitumor effects of EGFR blockade. The anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab reduced both cell proliferation and the mRNA expression of BDNF and TrkB in human HT-29 CRC cells. The inhibitory effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation and survival was counteracted by the addition of human recombinant BDNF. Finally, the Trk inhibitor K252a synergistically enhanced the effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation, and this effect was blocked by BDNF. These results provide the first evidence that increased BDNF/TrkB signaling might play a role in resistance to EGFR blockade. Moreover, it is possible that targeting TrkB could potentiate the anticancer effects of anti-EGFR therapy.

  2. BDNF/TrkB signaling protects HT-29 human colon cancer cells from EGFR inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetto de Farias, Caroline [Cancer Research Laboratory, University Hospital Research Center (CPE-HCPA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Children' s Cancer Institute, 90420-140 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Laboratory of Neuropharmacology and Neural Tumor Biology, Department of Pharmacology, Institute for Basic Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90050-170 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM), 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Heinen, Tiago Elias; Pereira dos Santos, Rafael [Cancer Research Laboratory, University Hospital Research Center (CPE-HCPA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Laboratory of Neuropharmacology and Neural Tumor Biology, Department of Pharmacology, Institute for Basic Health Sciences, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90050-170 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM), 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Abujamra, Ana Lucia [Cancer Research Laboratory, University Hospital Research Center (CPE-HCPA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Children' s Cancer Institute, 90420-140 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM), 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Schwartsmann, Gilberto [Cancer Research Laboratory, University Hospital Research Center (CPE-HCPA), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); National Institute for Translational Medicine (INCT-TM), 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, 90035-003 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); and others

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF protected HT-29 colorectal cancer cells from the antitumor effect of cetuximab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TrkB inhibition potentiated the antitumor effect of cetuximab. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDNF/TrkB signaling might be involved in resistance to anti-EGFR therapy. -- Abstract: The clinical success of targeted treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) is often limited by resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy. The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor TrkB have recently emerged as anticancer targets, and we have previously shown increased BDNF levels in CRC tumor samples. Here we report the findings from in vitro experiments suggesting that BDNF/TrkB signaling can protect CRC cells from the antitumor effects of EGFR blockade. The anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab reduced both cell proliferation and the mRNA expression of BDNF and TrkB in human HT-29 CRC cells. The inhibitory effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation and survival was counteracted by the addition of human recombinant BDNF. Finally, the Trk inhibitor K252a synergistically enhanced the effect of cetuximab on cell proliferation, and this effect was blocked by BDNF. These results provide the first evidence that increased BDNF/TrkB signaling might play a role in resistance to EGFR blockade. Moreover, it is possible that targeting TrkB could potentiate the anticancer effects of anti-EGFR therapy.

  3. Donor Human Milk Protects against Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Villamor-Martínez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is the most common complication after preterm birth. Pasteurized donor human milk (DHM has increasingly become the standard of care for very preterm infants over the use of preterm formula (PF if the mother’s own milk (MOM is unavailable. Studies have reported beneficial effects of DHM on BPD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs and observational studies on the effects of DHM on BPD and other respiratory outcomes. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of RCTs could not demonstrate that supplementation of MOM with DHM reduced BPD when compared to PF (three studies, risk ratio (RR 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.60–1.32. However, meta-analysis of observational studies showed that DHM supplementation reduced BPD (8 studies, RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67–0.90. An exclusive human milk diet reduced the risk of BPD, compared to a diet with PF and/or bovine milk-based fortifier (three studies, RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68–0.95. Feeding raw MOM, compared to feeding pasteurized MOM, protected against BPD (two studies, RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.62–0.96. In conclusion, our data suggest that DHM protects against BPD in very preterm infants.

  4. Ultraviolet-B Protective Effect of Flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata on Human Dermal Fibroblast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Juilee; Bhatt, Purvi

    2015-10-01

    The exposure of skin to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiations leads to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage and can induce production of free radicals which imbalance the redox status of the cell and lead to increased oxidative stress. Clove has been traditionally used for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-viral, and antiseptic effects. To evaluate the UV-B protective activity of flavonoids from Eugenia caryophylata (clove) buds on human dermal fibroblast cells. Protective ability of flavonoid-enriched (FE) fraction of clove was studied against UV-B induced cytotoxicity, anti-oxidant regulation, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, apoptotic morphological changes, and regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 antioxidant response element (Nrf2 ARE) pathway. FE fraction showed a significant antioxidant potential. Pretreatment of cells with FE fraction (10-40 μg/ml) reversed the effects of UV-B induced cytotoxicity, depletion of endogenous enzymatic antioxidants, oxidative DNA damage, intracellular ROS production, apoptotic changes, and overexpression of Nrf2 and HO-1. The present study demonstrated for the first time that the FE fraction from clove could confer UV-B protection probably through the Nrf2-ARE pathway, which included the down-regulation of Nrf2 and HO-1. These findings suggested that the flavonoids from clove could potentially be considered as UV-B protectants and can be explored further for its topical application to the area of the skin requiring protection. Pretreatment of human dermal fibroblast with flavonoid-enriched fraction of Eugenia caryophylata attenuated effects of ultraviolet-B radiationsIt also conferred protection through nuclear factor E2-related factor 2-antioxidant response pathway and increased tolerance of cells against oxidative stressFlavonoid-enriched fraction can be explored further for topical application to the skin as a

  5. Human Factors Affecting the Patient's Acceptance of Wireless Biomedical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensli, Rune; Boisen, Egil

    In monitoring arrhythmia, the quality of medical data from the ECG sensors may be enhanced by being based on everyday life situations. Hence, the development of wireless biomedical sensors is of growing interest, both to diagnose the heart patient, as well as to adjust the regimen. However, human factors such as emotional barriers and stigmatization, may affect the patient's behavior while wearing the equipment, which in turn may influence quality of data. The study of human factors and patient acceptance is important both in relation to the development of such equipment, as well as in evaluating the quality of data gathered from the individual patient. In this paper, we highlight some important aspects in patient acceptance by comparing results from a preliminary clinical trial with patients using a wireless ECG sensor for three days out-of-hospital service, to available published results from telehomecare projects, and discuss important aspects to be taken into account in future investigations.

  6. Implementation of an action plan in radiological protection of the patient in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelin, S.; Perez, M.R.; Dubner, D.

    2006-01-01

    The medical irradiations constitute the main contribution to the human exposure to ionizing radiations of artificial character. The growing quantity of practices, facilities and human resources dedicated to such ends, it has increased the concern of regulator organisms and scientific societies by the radiological protection of the patient (PRP). Besides completing it regulatory function in the domains of the medical practices that its concern it, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of Argentina, decided to install an active discussion in order to promoting an action plan in PRP in the national environment. To such end, the ARN organized the First National Day on PRP in December, 2004, with the attendance of professionals of the fields of the Radiodiagnostic, the Nuclear Medicine and the Radiotherapy as well as of representatives of professional associations and authorities of health. In this day the conclusions of the International Conference on PRP (Malaga, 2001) and the approaches of the Directive 97/43/EURATOM adopted in European countries were presented. It was discussed about: practices justification, responsibility of the prescriber doctor, quality systems, dose optimization, reference levels, dosimetry, training of human resources, especially for certain practices (pregnant woman, pediatric radiology and interventionist, PR/118 tomography for the correct application of diagnostic practices and an expert presented in teleconference form the experience of France for the adoption of these guides. During the Second National Day on PRP organized by the ARN (June 2005), received opinions were debated in the different environments in relation to the PR/118 guide and it potential adaptation to the national conditions. Also it was presented the state of advance of the activities developed in relation to the proposed tasks. As a result of this meeting, it was conformed a national net of PRP to which intended to incorporate academic institutions, in order to

  7. First-in-man use of a novel embolic protection device for patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Christoph K; Ghanem, Alexander; Abizaid, Alexander A; Wolf, Alexander; Sinning, Jan-Malte; Werner, Nikos; Nickenig, Georg; Schmitz, Thomas; Grube, Eberhard

    2012-05-15

    We describe the first-in-human experience with a novel cerebral embolic protection device used during transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). One current challenge of TAVI is the reduction of procedural stroke. Procedural mobilisation of debris is a known source of cerebral embolisation. Mechanical protection by transient filtration of cerebral blood flow might reduce the embolic burden during TAVI. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of the Claret CE Pro™ cerebral protection device in patients undergoing TAVI. Patients scheduled for TAVI were prospectively enrolled at three centres. The Claret CE Pro™ (Claret Medical, Inc. Santa Rosa, CA, USA) cerebral protection device was placed via the right radial/brachial artery prior to TAVI and was removed after the procedure. The primary endpoint was technical success rate. Secondary endpoints encompassed procedural and 30-day stroke rates, as well as device-related complications. Deployment of the Claret CE Pro™ cerebral protection device was intended for use in 40 patients, 35 devices were implanted into the aortic arch. Technical success rate with delivery of the proximal and distal filter was 60% for the first generation device and 87% for the second-generation device. Delivery times for the first-generation device were 12.4±12.1 minutes and 4.4 ± 2.5 minutes for the second-generation device (pto the Claret CE Pro System was 19.6 ± 3.8 ml. Captured debris was documented in at least 19 of 35 implanted devices (54.3%). No procedural transient ischaemic attacks, minor strokes or major strokes occurred. Thirty-day follow-up showed one minor stroke occurring 30 days after the procedure, and two major strokes both occurring well after the patient had completed TAVI. The use of the Claret CE Pro™ system is feasible and safe. Capture of debris in more than half of the patients provides evidence for the potential to reduce the procedural cerebral embolic burden utilising this dedicated filter

  8. Patient safety - the role of human factors and systems engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E

    2010-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety.

  9. Patient Safety: The Role of Human Factors and Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E.

    2011-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety. PMID:20543237

  10. Potent protection of gallic acid against DNA oxidation: Results of human and animal experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferk, Franziska; Chakraborty, Asima; Jaeger, Walter; Kundi, Michael; Bichler, Julia; Misik, Miroslav; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Sagmeister, Sandra; Haidinger, Gerald; Hoelzl, Christine; Nersesyan, Armen; Dusinska, Maria; Simic, Tatjana; Knasmueller, Siegfried

    2011-01-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) is a constituent of plant derived foods, beverages and herbal remedies. We investigated its DNA protective properties in a placebo controlled human intervention trial in single cell gel electrophoresis experiments. Supplementation of drinking water with GA (12.8 mg/person/d) for three days led to a significant reduction of DNA migration attributable to oxidised pyrimidines (endonuclease III sensitive sites) and oxidised purines (formamidopyrimidine glycosylase sensitive sites) in lymphocytes of healthy individuals by 75% and 64% respectively. Also DNA damage caused by treatment of the cells with reactive oxygen species (ROS) was reduced after GA consumption (by 41%). These effects were paralleled by an increase of the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathion-S-transferase-π) and a decrease of intracellular ROS concentrations in lymphocytes, while no alterations of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), of malondialdehyde levels in serum and of the urinary excretion of isoprostanes were found. Experiments with rats showed that GA reduces oxidatively damaged DNA in lymphocytes, liver, colon and lungs and protects these organs against γ-irradiation-induced strand breaks and formation of oxidatively damaged DNA-bases. Furthermore, the number of radiation-induced preneoplastic hepatic foci was decreased by 43% after oral administration of the phenolic. Since we did not find alterations of the TAC in plasma and lipid peroxidation of cell membranes but intracellular effects it is likely that the antioxidant properties of GA seen in vivo are not due to direct scavenging of radicals but rather to indirect mechanisms (e.g. protection against ROS via activation of transcription factors). As the amount of GA used in the intervention trial is similar to the daily intake in Middle Europe (18 mg/person/day), our findings indicate that it may contribute to prevention of formation

  11. About role of human factors in the building of physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A special role in establishing the physical protection system (at all levels) pertains to the human factor. It is necessary to specify a place of this matter within the overall security system. The nuclear energy sector security (as well as of other national industry sectors) is based on the people: developers, personnel, different level management responsible for decision-making process, the representative of regulatory, controlling and legal structures, and therefore, in general, the rote of the human factor can be considered to be significant. The operative situation while being formed during the physical protection ensuring, first of all, is affected by the following factors: political, social and economic, spiritual wealth and cultural factors and etc. In addition, a new problem suddenly appeared related to the safety and security of the energy complex, that is: uncontrolled processes such as: non-payment, debts on salary for several month period; all this factors effect negatively the level of safety and security. In this clear, that in such a difficult situation the role of an individual is increasing. Ignorance of the above factors or their non-objective (incomplete, partial ignorance) accounting (consideration) finally can lead to the negative and irremediable consequences. Thus, the content and the extent of the security of a society, in general, and every person, in particular, directly depend on the functioning of all society's structure, and, first of all, on the economic, social, political and legal structures. As a result, the physical protection system acquires a complex or comprehensive structure and I shall describe its specifics in the paper. (author)

  12. Potent protection of gallic acid against DNA oxidation: Results of human and animal experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferk, Franziska; Chakraborty, Asima [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Jaeger, Walter [Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Diagnostic, University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Kundi, Michael [Institute of Environmental Health, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bichler, Julia; Misik, Miroslav [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Wagner, Karl-Heinz [Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Sagmeister, Sandra [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Haidinger, Gerald [Department of Epidemiology, Center for Public Health, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Hoelzl, Christine; Nersesyan, Armen [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Dusinska, Maria [Health Effect Laboratory, Center for Ecological Economics, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, NO-2027 Kjeller (Norway); Simic, Tatjana [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Knasmueller, Siegfried, E-mail: siegfried.knasmueller@meduniwien.ac.at [Institute of Cancer Research, Department of Medicine I, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-10-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) is a constituent of plant derived foods, beverages and herbal remedies. We investigated its DNA protective properties in a placebo controlled human intervention trial in single cell gel electrophoresis experiments. Supplementation of drinking water with GA (12.8 mg/person/d) for three days led to a significant reduction of DNA migration attributable to oxidised pyrimidines (endonuclease III sensitive sites) and oxidised purines (formamidopyrimidine glycosylase sensitive sites) in lymphocytes of healthy individuals by 75% and 64% respectively. Also DNA damage caused by treatment of the cells with reactive oxygen species (ROS) was reduced after GA consumption (by 41%). These effects were paralleled by an increase of the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathion-S-transferase-{pi}) and a decrease of intracellular ROS concentrations in lymphocytes, while no alterations of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), of malondialdehyde levels in serum and of the urinary excretion of isoprostanes were found. Experiments with rats showed that GA reduces oxidatively damaged DNA in lymphocytes, liver, colon and lungs and protects these organs against {gamma}-irradiation-induced strand breaks and formation of oxidatively damaged DNA-bases. Furthermore, the number of radiation-induced preneoplastic hepatic foci was decreased by 43% after oral administration of the phenolic. Since we did not find alterations of the TAC in plasma and lipid peroxidation of cell membranes but intracellular effects it is likely that the antioxidant properties of GA seen in vivo are not due to direct scavenging of radicals but rather to indirect mechanisms (e.g. protection against ROS via activation of transcription factors). As the amount of GA used in the intervention trial is similar to the daily intake in Middle Europe (18 mg/person/day), our findings indicate that it may contribute to prevention of

  13. Bifenthrin-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes in vitro and protective effect of selected flavonols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska-Woda, Izabela; Popowicz, Diana; Karowicz-Bilińska, Agata

    2010-03-01

    Bifenthrin is a synthetic pyrethroid with a broad spectrum of insecticidal and acaricidal activity used to control wide range of insect pests in a variety of applications. This investigation was designed to examine (1) bifenthrin as an inducer of oxidative stress in human erythrocytes in vitro through effects on catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and (2) the role of the flavonoids quercetin (Q, 40 and 80microM) and rutin (R, 80microM) in alleviating the effects of bifenthrin. Erythrocytes were divided into portions. The first portion was incubated for 4h at 37 degrees C with different concentrations (0, 42.2, 211, 1055ppm) of bifenthrin. The other portions were preincubated with Q or R for 30min, followed incubation with bifenthrin for 4h. The influence of solvent (ethanol) was also checked on the parameters studied. Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, CAT and SOD activities were measured in all treatment portions of erythrocytes. Our results demonstrated that bifenthrin-induced oxidative stress causes enhanced lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidative enzyme activities in human peripheral blood. R pretreated erythrocytes were protected against the increase of MDA induced by bifenthrin. Q (80microM) and R pretreated erythrocytes were protected against the inhibition of CAT activity induced by bifenthrin. The protective action against the inhibition of SOD activity of Q was greater than that of R at the same concentration. These results suggest that Q and R may play a role in reducing bifenthrin-induced oxidative stress in vitro. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Laurie G.; Sharpe, Susan; Feeser, Cynthia Jo; Ondeck, Lynnette; Fekaris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation's students within the healthcare system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as…

  15. 78 FR 12833 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential Health Benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... wellness services and chronic disease management; and pediatric services, including oral \\8\\ and vision... Act uses the terms ``dental'' and ``oral'' interchangeably when referring to the pediatric dental care... Parts 147, 155, and 156 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Essential...

  16. Protecting patients with cardiovascular diseases from catastrophic health expenditure and impoverishment by health finance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Fan, Yancun; McNeil, Edward

    2015-12-01

    To compare the incidences of catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) and impoverishment, the risk protection offered by two health financial reforms and to explore factors associated with CHE and impoverishment among patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in rural Inner Mongolia, China. Cross-sectional study conducted in 2014 in rural Inner Mongolia, China. Patients with CVDs aged over 18 years residing in the sample areas for at least one year were eligible. The definitions of CHE and impoverishment recommended by WHO were adopted. The protection of CHE and impoverishment was compared between the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) alone and NCMS plus National Essential Medicines Scheme (NEMS) using the percentage change of incidences for CHE and impoverishment. Logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with CHE and impoverishment. The incidences of CHE and impoverishment under NCMS plus NEMS were 11.26% and 3.30%, respectively, which were lower than those under NCMS alone. The rates of protection were higher among households with patients with CVDs covered by NCMS plus NEMS (25.68% and 34.65%, respectively). NCMS plus NEMS could protect the poor households more from CHE but not impoverishment. NCMS plus NEMS protected more than one-fourth of households from CHE and more than one-third from impoverishment. NCMS plus NEMS was more effective at protecting households with patients with CVDs from CHE and impoverishment than NCMS alone. An integration of NCMS with NEMS should be expanded. However, further strategies to minimise catastrophic health expenditure after this health finance reform are still needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Vania López Rodríguez; Emilio Carpio Muñoz; Vicente Fardales Macías; Iralys Benítez Guzmán

    2009-01-01

    Background: The Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease is related with multiple risk factors. Those patients with human immunodeficiency virus have higher risk of presenting this disease and it is usually more serious in these cases. Objective: To describe the prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV. Methods: Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study including patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province. The occurrence of the disease was determi...

  18. Patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Conference proceedings; Radioprotection des patients en imagerie medicale. Recueil des presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the conference organised by the French society of radiation protection about patients radiation protection in medical imaging. Twelve presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Medical exposure of the French population: methodology and results (Bernard Aubert, IRSN); 2 - What indicators for the medical exposure? (Cecile Etard, IRSN); 3 - Guidebook of correct usage of medical imaging examination (Philippe Grenier, Pitie-Salpetriere hospital); 4 - Radiation protection optimization in pediatric imaging (Hubert Ducou-Le-Pointe, Aurelien Bouette (Armand-Trousseau children hospital); 5 - Children's exposure to image scanners: epidemiological survey (Marie-Odile Bernier, IRSN); 6 - Management of patient's irradiation: from image quality to good practice (Thierry Solaire, General Electric); 7 - Dose optimization in radiology (Cecile Salvat (Lariboisiere hospital); 8 - Cancer detection in the breast cancer planned screening program - 2004-2009 era (Agnes Rogel, InVS); 9 - Mammographic exposures - radiobiological effects - radio-induced DNA damages (Catherine Colin, Lyon Sud hospital); 10 - Breast cancer screening program - importance of non-irradiating techniques (Anne Tardivon, Institut Curie); 11 - Radiation protection justification for the medical imaging of patients over the age of 50 (Michel Bourguignon, ASN); 12 - Search for a molecular imprint for the discrimination between radio-induced and sporadic tumors (Sylvie Chevillard, CEA)

  19. Flood Protection Decision Making Within a Coupled Human and Natural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Greg; O'Connell, Enda

    2013-04-01

    Due to the perceived threat from climate change, prediction under changing climatic and hydrological conditions has become a dominant theme of hydrological research. Much of this research has been climate model-centric, in which GCM/RCM climate projections have been used to drive hydrological system models to explore potential impacts that should inform adaptation decision-making. However, adaptation fundamentally involves how humans may respond to increasing flood and drought hazards by changing their strategies, activities and behaviours which are coupled in complex ways to the natural systems within which they live and work. Humans are major agents of change in hydrological systems, and representing human activities and behaviours in coupled human and natural hydrological system models is needed to gain insight into the complex interactions that take place, and to inform adaptation decision-making. Governments and their agencies are under pressure to make proactive investments to protect people living in floodplains from the perceived increasing flood hazard. However, adopting this as a universal strategy everywhere is not affordable, particularly in times of economic stringency and given uncertainty about future climatic conditions. It has been suggested that the assumption of stationarity, which has traditionally been invoked in making hydrological risk assessments, is no longer tenable. However, before the assumption of hydrologic nonstationarity is accepted, the ability to cope with the uncertain impacts of global warming on water management via the operational assumption of hydrologic stationarity should be carefully examined. Much can be learned by focussing on natural climate variability and its inherent changes in assessing alternative adaptation strategies. A stationary stochastic multisite flood hazard model has been developed that can exhibit increasing variability/persistence in annual maximum floods, starting with the traditional assumption of

  20. Bringing radiation protection into harmony with human life and the ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, T.

    2000-01-01

    A radiation protection policy that is truly in harmony with human life and the ecosystem cannot insist that radiation doses be reduced to as low as achievable regardless of the impact of such a policy on other aspects of human life and the ecosystem. This potential conflict of purposes can be approached from several directions, some of which are explored here. First, we must consider the presence of a large and variable background of natural radiation, whose health and ecological effects are virtually identical to those from human-generated radiation. To attempt to measure, account for, and reduce additional radiation sources that are far smaller than this background-indeed, far smaller than the natural variations in the background, affronts both science and common sense. Second, to base policy on extrapolation of several orders of magnitude from health effects resulting from high-level, high-dose rate, radiation is another serious departure from proper scientific practice. Third, to justify current policy as being conservative in the face of uncertainty is wrong on both counts. The uncertainty claimed by the policy makers is based on their unwillingness to consider and apply the enormous body of available evidence. The presumption of conservatism is based on the issue in question: that any level of radiation is deemed potentially harmful. Fourth, by not fully considering the cost of implementing current radiation policy, limited societal resources are diverted from critical needs, for little or no societal benefit. There are good data showing that health of the people and the environment are directly impacted by the amount of money available in the society to benefit real needs. In addition, the fear generated by the presumption that all radiation is harmful, leads to avoidance of life-saving medical techniques such as mammograms, irradiation of food, applications of radiation such as smoke detectors and medical research, reduction of air and ground pollution

  1. Cytotoxicity towards human endothelial cells, induced by neutrophil myeloperoxidase: protection by ceftazidime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mathy-Hartert

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of the antibiotic ceftazidime (CAZ on the cytolytic action of the neutrophil myeloperoxidase–hydrogen peroxide–chloride anion system (MPO/H2O2/Cl−. In this system, myeloperoxidase catalyses the conversion of H2O2 and CI− to the cytotoxic agent HOCl. Stimulated neutrophils can release MPO into the extracellular environment and then may cause tissue injury through direct endothelial cells lysis. We showed that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC were capable of taking up active MPO. In presence of H2O2 (10−4 M, this uptake was accompanied by cell lysis. The cytolysis was estimated by the release of 51Cr from HUVEC and expressed as an index of cytotoxicity (IC. Dose dependent protection was obtained for CAZ concentrations ranging from 10−5 to 10−3 M;this can be attributed to inactivation of HOCl by the drug. This protection is comparable to that obtained with methionine and histidine, both of which are known to neutralize HOCl. This protection by CAZ could also be attributed to inactivation of H2O2, but when cytolysis was achieved with H2O2 or O2− generating enzymatic systems, no protection by CAZ was observed. Moreover, the peroxidation activity of MPO (action on H2O2 was not affected by CAZ, while CAZ prevented the chlorination activity of MPO (chlorination of monochlorodimedon. So, we concluded that CAZ acts via HOCl inactivation. These antioxidant properties of CAZ may be clinically useful in pathological situations where excessive activation of neutrophils occurs, such as in sepsis.

  2. Physical-chemical basis of the protection of slowly frozen human erythrocytes by glycerol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rall, W.F.; Mazur, P.; Souzu, H.

    1978-07-01

    One theory of freezing damage suggests that slowly cooled cells are killed by being exposed to increasing concentrations of electrolytes as the suspending medium freezes. A corollary to this view is that protective additives such as glycerol protect cells by acting colligatively to reduce the electrolyte concentration at any subzero temperature. Recently published phase-diagram data for the ternary system glycerol-NaCl-water by M.L. Shepard et al. (Cryobiology, 13: 9-23, 1976), in combination with the data on human red cell survival vs. subzero temperature presented here and in the companion study of Souzu and Mazur (Biophys. J., 23: 89-100), permit a precise test of this theory. Appropriate liquidus phase-diagram information for the solutions used in the red cell freezing experiments was obtained by interpolation of liquidus data of Shepard and his co-workers. The results of phase-diagram analysis of red cell survival indicate that the correlation between the temperature that yields 50% hemolysis (LT/sub 50/) and the electrolyte concentration attained at that temperature in various concentrations of glycerol is poor. With increasing concentrations of glycerol, the cells were killed at progressively lower concentrations of NaCl. For example, the LT/sub 50/ for cells frozen in the absence of glycerol corresponds to a NaCl concentration of 12 weight percent (2.4 molal), while for cells frozen in 1.75 M glycerol in buffered saline the LT/sub 50/ corresponds to 3.0 weight percent NaCl (1.3 molal). The data, in combination with other findings, lead to two conclusions: (a) The protection from glycerol is due to its colligative ability to reduce the concentration of sodium chloride in the external medium, but (b) the protection is less than that expected from colligative effects; apparently glycerol itself can also be a source of damage, probably because it renders the red cells susceptible to osmotic shock during thawing.

  3. The Impact of Environmental Design on Doffing Personal Protective Equipment in a Healthcare Environment: A Formative Human Factors Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihey, Tracey A; Gelmi, Stefano; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Hall, Trevor N T

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the impact of environmental design on doffing personal protective equipment in a simulated healthcare environment. METHODS A mixed-methods approach was used that included human-factors usability testing and qualitative questionnaire responses. A patient room and connecting anteroom were constructed for testing purposes. This experimental doffing area was designed to overcome the environmental failures identified in a previous study and was not constructed based on any generalizable hospital standard. RESULTS In total, 72 healthcare workers from Ontario, Canada, took part in the study and tested the simulated doffing area. The following environmental design changes were tested and were deemed effective: increasing prominence of color-coded zones; securing disinfectant wipes and hand sanitizer; outlining disposal bins locations; providing mirrors to detect possible contamination; providing hand rails to assist with doffing; and restricting the space to doff. Further experimentation and iterative design are required with regard to several important features: positioning the disposal bins for safety, decreasing the risk of contamination and user accessibility; optimal positioning of mirrors for safety; communication within the team; and positioning the secondary team member for optimal awareness. Additional design suggestions also emerged during this study, and they require future investigation. CONCLUSIONS This study highlights the importance of the environment on doffing personal protective equipment in a healthcare setting. Iterative testing and modification of the design of the environment (doffing area) are important to enhancing healthcare worker safety. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:712-717.

  4. Physical restraint and the protection of the human rights of immigration detainees in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Hilary; Norton, Emma; Ginn, Emma; Schleicher, Theresa

    2015-08-01

    Immigration detainees, like prisoners, are entitled to the same standard of healthcare as non-detained patients. When hospital attendance or admission is required, the priority for custodial staff (who for purposes of this article we refer to as 'escorts') is to prevent absconding. For that reason, they may wish to use physical restraints, such as handcuffs, and remain with the detainee at all times. This can be degrading for the patient and breach their human rights. Clinicians have professional obligations to all their patients and must object to any restraint methods that risk damaging the patient's right to confidentiality, treatment, health or the therapeutic relationship itself. The starting presumption is that restraints ought not to be used during treatment and only in the most exceptional cases ought escorts to be present during clinical examination or treatment. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  5. The radiologist's responsibilities for the radiation protection of patients; Obligations du radiologue pour la radioprotection des patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etard, C. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2010-11-15

    The obligations of the radiologist for the radiation protection of patients include a review of the appropriateness of the examination and optimization of the protocol. Both internal and external quality assurance programs are mandatory. The specific tasks and their frequency are defined by the AFSSAPS. The radiology report of procedures performed over radiosensitive regions must include the delivered dose. The imaging technique must be optimized based on published guidelines or law for the most frequent examinations. All radiologists should be familiar with radiation protection. Incidents should be reported to the Nuclear Safety Authority. (author)

  6. Do people with intellectual disability require special human subjects research protections? The interplay of history, ethics, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feudtner, Chris; Brosco, Jeffrey P

    2011-01-01

    People with intellectual disability (ID) have a long history of discrimination and stigmatization, and a more recent history of pride and self-advocacy. The early history suggests that people with ID are a vulnerable population and deserve special research protections as do some other groups; the disability rights movement of the late 20th century aligns people with ID more closely with the principle of autonomy that has guided clinical and research ethics for the last 40 years. In examining the history of people with ID and the prevailing framework of human subjects research protections in the United States, we conclude that people with ID do not require special protection in human subjects research. The protections that have already been put in place for all individuals, if conscientiously and effectively implemented, achieve the right balance between safeguarding the interest of human research subjects and empowering individuals who choose to do so to participate in research. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Patient awareness and sun protection behaviour following excision of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blacam, Catherine; Dermott, Clodagh Mc; Sugrue, Conor; Kilmartin, Darren; Kelly, Jack

    2017-02-01

    Limited information is available regarding disease awareness and sun protection behaviour in patients previously treated for non-melanoma skin cancer. Using a telephone-administered questionnaire, we investigated these characteristics in 250 patients in the west of Ireland who had undergone excision of basal cell carcinomas between January 2011 and December 2012. Only 28.8% of respondents knew that the lesion they had excised was a BCC and understood that there was a significant chance of developing another similar lesion in the next 3 years. Women and patients under age 65 were significantly better informed about their diagnosis than men (p = 0.021 and 0.000 respectively). The majority of patients (71.2%) knew that the overall effect of UV radiation on the skin was harmful and did employ some form of sun protection (avoid midday sun 72%; stay in shade 74%; wear hat 73.6%; wear sunscreen 72.8%). Females were statistically more likely to exercise better sun-protection behaviour (p = 0.002). While 76.8% of patients undertook some form of outdoor activity every day, only 22.8% wore sunscreen every day. Greater efforts should be made to communicate disease details and sun protection implications associated with basal cell carcinoma, especially to male patients. Improved population specific skin cancer awareness may lead to earlier detection and thus decrease both the patient morbidity and economic burden associated with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Unfinished business: concurrence of claims presented before a human rights court or treaty body and through diplomatic protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer-Künzli, A.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    International law has not, yet, defined the limits of concurrent cases involving resort to a human rights mechanism and diplomatic protection. The European Court of Human Rights has on occasion dealt with questions of simultaneous procedures and the International Law Commission (ILC) has described

  9. The Problems of Interpretation of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms in the European Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanets Ivan Petrovich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the clause 1 of Article 32 of the European Convention for the protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of 1950 (hereinafter referred to as the European Convention or the Convention the competence of the European Court of Human Rights (hereinafter referred to as the Court or the Court extends to all issues of interpretation and application of the Convention and its protocols. Thus, the European Convention makes the Court the only tool of the way of understanding of the rights and freedoms protected by it. Interpretation of the provisions of Convention lies in the basis of the Court activity as immovable clod that stands guard for protection of human rights, and that is a place where the State is directly responsible before a human.

  10. Pharmacological inhibition of arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15) protects human spermatozoa against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Jessica L H; De Iuliis, Geoffry N; Dun, Matthew D; Aitken, Robert John; McLaughlin, Eileen A; Nixon, Brett; Bromfield, Elizabeth G

    2018-03-13

    One of the leading causes of male infertility is defective sperm function, a pathology that commonly arises from oxidative stress in the germline. Lipid peroxidation events in the sperm plasma membrane result in the generation of cytotoxic aldehydes such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE), which accentuate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause cellular damage. One of the key enzymes involved in the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids to 4HNE in somatic cells is arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase (ALOX15). Although ALOX15 has yet to be characterized in human spermatozoa, our previous studies have revealed a strong link between ALOX15 activity and the levels of oxidative stress and 4HNE in mouse germ cell models. In view of these data, we sought to assess the function of ALOX15 in mature human spermatozoa and determine whether the pharmacological inhibition of this enzyme could influence the level of oxidative stress experienced by these cells. By driving oxidative stress in vitro with exogenous H2O2, our data reveal that 6,11-dihydro[1]benzothiopyrano[4,3-b]indole (PD146176; a selective ALOX15 inhibitor), was able to significantly reduce several deleterious, oxidative insults in spermatozoa. Indeed, PD146176 attenuated the production of ROS, as well as membrane lipid peroxidation and 4HNE production in human spermatozoa. Accordingly, ALOX15 inhibition also protected the functional competence of these cells to acrosome react and bind homologous human zonae pellucidae. Together, these results implicate ALOX15 in the propagation of an oxidative stress cascade within human spermatozoa and offer insight into potential therapeutic avenues to address male fertility that arises from oxidative stress.

  11. Technical knowledge assessment in radiology in patients protection in collective environments and more radiosensitive organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    The use of X-rays in medical fields has increased significantly in recent years, since various therapeutic procedures can be performed without the need for surgery, which presents the greatest risk to the patient. An example of this increase is the practice of cardiac catheterization, this procedure fluoroscopy is used for placement of central venous catheters and temporary pacemakers, and long-term use increases the risk of exposure to X-rays to the patient, doctor and his assistants. This has been observed with concern by many researchers, since many companies did not fit the standards of radiation protection. This failure can lead to exposure of professionals, patients and caregivers. It is therefore of fundamental importance, the use of personal protective equipment such as aprons and thyroid plumbíferos protectors, for dose reduction produced by the primary and secondary radiation. This study evaluated the knowledge of radiology professionals in Goiânia, on the use of lead apron in collective environments and use of guards in sensitive parts of patients to radiation. Through an information gathering technique based on a questionnaire with closed questions. From dista and focuses on the knowledge of professionals. The results showed that there is a serious deficiency as regards the most radiosensitive organ protection of patients when they are exposed to X-ray beams. (author)

  12. The importance of the human factor in a physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.; Rocha, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A complete physical protection system gathers three elements: equipment's, guards and procedures. The integration of these three elements will guarantee the efficiency of the overall PPS in such a way that it can meet the objectives that were defined during its project: clear and precise procedures will rule the relation between the technical factor (equipments/ hardware and software) and the human factor (guards). The technical factor is easily adapted ad upgraded to continue meet the objectives of the PPS; however, the human factor presents some resistance, internal and external, concerning the performance of its function within the overall PPS. The objective of this paper is to show the importance of the human factor as an integrant part of the PPS of a nuclear facility. 1. Good relationship between guards and other employees in a facility; 2. the knowledge and acceptance of rules and procedures; 3. and the awareness of the needing to implement security measures, as well as the cooperation with these measures to avoid unauthorized nuclear material removal from the facility or sabotage with consequent radioactive release will guarantee the success of the human factor within the overall PPS. In countries where there is no recent record of terrorist activities, as in Brazil's case, these three key factors are particularly critical, once the concept of security culture is not present in those people's way of life. The target public of this survey are the employees, including the guards of the security force, of the CNAAA - Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto - consisting of Angra 1 and Angra 2 nuclear power plants. The tools used to came up with the conclusions of this work were two different kinds of questionnaires: a) one of the questionnaires was answered by the guards of the security force concerning their feelings or impressions about other employees' knowledge, acceptance and cooperation of/with the security measures applied on site, and their

  13. Generation, characterization and epitope mapping of two neutralizing and protective human recombinant antibodies against influenza A H5N1 viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of new therapeutic targets and strategies to control highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 virus infection in humans is urgently needed. Broadly cross-neutralizing recombinant human antibodies obtained from the survivors of H5N1 avian influenza provide an important role in immunotherapy for human H5N1 virus infection and definition of the critical epitopes for vaccine development. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have characterized two recombinant baculovirus-expressed human antibodies (rhAbs, AVFluIgG01 and AVFluIgG03, generated by screening a Fab antibody phage library derived from a patient recovered from infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N1 clade 2.3 virus. AVFluIgG01 cross-neutralized the most of clade 0, clade 1, and clade 2 viruses tested, in contrast, AVFluIgG03 only neutralized clade 2 viruses. Passive immunization of mice with either AVFluIgG01 or AVFluIgG03 antibody resulted in protection from a lethal H5N1 clade 2.3 virus infection. Furthermore, through epitope mapping, we identify two distinct epitopes on H5 HA molecule recognized by these rhAbs and demonstrate their potential to protect against a lethal H5N1 virus infection in a mouse model. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Importantly, localization of the epitopes recognized by these two neutralizing and protective antibodies has provided, for the first time, insight into the human antibody responses to H5N1 viruses which contribute to the H5 immunity in the recovered patient. These results highlight the potential of a rhAbs treatment strategy for human H5N1 virus infection and provide new insight for the development of effective H5N1 pandemic vaccines.

  14. Methodology for comprehensive patient, worker and public radiation protection considerations while introducing new medical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neeman, E.; Keren, M.

    2001-01-01

    Patient protection is a major consideration while introducing new medical procedure. But protection of the workers and the public should be considered too. A methodology of combining non-patient radiation protection considerations with the introduction of new medical procedures is described. The new medical procedure was the Intracoronary Gamma Irradiation for the Prevention of Restenosis by using Iridium 192 gamma radiation sources. The usual authors' responsibility is the licensing of the use of radioactive materials while keeping public protection. According to this responsibility, the methodology's original orientation is public protection. As a result of coordination between several competent authorities, managed by the authors, the methodology was adopted for patient and worker protection too. Applicants, actually possible users (hospitals) of the new procedure, were obliged to plan medical procedures and working area according to dose limits and constrains as recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency and local competent authorities. Exposure calculations had to consider the usual parameters as sources types and activity, dose rate and dose levels, duration and number of treatments. Special attention was given to the presence workers and public by chance presence in or near treatment area. A usual condition to give a license was the installation of continuous (during treatment) radiation monitoring systems. But a special attention was given to physical barriers and procedures in order to stop unauthorized personal to arrive near to working area. Satisfactory staff training for normal operation and emergency situations are essential, including appropriate safety procedures and the presence of safety assistance team while executing treatment. (author)

  15. Protective Effects of Salivary Factors in Dental Caries in Diabetic Patients of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Jawed, Muhammad; Khan, Rashid N.; Shahid, Syed M.; Azhar, Abid

    2012-01-01

    Salivary factors have been studied for their effects on the process of dental caries in patients of diabetes mellitus type 2. In this study, protective role of salivary pH, salivary flow rate, and salivary calcium is assessed in the patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 with dental caries. The samples of saliva were collected from 400 patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 and 300 age- and sex- matched controls after getting informed consent. All the subjects were classified into four groups acc...

  16. Celastrol Protects against Antimycin A-Induced Insulin Resistance in Human Skeletal Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Hafizi Abu Bakar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are widely accepted as key hallmarks of obesity-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the functional roles of an anti-inflammatory compound, celastrol, in mitochondrial dysfunction and insulin resistance induced by antimycin A (AMA in human skeletal muscle cells. We found that celastrol treatment improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activity of AMA-treated cells, apparently via PI3K/Akt pathways, with significant enhancement of mitochondrial activities. Furthermore, celastrol prevented increased levels of cellular oxidative damage where the production of several pro-inflammatory cytokines in cultures cells was greatly reduced. Celastrol significantly increased protein phosphorylation of insulin signaling cascades with amplified expression of AMPK protein and attenuated NF-κB and PKC θ activation in human skeletal muscle treated with AMA. The improvement of insulin signaling pathways by celastrol was also accompanied by augmented GLUT4 protein expression. Taken together, these results suggest that celastrol may be advocated for use as a potential therapeutic molecule to protect against mitochondrial dysfunction-induced insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle cells.

  17. Are Protected Areas Required to Maintain Functional Diversity in Human-Modified Landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottee-Jones, H. Eden W.; Matthews, Thomas J.; Bregman, Tom P.; Barua, Maan; Tamuly, Jatin; Whittaker, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The conversion of forest to agriculture across the world’s tropics, and the limited space for protected areas, has increased the need to identify effective conservation strategies in human-modified landscapes. Isolated trees are believed to conserve elements of ecological structure, providing micro-sites for conservation in matrix landscapes, and facilitating seed dispersal and forest restoration. Here we investigate the role of isolated Ficus trees, which are of critical importance to tropical forest ecosystems, in conserving frugivore composition and function in a human-modified landscape in Assam, India. We surveyed the frugivorous birds feeding at 122 isolated Ficus trees, 33 fruit trees, and 31 other large trees across a range of 32 km from the nearest intact forest. We found that Ficus trees attracted richer and more abundant assemblages of frugivores than the other tree categories. However, incidence function estimates revealed that forest specialist species decreased dramatically within the first kilometre of the forest edge. Despite this, species richness and functional diversity remained consistent across the human-modified landscape, as habitat generalists replaced forest-dependent frugivores, and accounted for most of the ecological function found in Ficus trees near the forest edge. We recommend that isolated Ficus trees are awarded greater conservation status, and suggest that their conservation can support ecologically functional networks of frugivorous bird communities. PMID:25946032

  18. β-Elemene-induced autophagy protects human gastric cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jing; Zhang, Ye; Qu, Jinglei; Xu, Ling; Hou, Kezuo; Zhang, Jingdong; Qu, Xiujuan; Liu, Yunpeng

    2011-01-01

    β-Elemene, a compound found in an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, has shown promising anti-cancer effects against a broad spectrum of tumors. The mechanism by which β-elemene kills cells remains unclear. The aim of the present study is to investigate the anti-tumor effect of β-elemene on human gastric cancer cells and the molecular mechanism involved. β-Elemene inhibited the viability of human gastric cancer MGC803 and SGC7901 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The suppression of cell viability was due to the induction of apoptosis. A robust autophagy was observed in the cells treated with β-elemene; it was characterized by the increase of punctate LC3 dots, the cellular morphology, and the increased levels of LC3-II protein. Further study showed that β-elemene treatment up-regulated Atg5-Atg12 conjugated protein but had little effect on other autophagy-related proteins. PI3K/Akt/mTOR/p70S6K1 activity was inhibited by β-elemene. Knockdown of Beclin 1 with small interfering RNA, or co-treatment with the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine or chlorochine enhanced significantly the antitumor effects of β-elemene. Our data provides the first evidence that β-elemene induces protective autophagy and prevents human gastric cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis. A combination of β-elemene with autophagy inhibitor might thus be a useful therapeutic option for advanced gastric cancer

  19. Genetic and cellular studies highlight that A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 19 is a protective biomarker in human prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyne, Gerard; Rudnicka, Caroline; Sang, Qing-Xiang; Roycik, Mark; Howarth, Sarah; Leedman, Peter; Schlaich, Markus; Candy, Patrick; Matthews, Vance

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer in men worldwide. Current treatments include surgery, androgen ablation and radiation. Introduction of more targeted therapies in prostate cancer, based on a detailed knowledge of the signalling pathways, aims to reduce side effects, leading to better clinical outcomes for the patient. ADAM19 (A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase 19) is a transmembrane and soluble protein which can regulate cell phenotype through cell adhesion and proteolysis. ADAM19 has been positively associated with numerous diseases, but has not been shown to be a tumor suppressor in the pathogenesis of any human cancers. Our group sought to investigate the role of ADAM19 in human prostate cancer. ADAM19 mRNA and protein levels were assessed in well characterised human prostate cancer cohorts. ADAM19 expression was assessed in normal prostate epithelial cells (RWPE-1) and prostate cancer cells (LNCaP, PC3) using western blotting and immunocytochemistry. Proliferation assays were conducted in LNCaP cells in which ADAM19 was over-expressed. In vitro scratch assays were performed in PC3 cells over-expressing ADAM19. Immunohistochemical studies highlighted that ADAM19 protein levels were elevated in normal prostate tissue compared to prostate cancer biopsies. Results from the clinical cohorts demonstrated that high levels of ADAM19 in microarrays are positively associated with lower stage (p = 0.02591) and reduced relapse (p = 0.00277) of human prostate cancer. In vitro, ADAM19 expression was higher in RWPE-1 cells compared to LNCaP cells. In addition, human ADAM19 over-expression reduced LNCaP cell proliferation and PC3 cell migration. Taken together, our immunohistochemical and microarray results and cellular studies have shown for the first time that ADAM19 is a protective factor for human prostate cancer. Further, this study suggests that upregulation of ADAM19 expression could be of therapeutic potential in human prostate cancer

  20. Frequency of human papillomavirus infection in patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-Dietlen, F; Cano-Contreras, A D; Sánchez-Maza, Y J; Espinosa-González, J M; Vázquez-Prieto, M Á; Valdés-de la O, E J; Díaz-Roesch, F; Carrasco-Arroniz, M Á; Cruz-Palacios, A; Grube-Pagola, P; Sumoza-Toledo, A; Vivanco-Cid, H; Mellado-Sánchez, G; Meixueiro-Daza, A; Silva-Cañetas, C S; Carrillo-Toledo, M G; Lagunes-Torres, R; Amieva-Balmori, M; Gómez-Castaño, P C; Reyes-Huerta, J U; Remes-Troche, J M

    2018-02-15

    Cancer is the result of the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. It has recently been related to viral infections, one of which is human papillomavirus. The aim of the present study was to describe the frequency of human papillomavirus infection in patients with digestive system cancers. A prospective, multicenter, observational study was conducted on patients with gastrointestinal cancer at 2public healthcare institutes in Veracruz. Two tumor samples were taken, one for histologic study and the other for DNA determination of human papillomavirus and its genotypes. Anthropometric variables, risk factors, sexual habits, tumor location, and histologic type of the cancer were analyzed. Absolute and relative frequencies were determined using the SPSS version 24.0 program. Fifty-three patients were studied. They had gastrointestinal cancer located in: the colon (62.26%), stomach (18.87%), esophagus (7.55%), rectum (7.55%), and small bowel (3.77%). Human papillomavirus was identified in 11.32% of the patients, 66.7% of which corresponded to squamous cell carcinoma and 33.3% to adenocarcinoma. Only genotype 18 was identified. Mean patient age was 61.8±15.2 years, 56.60% of the patients were men, and 43.40% were women. A total of 15.8% of the patients had a family history of cancer and 31.6% had a personal history of the disease, 38.6% were tobacco smokers, and 61.4% consumed alcohol. Regarding sex, 5.3% of the patients said they were homosexual, 3.5% were bisexual, 29.8% engaged in oral sex, and 24.6% in anal sex. Our study showed that human papillomavirus infection was a risk factor for the development of gastrointestinal cancer, especially of squamous cell origin. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Environmental radiation protection of non-human vertebrate species: considerations for environmental monitoring and assessment in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    The risk to non-human species from activities associated with the nuclear fuel waste cycle is coming under increased scrutiny from the public and regulators. In the past, protection of the environment was assumed to be an outcome of the protection of humans living in the same area. Thus it was assumed that if nuclides were maintained at low enough levels in water, air and soil to protect humans, then plants and animals inhabiting the same area would be protected. This approach of relying on humans as a sensitive indicator implicitly protects all species, at least at the population level. To adequately predict exposure and response in wild communities requires a detailed knowledge of the ecosystem under study and a method of predicting both the transfer of nuclides to individual species and the consequence of exposure. Detailed environmental, or ecological, risk estimation requires information on the normal levels of radiation and general physiological stress in the exposed group, an estimate of the additional radiation exposure from all pathways and a prediction of the consequences of the total exposure. The purpose of this paper is to review these requirements in the context of ecological radiation protection in the Canadian environment using examples of birds and mammals from the Canadian shield. Our goal is to develop methods which provide better estimates of potential risk to wild animals

  2. Protective Effect of Curcumin on γ - radiation Induced Chromosome Aberrations in Human Blood Lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSuhaibani, E.S

    2008-01-01

    The present work is aimed at evaluating the radioprotective effect of curcumin on γ radiation induced genetic toxicity. The DNA damage was analyzed by the frequencies of chromosome aberrations assay. Human lymphocytes were treated in vitro with 5.0 γg/ml of curcumin for 30 min at 37 degree C then exposed to 1, 2 and 4 Gy gamma-radiation. The lymphocytes which were pre-treated with curcumin exhibited a significant decrease in the frequency of chromosome aberration at 1 and 2 Gy radiation-induced chromosome damage as compared with the irradiated cells which did not receive the curcumin pretreatment. Thus, pretreatment with curcumin gives protection to lymphocytes against γ-radiation induced chromosome aberration at certain doses. (author)

  3. Redox-active cerium oxide nanoparticles protect human dermal fibroblasts from PQ-induced damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia von Montfort

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been published that cerium (Ce oxide nanoparticles (CNP; nanoceria are able to downregulate tumor invasion in cancer cell lines. Redox-active CNP exhibit both selective pro-oxidative and antioxidative properties, the first being responsible for impairment of tumor growth and invasion. A non-toxic and even protective effect of CNP in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF has already been observed. However, the effect on important parameters such as cell death, proliferation and redox state of the cells needs further clarification. Here, we present that nanoceria prevent HDF from reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced cell death and stimulate proliferation due to the antioxidative property of these particles.

  4. Schisandrin B protects against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury in BJ human fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Po Yee; Lam, Philip Y; Yan, Chung Wai; Ko, Kam Ming

    2011-06-01

    The effects of schisandrin B (Sch B) and its analogs on solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury were examined in BJ human fibroblasts. Sch B and schisandrin C (Sch C) increased cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level and protected against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury. The photoprotection was paralleled by decreases in the elastases-type protease activity and matrix-metalloproteinases-1 expression in solar-irradiated fibroblasts. The cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism of Sch B or Sch C caused ROS production. The results suggest that by virtue of its pro-oxidant action and the subsequent glutathione antioxidant response, Sch B or Sch C may offer the prospect of preventing skin photo-aging. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing the quality of VA Human Research Protection Programs: VA vs. affiliated University Institutional Review Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsan, Min-Fu; Nguyen, Yen; Brooks, Robert

    2013-04-01

    We compared the Human Research Protection Program (HRPP) quality indicator data of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities using their own VA institutional review boards (IRBs) with those using affiliated university IRBs. From a total of 25 performance metrics, 13 did not demonstrate statistically significant differences, while 12 reached statistically significance differences. Among the 12 with statistically significant differences, facilities using their own VA IRBs performed better on four of the metrics, while facilities using affiliate IRBs performed better on eight. However, the absolute difference was small (0.2-2.7%) in all instances, suggesting that they were of no practical significance. We conclude that it is acceptable for facilities to use their own VA IRBs or affiliated university IRBs as their IRBs of record.

  6. Photosensitization of human diploid cell cultures by intracellular flavins and protection by antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, O.M.; Smith, J.R.; Packer, L.

    1976-01-01

    The damaging effects of near ultraviolet and visible light on WI-38 human diploid lung fibroblasts were investigated. WI-38 cells in culture were killed by light doses ranging from 2 to 10 x 10 3 W/m 2 h. There was an inverse correlation between culture age, i.e. population doubling level and photosensitivity. However, this effect could not be related to capacity for DNA synthesis and cell division. Flavins were clearly implicated as endogenous photosensitizers, and antioxidants such as d,l-α-tocopherol (vitamin E), BHT and ascorbic acid were found to afford the cells protection from light damage. Furthermore, products of lipid peroxidation could be detected in cell homogenates irradiated in the presence of riboflavin. (author)

  7. Ascorbic acid protects lipids in human plasma and low-density lipoprotein against oxidative damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frei, B. (Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (Unites States))

    1991-12-01

    The authors exposed human blood plasma and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to many different oxidative challenges and followed the temporal consumption of endogenous antioxidants in relation to the initiation of oxidative damage. Under all types of oxidizing conditions, ascorbic acid completely protects lipids in plasma and LDL against detectable peroxidative damage as assessed by a specific and highly sensitive assay for lipid peroxidation. Ascorbic acid proved to be superior to the other water-soluble plasma antioxidants bilirubin, uric acid, and protein thiols as well as to the lipoprotein-associated antioxidants alpha-tocopherol, ubiquinol-10, lycopene, and beta-carotene. Although these antioxidants can lower the rate of detectable lipid peroxidation, they are not able to prevent its initiation. Only ascorbic acid is reactive enough to effectively intercept oxidants in the aqueous phase before they can attack and cause detectable oxidative damage to lipids.

  8. Reference values for basic human anatomical and physiological characteristics for use in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    A new publication prepared by the ICRP Task Group on Reference Man. Basic anatomical and physiological data for use in radiological protection: reference values, is focused on those human characteristics that are important for dosimetric calculations. Moving from the past emphasis on a Reference Man. the new report presents a series of reference values for both male and female subjects of six different ages - newborn, 1, 5, 10, 15 y, and adult. In selecting reference values, the task group has used data on Western Europeans and North Americans because these populations have been well studied with respect to anatomy, body composition and physiology. When appropriate, comparisons are made between the chosen reference values and data from several Asian populations. The reference values for height and body mass are higher than those reported for various Asian populations. However, the reported masses of individual organs and tissues, particularly for China and Japan, are similar to the reference values. (author)

  9. The Nrf2-inducers tanshinone I and dihydrotanshinone protect human skin cells and reconstructed human skin against solar simulated UV☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shasha; Justiniano, Rebecca; Zhang, Donna D.; Wondrak, Georg T.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a causative factor in skin photocarcinogenesis and photoaging, and an urgent need exists for improved strategies for skin photoprotection. The redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2), a master regulator of the cellular antioxidant defense against environmental electrophilic insult, has recently emerged as an important determinant of cutaneous damage from solar UV, and the concept of pharmacological activation of Nrf2 has attracted considerable attention as a novel approach to skin photoprotection. In this study, we examined feasibility of using tanshinones, a novel class of phenanthrenequinone-based cytoprotective Nrf2 inducers derived from the medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza, for protection of cultured human skin cells and reconstructed human skin against solar simulated UV. Using a dual luciferase reporter assay in human Hs27 dermal fibroblasts pronounced transcriptional activation of Nrf2 by four major tanshinones [tanshinone I (T-I), dihydrotanshinone (DHT), tanshinone IIA (T-II-A) and cryptotanshinone (CT)] was detected. In fibroblasts, the more potent tanshinones T-I and DHT caused a significant increase in Nrf2 protein half-life via blockage of ubiquitination, ultimately resulting in upregulated expression of cytoprotective Nrf2 target genes (GCLC, NQO1) with the elevation of cellular glutathione levels. Similar tanshinone-induced changes were also observed in HaCaT keratinocytes. T-I and DHT pretreatment caused significant suppression of skin cell death induced by solar simulated UV and riboflavin-sensitized UVA. Moreover, feasibility of tanshinone-based cutaneous photoprotection was tested employing a human skin reconstruct exposed to solar simulated UV (80 mJ/cm2 UVB; 1.53 J/cm2 UVA). The occurrence of markers of epidermal solar insult (cleaved procaspase 3, pycnotic nuclei, eosinophilic cytoplasm, acellular cavities) was significantly attenuated in DHT

  10. The Nrf2-inducers tanshinone I and dihydrotanshinone protect human skin cells and reconstructed human skin against solar simulated UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shasha; Justiniano, Rebecca; Zhang, Donna D; Wondrak, Georg T

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a causative factor in skin photocarcinogenesis and photoaging, and an urgent need exists for improved strategies for skin photoprotection. The redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2), a master regulator of the cellular antioxidant defense against environmental electrophilic insult, has recently emerged as an important determinant of cutaneous damage from solar UV, and the concept of pharmacological activation of Nrf2 has attracted considerable attention as a novel approach to skin photoprotection. In this study, we examined feasibility of using tanshinones, a novel class of phenanthrenequinone-based cytoprotective Nrf2 inducers derived from the medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza, for protection of cultured human skin cells and reconstructed human skin against solar simulated UV. Using a dual luciferase reporter assay in human Hs27 dermal fibroblasts pronounced transcriptional activation of Nrf2 by four major tanshinones [tanshinone I (T-I), dihydrotanshinone (DHT), tanshinone IIA (T-II-A) and cryptotanshinone (CT)] was detected. In fibroblasts, the more potent tanshinones T-I and DHT caused a significant increase in Nrf2 protein half-life via blockage of ubiquitination, ultimately resulting in upregulated expression of cytoprotective Nrf2 target genes (GCLC, NQO1) with the elevation of cellular glutathione levels. Similar tanshinone-induced changes were also observed in HaCaT keratinocytes. T-I and DHT pretreatment caused significant suppression of skin cell death induced by solar simulated UV and riboflavin-sensitized UVA. Moreover, feasibility of tanshinone-based cutaneous photoprotection was tested employing a human skin reconstruct exposed to solar simulated UV (80 mJ/cm(2) UVB; 1.53 J/cm(2) UVA). The occurrence of markers of epidermal solar insult (cleaved procaspase 3, pycnotic nuclei, eosinophilic cytoplasm, acellular cavities) was significantly attenuated in DHT

  11. The Nrf2-inducers tanshinone I and dihydrotanshinone protect human skin cells and reconstructed human skin against solar simulated UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Tao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV radiation is a causative factor in skin photocarcinogenesis and photoaging, and an urgent need exists for improved strategies for skin photoprotection. The redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2, a master regulator of the cellular antioxidant defense against environmental electrophilic insult, has recently emerged as an important determinant of cutaneous damage from solar UV, and the concept of pharmacological activation of Nrf2 has attracted considerable attention as a novel approach to skin photoprotection. In this study, we examined feasibility of using tanshinones, a novel class of phenanthrenequinone-based cytoprotective Nrf2 inducers derived from the medicinal plant Salvia miltiorrhiza, for protection of cultured human skin cells and reconstructed human skin against solar simulated UV. Using a dual luciferase reporter assay in human Hs27 dermal fibroblasts pronounced transcriptional activation of Nrf2 by four major tanshinones [tanshinone I (T-I, dihydrotanshinone (DHT, tanshinone IIA (T-II-A and cryptotanshinone (CT] was detected. In fibroblasts, the more potent tanshinones T-I and DHT caused a significant increase in Nrf2 protein half-life via blockage of ubiquitination, ultimately resulting in upregulated expression of cytoprotective Nrf2 target genes (GCLC, NQO1 with the elevation of cellular glutathione levels. Similar tanshinone-induced changes were also observed in HaCaT keratinocytes. T-I and DHT pretreatment caused significant suppression of skin cell death induced by solar simulated UV and riboflavin-sensitized UVA. Moreover, feasibility of tanshinone-based cutaneous photoprotection was tested employing a human skin reconstruct exposed to solar simulated UV (80 mJ/cm2 UVB; 1.53 J/cm2 UVA. The occurrence of markers of epidermal solar insult (cleaved procaspase 3, pycnotic nuclei, eosinophilic cytoplasm, acellular cavities was significantly attenuated in DHT

  12. Ethics and data protection in human biomarker studies in environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteleyn, Ludwine; Dumez, Birgit; Van Damme, Karel; Anwar, Wagida A

    2013-08-01

    Human biomarker studies in environmental health are essential tools to study the relationship between health and environment. They should ultimately contribute to a better understanding of environmentally induced adverse health effects and to appropriate preventive actions. To ensure the protection of the rights and dignity of study participants a complex legal and ethical framework is applied, consisting of several international directives, conventions, and guidelines, whether or not translated in domestic laws. Main characteristics of ethics and data protection in studies using biomarkers in the field of environmental health are summarized and current discussions on related questions and bottlenecks highlighted. In the current regulatory context, dominated by the protection of the individual study participant, difficulties are reported due to the different interpretation and implementation of the regulations of concern within and across borders. Advancement of consistency and compatibility is recommended and efforts are ongoing. An increasing demand for secondary use of data and samples poses additional challenges in finding a right balance between the individual rights of the study participants on the one hand and the common interest of, and potential benefit for the public or community at large on the other. Ethics committees could play a key role in assessing problems originating from the sometimes competing needs at individual and societal level. Building trust in science amongst (potential) study participants and within the community allows the inclusion of arguments from the societal perspective. This requires increased attention for respectful communication efforts. Striving for public participation in decision making processes may promote policy relevant research and the related translation of study results into action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Pharmacologic induction of epidermal melanin and protection against sunburn in a humanized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Ortiz, Alexandra; Vanover, Jillian C; Scott, Timothy L; D'Orazio, John A

    2013-09-07

    Fairness of skin, UV sensitivity and skin cancer risk all correlate with the physiologic function of the melanocortin 1 receptor, a Gs-coupled signaling protein found on the surface of melanocytes. Mc1r stimulates adenylyl cyclase and cAMP production which, in turn, up-regulates melanocytic production of melanin in the skin. In order to study the mechanisms by which Mc1r signaling protects the skin against UV injury, this study relies on a mouse model with "humanized skin" based on epidermal expression of stem cell factor (Scf). K14-Scf transgenic mice retain melanocytes in the epidermis and therefore have the ability to deposit melanin in the epidermis. In this animal model, wild type Mc1r status results in robust deposition of black eumelanin pigment and a UV-protected phenotype. In contrast, K14-Scf animals with defective Mc1r signaling ability exhibit a red/blonde pigmentation, very little eumelanin in the skin and a UV-sensitive phenotype. Reasoning that eumelanin deposition might be enhanced by topical agents that mimic Mc1r signaling, we found that direct application of forskolin extract to the skin of Mc1r-defective fair-skinned mice resulted in robust eumelanin induction and UV protection (1). Here we describe the method for preparing and applying a forskolin-containing natural root extract to K14-Scf fair-skinned mice and report a method for measuring UV sensitivity by determining minimal erythematous dose (MED). Using this animal model, it is possible to study how epidermal cAMP induction and melanization of the skin affect physiologic responses to UV exposure.

  14. Culturally Relevant Human Subjects Protection Training: A Case Study in Community-Engaged Research in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kue, Jennifer; Szalacha, Laura A; Happ, Mary Beth; Crisp, Abigail L; Menon, Usha

    2018-02-01

    Non-academic members of research teams, such as community members, can perceive traditional human subjects protection training as lacking in cultural relevance. We present a case exemplar of the development of a human subjects protection training for research staff with limited English proficiency and/or no or limited research experience. Seven modules were adapted for language, cultural examples, etc., from the standard Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) human subjects protection training. Non-academic research staff completed a day-long training in human subjects protection (six modules) and our research protocol (one module). We assessed comprehension of content with PowerPoint slides and module quizzes. All participants successfully passed each module quiz with ≥ 80% correct. Questions answered incorrectly were discussed before proceeding to the next module. To meet the increasing demand for collaborative community-engaged research with underserved minority populations, human subjects protection training protocols can be adapted successfully to reflect real-world situations and provide culturally relevant materials to help non-academic research staff better understand the importance and necessity of research ethics.

  15. A software tool for modification of human voxel models used for application in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Janine; Zankl, Maria; Petoussi-Henss, Nina

    2007-01-01

    This note describes a new software tool called 'VolumeChange' that was developed to modify the masses and location of organs of virtual human voxel models. A voxel model is a three-dimensional representation of the human body in the form of an array of identification numbers that are arranged in slices, rows and columns. Each entry in this array represents a voxel; organs are represented by those voxels having the same identification number. With this tool, two human voxel models were adjusted to fit the reference organ masses of a male and a female adult, as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The alteration of an already existing voxel model is a complicated process, leading to many problems that have to be solved. To solve those intricacies in an easy way, a new software tool was developed and is presented here. If the organs are modified, no bit of tissue, i.e. voxel, may vanish nor should an extra one appear. That means that organs cannot be modified without considering the neighbouring tissue. Thus, the principle of organ modification is based on the reassignment of voxels from one organ/tissue to another; actually deleting and adding voxels is only possible at the external surface, i.e. skin. In the software tool described here, the modifications are done by semi-automatic routines but including human control. Because of the complexity of the matter, a skilled person has to validate that the applied changes to organs are anatomically reasonable. A graphical user interface was designed to fulfil the purpose of a comfortable working process, and an adequate graphical display of the modified voxel model was developed. Single organs, organ complexes and even whole limbs can be edited with respect to volume, shape and location. (note)

  16. Protecting our Khmer daughters: ghosts of the past, uncertain futures, and the human papillomavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Nancy J; Do, Huyen H; Talbot, Jocelyn; Sos, Channdara; Ros, Srey; Taylor, Victoria M

    2015-01-01

    The FDA approved the first human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in 2006. Research into parental decision-making and concerns about HPV vaccination highlights questions about parenting and parents' role in the crafting of their daughters' future sexuality. In contrast to much of this literature, we explore narratives from interviews with Cambodian mothers of HPV vaccine-age eligible daughters who experienced genocide and came to the USA as refugees. We conducted in-depth, in-person interviews with 25 Cambodian mothers of HPV vaccine-age eligible daughters. Interviews were conducted in Khmer and translated into English for analysis. We followed standard qualitative analysis techniques including iterative data review, multiple coders, and 'member checking.' Five members of the research team reviewed all transcripts and two members independently coded each transcript for concepts and themes. Interview narratives highlight the presence of the past alongside desires for protection from uncertain futures. We turn to Quesada and colleagues' concept structural vulnerability to outline the constraints posed by these women's positionalities as genocide survivors when faced with making decisions in an area with which they have little direct knowledge or background: cervical cancer prevention. Our study sheds light on the prioritization of various protective health practices, including but not exclusive to HPV vaccination, for Khmer mothers, as well as the rationalities informing decision-making regarding their daughters' health.

  17. A Chlamydomonas-derived Human Papillomavirus 16 E7 vaccine induces specific tumor protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia C Demurtas

    Full Text Available The E7 protein of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV type 16, being involved in malignant cellular transformation, represents a key antigen for developing therapeutic vaccines against HPV-related lesions and cancers. Recombinant production of this vaccine antigen in an active form and in compliance with good manufacturing practices (GMP plays a crucial role for developing effective vaccines. E7-based therapeutic vaccines produced in plants have been shown to be active in tumor regression and protection in pre-clinical models. However, some drawbacks of in whole-plant vaccine production encouraged us to explore the production of the E7-based therapeutic vaccine in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, an organism easy to grow and transform and fully amenable to GMP guidelines.An expression cassette encoding E7GGG, a mutated, attenuated form of the E7 oncoprotein, alone or as a fusion with affinity tags (His6 or FLAG, under the control of the C. reinhardtii chloroplast psbD 5' UTR and the psbA 3' UTR, was introduced into the C. reinhardtii chloroplast genome by homologous recombination. The protein was mostly soluble and reached 0.12% of total soluble proteins. Affinity purification was optimized and performed for both tagged forms. Induction of specific anti-E7 IgGs and E7-specific T-cell proliferation were detected in C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with total Chlamydomonas extract and with affinity-purified protein. High levels of tumor protection were achieved after challenge with a tumor cell line expressing the E7 protein.The C. reinhardtii chloroplast is a suitable expression system for the production of the E7GGG protein, in a soluble, immunogenic form. The production in contained and sterile conditions highlights the potential of microalgae as alternative platforms for the production of vaccines for human uses.

  18. Eu accession to the ECHR: Enlarging the human rights protection in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the importance of the EU accession to the ECHR, as the most significant regional instrument for human rights protection. The paper outlines the evolution of the idea of the accession to the ECHR, different stages of that process, as well as a Draft agreement which attempted to resolve some complex legal issues relating to the specific nature of the EU legal system. In the second part of this paper, the Opinion 2/13 of the CJEU from December 2014 has been analyzed, which basically interrupted the entire accession process. It is noted that currently the ECtHR has only an indirect constitutional control over the EU's legal order by examining laws of the Member States. The EU accession to the ECHR would allow examination of all acts and measures in the EU from the human rights perspective, including those over which the CJEU does not have full oversight function. Therefore, the authors argue that due to the establishment of legal certainty and external control over acts of the EU institutions, it is necessary to find a way for the continuation of the accession process, as soon as possible. There are two possible scenarios: a re-negotiation of the agreement on accession, or modification of the EU Treaties. Both solutions seem almost impossible in the created political milieu. However, there is a hope that negotiations will continue due to the influence of the Avotiņš judgment from May 2016 in which the ECtHR upheld the principle of equal protection from the Bosphorus case, pointing to the importance of maintaining mutual trust between two courts, as well as the need for the establishment of greater credibility and EU strengthening after Brexit.

  19. Protective Isolation for Patients with Haematological Malignancies: A Pilot Study Investigating Patients' Distress and Use of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibali, O; Pensieri, C; Tomarchio, V; Biagioli, V; Pennacchini, M; Tendas, A; Tambone, V; Tirindelli, M C

    2017-10-01

    Background: Patients with haematological malignancies are often hospitalized in protective isolation until full neutrophil recovery in order to prevent infections. This descriptive pilot study evaluate the level of isolation-related distress and the use of free time in a sample of Italian onco-haematological patients who were hospitalized in protective isolation. Materials and Methods: Participants were 18 patients hospitalized in hematologic ward to receive induction therapy (n=12) or autologous stem cell transplant (n=6). They completed a self-report questionnaire before discharge. Results: Participants reported a moderate level of isolation-related distress, anxiety, and boredom: the more the anxiety and the boredom, the more the distress (r=.77; Psurfing in Internet or using PC (33.3%), and playing games or making cross-words (16.7%). Participants who reported pessimistic thinking had higher isolation-related distress (P=.004) as well as anxiety (P<.001) and boredom (P=.001). Conclusion: Haematology Units should support isolated patients in spending their time in recreational activities, allowing more contacts with immediate relatives and friends, providing free TV and Wi-Fi connection inside the room. In addition, patients should have to keep themselves physically active. Isolation-related distress could also be reduced by providing psychological support.

  20. Human resource management in patient-centered pharmaceutical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S J

    1994-04-01

    Patient-centered care may have the pharmacists and technicians reporting either directly or in a matrix to other than pharmacy administration. The pharmacy administrative people will need to be both effective leaders and managers utilizing excellent human resource management skills. Significant creativity and innovation will be needed for transition from departmental-based services to patient care team services. Changes in the traditional methods of recruiting, interviewing, hiring, training, developing, inspiring, evaluating, and disciplining are required in this new environment.

  1. The Role of Human Milk Immunomodulators in Protecting Against Viral Bronchiolitis and Development of Chronic Wheezing Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Dani-Louise

    2015-07-07

    Infants who are breastfed are at an immunological advantage when compared with formula fed infants, evidenced by decreased incidence of infections and diminished propensity for long term conditions, including chronic wheeze and/or asthma. Exclusive breastfeeding reduces the duration of hospital admission, risk of respiratory failure and requirement for supplemental oxygen in infants hospitalised with bronchiolitis suggesting a potentially protective mechanism. This review examines the evidence and potential pathways for protection by immunomodulatory factors in human milk against the most common viral cause of bronchiolitis, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and subsequent recurrent wheeze in infants. Further investigations into the interplay between respiratory virus infections such as RSV and how they affect, and are affected by, human milk immunomodulators is necessary if we are to gain a true understanding of how breastfeeding protects many infants but not all against infections, and how this relates to long-term protection against conditions such as chronic wheezing illness or asthma.

  2. Protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells by treatment with antioxidant agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, X. Steven; Ware, Jeffrey H.; Zhou, Zhaozong; Donahue, Jeremiah J.; Guan, Jun; Kennedy, Ann R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of antioxidant agents against space radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells. Methods and Materials: The effects of selected concentrations of N-acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid, sodium ascorbate, co-enzyme Q10, α-lipoic acid, L-selenomethionine, and vitamin E succinate on radiation-induced oxidative stress were evaluated in MCF10 human breast epithelial cells exposed to radiation with X-rays, γ-rays, protons, or high mass, high atomic number, and high energy particles using a dichlorofluorescein assay. Results: The results demonstrated that these antioxidants are effective in protecting against radiation-induced oxidative stress and complete or nearly complete protection was achieved by treating the cells with a combination of these agents before and during the radiation exposure. Conclusion: The combination of antioxidants evaluated in this study is likely be a promising countermeasure for protection against space radiation-induced adverse biologic effects

  3. Biorepository regulatory frameworks: building parallel resources that both promote scientific investigation and protect human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marko-Varga, György; Baker, Mark S; Boja, Emily S; Rodriguez, Henry; Fehniger, Thomas E

    2014-12-05

    Clinical samples contained in biorepositories represent an important resource for investigating the many factors that drive human biology. The biological and chemical markers contained in clinical samples provide important measures of health and disease that when combined with such medical evaluation data can aid in decision making by physicians. Nearly all disciplines in medicine and every "omic" depend upon the readouts obtained from such samples, whether the measured analyte is a gene, a protein, a lipid, or a metabolite. There are many steps in sample processing, storage, and management that need to understood by the researchers who utilize biorepositories in their own work. These include not only the preservation of the desired analytes in the sample but also good understanding of the moral and legal framework required for subject protection irrespective of where the samples have been collected. Today there is a great deal of effort in the community to align and standardize both the methodology of sample collection and storage performed in different locations and the necessary frameworks of subject protection including informed consent and institutional review of the studies being performed. There is a growing trend in developing biorepositories around the focus of large population-based studies that address both active and silent nonsymptomatic disease. Logistically these studies generate large numbers of clinical samples and practically place increasing demand upon health care systems to provide uniform sample handling, processing, storage, and documentation of both the sample and the subject as well to ensure that safeguards exist to protect the rights of the study subjects for deciding upon the fates of their samples. Currently the authority to regulate the entire scope of biorepository usage exists as national practice in law in only a few countries. Such legal protection is a necessary component within the framework of biorepositories, both now and in

  4. The deceptive nature of UVA-tanning versus the modest protective effects of UVB-tanning on human skin

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamura, Yoshinori; Coelho, Sergio G.; Schlenz, Kathrin; Batzer, Jan; Smuda, Christoph; Choi, Wonseon; Brenner, Michaela; Passeron, Thierry; Zhang, Guofeng; Kolbe, Ludger; Wolber, Rainer; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between human skin pigmentation and protection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important element underlying differences in skin carcinogenesis rates. The association between UV damage and the risk of skin cancer is clear, yet a strategic balance in exposure to UV needs to be met. Dark skin is protected from UV-induced DNA damage significantly more than light skin due to the constitutively higher pigmentation but an as yet unresolved and important question is what photop...

  5. Gallic Acid Protects 6-OHDA Induced Neurotoxicity by Attenuating Oxidative Stress in Human Dopaminergic Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekhar, Y; Phani Kumar, G; Ramya, E M; Anilakumar, K R

    2018-04-18

    Gallic acid is one of the most important polyphenolic compounds, which is considered an excellent free radical scavenger. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is a neurotoxin, which has been implicated in mainly Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the neuroprotective effects of gallic acid on 6-OHDA induced apoptosis in human dopaminergic cells, SH-SY5Y. Our results showed that 6-OHDA induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells was suppressed by pre-treatment with gallic acid. The percentage of live cells (90%) was high in the pre-treatment of gallic acid when compared with 6-OHDA alone treated cell line. Moreover, gallic acid was very effective in attenuating the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, elevated levels of intracellular ROS and apoptotic cell death induced by 6-OHDA. Gallic acid also lowered the ratio of the pro-apoptotic Bax protein and the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein in SH-SY5Y cells. 6-OHDA exposure was up-regulated caspase-3 and Keap-1 and, down-regulated Nrf2, BDNF and p-CREB, which were sufficiently reverted by gallic acid pre-treatment. These findings indicate that gallic acid is able to protect the neuronal cells against 6-OHDA induced injury and proved that gallic acid might potentially serve as an agent for prevention of several human neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  6. Calcium-activated butyrylcholinesterase in human skin protects acetylcholinesterase against suicide inhibition by neurotoxic organophosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schallreuter, Karin U.; University of Bradford; Elwary, Souna M.; Parkin, Susan M.; Wood, John M.

    2007-01-01

    The human epidermis holds an autocrine acetylcholine production and degradation including functioning membrane integrated and cytosolic butyrylcholinesterase (BuchE). Here we show that BuchE activities increase 9-fold in the presence of calcium (0.5 x 10 -3 M) via a specific EF-hand calcium binding site, whereas acetylcholinesterase (AchE) is not affected. 45 Calcium labelling and computer simulation confirmed the presence of one EF-hand binding site per subunit which is disrupted by H 2 O 2 -mediated oxidation. Moreover, we confirmed the faster hydrolysis by calcium-activated BuchE using the neurotoxic organophosphate O-ethyl-O-(4-nitrophenyl)-phenylphosphonothioate (EPN). Considering the large size of the human skin with 1.8 m 2 surface area with its calcium gradient in the 10 -3 M range, our results implicate calcium-activated BuchE as a major protective mechanism against suicide inhibition of AchE by organophosphates in this non-neuronal tissue

  7. A multivalent and cross-protective vaccine strategy against arenaviruses associated with human disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya F Kotturi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Arenaviruses are the causative pathogens of severe hemorrhagic fever and aseptic meningitis in humans, for which no licensed vaccines are currently available. Pathogen heterogeneity within the Arenaviridae family poses a significant challenge for vaccine development. The main hypothesis we tested in the present study was whether it is possible to design a universal vaccine strategy capable of inducing simultaneous HLA-restricted CD8+ T cell responses against 7 pathogenic arenaviruses (including the lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Lassa, Guanarito, Junin, Machupo, Sabia, and Whitewater Arroyo viruses, either through the identification of widely conserved epitopes, or by the identification of a collection of epitopes derived from multiple arenavirus species. By inoculating HLA transgenic mice with a panel of recombinant vaccinia viruses (rVACVs expressing the different arenavirus proteins, we identified 10 HLA-A02 and 10 HLA-A03-restricted epitopes that are naturally processed in human antigen-presenting cells. For some of these epitopes we were able to demonstrate cross-reactive CD8+ T cell responses, further increasing the coverage afforded by the epitope set against each different arenavirus species. Importantly, we showed that immunization of HLA transgenic mice with an epitope cocktail generated simultaneous CD8+ T cell responses against all 7 arenaviruses, and protected mice against challenge with rVACVs expressing either Old or New World arenavirus glycoproteins. In conclusion, the set of identified epitopes allows broad, non-ethnically biased coverage of all 7 viral species targeted by our studies.

  8. Grapevine fruit extract protects against radiation-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in human lymphocyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singha, Indrani; Das, Subir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading the oxidative damage further to biomolecules. Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) posses several bioactive phytochemicals and is the richest source of antioxidants. In this study, we investigated V. vinifera for its phytochemical content, enzymes profile and, ROS-and oxidant-scavenging activities. We have also studied the fruit extract of four different grapevine viz., Thompson seedless, Flame seedless, Kishmish chorni and Red globe for their radioprotective actions in human lymphocytes. The activities of ascorbic acid oxidase and catalase significantly (P < 0.01) differed among extracts within the same cultivar, while that of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase did not differ significantly. The superoxide radical-scavenging activity was higher in the seed as compared to the skin or pulp of the same cultivar. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuated the oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy γ-radiation in human lymphocytes in vitro. Further, γ-radiation-induced increase in caspase 3/7 activity was significantly attenuated by grape extracts. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. (author)

  9. Protective Effect of Prolactin against Methylmercury-Induced Mutagenicity and Cytotoxicity on Human Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Carmem Silva-Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury exhibits cytotoxic and mutagenic properties as a result of its effect on tubulin. This toxicity mechanism is related to the production of free radicals that can cause DNA damage. Methylmercury (MeHg is one of the most toxic of the mercury compounds. It accumulates in the aquatic food chain, eventually reaching the human diet. Several studies have demonstrated that prolactin (PRL may be differently affected by inorganic and organic mercury based on interference with various neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of PRL secretion. This study evaluated the cytoprotective effect of PRL on human lymphocytes exposed to MeHg in vitro, including observation of the kinetics of HL-60 cells (an acute myeloid leukemia lineage treated with MeHg and PRL at different concentrations, with both treatments with the individual compounds and combined treatments. All treatments with MeHg produced a significant increase in the frequency of chromatid gaps, however, no significant difference was observed in the chromosomal breaks with any treatment. A dose-dependent increase in the mitotic index was observed for treatments with PRL, which also acts as a co-mitogenic factor, regulating proliferation by modulating the expression of genes that are essential for cell cycle progression and cytoskeleton organization. These properties contribute to the protective action of PRL against the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of MeHg.

  10. Protective Effect of Prolactin against Methylmercury-Induced Mutagenicity and Cytotoxicity on Human Lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Pereira, Liz Carmem; da Rocha, Carlos Alberto Machado; Cunha, Luiz Raimundo Campos da Silva e; da Costa, Edmar Tavares; Guimarães, Ana Paula Araújo; Pontes, Thais Brilhante; Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Moreira-Nunes, Caroline Aquino; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Mercury exhibits cytotoxic and mutagenic properties as a result of its effect on tubulin. This toxicity mechanism is related to the production of free radicals that can cause DNA damage. Methylmercury (MeHg) is one of the most toxic of the mercury compounds. It accumulates in the aquatic food chain, eventually reaching the human diet. Several studies have demonstrated that prolactin (PRL) may be differently affected by inorganic and organic mercury based on interference with various neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of PRL secretion. This study evaluated the cytoprotective effect of PRL on human lymphocytes exposed to MeHg in vitro, including observation of the kinetics of HL-60 cells (an acute myeloid leukemia lineage) treated with MeHg and PRL at different concentrations, with both treatments with the individual compounds and combined treatments. All treatments with MeHg produced a significant increase in the frequency of chromatid gaps, however, no significant difference was observed in the chromosomal breaks with any treatment. A dose-dependent increase in the mitotic index was observed for treatments with PRL, which also acts as a co-mitogenic factor, regulating proliferation by modulating the expression of genes that are essential for cell cycle progression and cytoskeleton organization. These properties contribute to the protective action of PRL against the cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of MeHg. PMID:25247425

  11. Protective Effects of Soy Oligopeptides in Ultraviolet B-Induced Acute Photodamage of Human Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-rong Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We explored the effects of soy oligopeptides (SOP in ultraviolet B- (UVB- induced acute photodamage of human skin in vivo and foreskin ex vivo. Methods. We irradiated the forearm with 1.5 minimal erythemal dose (MED of UVB for 3 consecutive days, establishing acute photodamage of skin, and topically applied SOP. Erythema index (EI, melanin index, stratum corneum hydration, and transepidermal water loss were measured by using Multiprobe Adapter 9 device. We irradiated foreskin ex vivo with the same dose of UVB (180 mJ/cm2 for 3 consecutive days and topically applied SOP. Sunburn cells were detected by using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Apoptotic cells were detected by using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs, p53 protein, Bax protein, and Bcl-2 protein were detected by using immunohistochemical staining. Results. Compared with UVB group, UVB-irradiated skin with topically applied SOP showed significantly decreased EI. Compared with UVB group, topical SOP significantly increased Bcl-2 protein expression and decreased CPDs-positive cells, sunburn cells, apoptotic cells, p53 protein expression, and Bax protein expressions in the epidermis of UVB-irradiated foreskin. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that topical SOP can protect human skin against UVB-induced photodamage.

  12. Protective Effect of Onion Extract on Bleomycin-Induced Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Human Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Hee Cho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Following one of the world’s largest nuclear accidents, occured at Fukushima, Japan in 2011, a significant scientific effort has focused on minimizing the potential adverse health effects due to radiation exposure. The use of natural dietary antioxidants to reduce the risk of radiation-induced oxidative DNA damage is a simple strategy for minimizing radiation-related cancer rates and improving overall health. The onion is among the richest sources of dietary flavonoids and is an important food for increasing their overall intake. Therefore, we examined the effect of an onion extract on cyto- and geno-toxicity in human lymphocytes treated with bleomycin (BLM, a radiomimetic agent. In addition, we measured the frequency of micronuclei (MN and DNA damage following treatment with BLM using a cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and a single cell gel electrophoresis assay. We observed a significant increase in cell viability in lymphocytes treated with onion extract then exposed to BLM compared to cells treated with BLM alone. The frequency of BLM induced MN and DNA damage increased in a dose-dependent manner; however, when lymphocytes were pretreated with onion extract (10 and 20 μL/mL, the frequency of BLM-induced MN was decreased at all doses of BLM and DNA damage was decreased at 3 μg/mL of BLM. These results suggest that onion extract may have protective effects against BLM-induced cyto- and genotoxicity in human lymphocytes.

  13. Mangifera indica L. (Vimang) protection against serum oxidative stress in elderly humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L; Philip, Sarah J; Riaño, Annia; Sánchez, Carlos; Viada, Carmen; Núñez-Sellés, Alberto J; Delgado, René

    2006-01-01

    We searched for the protective effect of a natural extract from stem bark of Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) on age-related oxidative stress. Healthy subjects were classified in two groups, elderly (>65 years) and young group (Vimang tablets, 300 mg each, before meals) for 60 days. Serum concentration of lipid peroxides, serum peroxidation potential, extracellular superoxide dismutase activity (EC-SOD), glutathione status (GSH, GSSG, GSSG/GSH ratio)) and total antioxidant status (TAS) were determined before (both experimental groups) and 15, 30, and 60 days after treatment (only elderly group). We confirmed the existence of an age-associated oxidative stress in human serum as documented by an age-related increase in serum lipoperoxides and GSSG and a decrease in serum antioxidant capacity and EC-SOD activity. Vimang tablet supplementation increased EC-SOD activity (p Vimang tablets prevent age-associated oxidative stress in elderly humans, which could retard the onset of age-associated disease, improving the quality of life for elderly persons.

  14. Protecting the human right to freedom of expression in international law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Emily

    2018-02-01

    Since its inclusion in Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the right to freedom of opinion and expression has been protected in all of the relevant international human rights treaties. In international law, freedom to express opinions and ideas is considered essential at both an individual level, insofar as it contributes to the full development of a person, and being a foundation stone of democratic society. Free speech is a necessary precondition to the enjoyment of other rights, such as the right to vote, free assembly and freedom of association, and is essential to ensure press freedom. However, there is a clear and worrying global trend, including in western democracies, of governments limiting vibrant discussion and debate within civil society and among civil society, political leaders and government. Two examples illustrate this trend. First, anti-protest laws in Australia and the United States threaten the ability of people to stand together and express views on issues they care deeply about. Secondly, metadata retention laws jeopardise press freedom by undermining the confidentiality of journalists' sources and dissuading people from speaking freely on matters of public importance.

  15. Fungal beta glucan protects radiation induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Thulasi G; Maurya, Dharmendra K; Salvi, Veena P; Janardhanan, Krishnankutty K; Nair, Cherupally K K

    2014-02-01

    Ganoderma lucidum (Ling Zhi), a basidiomycete white rot macrofungus has been used extensively for therapeutic use in China, Japan, Korea and other Asian countries for 2,000 years. The present study is an attempt to investigate its DNA protecting property in human lymphocytes. Beta glucan (BG) was isolated by standard procedure and the structure and composition were studied by infrared radiation (IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, gel filtration chromatography and paper chromatography. The radioprotective properties of BG isolated from the macro fungi Ganoderma lucidum was assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Human lymphocytes were exposed to 0, 1, 2 and 4 Gy gamma radiation in the presence and absence of BG. The comet parameters were reduced by BG. The results indicate that the BG of G. lucidum possessed significant radioprotective activity with DNA repairing ability and antioxidant activity as the suggestive mechanism. The findings suggest the potential use of this mushroom for the prevention of radiation induced cellular damages.

  16. Terrestrial mammal assemblages in protected and human impacted areas in Northern Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Burgos de Luna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammal communities in the vicinity of human settlements are often subject to subsistence hunting and retaliatory killings. We used fourteen digital camera traps equipped with infrared triggers to sample the medium-sized and large mammal communities for ca. 34 (±1.64 days per site. Diversity was measured as both Shannon entropy and Fager´s number of moves (NMS, and dominance was quantified using the Berger-Parker index. We used Kruskall-Wallis tests to investigate if there were statistically significant differences in richness, diversity and dominance among the sites. At an overall sampling effort of 1,946 trap days we recorded 216 independent observations of a total of 20 species belonging to 17 genera and 15 families. Richness and diversity appeared to be determined by forest structure, since, independent of the level of human impact, the richest areas were those closest to the ombrophilous forests of southern Guyana shield, closest to central Amazonia, whereas the poorest were at those sites closest to the vegetation mosaics of central Guyana shield. The disappearance of Tayassu pecari from the impacted areas as well as higher relative abundances in the protected areas, albeit not significant, foresees a possible bleak future for the mammalian assemblages in the near future.

  17. PX-18 Protects Human Saphenous Vein Endothelial Cells under Arterial Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupreishvili, Koba; Stooker, Wim; Emmens, Reindert W; Vonk, Alexander B A; Sipkens, Jessica A; van Dijk, Annemieke; Eijsman, Leon; Quax, Paul H; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Krijnen, Paul A J; Niessen, Hans W M

    2017-07-01

    Arterial blood pressure-induced shear stress causes endothelial cell apoptosis and inflammation in vein grafts after coronary artery bypass grafting. As the inflammatory protein type IIA secretory phospholipase A 2 (sPLA 2 -IIA) has been shown to progress atherosclerosis, we hypothesized a role for sPLA 2 -IIA herein. The effects of PX-18, an inhibitor of both sPLA 2 -IIA and apoptosis, on residual endothelium and the presence of sPLA 2 -IIA were studied in human saphenous vein segments (n = 6) perfused at arterial blood pressure with autologous blood for 6 hrs. The presence of PX-18 in the perfusion blood induced a significant 20% reduction in endothelial cell loss compared to veins perfused without PX18, coinciding with significantly reduced sPLA 2 -IIA levels in the media of the vein graft wall. In addition, PX-18 significantly attenuated caspase-3 activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells subjected to shear stress via mechanical stretch independent of sPLA 2 -IIA. In conclusion, PX-18 protects saphenous vein endothelial cells from arterial blood pressure-induced death, possibly also independent of sPLA 2 -IIA inhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The polypeptide in Chlamys farreri can protect human dermal fibroblasts from ultraviolet B damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujiang; Zhan, Songmei; Cao, Pengli; Liu, Ning; Chen, Xuehong; Wang, Yuejun; Wang, Chunbo

    2005-09-01

    To investigate the effect of polypeptide from Chlamys farreri (PCF) on NHDF in vitro, we modeled oxidative damage on normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) exposed to ultraviolet B (UVB). In this study, 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were tested to measure cell viability. Enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), catalase (CAT) and xanthine oxidase (XOD) were determined biochemically. Total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) and anti-superoxide anion capacity (A-SAC) were also determined. Ultrastructure of fibroblasts was observed under transmission electron microscope. The results showed that: UVB (1.176×10-4 J/cm2) suppressed the growth of fibroblasts and the introduction of PCF (0.25% 1%) before UVB reduced the suppression in a concentration-dependent manner. PCF could enhance the activities of SOD, GSH-PX and T-AOC as well as A-SAC. Also PCF could inhibit XOD activity, while it did not affect CAT activity. Ultrastructure of fibroblasts were damaged after UVB irradiation, concentration-dependent PCF reduced the destructive effect of UVB on cells. These results indicated that PCF can protect human dermal fibroblasts from being harmed by UVB irradiation via its antioxidant proerty.

  19. Conserving biodiversity in a human-dominated world: degradation of marine sessile communities within a protected area with conflicting human uses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriano Parravicini

    Full Text Available Conservation research aims at understanding whether present protection schemes are adequate for the maintenance of ecosystems structure and function across time. We evaluated long-term variation in rocky reef communities by comparing sites surveyed in 1993 and again in 2008. This research took place in Tigullio Gulf, an emblematic case study where various conservation measures, including a marine protected area, have been implemented to manage multiple human uses. Contrary to our prediction that protection should have favored ecosystem stability, we found that communities subjected to conservation measures (especially within the marine protected area exhibited the greatest variation toward architectural complexity loss. Between 1993 and 2008, chronic anthropogenic pressures (especially organic load that had already altered unprotected sites in 1993 expanded their influence into protected areas. This expansion of human pressure likely explains our observed changes in the benthic communities. Our results suggest that adaptive ecosystem-based management (EBM, that is management taking into account human interactions, informed by continuous monitoring, is needed in order to attempt reversing the current trend towards less architecturally complex communities. Protected areas are not sufficient to stop ecosystem alteration by pressures coming from outside. Monitoring, and consequent management actions, should therefore extend to cover the relevant scales of those pressures.

  20. Endogenous glutathione protects human skin fibroblasts against the cytotoxic action of UVB, UVA and near-visible radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyrell, R.M.; Pidoux, Mireille

    1986-01-01

    Both the UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-380 nm) regions of sunlight damage human skin cells but, particularly at the longer wavelengths, information is scant concerning the mechanism(s) of damage induction and the roles of cellular defense mechanisms. Following extensive glutathione depletion of cultured human skin fibroblasts, the cells become strongly sensitized to the cytotoxic action of near-visible (405 nm), UVA (334 nm, 365 nm) and UVB (313 nm) but not UVC (254 nm) radiations. In the critical UVB region, the magnitude of the protection afforded by endogenous glutathione approaches that of the protection provided by excision repair. The results suggest that a significant fraction of even UVB damage can be mediated by free radical attack and that a major role of glutathione in human skin cells is to protect them from the cytotoxic action of sunlight. (author)

  1. Reinforce the radiation protection of the health personnel, patients and public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    One of the missions of the IRSN is the public radiation protection. In this context and in order to inform the public, this press document presents the actions of the IRSN in the occupational safety, the patients and the public, with a special interest to the Chernobyl accident consequences in France. The prevention policy against the radon, implemented by the Institute is also presented. (A.L.B.)

  2. Osteoprotegerin CGA haplotype protection against cerebrovascular complications in anti-CCP negative patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Genre

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory disease with high incidence of cardiovascular disease due to accelerated atherosclerosis. Osteoprotegerin (OPG has been associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic disease in the general population. Several polymorphisms in the OPG gene with functional effects on cardiovascular disease in non-rheumatic individuals have been described. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the effect of three of these functional OPG polymorphisms on the risk of cardiovascular disease in a large and well-characterized cohort of Spanish patients with rheumatoid arthritis.Three OPG gene variants (rs3134063, rs2073618 and rs3134069 were genotyped by TaqMan assays in 2027 Spanish patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP antibody testing was positive in 997 of 1714 tested. Also, 18.3% of the whole series had experienced cardiovascular events, including 5.4% with cerebrovascular accidents. The relationship between OPG variants and cardiovascular events was assessed using Cox regression.No association between OPG gene variants and cardiovascular disease was observed in the whole group of rheumatoid arthritis patients or in anti-CCP positive patients. Nevertheless, a protective effect of CGA haplotype on the risk of cardiovascular disease in general, and specifically in the risk of cerebrovascular complications after adjusting for sex, age at disease diagnosis and traditional cardiovascular risk factors was disclosed in anti-CCP negative patients (HR = 0.54; 95%CI: 0.31-0.95; p = 0.032 and HR = 0.17; 95%CI: 0.04-0.78; p = 0.022, respectively.Our results indicate a protective effect of the OPG CGA haplotype on cardiovascular risk, mainly due to a protective effect against cerebrovascular events in anti-CCP negative rheumatoid arthritis patients.

  3. Protective role of melatonin in progesterone production by human luteal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketani, Toshiaki; Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Lee, Lifa; Kizuka, Fumie; Tamura, Isao; Taniguchi, Ken; Maekawa, Ryo; Asada, Hiromi; Shimamura, Katsunori; Reiter, Russel J; Sugino, Norihiro

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated whether melatonin protects luteinized granulosa cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) as an antioxidant to enhance progesterone production in the follicle during ovulation. Follicular fluid was sampled at the time of oocyte retrieval in women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Melatonin concentrations in the follicular fluid were positively correlated with progesterone concentrations (r = 0.342, P progesterone and 8-OHdG concentrations were negatively correlated (r = -0.246, P Progesterone production by luteinized granulosa cells was significantly inhibited by H(2)O(2). Melatonin treatment overcame the inhibitory effect of H(2) O(2) . Twenty-five patients who had luteal phase defect (serum progesterone concentrations progesterone concentrations (>10 ng/mL during the mid-luteal phase) in nine of 14 women (64.3%), whereas only two of 11 women (18.1%) showed normal serum progesterone levels in the control group. In conclusion, melatonin protects granulosa cells undergoing luteinization from ROS in the follicle and contributes to luteinization for progesterone production during ovulation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Radiation protection for humans and environment. 50 years competence in the professional association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, Benno; Wilhelm, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The conference proceedings of the IRPA (International radiation protection association) annual meeting 2016 contain the contribution of invited referents, other contributions and poster contributions concerning radiation protection in nuclear facilities, radiation protection of the public and environment, radioactive waste management, uranium mining, environmental monitoring, natural radioactivity, and radiation protection laws and regulations.

  5. Education, training and continuous professional development in the radiological protection of patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.K.

    2001-01-01

    Education and training in the radiological protection of patients has to face many challenges. These stem from the interdisciplinary nature of the personnel involved, their varied backgrounds, the difficult to quantify risk and benefit considerations, concern for quality of the end product, changing attitudes as knowledge develops in fast growing areas of technology and the wide complexity of the equipment used. On the one hand there is a need for giving orientation about the medical exigencies and situations in clinical practice to the radiation protection regulators and, on the other, more and more clinicians without any training in radiation protection are getting involved in the use of high levels of radiation through angiographic procedures. It is hence no wonder that the deterministic effects of radiation have been observed in patients undergoing angiographic procedures. A review of the state of the art in education and training and identifying educational challenges is therefore needed. The medical training of physicians and support personnel in the health care use of ionizing or other radiation in patients is particularly challenging for many reasons, most of which are unique to health care. These include those described in the paper. (author)

  6. The efficacy of Protected Mealtimes in hospitalised patients: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Judi; Haines, Terry P; Truby, Helen

    2017-02-07

    Protected Mealtimes is an intervention developed to address the problem of malnutrition in hospitalised patients through increasing positive interruptions (such as feeding assistance) whilst minimising unnecessary interruptions (including ward rounds and diagnostic procedures) during mealtimes. This clinical trial aimed to measure the effect of implementing Protected Mealtimes on the energy and protein intake of patients admitted to the subacute setting. A prospective, stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial was undertaken across three hospital sites at one health network in Melbourne, Australia. All patients, except those receiving end-of-life care or not receiving oral nutrition, admitted to these wards during the study period participated. The intervention was guided by the British Hospital Caterers Association reference policy on Protected Mealtimes and by principles of implementation science. Primary outcome measures were daily energy and protein intake. The study was powered to determine whether the intervention closed the daily energy deficit between estimated intake and energy requirements measured as 1900 kJ/day in the pilot study for this trial. There were 149 unique participants, including 38 who crossed over from the control to intervention period as the Protected Mealtimes intervention was implemented. In total, 416 observations of 24-hour food intake were obtained. Energy intake was not significantly different between the intervention ([mean ± SD] 6479 ± 2486 kJ/day) and control (6532 ± 2328 kJ/day) conditions (p = 0.88). Daily protein intake was also not significantly different between the intervention (68.6 ± 26.0 g/day) and control (67.0 ± 25.2 g/day) conditions (p = 0.86). The differences between estimated energy/protein requirements and estimated energy/protein intakes were also limited between groups. The adjusted analysis yielded significant findings for energy deficit: (coefficient [robust 95% CI], p

  7. European legislation impedes critical care research and fails to protect patients' rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Møller, Kirsten; Rossel, Peter Johannes Hancke

    2011-01-01

    in which a waiver of consent is deemed necessary, the Ethical Review Board should ensure that non-therapeutic risks are minimal, that the research is specifically designed to benefit critically ill patients, and that it cannot be conducted under circumstances where an informed consent can be obtained....... If the European Directive is changed accordingly, this permits clinical trials in critical care settings, while adequate protection from risky non-therapeutic procedures is ensured and exploitation of the patient as an easily accessible research subject is prevented....

  8. Debriefing after Human Patient Simulation and Nursing Students' Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhuri, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Human Patient Simulation (HPS) exercises with life-like computerized manikins provide clinical experiences for nursing students in a safe environment followed by debriefing that promotes learning. Quantitative research in techniques to support learning from debriefing is limited. The purpose of the quantitative quasi-experimental study using a…

  9. Patient specific 3D visualisation of human brain | Baichoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    University of Mauritius Research Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Patient specific 3D visualisation of human brain.

  10. Airway skills training using a human patient simulator | Moodley ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of airway management skills using the simulator. Participant satisfaction was much better in the simulator group. The importance of psychomotor reinforcement should be borne in mind when designing simulation courses. Keywords: human patient simulator, simulation, airway management, psychomotor skills ...

  11. Nrf2 Activation Protects against Solar-Simulated Ultraviolet Radiation in Mice and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knatko, Elena V; Ibbotson, Sally H; Zhang, Ying; Higgins, Maureen; Fahey, Jed W; Talalay, Paul; Dawe, Robert S; Ferguson, James; Huang, Jeffrey T-J; Clarke, Rosemary; Zheng, Suqing; Saito, Akira; Kalra, Sukirti; Benedict, Andrea L; Honda, Tadashi; Proby, Charlotte M; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T

    2015-06-01

    The transcription factor Nrf2 determines the ability to adapt and survive under conditions of electrophilic, oxidative, and inflammatory stress by regulating the expression of elaborate networks comprising nearly 500 genes encoding proteins with versatile cytoprotective functions. In mice, disruption of Nrf2 increases susceptibility to carcinogens and accelerates disease pathogenesis. Paradoxically, Nrf2 is upregulated in established human tumors, but whether this upregulation drives carcinogenesis is not known. Here we show that the incidence, multiplicity, and burden of solar-simulated UV radiation-mediated cutaneous tumors that form in SKH-1 hairless mice in which Nrf2 is genetically constitutively activated are lower than those that arise in their wild-type counterparts. Pharmacologic Nrf2 activation by topical biweekly applications of small (40 nmol) quantities of the potent bis(cyano enone) inducer TBE-31 has a similar protective effect against solar-simulated UV radiation in animals receiving long-term treatment with the immunosuppressive agent azathioprine. Genetic or pharmacologic Nrf2 activation lowers the expression of the pro-inflammatory factors IL6 and IL1β, and COX2 after acute exposure of mice to UV radiation. In healthy human subjects, topical applications of extracts delivering the Nrf2 activator sulforaphane reduced the degree of solar-simulated UV radiation-induced skin erythema, a quantifiable surrogate endpoint for cutaneous damage and skin cancer risk. Collectively, these data show that Nrf2 is not a driver for tumorigenesis even upon exposure to a very potent and complete carcinogen and strongly suggest that the frequent activation of Nrf2 in established human tumors is a marker of metabolic adaptation. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Canadian soil quality guidelines for the protection of environmental and human health : benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, K.

    2005-07-01

    This report presented soil quality guidelines for benzene to protect humans and ecological receptors in 4 types of land uses: agricultural; residential and parklands; commercial and industrial. The chemical and physical properties of benzene were reviewed, as well as the sources and emissions of benzene in Canada. The distribution and behaviour of benzene in the environment was examined, and the toxicological effects of benzene on microbial processes, plants, animals and humans were reviewed. It was noted that the background information and rationale for the derivation of Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines for this substance were originally published in 1999 by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) in Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. These guidelines have since been revised to reflect new data and lessons learned during the development of the Canada-wide Standard for Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soil (CCME 2000). Modifications in this report included the derivation of guidelines for different soil textures and depths. Behaviour and effects in biota were reviewed, including soil microbial processes; terrestrial plants; terrestrial invertebrates; livestock and wildlife; and bioaccumulation. Behaviour and effects in humans and mammalian species were examined. The derivation of environmental soil quality guidelines was outlined. Recommendations for Canadian soil quality guidelines were presented. It was concluded that there is a lack of studies on the toxic effects of benzene on livestock, mammalian wildlife and birds and that studies on the metabolism of benzene in mammals and birds as well as invertebrates are needed. In addition, research is needed on the effects of benzene on nitrogen fixation, nitrification, nitrogen mineralization, decomposition and respiration. 118 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. Patients' Data Management System Protected by Identity-Based Authentication and Key Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-García, Alexandra; Santos-González, Iván; Hernández-Goya, Candelaria; Caballero-Gil, Pino; Yung, Moti

    2017-03-31

    A secure and distributed framework for the management of patients' information in emergency and hospitalization services is proposed here in order to seek improvements in efficiency and security in this important area. In particular, confidentiality protection, mutual authentication, and automatic identification of patients are provided. The proposed system is based on two types of devices: Near Field Communication (NFC) wristbands assigned to patients, and mobile devices assigned to medical staff. Two other main elements of the system are an intermediate server to manage the involved data, and a second server with a private key generator to define the information required to protect communications. An identity-based authentication and key exchange scheme is essential to provide confidential communication and mutual authentication between the medical staff and the private key generator through an intermediate server. The identification of patients is carried out through a keyed-hash message authentication code. Thanks to the combination of the aforementioned tools, a secure alternative mobile health (mHealth) scheme for managing patients' data is defined for emergency and hospitalization services. Different parts of the proposed system have been implemented, including mobile application, intermediate server, private key generator and communication channels. Apart from that, several simulations have been performed, and, compared with the current system, significant improvements in efficiency have been observed.

  14. Protective effects of salivary factors in dental caries in diabetic patients of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawed, Muhammad; Khan, Rashid N; Shahid, Syed M; Azhar, Abid

    2012-01-01

    Salivary factors have been studied for their effects on the process of dental caries in patients of diabetes mellitus type 2. In this study, protective role of salivary pH, salivary flow rate, and salivary calcium is assessed in the patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 with dental caries. The samples of saliva were collected from 400 patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 and 300 age- and sex- matched controls after getting informed consent. All the subjects were classified into four groups according to age. The severity of dental caries was counted by decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT) score. The salivary pH, flow rate, and calcium levels were found to be low in patients as compared to controls. The levels of fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, and DMFT score were found to be significantly high in patients than controls. The glycemic factors were significantly correlated with salivary factors indicating their influence on progression of caries in diabetes. On the basis of findings, it is concluded that the suitable salivary pH and flow rate may be regarded as main protective factors against dental caries in diabetes. Optimum level of salivary calcium may be responsible for continuous supply of calcium to arrest the demineralization and help reduce the occurrence of dental caries.

  15. Protective Effects of Salivary Factors in Dental Caries in Diabetic Patients of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Jawed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary factors have been studied for their effects on the process of dental caries in patients of diabetes mellitus type 2. In this study, protective role of salivary pH, salivary flow rate, and salivary calcium is assessed in the patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 with dental caries. The samples of saliva were collected from 400 patients of diabetes mellitus type 2 and 300 age- and sex- matched controls after getting informed consent. All the subjects were classified into four groups according to age. The severity of dental caries was counted by decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT score. The salivary pH, flow rate, and calcium levels were found to be low in patients as compared to controls. The levels of fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, and DMFT score were found to be significantly high in patients than controls. The glycemic factors were significantly correlated with salivary factors indicating their influence on progression of caries in diabetes. On the basis of findings, it is concluded that the suitable salivary pH and flow rate may be regarded as main protective factors against dental caries in diabetes. Optimum level of salivary calcium may be responsible for continuous supply of calcium to arrest the demineralization and help reduce the occurrence of dental caries.

  16. Hospital security and patient elopement: protecting patients and your healthcare facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas A

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory and financial consequences of adverse events associated with patient elopements are bringing new challenges to healthcare security to develop policies and procedures to prevent and respond to such incidents. This article provides an overview of the problem of elopement in healthcare and what it means to the security function; gives a working knowledge of healthcare related standards and guidelines aimed at reducing patient elopement; and reviews the elements of an elopement prevention and response plan for your organization.

  17. Human error probability evaluation as part of reliability analysis of digital protection system of advanced pressurized water reactor - APR 1400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varde, P. V.; Lee, D. Y.; Han, J. B.

    2003-03-01

    A case of study on human reliability analysis has been performed as part of reliability analysis of digital protection system of the reactor automatically actuates the shutdown system of the reactor when demanded. However, the safety analysis takes credit for operator action as a diverse mean for tripping the reactor for, though a low probability, ATWS scenario. Based on the available information two cases, viz., human error in tripping the reactor and calibration error for instrumentations in protection system, have been analyzed. Wherever applicable a parametric study has also been performed

  18. Chronic Low Dose Rate Ionizing Radiation Exposure Induces Premature Senescence in Human Fibroblasts that Correlates with Up Regulation of Proteins Involved in Protection against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Loseva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The risks of non-cancerous diseases associated with exposure to low doses of radiation are at present not validated by epidemiological data, and pose a great challenge to the scientific community of radiation protection research. Here, we show that premature senescence is induced in human fibroblasts when exposed to chronic low dose rate (LDR exposure (5 or 15 mGy/h of gamma rays from a 137Cs source. Using a proteomic approach we determined differentially expressed proteins in cells after chronic LDR radiation compared to control cells. We identified numerous proteins involved in protection against oxidative stress, suggesting that these pathways protect against premature senescence. In order to further study the role of oxidative stress for radiation induced premature senescence, we also used human fibroblasts, isolated from a patient with a congenital deficiency in glutathione synthetase (GS. We found that these GS deficient cells entered premature senescence after a significantly shorter time of chronic LDR exposure as compared to the GS proficient cells. In conclusion, we show that chronic LDR exposure induces premature senescence in human fibroblasts, and propose that a stress induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS is mechanistically involved.

  19. A review of the scientific basis for radiation protection of the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moores, B. M.; Regulla, D.

    2011-01-01

    The use of ionising radiation in medicine is the single largest man-made source of population exposure. Individual and collective doses to patients arising from the medical use of ionising radiations continue to rise significantly year on year. This is due to the increasing use of medical imaging procedures in modern health care systems as well as the continued development of new high dose techniques. This paper reviews the scientific basis for the principles of radiation protection as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. These principles attempt to include exposures arising from both medical and non-medical applications within a common framework and have evolved over many years and changing socioeconomic considerations. In particular, the concepts of justification and ALARA (doses should be as low as reasonably achievable), which underpin the principles for medical exposures are assessed in terms of their applicability to the scientific process and relevance to a rapidly changing technologically-led health care system. Radiation protection is an integral component of patient safety in medical practices and needs to be evidence based and amenable to the scientific process. The limitations imposed by the existing philosophy of radiation protection to the development of a quantitative framework for adequately assessing the performance of medical imaging systems are highlighted. In particular, medical practitioners will require quantitative guidance as to the risk-benefits arising from modern X-ray imaging methods if they are to make rational judgements as to the applicability of modern high-dose techniques to particular diagnostic and therapeutic tasks. At present such guidance is variable due to the lack of a rational framework for assessing the clinical impact of medical imaging techniques. The possible integration of radiation protection concepts into fundamental bio-medical imaging research activities is discussed. (authors)

  20. Subclinical ischemic events in patients undergoing carotid artery stent placement: comparison of proximal and distal protection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytac, Emrah; Gürkaş, Erdem; Akpinar, Cetin Kursad; Saleem, Muhammad A; Qureshi, Adnan I

    2017-10-01

    To determine the relative effectiveness of proximal and distal protection in prevention of cerebral ischemic events during carotid artery stent (CAS) placement using diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI). We analyzed data from patients who had undergone DW-MRI before and within 24 hours of CAS for symptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis (with last ischemic events within 3 months). The study was performed prospectively; patients were not randomized, and were treated either with a proximal balloon occlusion system (Mo.Ma; Invatec, Roncadelle, Italy) or filter-type distal protection device (Spider device; ev3, Plymouth, Minnesota, USA). Of the 45 patients (mean age±SD: 66.9±9.8 years; 73.3% were men) who underwent CAS, 19 had proximal protection and 26 distal protection. New ischemic lesions were detected in 26/45 patients on DW-MRI scans obtained within 24 hours after CAS. The proportion of patients with new lesions on DW-MRI at 24 hours was not different between the two groups (47.4% vs 65.4% for proximal and distal protection, respectively). The mean number of new ischemic lesions on post-CAS DW-MRI was non-significantly higher in patients who underwent CAS with distal protection (2.80±3.54 for proximal protection vs 4.96±5.11 for distal protection; p=0.12). The proportion of patients with new lesions >1 cm did not differ between the two groups (5.3% for proximal protection vs 11.5% for distal protection; p=0.62). There was no difference in the rates of ischemic stroke between patients who underwent CAS treatment using proximal and distal protection (5.3% vs 7.7%; p=1.000). We found a relatively high rate of new ischemic lesions in patients undergoing CAS with cerebral protection. There was no difference in the proportion of patients with new lesions between patients treated using distal protection and those treated using proximal protection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  1. A REVIEW OF THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF RADIATION PROTECTION WHEN APPLIED TO THE PATIENT IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, B Michael

    2017-06-01

    A review of the role and relevance of the principles of radiation protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology as specified by ICRP has been undertaken when diagnostic risks arising from an examination are taken into account. The increase in population doses arising from diagnostic radiology over the past 20 years has been due to the widespread application of higher dose CT examinations that provide significantly more clinical information. Consequently, diagnostic risks as well as radiation risks need to be considered within the patient radiation protection framework. Justification and optimisation are discussed and the limitations imposed on patient protection by employing only a radiation risk framework is highlighted. The example of radiation protection of the patient in breast screening programmes employing mammography is used to highlight the importance of defined diagnostic outcomes in any effective radiation protection strategy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. A review of the fundamental principles of radiation protection when applied to the patient in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moores, B. Michael

    2017-01-01

    A review of the role and relevance of the principles of radiation protection of the patient in diagnostic radiology as specified by ICRP has been undertaken when diagnostic risks arising from an examination are taken into account. The increase in population doses arising from diagnostic radiology over the past 20 years has been due to the widespread application of higher dose CT examinations that provide significantly more clinical information. Consequently, diagnostic risks as well as radiation risks need to be considered within the patient radiation protection framework. Justification and optimisation are discussed and the limitations imposed on patient protection by employing only a radiation risk framework is highlighted. The example of radiation protection of the patient in breast screening programmes employing mammography is used to highlight the importance of defined diagnostic outcomes in any effective radiation protection strategy. (author)

  3. Protection of human cells against the effects of cadmium chloride by pretreatment with vitamins, interferon, and prior low-dose γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusainova, K.A.; Vasil'eva, I.M.; Chekova, V.V.; Akhmatullina, N.B.; Zasukhina, G.D.

    1992-01-01

    Within the increasing environmental pollution there is a need to discover means to protect humans from the mutagenic effects of chemical pollutants. Natural antimutagens such as interferon and vitamins have some protective properties. Interferons simulate a variety of repair pathways in human cells and reduce the numbers of mutations induced by physical and chemical mutagens. This study compares the protective properties of interferon and vitamins with the known protective effects of small doses of ionizing radiation

  4. Assessing patterns of human-wildlife conflicts and compensation around a Central Indian protected area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krithi K Karanth

    Full Text Available Mitigating crop and livestock loss to wildlife and improving compensation distribution are important for conservation efforts in landscapes where people and wildlife co-occur outside protected areas. The lack of rigorously collected spatial data poses a challenge to management efforts to minimize loss and mitigate conflicts. We surveyed 735 households from 347 villages in a 5154 km(2 area surrounding Kanha Tiger Reserve in India. We modeled self-reported household crop and livestock loss as a function of agricultural, demographic and environmental factors, and mitigation measures. We also modeled self-reported compensation received by households as a function of demographic factors, conflict type, reporting to authorities, and wildlife species involved. Seventy-three percent of households reported crop loss and 33% livestock loss in the previous year, but less than 8% reported human injury or death. Crop loss was associated with greater number of cropping months per year and proximity to the park. Livestock loss was associated with grazing animals inside the park and proximity to the park. Among mitigation measures only use of protective physical structures were associated with reduced livestock loss. Compensation distribution was more likely for tiger related incidents, and households reporting loss and located in the buffer. Average estimated probability of crop loss was 0.93 and livestock loss was 0.60 for surveyed households. Estimated crop and livestock loss and compensation distribution were higher for households located inside the buffer. Our approach modeled conflict data to aid managers in identifying potential conflict hotspots, influential factors, and spatially maps risk probability of crop and livestock loss. This approach could help focus allocation of conservation efforts and funds directed at conflict prevention and mitigation where high densities of people and wildlife co-occur.

  5. Assessing patterns of human-wildlife conflicts and compensation around a Central Indian protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Krithi K; Gopalaswamy, Arjun M; DeFries, Ruth; Ballal, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    Mitigating crop and livestock loss to wildlife and improving compensation distribution are important for conservation efforts in landscapes where people and wildlife co-occur outside protected areas. The lack of rigorously collected spatial data poses a challenge to management efforts to minimize loss and mitigate conflicts. We surveyed 735 households from 347 villages in a 5154 km(2) area surrounding Kanha Tiger Reserve in India. We modeled self-reported household crop and livestock loss as a function of agricultural, demographic and environmental factors, and mitigation measures. We also modeled self-reported compensation received by households as a function of demographic factors, conflict type, reporting to authorities, and wildlife species involved. Seventy-three percent of households reported crop loss and 33% livestock loss in the previous year, but less than 8% reported human injury or death. Crop loss was associated with greater number of cropping months per year and proximity to the park. Livestock loss was associated with grazing animals inside the park and proximity to the park. Among mitigation measures only use of protective physical structures were associated with reduced livestock loss. Compensation distribution was more likely for tiger related incidents, and households reporting loss and located in the buffer. Average estimated probability of crop loss was 0.93 and livestock loss was 0.60 for surveyed households. Estimated crop and livestock loss and compensation distribution were higher for households located inside the buffer. Our approach modeled conflict data to aid managers in identifying potential conflict hotspots, influential factors, and spatially maps risk probability of crop and livestock loss. This approach could help focus allocation of conservation efforts and funds directed at conflict prevention and mitigation where high densities of people and wildlife co-occur.

  6. Where and how should be placed humanity to protect against asteroidal and cometary hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, G. N.; Zhilyaev, B. E.

    2018-05-01

    For the planetary protection of the planet Earth, we propose to create, deploy and constantly upgrade the "Single Churyumov Network" as a multi-level system of continuous monitoring of near and distant volumes around the Earth. This is necessary to identify and explore potentially dangerous objects that intruding in our atmosphere. To solve the problem of global planetary protection, it is necessary to involve enormous forces and means. According to the definition, terraformation is a change in the cosmic body that will bring the atmosphere, temperature and environmental conditions into a state that is necessary for the life of terrestrial animals, plants and people. Therefore, before sending people, for example, to Mars for a permanent settlement, it is necessary first of all there to create a huge complex of preparatory work with the aim, if not completely transform this planet, at least, to organize there the simplest housing for future settlers. At Venus, you can create settlements in "flying" cities with flotilla peculiar "airships" in the upper atmosphere. Terraformation of Mercury can be carried out at latitudes from 70 deg. to the poles, making it suitable localities for human habitation. They should be located below the surface of the planet at a depth of 3-30 m in a zone of comfortable and constant temperatures of about +20° С. And start terraforming - preferably from the Moon. Such residential complexes should be designed taking into account the need to deploy systems of early detection and counteract the global danger to the Earth by asteroid and comet invasions. That is, the areas of Venus, Mars, Mercury and the Earth - should be equipped with special orbital stations. At these stations, nuclear missile systems for early warning and combating global threats from invasion of asteroids and comets - should be deployed.

  7. Human Factors Risk Analyses of a Doffing Protocol for Ebola-Level Personal Protective Equipment: Mapping Errors to Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Joel M; Durso, Francis T; Ferguson, Ashley N; Gipson, Christina L; Casanova, Lisa; Erukunuakpor, Kimberly; Kraft, Colleen S; Walsh, Victoria L; Zimring, Craig; DuBose, Jennifer; Jacob, Jesse T

    2018-03-05

    Doffing protocols for personal protective equipment (PPE) are critical for keeping healthcare workers (HCWs) safe during care of patients with Ebola virus disease. We assessed the relationship between errors and self-contamination during doffing. Eleven HCWs experienced with doffing Ebola-level PPE participated in simulations in which HCWs donned PPE marked with surrogate viruses (ɸ6 and MS2), completed a clinical task, and were assessed for contamination after doffing. Simulations were video recorded, and a failure modes and effects analysis and fault tree analyses were performed to identify errors during doffing, quantify their risk (risk index), and predict contamination data. Fifty-one types of errors were identified, many having the potential to spread contamination. Hand hygiene and removing the powered air purifying respirator (PAPR) hood had the highest total risk indexes (111 and 70, respectively) and number of types of errors (9 and 13, respectively). ɸ6 was detected on 10% of scrubs and the fault tree predicted a 10.4% contamination rate, likely occurring when the PAPR hood inadvertently contacted scrubs during removal. MS2 was detected on 10% of hands, 20% of scrubs, and 70% of inner gloves and the predicted rates were 7.3%, 19.4%, 73.4%, respectively. Fault trees for MS2 and ɸ6 contamination suggested similar pathways. Ebola-level PPE can both protect and put HCWs at risk for self-contamination throughout the doffing process, even among experienced HCWs doffing with a trained observer. Human factors methodologies can identify error-prone steps, delineate the relationship between errors and self-contamination, and suggest remediation strategies.

  8. 77 FR 28788 - Health Insurance Issuers Implementing Medical Loss Ratio (MLR) Under the Patient Protection and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 158 [CMS-9998-IFC3] Health Insurance Issuers..., entitled ``Health Insurance Issuers Implementing Medical Loss Ratio (MLR) Requirements Under the Patient...) requirements for health insurance issuers under section 2718 of the Public Health Service Act, as added by the...

  9. Protective effect of curcumin against ultraviolet A irradiation-induced photoaging in human dermal fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Ruizhi; Shi, Haixia; Li, Xiaobo; Li, Yanhong; Taha, Ahmad; Xu, Chunxing

    2018-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces DNA damage, oxidative stress, and inflammatory processes in skin, resulting in photoaging. Natural botanicals have gained considerable attention due to their beneficial protection against the harmful effects of UV irradiation. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of curcumin (Cur) to protect human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) against ultraviolet A (UVA)-induced photoaging. HDFs were treated with 0–10 µM Cur for 2 h and subsequently exposed to various intensities of UVA irradiation. The cell viability and apoptotic rate of HDFs were investigated by MTT and flow cytometry assays, respectively. The effect of UVA and Cur on the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde levels, which are an indicator of ROS, and the levels/activity of antioxidative defense proteins, including glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase, were evaluated using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and commercial assay kits. Furthermore, western blotting was performed to determine the levels of proteins associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the apoptotic pathway, inflammation and the collagen synthesis pathway. The results demonstrated that Cur reduced the accumulation of ROS and restored the activity of antioxidant defense enzymes, indicating that Cur minimized the damage induced by UVA irradiation in HDFs. Furthermore, western blot analysis demonstrated that Cur may attenuate UVA-induced ER stress, inflammation and apoptotic signaling by downregulating the protein expression of glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP-homologous protein, nuclear factor-κB and cleaved caspase-3, while upregulating the expression of Bcl-2. Additionally, it was demonstrated that Cur may regulate collagen metabolism by decreasing the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3, and may promote the repair of cells damaged as a result of UVA irradiation through increasing the protein expression of transforming

  10. Therapy with recombinant human erythropoietin in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R M; Bernstein, S H; Demetri, G; Facklam, D P; Arthur, K; Andersen, J; Aster, J C; Kufe, D

    1994-10-01

    We conducted a Phase I-II trial of recombinant human erythropoietin-beta (rhEPO) in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Patients with anemia and pathologically confirmed MDS were eligible for the study. Treatment consisted of rhEPO by subcutaneous injection thrice weekly for 6 weeks at one of three dose levels (100 U/kg (three patients), 200 U/kg (three patients) and 400 U/kg (14 patients)). Ferrous sulfate (325 mg po tid) was also administered if the transferrin saturation was below 30% (two patients). Patients were monitored with weekly CBC, white cell differential, and reticulocyte counts. Bone marrow examinations were performed at the conclusion of the treatment period and after a 2 week washout period. Patients who responded to therapy were continued on rhEPO at the same dose for 6 additional months. Response criteria included: 50% reduction in transfusion requirements compared with the 6 week pre-study period; doubling of reticulocyte count that was maintained on two determinations at least 1 week apart; or an increase in hemoglobin by at least 1.2 gm/dl without transfusions. Pre-treatment factors potentially predictive of response were analyzed by univariate analysis and in a multivariate fashion by classification and regression trees. Seven of the twenty patients sustained an untransfused rise in serum hemoglobin > or = 1.2 gm/dl. Four of the sixteen patients (including three of seven patients experiencing a rise in serum hemoglobin) who were transfusion-dependent prior to the study achieved a reduction or elimination of their transfusion requirements. Five of thirteen patients who received rhEPO during the extension phase had a continued response. A low baseline erythropoietin level (< 50 mU/ml) was the best predictor of hemoglobin response when controlling for other variables. rhEPO has a role in the treatment of certain patients with MDS, particularly in those whose endogenous serum erythropoietin levels are not markedly elevated.

  11. SurR9C84A protects and recovers human cardiomyocytes from hypoxia induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashok, Ajay [Nanomedicine-Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Biomedical Research (NLIMBR), School of Medicine (SoM), Faculty of Health, Centre for Molecular and Medical Research - C-MMR, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, 2103 Cornell Rd. WRB 5128, Cleveland, OH 44106-7288 (United States); Kanwar, Jagat Rakesh [Nanomedicine-Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Biomedical Research (NLIMBR), School of Medicine (SoM), Faculty of Health, Centre for Molecular and Medical Research - C-MMR, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Krishnan, Uma Maheswari [Centre for Nanotechnology & Advanced Biomaterials (CeNTAB), School of Chemical & Biotechnology (SCBT), SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613401 (India); Kanwar, Rupinder Kaur, E-mail: rupinder.kanwar@deakin.edu.au [Nanomedicine-Laboratory of Immunology and Molecular Biomedical Research (NLIMBR), School of Medicine (SoM), Faculty of Health, Centre for Molecular and Medical Research - C-MMR, Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Victoria 3216 (Australia)

    2017-01-01

    . - Highlights: • Protection/regeneration of dying myocardium post myocardial infarction is important. • Downregulation of survivin induces apoptosis in hypoxic human cardiomyocytes (HCM). • Bio-replenishment with SurR9-C84A reinstates HCM survival, recovery and growth. • SurR9-C84A targets mitochondrial depolarization, fcTnT and ROS generation in HCM. • SurR9-C84A upregulates survivin, PCNA, PI3K/Akt pathway, VEGF and HSP levels. • SurR9-C84A holds promise as a treatment and preventive agent to replenish survivin.

  12. Protective versus Conventional Ventilation for Surgery: A Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa Neto, Ary; Hemmes, Sabrine N T; Barbas, Carmen S V; Beiderlinden, Martin; Biehl, Michelle; Binnekade, Jan M; Canet, Jaume; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Futier, Emmanuel; Gajic, Ognjen; Hedenstierna, Göran; Hollmann, Markus W; Jaber, Samir; Kozian, Alf; Licker, Marc; Lin, Wen-Qian; Maslow, Andrew D; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Reis Miranda, Dinis; Moine, Pierre; Ng, Thomas; Paparella, Domenico; Putensen, Christian; Ranieri, Marco; Scavonetto, Federica; Schilling, Thomas; Schmid, Werner; Selmo, Gabriele; Severgnini, Paolo; Sprung, Juraj; Sundar, Sugantha; Talmor, Daniel; Treschan, Tanja; Unzueta, Carmen; Weingarten, Toby N; Wolthuis, Esther K; Wrigge, Hermann; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies show that intraoperative mechanical ventilation using low tidal volumes (VT) can prevent postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs). The aim of this individual patient data meta-analysis is to evaluate the individual associations between VT size and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) level and occurrence of PPC. Randomized controlled trials comparing protective ventilation (low VT with or without high levels of PEEP) and conventional ventilation (high VT with low PEEP) in patients undergoing general surgery. The primary outcome was development of PPC. Predefined prognostic factors were tested using multivariate logistic regression. Fifteen randomized controlled trials were included (2,127 patients). There were 97 cases of PPC in 1,118 patients (8.7%) assigned to protective ventilation and 148 cases in 1,009 patients (14.7%) assigned to conventional ventilation (adjusted relative risk, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.88; P ventilation with low VT and high PEEP levels and 63 cases in 525 patients (12%) assigned to ventilation with low VT and low PEEP levels (adjusted relative risk, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.37; P = 0.72). A dose-response relationship was found between the appearance of PPC and VT size (R2 = 0.39) but not between the appearance of PPC and PEEP level (R2 = 0.08). These data support the beneficial effects of ventilation with use of low VT in patients undergoing surgery. Further trials are necessary to define the role of intraoperative higher PEEP to prevent PPC during nonopen abdominal surgery.

  13. World Heritage Protection and the Human Right to Development: Reconciling Competing or Complimentary Narratives Using a Human Rights-Based Approach (HRBA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Gillespie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the pursuit of the protection of places worthy of World Heritage designation, controls are placed on human activities. Regulations are put in place to curb the extent to which these places of heritage significance might be compromised by inappropriate human uses. For the most part, this conservation exercise takes the form of a regulatory regime that, in reality, imposes localized restrictions on how people interact with the protected site. Such restrictions can come at considerable expense to pre-existing users, and arguably, in some instances, these restrictions may also act to simultaneously restrict “rights”. These rights arise by virtue of a raft of international and regional commitments to human rights that, in essence, aim to preserve human dignity for all. This paper explores the nexus between conservation and development through a “rights” paradigm. Arguably, it is untenable to sustain a situation in which heritage trumps user-rights without due regard for some of the rights articulated within the human rights narrative. Heritage protection must be seen as a question of balance wherein conservation, development and rights are reconciled. It is argued that the adoption of a human rights-based approach (HRBA to conservation may aid in the reconciliation of these goals.

  14. Protection of the patient from ionizing radiation in medical exposure in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesinger, T.; Ben Shlomo, A.; Berlovitz, Y.

    2002-01-01

    The ICRP issued in 1991 its recent recommendations related to the protection of the worker, the public and the patient from ionizing radiation. In 1996 the IAEA together with the WHO, the ILO and other major international bodies published the Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the BSS). The BSS are based on the core principles of Justification, Optimization and Dose Limitation. Many countries adopted the radiation protection philosophy and the administrative framework presented in the BSS as the basis for their legal radiation protection system. Following the publication of the BSS, the EC published in 1997 its Medical Exposure Directive 97/43 /Euratom. Article 14 of the ME Directive requires that EC member states bring into force the laws and administrative provisions necessary to comply with this directive before 13 May 2000. Most EC member states have complied with this requirement and issued the relevant laws and /or regulations. The Ionizing Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations that came into force in the UK on 13 May 2000 are a good example

  15. Human papilloma virus dermatosis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients: A 14-year retrospective study in 965 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuno-Gonzalez, Almudena; Losa Garcia, Juan Emilio; López Estebaranz, José Luis; Martin-Rios, María Dolores

    2017-05-10

    The incidence of the human papilloma virus (HPV) has not dropped in HIV-positive patients despite the discovery of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our goal is to assess the prevalence of HPV in HIV patients and its relationship with the epidemiological and virological characteristics of HIV patients. Retrospective cohort of 965 patients diagnosed with HIV from 1998 to 2012. We analyzed patients' demographic factors and factors related to the HPV. Of the 965 patients examined, 333 consulted a dermatologist. Of these, 52 patients had genital warts (15.6%), 43 had common warts (12.9%) and 8% had both conditions. In total, 28.5% of patients had a skin lesion caused by HPV. This is the first longitudinal observational study carried out on HIV-positive patients in the era of ART in which HPV infection is the most common skin pathology. We observed a similar trend in countries with access to ART. This study spreads awareness on the importance of preventing HPV and the difficulty of treating it in HIV-positive patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Legislative and statutory framework of radiation protection of patients in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milu, Constantin

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the legislative and statutory framework of radiation protection of patients in Romania, starting with the basic Law 111/1996 on the Safe Deployment of Nuclear Activities, and its amendments in 1998 and 2006 and the general nuclear safety regulation, which is in agreement with the international regulation. Regarding the medical exposure, jointly the Nuclear Regulatory Authority and the Ministry of Public Health issued in 2002 a separate regulation, which was published in the Official Gazette Part I No. 446 bis in 25 June 2002 and represents the transposition of the European Directive 97/43/EURATOM of 30 June 1997 on health protection on individuals against the dangers of ionizing radiation in relation to medical exposure, and repealing Directive 84/466/EURATOM. Following this document, several specific regulations on radiation protection of the patients were approved by the Ministry of Public Health. Some practical problems already arise, particularly due to the lack of medical physics departments in hospitals. (author)

  17. IAEA calls for enhanced radiation protection of patients. Safety specialists warn against overuse of new imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Advances in medical imaging techniques are allowing doctors to detect hidden diseases and make ever more accurate diagnoses. But radiation safety experts at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) say that overuse of high-tech scanning procedures may unnecessarily expose patients to increased radiation levels. The IAEA, in collaboration with other international organizations, is developing a series of measures aimed at strengthening patient protection. The focus of recent efforts is a Smart Card project, to log how much radiation a person receives in the course of a lifetime. Concern surrounds procedures such as computed tomography (CT) scans because they deliver higher doses of radiation to patients in comparison to conventional X-rays (radiographs). It's been estimated that the average radiation dose of one CT scan is equal to roughly 500 chest X-rays. And that can increase a patient's lifetime risk of cancer, particularly if CT scans are repeated. The IAEA is one of the key international players in the field of patient radiation protection. A unit dedicated to the Radiological Protection of Patients (RPoP) was established in 2001. The IAEA's activities in radiation protection of patients include training, knowledge sharing and capacity building in the medical use of radiation. Extensive, up-to-date training material for health professionals is freely available on the RPoP website. An International Action Plan on the Radiological Protection of Patients that has been established together with leading international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), UNSCEAR, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and others to identify strategies for strengthening radiation protection of patients. Coordinating and managing technical cooperation projects with Member States on patient dose assessment. The aim is to identify the factors that contribute to unnecessary radiation dose to patients, provide guidance on dealing with

  18. Protection of visual functions by human neural progenitors in a rat model of retinal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Gamm

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A promising clinical application for stem and progenitor cell transplantation is in rescue therapy for degenerative diseases. This strategy seeks to preserve rather than restore host tissue function by taking advantage of unique properties often displayed by these versatile cells. In studies using different neurodegenerative disease models, transplanted human neural progenitor cells (hNPC protected dying host neurons within both the brain and spinal cord. Based on these reports, we explored the potential of hNPC transplantation to rescue visual function in an animal model of retinal degeneration, the Royal College of Surgeons rat.Animals received unilateral subretinal injections of hNPC or medium alone at an age preceding major photoreceptor loss. Principal outcomes were quantified using electroretinography, visual acuity measurements and luminance threshold recordings from the superior colliculus. At 90-100 days postnatal, a time point when untreated rats exhibit little or no retinal or visual function, hNPC-treated eyes retained substantial retinal electrical activity and visual field with near-normal visual acuity. Functional efficacy was further enhanced when hNPC were genetically engineered to secrete glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Histological examination at 150 days postnatal showed hNPC had formed a nearly continuous pigmented layer between the neural retina and retinal pigment epithelium, as well as distributed within the inner retina. A concomitant preservation of host cone photoreceptors was also observed.Wild type and genetically modified human neural progenitor cells survive for prolonged periods, migrate extensively, secrete growth factors and rescue visual functions following subretinal transplantation in the Royal College of Surgeons rat. These results underscore the potential therapeutic utility of hNPC in the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases and suggest potential mechanisms underlying their effect in

  19. p38 MAPK protects human monocytes from postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoprotein-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Varela, Lourdes M; Ortega, Almudena; Bermudez, Beatriz; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2013-05-01

    Postprandial triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) transport dietary fatty acids through the circulatory system to satisfy the energy and structural needs of the tissues. However, fatty acids are also able to modulate gene expression and/or induce cell death. We investigated the underlying mechanism by which postprandial TRLs of different fatty acid compositions can induce cell death in human monocytes. Three types of dietary fat [refined olive oil (ROO), high-palmitic sunflower oil (HPSO), and butter] with progressively increasing SFA:MUFA ratios (0.18, 0.41, and 2.08, respectively) were used as a source of postprandial TRLs (TRL-ROO, TRL-HPSO, and TRL-BUTTER) from healthy men. The monocytic cell line THP-1 was used as a model for this study. We demonstrated that postprandial TRLs increased intracellular lipid accumulation (31-106%), reactive oxygen species production (268-349%), DNA damage (133-1467%), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (800-1710%) and caspase-3 (696-1244%) activities, and phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) (54 kDa, 141-288%) and p38 (24-92%). These effects were significantly greater with TRL-BUTTER, and TRL-ROO did not induce DNA damage, DNA fragmentation, or p38 phosphorylation. In addition, blockade of p38, but not of JNK, significantly decreased intracellular lipid accumulation and increased cell death in postprandial TRL-treated cells. These results suggest that in human monocytes, p38 is involved in survival signaling pathways that protect against the lipid-mediated cytotoxicity induced by postprandial TRLs that are abundant in saturated fatty acids.

  20. Services of radiological protection: as sizing the human and material resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueda Guerrero, M. D.; Sierra Perler, I.; Lorenzo Perez, P.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion of radiological protection in the Middle Health has formed a task force to develop a technical document recommendatory to help plan and evaluate resources radiological protection services. (Author)

  1. Analysis of brain CT on 120 patients of human cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J.; To, R.; Ri, T.; Ra, S.; Inomata, Taiten; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Tomoo.

    1990-01-01

    A study on brain CT was made in 120 patients of human cysticercosis, which is a rare disease in Japan and clinical symptoms and laboratory data for the diagnosis were also discussed. From the point of therapeutic view, we proposed a new differentiation on brain CT of human cysticercosis, which is divided into two groups according to the alve or dead parasite. Furthermore, we proposed a new type named multiple large and small cysts type on brain CT. The idea of diagnostic standard was made integrating brain CT image, clinical symptoms and labolatory data. (author)

  2. Protecting Socio-Economic Rights Through the European Convention on Human Rights : Trends and Developments in the European Court of Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Palmer (Ellie)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis article is concerned with jurisprudential trends and developments in the protection of socio-economic rights through the interpretation of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). It focuses on the potential to gain access to health care and welfare services, and the

  3. Radon in balneology - measurement of radon retention by patients and radiation protection for personell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, G.; Falkenbach, A.; Grunewald, W.A.; Philipsborn, H. von

    2001-01-01

    In radon balneology patients are exposed to radon either from water or air through the skin or through inhalation. Drinking radon water was not included in the study. Previously, the radon transfer has been determined for an estimate of the medically active amount of radon retained in the patient. A simpler approach of measuring radon in expiration under and after exposure has now been standardised and applied to probands under different conditions of exposure. In addition, radon decay products were measured in sweat, saliva and in the skin. Experimental parameters were evaluated for a comparison of different concentrations observed under different conditions. Results are likely to improve both therapy for patients and radiation protection for members of the personnel. (orig.) [de

  4. Protecting Your Patients' Interests in the Era of Big Data, Artificial Intelligence, and Predictive Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthazar, Patricia; Harri, Peter; Prater, Adam; Safdar, Nabile M

    2018-03-01

    The Hippocratic oath and the Belmont report articulate foundational principles for how physicians interact with patients and research subjects. The increasing use of big data and artificial intelligence techniques demands a re-examination of these principles in light of the potential issues surrounding privacy, confidentiality, data ownership, informed consent, epistemology, and inequities. Patients have strong opinions about these issues. Radiologists have a fiduciary responsibility to protect the interest of their patients. As such, the community of radiology leaders, ethicists, and informaticists must have a conversation about the appropriate way to deal with these issues and help lead the way in developing capabilities in the most just, ethical manner possible. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Leaving the Nest: Evaluating the First National Flight of the Online Ethics Course CHRPP (Course of Human Participant Protection)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, Denise; Balkwill, Laura-Lee; Hoessler, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, Queen's University launched an online tutorial called CHRPP, the Course in Human Research Participant Protection, and published a paper about its purpose, design, and usability in Balkwill, Stevenson, Stockley, and Marlin (2009). CHRPP was originally created to raise awareness among research students about the federal policy regarding…

  6. Lung protective mechanical ventilation and two year survival in patients with acute lung injury: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Dale M; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A; Dinglas, Victor D; Sevransky, Jonathan E; Dennison Himmelfarb, Cheryl R; Desai, Sanjay V; Shanholtz, Carl; Brower, Roy G; Pronovost, Peter J

    2012-04-05

    To evaluate the association of volume limited and pressure limited (lung protective) mechanical ventilation with two year survival in patients with acute lung injury. Prospective cohort study. 13 intensive care units at four hospitals in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. 485 consecutive mechanically ventilated patients with acute lung injury. Two year survival after onset of acute lung injury. 485 patients contributed data for 6240 eligible ventilator settings, as measured twice daily (median of eight eligible ventilator settings per patient; 41% of which adhered to lung protective ventilation). Of these patients, 311 (64%) died within two years. After adjusting for the total duration of ventilation and other relevant covariates, each additional ventilator setting adherent to lung protective ventilation was associated with a 3% decrease in the risk of mortality over two years (hazard ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 0.99, P=0.002). Compared with no adherence, the estimated absolute risk reduction in two year mortality for a prototypical patient with 50% adherence to lung protective ventilation was 4.0% (0.8% to 7.2%, P=0.012) and with 100% adherence was 7.8% (1.6% to 14.0%, P=0.011). Lung protective mechanical ventilation was associated with a substantial long term survival benefit for patients with acute lung injury. Greater use of lung protective ventilation in routine clinical practice could reduce long term mortality in patients with acute lung injury. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00300248.

  7. The TPO/c-MPL pathway in the bone marrow may protect leukemia cells from chemotherapy in AML Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Feng, Zeng; Ting, Liu; Yong, Zhang; Cheng, Chang; Xi, Zhang; Pei-Yan, Kong

    2014-04-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that the interaction of human LSCs (leukemic stem cells) with the hematopoietic microenvironment, mediated by the thrombopoietin (TPO)/c-MPL pathway, may be an underlying mechanism for resistance to cell cycle-dependent cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, the role of TPO/c-MPL signaling in AML (acute myelogenous leukemia) chemotherapy resistance hasn't been fully understood. The c-MPL and TPO levels in different AML samples were measured by flow cytometry and ELISA. We also assessed the TPO levels in the osteoblasts derived from bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The survival rate of an AML cell line that had been co-cultured with different BMSC-derived osteoblasts was measured to determine the IC50 of an AML chemotherapy drug daunorubicin (DNR). The levels of TPO/c-MPL in the initial and relapse AML patients were significantly higher than that in the control (P MPL expression was found in the bone marrow mononuclear cells of the relapse AML patients. More importantly, the IC50 of DNR in the HEL + AML-derived osteoblasts was the highest among all co-culture systems. High level of TPO/c-MPL signaling may protect LSCs from chemotherapy in AML. The effects of inhibition of the TPO/c-MPL pathway on enhancing the chemotherapy sensitivity of AML cells, and on their downstream effector molecules that direct the interactions between patient-derived blasts and leukemia repopulating cells need to be further studied.

  8. Protective effect of allium sativum ethanol extract on cultured human lymphocytes against electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Shama; Shetty, Sukanya; Suchetha Kumari; Madhu, L.N.

    2013-01-01

    The development of radioprotective agent has been the subject of intense research because exposure to ionizing radiation causes DNA damage which may cause mutation and ultimately leads to cancer, on the other hand radiotherapy has become an integral part in treatment of cancer which uses ionizing radiations like X rays, gamma rays to kill the cancer cells. Amifostine is a well-known radioprotector which is clinically approved. There are many other radioprotectors like cysteine, cystamine, serotine but they are not used because of its normal tissue toxicity. Allium sativum is commonly known as garlic which has already been reported for its medicinal properties. In this study we evaluated radioprotection property of Allium sativum on DNA damage caused by electron beam radiation in cultured human lymphocytes. Allium sativum ethanol extract was used for this study. Cell viability was performed by MTT assay. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay parameters. The cultured lymphocytes were incubated with different concentrations 10, 50 and 100 μg/mL of Allium sativum extracts for 2, 4, 6 and 24 hour time intervals. Treatment of lymphocytes with various concentration of Allium sativum extract resulted in significant decrease in the level of DNA damage (Percentage tail DNA 6%) and increase in cell viability 93% (p>0.05) compare to the radiation control group. Results of this study revealed that Allium sativum protects cultured lymphocytes when exposed to electron beam radiation at its sub lethal dose. (author)

  9. Transplantation of human dental pulp-derived stem cells protects against heatstroke in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ling-Shu; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Lin, Ying-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous tooth pulp (SHED) is a promising approach for the treatment of stroke and spinal cord injury. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of SHED for the treatment of multiple organ (including brain, particularly hypothalamus) injury in heatstroke mice. ICR male mice were exposed to whole body heating (WBH; 41.2°C, relative humidity 50-55%, for 1 h) and then returned to normal room temperature (26°C). We observed that intravenous administration of SHED immediately post-WBH exhibited the following therapeutic benefits for recovery after heatstroke: (a) inhibition of WBH-induced neurologic and thermoregulatory deficits; (b) reduction of WBH-induced ischemia, hypoxia, and oxidative damage to the brain (particularly the hypothalamus); (c) attenuation of WBH-induced increased plasma levels of systemic inflammatory response molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and intercellular adhesion molecule-1; (d) improvement of WBH-induced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity (as reflected by enhanced plasma levels of both adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone); and (e) attenuation of WBH-induced multiple organ apoptosis as well as lethality. In conclusion, post-WBH treatment with SHED reduced induction of proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative radicals, enhanced plasma induction of both adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone, and improved lethality in mouse heatstroke. The protective effect of SHED may be related to a decreased inflammatory response, decreased oxidative stress, and an increased HPA axis activity following the WBH injury.

  10. Protecting human health and security in digital Europe: how to deal with the "privacy paradox"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büschel, Isabell; Mehdi, Rostane; Cammilleri, Anne; Marzouki, Yousri; Elger, Bernice

    2014-09-01

    This article is the result of an international research between law and ethics scholars from Universities in France and Switzerland, who have been closely collaborating with technical experts on the design and use of information and communication technologies in the fields of human health and security. The interdisciplinary approach is a unique feature and guarantees important new insights in the social, ethical and legal implications of these technologies for the individual and society as a whole. Its aim is to shed light on the tension between secrecy and transparency in the digital era. A special focus is put from the perspectives of psychology, medical ethics and European law on the contradiction between individuals' motivations for consented processing of personal data and their fears about unknown disclosure, transferal and sharing of personal data via information and communication technologies (named the "privacy paradox"). Potential benefits and harms for the individual and society resulting from the use of computers, mobile phones, the Internet and social media are being discussed. Furthermore, the authors point out the ethical and legal limitations inherent to the processing of personal data in a democratic society governed by the rule of law. Finally, they seek to demonstrate that the impact of information and communication technology use on the individuals' well-being, the latter being closely correlated with a high level of fundamental rights protection in Europe, is a promising feature of the socalled "e-democracy" as a new way to collectively attribute meaning to large-scale online actions, motivations and ideas.

  11. Hepatocyte growth factor protects human endothelial cells against advanced glycation end products-induced apoposis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yijun; Wang Jiahe; Zhang Jin

    2006-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) form by a non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and biological proteins, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we assessed AGEs effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) growth, proliferation and apoptosis. Additionally, we investigated whether hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), an anti-apoptotic factor for endothelial cells, prevents AGEs-induced apoptosis of HUVECs. HUVECs were treated with AGEs in the presence or absence of HGF. Treatment of HUVECs with AGEs changed cell morphology, decreased cell viability, and induced DNA fragmentation, leading to apoptosis. Apoptosis was induced by AGEs in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. AGEs markedly elevated Bax and decreased NF-κB, but not Bcl-2 expression. Additionally, AGEs significantly inhibited cell growth through a pro-apoptotic action involving caspase-3 and -9 activations in HUVECs. Most importantly, pretreatment with HGF protected against AGEs-induced cytotoxicity in the endothelial cells. HGF significantly promoted the expression of Bcl-2 and NF-κB, while decreasing the activities of caspase-3 and -9 without affecting Bax level. Our data suggest that AGEs induce apoptosis in endothelial cells. HGF effectively attenuate AGEs-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. These findings provide new perspectives in the role of HGF in cardiovascular disease

  12. Exogenous cathepsin V protein protects human cardiomyocytes HCM from angiotensin Ⅱ-Induced hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; Gao, Lu; Yang, Ming; Wang, Jiliang; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin; Wang, Guobin; Li, Huili

    2017-08-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) Ⅱ-induced cardiac hypertrophy can deteriorate to heart failure, a leading cause of mortality. Endogenous Cathepsin V (CTSV) has been reported to be cardioprotective against hypertrophy. However, little is known about the effect of exogenous CTSV on cardiac hypertrophy. We used the human cardiomyocytes HCM as a cell model to investigate the effects of exogenous CTSV on Ang Ⅱ-induced cardiac cell hypertrophy. Cell surface area and expression of classical markers of hypertrophy were analyzed. We further explored the mechanism of CTSV cardioprotective by assessing the levels and activities of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathway proteins. We found that pre-treating cardiomyocytes with CTSV could significantly inhibit Ang Ⅱ-induced hypertrophy. The mRNA expression of hypertrophy markers ANP, BNP and β-MHC was obviously elevated in Ang Ⅱ-treated cardiac cells. Whereas, exogenous CTSV effectively halted this elevation. Further study revealed that the protective effects of exogenous CTSV might be mediated by repressing the phosphorylation of proteins in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK pathways. Based on our results, we concluded that exogenous CTSV inhibited Ang Ⅱ-induced hypertrophy in HCM cells by inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR. This study provides experimental evidence for the application of CTSV protein for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Edaravone protects human peripheral blood lymphocytes from γ-irradiation-induced apoptosis and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liming; Liu, Yinghui; Dong, Liangliang; Chu, Xiaoxia

    2015-03-01

    Radiation-induced cellular injury is attributed primarily to the harmful effects of free radicals, which play a key role in irradiation-induced apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the radioprotective efficacy of edaravone, a licensed clinical drug and a powerful free radical scavenger that has been tested against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes in studies of various diseases. Edaravone was pre-incubated with lymphocytes for 2 h prior to γ-irradiation. It was found that pretreatment with edaravone increased cell viability and inhibited generation of γ-radiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in lymphocytes exposed to 3 Gy γ-radiation. In addition, γ-radiation decreased antioxidant enzymatic activity, such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, as well as the level of reduced glutathione. Conversely, treatment with 100 μM edaravone prior to irradiation improved antioxidant enzyme activity and increased reduced glutathione levels in irradiated lymphocytes. Importantly, we also report that edaravone reduced γ-irradiation-induced apoptosis through downregulation of Bax, upregulation of Bcl-2, and consequent reduction of the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio. The current study shows edaravone to be an effective radioprotector against γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage in lymphocytes in vitro. Finally, edaravone pretreatment significantly reduced DNA damage in γ-irradiated lymphocytes, as measured by comet assay (% tail DNA, tail length, tail moment, and olive tail moment) (p edaravone offers protection from radiation-induced cytogenetic alterations.

  14. The protective effects of fucosterol against skin damage in UVB-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eunson; Park, Sang-Yong; Sun, Zheng-wang; Shin, Heon-Sub; Lee, Don-Gil; Yi, Tae Hoo

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light causes matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) overexpression and extracellular matrix depletion, leading to skin photoaging. The activation of MMP is related to increased interlukin-6 (IL-6) and type I procollagen production, which is regulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). Activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation induces MMP-1 production and reduces type I procollagen secretion. Fucosterol, which is extracted and purified from the brown algae Hizikia fusiformis, is a phytosterol. We assessed the effects of fucosterol on photodamage and investigated its molecular mechanism of action in UVB-irradiated normal human dermal fibroblasts by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our results showed that fucosterol significantly decreased the UVB-induced expression of MMP-1, IL-6, p-c-Jun, and p-c-Fos. Additionally, fucosterol markedly increased the UVB-induced production of type I procollagen and TGF-β1. Our results indicate that fucosterol regulates MMP-1 and type I procollagen expression by modulating AP-1 and TGF-β1 signaling and that MMP-1 activation is correlated with IL-6. These data suggest that fucosterol is a promising botanical agent to protect against skin photodamage.

  15. Notes on free radicals in the field of human and environmental protection against ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittel, R.

    It is well known that ionizing radiations, in vitro and in vivo produce, free radicals which may be considered as mediators between physical agents and biological targets. Some aspects of this vast problem are accentuated. Ionizing radiations act either directly on the organic molecules of tissues or indirectly by creating, in the surroundings and in tissular water, inorganic free radicals which act on biochemical molecules to gives new radicals. Analysis of the free radical initiation phenomenon in vivo shows that many initiating agents exist, ionizing radiations representing only one group. The role of oxydants, especially oxydising polluants, and the part played by various enzyme systems (super-oxide dismutase, oxydases etc...) are emphasized. After propagation the chain reactions end in combinations between radicals are stopped by certain organic molecules (radical scavengers). Examples are given (free radical formation from compounds of great biological importance: puric and pyrimidic bases, nucleic acids in particular). These aspects are discussed from the viewpoint of their effects on human and environmental protection against both ionizing radiations and certain chemical pollution [fr

  16. Protective effects of hesperidin against oxidative stress of tert-butyl hydroperoxide in human hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingcang; Gu, Honggang; Ye, Yiyi; Lin, Bing; Sun, Lijuan; Deng, Weiping; Zhang, Jingzhe; Liu, Jianwen

    2010-10-01

    Increasing evidence regarding free radical generating agents and the inflammatory process suggest that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) could involve hepatotoxicity. Hesperidin, a naturally occurring flavonoid presents in fruits and vegetables, has been reported to exert a wide range of pharmacological effects that include antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antihypercholesterolemic, and anticarcinogenic actions. However, the cytoprotection and mechanism of hesperidin to neutralize oxidative stress in human hepatic L02 cells remain unclear. In this work, we assessed the capability of hesperidin to prevent tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH)-induced cell damage by augmenting cellular antioxidant defense. Hesperidin significantly protected hepatocytes against t-BuOOH-induced cell cytotoxicity, such as mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) deplete and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Hesperidin also remarkably prevented indicators of oxidative stress, such as the ROS and lipid peroxidation level in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot showed that hesperidin facilitated ERK/MAPK phosphorylation which appeared to be responsible for nuclear translocation of Nrf2, thereby inducing cytoprotective heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. Based on the results described above, it suggested that hesperidin has potential as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of oxidative stress-related hepatocytes injury and liver dysfunctions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Strawberry-Based Cosmetic Formulations Protect Human Dermal Fibroblasts against UVA-Induced Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Gasparrini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Extreme exposure of skin to Ultraviolet A (UVA-radiation may induce a dysregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS which can interact with cellular biomolecules leading to oxidative stress, inflammation, DNA damage, and alteration of cellular molecular pathways, responsible for skin photoaging, hyperplasia, erythema, and cancer. For these reasons, the use of dietary natural bioactive compounds with remarkable antioxidant activity could be a strategic tool to counteract these UVA-radiation-caused deleterious effects. Thus, the purpose of the present work was to test the efficacy of strawberry (50 μg/mL-based formulations supplemented with Coenzyme Q10 (100 μg/mL and sun protection factor 10 in human dermal fibroblasts irradiated with UVA-radiation. The apoptosis rate, the amount of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production, the expression of proteins involved in antioxidant and inflammatory response, and mitochondrial functionality were evaluated. The results showed that the synergic topical use of strawberry and Coenzyme Q10 provided a significant (p < 0.05 photoprotective effect, reducing cell death and ROS, increasing antioxidant defense, lowering inflammatory markers, and improving mitochondrial functionality. The obtained results suggest the use of strawberry-based formulations as an innovative, natural, and useful tool for the prevention of UVA exposure-induced skin diseases in order to decrease or substitute the amount of synthetic sunscreen agents.

  18. Protection of human cultured cells against oxidative stress by Rhodiola rosea without activation of antioxidant defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriner, Samuel E; Avanesian, Agnesa; Liu, Yanxia; Luesch, Hendrik; Jafari, Mahtab

    2009-09-01

    Rhodiola rosea root has been long used in traditional medical systems in Europe and Asia as an adaptogen to increase an organism's resistance to physical stress. Recent research has demonstrated its ability to improve mental and physical stamina, to improve mood, and to help alleviate high-altitude sickness. We have also recently found that R. rosea is able to extend the life span of Drosophila melanogaster. The mode of action of R. rosea is currently unknown; it has been suggested by some to act as an antioxidant, whereas others have argued that it may actually be a pro-oxidant and act through a hormetic mechanism. We found that R. rosea supplementation could protect cultured cells against ultraviolet light, paraquat, and H(2)O(2). However, it did not alter the levels of the major antioxidant defenses nor did it markedly activate the antioxidant response element or modulate heme-oxygenase-1 expression levels at relevant concentrations. In addition, R. rosea extract was not able to significantly degrade H(2)O(2) in vitro. These results suggest that in human cultured cells R. rosea does not act as an antioxidant and that its mode of action cannot be sufficiently explained through a pro-oxidant hormetic mechanism.

  19. Protective effect of lycopene for oxidative damage in human lens epithelial cells induced by UV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Wen Sun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the protective effect and possible mechanisms of lycopene for oxidative damage induced by ultraviolet in cultured human lens epithelial cells(HLEC. METHODS:HLEC was subcultured and divided into negative control group, oxidative injury group, lycopene low dose group and lycopene high dose group. Cell viability was assayed by MTT colorimetric. Cell morphological changes were detected by electron microscope. Reactive oxygen species(ROSlevels were detected with DCFH-DA fluorescent probe. Content of superoxide dismutase(SOD, glutathione peroxidase(GSHand malondialdehyde(MDAin supernatants were detected by spectrophotometer. RESULTS:Lycopene could obviously inhibited UV-induced decline in cell activity, reduce UV-induced ROS generation within HLEC, cause SOD, GSH-Px levels increased and MDA levels decreased.CONCLUSION:Lycopene plays its strong antioxidant role in increasing the intracellular SOD and GSH-Px content levels and decreasing MDA levels, which provide reliable experimental basis for prevent and treatment of cataracts.

  20. Isolation of Anti-Ricin Protective Antibodies Exhibiting High Affinity from Immunized Non-Human Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Noy-Porat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, derived from the castor bean plant Ricinus communis, is one of the most potent and lethal toxins known, against which there is no available antidote. To date, the use of neutralizing antibodies is the most promising post-exposure treatment for ricin intoxication. The aim of this study was to isolate high affinity anti-ricin antibodies that possess potent toxin-neutralization capabilities. Two non-human primates were immunized with either a ricin-holotoxin- or subunit-based vaccine, to ensure the elicitation of diverse high affinity antibodies. By using a comprehensive set of primers, immune scFv phage-displayed libraries were constructed and panned. A panel of 10 antibodies (five directed against the A subunit of ricin and five against the B subunit was isolated and reformatted into a full-length chimeric IgG. All of these antibodies were found to neutralize ricin in vitro, and several conferred full protection to ricin-intoxicated mice when given six hours after exposure. Six antibodies were found to possess exceptionally high affinity toward the toxin, with KD values below pM (koff < 1 × 10−7 s−1 that were well correlated with their ability to neutralize ricin. These antibodies, alone or in combination, could be used for the development of a highly-effective therapeutic preparation for post-exposure treatment of ricin intoxication.

  1. Curcumin Protects -SH Groups and Sulphate Transport after Oxidative Damage in Human Erythrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Morabito

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Erythrocytes, continuously exposed to oxygen pressure and toxic compounds, are sensitive to oxidative stress, namely acting on integral Band 3 protein, with consequences on cell membranes deformability and anion transport efficiency. The aim of the present investigation, conducted on human erythrocytes, is to verify whether curcumin (1 or 10µM, a natural compound with proved antioxidant properties, may counteract Band 3-mediated anion transport alterations due to oxidative stress. Methods: Oxidative conditions were induced by exposure to, alternatively, either 2 mM N-ethylmaleimide (NEM or pH-modified solutions (6.5 and 8.5. Rate constant for SO4= uptake and -SH groups estimation were measured to verify the effect of oxidative stress on anion transport efficiency and erythrocyte membranes. Results: After the exposure of erythrocytes to, alternatively, NEM or pH-modified solutions, a significant decrease in both rate constant for SO4= uptake and -SH groups was observed, which was prevented by curcumin, with a dose-dependent effect. Conclusions: Our results show that: i the decreased efficiency of anion transport may be due to changes in Band 3 protein structure caused by cysteine -SH groups oxidation, especially after exposure to NEM and pH 6.5; ii 10 µM Curcumin is effective in protecting erythrocytes from oxidative stress events at level of cell membrane transport.

  2. Heterosubtypic protection against pathogenic human and avian influenza viruses via in vivo electroporation of synthetic consensus DNA antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick J Laddy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The persistent evolution of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI highlights the need for novel vaccination techniques that can quickly and effectively respond to emerging viral threats. We evaluated the use of optimized consensus influenza antigens to provide broad protection against divergent strains of H5N1 influenza in three animal models of mice, ferrets, and non-human primates. We also evaluated the use of in vivo electroporation to deliver these vaccines to overcome the immunogenicity barrier encountered in larger animal models of vaccination. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mice, ferrets and non-human primates were immunized with consensus plasmids expressing H5 hemagglutinin (pH5HA, N1 neuraminidase (pN1NA, and nucleoprotein antigen (pNP. Dramatic IFN-gamma-based cellular immune responses to both H5 and NP, largely dependent upon CD8+ T cells were seen in mice. Hemaggutination inhibition titers classically associated with protection (>1:40 were seen in all species. Responses in both ferrets and macaques demonstrate the ability of synthetic consensus antigens to induce antibodies capable of inhibiting divergent strains of the H5N1 subtype, and studies in the mouse and ferret demonstrate the ability of synthetic consensus vaccines to induce protection even in the absence of such neutralizing antibodies. After challenge, protection from morbidity and mortality was seen in mice and ferrets, with significant reductions in viral shedding and disease progression seen in vaccinated animals. CONCLUSIONS: By combining several consensus influenza antigens with in vivo electroporation, we demonstrate that these antigens induce both protective cellular and humoral immune responses in mice, ferrets and non-human primates. We also demonstrate the ability of these antigens to protect from both morbidity and mortality in a ferret model of HPAI, in both the presence and absence of neutralizing antibody, which will be critical in responding to the

  3. Cisplatin induces protective autophagy through activation of BECN1 in human bladder cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ji-Fan; Lin, Yi-Chia; Tsai, Te-Fu; Chen, Hung-En; Chou, Kuang-Yu; Hwang, Thomas I-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is the first line treatment for several cancers including bladder cancer (BC). Autophagy induction has been implied to contribute to cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer; and a high basal level of autophagy has been demonstrated in human bladder tumors. Therefore, it is reasonable to speculate that autophagy may account for the failure of cisplatin single treatment in BC. This study investigated whether cisplatin induces autophagy and the mechanism involved using human BC cell lines. Human BC cells (5637 and T24) were used in this study. Cell viability was detected using water soluble tetrazolium-8 reagents. Autophagy induction was detected by monitoring the levels of light chain 3 (LC3)-II and p62 by Western blot, LC3-positive puncta formation by immunofluorescence, and direct observation of the autophagolysosome (AL) formation by transmission electron microscopy. Inhibitors including bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1), chloroquine (CQ), and shRNA-based lentivirus against autophagy-related genes (ATG7 and ATG12) were utilized. Apoptosis level was detected by caspase 3/7 activity and DNA fragmentation. Cisplatin decreased cell viability and induced apoptosis of 5637 and T24 cells in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The increased LC3-II accumulation, p62 clearance, the number of LC3-positive puncta, and ALs in cisplatin-treated cells suggested that cisplatin indeed induces autophagy. Inhibition of cisplatin-induced autophagy using Baf A1, CQ, or ATG7/ATG12 shRNAs significantly enhanced cytotoxicity of cisplatin toward BC cells. These results indicated that cisplatin induced protective autophagy which may contribute to the development of cisplatin resistance and resulted in treatment failure. Mechanistically, upregulation of beclin-1 (BECN1) was detected in cisplatin-treated cells, and knockdown of BECN1 using shRNA attenuated cisplatin-induced autophagy and subsequently enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Collectively, the study results

  4. Human Endogenous Retrovirus W Activity in Cartilage of Osteoarthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signy Bendiksen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of viruses in osteoarthritis remains controversial because the prevalence of viral nucleic acid sequences in peripheral blood or synovial fluid from osteoarthritis patients and that in healthy control subjects are similar. Until now the presence of virus has not been analyzed in cartilage. We screened cartilage and chondrocytes from advanced and non-/early osteoarthritis patients for parvovirus B19, herpes simplex virus-1, Epstein Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpes virus-6, hepatitis C virus, and human endogenous retroviruses transcripts. Endogenous retroviruses transcripts, but none of the other viruses, were detected in 15 out the 17 patients. Sequencing identified the virus as HERV-WE1 and E2. HERV-W activity was confirmed by high expression levels of syncytin, dsRNA, virus budding, and the presence of virus-like particles in all advanced osteoarthritis cartilages examined. Low levels of HERV-WE1, but not E2 envelope RNA, were observed in 3 out of 8 non-/early osteoarthritis patients, while only 3 out of 7 chondrocytes cultures displayed low levels of syncytin, and just one was positive for virus-like particles. This study demonstrates for the first time activation of HERV-W in cartilage of osteoarthritis patients; however, a causative role for HERV-W in development or deterioration of the disease remains to be proven.

  5. The protective role of carotenoids and polyphenols in patients with head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ping Chang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancer is a critical global health problem and approximately 650,000 patients per year are diagnosed with this type of cancer. In addition, head and neck cancer exhibits a high recurrence rate, readily causing second primary cancers in other locations, often yielding a poor prognosis. Current medical and surgical treatment options result in considerable impairment of speaking and swallowing functions, with side effects such as nausea, vomiting, bone marrow suppression, and renal damage, thereby impairing patients' quality of life. Thus, developing a prevention and therapeutic intervention strategy for head and neck cancer is vital. Phytochemicals have been shown to have a unique ability to protect cells from damage and modulation of cell repair. The chemopreventive activities of phytochemicals have also been demonstrated to be associated with their antioxidant properties and the induction and stimulation of intercellular communication via gap junctions, which play a role in the regulation of cancer cell cycle, differentiation, apoptosis, and stagnate cancer cell growth. Phytochemicals can also regulate cancer cell signaling pathways, reduce the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells, and protect normal cells during treatment, thus reducing the damage caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The most studied of the chemopreventive effects of phytochemicals are the carotenoids and phenolics. In this review, we investigated the multiple mechanisms of carotenoids and polyphenols (PPs for use in preventing head and neck cancer, reducing the side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, improving patient survival rates, and reducing the occurrence rate of second primary cancers.

  6. Innate immune functions of microglia isolated from human glioma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimm Elizabeth

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Innate immunity is considered the first line of host defense and microglia presumably play a critical role in mediating potent innate immune responses to traumatic and infectious challenges in the human brain. Fundamental impairments of the adaptive immune system in glioma patients have been investigated; however, it is unknown whether microglia are capable of innate immunity and subsequent adaptive anti-tumor immune responses within the immunosuppressive tumor micro-environment of human glioma patients. We therefore undertook a novel characterization of the innate immune phenotype and function of freshly isolated human glioma-infiltrating microglia (GIM. Methods GIM were isolated by sequential Percoll purification from patient tumors immediately after surgical resection. Flow cytometry, phagocytosis and tumor cytotoxicity assays were used to analyze the phenotype and function of these cells. Results GIM expressed significant levels of Toll-like receptors (TLRs, however they do not secrete any of the cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α critical in developing effective innate immune responses. Similar to innate macrophage functions, GIM can mediate phagocytosis and non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity. However, they were statistically less able to mediate tumor cytotoxicity compared to microglia isolated from normal brain. In addition, the expression of Fas ligand (FasL was low to absent, indicating that apoptosis of the incoming lymphocyte population may not be a predominant mode of immunosuppression by microglia. Conclusion We show for the first time that despite the immunosuppressive environment of human gliomas, GIM are capable of innate immune responses such as phagocytosis, cytotoxicity and TLR expression but yet are not competent in secreting key cytokines. Further understanding of these innate immune functions could play a critical role in understanding and developing effective immunotherapies to malignant human gliomas.

  7. Recombinant human interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a protective factor in severe sepsis with thrombocytopenia: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Bing; Zhang, Hao; Fu, Haiyan; Chen, Yikun; Yang, Liping; Yin, Jiangtao; Wan, Yin; Shi, Yongqing

    2015-12-01

    To examine the platelet recovering and anti-inflammatory effects of IL-11 in the treatment of sepsis, accompanied with thrombocytopenia and to investigate the associated mechanisms via a case-control study. 105 patients enrolled for the study were segregated into (1) IL-11 therapy group and (2) conventional therapy group. The IL-11 therapy group was given additional recombinant human IL-11 treatment. Laboratory examinations of IL-11, IL-6, TNF-α, PT, APTT, WBC, PLT counts in blood routine assays and PCT, CRP and APACHE II scores were performed and the results were recorded. The PLT counts in the IL-11 therapy group were higher than those in the conventional therapy group. No obvious difference in WBC counts or CRP levels was observed between the two groups. The highest levels of TNF-α were observed on day 3 in the conventional therapy group while it was observed on day 1 in the IL-11 therapy group, both of which subsequently declined gradually. The level of IL-6 was significantly lower in the IL-11 therapy group from 3 to 14 days, while there was a gradual elevation of IL-11. IL-11 therapy downregulated the expression of the sepsis indicator PCT and reduced the APACHE II score from 3 to 14 days. The conventional therapy group had a significantly higher mortality rate within 28 days. IL-11 has a protective role and can accelerate recovery of platelets, and remarkably lessen the extent of inflammatory responses, hence reducing the mortality in sepsis patients accompanied with thrombocytopenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Live attenuated Francisella novicida vaccine protects against Francisella tularensis pulmonary challenge in rats and non-human primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Chu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Francisella tularensis causes the disease tularemia. Human pulmonary exposure to the most virulent form, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis (Ftt, leads to high morbidity and mortality, resulting in this bacterium being classified as a potential biothreat agent. However, a closely-related species, F. novicida, is avirulent in healthy humans. No tularemia vaccine is currently approved for human use. We demonstrate that a single dose vaccine of a live attenuated F. novicida strain (Fn iglD protects against subsequent pulmonary challenge with Ftt using two different animal models, Fischer 344 rats and cynomolgus macaques (NHP. The Fn iglD vaccine showed protective efficacy in rats, as did a Ftt iglD vaccine, suggesting no disadvantage to utilizing the low human virulent Francisella species to induce protective immunity. Comparison of specific antibody profiles in vaccinated rat and NHP sera by proteome array identified a core set of immunodominant antigens in vaccinated animals. This is the first report of a defined live attenuated vaccine that demonstrates efficacy against pulmonary tularemia in a NHP, and indicates that the low human virulence F. novicida functions as an effective tularemia vaccine platform.

  9. Tangible and intangible costs of "protecting human subjects": The impact of the National Research Act of 1974 onuniversity research activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Jacobs

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This article (1 examines the overall structure of regulatory research oversight in the United States; (2 details the origins and evolution of federal legislation pertaining to the protection of human subjects in biomedical and behavioral treatment and research; and (3 describes the expansion of oversight regulation from biomedical and behavioral treatment areas to the social sciences. In addition, the paper describes three areas identified by compliance administrators as susceptible to abuse: (1 informed consent, (2 assessment of risks and benefits, and (3 equitable selection of human subjects. There is a discussion of existing tensions in the implementation of oversight policies and procedures. Finally, the paper identifies four issues for future consideration: (1 scope of the mandate regarding protection of human subjects, (2 impact on the nature of research being undertaken, (3 financial burden of compliance and oversight activities, and (4 ethical standards, constraints, and potential.

  10. Radiological protection in X-ray diagnosis: How to minimize the patient exposure in X-ray diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.M.C. de.

    1986-01-01

    The principles involved in the radiation protection and the radiographic process are discussed. An adequate systematic work is presented, to achieve the main goal of the Radiation Protection that is, to irradiate the patient and the staff with lowest possible exposure. (M.A.C.) [pt

  11. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the regulation of the health insurance industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Saurabh; Baker, Tom

    2012-12-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is a comprehensive and multipronged reform of the US health care system. The legislation makes incremental changes to Medicare, Medicaid, and the market for employer-sponsored health insurance. However, it makes substantial changes to the market for individual and small-group health insurance. The purpose of this article is to introduce the key regulatory reforms in the market for individual and small-group health insurance and explain how these reforms tackle adverse selection and risk classification and improve access to health care for the hitherto uninsured or underinsured population. Copyright © 2012 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of certification programs in the radiological protection of the patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucino, Sergio; Touzet, Rodolfo

    2008-01-01

    Full text: One of the main recommendations of the Congress of Malaga on Radiological Protection of the Patient is 'the qualification and training of the staff'. This goal cannot be reached in a country, in complete and systematic form, without the help of existing national programs who allow designing a program of continuous development of the professional capacities. This program must be able to adapt in permanent form to the needs of the Program of Radiological Protection of the Patient that change and evolve in constant form. In case of the Argentina it was adapted to these needs the 'National Program of Certification and Re-certification of medical professionals in Radiology and Radio-Diagnosis'. On the base of the existing program, general requirements were established for the radiological protection of the patient and in addition, special requirements for four specialties: a) General and pediatrics radiology; b) Computed tomography; c) Interventional radiology; d) Radiotherapy. The National Program of Certification was established in 1997 with a 'Top Permanent Council' formed by the National Minister of Health advised by a scientific council. It was also creates the 'National Council of Certification and professional Re-certification' integrated by the Minister of Education, the National Academy of Medicine, the Faculties of Medicine of the whole country, the medical Federations, the trade-union Associations and the Argentine Medical Association. The process of certification can be delegated to academic or university entities, medical colleges and medical chambers that have been recognized path and ethical conduct. The certification is voluntary but it becomes obligatory to be recognized as a specialist. The certification has duration of 5 years and is renewable on the basis of a system of credits that considers different elements of the developed activities and the written theoretical and practical evaluations. It is a transparent process where the ethical

  13. Protective effect of prone posture against hypergravity-induced arterial hypoxaemia in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohdin, M; Petersson, J; Mure, M; Glenny, R W; Lindahl, S G E; Linnarsson, D

    2003-01-01

    Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome have increased lung tissue weight and therefore an increased hydrostatic pressure gradient down the lung. Also, they have a better arterial oxygenation in prone (face down) than in supine (face up) posture. We hypothesized that this effect of the direction of gravity also existed in healthy humans, when increased hydrostatic gradients were induced by hypergravity. Ten healthy subjects were studied in a human centrifuge while exposed to 1 or 5 G in anterio-posterior (supine) or posterio-anterior (prone) direction. We measured blood gases using remote-controlled sampling and gas exchange by mass spectrometry. Hypergravity led to marked impairments of arterial oxygenation in both postures and more so in supine posture. At 5 G, the arterial oxygen saturation was 84.6 ± 1.2 % (mean ±s.e.m.) in supine and 89.7 ± 1.4 % in prone posture (P postures. The alveolar-to-arterial PO2 difference increased at 5 G to 8.0 ± 0.2 kPa and 6.6 ± 0.3 kPa in supine and prone postures (P = 0.003). Arterial oxygenation was less impaired in prone during hypergravity due to a better-preserved alveolo-arterial oxygen transport. We speculate that mammals have developed a cardiopulmonary structure that favours function with the gravitational vector in the posterio-anterior direction. PMID:12598589

  14. Do continued antidepressants protect against dementia in patients with severe depressive disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Forman, Julie Lyng; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2011-01-01

    may decrease the risk of developing dementia in patients with depression. We investigated whether continued treatment with antidepressants is associated with a decreased rate of dementia in a population of patients discharged from psychiatric healthcare service with a diagnosis of depression. We used...... register data on all prescribed antidepressants in all patients discharged from psychiatric healthcare service with a diagnosis of depression and with subsequent diagnoses of dementia in Denmark from 1995 to 2005. A total of 37 658 patients with a diagnosis of depression at their first psychiatric contact......Studies on humans show that depressive disorder is associated with an increased risk of developing cognitive dysfunction, and animal studies suggest that antidepressants may have neuroprotective abilities. On the basis of these observations, it was hypothesized that treatment with antidepressants...

  15. Skin Cancer Awareness and Sun Protection Behavior Before and Following Treatment Among Skin Cancer-Treated Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Robabeh; Nasimi, Maryam; Nourmohammad Pour, Pedram; Etesami, Ifa; Al-Asiri, Safa; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza

    2017-11-15

    There is little known about illness perception in patients with skin tumors. We conducted this study to investigate Iranian patients' understanding of skin tumors, and to evaluate their sun-protective behavior changes after treatment of skin cancer. Patients with a skin biopsy of basal cell carcinoma were asked to complete questionnaires. A total of 110 patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were mostly referred to our tumor clinic from rural areas. At the skin cancer perception investigation, 63% of patients did not consider their disease as a long-lasting situation. Besides, 45.4% of patients consider their illness as a serious condition which significantly affecting their lives. Our patients had a strong belief in treatment control (81%) and 81% of them also described worries about their skin cancer. The leading causes of skin cancer as assumed by patients were: history of skin cancer (37.4%), poor medical care in the past (36.4%), extreme sun exposure (31.5%), and lack of sun protection (27.5%). In regard to sun-protective behavior after treatment of skin cancer, 55.4% of patients showed no changes or even negative change in their sun-protective behavior, But 44.5% of the patients changed their sun-protective behavior in a positive way which was statically significant (P ≤ 0.001). Our study demonstrates how our patients with skin cancer perceive their disease and we need to educate our patients, considering diseases' aspects, causes and symptoms. This is of great value as dermatologists should be aware of patients' perceptions of their disease in order to improve patients' knowledge through educating more about different aspects of disease.

  16. Efficacy of corneal eye shields in protecting patients' eyes from laser irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, S W; Dinehart, S M; Davis, I; Flock, S T

    1996-07-01

    The continuing development of new types and applications of lasers has appeared to surpass the development of specific eye protection for these lasers. There are a variety of eye shields on the market, but few are specifically designed for laser protection. Our purpose was to test a variety of eye shields by two parameters, light transmission and temperature rise, and to determine from these measurements the most protective shield for patients. We tested four plastic shields, one metal shield, and two sets of tanning goggles for temperature rise and light transmission when irradiated with a beam from a flashlamp-pumped, pulsed-dye laser. The temperature rise at the surface of the shield opposite the laser impacts was no more than 0.2 degree C in any case. White light was transmitted at significant levels through several of the shields, but yellow light transmittance was noted only through the green eye shield. Our measurements indicate that all except the green shield appeared safe from transmission of the 585-nm radiant energy. However, the optimal laser eye shield, in our opinion, would be a composite of several different shields' characteristics.

  17. Effective insect repellent formulation in both surfactantless and classical microemulsions with a long-lasting protection for human beings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Jeremy; Verdier, Marie; Touraud, Didier; Kröckel, Ulla; Geier, Martin; Rose, Andreas; Kunz, Werner

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a new generation of repellent products with a long-lasting protection based on a natural component, para-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD). The active is first rendered soluble in a surfactantless microemulsion (H(2)O/(i)PrOH/PMD) and then in classical microemulsions. The presence of self-associated nanostructures is detected by dynamic light scattering (DLS). A synergetic system of surfactants (Cremophor) RH40 and Texapon N70) is used. Additionally, 2-ethylhexane-1,3-diol and ethyl (-)-(S)-lactate are incorporated. The final product contains, as main components, 46% of H(2)O, 25% of (i)PrOH, 20% of non-H(2)O-soluble PMD, and only 4% of surfactants. Investigations of lasting protection on human volunteers are carried out using a cage test bioassay protocol and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. A complete protection of 315 min is found on the test persons using the surfactantless microemulsion. An extension is observed with the final formulation to reach a mean of complete protection of 385 min. This study demonstrates that alternative formulations using a natural active instead of synthetic chemicals like N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide (DEET) can be efficient for human protection against mosquitoes.

  18. A protective screen for persons assisting in X-ray examination of children and patients with severe diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krylov, N.V.

    1978-01-01

    To increase the radiation protection reliability when carrying out auxiliary actions by medical attendants or patient relatives during X-ray investigations of children and seriously ill patients, X-ray screen provided with self-installed supporting rolls, a window with secured lead glass and a hand port is suggested. A screen constructure is described. Using the screens improves the radiation protection of roentgenologist

  19. Protecting the privacy of individual general practice patient electronic records for geospatial epidemiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Soumya; Konings, Paul; Hewett, Michael; Bagheri, Nasser; McRae, Ian; Del Fante, Peter

    2014-12-01

    General practitioner (GP) practices in Australia are increasingly storing patient information in electronic databases. These practice databases can be accessed by clinical audit software to generate reports that inform clinical or population health decision making and public health surveillance. Many audit software applications also have the capacity to generate de-identified patient unit record data. However, the de-identified nature of the extracted data means that these records often lack geographic information. Without spatial references, it is impossible to build maps reflecting the spatial distribution of patients with particular conditions and needs. Links to socioeconomic, demographic, environmental or other geographically based information are also not possible. In some cases, relatively coarse geographies such as postcode are available, but these are of limited use and researchers cannot undertake precision spatial analyses such as calculating travel times. We describe a method that allows researchers to implement meaningful mapping and spatial epidemiological analyses of practice level patient data while preserving privacy. This solution has been piloted in a diabetes risk research project in the patient population of a practice in Adelaide. The method offers researchers a powerful means of analysing geographic clinic data in a privacy-protected manner. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  20. How Robust Refugee Protection Policies Can Strengthen Human and National Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Kerwin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes the case that refugee protection and national security should be viewed as complementary, not conflicting state goals. It argues that refugee protection can further the security of refugees, affected states, and the international community. Refugees and international migrants can also advance national security by contributing to a state’s economic vitality, military strength, diplomatic standing, and civic values. The paper identifies several strategies that would, if implemented, promote both security and refugee protection. It also outlines additional steps that the US Congress should take to enhance US refugee protection policies and security. Finally, it argues for the efficacy of political engagement in support of pro-protection, pro-security policies, and against the assumption that political populism will invariably impede support for refugee protection.

  1. Protection of humans from ultraviolet radiation through the use of textiles: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capjack, L.; Kerr, N.; Davis, S.; Fedosejevs, R.; Hatch, K.L.; Markee, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    One of the growing concerns of the present decade is the health risk associated with exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and its link with problems such as carcinogenesis, cataracts, sunburn, and photoaging. For protection from UVR, medical experts recommend avoiding exposure, using sunscreens, donning hats, and covering up with clothing. Research on the solar-protective value of clothing, however, still leaves many questions unanswered. This review of literature identifies the need for appropriate protection from the sun, especially for children, and the benefits of clothing as protection. The methods and difficulties associated with assessing the UVR protection and the definition of the sun protection factor (SPF) of clothing are outlined and discussed. Studies using in vivo, radiometric, and spectrophotometric methodologies to assess the UVR transmission throughfabrics are examined. Fabric variables, identified in the literature, that have been found to affect UVR transmission values are discussed

  2. The right choice of antihypertensives protects primary human hepatocytes from ethanol- and recombinant human TGF-β1-induced cellular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehnert S

    2013-03-01

    damage, except for furosemide, which had no effect. As a common mechanism, all antihypertensives increased heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1 expression, and inhibition of HO-1 activity reversed the protective effect of the drugs. Interestingly, Smad3/4 signaling was reduced by all compounds except furosemide, which even enhanced this profibrotic signaling. This effect was mediated by expressional changes of Smad3 and/or Smad4.Conclusions: Our results suggest that antihypertensives may both positively and negatively influence chronic liver disease progression. Therefore, we propose that in future patients with ALD and high blood pressure, they could benefit from an adjusted antihypertensive therapy with additional antifibrotic effects.Keywords: primary human hepatocytes, alcoholic liver disease, ethanol, TGF-β1, antihypertensives

  3. Cisplatin induces protective autophagy through activation of BECN1 in human bladder cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin JF

    2017-05-01

    cisplatin toward BC cells. These results indicated that cisplatin induced protective autophagy which may contribute to the development of cisplatin resistance and resulted in treatment failure. Mechanistically, upregulation of beclin-1 (BECN1 was detected in cisplatin-treated cells, and knockdown of BECN1 using shRNA attenuated cisplatin-induced autophagy and subsequently enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis.Conclusion: Collectively, the study results indicated that cisplatin-induced autophagy is mediated by BECN1 in BC cells. Therefore, combinative treatment using cisplatin and autophagy inhibitors could potentially overcome cisplatin resistance related to autophagy induction. Keywords: autophagy inhibition, autophagy related genes, apoptosis, cisplatin resistance, human urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma, lentiviral-based shRNA

  4. Pulmonary disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, J D; Orholm, Marianne; Lundgren, B

    1989-01-01

    cause pulmonary disease alone or in combination. Bilateral interstitial infiltrates are the most frequent chest x-ray abnormality and are most frequently caused by infection with Pneumocystis carinii. Cytomegalovirus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis and pulmonary Kaposi......Pulmonary disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). All parts of the hospital system are expected to be involved in the diagnosis and treatment of HIV infected patients in the coming years. Many different processes......'s sarcoma are the most important parts of the differential diagnosis. An aggressive approach to the diagnosis of pulmonary disease in this patient population is indicated in order to provide optimal care and assess new therapies....

  5. Internal dosimetry for the radiological protection of the patient in the therapy with I-131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deluca, G.M.; Rojo, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    In the patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (CADIT) subjected to therapy with radiopharmaceuticals should be considered the possible risk of sharp depression of the bone marrow like consequence of the intolerance to the quantity of administered activity. The manifestation of the myelotoxicity can limit in a substantial way the future treatments and to deteriorate the predict of resolution of the illness. In this work it shows the physical-mathematical mark of a methodology for the estimated absorbed dose in bone marrow based in the MIRD scheme whose objective is to protect the one patient of the noxious and undesirable effects of the internal radiotherapy in organs that are not target of the same one. The formalism incorporates specific information of the patient and also peculiar characteristics of the internal therapy in patient with CADIT. The considerations are the following ones: (1) the main organ to protect is the bone marrow: (2) the accumulated activity, in bone marrow, it is obtained starting from measurements in blood: (3) the used isotope almost exclusively in this type of therapies is the 131 I; (4) it is used as radiopharmaceutical at the 131 INa that it is characterized to be a simple, inorganic and small molecule: (5) the statistical incidence of the CADIT is bigger in women than in men. It is explained for that it was selected the formalism that is presented, the principles on which it is sustained which are their reaches and their limitations. They are also presented future innovations that can be implemented to effects of improving the estimates. The work is framed inside the thematic of the medical applications of open radioactive sources and it constitutes a contribution to the invigoration of the internal therapy with radiopharmaceuticals. This is due to that the methodology of dose estimation presented supplements with a theoretical biophysics base the protocols of empiric prescription broadly used in this practice. For these reasons

  6. EUROPEAN COURT OF HUMAN RIGHTS AS THE GUARANTOR OF LEGAL PROTECTION OF A HUMAN IN THE FIELD OF AVIATION ACTIVITIES OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuriy Pyvovar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The effectiveness of human rights protection in the Council of Europe largely depends on activities of the European Court, which demonstrates high standards of justice, particularly in matters of human rights protection in the field of aviation activities. The article offers a critical assessment of Ukrainian national legislation in terms of its internal legal consistency and compliance with international legal acts. Methods: The methods of legal analysis are used to study court decisions in the aviation field; methods of comparative legal analysis, forecasting and dialectical - in the study of problems in the further improvement of Ukrainian legislation. Also in article applied the theory of legal comparative, approaches to applying the analogy of legal and law in process of making decisions on similar court cases. Results: The article deals with the analysis of the European Court of Human Rights jurisdiction on cases of protection of human rights in the field of aviation activities. Two groups of cases in which Ukraine is a defendant are identified: a cases of international concern (in particular the Malaysia Airlines’ Boeing 777-200ER crash; b cases of national character (citizens of Ukraine against the State of Ukraine. The author's position on deciding the cases in the field of aviation activities is based on the principles of respect for the European Convention on Human Rights, 1950. Discussion: The conclusion about the necessity of amending some national laws, taking into account the legal positions of the European Court (in particular, regarding the right of airlines workers to strike is made, and the fact that the issues of States and airlines activities to respect human and civil rights in the field of aviation activities are covered by jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights and occupy an important place in its practice is indicated.

  7. The impact of renal protection clinics on prescription of and adherence to cardioprotective drug therapy in chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepeytre, Fanny; Cardinal, Héloise; Fradette, Lorraine; Verhave, Jacobien; Dorais, Marc; LeLorier, Jacques; Pichette, Vincent; Madore, François

    2017-06-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of follow-up in renal protection clinics on the prescription of and adherence to cardioprotective drugs in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: We studied stage 4 and 5 CKD patients who initiated follow-up in three renal protection clinics. The prescription pattern of antihypertensive agents (AHA) and lipid-lowering agents (LLAs) was measured as the percentage of patients who are prescribed the agents of interest at a given time. Adherence to drug therapy was defined as the percentage of days, during a pre-defined observation period, in which patients have an on-hand supply of their prescribed medications. Results: A total of 259 CKD patients were enrolled and followed for up to 1 year after referral to renal protection clinics. There was a significant increase in the prescription of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (34-39%), angiotensin II receptor blockers (11-14%), beta-blockers (40-51%), calcium channel blockers (62-74%), diuretics (66-78%) and LLAs (39-47%) during follow-up in the renal protection clinic compared with baseline (P-values protection clinics. Conclusion: Our results suggest that referral and follow-up in a renal protection clinic may increase the prescription of cardioprotective agents in CKD patients, but does not appear to improve adherence to these medications.

  8. A potential protective effect in multilingual patients with semantic dementia: two case reports of patients speaking Taiwanese and Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Chien; Yip, Ping-Keung; Fan, Yu-Ming; Meguro, Kenichi

    2012-03-01

    Several reports have suggested that multilingualism has a protective effect against semantic dementia. Here, we provide further evidence for this effect. The patient was a 75-year-old right-handed Taiwanese woman who had retired after working as a tailor. She was able to speak Taiwanese, Japanese and Mandarin Chinese fluently until 5 years ago. She gradually developed symptoms of profound anomia and difficulty with word-finding. Her mother tongue was Taiwanese and she had learned Japanese as her first symbolized language. She had u