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Sample records for pathways coordinate cell

  1. Chapter 10 the primary cilium coordinates signaling pathways in cell cycle control and migration during development and tissue repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren T; Pedersen, Stine F; Satir, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Cell cycle control and migration are critical processes during development and maintenance of tissue functions. Recently, primary cilia were shown to take part in coordination of the signaling pathways that control these cellular processes in human health and disease. In this review, we present...... an overview of the function of primary cilia and the centrosome in the signaling pathways that regulate cell cycle control and migration with focus on ciliary signaling via platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRalpha). We also consider how the primary cilium and the centrosome interact...... with the extracellular matrix, coordinate Wnt signaling, and modulate cytoskeletal changes that impinge on both cell cycle control and cell migration....

  2. Identification of Pathways Required for the Coordination of Late Mitotic Events in Animal Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baumgartner, Bridget L; Harper, J. W

    2005-01-01

    ... in genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer. In yeast, a signaling pathway has been identified, called the Mitotic Exit Network, which coordinates mitotic exit and cytokinesis with the end of anaphase...

  3. Identification of Pathways Required for the Coordination of Late Mitotic Events in Animal Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baumgartner, Bridget

    2004-01-01

    ... in genomic instability, a hallmark of cancer. In yeast, a signaling pathway has been identified, called the Mitotic Exit Network, which coordinates mitotic exit and cytokinesis with the end of anaphase...

  4. CDP-diacylglycerol synthetase coordinates cell growth and fat storage through phosphatidylinositol metabolism and the insulin pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During development, animals usually undergo a rapid growth phase followed by a homeostatic stage when growth has ceased. The increase in cell size and number during the growth phase requires a large amount of lipids; while in the static state, excess lipids are usually stored in adipose tissues in preparation for nutrient-limited conditions. How cells coordinate growth and fat storage is not fully understood. Through a genetic screen we identified Drosophila melanogaster CDP-diacylglycerol synthetase (CDS/CdsA, which diverts phosphatidic acid from triacylglycerol synthesis to phosphatidylinositol (PI synthesis and coordinates cell growth and fat storage. Loss of CdsA function causes significant accumulation of neutral lipids in many tissues along with reduced cell/organ size. These phenotypes can be traced back to reduced PI levels and, subsequently, low insulin pathway activity. Overexpressing CdsA rescues the fat storage and cell growth phenotypes of insulin pathway mutants, suggesting that CdsA coordinates cell/tissue growth and lipid storage through the insulin pathway. We also revealed that a DAG-to-PE route mediated by the choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase Bbc may contribute to the growth of fat cells in CdsA RNAi.

  5. RSK is a principal effector of the RAS-ERK pathway for eliciting a coordinate promotile/invasive gene program and phenotype in epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doehn, Ulrik; Hauge, Camilla; Frank, Scott R

    2009-01-01

    The RAS-stimulated RAF-MEK-ERK pathway confers epithelial cells with critical motile and invasive capacities during development, tissue regeneration, and carcinoma progression, often via promoting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Many mechanisms by which ERK exerts this control remain...... elusive. We demonstrate that the ERK-activated kinase RSK is necessary to induce mesenchymal motility and invasive capacities in nontransformed epithelial and carcinoma cells. RSK is sufficient to induce certain motile responses. Expression profiling analysis revealed that a primary role of RSK...... to stimulate motility and invasion. These findings uncover a mechanism whereby the RAS-ERK pathway controls epithelial cell motility by identifying RSK as a key effector, from which emanate multiple highly coordinate transcription-dependent mechanisms for stimulation of motility and invasive properties....

  6. Co-ordinate regulation of distinct host cell signalling pathways by multifunctional enteropathogenic Escherichia coli effector molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Brendan; Ellis, Sarah; Leard, Alan D; Warawa, Jonathan; Mellor, Harry; Jepson, Mark A

    2002-05-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of paediatric diarrhoea and a model for the family of attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens. A/E pathogens encode a type III secretion system to transfer effector proteins into host cells. The EPEC Tir effector protein acts as a receptor for the bacterial surface protein intimin and is involved in the formation of Cdc42-independent, actin-rich pedestal structures beneath the adhered bacteria. In this paper, we demonstrate that EPEC binding to HeLa cells also induces Tir-independent, cytoskeletal rearrangement evidenced by the early, transient formation of filopodia-like structures at sites of infection. Filopodia formation is dependent on expression of the EPEC Map effector molecule - a protein that targets mitochondria and induces their dysfunction. We show that Map-induced filopodia formation is independent of mitochondrial targeting and is abolished by cellular expression of the Cdc42 inhibitory WASP-CRIB domain, demonstrating that Map has at least two distinct functions in host cells. The transient nature of the filopodia is related to an ability of EPEC to downregulate Map-induced cell signalling that, like pedestal formation, was dependent on both Tir and intimin proteins. The ability of Tir to downregulate filopodia was impaired by disrupting a putative GTPase-activating protein (GAP) motif, suggesting that Tir may possess such a function, with its interaction with intimin triggering this activity. Furthermore, we also found that Map-induced cell signalling inhibits pedestal formation, revealing that the cellular effects of Tir and Map must be co-ordinately regulated during infection. Possible implications of the multifunctional nature of EPEC effector molecules in pathogenesis are discussed.

  7. Coordinate regulation of cytochrome and alternative pathway respiration in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlerberghe, G C; McIntosh, L

    1992-12-01

    In suspension cells of NT1 tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv bright yellow), inhibition of the cytochrome pathway of respiration with antimycin A induced a large increase in the capacity of the alternative pathway over a period of approximately 12 h, as confirmed in both whole cells and isolated mitochondria. The increase in alternative pathway capacity required de novo RNA and protein synthesis and correlated closely with the increase of a 35-kD alternative oxidase protein. When the cytochrome pathway of intact cells was inhibited by antimycin A, respiration proceeded exclusively through the alternative pathway, reached rates significantly higher than before antimycin A addition, and was not stimulated by p-trifluoromethoxycarbonylcyanide (FCCP). When inhibition of the cytochrome pathway was relieved, alternative pathway capacity and the level of the 35-kD alternative oxidase protein declined. Respiration rate also declined and could once again be stimulated by FCCP. These observations show that the capacities of the mitochondrial electron transport pathways can be regulated in a coordinate fashion.

  8. Sphingosine 1-Phosphate (S1P) Receptors 1 and 2 Coordinately Induce Mesenchymal Cell Migration through S1P Activation of Complementary Kinase Pathways*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quint, Patrick; Ruan, Ming; Pederson, Larry; Kassem, Moustapha; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Khosla, Sundeep; Oursler, Merry Jo

    2013-01-01

    Normal bone turnover requires tight coupling of bone resorption and bone formation to preserve bone quantity and structure. With aging and during several pathological conditions, this coupling breaks down, leading to either net bone loss or excess bone formation. To preserve or restore normal bone metabolism, it is crucial to determine the mechanisms by which osteoclasts and osteoblast precursors interact and contribute to coupling. We showed that osteoclasts produce the chemokine sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), which stimulates osteoblast migration. Thus, osteoclast-derived S1P may recruit osteoblasts to sites of bone resorption as an initial step in replacing lost bone. In this study we investigated the mechanisms by which S1P stimulates mesenchymal (skeletal) cell chemotaxis. S1P treatment of mesenchymal (skeletal) cells activated RhoA GTPase, but this small G protein did not contribute to migration. Rather, two S1P receptors, S1PR1 and S1PR2, coordinately promoted migration through activation of the JAK/STAT3 and FAK/PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, respectively. These data demonstrate that the chemokine S1P couples bone formation to bone resorption through activation of kinase signaling pathways. PMID:23300082

  9. Comparison of preribosomal RNA processing pathways in yeast, plant and human cells - focus on coordinated action of endo- and exoribonucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomecki, Rafal; Sikorski, Pawel J; Zakrzewska-Placzek, Monika

    2017-07-01

    Proper regulation of ribosome biosynthesis is mandatory for cellular adaptation, growth and proliferation. Ribosome biogenesis is the most energetically demanding cellular process, which requires tight control. Abnormalities in ribosome production have severe consequences, including developmental defects in plants and genetic diseases (ribosomopathies) in humans. One of the processes occurring during eukaryotic ribosome biogenesis is processing of the ribosomal RNA precursor molecule (pre-rRNA), synthesized by RNA polymerase I, into mature rRNAs. It must not only be accurate but must also be precisely coordinated with other phenomena leading to the synthesis of functional ribosomes: RNA modification, RNA folding, assembly with ribosomal proteins and nucleocytoplasmic RNP export. A multitude of ribosome biogenesis factors ensure that these events take place in a correct temporal order. Among them are endo- and exoribonucleases involved in pre-rRNA processing. Here, we thoroughly present a wide spectrum of ribonucleases participating in rRNA maturation, focusing on their biochemical properties, regulatory mechanisms and substrate specificity. We also discuss cooperation between various ribonucleolytic activities in particular stages of pre-rRNA processing, delineating major similarities and differences between three representative groups of eukaryotes: yeast, plants and humans. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  10. IL-17A promotes the migration and invasiveness of cervical cancer cells by coordinately activating MMPs expression via the p38/NF-κB signal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjuan Feng

    Full Text Available IL-17A plays an important role in many inflammatory diseases and cancers. We aimed to examine the effect of IL-17A on the invasion of cervical cancer cells and study its related mechanisms.Wound healing and matrigel transwell assays were used to examine the effect of IL-17A on cervical cancer cell migration and invasion by a panel of cervical cancer cell lines. The levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs were investigated using western blotting. The activity of p38 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signal pathway was detected too.Here, we showed that IL-17A could promote the migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells. Further molecular analysis showed that IL-17A could up-regulate the expressions and activities of MMP2 and MMP9, and down-regulate the expressions of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Furthermore, IL-17A also activates p38 signal pathway and increased p50 and p65 nuclear expression. In addition, treatment of cervical cancer cells with the pharmacological p38/NF-κB signal pathway inhibitors, SB203580 and PDTC, potently restored the roles of invasion and upregulation of MMPs induced by IL-17A.IL-17A could promote the migration and invasion of cervical cancer cell via up-regulating MMP2 and MMP9 expression, and down-regulating TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 expression via p38/NF-κB signal pathway. IL-17A may be a potential target to improve the prognosis for patients with cervical cancer.

  11. Coordinated induction of GST and MRP2 by cAMP in Caco-2 cells: Role of protein kinase A signaling pathway and toxicological relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arana, Maite Rocío, E-mail: arana@ifise-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Tocchetti, Guillermo Nicolás, E-mail: gtocchetti@live.com.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Domizi, Pablo, E-mail: domizi@ibr-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Rosario (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Arias, Agostina, E-mail: agoarias@yahoo.com.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Rigalli, Juan Pablo, E-mail: jprigalli@gmail.com [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Ruiz, María Laura, E-mail: ruiz@ifise-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); and others

    2015-09-01

    The cAMP pathway is a universal signaling pathway regulating many cellular processes including metabolic routes, growth and differentiation. However, its effects on xenobiotic biotransformation and transport systems are poorly characterized. The effect of cAMP on expression and activity of GST and MRP2 was evaluated in Caco-2 cells, a model of intestinal epithelium. Cells incubated with the cAMP permeable analog dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db-cAMP: 1,10,100 μM) for 48 h exhibited a dose–response increase in GST class α and MRP2 protein expression. Incubation with forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, confirmed the association between intracellular cAMP and upregulation of MRP2. Consistent with increased expression of GSTα and MRP2, db-cAMP enhanced their activities, as well as cytoprotection against the common substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Pretreatment with protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors totally abolished upregulation of MRP2 and GSTα induced by db-cAMP. In silico analysis together with experiments consisting of treatment with db-cAMP of Caco-2 cells transfected with a reporter construct containing CRE and AP-1 sites evidenced participation of these sites in MRP2 upregulation. Further studies involving the transcription factors CREB and AP-1 (c-JUN, c-FOS and ATF2) demonstrated increased levels of total c-JUN and phosphorylation of c-JUN and ATF2 by db-cAMP, which were suppressed by a PKA inhibitor. Co-immunoprecipitation and ChIP assay studies demonstrated that db-cAMP increased c-JUN/ATF2 interaction, with further recruitment to the region of the MRP2 promoter containing CRE and AP-1 sites. We conclude that cAMP induces GSTα and MRP2 expression and activity in Caco-2 cells via the PKA pathway, thus regulating detoxification of specific xenobiotics. - Highlights: • cAMP positively modulates the expression and activity of GST and MRP2 in Caco-2 cells. • Such induction resulted in increased cytoprotection against chemical injury. • PKA

  12. Coordinated induction of GST and MRP2 by cAMP in Caco-2 cells: Role of protein kinase A signaling pathway and toxicological relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, Maite Rocío; Tocchetti, Guillermo Nicolás; Domizi, Pablo; Arias, Agostina; Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Ruiz, María Laura

    2015-01-01

    The cAMP pathway is a universal signaling pathway regulating many cellular processes including metabolic routes, growth and differentiation. However, its effects on xenobiotic biotransformation and transport systems are poorly characterized. The effect of cAMP on expression and activity of GST and MRP2 was evaluated in Caco-2 cells, a model of intestinal epithelium. Cells incubated with the cAMP permeable analog dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db-cAMP: 1,10,100 μM) for 48 h exhibited a dose–response increase in GST class α and MRP2 protein expression. Incubation with forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, confirmed the association between intracellular cAMP and upregulation of MRP2. Consistent with increased expression of GSTα and MRP2, db-cAMP enhanced their activities, as well as cytoprotection against the common substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Pretreatment with protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors totally abolished upregulation of MRP2 and GSTα induced by db-cAMP. In silico analysis together with experiments consisting of treatment with db-cAMP of Caco-2 cells transfected with a reporter construct containing CRE and AP-1 sites evidenced participation of these sites in MRP2 upregulation. Further studies involving the transcription factors CREB and AP-1 (c-JUN, c-FOS and ATF2) demonstrated increased levels of total c-JUN and phosphorylation of c-JUN and ATF2 by db-cAMP, which were suppressed by a PKA inhibitor. Co-immunoprecipitation and ChIP assay studies demonstrated that db-cAMP increased c-JUN/ATF2 interaction, with further recruitment to the region of the MRP2 promoter containing CRE and AP-1 sites. We conclude that cAMP induces GSTα and MRP2 expression and activity in Caco-2 cells via the PKA pathway, thus regulating detoxification of specific xenobiotics. - Highlights: • cAMP positively modulates the expression and activity of GST and MRP2 in Caco-2 cells. • Such induction resulted in increased cytoprotection against chemical injury. • PKA

  13. Primary cilia and coordination of signaling pathways in heart development and tissue Homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Christian Alexandro

    of primary cilia in coordinating Hh signaling in human pancreatic development and postnatal tissue homeostasis. In cultures of human pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma cell lines PANC-1 and CFPAC-1, Ptc in addition to Gli2 and Smo localize to primary cilia. These findings are consistent with the idea...... that the primary cilium continues to coordinate Hh signaling in cells derived from the mature pancreas. The fact that the Hh signaling pathway is active in the CFPAC-1 and PANC-1 cell lines without Hh stimulation suggests that ciliary Hh signaling plays a potential role in tumorigenesis. In conclusion, this thesis...

  14. Human Cytomegalovirus: Coordinating Cellular Stress, Signaling, and Metabolic Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Thomas; Alwine, James C

    2014-11-01

    Viruses face a multitude of challenges when they infect a host cell. Cells have evolved innate defenses to protect against pathogens, and an infecting virus may induce a stress response that antagonizes viral replication. Further, the metabolic, oxidative, and cell cycle state may not be conducive to the viral infection. But viruses are fabulous manipulators, inducing host cells to use their own characteristic mechanisms and pathways to provide what the virus needs. This article centers on the manipulation of host cell metabolism by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). We review the features of the metabolic program instituted by the virus, discuss the mechanisms underlying these dramatic metabolic changes, and consider how the altered program creates a synthetic milieu that favors efficient HCMV replication and spread.

  15. Coordinated activation of the secretory pathway during notochord formation in the Xenopus embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanegashima, Kosuke; Zhao, Hui; Rebbert, Martha L; Dawid, Igor B

    2009-11-01

    We compared the transcriptome in the developing notochord of Xenopus laevis embryos with that of other embryonic regions. A coordinated and intense activation of a large set of secretory pathway genes was observed in the notochord, but not in notochord precursors in the axial mesoderm at early gastrula stage. The genes encoding Xbp1 and Creb3l2 were also activated in the notochord. These two transcription factors are implicated in the activation of secretory pathway genes during the unfolded protein response, where cells react to the stress of a build-up of unfolded proteins in their endoplasmic reticulum. Xbp1 and Creb3l2 are differentially expressed but not differentially activated in the notochord. Reduction of expression of Xbp1 or Creb3l2 by injection of antisense morpholinos led to strong deficits in notochord but not somitic muscle development. In addition, the expression of some, but not all, genes encoding secretory proteins was inhibited by injection of xbp1 morpholinos. Furthermore, expression of activated forms of Xbp1 or Creb3l2 in animal explants could activate a similar subset of secretory pathway genes. We conclude that coordinated activation of a battery of secretory pathway genes mediated by Xbp1 and Creb/ATF factors is a characteristic and necessary feature of notochord formation.

  16. PathwayAccess: CellDesigner plugins for pathway databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, John L; Dickerson, Julie A

    2010-09-15

    CellDesigner provides a user-friendly interface for graphical biochemical pathway description. Many pathway databases are not directly exportable to CellDesigner models. PathwayAccess is an extensible suite of CellDesigner plugins, which connect CellDesigner directly to pathway databases using respective Java application programming interfaces. The process is streamlined for creating new PathwayAccess plugins for specific pathway databases. Three PathwayAccess plugins, MetNetAccess, BioCycAccess and ReactomeAccess, directly connect CellDesigner to the pathway databases MetNetDB, BioCyc and Reactome. PathwayAccess plugins enable CellDesigner users to expose pathway data to analytical CellDesigner functions, curate their pathway databases and visually integrate pathway data from different databases using standard Systems Biology Markup Language and Systems Biology Graphical Notation. Implemented in Java, PathwayAccess plugins run with CellDesigner version 4.0.1 and were tested on Ubuntu Linux, Windows XP and 7, and MacOSX. Source code, binaries, documentation and video walkthroughs are freely available at http://vrac.iastate.edu/~jlv.

  17. Coordination of glioblastoma cell motility by PKCι

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldwin R Mitchell

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma is one of the deadliest forms of cancer, in part because of its highly invasive nature. The tumor suppressor PTEN is frequently mutated in glioblastoma and is known to contribute to the invasive phenotype. However the downstream events that promote invasion are not fully understood. PTEN loss leads to activation of the atypical protein kinase C, PKCι. We have previously shown that PKCι is required for glioblastoma cell invasion, primarily by enhancing cell motility. Here we have used time-lapse videomicroscopy to more precisely define the role of PKCι in glioblastoma. Results Glioblastoma cells in which PKCι was either depleted by shRNA or inhibited pharmacologically were unable to coordinate the formation of a single leading edge lamellipod. Instead, some cells generated multiple small, short-lived protrusions while others generated a diffuse leading edge that formed around the entire circumference of the cell. Confocal microscopy showed that this behavior was associated with altered behavior of the cytoskeletal protein Lgl, which is known to be inactivated by PKCι phosphorylation. Lgl in control cells localized to the lamellipod leading edge and did not associate with its binding partner non-muscle myosin II, consistent with it being in an inactive state. In PKCι-depleted cells, Lgl was concentrated at multiple sites at the periphery of the cell and remained in association with non-muscle myosin II. Videomicroscopy also identified a novel role for PKCι in the cell cycle. Cells in which PKCι was either depleted by shRNA or inhibited pharmacologically entered mitosis normally, but showed marked delays in completing mitosis. Conclusions PKCι promotes glioblastoma motility by coordinating the formation of a single leading edge lamellipod and has a role in remodeling the cytoskeleton at the lamellipod leading edge, promoting the dissociation of Lgl from non-muscle myosin II. In addition PKCι is required

  18. Multiple Sensory-Motor Pathways Lead to Coordinated Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.

    2017-01-01

    Joint attention has been extensively studied in the developmental literature because of overwhelming evidence that the ability to socially coordinate visual attention to an object is essential to healthy developmental outcomes, including language learning. The goal of this study was to understand the complex system of sensory-motor behaviors that…

  19. Alternative Cell Death Pathways and Cell Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fulda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While necroptosis has for long been viewed as an accidental mode of cell death triggered by physical or chemical damage, it has become clear over the last years that necroptosis can also represent a programmed form of cell death in mammalian cells. Key discoveries in the field of cell death research, including the identification of critical components of the necroptotic machinery, led to a revised concept of cell death signaling programs. Several regulatory check and balances are in place in order to ensure that necroptosis is tightly controlled according to environmental cues and cellular needs. This network of regulatory mechanisms includes metabolic pathways, especially those linked to mitochondrial signaling events. A better understanding of these signal transduction mechanisms will likely contribute to open new avenues to exploit our knowledge on the regulation of necroptosis signaling for therapeutic application in the treatment of human diseases.

  20. Daple Coordinates Planar Polarized Microtubule Dynamics in Ependymal Cells and Contributes to Hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Takagishi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Motile cilia in ependymal cells, which line the cerebral ventricles, exhibit a coordinated beating motion that drives directional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF flow and guides neuroblast migration. At the apical cortex of these multi-ciliated cells, asymmetric localization of planar cell polarity (PCP proteins is required for the planar polarization of microtubule dynamics, which coordinates cilia orientation. Daple is a disheveled-associating protein that controls the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway and cell motility. Here, we show that Daple-deficient mice present hydrocephalus and their ependymal cilia lack coordinated orientation. Daple regulates microtubule dynamics at the anterior side of ependymal cells, which in turn orients the cilial basal bodies required for the directional cerebrospinal fluid flow. These results demonstrate an important role for Daple in planar polarity in motile cilia and provide a framework for understanding the mechanisms and functions of planar polarization in the ependymal cells.

  1. Coordinated regulation of intracellular pH by two glucose-sensing pathways in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isom, Daniel G; Page, Stephani C; Collins, Leonard B; Kapolka, Nicholas J; Taghon, Geoffrey J; Dohlman, Henrik G

    2018-02-16

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae employs multiple pathways to coordinate sugar availability and metabolism. Glucose and other sugars are detected by a G protein-coupled receptor, Gpr1, as well as a pair of transporter-like proteins, Rgt2 and Snf3. When glucose is limiting, however, an ATP-driven proton pump (Pma1) is inactivated, leading to a marked decrease in cytoplasmic pH. Here we determine the relative contribution of the two sugar-sensing pathways to pH regulation. Whereas cytoplasmic pH is strongly dependent on glucose abundance and is regulated by both glucose-sensing pathways, ATP is largely unaffected and therefore cannot account for the changes in Pma1 activity. These data suggest that the pH is a second messenger of the glucose-sensing pathways. We show further that different sugars differ in their ability to control cellular acidification, in the manner of inverse agonists. We conclude that the sugar-sensing pathways act via Pma1 to invoke coordinated changes in cellular pH and metabolism. More broadly, our findings support the emerging view that cellular systems have evolved the use of pH signals as a means of adapting to environmental stresses such as those caused by hypoxia, ischemia, and diabetes. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Mechanical feedback coordinates cell wall expansion and assembly in yeast mating morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The shaping of individual cells requires a tight coordination of cell mechanics and growth. However, it is unclear how information about the mechanical state of the wall is relayed to the molecular processes building it, thereby enabling the coordination of cell wall expansion and assembly during morphogenesis. Combining theoretical and experimental approaches, we show that a mechanical feedback coordinating cell wall assembly and expansion is essential to sustain mating projection growth in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Our theoretical results indicate that the mechanical feedback provided by the Cell Wall Integrity pathway, with cell wall stress sensors Wsc1 and Mid2 increasingly activating membrane-localized cell wall synthases Fks1/2 upon faster cell wall expansion, stabilizes mating projection growth without affecting cell shape. Experimental perturbation of the osmotic pressure and cell wall mechanics, as well as compromising the mechanical feedback through genetic deletion of the stress sensors, leads to cellular phenotypes that support the theoretical predictions. Our results indicate that while the existence of mechanical feedback is essential to stabilize mating projection growth, the shape and size of the cell are insensitive to the feedback. PMID:29346368

  3. INO80 Chromatin Remodeling Coordinates Metabolic Homeostasis with Cell Division

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    Graeme J. Gowans

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive survival requires the coordination of nutrient availability with expenditure of cellular resources. For example, in nutrient-limited environments, 50% of all S. cerevisiae genes synchronize and exhibit periodic bursts of expression in coordination with respiration and cell division in the yeast metabolic cycle (YMC. Despite the importance of metabolic and proliferative synchrony, the majority of YMC regulators are currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the INO80 chromatin-remodeling complex is required to coordinate respiration and cell division with periodic gene expression. Specifically, INO80 mutants have severe defects in oxygen consumption and promiscuous cell division that is no longer coupled with metabolic status. In mutant cells, chromatin accessibility of periodic genes, including TORC1-responsive genes, is relatively static, concomitant with severely attenuated gene expression. Collectively, these results reveal that the INO80 complex mediates metabolic signaling to chromatin to restrict proliferation to metabolically optimal states.

  4. Flagellar coordination in Chlamydomonas cells held on micropipettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüffer, U; Nultsch, W

    1998-01-01

    The two flagella of Chlamydomonas are known to beat synchronously: During breaststroke beating they are generally coordinated in a bilateral way while in shock responses during undulatory beating coordination is mostly parallel [Rüffer and Nultsch, 1995: Botanica Acta 108:169-276]. Analysis of a great number of shock responses revealed that in undulatory beats also periods of bilateral coordination are found and that the coordination type may change several times during a shock response, without concomitant changes of the beat envelope and the beat period. In normal wt cells no coordination changes are found during breaststroke beating, but only short temporary asynchronies: During 2 or 3 normal beats of the cis flagellum, the trans flagellum performs 3 or 4 flat beats with a reduced beat envelope and a smaller beat period, resulting in one additional trans beat. Long periods with flat beats of the same shape and beat period are found in both flagella of the non-phototactic mutant ptx1 and in defective wt 622E cells. During these periods, the coordination is parallel, the two flagella beat alternately. A correlation between normal asynchronous trans beats and the parallel-coordinated beats in the presumably cis defective cells and also the undulatory beats is discussed. In the cis defective cells, a perpetual spontaneous change between parallel beats with small beat periods (higher beat frequency) and bilateral beats with greater beat periods (lower beat frequency) are observed and render questionable the existence of two different intrinsic beat frequencies of the two flagella cis and trans. Asynchronies occur spontaneously but may also be induced by light changes, either step-up or step-down, but not by both stimuli in turn as breaststroke flagellar photoresponses (BFPRs). Asynchronies are not involved in phototaxis. They are independent of the BFPRs, which are supposed to be the basis of phototaxis. Both types of coordination must be assumed to be regulated

  5. Chronophin coordinates cell leading edge dynamics by controlling active cofilin levels

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    Delorme-Walker, Violaine; Seo, Ji-Yeon; Gohla, Antje; Fowler, Bruce; Bohl, Ben; DerMardirossian, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Cofilin, a critical player of actin dynamics, is spatially and temporally regulated to control the direction and force of membrane extension required for cell locomotion. In carcinoma cells, although the signaling pathways regulating cofilin activity to control cell direction have been established, the molecular machinery required to generate the force of the protrusion remains unclear. We show that the cofilin phosphatase chronophin (CIN) spatiotemporally regulates cofilin activity at the cell edge to generate persistent membrane extension. We show that CIN translocates to the leading edge in a PI3-kinase–, Rac1-, and cofilin-dependent manner after EGF stimulation to activate cofilin, promotes actin free barbed end formation, accelerates actin turnover, and enhances membrane protrusion. In addition, we establish that CIN is crucial for the balance of protrusion/retraction events during cell migration. Thus, CIN coordinates the leading edge dynamics by controlling active cofilin levels to promote MTLn3 cell protrusion. PMID:26324884

  6. Infected cell protein 0 functional domains and their coordination in herpes simplex virus replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous human pathogen that establishes latent infection in ganglia neurons. Its unique life cycle requires a balanced “conquer and compromise” strategy to deal with the host anti-viral defenses. One of HSV-1 α (immediate early) gene products, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), is a multifunctional protein that interacts with and modulates a wide range of cellular defensive pathways. These pathways may locate in different cell compartments, which then migrate or exchange factors upon stimulation, for the purpose of a concerted and effective defense. ICP0 is able to simultaneously attack multiple host pathways by either degrading key restrictive factors or modifying repressive complexes. This is a viral protein that contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase, translocates among different cell compartments and interacts with major defensive complexes. The multiple functional domains of ICP0 can work independently and at the same time coordinate with each other. Dissecting the functional domains of ICP0 and delineating the coordination of these domains will help us understand HSV-1 pathogenicity as well as host defense mechanisms. This article focuses on describing individual ICP0 domains, their biochemical properties and their implication in HSV-1 infection. By putting individual domain functions back into the picture of host anti-viral defense network, this review seeks to elaborate the complex interactions between HSV-1 and its host. PMID:26870669

  7. Dynamic Enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination for Realistic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Klaus I.; Alvarez, Beatriz Soret; Barcos, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) is a key ingredient to boost the performance of co-channel Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). eICIC encompasses two main techniques: Almost Blank Subframes (ABS), during which the macro cell remains silent to reduce the interference, and biased...... and an opportunistic approach exploiting the varying cell conditions. Moreover, an autonomous fast distributed muting algorithm is presented, which is simple, robust, and well suited for irregular network deployments. Performance results for realistic network deployments show that the traditional semi-static e...

  8. Induced DNA repair pathway in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overberg, R.

    1985-01-01

    The survival of cultured rat kangaroo cells (PtK-2) and human xeroderma pigmentosum cells incubated with 5 μM cycloheximide subsequent to ultraviolet irradiation is lower than that of cells incubated without cycloheximide. The drop in survival is considerably larger than that produced by incubation of unirradiated cells with cycloheximide. The phenomenon was also observed when PtK-2 cells were incubated with emetine, another protein synthesis inhibitor, or with 5,6-dichloro-1-β-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole, a RNA synthesis inhibitor. PtK cells which received a preliminary UV treatment followed by an incubation period without cycloheximide and then a second irradiation and 24 hour incubation with cycloheximide, survived the effects of the second irradiation better than cells which were incubated in the presence of cycloheximide after the first and second UV irradiation. The application of cycloheximide for 24 hours after UV irradiation of PtK cells resulted in one-half as many 6-thioguanine resistant cells as compared to the number of 6-thioguanine resistant cells found when cycloheximide was not used. These experiments indicate that a UV-inducible cycloheximide-sensitive DNA repair pathway is present in PtK and xeroderma pigmentosum cells, which is error-prone in PtK cells

  9. Brucella abortus Cell Cycle and Infection Are Coordinated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bolle, Xavier; Crosson, Sean; Matroule, Jean-Yves; Letesson, Jean-Jacques

    2015-12-01

    Brucellae are facultative intracellular pathogens. The recent development of methods and genetically engineered strains allowed the description of cell-cycle progression of Brucella abortus, including unipolar growth and the ordered initiation of chromosomal replication. B. abortus cell-cycle progression is coordinated with intracellular trafficking in the endosomal compartments. Bacteria are first blocked at the G1 stage, growth and chromosome replication being resumed shortly before reaching the intracellular proliferation compartment. The control mechanisms of cell cycle are similar to those reported for the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, and they are crucial for survival in the host cell. The development of single-cell analyses could also be applied to other bacterial pathogens to investigate their cell-cycle progression during infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diverse exocytic pathways for mast cell mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hao; Bin, Na-Ryum; Sugita, Shuzo

    2018-04-17

    Mast cells play pivotal roles in innate and adaptive immunities but are also culprits in allergy, autoimmunity, and cardiovascular diseases. Mast cells respond to environmental changes by initiating regulated exocytosis/secretion of various biologically active compounds called mediators (e.g. proteases, amines, and cytokines). Many of these mediators are stored in granules/lysosomes and rely on intricate degranulation processes for release. Mast cell stabilizers (e.g. sodium cromoglicate), which prevent such degranulation processes, have therefore been clinically employed to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis. However, it has become increasingly clear that different mast cell diseases often involve multiple mediators that rely on overlapping but distinct mechanisms for release. This review illustrates existing evidence that highlights the diverse exocytic pathways in mast cells. We also discuss strategies to delineate these pathways so as to identify unique molecular components which could serve as new drug targets for more effective and specific treatments against mast cell-related diseases. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. Feedforward Coordinate Control of a Robotic Cell Injection Catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weyland; Law, Peter K

    2017-08-01

    Remote and robotically actuated catheters are the stepping-stones toward autonomous catheters, where complex intravascular procedures may be performed with minimal intervention from a physician. This article proposes a concept for the positional, feedforward control of a robotically actuated cell injection catheter used for the injection of myogenic or undifferentiated stem cells into the myocardial infarct boundary zones of the left ventricle. The prototype for the catheter system was built upon a needle-based catheter with a single degree of deflection, a 3-D printed handle combined with actuators, and the Arduino microcontroller platform. A bench setup was used to mimic a left ventricle catheter procedure starting from the femoral artery. Using Matlab and the open-source video modeling tool Tracker, the planar coordinates ( y, z) of the catheter position were analyzed, and a feedforward control system was developed based on empirical models. Using the Student's t test with a sample size of 26, it was determined that for both the y- and z-axes, the mean discrepancy between the calibrated and theoretical coordinate values had no significant difference compared to the hypothetical value of µ = 0. The root mean square error of the calibrated coordinates also showed an 88% improvement in the z-axis and 31% improvement in the y-axis compared to the unmodified trial run. This proof of concept investigation leads to the possibility of further developing a feedfoward control system in vivo using catheters with omnidirectional deflection. Feedforward positional control allows for more flexibility in the design of an automated catheter system where problems such as systemic time delay may be a hindrance in instances requiring an immediate reaction.

  12. IAPs Regulate Distinct Innate Immune Pathways to Co-ordinate the Response to Bacterial Peptidoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Che A; Lawlor, Kate E; Heim, Valentin J; Bankovacki, Aleksandra; Bernardini, Jonathan P; Silke, John; Nachbur, Ueli

    2018-02-06

    Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) proteins are critical regulators of innate immune signaling pathways and therefore have potential as drug targets. X-linked IAP (XIAP) and cellular IAP1 and IAP2 (cIAP1 and cIAP2) are E3 ligases that have been shown to be required for signaling downstream of NOD2, an intracellular receptor for bacterial peptidoglycan. We used genetic and biochemical approaches to compare the responses of IAP-deficient mice and cells to NOD2 stimulation. In all cell types tested, XIAP is the only IAP required for signaling immediately downstream of NOD2, while cIAP1 and cIAP2 are dispensable for NOD2-induced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. However, mice lacking cIAP1 or TNFR1 have a blunted cytokine response to NOD2 stimulation. We conclude that cIAPs regulate NOD2-dependent autocrine TNF signaling in vivo and highlight the importance of physiological context in the interplay of innate immune signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Six2 Is a Coordinator of LiCl-Induced Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The metanephric mesenchyme (MM cells are a subset of kidney progenitor cells and play an essential role in mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET, the key step of nephron generation. Six2, a biological marker related to Wnt signaling pathway, promotes the proliferation, inhibits the apoptosis and maintains the un-differentiation of MM cells. Besides, LiCl is an activator of Wnt signaling pathway. However, the role of LiCl in cellular regulation of MM cells remains unclear, and the relationship between LiCl and Six2 in this process is also little known. Here, we performed EdU assay and flow cytometry assay to, respectively, detect the proliferation and apoptosis of MM cells treated with LiCl of increasing dosages. In addition, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR and Western-blot were conducted to measure the expression of Six2 and some maker genes of Wnt and bone-morphogenetic-protein (BMP signaling pathway. Furthermore, luciferase assay was also carried out to detect the transcriptional regulation of Six2. Then we found LiCl promoted MM cell proliferation at low-concentration (10, 20, 30, and 40 mM. The expression of Six2 was dose-dependently increased in low-concentration (10, 20, 30, and 40 mM at both mRNA and protein level. In addition, both of cell proliferation and Six2 expression in MM cells declined when dosage reached high-concentration (50 mM. However, Six2 knock-down converted the proliferation reduction at 50 mM. Furthermore, Six2 deficiency increased the apoptosis of MM cells, compared with negative control cells at relative LiCl concentration. However, the abnormal rise of apoptosis at 30 mM of LiCl concentration implies that it might be the reduction of GSK3β that increased cell apoptosis. Together, these demonstrate that LiCl can induce the proliferation and apoptosis of MM cells coordinating with Six2.

  14. Cell context-specific expression of primary cilia in the human testis and ciliary coordination of Hedgehog signalling in mouse Leydig cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg Nygaard, Marie; Almstrup, Kristian; Lindbæk, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are sensory organelles that coordinate numerous cellular signalling pathways during development and adulthood. Defects in ciliary assembly or function lead to a series of developmental disorders and diseases commonly referred to as ciliopathies. Still, little is known about...... cells of mature seminiferous epithelium, but present in Sertoli cell-only tubules in Klinefelter syndrome testis. Peritubular cells in atrophic testis produce overly long cilia. Furthermore cultures of growth-arrested immature mouse Leydig cells express primary cilia that are enriched in components...

  15. How protein kinases co-ordinate mitosis in animal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hoi Tang; Poon, Randy Y C

    2011-04-01

    Mitosis is associated with profound changes in cell physiology and a spectacular surge in protein phosphorylation. To accomplish these, a remarkably large portion of the kinome is involved in the process. In the present review, we will focus on classic mitotic kinases, such as cyclin-dependent kinases, Polo-like kinases and Aurora kinases, as well as more recently characterized players such as NIMA (never in mitosis in Aspergillus nidulans)-related kinases, Greatwall and Haspin. Together, these kinases co-ordinate the proper timing and fidelity of processes including centrosomal functions, spindle assembly and microtubule-kinetochore attachment, as well as sister chromatid separation and cytokinesis. A recurrent theme of the mitotic kinase network is the prevalence of elaborated feedback loops that ensure bistable conditions. Sequential phosphorylation and priming phosphorylation on substrates are also frequently employed. Another important concept is the role of scaffolds, such as centrosomes for protein kinases during mitosis. Elucidating the entire repertoire of mitotic kinases, their functions, regulation and interactions is critical for our understanding of normal cell growth and in diseases such as cancers.

  16. Androgen receptor and nutrient signaling pathways coordinate the demand for increased amino acid transport during prostate cancer progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qian; Bailey, Charles G; Ng, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    was sufficient to decrease cell growth and mTORC1 signaling in prostate cancer cells. These cells maintained levels of amino acid influx through androgen receptor-mediated regulation of LAT3 expression and ATF4 regulation of LAT1 expression after amino acid deprivation. These responses remained intact in primary......L-Type amino acid transporters such as LAT1 and LAT3 mediate the uptake of essential amino acids. Here, we report that prostate cancer cells coordinate the expression of LAT1 and LAT3 to maintain sufficient levels of leucine needed for mTORC1 signaling and cell growth. Inhibiting LAT function...... prostate cancer, as indicated by high levels of LAT3 in primary disease, and by increased levels of LAT1 after hormone ablation and in metastatic lesions. Taken together, our results show how prostate cancer cells respond to demands for increased essential amino acids by coordinately activating amino acid...

  17. Radioresistance-related signaling pathways in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ya; Zhu Xiaodong; Qu Song; Su Fang; Wang Qi; Zhang Wei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the difference of gene expression profile between the radioresistant human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2R and CNE-2, and to screen the signaling pathway associated with radioresistance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: The radioresistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2R was constructed from the original cell line CNE-2. CNE-2R and CNE-2 cells were cultured and administered with 60 Co γ-ray irradiation at the dose of 400 cGy for 15 times. Human-6v 3.0 whole genome expression profile was used to screen the differentially expressed genes. Bioinformatic analysis was used to identify the pathways related to radioresistance. Results: The number of the differentially expressed genes that were found in these 2 experiments was 374. The Kegg pathway and Biocarta pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes showed the biological importance of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and IL-1 R-mediated signal transduction pathway to the radioresistance of the CNE-2R cells and the significant differences of 13 genes in these 2 pathways,including JUN, MYD88, CCL5, CXCL10, STAT1, LY96, FOS, CCL3, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1α, IL-1β, and IRAK2 (t=13.47-66.57, P<0.05). Conclusions: Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and IL-1R-mediated signal transduction pathway might be related to the occurrence of radioresistance. (authors)

  18. Multiple Signaling Pathways Coordinately Regulate Forgetting of Olfactory Adaptation through Control of Sensory Responses in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazono, Tomohiro; Hara-Kuge, Sayuri; Matsuda, Osamu; Inoue, Akitoshi; Fujiwara, Manabi; Ishihara, Takeshi

    2017-10-18

    Forgetting memories is important for animals to properly respond to continuously changing environments. To elucidate the mechanisms of forgetting, we used one of the behavioral plasticities of Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite, olfactory adaptation to an attractive odorant, diacetyl, as a simple model of learning. In C. elegans, the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway accelerates forgetting of olfactory adaptation by facilitating neural secretion from AWC sensory neurons. In this study, to identify the downstream effectors of the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway, we conducted a genetic screen for suppressors of the gain-of-function mutant of tir-1 ( ok1052 ), which shows excessive forgetting. Our screening showed that three proteins-a membrane protein, MACO-1; a receptor tyrosine kinase, SCD-2; and its putative ligand, HEN-1-regulated forgetting downstream of the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway. We further demonstrated that MACO-1 and SCD-2/HEN-1 functioned in parallel genetic pathways, and only MACO-1 regulated forgetting of olfactory adaptation to isoamyl alcohol, which is an attractive odorant sensed by different types of sensory neurons. In olfactory adaptation, odor-evoked Ca 2+ responses in olfactory neurons are attenuated by conditioning and recovered thereafter. A Ca 2+ imaging study revealed that this attenuation is sustained longer in maco-1 and scd-2 mutant animals than in wild-type animals like the TIR-1/JNK-1 pathway mutants. Furthermore, temporal silencing by histamine-gated chloride channels revealed that the neuronal activity of AWC neurons after conditioning is important for proper forgetting. We propose that distinct signaling pathways, each of which has a specific function, may coordinately and temporally regulate forgetting by controlling sensory responses. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Active forgetting is an important process to understand the whole mechanisms of memories. Recent papers have reported that the noncell autonomous regulations are required for proper forgetting in

  19. Low pH induces co-ordinate regulation of gene expression in oesophageal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Shane P; Gallagher, William M; Fox, Edward J P; Abdel-Latif, Mohammed M; Reynolds, John V; Kelleher, Dermot

    2006-02-01

    The development of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is known to be a causative risk factor in the evolution of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus. The major component of this reflux is gastric acid. However, the impact of low pH on gene expression has not been extensively studied in oesophageal cells. This study utilizes a transcriptomic and bioinformatic approach to assess regulation of gene expression in response to low pH. In more detail, oesophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines were exposed to a range of pH environments. Affymetrix microarrays were used for gene-expression analysis and results were validated using cycle limitation and real-time RT-PCR analysis, as well as northern and western blotting. Comparative promoter transcription factor binding site (TFBS) analysis (MatInspector) of hierarchically clustered gene-expression data was employed to identify the elements which may co-ordinately regulate individual gene clusters. Initial experiments demonstrated maximal induction of EGR1 gene expression at pH 6.5. Subsequent array experimentation revealed significant induction of gene expression from such functional categories as DNA damage response (EGR1-4, ATF3) and cell-cycle control (GADD34, GADD45, p57). Changes in expression of EGR1, EGR3, ATF3, MKP-1, FOSB, CTGF and CYR61 were verified in separate experiments and in a variety of oesophageal cell lines. TFBS analysis of promoters identified transcription factors that may co-ordinately regulate gene-expression clusters, Cluster 1: Oct-1, AP4R; Cluster 2: NF-kB, EGRF; Cluster 3: IKRS, AP-1F. Low pH has the ability to induce genes and pathways which can provide an environment suitable for the progression of malignancy. Further functional analysis of the genes and clusters identified in this low pH study is likely to lead to new insights into the pathogenesis and therapeutics of GORD and oesophageal cancer.

  20. Innexin gap junctions in nerve cells coordinate spontaneous contractile behavior in Hydra polyps

    KAUST Repository

    Takaku, Yasuharu; Hwang, Jung Shan; Wolf, Alexander; Bö ttger, Angelika; Shimizu, Hiroshi; David, Charles N.; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Nerve cells and spontaneous coordinated behavior first appeared near the base of animal evolution in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Experiments on the cnidarian Hydra have demonstrated that nerve cells are essential

  1. Pathway-specific differences between tumor cell lines and normal and tumor tissue cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tozeren Aydin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell lines are used in experimental investigation of cancer but their capacity to represent tumor cells has yet to be quantified. The aim of the study was to identify significant alterations in pathway usage in cell lines in comparison with normal and tumor tissue. Methods This study utilized a pathway-specific enrichment analysis of publicly accessible microarray data and quantified the gene expression differences between cell lines, tumor, and normal tissue cells for six different tissue types. KEGG pathways that are significantly different between cell lines and tumors, cell lines and normal tissues and tumor and normal tissue were identified through enrichment tests on gene lists obtained using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM. Results Cellular pathways that were significantly upregulated in cell lines compared to tumor cells and normal cells of the same tissue type included ATP synthesis, cell communication, cell cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, purine, pyrimidine and pyruvate metabolism, and proteasome. Results on metabolic pathways suggested an increase in the velocity nucleotide metabolism and RNA production. Pathways that were downregulated in cell lines compared to tumor and normal tissue included cell communication, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs, and ECM-receptor interaction. Only a fraction of the significantly altered genes in tumor-to-normal comparison had similar expressions in cancer cell lines and tumor cells. These genes were tissue-specific and were distributed sparsely among multiple pathways. Conclusion Significantly altered genes in tumors compared to normal tissue were largely tissue specific. Among these genes downregulation was a major trend. In contrast, cell lines contained large sets of significantly upregulated genes that were common to multiple tissue types. Pathway upregulation in cell lines was most pronounced over metabolic pathways including cell nucleotide metabolism and oxidative

  2. BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial cell death pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neitemeier, Sandra; Jelinek, Anja; Laino, Vincenzo; Hoffmann, Lena; Eisenbach, Ina; Eying, Roman; Ganjam, Goutham K; Dolga, Amalia M; Oppermann, Sina; Culmsee, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Ferroptosis has been defined as an oxidative and iron-dependent pathway of regulated cell death that is distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis and established pathways of death receptor-mediated regulated necrosis. While emerging evidence linked features of ferroptosis induced e.g. by

  3. Mechanosensation Dynamically Coordinates Polar Growth and Cell Wall Assembly to Promote Cell Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davì, Valeria; Tanimoto, Hirokazu; Ershov, Dmitry; Haupt, Armin; De Belly, Henry; Le Borgne, Rémi; Couturier, Etienne; Boudaoud, Arezki; Minc, Nicolas

    2018-04-23

    How growing cells cope with size expansion while ensuring mechanical integrity is not known. In walled cells, such as those of microbes and plants, growth and viability are both supported by a thin and rigid encasing cell wall (CW). We deciphered the dynamic mechanisms controlling wall surface assembly during cell growth, using a sub-resolution microscopy approach to monitor CW thickness in live rod-shaped fission yeast cells. We found that polar cell growth yielded wall thinning and that thickness negatively influenced growth. Thickness at growing tips exhibited a fluctuating behavior with thickening phases followed by thinning phases, indicative of a delayed feedback promoting thickness homeostasis. This feedback was mediated by mechanosensing through the CW integrity pathway, which probes strain in the wall to adjust synthase localization and activity to surface growth. Mutants defective in thickness homeostasis lysed by rupturing the wall, demonstrating its pivotal role for walled cell survival. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pathway analyses implicate glial cells in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laramie E Duncan

    Full Text Available The quest to understand the neurobiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is ongoing with multiple lines of evidence indicating abnormalities of glia, mitochondria, and glutamate in both disorders. Despite high heritability estimates of 81% for schizophrenia and 75% for bipolar disorder, compelling links between findings from neurobiological studies, and findings from large-scale genetic analyses, are only beginning to emerge.Ten publically available gene sets (pathways related to glia, mitochondria, and glutamate were tested for association to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using MAGENTA as the primary analysis method. To determine the robustness of associations, secondary analyses were performed with: ALIGATOR, INRICH, and Set Screen. Data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC were used for all analyses. There were 1,068,286 SNP-level p-values for schizophrenia (9,394 cases/12,462 controls, and 2,088,878 SNP-level p-values for bipolar disorder (7,481 cases/9,250 controls.The Glia-Oligodendrocyte pathway was associated with schizophrenia, after correction for multiple tests, according to primary analysis (MAGENTA p = 0.0005, 75% requirement for individual gene significance and also achieved nominal levels of significance with INRICH (p = 0.0057 and ALIGATOR (p = 0.022. For bipolar disorder, Set Screen yielded nominally and method-wide significant associations to all three glial pathways, with strongest association to the Glia-Astrocyte pathway (p = 0.002.Consistent with findings of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia by other methods of study, the Glia-Oligodendrocyte pathway was associated with schizophrenia in our genomic study. These findings suggest that the abnormalities of myelination observed in schizophrenia are at least in part due to inherited factors, contrasted with the alternative of purely environmental causes (e.g. medication effects or lifestyle. While not the primary purpose of our study

  5. Transglutaminase induction by various cell death and apoptosis pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesus, L; Madi, A; Balajthy, Z; Nemes, Z; Szondy, Z

    1996-10-31

    Clarification of the molecular details of forms of natural cell death, including apoptosis, has become one of the most challenging issues of contemporary biomedical sciences. One of the effector elements of various cell death pathways is the covalent cross-linking of cellular proteins by transglutaminases. This review will discuss the accumulating data related to the induction and regulation of these enzymes, particularly of tissue type transglutaminase, in the molecular program of cell death. A wide range of signalling pathways can lead to the parallel induction of apoptosis and transglutaminase, providing a handle for better understanding the exact molecular interactions responsible for the mechanism of regulated cell death.

  6. Coordinated Ramping of Dorsal Striatal Pathways preceding Food Approach and Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Tanisha D; Licholai, Julia A; Szczot, Ilona; Ali, Mohamed A; LeBlanc, Kimberly H; Fobbs, Wambura C; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2018-04-04

    The striatum controls food-related actions and consumption and is linked to feeding disorders, including obesity and anorexia nervosa. Two populations of neurons project from the striatum: direct pathway medium spiny neurons and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons. The selective contribution of direct pathway medium spiny neurons and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons to food-related actions and consumption remains unknown. Here, we used in vivo electrophysiology and fiber photometry in mice (of both sexes) to record both spiking activity and pathway-specific calcium activity of dorsal striatal neurons during approach to and consumption of food pellets. While electrophysiology revealed complex task-related dynamics across neurons, population calcium was enhanced during approach and inhibited during consumption in both pathways. We also observed ramping changes in activity that preceded both pellet-directed actions and spontaneous movements. These signals were heterogeneous in the spiking units, with neurons exhibiting either increasing or decreasing ramps. In contrast, the population calcium signals were homogeneous, with both pathways having increasing ramps of activity for several seconds before actions were initiated. An analysis comparing population firing rates to population calcium signals also revealed stronger ramping dynamics in the calcium signals than in the spiking data. In a second experiment, we trained the mice to perform an action sequence to evaluate when the ramping signals terminated. We found that the ramping signals terminated at the beginning of the action sequence, suggesting they may reflect upcoming actions and not preconsumption activity. Plasticity of such mechanisms may underlie disorders that alter action selection, such as drug addiction or obesity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alterations in striatal function have been linked to pathological consumption in disorders, such as obesity and drug addiction. We recorded spiking and

  7. Pathways to Energy from Inertial Fusion. An Integrated Approach. Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2006-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    The IAEA has continuously demonstrated its commitment to supporting the development of safe and environmentally clean nuclear fusion energy. Statistics show that at the current rate of energy consumption, fusion energy would remain an inexhaustible energy source for humankind for millions of years. Furthermore, some of the existing and foreseen risks - such as nuclear waste disposal and rising greenhouse gas emissions from the use of fossil fuels - can also be reduced. In the quest for fusion energy, two main lines of research and development are currently being pursued worldwide, namely the inertial and the magnetic confinement fusion concepts. For both approaches, the IAEA has conducted coordinated research activities focusing on specific physics and technological issues relevant the establishment of the knowledge base and foundation for the design and construction of fusion power plants. This report describes the recent research and technological developments and challenges in inertial fusion energy within the framework of such a coordinated research effort. The coordinated research project on Pathways to Energy from Inertial Fusion: An Integrated Approach was initiated in 2006 and concluded in 2010. The project involved experts and institutions from 16 Member States, addressing issues relevant to advancing inertial fusion energy research and development in its practical applications. The key topics addressed include: (i) high repetition rate, low cost, high efficiency ignition drivers; (ii) beam-matter/beam-plasma interaction related to inertial fusion target physics; (iii) target fusion chamber coupling and interface; and (iv) integrated inertial fusion power plant design. Participants in this coordinated research project have contributed 17 detailed research and technology progress reports of work performed at national and international levels. This report compiles all these reports while highlighting the various achievements.

  8. Co-ordinate but disproportionate activation of apoptotic, regenerative and inflammatory pathways characterizes the liver response to acute amebic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosof, Lorraine C; Davis, Paul H; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Xiaochun; Stanley, Samuel L

    2006-03-01

    The liver has the remarkable ability to respond to injury with repair and regeneration. The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is the major cause of liver abscess worldwide. We report a transcriptional analysis of the response of mouse liver to E. histolytica infection, the first study looking at acute liver infection by a non-viral pathogen. Focusing on early time points, we identified 764 genes with altered transcriptional levels in amebic liver abscess. The response to infection is rapid and complex, with concurrent increased expression of genes linked to host defence through IL-1, TLR2, or interferon-induced pathways, liver regeneration via activation of IL-6 pathways, and genes associated with programmed cell death possibly through TNFalpha or Fas pathways. A comparison of amebic liver infection with the liver response to partial hepatectomy or toxins reveals striking similarities between amebic liver abscess and non-infectious injury in key components of the liver regeneration pathways. However, the response in amebic liver abscess is biased towards apoptosis when compared with acute liver injury from hepatectomy, toxins, or other forms of liver infection. E. histolytica infection of the liver simultaneously activates inflammatory, regenerative and apoptotic pathways, but the sum of these early responses is biased towards programmed cell death.

  9. Pathways to a New Efficiency Regime for Organic Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, L. Jan Anton; Shaheen, Sean E.; Hummelen, Jan C.

    2012-01-01

    Three different theoretical approaches are presented to identify pathways to organic solar cells with power conversion efficiencies in excess of 20%. A radiation limit for organic solar cells is introduced that elucidates the role of charge-transfer (CT) state absorption. Provided this CT action is

  10. Sensors and signal transduction pathways in vertebrate cell volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Pedersen, Stine F

    2006-01-01

    The ability to control cell volume is fundamental for proper cell function. This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of the complex sequences of events by which acute cell volume perturbation alters the activity of osmolyte transport proteins in cells from vertebrate organisms...... will be discussed. In contrast to the simple pathway of osmosensing in yeast, cells from vertebrate organisms appear to exhibit multiple volume sensing systems, the specific mechanism(s) activated being cell type- and stimulus-dependent. Candidate sensors include integrins and growth factor receptors, while other...

  11. A complex regulatory network coordinating cell cycles during C. elegans development is revealed by a genome-wide RNAi screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sarah H; Tobin, David V; Memar, Nadin; Beltz, Eleanor; Holmen, Jenna; Clayton, Joseph E; Chiu, Daniel J; Young, Laura D; Green, Travis H; Lubin, Isabella; Liu, Yuying; Conradt, Barbara; Saito, R Mako

    2014-02-28

    The development and homeostasis of multicellular animals requires precise coordination of cell division and differentiation. We performed a genome-wide RNA interference screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to reveal the components of a regulatory network that promotes developmentally programmed cell-cycle quiescence. The 107 identified genes are predicted to constitute regulatory networks that are conserved among higher animals because almost half of the genes are represented by clear human orthologs. Using a series of mutant backgrounds to assess their genetic activities, the RNA interference clones displaying similar properties were clustered to establish potential regulatory relationships within the network. This approach uncovered four distinct genetic pathways controlling cell-cycle entry during intestinal organogenesis. The enhanced phenotypes observed for animals carrying compound mutations attest to the collaboration between distinct mechanisms to ensure strict developmental regulation of cell cycles. Moreover, we characterized ubc-25, a gene encoding an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme whose human ortholog, UBE2Q2, is deregulated in several cancers. Our genetic analyses suggested that ubc-25 acts in a linear pathway with cul-1/Cul1, in parallel to pathways employing cki-1/p27 and lin-35/pRb to promote cell-cycle quiescence. Further investigation of the potential regulatory mechanism demonstrated that ubc-25 activity negatively regulates CYE-1/cyclin E protein abundance in vivo. Together, our results show that the ubc-25-mediated pathway acts within a complex network that integrates the actions of multiple molecular mechanisms to control cell cycles during development. Copyright © 2014 Roy et al.

  12. Stone formation in peach fruit exhibits spatial coordination of the lignin and flavonoid pathways and similarity to Arabidopsis dehiscence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piagnani M Claudia

    2010-02-01

    negative regulator FRUITFUL predominated in exocarp and mesocarp. Conclusions Collectively, the data suggests, first, that the process of endocarp determination and differentiation in peach and Arabidopsis share common regulators and, secondly, reveals a previously unknown coordination of competing lignin and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways during early fruit development.

  13. Defining Lipid Transport Pathways in Animal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Richard E.; Sleight, Richard G.

    1985-09-01

    A new technique for studying the metabolism and intracellular transport of lipid molecules in living cells based on the use of fluorescent lipid analogs is described. The cellular processing of various intermediates (phosphatidic acid and ceramide) and end products (phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine) in lipid biosynthesis is reviewed and a working model for compartmentalization during lipid biosynthesis is presented.

  14. BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial cell death pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Neitemeier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ferroptosis has been defined as an oxidative and iron-dependent pathway of regulated cell death that is distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis and established pathways of death receptor-mediated regulated necrosis. While emerging evidence linked features of ferroptosis induced e.g. by erastin-mediated inhibition of the Xc- system or inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4 to an increasing number of oxidative cell death paradigms in cancer cells, neurons or kidney cells, the biochemical pathways of oxidative cell death remained largely unclear. In particular, the role of mitochondrial damage in paradigms of ferroptosis needs further investigation.In the present study, we find that erastin-induced ferroptosis in neuronal cells was accompanied by BID transactivation to mitochondria, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced ATP levels. These hallmarks of mitochondrial demise are also established features of oxytosis, a paradigm of cell death induced by Xc- inhibition by millimolar concentrations of glutamate. Bid knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 approaches preserved mitochondrial integrity and function, and mediated neuroprotective effects against both, ferroptosis and oxytosis. Furthermore, the BID-inhibitor BI-6c9 inhibited erastin-induced ferroptosis, and, in turn, the ferroptosis inhibitors ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin-1 prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in the paradigm of oxytosis. These findings show that mitochondrial transactivation of BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial damage as the final execution step in this paradigm of oxidative cell death. Keywords: Ferroptosis, BID, Mitochondria, CRISPR, Oxytosis, Neuronal death

  15. Mast cell chemotaxis - chemoattractants and signaling pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hálová, Ivana; Dráberová, Lubica; Dráber, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, May (2012), s. 119 ISSN 1664-3224 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12073; GA ČR GA301/09/1826; GA ČR GAP302/10/1759 Grant - others:ECST(XE) BM1007; AV ČR(CZ) MC200520901 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : mast cell * IgE receptor * plasma membrane Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  16. Deciphering the roles of Arabidopsis LPCAT and PAH in phosphatidylcholine homeostasis and pathway coordination for chloroplast lipid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Kazachkov, Michael; Shen, Wenyun; Bai, Mei; Wu, Hong; Zou, Jitao

    2014-12-01

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a key intermediate in the metabolic network of glycerolipid biosynthesis. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT) and phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAH) are two key enzymes of PC homeostasis. We report that LPCAT activity is markedly induced in the Arabidopsis pah mutant. The quadruple pah lpcat mutant, with dual defects in PAH and LPCAT, had a level of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) that was much higher than that in the lpcat mutants and a PC content that was higher than that in the pah mutant. Comparative molecular profile analysis of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol revealed that both the pah and pah lpcat mutants had increased proportions of 34:6 from the prokaryotic pathway despite differing levels of LPCAT activity. We show that a decreased representation of the C16:0 C18:2 diacylglycerol moiety in PC was a shared feature of pah and pah lpcat, and that this change in PC metabolic profile correlated with the increased prokaryotic contribution to chloroplast lipid synthesis. We detected increased PC deacylation in the pah lpcat mutant that was attributable at least in part to the induced phospholipases. Increased LPC generation was also evident in the pah mutant, but the phospholipases were not induced, raising the possibility that PC deacylation is mediated by the reverse reaction of LPCAT. We discuss possible roles of LPCAT and PAH in PC turnover that impacts lipid pathway coordination for chloroplast lipid synthesis. © 2014 National Research Council Canada. The Plant Journal © 2014 Society For Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons.

  17. Endothelial cell motility, coordination and pattern formation during vasculogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirok, Andras

    2013-01-01

    How vascular networks assemble is a fundamental problem of developmental biology that also has medical importance. To explain the organizational principles behind vascular patterning, we must understand how can tissue level structures be controlled through cell behavior patterns like motility and adhesion that, in turn, are determined by biochemical signal transduction processes? We discuss the various ideas that have been proposed as mechanisms for vascular network assembly: cell motility guided by extracellular matrix alignment (contact guidance), chemotaxis guided by paracrine and autocrine morphogens, and multicellular sprouting guided by cell-cell contacts. All of these processes yield emergent patterns, thus endothelial cells can form an interconnected structure autonomously, without guidance from an external pre-pattern. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Dietary pectic glycans are degraded by coordinated enzyme pathways in human colonic Bacteroides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis, Ana S.; Briggs, Jonathon; Zhang, Xiaoyang

    2018-01-01

    The major nutrients available to human colonic Bacteroides species are glycans, exemplified by pectins, a network of covalently linked plant cell wall polysaccharides containing galacturonic acid (GalA). Metabolism of complex carbohydrates by the Bacteroides genus is orchestrated by polysaccharid...... PULs ensuring a continuous supply of inducing molecules throughout growth. The contribution of Bacteroides spp. to metabolism of the pectic network is illustrated by cross-feeding between organisms....

  19. TRAF1 Coordinates Polyubiquitin Signaling to Enhance Epstein-Barr Virus LMP1-Mediated Growth and Survival Pathway Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Greenfeld

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV encoded oncoprotein Latent Membrane Protein 1 (LMP1 signals through two C-terminal tail domains to drive cell growth, survival and transformation. The LMP1 membrane-proximal TES1/CTAR1 domain recruits TRAFs to activate MAP kinase, non-canonical and canonical NF-kB pathways, and is critical for EBV-mediated B-cell transformation. TRAF1 is amongst the most highly TES1-induced target genes and is abundantly expressed in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders. We found that TRAF1 expression enhanced LMP1 TES1 domain-mediated activation of the p38, JNK, ERK and canonical NF-kB pathways, but not non-canonical NF-kB pathway activity. To gain insights into how TRAF1 amplifies LMP1 TES1 MAP kinase and canonical NF-kB pathways, we performed proteomic analysis of TRAF1 complexes immuno-purified from cells uninduced or induced for LMP1 TES1 signaling. Unexpectedly, we found that LMP1 TES1 domain signaling induced an association between TRAF1 and the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC, and stimulated linear (M1-linked polyubiquitin chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes. LMP1 or TRAF1 complexes isolated from EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid B cell lines (LCLs were highly modified by M1-linked polyubiqutin chains. The M1-ubiquitin binding proteins IKK-gamma/NEMO, A20 and ABIN1 each associate with TRAF1 in cells that express LMP1. TRAF2, but not the cIAP1 or cIAP2 ubiquitin ligases, plays a key role in LUBAC recruitment and M1-chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes, implicating the TRAF1:TRAF2 heterotrimer in LMP1 TES1-dependent LUBAC activation. Depletion of either TRAF1, or the LUBAC ubiquitin E3 ligase subunit HOIP, markedly impaired LCL growth. Likewise, LMP1 or TRAF1 complexes purified from LCLs were decorated by lysine 63 (K63-linked polyubiqutin chains. LMP1 TES1 signaling induced K63-polyubiquitin chain attachment to TRAF1 complexes, and TRAF2 was identified as K63-Ub chain target. Co-localization of M1- and K63

  20. Cell size checkpoint control by the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Su-Chiung; de los Reyes, Chris; Umen, James G

    2006-10-13

    Size control is essential for all proliferating cells, and is thought to be regulated by checkpoints that couple cell size to cell cycle progression. The aberrant cell-size phenotypes caused by mutations in the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway are consistent with a role in size checkpoint control, but indirect effects on size caused by altered cell cycle kinetics are difficult to rule out. The multiple fission cell cycle of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii uncouples growth from division, allowing direct assessment of the relationship between size phenotypes and checkpoint function. Mutations in the C. reinhardtii RB homolog encoded by MAT3 cause supernumerous cell divisions and small cells, suggesting a role for MAT3 in size control. We identified suppressors of an mat3 null allele that had recessive mutations in DP1 or dominant mutations in E2F1, loci encoding homologs of a heterodimeric transcription factor that is targeted by RB-related proteins. Significantly, we determined that the dp1 and e2f1 phenotypes were caused by defects in size checkpoint control and were not due to a lengthened cell cycle. Despite their cell division defects, mat3, dp1, and e2f1 mutants showed almost no changes in periodic transcription of genes induced during S phase and mitosis, many of which are conserved targets of the RB pathway. Conversely, we found that regulation of cell size was unaffected when S phase and mitotic transcription were inhibited. Our data provide direct evidence that the RB pathway mediates cell size checkpoint control and suggest that such control is not directly coupled to the magnitude of periodic cell cycle transcription.

  1. Apoptotic cells can induce non-autonomous apoptosis through the TNF pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Garijo, Ainhoa; Fuchs, Yaron; Steller, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Apoptotic cells can produce signals to instruct cells in their local environment, including ones that stimulate engulfment and proliferation. We identified a novel mode of communication by which apoptotic cells induce additional apoptosis in the same tissue. Strong induction of apoptosis in one compartment of the Drosophila wing disc causes apoptosis of cells in the other compartment, indicating that dying cells can release long-range death factors. We identified Eiger, the Drosophila tumor necrosis factor (TNF) homolog, as the signal responsible for apoptosis-induced apoptosis (AiA). Eiger is produced in apoptotic cells and, through activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, is able to propagate the initial apoptotic stimulus. We also show that during coordinated cell death of hair follicle cells in mice, TNF-α is expressed in apoptotic cells and is required for normal cell death. AiA provides a mechanism to explain cohort behavior of dying cells that is seen both in normal development and under pathological conditions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01004.001 PMID:24066226

  2. Romidepsin targets multiple survival signaling pathways in malignant T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, B C; Brammer, J E; Li, Y; Murray, D; Liu, Y; Hosing, C; Nieto, Y; Champlin, R E; Andersson, B S

    2015-01-01

    Romidepsin is a cyclic molecule that inhibits histone deacetylases. It is Food and Drug Administration-approved for treatment of cutaneous and peripheral T-cell lymphoma, but its precise mechanism of action against malignant T cells is unknown. To better understand the biological effects of romidepsin in these cells, we exposed PEER and SUPT1 T-cell lines, and a primary sample from T-cell lymphoma patient (Patient J) to romidepsin. We then examined the consequences in some key oncogenic signaling pathways. Romidepsin displayed IC 50 values of 10.8, 7.9 and 7.0 nm in PEER, SUPT1 and Patient J cells, respectively. Strong inhibition of histone deacetylases and demethylases, increased production of reactive oxygen species and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential were observed, which may contribute to the observed DNA-damage response and apoptosis. The stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway and unfolded protein response in the endoplasmic reticulum were activated, whereas the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) and β-catenin pro-survival pathways were inhibited. The decreased level of β-catenin correlated with the upregulation of its inhibitor SFRP1 through romidepsin-mediated hypomethylation of its gene promoter. Our results provide new insights into how romidepsin invokes malignant T-cell killing, show evidence of its associated DNA hypomethylating activity and offer a rationale for the development of romidepsin-containing combination therapies

  3. Macro Cell Muting Coordination for Non-Uniform Topologies in LTE-A HetNets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soret, Beatriz; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2013-01-01

    irregular scenarios is how to operate eICIC, and especially how to coordinate macro-cell muting. Our analysis shows that for eICIC to provide gain in such scenarios, it is recommended to use fully time aligned traditional Almost Blank Subframes (ABS) in the macro-cells with picos, while first tier...

  4. Identification of molecular pathways facilitating glioma cell invasion in situ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido Nevo

    Full Text Available Gliomas are mostly incurable secondary to their diffuse infiltrative nature. Thus, specific therapeutic targeting of invasive glioma cells is an attractive concept. As cells exit the tumor mass and infiltrate brain parenchyma, they closely interact with a changing micro-environmental landscape that sustains tumor cell invasion. In this study, we used a unique microarray profiling approach on a human glioma stem cell (GSC xenograft model to explore gene expression changes in situ in Invading Glioma Cells (IGCs compared to tumor core, as well as changes in host cells residing within the infiltrated microenvironment relative to the unaffected cortex. IGCs were found to have reduced expression of genes within the extracellular matrix compartment, and genes involved in cell adhesion, cell polarity and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT processes. The infiltrated microenvironment showed activation of wound repair and tissue remodeling networks. We confirmed by protein analysis the downregulation of EMT and polarity related genes such as CD44 and PARD3 in IGCs, and EFNB3, a tissue-remodeling agent enriched at the infiltrated microenvironment. OLIG2, a proliferation regulator and glioma progenitor cell marker upregulated in IGCs was found to function in enhancing migration and stemness of GSCs. Overall, our results unveiled a more comprehensive picture of the complex and dynamic cell autonomous and tumor-host interactive pathways of glioma invasion than has been previously demonstrated. This suggests targeting of multiple pathways at the junction of invading tumor and microenvironment as a viable option for glioma therapy.

  5. Notch pathway signaling in the skin antagonizes Merkel cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Gregory J; Wright, Margaret C; Kubicki, Adam C; Maricich, Stephen M

    2018-02-15

    Merkel cells are mechanosensitive skin cells derived from the epidermal lineage whose development requires expression of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Atoh1. The genes and pathways involved in regulating Merkel cell development during embryogenesis are poorly understood. Notch pathway signaling antagonizes Atoh1 expression in many developing body regions, so we hypothesized that Notch signaling might inhibit Merkel cell development. We found that conditional, constitutive overexpression of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) in mouse epidermis significantly decreased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles and touch domes of hairy skin. Conversely, conditional deletion of the obligate NICD binding partner RBPj in the epidermis significantly increased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles, led to the development of ectopic Merkel cells outside of touch domes in hairy skin epidermis, and altered the distribution of Merkel cells in touch domes. Deletion of the downstream Notch effector gene Hes1 also significantly increased Merkel cell numbers in whisker follicles. Together, these data demonstrate that Notch signaling regulates Merkel cell production and patterning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Aberrant Signaling Pathways in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni, Deborah; Saccomani, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive disease caused by the malignant transformation of immature progenitors primed towards T-cell development. Clinically, T-ALL patients present with diffuse infiltration of the bone marrow by immature T-cell blasts high blood cell counts, mediastinal involvement, and diffusion to the central nervous system. In the past decade, the genomic landscape of T-ALL has been the target of intense research. The identification of specific genomic alterations has contributed to identify strong oncogenic drivers and signaling pathways regulating leukemia growth. Notwithstanding, T-ALL patients are still treated with high-dose multiagent chemotherapy, potentially exposing these patients to considerable acute and long-term side effects. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the signaling pathways relevant for the pathogenesis of T-ALL and the opportunities offered for targeted therapy. PMID:28872614

  7. PKR is a novel functional direct player that coordinates skeletal muscle differentiation via p38MAPK/AKT pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisi, A; Spaziani, A; Anticoli, S; Ghidinelli, M; Balsano, C

    2008-03-01

    Myogenic differentiation is a highly orchestrated multistep process controlled by extracellular growth factors that modulate largely unknown signals into the cell affecting the muscle-transcription program. P38MAPK-dependent signalling, as well as PI3K/Akt pathway, has a key role in the control of muscle gene expression at different stages during the myogenic process. P38MAPK affects the activities of transcription factors, such as MyoD and myogenin, and contributes, together with PI3K/Akt pathway, to control the early and late steps of myogenic differentiation. The aim of our work was to better define the role of PKR, a dsRNA-activated protein kinase, as potential component in the differentiation program of C2C12 murine myogenic cells and to correlate its activity with p38MAPK and PI3K/Akt myogenic regulatory pathways. Here, we demonstrate that PKR is an essential component of the muscle development machinery and forms a functional complex with p38MAPK and/or Akt, contributing to muscle differentiation of committed myogenic cells in vitro. Inhibition of endogenous PKR activity by a specific (si)RNA and a PKR dominant-negative interferes with the myogenic program of C2C12 cells, causing a delay in activation of myogenic specific genes and inducing the formation of thinner myofibers. In addition, the construction of three PKR mutants allowed us to demonstrate that both N and C-terminal regions of PKR are critical for the interaction with p38MAPK and Akt. The novel discovered complex permits PKR to timely regulate the inhibition/activation of p38MAPK and Akt, controlling in this way the different steps characterizing skeletal muscle differentiation.

  8. Ouabain enhances ADPKD cell apoptosis via the intrinsic pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo eBlanco

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Progression of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is highly influenced by factors circulating in blood. We have shown that the hormone ouabain enhances several characteristics of the ADPKD cystic phenotype, including the rate of cell proliferation, fluid secretion and the capacity of the cells to form cysts. In this work, we found that physiological levels of ouabain (3nM also promote programmed cell death of renal epithelial cells obtained from kidney cysts of patients with ADPKD (ADPKD cells. This was determined by Alexa Fluor 488 labeled-Annexin-V staining and TUNEL assay, both biochemical markers of apoptosis. Ouabain-induced apoptosis also takes place when ADPKD cell growth is blocked; suggesting that the effect is not secondary to the stimulatory actions of ouabain on cell proliferation. Ouabain alters the expression of BCL family of proteins, reducing BCL-2 and increasing BAX expression levels, anti- and pro-apoptotic mediators respectively. In addition, ouabain caused the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Moreover, ouabain activates caspase-3, a key executioner caspase in the cell apoptotic pathway, but did not affect caspase-8. This suggests that ouabain triggers ADPKD cell apoptosis by stimulating the intrinsic, but not the extrinsic pathway of programmed cell death. The apoptotic effects of ouabain are specific for ADPKD cells and do not occur in normal human kidney cells (NHK cells. Taken together with our previous observations, these results show that ouabain causes an imbalance in cell growth/death, to favor growth of the cystic cells. This event, characteristic of ADPKD, further suggests the importance of ouabain as a circulating factor that promotes ADPKD progression.

  9. Carbon nanopipettes characterize calcium release pathways in breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrlau, Michael G; Brailoiu, Eugen; Dun, Nae J; Patel, Sandip; Gogotsi, Yury; Bau, Haim H

    2008-01-01

    Carbon-based nanoprobes are attractive for minimally invasive cell interrogation but their application in cell physiology has thus far been limited. We have developed carbon nanopipettes (CNPs) with nanoscopic tips and used them to inject calcium-mobilizing messengers into cells without compromising cell viability. We identify pathways sensitive to cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPr) and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) in breast carcinoma cells. Our findings demonstrate the superior utility of CNPs for intracellular delivery of impermeant molecules and, more generally, for cell physiology studies. The CNPs do not appear to cause any lasting damage to cells. Their advantages over commonly used glass pipettes include smaller size, breakage and clogging resistance, and potential for multifunctionality such as in concurrent injection and electrical measurements

  10. Carbon nanopipettes characterize calcium release pathways in breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrlau, Michael G [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Brailoiu, Eugen; Dun, Nae J [Department of Pharmacology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Patel, Sandip [Department of Physiology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Gogotsi, Yury [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Bau, Haim H [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, 229 Towne Building, 220 S. 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)], E-mail: mschrlau@seas.upenn.edu, E-mail: ebrailou@temple.edu, E-mail: patel.s@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: yg36@drexel.edu, E-mail: ndun@temple.edu, E-mail: bau@seas.upenn.edu

    2008-08-13

    Carbon-based nanoprobes are attractive for minimally invasive cell interrogation but their application in cell physiology has thus far been limited. We have developed carbon nanopipettes (CNPs) with nanoscopic tips and used them to inject calcium-mobilizing messengers into cells without compromising cell viability. We identify pathways sensitive to cyclic adenosine diphosphate ribose (cADPr) and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) in breast carcinoma cells. Our findings demonstrate the superior utility of CNPs for intracellular delivery of impermeant molecules and, more generally, for cell physiology studies. The CNPs do not appear to cause any lasting damage to cells. Their advantages over commonly used glass pipettes include smaller size, breakage and clogging resistance, and potential for multifunctionality such as in concurrent injection and electrical measurements.

  11. Coordination of cell proliferation and differentiation during C. elegans development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijtenberg, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of a complex multi-cellular organism from a single fertilized egg is an intriguing yet highly complex process. It requires the generation of large numbers of cells, which at the appropriate times need to obtain specialized functions and morphologies, while assembling into well-defined

  12. Market access pathways for cell therapies in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Toumi, Mondher; Jørgensen, Jesper; Kefalas, Panos

    2015-01-01

    Cell therapies can be classified into three main categories of products: advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs), ATMPs prepared on a non-routine basis (hospital exemptions), and minimally manipulated cells. Despite the benefits that cell therapies can bring to patients, they are subject to complex pathways to reach the market in France. The objective of this study was to identify and describe routes to market access for cell therapies in France and how these vary by regulatory status. The research was structured following five main steps: (1) identification of the French regulatory framework for cell therapies; (2) identification of the health products categorised as cell therapies in France; (3) mapping of the market access pathways per category of cell therapy; (4) validation of findings by interviewing experts; and (5) development of a roadmap summarising market access pathways for cell therapies in France. The secondary research methodology included a comprehensive literature review conducted on websites of French public health institutions, complemented by a research for peer-reviewed articles, abstracts, and grey literature. Different market access pathways are possible depending on the cell therapy category. For ATMPs, market access pathways depend on the licensing status of the therapy. Licensed ATMPs followed the same market access pathways as 'conventional' pharmaceuticals, whereas not-yet-licensed ATMPs can be funded via a specific financial allowance under the framework of a Temporary Authorisation for Use procedure or various research programmes. For new ATMPs that are associated with a separate medical device (not considered as 'combined ATMPs') or associated with a new medical procedure, additional pathways will apply for the medical device and/or medical procedure to be reimbursed in the ambulatory settings or at hospital. The most likely funding option for ATMPs prepared on a non-routine basis is outside the diagnosis-related group (DRG

  13. Coordinated transcriptional regulation of two key genes in the lignin branch pathway--CAD and CCR--is mediated through MYB- binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahantamalala, Anjanirina; Rech, Philippe; Martinez, Yves; Chaubet-Gigot, Nicole; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Pacquit, Valérie

    2010-06-28

    Cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyze the final steps in the biosynthesis of monolignols, the monomeric units of the phenolic lignin polymers which confer rigidity, imperviousness and resistance to biodegradation to cell walls. We have previously shown that the Eucalyptus gunnii CCR and CAD2 promoters direct similar expression patterns in vascular tissues suggesting that monolignol production is controlled, at least in part, by the coordinated transcriptional regulation of these two genes. Although consensus motifs for MYB transcription factors occur in most gene promoters of the whole phenylpropanoid pathway, functional evidence for their contribution to promoter activity has only been demonstrated for a few of them. Here, in the lignin-specific branch, we studied the functional role of MYB elements as well as other cis-elements identified in the regulatory regions of EgCAD2 and EgCCR promoters, in the transcriptional activity of these gene promoters. By using promoter deletion analysis and in vivo footprinting, we identified an 80 bp regulatory region in the Eucalyptus gunnii EgCAD2 promoter that contains two MYB elements, each arranged in a distinct module with newly identified cis-elements. A directed mutagenesis approach was used to introduce block mutations in all putative cis-elements of the EgCAD2 promoter and in those of the 50 bp regulatory region previously delineated in the EgCCR promoter. We showed that the conserved MYB elements in EgCAD2 and EgCCR promoters are crucial both for the formation of DNA-protein complexes in EMSA experiments and for the transcriptional activation of EgCAD2 and EgCCR promoters in vascular tissues in planta. In addition, a new regulatory cis-element that modulates the balance between two DNA-protein complexes in vitro was found to be important for EgCAD2 expression in the cambial zone. Our assignment of functional roles to the identified cis-elements clearly demonstrates the

  14. Hedgehog Pathway Inhibition Radiosensitizes Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Jing; Aziz, Khaled; Chettiar, Sivarajan T. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Aftab, Blake T. [Department of Medical Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Armour, Michael; Gajula, Rajendra; Gandhi, Nishant; Salih, Tarek; Herman, Joseph M.; Wong, John [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Rudin, Charles M. [Department of Medical Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Tran, Phuoc T. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Department of Medical Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Hales, Russell K., E-mail: rhales1@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Despite improvements in chemoradiation, local control remains a major clinical problem in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The Hedgehog pathway has been implicated in tumor recurrence by promoting survival of tumorigenic precursors and through effects on tumor-associated stroma. Whether Hedgehog inhibition can affect radiation efficacy in vivo has not been reported. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the effects of a targeted Hedgehog inhibitor (HhAntag) and radiation on clonogenic survival of human non-small cell lung cancer lines in vitro. Using an A549 cell line xenograft model, we examined tumor growth, proliferation, apoptosis, and gene expression changes after concomitant HhAntag and radiation. In a transgenic mouse model of Kras{sup G12D}-induced and Twist1-induced lung adenocarcinoma, we assessed tumor response to radiation and HhAntag by serial micro-computed tomography (CT) scanning. Results: In 4 human lung cancer lines in vitro, HhAntag showed little or no effect on radiosensitivity. By contrast, in both the human tumor xenograft and murine inducible transgenic models, HhAntag enhanced radiation efficacy and delayed tumor growth. By use of the human xenograft model to differentiate tumor and stromal effects, mouse stromal cells, but not human tumor cells, showed significant and consistent downregulation of Hedgehog pathway gene expression. This was associated with increased tumor cell apoptosis. Conclusions: Targeted Hedgehog pathway inhibition can increase in vivo radiation efficacy in lung cancer preclinical models. This effect is associated with pathway suppression in tumor-associated stroma. These data support clinical testing of Hedgehog inhibitors as a component of multimodality therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

  15. Oral keratinocyte stem/progenitor cells: specific markers, molecular signaling pathways and potential uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calenic, Bogdan; Greabu, Maria; Caruntu, Constantin; Tanase, Cristiana; Battino, Maurizio

    2015-10-01

    Oral keratinocyte stem cells reside in the basal layers of the oral epithelium, representing a minor population of cells with a great potential to self-renew and proliferate over the course of their lifetime. As a result of the potential uses of oral keratinocyte stem cells in regenerative medicine and the key roles they play in tissue homeostasis, inflammatory conditions, wound healing and tumor initiation and progression, intense scientific efforts are currently being undertaken to identify, separate and reprogram these cells. Although currently there is no specific marker that can characterize and isolate oral keratinocyte stem cells, several suggestions have been made. Thus, different stem/progenitor-cell subpopulations have been categorized based on combinations of positive and/or negative membrane-surface markers, which include integrins, clusters of differentiation and cytokeratins. Important advances have also been made in understanding the molecular pathways that govern processes such as self-renewal, differentiation, proliferation, wound healing and programmed cell death. A thorough understanding of stem-cell biology and the molecular players that govern cellular fate is paramount in the quest for using stem-cell-derived therapies in the treatment of various oral pathologies. The current review focuses on recent advances in understanding the molecular signaling pathways coordinating the behavior of these cells and in identifying suitable markers used for their isolation and characterization. Special emphasis will also be placed on the roles played by oral keratinocyte stem and progenitor cells in normal and diseased oral tissues and on their potential uses in the fields of general medicine and dentistry. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Endolysosomal pathway activity protects cells from neurotoxic TDP-43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Leibiger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The accumulation of protein aggregates in neurons is a typical pathological hallmark of the motor neuron disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and of frontotemporal dementia (FTD. In many cases, these aggregates are composed of the 43 kDa TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP‑43. Using a yeast model for TDP‑43 proteinopathies, we observed that the vacuole (the yeast equivalent of lysosomes markedly contributed to the degradation of TDP‑43. This clearance occurred via TDP‑43-containing vesicles fusing with the vacuole through the concerted action of the endosomal-vacuolar (or endolysosomal pathway and autophagy. In line with its dominant role in the clearance of TDP‑43, endosomal-vacuolar pathway activity protected cells from the detrimental effects of TDP‑43. In contrast, enhanced autophagy contributed to TDP‑43 cytotoxicity, despite being involved in TDP‑43 degradation. TDP‑43’s interference with endosomal-vacuolar pathway activity may have two deleterious consequences. First, it interferes with its own degradation via this pathway, resulting in TDP‑43 accumulation. Second, it affects vacuolar proteolytic activity, which requires endosomal-vacuolar trafficking. We speculate that the latter contributes to aberrant autophagy. In sum, we propose that ameliorating endolysosomal pathway activity enhances cell survival in TDP‑43-associated diseases.

  17. Leading coordinate analysis of reaction pathways in proton chain transfer: Application to a two-proton transfer model for the green fluorescent protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Sufan; Smith, Sean C.

    2006-01-01

    The 'leading coordinate' approach to computing an approximate reaction pathway, with subsequent determination of the true minimum energy profile, is applied to a two-proton chain transfer model based on the chromophore and its surrounding moieties within the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Using an ab initio quantum chemical method, a number of different relaxed energy profiles are found for several plausible guesses at leading coordinates. The results obtained for different trial leading coordinates are rationalized through the calculation of a two-dimensional relaxed potential energy surface (PES) for the system. Analysis of the 2-D relaxed PES reveals that two of the trial pathways are entirely spurious, while two others contain useful information and can be used to furnish starting points for successful saddle-point searches. Implications for selection of trial leading coordinates in this class of proton chain transfer reactions are discussed, and a simple diagnostic function is proposed for revealing whether or not a relaxed pathway based on a trial leading coordinate is likely to furnish useful information

  18. Tuning of Nafion® by HKUST-1 as coordination network to enhance proton conductivity for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Talukdar, Krishan; Choi, Sang-June

    2016-02-01

    Metal-organic frameworks can be intentionally coordinated to achieve improved proton conductivity because they have highly ordered structures and modular nature that serve as a scaffold to anchor acidic groups and develop efficient proton transfer pathways for fuel cell application. Using the concept of a coordination network, the conductivity of Nafion® was tuned by the incorporation of HKUST-1. It has CuII-paddle wheel type nodes and 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate struts, feature accessible sites that provides an improved protonic channel depending on the water content. In spite of the fact that HKUST-1 is neutral, coordinated water molecules are contributed adequately acidic by CuII to supply protons to enhance proton conductivity. Water molecules play a vital part in transfer of proton as conducting media and serve as triggers to change proton conductivity through reforming hydrogen bonding networks by water adsorption/desorption process. Increased ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity with lower water uptake of the H3PO4-doped material, and improved thermal stability (as confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis) were achieved. The structure of HKUST-1 was confirmed via field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, while the porosity and adsorption desorption capacity were characterized by porosity analysis.

  19. BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial cell death pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitemeier, Sandra; Jelinek, Anja; Laino, Vincenzo; Hoffmann, Lena; Eisenbach, Ina; Eying, Roman; Ganjam, Goutham K; Dolga, Amalia M; Oppermann, Sina; Culmsee, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    Ferroptosis has been defined as an oxidative and iron-dependent pathway of regulated cell death that is distinct from caspase-dependent apoptosis and established pathways of death receptor-mediated regulated necrosis. While emerging evidence linked features of ferroptosis induced e.g. by erastin-mediated inhibition of the X c - system or inhibition of glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) to an increasing number of oxidative cell death paradigms in cancer cells, neurons or kidney cells, the biochemical pathways of oxidative cell death remained largely unclear. In particular, the role of mitochondrial damage in paradigms of ferroptosis needs further investigation. In the present study, we find that erastin-induced ferroptosis in neuronal cells was accompanied by BID transactivation to mitochondria, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, enhanced mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced ATP levels. These hallmarks of mitochondrial demise are also established features of oxytosis, a paradigm of cell death induced by X c - inhibition by millimolar concentrations of glutamate. Bid knockout using CRISPR/Cas9 approaches preserved mitochondrial integrity and function, and mediated neuroprotective effects against both, ferroptosis and oxytosis. Furthermore, the BID-inhibitor BI-6c9 inhibited erastin-induced ferroptosis, and, in turn, the ferroptosis inhibitors ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin-1 prevented mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in the paradigm of oxytosis. These findings show that mitochondrial transactivation of BID links ferroptosis to mitochondrial damage as the final execution step in this paradigm of oxidative cell death. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mitochondrial apoptotic pathways induced by Drosophila programmed cell death regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claveria, Cristina; Torres, Miguel

    2003-01-01

    Multicellular organisms eliminate unwanted or damaged cells by cell death, a process essential to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Cell death is a tightly regulated event, whose alteration by excess or defect is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases such as cancer, autoimmune syndromes, and neurodegenerative processes. Studies in model organisms, especially in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, have been crucial in identifying the key molecules implicated in the regulation and execution of programmed cell death. In contrast, the study of cell death in Drosophila melanogaster, often an excellent model organism, has identified regulators and mechanisms not obviously conserved in other metazoans. Recent molecular and cellular analyses suggest, however, that the mechanisms of action of the main programmed cell death regulators in Drosophila include a canonical mitochondrial pathway

  1. NK cell activation: distinct stimulatory pathways counterbalancing inhibitory signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, A B; Wu, J; Phillips, J H; Lanier, L L

    2000-01-01

    A delicate balance between positive and negative signals regulates NK cell effector function. Activation of NK cells may be initiated by the triggering of multiple adhesion or costimulatory molecules, and can be counterbalanced by inhibitory signals induced by receptors for MHC class I. A common pathway of inhibitory signaling is provided by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) in the cytoplasmic domains of these receptors which mediate the recruitment of SH2 domain-bearing tyrosine phosphate-1 (SHP-1). In contrast to the extensive progress that has been made regarding the negative regulation of NK cell function, our knowledge of the signals that activate NK cells is still poor. Recent studies of the activating receptor complexes have shed new light on the induction of NK cell effector function. Several NK receptors using novel adaptors with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) and with PI 3-kinase recruiting motifs have been implicated in NK cell stimulation.

  2. Interference Aware Inter-Cell Rank Coordination for 5G Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Nurul Huda; Pedersen, Klaus I.; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard

    2017-01-01

    at balancing the trade-off between increasing the spatial multiplexing gain through independent streams, or improving the interference resilience property. An interference aware inter-cell rank coordination framework for the future fifth generation wireless system is proposed in this article. The proposal...... resilience trade-off. Centralized and distributed implementations of the proposed inter-cell rank coordination framework are presented, followed by exhaustive Monte Carlo simulation results demonstrating its performance. The obtained results indicate that the performance of the proposed method is up to 56...

  3. Signal transduction pathways involved in mechanotransduction in bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedert, Astrid; Kaspar, Daniela; Blakytny, Robert; Claes, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita

    2006-01-01

    Several in vivo and in vitro studies with different loading regimens showed that mechanical stimuli have an influence on proliferation and differentiation of bone cells. Prerequisite for this influence is the transduction of mechanical signals into the cell, a phenomenon that is termed mechanotransduction, which is essential for the maintenance of skeletal homeostasis in adults. Mechanoreceptors, such as the integrins, cadherins, and stretch-activated Ca 2+ channels, together with various signal transduction pathways, are involved in the mechanotransduction process that ultimately regulates gene expression in the nucleus. Mechanotransduction itself is considered to be regulated by hormones, the extracellular matrix of the osteoblastic cells and the mode of the mechanical stimulus

  4. The intersection between DNA damage response and cell death pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowsheen, S; Yang, E S

    2012-10-01

    Apoptosis is a finely regulated process that serves to determine the fate of cells in response to various stresses. One such stress is DNA damage, which not only can signal repair processes but is also intimately involved in regulating cell fate. In this review we examine the relationship between the DNA damage/repair response in cell survival and apoptosis following insults to the DNA. Elucidating these pathways and the crosstalk between them is of great importance, as they eventually contribute to the etiology of human disease such as cancer and may play key roles in determining therapeutic response. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Apoptosis: Four Decades Later".

  5. Innexin gap junctions in nerve cells coordinate spontaneous contractile behavior in Hydra polyps

    KAUST Repository

    Takaku, Yasuharu

    2014-01-07

    Nerve cells and spontaneous coordinated behavior first appeared near the base of animal evolution in the common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Experiments on the cnidarian Hydra have demonstrated that nerve cells are essential for this behavior, although nerve cells in Hydra are organized in a diffuse network and do not form ganglia. Here we show that the gap junction protein innexin-2 is expressed in a small group of nerve cells in the lower body column of Hydra and that an anti-innexin-2 antibody binds to gap junctions in the same region. Treatment of live animals with innexin-2 antibody eliminates gap junction staining and reduces spontaneous body column contractions. We conclude that a small subset of nerve cells, connected by gap junctions and capable of synchronous firing, act as a pacemaker to coordinate the contraction of the body column in the absence of ganglia.

  6. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Jean Y.; So, P.-L.; Epstein, Ervin H.

    2007-01-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overview of what is known about the mechanisms by which activation of Hedgehog signaling leads to the development of BCCs and will review two recent papers suggesting that agents that modulate sterol levels might influence the Hh pathway. Thus, sterols may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of BCCs, and readily available agents such as statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) or vitamin D might be helpful in reducing BCC incidence

  7. The cell wall and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses are coordinately regulated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Krysan, Damian J

    2009-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an intracellular signaling pathway that regulates the cellular response to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in eukaryotes. Our group has demonstrated that cell wall stress activates UPR in yeast through signals transmitted by the cell wall integrity (CWI) mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade. The UPR is required to maintain cell wall integrity; mutants lacking a functional UPR have defects in cell wall biosynthesis and are hypersensitive ...

  8. Inflammation activates the interferon signaling pathways in taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2007-10-03

    Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-gamma receptor IFNGR1, are coexpressed with the taste cell-type markers neuronal cell adhesion molecule and alpha-gustducin, suggesting that both the taste receptor cells and synapse-forming cells in the taste bud can be stimulated by IFN. Incubation of taste bud-containing lingual epithelia with recombinant IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma triggered the IFN-mediated signaling cascades, resulting in the phosphorylation of the downstream STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 1) transcription factor. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid into mice, mimicking bacterial and viral infections, respectively, altered gene expression patterns in taste bud cells. Furthermore, the systemic administration of either IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma significantly increased the number of taste bud cells undergoing programmed cell death. These findings suggest that bacterial and viral infection-induced IFNs can act directly on taste bud cells, affecting their cellular function in taste transduction, and that IFN-induced apoptosis in taste buds may cause abnormal cell turnover and skew the representation of different taste bud cell types, leading to the development of taste disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first study providing direct evidence that inflammation can affect taste buds through cytokine signaling pathways.

  9. SITS-sensitive Cl- conductance pathway in chick intestinal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montrose, M.; Randles, J.; Kimmich, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    The unidirectional influx of 36 Cl - into isolated chick epithelial cells is 30% inhibited by 300 μM SITS. Characteristics of the SITS-sensitive flux pathway were examined in terms of sensitivity to changes in membrane potential and intracellular pH. Potential dependence was evaluated using unidirectional influx of [ 14 C]tetraphenylphosphonium ([ 14 C]-TPP + ) as a qualitative sensor of diffusion potentials created by experimentally imposed gradients of CL - . Steady-state distribution of [ 14 C]methylamine ([ 14 C]MA) was used to examine for Cl - -dependent changes in intracellular pH. Imposed Na + gradients, but not Cl - gradients, induce changes in [ 14 C]MA distribution. SITS does not alter the [ 14 C]MA distribution observed in cells with imposed gradients of Na + and Cl - . Both results suggest that inhibition of Cl - influx. However, if relative permeabilities for ion pairs via conductance pathways are compared, it can be shown that SITS causes a marked reduction of P Cl relative to either P Na or P K . SITS also inhibits electrically induced influx of [ 14 C]TPP + or [ 14 C]α-methylglucoside driven by imposed Cl - influx can be blocked by SITS. These observations are all consistent with a SITS-sensitive Cl - conductance pathway associated with the plasma membrane of chick intestinal cells. No Cl - -OH - exchange capability can be detected for chick intestinal cells

  10. Ties that bind: the integration of plastid signalling pathways in plant cell metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkard, Jacob O; Burch-Smith, Tessa M

    2018-04-13

    Plastids are critical organelles in plant cells that perform diverse functions and are central to many metabolic pathways. Beyond their major roles in primary metabolism, of which their role in photosynthesis is perhaps best known, plastids contribute to the biosynthesis of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites, store critical biomolecules, and sense a range of environmental stresses. Accordingly, plastid-derived signals coordinate a host of physiological and developmental processes, often by emitting signalling molecules that regulate the expression of nuclear genes. Several excellent recent reviews have provided broad perspectives on plastid signalling pathways. In this review, we will highlight recent advances in our understanding of chloroplast signalling pathways. Our discussion focuses on new discoveries illuminating how chloroplasts determine life and death decisions in cells and on studies elucidating tetrapyrrole biosynthesis signal transduction networks. We will also examine the role of a plastid RNA helicase, ISE2, in chloroplast signalling, and scrutinize intriguing results investigating the potential role of stromules in conducting signals from the chloroplast to other cellular locations. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor and Vitamin D Receptor Signaling Pathways in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Kitagishi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are members of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors, which respond to specific ligands such as polyunsaturated fatty acids by altering gene expression. Three subtypes of this receptor have been discovered, each evolving to achieve different biological functions. Like other nuclear receptors, the transcriptional activity of PPARs is affected not only by ligand-stimulation, but also by cross-talk with other molecules. For example, both PPARs and the RXRs are ligand-activated transcription factors that coordinately regulate gene expression. In addition, PPARs and vitamin D receptor (VDR signaling pathways regulate a multitude of genes that are of importance for cellular functions including cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Interaction of the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways has been shown at the level of molecular cross-regulation of their transcription factor. A variety of ligands influencing the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways have been shown to reveal chemopreventive potential by mediating tumor suppressive activities in human cancers. Use of these compounds may represent a potential novel strategy to prevent cancers. This review summarizes the roles of the PPARs and the VDR in pathogenesis and progression of cancer.

  12. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor and Vitamin D Receptor Signaling Pathways in Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Satoru, E-mail: smatsuda@cc.nara-wu.ac.jp; Kitagishi, Yasuko [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Nara Women’s University, Kita-Uoya Nishimachi, Nara 630-8506 (Japan)

    2013-10-21

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors, which respond to specific ligands such as polyunsaturated fatty acids by altering gene expression. Three subtypes of this receptor have been discovered, each evolving to achieve different biological functions. Like other nuclear receptors, the transcriptional activity of PPARs is affected not only by ligand-stimulation, but also by cross-talk with other molecules. For example, both PPARs and the RXRs are ligand-activated transcription factors that coordinately regulate gene expression. In addition, PPARs and vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling pathways regulate a multitude of genes that are of importance for cellular functions including cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Interaction of the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways has been shown at the level of molecular cross-regulation of their transcription factor. A variety of ligands influencing the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways have been shown to reveal chemopreventive potential by mediating tumor suppressive activities in human cancers. Use of these compounds may represent a potential novel strategy to prevent cancers. This review summarizes the roles of the PPARs and the VDR in pathogenesis and progression of cancer.

  13. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor and Vitamin D Receptor Signaling Pathways in Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Satoru; Kitagishi, Yasuko

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors, which respond to specific ligands such as polyunsaturated fatty acids by altering gene expression. Three subtypes of this receptor have been discovered, each evolving to achieve different biological functions. Like other nuclear receptors, the transcriptional activity of PPARs is affected not only by ligand-stimulation, but also by cross-talk with other molecules. For example, both PPARs and the RXRs are ligand-activated transcription factors that coordinately regulate gene expression. In addition, PPARs and vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling pathways regulate a multitude of genes that are of importance for cellular functions including cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Interaction of the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways has been shown at the level of molecular cross-regulation of their transcription factor. A variety of ligands influencing the PPARs and VDR signaling pathways have been shown to reveal chemopreventive potential by mediating tumor suppressive activities in human cancers. Use of these compounds may represent a potential novel strategy to prevent cancers. This review summarizes the roles of the PPARs and the VDR in pathogenesis and progression of cancer

  14. Inflammation Activates the Interferon Signaling Pathways in Taste Bud Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2007-01-01

    Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-γ rece...

  15. Repression of germline RNAi pathways in somatic cells by retinoblastoma pathway chromatin complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Wu

    Full Text Available The retinoblastoma (Rb tumor suppressor acts with a number of chromatin cofactors in a wide range of species to suppress cell proliferation. The Caenorhabditis elegans retinoblastoma gene and many of these cofactors, called synMuv B genes, were identified in genetic screens for cell lineage defects caused by growth factor misexpression. Mutations in many synMuv B genes, including lin-35/Rb, also cause somatic misexpression of the germline RNA processing P granules and enhanced RNAi. We show here that multiple small RNA components, including a set of germline-specific Argonaute genes, are misexpressed in the soma of many synMuv B mutant animals, revealing one node for enhanced RNAi. Distinct classes of synMuv B mutants differ in the subcellular architecture of their misexpressed P granules, their profile of misexpressed small RNA and P granule genes, as well as their enhancement of RNAi and the related silencing of transgenes. These differences define three classes of synMuv B genes, representing three chromatin complexes: a LIN-35/Rb-containing DRM core complex, a SUMO-recruited Mec complex, and a synMuv B heterochromatin complex, suggesting that intersecting chromatin pathways regulate the repression of small RNA and P granule genes in the soma and the potency of RNAi. Consistent with this, the DRM complex and the synMuv B heterochromatin complex were genetically additive and displayed distinct antagonistic interactions with the MES-4 histone methyltransferase and the MRG-1 chromodomain protein, two germline chromatin regulators required for the synMuv phenotype and the somatic misexpression of P granule components. Thus intersecting synMuv B chromatin pathways conspire with synMuv B suppressor chromatin factors to regulate the expression of small RNA pathway genes, which enables heightened RNAi response. Regulation of small RNA pathway genes by human retinoblastoma may also underlie its role as a tumor suppressor gene.

  16. Pathways and Subcellular Compartmentation of NAD Biosynthesis in Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Andrey; Dölle, Christian; Niere, Marc; Ziegler, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    NAD is a vital redox carrier, and its degradation is a key element of important regulatory pathways. NAD-mediated functions are compartmentalized and have to be fueled by specific biosynthetic routes. However, little is known about the different pathways, their subcellular distribution, and regulation in human cells. In particular, the route(s) to generate mitochondrial NAD, the largest subcellular pool, is still unknown. To visualize organellar NAD changes in cells, we targeted poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity into the mitochondrial matrix. This activity synthesized immunodetectable poly(ADP-ribose) depending on mitochondrial NAD availability. Based on this novel detector system, detailed subcellular enzyme localizations, and pharmacological inhibitors, we identified extracellular NAD precursors, their cytosolic conversions, and the pathway of mitochondrial NAD generation. Our results demonstrate that, besides nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, only the corresponding nucleosides readily enter the cells. Nucleotides (e.g. NAD and NMN) undergo extracellular degradation resulting in the formation of permeable precursors. These precursors can all be converted to cytosolic and mitochondrial NAD. For mitochondrial NAD synthesis, precursors are converted to NMN in the cytosol. When taken up into the organelles, NMN (together with ATP) serves as substrate of NMNAT3 to form NAD. NMNAT3 was conclusively localized to the mitochondrial matrix and is the only known enzyme of NAD synthesis residing within these organelles. We thus present a comprehensive dissection of mammalian NAD biosynthesis, the groundwork to understand regulation of NAD-mediated processes, and the organismal homeostasis of this fundamental molecule. PMID:21504897

  17. Pathway Analysis of miR-181a in Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    syakima

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... Key words: MicroRNA, head and neck cancer, miR-181a, pathway analysis, luciferase assay, FaDu cell line, transfection ..... prostate carcinoma and glioblastoma cells. Nucleic Acids .... WNT pathway in oral cancer: epigenetic.

  18. The Knockout of Secretin in Cerebellar Purkinje Cells Impairs Mouse Motor Coordination and Motor Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Chung, Sookja Kim; Chow, Billy Kwok Chong

    2014-01-01

    Secretin (SCT) was first considered to be a gut hormone regulating gastrointestinal functions when discovered. Recently, however, central actions of SCT have drawn intense research interest and are supported by the broad distribution of SCT in specific neuronal populations and by in vivo physiological studies regarding its role in water homeostasis and food intake. The direct action of SCT on a central neuron was first discovered in cerebellar Purkinje cells in which SCT from cerebellar Purkinje cells was found to potentiate GABAergic inhibitory transmission from presynaptic basket cells. Because Purkinje neurons have a major role in motor coordination and learning functions, we hypothesize a behavioral modulatory function for SCT. In this study, we successfully generated a mouse model in which the SCT gene was deleted specifically in Purkinje cells. This mouse line was tested together with SCT knockout and SCT receptor knockout mice in a full battery of behavioral tasks. We found that the knockout of SCT in Purkinje neurons did not affect general motor ability or the anxiety level in open field tests. However, knockout mice did exhibit impairments in neuromuscular strength, motor coordination, and motor learning abilities, as shown by wire hanging, vertical climbing, and rotarod tests. In addition, SCT knockout in Purkinje cells possibly led to the delayed development of motor neurons, as supported by the later occurrence of key neural reflexes. In summary, our data suggest a role in motor coordination and motor learning for SCT expressed in cerebellar Purkinje cells. PMID:24356714

  19. Tuning of Nafion® by HKUST-1 as coordination network to enhance proton conductivity for fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Talukdar, Krishan; Choi, Sang-June

    2016-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks can be intentionally coordinated to achieve improved proton conductivity because they have highly ordered structures and modular nature that serve as a scaffold to anchor acidic groups and develop efficient proton transfer pathways for fuel cell application. Using the concept of a coordination network, the conductivity of Nafion ® was tuned by the incorporation of HKUST-1. It has Cu II –paddle wheel type nodes and 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate struts, feature accessible sites that provides an improved protonic channel depending on the water content. In spite of the fact that HKUST-1 is neutral, coordinated water molecules are contributed adequately acidic by Cu II to supply protons to enhance proton conductivity. Water molecules play a vital part in transfer of proton as conducting media and serve as triggers to change proton conductivity through reforming hydrogen bonding networks by water adsorption/desorption process. Increased ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity with lower water uptake of the H 3 PO 4 -doped material, and improved thermal stability (as confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis) were achieved. The structure of HKUST-1 was confirmed via field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, while the porosity and adsorption desorption capacity were characterized by porosity analysis. Graphical abstract: The H 3 PO 4 -doped HKUST-1/Nafion® composite membrane is demonstrated to be a promising material based on its proton conductivity. HKUST-1 has an average particle diameter of around 15–20 µm. The proton conductivity, IEC values, and the thermal stability of the 2.5 wt% HKUST-1/Nafion® composite membrane suggest that HKUST-1 may be a promising candidate as a proton-conductive material in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane due to its reasonable proton passageway, favorable surface area, lower water uptake with the higher IEC, and proton conductivity of the H 3 PO 4 -doped material and

  20. Regulation of Cell Wall Biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: The Cell Wall Integrity Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The yeast cell wall is a strong, but elastic, structure that is essential not only for the maintenance of cell shape and integrity, but also for progression through the cell cycle. During growth and morphogenesis, and in response to environmental challenges, the cell wall is remodeled in a highly regulated and polarized manner, a process that is principally under the control of the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway. This pathway transmits wall stress signals from the cell surface to the Rho1 GTPase, which mobilizes a physiologic response through a variety of effectors. Activation of CWI signaling regulates the production of various carbohydrate polymers of the cell wall, as well as their polarized delivery to the site of cell wall remodeling. This review article centers on CWI signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the cell cycle and in response to cell wall stress. The interface of this signaling pathway with other pathways that contribute to the maintenance of cell wall integrity is also discussed. PMID:22174182

  1. Impact of MAPK Pathway Activation in BRAFV600 Melanoma on T Cell and Dendritic Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A. Ott

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Constitutive upregulation of the MAPK pathway by a BRAFV600 mutation occurs in about half of melanomas. This leads to increased oncogenic properties such as tumor cell invasion, metastatic potential, and resistance to apoptosis. Blockade of the MAPK pathway with highly specific kinase inhibitors induces unprecedented tumor response rates in patients with advanced BRAFV600 mutant melanoma. Immune checkpoint blockade with monoclonal antibodies targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and programed death-1/PD-L1 has also demonstrated striking anti-tumor activity in patients with advanced melanoma. Tumor responses are likely limited by multiple additional layers of immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment. There is emerging preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting that MAPK inhibition has a beneficial effect on the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, providing a strong rationale for combined immunotherapy and MAPK pathway inhibition in melanoma. The T cell response has been the main focus in the studies reported to date. Since dendritic cells (DCs are important in the induction of tumor-specific T cell responses, the impact of MAPK pathway activation in melanoma on DC function is critical for the melanoma directed immune response. BRAFV600E melanoma cells modulate DCs through the MAPK pathway because its blockade in melanoma cells can reverse suppression of DC function. As both MEK/BRAF inhibition and immune checkpoint blockade have recently taken center stage in the treatment of melanoma, a deeper understanding of how MAPK pathway inhibition affects the tumor immune response is needed.

  2. ERLIN2 promotes breast cancer cell survival by modulating endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guohui; Yang, Zeng-Quan; Liu, Gang; Wang, Xiaogang; Sethi, Seema; Ali-Fehmi, Rouba; Abrams, Judith; Zheng, Ze; Zhang, Kezhong; Ethier, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Amplification of the 8p11-12 region has been found in approximately 15% of human breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. Previous genomic analysis has led us to identify the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lipid raft-associated 2 (ERLIN2) gene as one of the candidate oncogenes within the 8p11-12 amplicon in human breast cancer, particularly in the luminal subtype. ERLIN2, an ER membrane protein, has recently been identified as a novel mediator of ER-associated degradation. Yet, the biological roles of ERLIN2 and molecular mechanisms by which ERLIN2 coordinates ER pathways in breast carcinogenesis remain unclear. We established the MCF10A-ERLIN2 cell line, which stably over expresses ERLIN2 in human nontransformed mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) using the pLenti6/V5-ERLIN2 construct. ERLIN2 over expressing cells and their respective parental cell lines were assayed for in vitro transforming phenotypes. Next, we knocked down the ERLIN2 as well as the ER stress sensor IRE1α activity in the breast cancer cell lines to characterize the biological roles and molecular basis of the ERLIN2 in carcinogenesis. Finally, immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect ERLIN2 expression in normal and cancerous human breast tissues We found that amplification of the ERLIN2 gene and over expression of the ERLIN2 protein occurs in both luminal and Her2 subtypes of breast cancer. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches demonstrated that ERLIN2 is a novel oncogenic factor associated with the ER stress response pathway. The IRE1α/XBP1 axis in the ER stress pathway modulated expression of ERLIN2 protein levels in breast cancer cells. We also showed that over expression of ERLIN2 facilitated the adaptation of breast epithelial cells to ER stress by supporting cell growth and protecting the cells from ER stress-induced cell death. ERLIN2 may confer a selective growth advantage for breast cancer cells by facilitating a cytoprotective response to various cellular stresses

  3. ERLIN2 promotes breast cancer cell survival by modulating endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guohui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amplification of the 8p11-12 region has been found in approximately 15% of human breast cancer and is associated with poor prognosis. Previous genomic analysis has led us to identify the endoplasmic reticulum (ER lipid raft-associated 2 (ERLIN2 gene as one of the candidate oncogenes within the 8p11-12 amplicon in human breast cancer, particularly in the luminal subtype. ERLIN2, an ER membrane protein, has recently been identified as a novel mediator of ER-associated degradation. Yet, the biological roles of ERLIN2 and molecular mechanisms by which ERLIN2 coordinates ER pathways in breast carcinogenesis remain unclear. Methods We established the MCF10A-ERLIN2 cell line, which stably over expresses ERLIN2 in human nontransformed mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A using the pLenti6/V5-ERLIN2 construct. ERLIN2 over expressing cells and their respective parental cell lines were assayed for in vitro transforming phenotypes. Next, we knocked down the ERLIN2 as well as the ER stress sensor IRE1α activity in the breast cancer cell lines to characterize the biological roles and molecular basis of the ERLIN2 in carcinogenesis. Finally, immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect ERLIN2 expression in normal and cancerous human breast tissues Results We found that amplification of the ERLIN2 gene and over expression of the ERLIN2 protein occurs in both luminal and Her2 subtypes of breast cancer. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches demonstrated that ERLIN2 is a novel oncogenic factor associated with the ER stress response pathway. The IRE1α/XBP1 axis in the ER stress pathway modulated expression of ERLIN2 protein levels in breast cancer cells. We also showed that over expression of ERLIN2 facilitated the adaptation of breast epithelial cells to ER stress by supporting cell growth and protecting the cells from ER stress-induced cell death. Conclusions ERLIN2 may confer a selective growth advantage for breast cancer cells by

  4. The planar cell polarity protein VANGL2 coordinates remodeling of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B Blairanne; Mundell, Nathan; Dunlap, Julie; Jessen, Jason

    2012-07-01

    Understanding how planar cell polarity (PCP) is established, maintained, and coordinated in migrating cell populations is an important area of research with implications for both embryonic morphogenesis and tumor cell invasion. We recently reported that the PCP protein Vang-like 2 (VANGL2) regulates the endocytosis and cell surface level of membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MMP14 or MT1-MMP). Here, we further discuss these findings in terms of extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, cell migration, and zebrafish gastrulation. We also demonstrate that VANGL2 function impacts the focal degradation of ECM by human cancer cells including the formation or stability of invadopodia. Together, our findings implicate MMP14 as a downstream effector of VANGL2 signaling and suggest a model whereby the regulation of pericellular proteolysis is a fundamental aspect of PCP in migrating cells.

  5. Cdk1 activity acts as a quantitative platform for coordinating cell cycle progression with periodic transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banyai, Gabor; Baïdi, Feriel; Coudreuse, Damien; Szilagyi, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Cell proliferation is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) and requires the periodic expression of particular gene clusters in different cell cycle phases. However, the interplay between the networks that generate these transcriptional oscillations and the core cell cycle machinery remains largely unexplored. In this work, we use a synthetic regulable Cdk1 module to demonstrate that periodic expression is governed by quantitative changes in Cdk1 activity, with different clusters directly responding to specific activity levels. We further establish that cell cycle events neither participate in nor interfere with the Cdk1-driven transcriptional program, provided that cells are exposed to the appropriate Cdk1 activities. These findings contrast with current models that propose self-sustained and Cdk1-independent transcriptional oscillations. Our work therefore supports a model in which Cdk1 activity serves as a quantitative platform for coordinating cell cycle transitions with the expression of critical genes to bring about proper cell cycle progression. PMID:27045731

  6. Aberrant signaling pathways in medulloblastomas: a stem cell connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Oliveira Rodini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant primary tumor of the central nervous system. It represents the most frequent type of solid tumor and the leading cause of death related to cancer in early childhood. Current treatment includes surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy which may lead to severe cognitive impairment and secondary brain tumors. New perspectives for therapeutic development have emerged with the identification of stem-like cells displaying high tumorigenic potential and increased radio- and chemo-resistance in gliomas. Under the cancer stem cell hypothesis, transformation of neural stem cells and/or granular neuron progenitors of the cerebellum are though to be involved in medulloblastoma development. Dissecting the genetic and molecular alterations associated with this process should significantly impact both basic and applied cancer research. Based on cumulative evidences in the fields of genetics and molecular biology of medulloblastomas, we discuss the possible involvement of developmental signaling pathways as critical biochemical switches determining normal neurogenesis or tumorigenesis. From the clinical viewpoint, modulation of signaling pathways such as TGFβ, regulating neural stem cell proliferation and tumor development, might be attempted as an alternative strategy for future drug development aiming at more efficient therapies and improved clinical outcome of patients with pediatric brain cancers.

  7. Glioblastoma: Molecular Pathways, Stem Cells and Therapeutic Targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhanwar-Uniyal, Meena; Labagnara, Michael; Friedman, Marissa; Kwasnicki, Amanda; Murali, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM), a WHO-defined Grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common and aggressive CNS malignancy. Despite current treatment modalities, the survival time remains dismal. The main cause of mortality in patients with this disease is reoccurrence of the malignancy, which is attributed to treatment-resistant cancer stem cells within and surrounding the primary tumor. Inclusion of novel therapies, such as immuno- and DNA-based therapy, may provide better means of treating GBM. Furthermore, manipulation of recently discovered non-coding microRNAs, some of which regulate tumor growth through the development and maintenance of GBM stem cells, could provide new prospective therapies. Studies conducted by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) also demonstrate the role of molecular pathways, specifically the activated PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, in GBM tumorigenesis. Inhibition of the aforementioned pathway may provide a more direct and targeted method to GBM treatment. The combination of these treatment modalities may provide an innovative therapeutic approach for the management of GBM

  8. Glioblastoma: Molecular Pathways, Stem Cells and Therapeutic Targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhanwar-Uniyal, Meena, E-mail: meena_jhanwar@nymc.edu; Labagnara, Michael; Friedman, Marissa; Kwasnicki, Amanda; Murali, Raj [Department of Neurosurgery, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States)

    2015-03-25

    Glioblastoma (GBM), a WHO-defined Grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common and aggressive CNS malignancy. Despite current treatment modalities, the survival time remains dismal. The main cause of mortality in patients with this disease is reoccurrence of the malignancy, which is attributed to treatment-resistant cancer stem cells within and surrounding the primary tumor. Inclusion of novel therapies, such as immuno- and DNA-based therapy, may provide better means of treating GBM. Furthermore, manipulation of recently discovered non-coding microRNAs, some of which regulate tumor growth through the development and maintenance of GBM stem cells, could provide new prospective therapies. Studies conducted by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) also demonstrate the role of molecular pathways, specifically the activated PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, in GBM tumorigenesis. Inhibition of the aforementioned pathway may provide a more direct and targeted method to GBM treatment. The combination of these treatment modalities may provide an innovative therapeutic approach for the management of GBM.

  9. SIRT1 regulates MAPK pathways in vitiligo skin: insight into the molecular pathways of cell survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becatti, Matteo; Fiorillo, Claudia; Barygina, Victoria; Cecchi, Cristina; Lotti, Torello; Prignano, Francesca; Silvestro, Agrippino; Nassi, Paolo; Taddei, Niccolò

    2014-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired and progressive hypomelanotic disease that manifests as circumscribed depigmented patches on the skin. The aetiology of vitiligo remains unclear, but recent experimental data underline the interactions between melanocytes and other typical skin cells, particularly keratinocytes. Our previous results indicate that keratinocytes from perilesional skin show the features of damaged cells. Sirtuins (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog) 1, well-known modulators of lifespan in many species, have a role in gene repression, metabolic control, apoptosis and cell survival, DNA repair, development, inflammation, neuroprotection and healthy ageing. In the literature there is no evidence for SIRT1 signalling in vitiligo and its possible involvement in disease progression. Here, biopsies were taken from the perilesional skin of 16 patients suffering from non-segmental vitiligo and SIRT1 signalling was investigated in these cells. For the first time, a new SIRT1/Akt, also known as Protein Kinase B (PKB)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling has been revealed in vitiligo. SIRT1 regulates MAPK pathway via Akt-apoptosis signal-regulating kinase-1 and down-regulates pro-apoptotic molecules, leading to decreased oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death in perilesional vitiligo keratinocytes. We therefore propose SIRT1 activation as a novel way of protecting perilesional vitiligo keratinocytes from damage. PMID:24410795

  10. Role of Membrane Biophysics in Alzheimer's - related cell pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghui eZhu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cellular membrane alterations are commonly observed in many diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Membrane biophysical properties, such as membrane molecular order, membrane fluidity, organization of lipid rafts, and adhesion between membrane and cytoskeleton, play an important role in various cellular activities and functions. While membrane biophysics impacts a broad range of cellular pathways, this review addresses the role of membrane biophysics in amyloid-β peptide aggregation, Aβ-induced oxidative pathways, amyloid precursor protein processing, and cerebral endothelial functions in AD. Understanding the mechanism(s underlying the effects of cell membrane properties on cellular processes should shed light on the development of new preventive and therapeutic strategies for this devastating disease.

  11. Transcription factor EB: from master coordinator of lysosomal pathways to candidate therapeutic target in degenerative storage diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardiello, Marco

    2016-05-01

    The lysosome is the main catabolic hub of the cell. Owing to its role in fundamental processes such as autophagy, plasma membrane repair, mTOR signaling, and maintenance of cellular homeostasis, the lysosome has a profound influence on cellular metabolism and human health. Indeed, inefficient or impaired lysosomal function has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of degenerative diseases affecting various organs and tissues, most notably the brain, liver, and muscle. The discovery of the coordinated lysosomal expression and regulation (CLEAR) genetic program and its master controller, transcription factor EB (TFEB), has provided an unprecedented tool to study and manipulate lysosomal function. Most lysosome-based processes-including macromolecule degradation, autophagy, lysosomal exocytosis, and proteostasis-are under the transcriptional control of TFEB. Interestingly, impaired TFEB signaling has been suggested to be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of several degenerative storage diseases. Preclinical studies based on TFEB exogenous expression to reinstate TFEB activity or promote CLEAR network-based lysosomal enhancement have highlighted TFEB as a candidate therapeutic target for the treatment of various degenerative storage diseases. © 2016 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Blockade of the ERK pathway markedly sensitizes tumor cells to HDAC inhibitor-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Kei-ichi; Minoda, Ai; Kishikawa, Futaba; Kohno, Michiaki

    2006-01-01

    Constitutive activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is associated with the neoplastic phenotype of a large number of human tumor cells. Although specific blockade of the ERK pathway by treating such tumor cells with potent mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitors completely suppresses their proliferation, it by itself shows only a modest effect on the induction of apoptotic cell death. However, these MEK inhibitors markedly enhance the efficacy of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors to induce apoptotic cell death: such an enhanced cell death is observed only in tumor cells in which the ERK pathway is constitutively activated. Co-administration of MEK inhibitor markedly sensitizes tumor cells to HDAC inhibitor-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, which appears to mediate the enhanced cell death induced by the combination of these agents. These results suggest that the combination of MEK inhibitors and HDAC inhibitors provides an efficient chemotherapeutic strategy for the treatment of tumor cells in which the ERK pathway is constitutively activated

  13. Calcium Imaging Reveals Coordinated Simple Spike Pauses in Populations of Cerebellar Purkinje Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Ramirez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The brain’s control of movement is thought to involve coordinated activity between cerebellar Purkinje cells. The results reported here demonstrate that somatic Ca2+ imaging is a faithful reporter of Na+-dependent “simple spike” pauses and enables us to optically record changes in firing rates in populations of Purkinje cells in brain slices and in vivo. This simultaneous calcium imaging of populations of Purkinje cells reveals a striking spatial organization of pauses in Purkinje cell activity between neighboring cells. The source of this organization is shown to be the presynaptic gamma-Aminobutyric acid producing (GABAergic network, and blocking ionotropic gamma-Aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAARs abolishes the synchrony. These data suggest that presynaptic interneurons synchronize (inactivity between neighboring Purkinje cells, and thereby maximize their effect on downstream targets in the deep cerebellar nuclei.

  14. Curcumin mediates anticancer effects by modulating multiple cell signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnumakkara, Ajaikumar B; Bordoloi, Devivasha; Harsha, Choudhary; Banik, Kishore; Gupta, Subash C; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2017-08-01

    Curcumin, a component of a spice native to India, was first isolated in 1815 by Vogel and Pelletier from the rhizomes of Curcuma longa (turmeric) and, subsequently, the chemical structure of curcumin as diferuloylmethane was reported by Milobedzka et al. [(1910) 43., 2163-2170]. Since then, this polyphenol has been shown to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal activities. The current review primarily focuses on the anticancer potential of curcumin through the modulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. Curcumin modulates diverse transcription factors, inflammatory cytokines, enzymes, kinases, growth factors, receptors, and various other proteins with an affinity ranging from the pM to the mM range. Furthermore, curcumin effectively regulates tumor cell growth via modulation of numerous cell signaling pathways and potentiates the effect of chemotherapeutic agents and radiation against cancer. Curcumin can interact with most of the targets that are modulated by FDA-approved drugs for cancer therapy. The focus of this review is to discuss the molecular basis for the anticancer activities of curcumin based on preclinical and clinical findings. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  15. Ellagic acid radiosensitizes tumor cells by evoking apoptotic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahire, Vidhula R.; Mishra, K.P.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer causes millions of deaths each year globally. In most patients, the cause of treatment failure is found associated with the resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The development of tumor cell resistance evokes multiple intracellular molecular pathways. In addition, the limitation in treatment outcome arises due to unintended cytotoxic effects of the synthetic anticancer drugs to normal cells and tissues. Considerable focus of research is, therefore, devoted to examine plant-based herbal compounds which may prove potential anticancer drug for developing effective cancer therapy. Research results from our laboratory have shown that ellagic acid (EA), a natural flavonoid displays enhanced tumor toxicity in combination with gamma radiation to many types of cancers in vitro as well as in vivo. Studies on the underlying mechanisms of toxicity suggest that EA employs the cellular signaling pathways in producing the observed effects. This paper gives an account of molecular mechanisms of EA-induced apoptosis process in tumor cytotoxicity. It is suggested that EA acts as a novel radiosensitizer for tumors and a radioprotector for normal cells which may offer a novel protocol for cancer treatment. (author)

  16. Cell survival, cell death and cell cycle pathways are interconnected: Implications for cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maddika, S; Ande, SR; Panigrahi, S

    2007-01-01

    )), and the Cip1/Waf1/Kip1-2-family (p21(Cip1/Waf1), p27(Kip1), p57(Kip2)) are shown both in the context of proliferation regulators and as contributors to the apoptotic machinery. Bcl2-family members (i.e. Bcl2, Bcl-X(L) Mcl-1(L); Bax, Bok/Mtd, Bak, and Bcl-X(S); Bad, Bid, Bim(EL), Bmf, Mcl-1(S)) are highlighted...... approaches that would involve redirecting over-active survival and proliferation pathways towards induction of apoptosis in cancer cells....

  17. Mast cell chemotaxis – Chemoattractants and signaling pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana eHalova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Migration of mast cells is essential for their recruitment within target tissues where they play an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses. These processes rely on the ability of mast cells to recognize appropriate chemotactic stimuli and react to them by a chemotactic response. Another level of intercellular communication is attained by production of chemoattractants by activated mast cells, which results in accumulation of mast cells and other hematopoietic cells at the sites of inflammation. Mast cells express numerous surface receptors for various ligands with properties of potent chemoattractants. They include the stem cell factor recognized by c-Kit, antigen, which binds to immunoglobulin E (IgE anchored to the high affinity IgE receptor (FcRI, highly cytokinergic IgE recognized by FcRI, lipid mediator sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P, which binds to G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Other large groups of chemoattractants are eicosanoids [prostaglandin E2 and D2, leukotriene (LT B4, LTD4 and LTC4, and others] and chemokines (CC, CXC, C and CX3X, which also bind to various GPCRs. Further noteworthy chemoattractants are isoforms of transforming growth factor (TGF , which are sensitively recognized by TGF- serine/threonine type I and II  receptors, adenosine, C1q, C3a, and C5a components of the complement, 5-hydroxytryptamine, neuroendocrine peptide catestatin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor- and others. Here we discuss the major types of chemoattractants recognized by mast cells, their target receptors, as well as signaling pathways they utilize. We also briefly deal with methods used for studies of mast cell chemotaxis and with ways of how these studies profited from the results obtained in other cellular systems.

  18. Niclosamide suppresses hepatoma cell proliferation via the Wnt pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomizawa M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Minoru Tomizawa,1 Fuminobu Shinozaki,2 Yasufumi Motoyoshi,3 Takao Sugiyama,4 Shigenori Yamamoto,5 Makoto Sueishi,4 Takanobu Yoshida6 1Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Neurology, 4Department of Rheumatology, 5Department of Pediatrics, 6Department of Internal Medicine, National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital, Yotsukaido City, Chiba, Japan Background: The Wnt pathway plays an important role in hepatocarcinogenesis. We analyzed the association of the Wnt pathway with the proliferation of hepatoma cells using Wnt3a and niclosamide, a drug used to treat tapeworm infection. Methods: We performed an MTS assay to determine whether Wnt3a stimulated proliferation of Huh-6 and Hep3B human hepatoma cell lines after 72 hours of incubation with Wnt3a in serum-free medium. The cells were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL after 48 hours of incubation. RNA was isolated 48 hours after addition of Wnt3a or niclosamide, and cyclin D1 expression levels were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The promoter activity of T-cell factor was analyzed by luciferase assay 48 hours after transfection of TOPflash. Western blot analysis was performed with antibodies against β-catenin, dishevelled 2, and cyclin D1. Results: Cell proliferation increased with Wnt3a. Niclosamide suppressed proliferation with or without Wnt3a. Hematoxylin and eosin and TUNEL staining suggested that apoptosis occurred in cells with niclosamide. Cyclin D1 was upregulated in the presence of Wnt3a and downregulated with addition of niclosamide. The promoter activity of T-cell factor increased with Wnt3a, whereas T-cell factor promoter activity decreased with niclosamide. Western blot analysis showed that Wnt3a upregulated β-catenin, dishevelled 2, and cyclin D1, while niclosamide downregulated them. Conclusion: Niclosamide is a potential

  19. Tissue stiffening coordinates morphogenesis by triggering collective cell migration in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Elias H; Franze, Kristian; Charras, Guillaume; Mayor, Roberto

    2018-02-22

    Collective cell migration is essential for morphogenesis, tissue remodelling and cancer invasion. In vivo, groups of cells move in an orchestrated way through tissues. This movement involves mechanical as well as molecular interactions between cells and their environment. While the role of molecular signals in collective cell migration is comparatively well understood, how tissue mechanics influence collective cell migration in vivo remains unknown. Here we investigated the importance of mechanical cues in the collective migration of the Xenopus laevis neural crest cells, an embryonic cell population whose migratory behaviour has been likened to cancer invasion. We found that, during morphogenesis, the head mesoderm underlying the cephalic neural crest stiffens. This stiffening initiates an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in neural crest cells and triggers their collective migration. To detect changes in their mechanical environment, neural crest cells use mechanosensation mediated by the integrin-vinculin-talin complex. By performing mechanical and molecular manipulations, we show that mesoderm stiffening is necessary and sufficient to trigger neural crest migration. Finally, we demonstrate that convergent extension of the mesoderm, which starts during gastrulation, leads to increased mesoderm stiffness by increasing the cell density underneath the neural crest. These results show that convergent extension of the mesoderm has a role as a mechanical coordinator of morphogenesis, and reveal a link between two apparently unconnected processes-gastrulation and neural crest migration-via changes in tissue mechanics. Overall, we demonstrate that changes in substrate stiffness can trigger collective cell migration by promoting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in vivo. More broadly, our results raise the idea that tissue mechanics combines with molecular effectors to coordinate morphogenesis.

  20. DESHARKY: automatic design of metabolic pathways for optimal cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Guillermo; Carrera, Javier; Prather, Kristala Jones; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2008-11-01

    The biological solution for synthesis or remediation of organic compounds using living organisms, particularly bacteria and yeast, has been promoted because of the cost reduction with respect to the non-living chemical approach. In that way, computational frameworks can profit from the previous knowledge stored in large databases of compounds, enzymes and reactions. In addition, the cell behavior can be studied by modeling the cellular context. We have implemented a Monte Carlo algorithm (DESHARKY) that finds a metabolic pathway from a target compound by exploring a database of enzymatic reactions. DESHARKY outputs a biochemical route to the host metabolism together with its impact in the cellular context by using mathematical models of the cell resources and metabolism. Furthermore, we provide the sequence of amino acids for the enzymes involved in the route closest phylogenetically to the considered organism. We provide examples of designed metabolic pathways with their genetic load characterizations. Here, we have used Escherichia coli as host organism. In addition, our bioinformatic tool can be applied for biodegradation or biosynthesis and its performance scales with the database size. Software, a tutorial and examples are freely available and open source at http://soft.synth-bio.org/desharky.html

  1. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells induce immunosuppressive IL-10-producing Th1 cells via the Notch pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Katrin; Rudolph, Christine; Neumann, Christian; Janke, Marko; Amsen, Derk; Scheffold, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    Under homeostasis, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) shift intrahepatic T-cell responses towards tolerance. However, the role of LSECs in the regulation of T-cell-induced liver inflammation is less clear. Here, we studied the capacity of LSECs to modulate pro-inflammatory Th1-cell differentiation in mice. Using in vitro co-culture systems and subsequent cytokine analysis, we showed that LSECs induced high amounts of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in developing Th1 cells. These LSEC-stimulated Th1 cells had no pro-inflammatory capacity in vivo but instead actively suppressed an inflammatory Th1-cell-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Blockage of IL-10 signaling in vivo inhibited immunosuppressive activity of LSEC-stimulated Th1 cells. We identified the Notch pathway as a mechanism how LSECs trigger IL-10 expression in Th1 cells. LSECs expressed high levels of the Delta-like and Jagged family of Notch ligands and induced expression of the Notch target genes hes-1 and deltex-1 in Th1 cells. Blockade of Notch signaling selectively inhibited IL-10 induction in Th1 cells by LSECs. Our findings suggest that LSEC-induced IL-10 expression in Th1 cells via the Notch pathway may contribute to the control of hepatic inflammatory immune responses by induction of a self-regulatory mechanism in pro-inflammatory Th1 cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Backup pathways of NHEJ in cells of higher eukaryotes: Cell cycle dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, George

    2009-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in cells of higher eukaryotes are predominantly repaired by a pathway of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) utilizing Ku, DNA-PKcs, DNA ligase IV, XRCC4 and XLF/Cernunnos (D-NHEJ) as central components. Work carried out in our laboratory and elsewhere shows that when this pathway is chemically or genetically compromised, cells do not shunt DSBs to homologous recombination repair (HRR) but instead use another form of NHEJ operating as a backup (B-NHEJ). Here I review our efforts to characterize this repair pathway and discuss its dependence on the cell cycle as well as on the growth conditions. I present evidence that B-NHEJ utilizes ligase III, PARP-1 and histone H1. When B-NHEJ is examined throughout the cell cycle, significantly higher activity is observed in G2 phase that cannot be attributed to HRR. Furthermore, the activity of B-NHEJ is compromised when cells enter the plateau phase of growth. Together, these observations uncover a repair pathway with unexpected biochemical constitution and interesting cell cycle and growth factor regulation. They generate a framework for investigating the mechanistic basis of HRR contribution to DSB repair.

  3. Control of cell proliferation, endoreduplication, cell size, and cell death by the retinoblastoma-related pathway in maize endosperm

    KAUST Repository

    Sabelli, Paolo A.; Liu, Yan; Dante, Ricardo Augusto; Lizarraga, Lucina E.; Nguyen, Hong N.; Brown, Sara W.; Klingler, John; Yu, Jingjuan; LaBrant, Evan; Layton, Tracy M.; Feldman, Max; Larkins, Brian A.

    2013-01-01

    , and programmed cell death. Although manipulation of these processes could maximize grain yield, how they are regulated and integrated is poorly understood. We show that the Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) pathway controls key aspects of endosperm development

  4. High content cell-based assay for the inflammatory pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Abhishek; Song, Joon Myong

    2015-07-01

    Cellular inflammation is a non-specific immune response to tissue injury that takes place via cytokine network orchestration to maintain normal tissue homeostasis. However chronic inflammation that lasts for a longer period, plays the key role in human diseases like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer development. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory pathways may be effective in targeting and modulating their outcome. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that effectively combines the pro-inflammatory features with the pro-apoptotic potential. Increased levels of TNF-α observed during acute and chronic inflammatory conditions are believed to induce adverse phenotypes like glucose intolerance and abnormal lipid profile. Natural products e. g., amygdalin, cinnamic acid, jasmonic acid and aspirin have proven efficacy in minimizing the TNF-α induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Cell lysis-free quantum dot (QDot) imaging is an emerging technique to identify the cellular mediators of a signaling cascade with a single assay in one run. In comparison to organic fluorophores, the inorganic QDots are bright, resistant to photobleaching and possess tunable optical properties that make them suitable for long term and multicolor imaging of various components in a cellular crosstalk. Hence we tested some components of the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway during TNF-α induced inflammation and the effects of aspirin in HepG2 cells by QDot multicolor imaging technique. Results demonstrated that aspirin showed significant protective effects against TNF-α induced cellular inflammation. The developed cell based assay paves the platform for the analysis of cellular components in a smooth and reliable way.

  5. NLRC5 promotes cell proliferation via regulating the AKT/VEGF-A signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Ying-hua; Li, Ming-fang; Zhang, Xing-yan; Meng, Xiao-ming; Huang, Cheng; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    NLRC5, a newly found member of the NLR family and the largest member of nucleotide-binding, has been reported to regulate immune responses and is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the mechanisms and signaling pathways of NLRC5 in HCC progression. Increased expression of NLRC5, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) were found in human HCC tissue. There was a positive correlation between NLRC5 and VEGF-A expression and cell proliferation were enhanced in NLRC5-overexpressing HepG2 cells, but inhibited in cells with NLRC5 silencing treatment. Interestingly, we found that up-regulation of NLRC5 also coordinated the activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. An AKT inhibitor LY294002 blocked VEGF-A expression and AKT phosphorylation in HepG2 cells and NLRC5-overexpressing HepG2 cells. These results demonstrate that NLRC5 promotes HCC progression via the AKT/VEGF-A signaling pathway.

  6. Action plan for coordinated deployment of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and hydrogen infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elrick, W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discussed a program designed to provide hydrogen vehicles and accessible hydrogen stations for a pre-commercial hydrogen economy in California. The rollout will coordinate the placement of stations in areas that meet the needs of drivers in order to ensure the transition to a competitive marketplace. An action plan has been developed that focuses on the following 3 specific steps: (1) the validation of early passenger vehicle markets, (2) expanded transit bus use, and (2) the establishment of regulations and standards. Specific tasks related to the steps were discussed, as well as potential barriers to the development of a hydrogen infrastructure in California. Methods of ensuring coordinated actions with the fuel cell and hydrogen industries were also reviewed

  7. Coordinated Proliferation and Differentiation of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells Depend on Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Regulation by GREMLIN 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylund, Jeffery B; Trinh, Linh T; Awgulewitsch, Cassandra P; Paik, David T; Jetter, Christopher; Jha, Rajneesh; Zhang, Jianhua; Nolan, Kristof; Xu, Chunhui; Thompson, Thomas B; Kamp, Timothy J; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K

    2017-05-01

    Heart development depends on coordinated proliferation and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), but how the two processes are synchronized is not well understood. Here, we show that the secreted Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) antagonist GREMLIN 2 (GREM2) is induced in CPCs shortly after cardiac mesoderm specification during differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. GREM2 expression follows cardiac lineage differentiation independently of the differentiation method used, or the origin of the pluripotent stem cells, suggesting that GREM2 is linked to cardiogenesis. Addition of GREM2 protein strongly increases cardiomyocyte output compared to established procardiogenic differentiation methods. Our data show that inhibition of canonical BMP signaling by GREM2 is necessary to promote proliferation of CPCs. However, canonical BMP signaling inhibition alone is not sufficient to induce cardiac differentiation, which depends on subsequent JNK pathway activation specifically by GREM2. These findings may have broader implications in the design of approaches to orchestrate growth and differentiation of pluripotent stem cell-derived lineages that depend on precise regulation of BMP signaling.

  8. Coordinated Proliferation and Differentiation of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells Depend on Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Regulation by GREMLIN 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylund, Jeffery B.; Trinh, Linh T.; Awgulewitsch, Cassandra P.; Paik, David T.; Jetter, Christopher; Jha, Rajneesh; Zhang, Jianhua; Nolan, Kristof; Xu, Chunhui; Thompson, Thomas B.; Kamp, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Heart development depends on coordinated proliferation and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs), but how the two processes are synchronized is not well understood. Here, we show that the secreted Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) antagonist GREMLIN 2 (GREM2) is induced in CPCs shortly after cardiac mesoderm specification during differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. GREM2 expression follows cardiac lineage differentiation independently of the differentiation method used, or the origin of the pluripotent stem cells, suggesting that GREM2 is linked to cardiogenesis. Addition of GREM2 protein strongly increases cardiomyocyte output compared to established procardiogenic differentiation methods. Our data show that inhibition of canonical BMP signaling by GREM2 is necessary to promote proliferation of CPCs. However, canonical BMP signaling inhibition alone is not sufficient to induce cardiac differentiation, which depends on subsequent JNK pathway activation specifically by GREM2. These findings may have broader implications in the design of approaches to orchestrate growth and differentiation of pluripotent stem cell-derived lineages that depend on precise regulation of BMP signaling. PMID:28125926

  9. Selaginellatamariscina attenuates metastasis via Akt pathways in oral cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Sin Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crude extracts of Selaginellatamariscina, an oriental medicinal herb, have been evidenced to treat several human diseases. This study investigated the mechanisms by which Selaginellatamariscina inhibits the invasiveness of human oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC HSC-3 cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, we demonstrate that Selaginellatamariscina attenuated HSC-3 cell migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. The anti-metastatic activities of Selaginellatamariscina occurred at least partially because of the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinase activity and the down-regulation of protein expression. The expression and function of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 were regulated by Selaginellatamariscina at a transcriptional level, as shown by quantitative real-time PCR and reporter assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP data further indicated that binding of the cAMP response element-binding (CREB protein and activating protein-1 (AP-1 to the MMP-2 promoter diminished at the highest dosage level of Selaginellatamariscina. The DNA-binding activity of specificity protein 1 (SP-1 to the MMP-9 promoter was also suppressed at the same concentration. Selaginellatamariscina did not affect the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, but did inhibit the effects of gelatinase by reducing the activation of serine-threonine kinase Akt. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Selaginellatamariscina may be a potent adjuvant therapeutic agent in the prevention of oral cancer.

  10. Pneumococcal Competence Coordination Relies on a Cell-Contact Sensing Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Prudhomme

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria have evolved various inducible genetic programs to face many types of stress that challenge their growth and survival. Competence is one such program. It enables genetic transformation, a major horizontal gene transfer process. Competence development in liquid cultures of Streptococcus pneumoniae is synchronized within the whole cell population. This collective behavior is known to depend on an exported signaling Competence Stimulating Peptide (CSP, whose action generates a positive feedback loop. However, it is unclear how this CSP-dependent population switch is coordinated. By monitoring spontaneous competence development in real time during growth of four distinct pneumococcal lineages, we have found that competence shift in the population relies on a self-activated cell fraction that arises via a growth time-dependent mechanism. We demonstrate that CSP remains bound to cells during this event, and conclude that the rate of competence development corresponds to the propagation of competence by contact between activated and quiescent cells. We validated this two-step cell-contact sensing mechanism by measuring competence development during co-cultivation of strains with altered capacity to produce or respond to CSP. Finally, we found that the membrane protein ComD retains the CSP, limiting its free diffusion in the medium. We propose that competence initiator cells originate stochastically in response to stress, to form a distinct subpopulation that then transmits the CSP by cell-cell contact.

  11. Epidermal wound repair is regulated by the planar cell polarity signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caddy, Jacinta; Wilanowski, Tomasz; Darido, Charbel; Dworkin, Sebastian; Ting, Stephen B; Zhao, Quan; Rank, Gerhard; Auden, Alana; Srivastava, Seema; Papenfuss, Tony A; Murdoch, Jennifer N; Humbert, Patrick O; Parekh, Vishwas; Boulos, Nidal; Weber, Thomas; Zuo, Jian; Cunningham, John M; Jane, Stephen M

    2010-07-20

    The mammalian PCP pathway regulates diverse developmental processes requiring coordinated cellular movement, including neural tube closure and cochlear stereociliary orientation. Here, we show that epidermal wound repair is regulated by PCP signaling. Mice carrying mutant alleles of PCP genes Vangl2, Celsr1, PTK7, and Scrb1, and the transcription factor Grhl3, interact genetically, exhibiting failed wound healing, neural tube defects, and disordered cochlear polarity. Using phylogenetic analysis, ChIP, and gene expression in Grhl3(-)(/-) mice, we identified RhoGEF19, a homolog of a RhoA activator involved in PCP signaling in Xenopus, as a direct target of GRHL3. Knockdown of Grhl3 or RhoGEF19 in keratinocytes induced defects in actin polymerization, cellular polarity, and wound healing, and re-expression of RhoGEF19 rescued these defects in Grhl3-kd cells. These results define a role for Grhl3 in PCP signaling and broadly implicate this pathway in epidermal repair. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Activin pathway enhances colorectal cancer stem cell self-renew and tumor progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Jun-Hua; Xu, Chengxiong; Sun, Bo; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2016-10-28

    Activin belongs to transforming growth factor (TGF)-β super family of growth and differentiation factors and activin pathway participated in broad range of cell process. Studies elaborated activin pathway maintain pluripotency in human stem cells and suggest that the function of activin/nodal signaling in self-renew would be conserved across embryonic and adult stem cells. In this study, we tried to determine the effect of activin signaling pathway in regulation of cancer stem cells as a potential target for cancer therapy in clinical trials. A population of colorectal cancer cells was selected by the treatment of activin A. This population of cell possessed stem cell character with sphere formation ability. We demonstrated activin pathway enhanced the colorectal cancer stem cells self-renew and contribute to colorectal cancer progression in vivo. Targeting activin pathway potentially provide effective strategy for colorectal cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tuning of Nafion{sup ®} by HKUST-1 as coordination network to enhance proton conductivity for fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee Jin, E-mail: zammanbo814@knu.ac.kr [Kyungpook National University, Research Institute of Advanced Energy Technology (Korea, Republic of); Talukdar, Krishan, E-mail: krishantu@yahoo.com; Choi, Sang-June, E-mail: sjchoi@knu.ac.kr [Kyungpook National University, Department of Environmental Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Metal-organic frameworks can be intentionally coordinated to achieve improved proton conductivity because they have highly ordered structures and modular nature that serve as a scaffold to anchor acidic groups and develop efficient proton transfer pathways for fuel cell application. Using the concept of a coordination network, the conductivity of Nafion{sup ®} was tuned by the incorporation of HKUST-1. It has Cu{sup II}–paddle wheel type nodes and 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate struts, feature accessible sites that provides an improved protonic channel depending on the water content. In spite of the fact that HKUST-1 is neutral, coordinated water molecules are contributed adequately acidic by Cu{sup II} to supply protons to enhance proton conductivity. Water molecules play a vital part in transfer of proton as conducting media and serve as triggers to change proton conductivity through reforming hydrogen bonding networks by water adsorption/desorption process. Increased ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity with lower water uptake of the H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-doped material, and improved thermal stability (as confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis) were achieved. The structure of HKUST-1 was confirmed via field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, while the porosity and adsorption desorption capacity were characterized by porosity analysis. Graphical abstract: The H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-doped HKUST-1/Nafion® composite membrane is demonstrated to be a promising material based on its proton conductivity. HKUST-1 has an average particle diameter of around 15–20 µm. The proton conductivity, IEC values, and the thermal stability of the 2.5 wt% HKUST-1/Nafion® composite membrane suggest that HKUST-1 may be a promising candidate as a proton-conductive material in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell membrane due to its reasonable proton passageway, favorable surface area, lower water uptake with the higher IEC, and proton conductivity of the H

  14. Effect of microenviroment hypoxia on glioma cells radiosensitivity through cancer stem cell pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Liumei; Feng Libo; Lu Xueguan; Chen Liesong; Guo Xinwei; Tian Ye

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of microenviroment hypoxia on glioma cells radiosensitivity through cancer stem pathway, and to explore the related mechanism. Methods: Glioma cell lines SHG44 and U251 were cultured in normoxia (20% O 2 ) or continuous hypoxia (1% O 2 ) for 12 and 24 h. The fraction of glioma cells with positive expression of CD133 was assayed by flow cytometry. The radiosensitivity of glioma cells was determined by clonogenic cell assay. Western blotting was used to investigate the expressions of HIF-1 α and its downstream gene Notch 1. Results: The fraction of glioma cells with positive expression of CD133 was higher after hypoxic culture for 12 and 24 h than that of the corresponding cells cultured in normoxia. Compared to the cells cultured in normoxia, SF 2 (survival fraction at 2 Gy) were enhanced significantly in SHG44 and U251 cells cultured in hypoxia for 12 and 24 h. The OER (oxygen-enhancement ratio) of SHG44 cells in hypoxia for 12 and 24 h was 1.54 and 1.38, respectively. The OER of U251 cells was 1.44 and 1.23, respectively. The radiosensitivity of these two cell line was decreased in hypoxia. The protein expressions of HIF-1 α and Notch 1 genes were elevated more significantly for cells cultured in hypoxia for 12 and 24 h than for those in normoxia. Conclusions: Microenviroment hypoxia could increase the radioresistance of glioma cells through enrichment of cancer stem cells, and HIF-1 α-Notch 1 signal pathway may play an important role in this process. (authors)

  15. Solvent-vapour-assisted pathways and the role of pre-organization in solid-state transformations of coordination polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Wright

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A family of one-dimensional coordination polymers, [Ag4(O2C(CF22CF34(phenazine2(arenen]·m(arene, 1 (arene = toluene or xylene, have been synthesized and crystallographically characterized. Arene guest loss invokes structural transformations to yield a pair of polymorphic coordination polymers [Ag4(O2C(CF22CF34(phenazine2], 2a and/or 2b, with one- and two-dimensional architectures, respectively. The role of pre-organization of the polymer chains of 1 in the selectivity for formation of either polymorph is explored, and the templating effect of toluene and p-xylene over o-xylene or m-xylene in the formation of arene-containing architecture 1 is also demonstrated. The formation of arene-free phase 2b, not accessible in a phase-pure form through other means, is shown to be the sole product of loss of toluene from 1-tol·tol [Ag4(O2C(CF22CF34(phenazine2(toluene]·2(toluene, a phase containing toluene coordinated to Ag(I in an unusual μ:η1,η1 manner. Solvent-vapour-assisted conversion between the polymorphic coordination polymers and solvent-vapour influence on the conversion of coordination polymers 1 to 2a and 2b is also explored. The transformations have been examined and confirmed by X-ray diffraction, NMR spectroscopy and thermal analyses, including in situ diffraction studies of some transformations.

  16. Regulation of a transcription factor network by Cdk1 coordinates late cell cycle gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, Benjamin D; Mapa, Claudine E; Arsenault, Heather E; Poti, Kristin E; Benanti, Jennifer A

    2014-05-02

    To maintain genome stability, regulators of chromosome segregation must be expressed in coordination with mitotic events. Expression of these late cell cycle genes is regulated by cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk1), which phosphorylates a network of conserved transcription factors (TFs). However, the effects of Cdk1 phosphorylation on many key TFs are not known. We find that elimination of Cdk1-mediated phosphorylation of four S-phase TFs decreases expression of many late cell cycle genes, delays mitotic progression, and reduces fitness in budding yeast. Blocking phosphorylation impairs degradation of all four TFs. Consequently, phosphorylation-deficient mutants of the repressors Yox1 and Yhp1 exhibit increased promoter occupancy and decreased expression of their target genes. Interestingly, although phosphorylation of the transcriptional activator Hcm1 on its N-terminus promotes its degradation, phosphorylation on its C-terminus is required for its activity, indicating that Cdk1 both activates and inhibits a single TF. We conclude that Cdk1 promotes gene expression by both activating transcriptional activators and inactivating transcriptional repressors. Furthermore, our data suggest that coordinated regulation of the TF network by Cdk1 is necessary for faithful cell division.

  17. Molecular Signaling Pathways Mediating Osteoclastogenesis Induced by Prostate Cancer Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiei, Shahrzad; Komarova, Svetlana V

    2013-01-01

    Advanced prostate cancer commonly metastasizes to bone leading to osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions. Although an osteolytic component governed by activation of bone resorbing osteoclasts is prominent in prostate cancer metastasis, the molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis are not well-understood. We studied the effect of soluble mediators released from human prostate carcinoma cells on osteoclast formation from mouse bone marrow and RAW 264.7 monocytes. Soluble factors released from human prostate carcinoma cells significantly increased viability of naïve bone marrow monocytes, as well as osteoclastogenesis from precursors primed with receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL). The prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis was not mediated by RANKL as it was not inhibited by osteoprotegerin (OPG). However inhibition of TGFβ receptor I (TβRI), or macrophage-colony stimulating factor (MCSF) resulted in attenuation of prostate cancer-induced osteoclastogenesis. We characterized the signaling pathways induced in osteoclast precursors by soluble mediators released from human prostate carcinoma cells. Prostate cancer factors increased basal calcium levels and calcium fluctuations, induced nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated t-cells (NFAT)c1, and activated prolonged phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in RANKL-primed osteoclast precursors. Inhibition of calcium signaling, NFATc1 activation, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation significantly reduced the ability of prostate cancer mediators to stimulate osteoclastogenesis. This study reveals the molecular mechanisms underlying the direct osteoclastogenic effect of prostate cancer derived factors, which may be beneficial in developing novel osteoclast-targeting therapeutic approaches

  18. Distinct protease pathways control cell shape and apoptosis in v-src-transformed quail neuroretina cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, Benjamin D.; Aouacheria, Abdel; Nouvion, Anne-Laure; Ronot, Xavier; Gillet, Germain

    2005-01-01

    Intracellular proteases play key roles in cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. In nerve cells, little is known about their relative contribution to the pathways which control cell physiology, including cell death. Neoplastic transformation of avian neuroretina cells by p60 v-src tyrosine kinase results in dramatic morphological changes and deregulation of apoptosis. To identify the proteases involved in the cellular response to p60 v-src , we evaluated the effect of specific inhibitors of caspases, calpains and the proteasome on cell shape changes and apoptosis induced by p60 v-src inactivation in quail neuroretina cells transformed by tsNY68, a thermosensitive strain of Rous sarcoma virus. We found that the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is recruited early after p60 v-src inactivation and is critical for morphological changes, whereas caspases are essential for cell death. This study provides evidence that distinct intracellular proteases are involved in the control of the morphology and fate of v-src-transformed cells

  19. Finite element approach to global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations using magnetic coordinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fivaz, M.; Brunner, S.; Ridder, G. de; Sauter, O.; Tran, T.M.; Vaclavik, J.; Villard, L.; Appert, K.

    1997-08-01

    We present a fully-global linear gyrokinetic simulation code (GYGLES) aimed at describing the instable spectrum of the ion-temperature-gradient modes in toroidal geometry. We formulate the Particle-In-Cell method with finite elements defined in magnetic coordinates, which provides excellent numerical convergence properties. The poloidal mode structure corresponding to k // =0 is extracted without approximation from the equations, which reduces drastically the numerical resolution needed. The code can simulate routinely modes with both very long and very short toroidal wavelengths, can treat realistic (MHD) equilibria of any size and runs on a massively parallel computer. (author) 10 figs., 28 refs

  20. Screening disrupted molecular functions and pathways associated with clear cell renal cell carcinoma using Gibbs sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Ning; Chen, Qi; Wang, Yu; Zhai, Xu; Yang, Chuan-Ce; Cao, Bin; Chong, Tie

    2017-10-01

    To explore the disturbed molecular functions and pathways in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) using Gibbs sampling. Gene expression data of ccRCC samples and adjacent non-tumor renal tissues were recruited from public available database. Then, molecular functions of expression changed genes in ccRCC were classed to Gene Ontology (GO) project, and these molecular functions were converted into Markov chains. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm was implemented to perform posterior inference and identify probability distributions of molecular functions in Gibbs sampling. Differentially expressed molecular functions were selected under posterior value more than 0.95, and genes with the appeared times in differentially expressed molecular functions ≥5 were defined as pivotal genes. Functional analysis was employed to explore the pathways of pivotal genes and their strongly co-regulated genes. In this work, we obtained 396 molecular functions, and 13 of them were differentially expressed. Oxidoreductase activity showed the highest posterior value. Gene composition analysis identified 79 pivotal genes, and survival analysis indicated that these pivotal genes could be used as a strong independent predictor of poor prognosis in patients with ccRCC. Pathway analysis identified one pivotal pathway - oxidative phosphorylation. We identified the differentially expressed molecular functions and pivotal pathway in ccRCC using Gibbs sampling. The results could be considered as potential signatures for early detection and therapy of ccRCC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pathways to ischemic neuronal cell death: are sex differences relevant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCullough Louise D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have known for some time that the epidemiology of human stroke is sexually dimorphic until late in life, well beyond the years of reproductive senescence and menopause. Now, a new concept is emerging: the mechanisms and outcome of cerebral ischemic injury are influenced strongly by biological sex as well as the availability of sex steroids to the brain. The principal mammalian estrogen (17 β estradiol or E2 is neuroprotective in many types of brain injury and has been the major focus of investigation over the past several decades. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that although hormones are a major contributor to sex-specific outcomes, they do not fully account for sex-specific responses to cerebral ischemia. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent studies in cell culture and animal models that suggest that genetic sex determines experimental stroke outcome and that divergent cell death pathways are activated after an ischemic insult. These sex differences need to be identified if we are to develop efficacious neuroprotective agents for use in stroke patients.

  2. Functional cooperation between FACT and MCM is coordinated with cell cycle and differential complex formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chih-Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional cooperation between FACT and the MCM helicase complex constitutes an integral step during DNA replication initiation. However, mode of regulation that underlies the proper functional interaction of FACT and MCM is poorly understood. Methods & Results Here we present evidence indicating that such interaction is coordinated with cell cycle progression and differential complex formation. We first demonstrate the existence of two distinct FACT-MCM subassemblies, FACT-MCM2/4/6/7 and FACT-MCM2/3/4/5. Both complexes possess DNA unwinding activity and are subject to cell cycle-dependent enzymatic regulation. Interestingly, analysis of functional attributes further suggests that they act at distinct, and possibly sequential, steps during origin establishment and replication initiation. Moreover, we show that the phosphorylation profile of the FACT-associated MCM4 undergoes a cell cycle-dependent change, which is directly correlated with the catalytic activity of the FACT-MCM helicase complexes. Finally, at the quaternary structure level, physical interaction between FACT and MCM complexes is generally dependent on persistent cell cycle and further stabilized upon S phase entry. Cessation of mitotic cycle destabilizes the complex formation and likely leads to compromised coordination and activities. Conclusions Together, our results correlate FACT-MCM functionally and temporally with S phase and DNA replication. They further demonstrate that enzymatic activities intrinsically important for DNA replication are tightly controlled at various levels, thereby ensuring proper progression of, as well as exit from, the cell cycle and ultimately euploid gene balance.

  3. Comparative analysis of programmed cell death pathways in filamentous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wortman Jennifer R

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fungi can undergo autophagic- or apoptotic-type programmed cell death (PCD on exposure to antifungal agents, developmental signals, and stress factors. Filamentous fungi can also exhibit a form of cell death called heterokaryon incompatibility (HI triggered by fusion between two genetically incompatible individuals. With the availability of recently sequenced genomes of Aspergillus fumigatus and several related species, we were able to define putative components of fungi-specific death pathways and the ancestral core apoptotic machinery shared by all fungi and metazoa. Results Phylogenetic profiling of HI-associated proteins from four Aspergilli and seven other fungal species revealed lineage-specific protein families, orphan genes, and core genes conserved across all fungi and metazoa. The Aspergilli-specific domain architectures include NACHT family NTPases, which may function as key integrators of stress and nutrient availability signals. They are often found fused to putative effector domains such as Pfs, SesB/LipA, and a newly identified domain, HET-s/LopB. Many putative HI inducers and mediators are specific to filamentous fungi and not found in unicellular yeasts. In addition to their role in HI, several of them appear to be involved in regulation of cell cycle, development and sexual differentiation. Finally, the Aspergilli possess many putative downstream components of the mammalian apoptotic machinery including several proteins not found in the model yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Conclusion Our analysis identified more than 100 putative PCD associated genes in the Aspergilli, which may help expand the range of currently available treatments for aspergillosis and other invasive fungal diseases. The list includes species-specific protein families as well as conserved core components of the ancestral PCD machinery shared by fungi and metazoa.

  4. Multiple regulatory systems coordinate DNA replication with cell growth in Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Murray

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In many bacteria the rate of DNA replication is linked with cellular physiology to ensure that genome duplication is coordinated with growth. Nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation has been appreciated for decades, however the mechanism(s that connects these cell cycle activities has eluded understanding. In order to help address this fundamental question we have investigated regulation of DNA replication in the model organism Bacillus subtilis. Contrary to the prevailing view we find that changes in DnaA protein level are not sufficient to account for nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation, although this regulation does require both DnaA and the endogenous replication origin. We go on to report connections between DNA replication and several essential cellular activities required for rapid bacterial growth, including respiration, central carbon metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, phospholipid synthesis, and protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, the results indicate that multiple regulatory systems are involved in coordinating DNA replication with cell physiology, with some of the regulatory systems targeting oriC while others act in a oriC-independent manner. We propose that distinct regulatory systems are utilized to control DNA replication in response to diverse physiological and chemical changes.

  5. Multiple regulatory systems coordinate DNA replication with cell growth in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Heath; Koh, Alan

    2014-10-01

    In many bacteria the rate of DNA replication is linked with cellular physiology to ensure that genome duplication is coordinated with growth. Nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation has been appreciated for decades, however the mechanism(s) that connects these cell cycle activities has eluded understanding. In order to help address this fundamental question we have investigated regulation of DNA replication in the model organism Bacillus subtilis. Contrary to the prevailing view we find that changes in DnaA protein level are not sufficient to account for nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation, although this regulation does require both DnaA and the endogenous replication origin. We go on to report connections between DNA replication and several essential cellular activities required for rapid bacterial growth, including respiration, central carbon metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, phospholipid synthesis, and protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, the results indicate that multiple regulatory systems are involved in coordinating DNA replication with cell physiology, with some of the regulatory systems targeting oriC while others act in a oriC-independent manner. We propose that distinct regulatory systems are utilized to control DNA replication in response to diverse physiological and chemical changes.

  6. Multiple Regulatory Systems Coordinate DNA Replication with Cell Growth in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Heath; Koh, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In many bacteria the rate of DNA replication is linked with cellular physiology to ensure that genome duplication is coordinated with growth. Nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation has been appreciated for decades, however the mechanism(s) that connects these cell cycle activities has eluded understanding. In order to help address this fundamental question we have investigated regulation of DNA replication in the model organism Bacillus subtilis. Contrary to the prevailing view we find that changes in DnaA protein level are not sufficient to account for nutrient-mediated growth rate control of DNA replication initiation, although this regulation does require both DnaA and the endogenous replication origin. We go on to report connections between DNA replication and several essential cellular activities required for rapid bacterial growth, including respiration, central carbon metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, phospholipid synthesis, and protein synthesis. Unexpectedly, the results indicate that multiple regulatory systems are involved in coordinating DNA replication with cell physiology, with some of the regulatory systems targeting oriC while others act in a oriC-independent manner. We propose that distinct regulatory systems are utilized to control DNA replication in response to diverse physiological and chemical changes. PMID:25340815

  7. The heart tube forms and elongates through dynamic cell rearrangement coordinated with foregut extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidokoro, Hinako; Yonei-Tamura, Sayuri; Tamura, Koji; Schoenwolf, Gary C; Saijoh, Yukio

    2018-03-29

    In the initiation of cardiogenesis, the heart primordia transform from bilateral flat sheets of mesoderm into an elongated midline tube. Here, we discover that this rapid architectural change is driven by actomyosin-based oriented cell rearrangement and resulting dynamic tissue reshaping (convergent extension, CE). By labeling clusters of cells spanning the entire heart primordia, we show that the heart primordia converge toward the midline to form a narrow tube, while extending perpendicularly to rapidly lengthen it. Our data for the first time visualize the process of early heart tube formation from both the medial (second) and lateral (first) heart fields, revealing that both fields form the early heart tube by essentially the same mechanism. Additionally, the adjacent endoderm coordinately forms the foregut through previously unrecognized movements that parallel those of the heart mesoderm and elongates by CE. In conclusion, our data illustrate how initially two-dimensional flat primordia rapidly change their shapes and construct the three-dimensional morphology of emerging organs in coordination with neighboring morphogenesis. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Performance Analysis of enhanced Inter-cell Interference Coordination in LTE-Advanced Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yuanye; Pedersen, Klaus I.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of enhanced Inter-Cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) for Long Term Evolution (LTE)- Advanced with co-channel deployment of both macro and pico is analyzed. The use of pico-cell Range Extension (RE) and time domain eICIC (TDM muting) is combined. The performance is evaluated...... in the downlink by means of extensive system level simulations that follow the 3GPP guidelines. The overall network performance is analyzed for different number of pico-eNBs, transmit power levels, User Equipment (UE) distributions, and packet schedulers. Recommended settings of the RE offset and TDM muting ratio...... in different scenarios are identified. The presented performance results and findings can serve as input to guidelines for co-channel deployment of macro and pico-eNBs with eICIC....

  9. Coordinated regulation by two VPS9 domain-containing guanine nucleotide exchange factors in small GTPase Rab5 signaling pathways in fission yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Yuta; Kagiwada, Satoshi; Shimazu, Sayuri; Takegawa, Kaoru; Noguchi, Tetsuko; Miyamoto, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    The small GTPase Rab5 is reported to regulate various cellular functions, such as vesicular transport and endocytosis. VPS9 domain-containing proteins are thought to activate Rab5(s) by their guanine-nucleotide exchange activities. Numerous VPS9 proteins have been identified and are structurally conserved from yeast to mammalian cells. However, the functional relationships among VPS9 proteins in cells remain unclear. Only one Rab5 and two VPS9 proteins were identified in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome. Here, we examined the cellular function of two VPS9 proteins and the relationship between these proteins in cellular functions. Vps901-GFP and Vps902-GFP exhibited dotted signals in vegetative and differentiated cells. vps901 deletion mutant (Δvps901) cells exhibited a phenotype deficient in the mating process and responses to high concentrations of ions, such as calcium and metals, and Δvps901Δvps902 double mutant cells exhibited round cell shapes similar to ypt5-909 (Rab5 mutant allele) cells. Deletion of both vps901 and vps902 genes completely abolished the mating process and responses to various stresses. A lack of vacuole formation and aberrant inner cell membrane structures were also observed in Δvps901Δvps902 cells by electron microscopy. These data strongly suggest that Vps901 and Vps902 are cooperatively involved in the regulation of cellular functions, such as cell morphology, sexual development, response to ion stresses, and vacuole formation, via Rab5 signaling pathways in fission yeast cells. - Highlights: • Roles of Rab5 activator VPS9 proteins in cellular functions. • Cooperation between VPS9 proteins in Rab5 signaling pathway. • Roles of each VPS9 protein in Rab5 signaling pathway are discussed

  10. Coordinated regulation by two VPS9 domain-containing guanine nucleotide exchange factors in small GTPase Rab5 signaling pathways in fission yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukamoto, Yuta [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Kagiwada, Satoshi [Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Nara Women' s University, Kitauoyanishi-machi, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Shimazu, Sayuri [Center for Supports to Research and Education Activities, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Takegawa, Kaoru [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Bioresource and Bioenvironmental Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Noguchi, Tetsuko [Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Nara Women' s University, Kitauoyanishi-machi, Nara 630-8506 (Japan); Miyamoto, Masaaki, E-mail: miya@kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Biology, Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Center for Supports to Research and Education Activities, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-20

    The small GTPase Rab5 is reported to regulate various cellular functions, such as vesicular transport and endocytosis. VPS9 domain-containing proteins are thought to activate Rab5(s) by their guanine-nucleotide exchange activities. Numerous VPS9 proteins have been identified and are structurally conserved from yeast to mammalian cells. However, the functional relationships among VPS9 proteins in cells remain unclear. Only one Rab5 and two VPS9 proteins were identified in the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome. Here, we examined the cellular function of two VPS9 proteins and the relationship between these proteins in cellular functions. Vps901-GFP and Vps902-GFP exhibited dotted signals in vegetative and differentiated cells. vps901 deletion mutant (Δvps901) cells exhibited a phenotype deficient in the mating process and responses to high concentrations of ions, such as calcium and metals, and Δvps901Δvps902 double mutant cells exhibited round cell shapes similar to ypt5-909 (Rab5 mutant allele) cells. Deletion of both vps901 and vps902 genes completely abolished the mating process and responses to various stresses. A lack of vacuole formation and aberrant inner cell membrane structures were also observed in Δvps901Δvps902 cells by electron microscopy. These data strongly suggest that Vps901 and Vps902 are cooperatively involved in the regulation of cellular functions, such as cell morphology, sexual development, response to ion stresses, and vacuole formation, via Rab5 signaling pathways in fission yeast cells. - Highlights: • Roles of Rab5 activator VPS9 proteins in cellular functions. • Cooperation between VPS9 proteins in Rab5 signaling pathway. • Roles of each VPS9 protein in Rab5 signaling pathway are discussed.

  11. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans on the cell surface: versatile coordinators of cellular functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumova, S; Woods, A; Couchman, J R

    2000-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans are complex molecules composed of a core protein with covalently attached glycosaminoglycan chains. While the protein part determines localization of the proteoglycan on the cell surfaces or in the extracellular matrix, the glycosaminoglycan component, heparan sulfate......, mediates interactions with a variety of extracellular ligands such as growth factors and adhesion molecules. Through these interactions, heparan sulfate proteoglycans participate in many events during cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation. We are determining the multitude...... of proteoglycan functions, as their intricate roles in many pathways are revealed. They act as coreceptors for growth factors, participate in signalling during cell adhesion, modulate the activity of a broad range of molecules, and partake in many developmental and pathological processes, including tumorigenesis...

  12. Susceptible genes and molecular pathways related to heavy ion irradiation in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fushimi, Kazuaki; Uzawa, Katsuhiro; Ishigami, Takashi; Yamamoto, Nobuharu; Kawata, Tetsuya; Shibahara, Takahiko; Ito, Hisao; Mizoe, Jun-etsu; Tsujii, Hirohiko; Tanzawa, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Heavy ion beams are high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation characterized by a higher relative biologic effectiveness than low LET radiation. The aim of the current study was to determine the difference of gene expression between heavy ion beams and X-rays in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)-derived cells. Materials and methods: The OSCC cells were irradiated with accelerated carbon or neon ion irradiation or X-rays using three different doses. We sought to identify genes the expression of which is affected by carbon and neon ion irradiation using Affymetrix GeneChip analysis. The identified genes were analyzed using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Tool to investigate the functional network and gene ontology. Changes in mRNA expression in the genes were assessed by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results: The microarray analysis identified 84 genes that were modulated by carbon and neon ion irradiation at all doses in OSCC cells. Among the genes, three genes (TGFBR2, SMURF2, and BMP7) and two genes (CCND1 and E2F3), respectively, were found to be involved in the transforming growth factor β-signaling pathway and cell cycle:G1/S checkpoint regulation pathway. The qRT-PCR data from the five genes after heavy ion irradiation were consistent with the microarray data (P < 0.01). Conclusion: Our findings should serve as a basis for global characterization of radiation-regulated genes and pathways in heavy ion-irradiated OSCC

  13. Mutations in Four Glycosyl Hydrolases Reveal a Highly Coordinated Pathway for Rhodopsin Biosynthesis and N-Glycan Trimming in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Erica E.; Vasiljevic, Eva; Brehm, Kimberley S.; Colley, Nansi Jo

    2014-01-01

    As newly synthesized glycoproteins move through the secretory pathway, the asparagine-linked glycan (N-glycan) undergoes extensive modifications involving the sequential removal and addition of sugar residues. These modifications are critical for the proper assembly, quality control and transport of glycoproteins during biosynthesis. The importance of N-glycosylation is illustrated by a growing list of diseases that result from defects in the biosynthesis and processing of N-linked glycans. The major rhodopsin in Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptors, Rh1, is highly unique among glycoproteins, as the N-glycan appears to be completely removed during Rh1 biosynthesis and maturation. However, much of the deglycosylation pathway for Rh1 remains unknown. To elucidate the key steps in Rh1 deglycosylation in vivo, we characterized mutant alleles of four Drosophila glycosyl hydrolases, namely α-mannosidase-II (α-Man-II), α-mannosidase-IIb (α-Man-IIb), a β-N-acetylglucosaminidase called fused lobes (Fdl), and hexosaminidase 1 (Hexo1). We have demonstrated that these four enzymes play essential and unique roles in a highly coordinated pathway for oligosaccharide trimming during Rh1 biosynthesis. Our results reveal that α-Man-II and α-Man-IIb are not isozymes like their mammalian counterparts, but rather function at distinct stages in Rh1 maturation. Also of significance, our results indicate that Hexo1 has a biosynthetic role in N-glycan processing during Rh1 maturation. This is unexpected given that in humans, the hexosaminidases are typically lysosomal enzymes involved in N-glycan catabolism with no known roles in protein biosynthesis. Here, we present a genetic dissection of glycoprotein processing in Drosophila and unveil key steps in N-glycan trimming during Rh1 biosynthesis. Taken together, our results provide fundamental advances towards understanding the complex and highly regulated pathway of N-glycosylation in vivo and reveal novel insights into the

  14. Mutations in four glycosyl hydrolases reveal a highly coordinated pathway for rhodopsin biosynthesis and N-glycan trimming in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E Rosenbaum

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As newly synthesized glycoproteins move through the secretory pathway, the asparagine-linked glycan (N-glycan undergoes extensive modifications involving the sequential removal and addition of sugar residues. These modifications are critical for the proper assembly, quality control and transport of glycoproteins during biosynthesis. The importance of N-glycosylation is illustrated by a growing list of diseases that result from defects in the biosynthesis and processing of N-linked glycans. The major rhodopsin in Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptors, Rh1, is highly unique among glycoproteins, as the N-glycan appears to be completely removed during Rh1 biosynthesis and maturation. However, much of the deglycosylation pathway for Rh1 remains unknown. To elucidate the key steps in Rh1 deglycosylation in vivo, we characterized mutant alleles of four Drosophila glycosyl hydrolases, namely α-mannosidase-II (α-Man-II, α-mannosidase-IIb (α-Man-IIb, a β-N-acetylglucosaminidase called fused lobes (Fdl, and hexosaminidase 1 (Hexo1. We have demonstrated that these four enzymes play essential and unique roles in a highly coordinated pathway for oligosaccharide trimming during Rh1 biosynthesis. Our results reveal that α-Man-II and α-Man-IIb are not isozymes like their mammalian counterparts, but rather function at distinct stages in Rh1 maturation. Also of significance, our results indicate that Hexo1 has a biosynthetic role in N-glycan processing during Rh1 maturation. This is unexpected given that in humans, the hexosaminidases are typically lysosomal enzymes involved in N-glycan catabolism with no known roles in protein biosynthesis. Here, we present a genetic dissection of glycoprotein processing in Drosophila and unveil key steps in N-glycan trimming during Rh1 biosynthesis. Taken together, our results provide fundamental advances towards understanding the complex and highly regulated pathway of N-glycosylation in vivo and reveal novel insights

  15. Cell Death Pathways in Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mroz, Pawel, E-mail: pmroz@partners.org [Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Yaroslavsky, Anastasia [Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Boston University College of Engineering, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Kharkwal, Gitika B [Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Hamblin, Michael R. [Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Department of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2011-06-03

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging cancer therapy that uses the combination of non-toxic dyes or photosensitizers (PS) and harmless visible light to produce reactive oxygen species and destroy tumors. The PS can be localized in various organelles such as mitochondria, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and plasma membranes and this sub-cellular location governs much of the signaling that occurs after PDT. There is an acute stress response that leads to changes in calcium and lipid metabolism and causes the production of cytokines and stress response mediators. Enzymes (particularly protein kinases) are activated and transcription factors are expressed. Many of the cellular responses center on mitochondria and frequently lead to induction of apoptosis by the mitochondrial pathway involving caspase activation and release of cytochrome c. Certain specific proteins (such as Bcl-2) are damaged by PDT-induced oxidation thereby increasing apoptosis, and a build-up of oxidized proteins leads to an ER-stress response that may be increased by proteasome inhibition. Autophagy plays a role in either inhibiting or enhancing cell death after PDT.

  16. Cell Death Pathways in Photodynamic Therapy of Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mroz, Pawel; Yaroslavsky, Anastasia; Kharkwal, Gitika B; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging cancer therapy that uses the combination of non-toxic dyes or photosensitizers (PS) and harmless visible light to produce reactive oxygen species and destroy tumors. The PS can be localized in various organelles such as mitochondria, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and plasma membranes and this sub-cellular location governs much of the signaling that occurs after PDT. There is an acute stress response that leads to changes in calcium and lipid metabolism and causes the production of cytokines and stress response mediators. Enzymes (particularly protein kinases) are activated and transcription factors are expressed. Many of the cellular responses center on mitochondria and frequently lead to induction of apoptosis by the mitochondrial pathway involving caspase activation and release of cytochrome c. Certain specific proteins (such as Bcl-2) are damaged by PDT-induced oxidation thereby increasing apoptosis, and a build-up of oxidized proteins leads to an ER-stress response that may be increased by proteasome inhibition. Autophagy plays a role in either inhibiting or enhancing cell death after PDT

  17. The feedback pathway from horizontal cells to cones. A mini review with a look ahead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, M.; Spekreijse, H.

    1999-01-01

    The feedback pathway from HCs to cones forms the basis of the surround responses of the bipolar cells and is essential for the spectral opponency of horizontal cells. The nature of this feedback pathway is an issue of debate. Three hypothesis are presented in literature: (1) a GABAA-ergic feedback

  18. Conservative nature of oestradiol signalling pathways in the brain lobes of octopus vulgaris involved in reproduction, learning and motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisa, E; Paolucci, M; Di Cosmo, A

    2012-02-01

    Oestradiol plays crucial roles in the mammalian brain by modulating reproductive behaviour, neural plasticity and pain perception. The cephalopod Octopus vulgaris is considered, along with its relatives, to be the most behaviourally advanced invertebrate, although the neurophysiological basis of its behaviours, including pain perception, remain largely unknown. In the present study, using a combination of molecular and imaging techniques, we found that oestradiol up-regulated O. vulgaris gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (Oct-GnRH) and O. vulgaris oestrogen receptor (Oct-ER) mRNA levels in the olfactory lobes; in turn, Oct-ER mRNA was regulated by NMDA in lobes involved in learning and motor coordination. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis revealed that oestradiol binds Oct-ER causing conformational modifications and nuclear translocation consistent with the classical genomic mechanism of the oestrogen receptor. Moreover, oestradiol triggered a calcium influx and cyclic AMP response element binding protein phosphorylation via membrane receptors, providing evidence for a rapid nongenomic action of oestradiol in O. vulgaris. In the present study, we demonstrate, for the first time, the physiological role of oestradiol in the brain lobes of O. vulgaris involved in reproduction, learning and motor coordination. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Paracrine Pathways in Uterine Leiomyoma Stem Cells Involve Insulinlike Growth Factor 2 and Insulin Receptor A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravek, Molly B; Yin, Ping; Coon, John S; Ono, Masanori; Druschitz, Stacy A; Malpani, Saurabh S; Dyson, Matthew T; Rademaker, Alfred W; Robins, Jared C; Wei, Jian-Jun; Kim, J Julie; Bulun, Serdar E

    2017-05-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (fibroids) are the most common benign tumors in women. Recently, three populations of leiomyoma cells were discovered on the basis of CD34 and CD49b expression, but molecular differences between these populations remain unknown. To define differential gene expression and signaling pathways in leiomyoma cell populations. Cells from human leiomyoma tissue were sorted by flow cytometry into three populations: CD34+/CD49b+, CD34+/CD49b-, and CD34-/CD49b-. Microarray gene expression profiling and pathway analysis were performed. To investigate the insulinlike growth factor (IGF) pathway, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting, and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation studies were performed in cells isolated from fresh leiomyoma. Research laboratory. Eight African American women. None. Gene expression patterns, cell proliferation, and differentiation. A total of 1164 genes were differentially expressed in the three leiomyoma cell populations, suggesting a hierarchical differentiation order whereby CD34+/CD49b+ stem cells differentiate to CD34+/CD49b- intermediary cells, which then terminally differentiate to CD34-/CD49b- cells. Pathway analysis revealed differential expression of several IGF signaling pathway genes. IGF2 was overexpressed in CD34+/CD49b- vs CD34-/CD49b- cells (83-fold; P leiomyoma stem cell proliferation and may represent paracrine signaling between leiomyoma cell types. Therapies targeting the IGF pathway should be investigated for both treatment and prevention of leiomyomas. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  20. Kaempferol inhibits cell proliferation and glycolysis in esophagus squamous cell carcinoma via targeting EGFR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shihua; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Chunguang; Zhao, Tiejun; Jin, Hai; Fang, Wentao

    2016-08-01

    Antitumor activity of kaempferol has been studied in various tumor types, but its potency in esophagus squamous cell carcinoma is rarely known. Here, we reported the activity of kaempferol against esophagus squamous cell carcinoma as well as its antitumor mechanisms. Results of cell proliferation and colony formation assay showed that kaempferol substantially inhibited tumor cell proliferation and clone formation in vitro. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that tumor cells were induced G0/G1 phase arrest after kaempferol treatment, and the expression of protein involved in cell cycle regulation was dramatically changed. Except the potency on cell proliferation, we also discovered that kaempferol had a significant inhibitory effect against tumor glycolysis. With the downregulation of hexokinase-2, glucose uptake and lactate production in tumor cells were dramatically declined. Mechanism studies revealed kaempferol had a direct effect on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activity, and along with the inhibition of EGFR, its downstream signaling pathways were also markedly suppressed. Further investigations found that exogenous overexpression of EGFR in tumor cells substantially attenuated glycolysis suppression induced by kaempferol, which implied that EGFR also played an important role in kaempferol-mediated glycolysis inhibition. Finally, the antitumor activity of kaempferol was validated in xenograft model and kaempferol prominently restrained tumor growth in vivo. Meanwhile, dramatic decrease of EGFR activity and hexokinase-2 expression were observed in kaempferol-treated tumor tissue, which confirmed these findings in vitro. Briefly, these studies suggested that kaempferol, or its analogues, may serve as effective candidates for esophagus squamous cell carcinoma management.

  1. The Maize MID-COMPLEMENTING ACTIVITY homolog CELL NUMBER REGULATOR13/NARROW ODD DWARF, coordinates organ growth and tissue patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organogenesis occurs from cell division, expansion and differentiation. How these cellular processes are coordinated remains elusive. The maize leaf provides an excellent system to study cellular differentiation because it has several different tissues and cell types. The narrow odd dwarf (nod) mut...

  2. ALIX and ESCRT-III coordinately control cytokinetic abscission during germline stem cell division in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsmund H Eikenes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abscission is the final step of cytokinesis that involves the cleavage of the intercellular bridge connecting the two daughter cells. Recent studies have given novel insight into the spatiotemporal regulation and molecular mechanisms controlling abscission in cultured yeast and human cells. The mechanisms of abscission in living metazoan tissues are however not well understood. Here we show that ALIX and the ESCRT-III component Shrub are required for completion of abscission during Drosophila female germline stem cell (fGSC division. Loss of ALIX or Shrub function in fGSCs leads to delayed abscission and the consequent formation of stem cysts in which chains of daughter cells remain interconnected to the fGSC via midbody rings and fusome. We demonstrate that ALIX and Shrub interact and that they co-localize at midbody rings and midbodies during cytokinetic abscission in fGSCs. Mechanistically, we show that the direct interaction between ALIX and Shrub is required to ensure cytokinesis completion with normal kinetics in fGSCs. We conclude that ALIX and ESCRT-III coordinately control abscission in Drosophila fGSCs and that their complex formation is required for accurate abscission timing in GSCs in vivo.

  3. The microRNA-200 family coordinately regulates cell adhesion and proliferation in hair morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefert, Jaimee E; Bjerke, Glen A; Wang, Dongmei; Yi, Rui

    2018-06-04

    The microRNA (miRNA)-200 (miR-200) family is highly expressed in epithelial cells and frequently lost in metastatic cancer. Despite intensive studies into their roles in cancer, their targets and functions in normal epithelial tissues remain unclear. Importantly, it remains unclear how the two subfamilies of the five-miRNA family, distinguished by a single nucleotide within the seed region, regulate their targets. By directly ligating miRNAs to their targeted mRNA regions, we identify numerous miR-200 targets involved in the regulation of focal adhesion, actin cytoskeleton, cell cycle, and Hippo/Yap signaling. The two subfamilies bind to largely distinct target sites, but many genes are coordinately regulated by both subfamilies. Using inducible and knockout mouse models, we show that the miR-200 family regulates cell adhesion and orientation in the hair germ, contributing to precise cell fate specification and hair morphogenesis. Our findings demonstrate that combinatorial targeting of many genes is critical for miRNA function and provide new insights into miR-200's functions. © 2018 Hoefert et al.

  4. Unirradiated cells rescue cells exposed to ionizing radiation: Activation of NF-κB pathway in irradiated cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, R.K.K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Han, Wei [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Rescue effect was observed in both irradiated and HeLa and NIH/3T3 cells. • Novel setup and procedures to separate the rescue signals and the bystander signals. • Confirmed activation of NF-κB pathway in rescue effect using activation inhibitor. • Confirmed activation of NF-κB pathway in rescue effect using anti-NF-κB p65 antibody. - Abstract: We studied the involvement of NF-κB pathway activation in the rescue effect in HeLa and NIH/3T3 cells irradiated by α particles. Firstly, upon irradiation by 5 cGy of α particles, for both cell lines, the numbers of 53BP1 foci/cell at 12 h post-irradiation were significantly smaller when only 2.5% of the cell population was irradiated as compared to 100% irradiation, which demonstrated the rescue effect. Secondly, we studied the effect of NF-κB on the rescue effect through the use of the NF-κB activation inhibitor BAY-11-7082. Novel experimental setup and procedures were designed to prepare the medium (CM) which had conditioned the bystander cells previously partnered with irradiated cells, to ensure physical separation between rescue and bystander signals. BAY-11-7082 itself did not inflict DNA damages in the cells or have effects on activation of the NF-κB response pathway in the irradiated cells through direct irradiation. The rescue effect was induced in both cell lines by the CM, which was abrogated if BAY-11-7082 was added to the CM. Thirdly, we studied the effect of NF-κB on the rescue effect through staining for phosphorylated NF-κB (p-NF-κB) expression using the anti-NF-κB p65 (phospho S536) antibody. When the fraction of irradiated cells dropped from 100% to 2.5%, the p-NF-κB expression in the cell nuclei of irradiated NIH/3T3 cells increased significantly, while that in the cell nuclei of irradiated HeLa cells also increased although not significantly. Moreover, the p-NF-κB expression in the cell nuclei of irradiated HeLa cells and NIH/3T3 cells treated with CM also increased

  5. A novel self-assembly with zinc porphyrin coordination polymer for enhanced photocurrent conversion in supramolecular solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Jing; Liu, Jia-Cheng; Deng, Wen-Ting; Li, Ren-Zhi; Jin, Neng-Zhi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An innovative type of self-assembly based on acetohydrazide zinc porphyrin coordination polymer has been prepared in supramolecular solar cells. - Highlights: • A novel assembly with acetohydrazide porphyrin coordination polymer. • The assembly based on porphyrin is prepared as parallel sample. • Coordination polymer-based assembly shows enhanced photoelectronic behavior. • A series of different organic acid ligands as anchoring groups are prepared. - Abstract: In this work, a novel acetohydrazide zinc porphyrin-based coordination polymer (CP)-isonicotinic acid self-assembly by metal-ligand axial coordination to modify the nano-structured TiO 2 electrode surface has been investigated in photoelectrochemical device. Compared to the assembly based on corresponding zinc porphyrin combined with isonicotinic acid by metal-ligand axial coordination, CP-isonicotinic acid assembly exhibits a significantly enhanced photoelectronic behavior. In addition, a series of different organic acid ligands were prepared to probe the impact of their structures on the photoelectronic performances of their corresponding assemblies-sensitized cells. This study affords a novel type of self-assembly to functionalize the nanostructured TiO 2 electrode surface in supramolecular solar cells

  6. An arbitrary curvilinear-coordinate method for particle-in-cell modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fichtl, C A; Finn, J M; Cartwright, K L

    2012-01-01

    A new approach to kinetic simulation of plasmas in complex geometries, based on the particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation method, is explored. In the two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic version of our method, called the arbitrary curvilinear-coordinate PIC method, all essential PIC operations are carried out in 2D on a uniform grid on the unit square logical domain, and mapped to a nonuniform boundary-fitted grid on the physical domain. As the resulting logical grid equations of motion are not separable, we have developed an extension of the semi-implicit modified leapfrog integration technique to preserve the symplectic nature of the logical grid particle mover. A generalized, curvilinear-coordinate formulation of Poisson's equations to solve for the electrostatic fields on the uniform logical grid is also developed. By our formulation, we compute the plasma charge density on the logical grid based on the particles' positions on the logical domain. That is, the plasma particles are weighted to the uniform logical grid and the self-consistent mean electrostatic fields obtained from the solution of the logical grid Poisson equation are interpolated to the particle positions on the logical grid. This process eliminates the complexity associated with the weighting and interpolation processes on the nonuniform physical grid and allows us to run the PIC method on arbitrary boundary-fitted meshes. (paper)

  7. Comparison of Perturbed Pathways in Two Different Cell Models for Parkinson's Disease with Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Daniele; Do, Jin Hwan

    2015-12-16

    Increasing evidence indicates that different morphological types of cell death coexist in the brain of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), but the molecular explanation for this is still under investigation. In this study, we identified perturbed pathways in two different cell models for PD through the following procedures: (1) enrichment pathway analysis with differentially expressed genes and the Reactome pathway database, and (2) construction of the shortest path model for the enriched pathway and detection of significant shortest path model with fitting time-course microarray data of each PD cell model to structural equation model. Two PD cell models constructed by the same neurotoxin showed different perturbed pathways. That is, one showed perturbation of three Reactome pathways, including cellular senescence, chromatin modifying enzymes, and chromatin organization, while six modules within metabolism pathway represented perturbation in the other. This suggests that the activation of common upstream cell death pathways in PD may result in various down-stream processes, which might be associated with different morphological types of cell death. In addition, our results might provide molecular clues for coexistence of different morphological types of cell death in PD patients.

  8. IL22/IL-22R pathway induces cell survival in human glioblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Akil

    Full Text Available Interleukin-22 (IL-22 is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family that binds to a heterodimeric receptor consisting of IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1 and IL-10R2. IL-22R expression was initially characterized on epithelial cells, and plays an essential role in a number of inflammatory diseases. Recently, a functional receptor was detected on cancer cells such as hepatocarcinoma and lung carcinoma, but its presence was not reported in glioblastoma (GBM. Two GBM cell lines and 10 primary cell lines established from patients undergoing surgery for malignant GBM were used to investigate the expression of IL-22 and IL-22R by using quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and confocal microscopy studies. The role of IL-22 in proliferation and survival of GBM cell lines was investigated in vitro by BrdU and ELISA cell death assays. We report herein that the two subunits of the IL-22R complex are expressed on human GBM cells. Their activation, depending on exogenous IL-22, induced antiapoptotic effect and cell proliferation. IL-22 treatment of GBM cells resulted in increased levels of phosphorylated Akt, STAT3 signaling protein and its downstream antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL and decreased level of phosphorylated ERK1/2. In addition, IL-22R subunits were expressed in all the 10 tested primary cell lines established from GBM tumors. Our results showed that IL-22R is expressed on GBM established and primary cell lines. Depending on STAT3, ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways, IL-22 induced GBM cell survival. These data are consistent with a potential role of IL-22R in tumorigenesis of GBM. Since endogenous IL-22 was not detected in all studied GBM cells, we hypothesize that IL-22R could be activated by immune microenvironmental IL-22 producing cells.

  9. Exploration of molecular pathways mediating electric field-directed Schwann cell migration by RNA-Seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li; Li, Yongchao; Knapp, Jennifer; Smith, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In peripheral nervous systems, Schwann cells wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath. Following spinal cord injury, Schwann cells regenerate and migrate to the lesion and are involved in the spinal cord regeneration process. Transplantation of Schwann cells into injured neural tissue results in enhanced spinal axonal regeneration. Effective directional migration of Schwann cells is critical in the neural regeneration process. In this study, we report that Schwann cells migrate anodally in an applied electric field (EF). The directedness and displacement of anodal migration increased significantly when the strength of the EF increased from 50 mV/mm to 200 mV/mm. The EF did not significantly affect the cell migration speed. To explore the genes and signaling pathways that regulate cell migration in EFs, we performed a comparative analysis of differential gene expression between cells stimulated with an EF (100 mV/mm) and those without using next-generation RNA sequencing, verified by RT-qPCR. Based on the cut-off criteria (FC > 1.2, q cells versus EF-stimulated cells. A Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis found that compared to the control group, 21 pathways are down-regulated, while 10 pathways are up-regulated. Differentially expressed genes participate in multiple cellular signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cell migration, including pathways of regulation of actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, and PI3K-Akt. PMID:25557037

  10. Cell volume homeostatic mechanisms: effectors and signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, E K; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2011-01-01

    . Later work addressed the mechanisms through which cellular signalling pathways regulate the volume regulatory effectors or flux pathways. These studies were facilitated by the molecular identification of most of the relevant channels and transporters, and more recently also by the increased...

  11. Comparison of growth factor signalling pathway utilisation in cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Stones, Clare; Joseph, Wayne R; Leung, Euphemia; Finlay, Graeme J; Shelling, Andrew N; Phillips, Wayne A; Shepherd, Peter R; Baguley, Bruce C

    2012-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K-PKB), mitogen activated protein kinase (MEK-ERK) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR- p70S6K), are thought to regulate many aspects of tumour cell proliferation and survival. We have examined the utilisation of these three signalling pathways in a number of cell lines derived from patients with metastatic malignant melanoma of known PIK3CA, PTEN, NRAS and BRAF mutational status. Western blotting was used to compare the phosphorylation status of components of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways, as indices of pathway utilisation. Normal melanocytes could not be distinguished from melanoma cells on the basis of pathway utilisation when grown in the presence of serum, but could be distinguished upon serum starvation, where signalling protein phosphorylation was generally abrogated. Surprisingly, the differential utilisation of individual pathways was not consistently associated with the presence of an oncogenic or tumour suppressor mutation of genes in these pathways. Utilisation of the PI3K-PKB, MEK-ERK and mTOR-p70S6K signalling pathways in melanoma, as determined by phosphorylation of signalling components, varies widely across a series of cell lines, and does not directly reflect mutation of genes coding these components. The main difference between cultured normal melanocytes and melanoma cells is not the pathway utilisation itself, but rather in the serum dependence of pathway utilisation

  12. Rapid and coordinated processing of global motion images by local clusters of retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akihiro; Tachibana, Masao

    2017-01-01

    Even when the body is stationary, the whole retinal image is always in motion by fixational eye movements and saccades that move the eye between fixation points. Accumulating evidence indicates that the brain is equipped with specific mechanisms for compensating for the global motion induced by these eye movements. However, it is not yet fully understood how the retina processes global motion images during eye movements. Here we show that global motion images evoke novel coordinated firing in retinal ganglion cells (GCs). We simultaneously recorded the firing of GCs in the goldfish isolated retina using a multi-electrode array, and classified each GC based on the temporal profile of its receptive field (RF). A moving target that accompanied the global motion (simulating a saccade following a period of fixational eye movements) modulated the RF properties and evoked synchronized and correlated firing among local clusters of the specific GCs. Our findings provide a novel concept for retinal information processing during eye movements.

  13. The Mediator complex: a master coordinator of transcription and cell lineage development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jing-wen; Wang, Gang

    2014-03-01

    Mediator is a multiprotein complex that is required for gene transcription by RNA polymerase II. Multiple subunits of the complex show specificity in relaying information from signals and transcription factors to the RNA polymerase II machinery, thus enabling control of the expression of specific genes. Recent studies have also provided novel mechanistic insights into the roles of Mediator in epigenetic regulation, transcriptional elongation, termination, mRNA processing, noncoding RNA activation and super enhancer formation. Based on these specific roles in gene regulation, Mediator has emerged as a master coordinator of development and cell lineage determination. Here, we describe the most recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of Mediator function, with an emphasis on its role during development and disease.

  14. Histone methyltransferase SETDB1 maintains survival of mouse spermatogonial stem/progenitor cells via PTEN/AKT/FOXO1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiantian; Chen, Xiaoxu; Li, Tianjiao; Li, Xueliang; Lyu, Yinghua; Fan, Xiaoteng; Zhang, Pengfei; Zeng, Wenxian

    2017-10-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) possess the capacity of self-renewal and differentiation, which are the basis of spermatogenesis. In maintenance of SSC homeostasis, intrinsic/extrinsic factors and various signaling pathways tightly control the fate of SSCs. Methyltransferase SETDB1 (Set domain, bifurcated 1) catalyzes histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) trimethylation and represses gene expression. SETDB1 is required for maintaining the survival of spermatogonial stem cells in mice. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we found that Setdb1 regulates PTEN/AKT/FOXO1 pathway to inhibit SSC apoptosis. Co-immunoprecipitation and reporter gene assay revealed that SETDB1 interacted and coordinated with AKT to regulate FOXO1 activity and expression of the downstream target genes Bim and Puma. Among the SETDB1-bound genes, the H3K9me3 levels on the promoter regions of Bim and Pten decreased in Setdb1-KD group; in contrast, H3K9me3 status on promoters of Bax and Puma remained unchanged. Therefore, SETDB1 was responsible for regulating the transcription activity of genes in the apoptotic pathway at least in part through modulating H3K9me3. This study replenishes the research on the epigenetic regulation of SSC survival, and provides a new insight for the future study of epigenetic regulation of spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a coordinated allo T cell and auto B cell response against autosomal PTK2B after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Anita N; van der Griendt, Judith C; van der Meijden, Edith D; Honders, M Willy; Ayoglu, Burcu; Schwenk, Jochen M; Nilsson, Peter; Falkenburg, J H Frederik; Griffioen, Marieke

    2014-02-01

    It is well known that allo-reactive T cells play a crucial role in graft-versus-leukemia and graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). Allo-reactive CD4(+) T cells can mediate direct cytolysis, but may also stimulate production of IgG antibodies as helper cells. Immune complexes may subsequently be processed and presented by professional antigen presenting cells and stimulate induction of specific CD8(+) T cells. As such, proteins targeted in coordinated T- and B-cell responses may represent a class of immunodominant antigens in clinical responses after alloSCT. We previously identified LB-PTK2B-1T as HLA class II restricted polymorphic antigen in a patient treated with donor lymphocyte infusion for relapsed chronic myeloid leukemia after HLA-matched alloSCT. Since PTK2B has also been described as antibody target, we here investigated whether a coordinated T- and B-cell response against PTK2B was induced. Patient serum before and after alloSCT and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) was screened for antibodies, and we indeed observed development of a humoral immune response against PTK2B. Antibodies against PTK2B were only found after DLI and, in contrast to the CD4(+) T cells, recognized a monomorphic region of the protein. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a coordinated allo-reactive CD4(+) T-cell and auto-reactive antibody response against an autosomal antigen.

  16. Stem cell maintenance by manipulating signaling pathways: past, current and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Ye, Shoudong; Ying, Qi-Long

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells only exist in a narrow window during early embryonic development, whereas multipotent stem cells are abundant throughout embryonic development and are retainedin various adult tissues and organs. While pluripotent stem cell lines have been established from several species, including mouse, rat, and human, it is still challenging to establish stable multipotent stem cell lines from embryonic or adult tissues. Based on current knowledge, we anticipate that by manipulating extrinsic and intrinsic signaling pathways, most if not all types of stem cells can be maintained in a long-term culture. In this article, we summarize current culture conditions established for the long-term maintenance of authentic pluripotent and multipotent stem cells and the signaling pathways involved. We also discuss the general principles of stem cell maintenance and propose several strategies on the establishment of novel stem cell lines through manipulation of signaling pathways. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(12): 668-676] PMID:26497581

  17. G9a coordinates with the RPA complex to promote DNA damage repair and cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiaoyan; Zhu, Qian; Lu, Xiaopeng; Du, Yipeng; Cao, Linlin; Shen, Changchun; Hou, Tianyun; Li, Meiting; Li, Zhiming; Liu, Chaohua; Wu, Di; Xu, Xingzhi; Wang, Lina; Wang, Haiying; Zhao, Ying; Yang, Yang; Zhu, Wei-Guo

    2017-07-25

    Histone methyltransferase G9a has critical roles in promoting cancer-cell growth and gene suppression, but whether it is also associated with the DNA damage response is rarely studied. Here, we report that loss of G9a impairs DNA damage repair and enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapeutics. In response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), G9a is phosphorylated at serine 211 by casein kinase 2 (CK2) and recruited to chromatin. The chromatin-enriched G9a can then directly interact with replication protein A (RPA) and promote loading of the RPA and Rad51 recombinase to DSBs. This mechanism facilitates homologous recombination (HR) and cell survival. We confirmed the interaction between RPA and G9a to be critical for RPA foci formation and HR upon DNA damage. Collectively, our findings demonstrate a regulatory pathway based on CK2-G9a-RPA that permits HR in cancer cells and provide further rationale for the use of G9a inhibitors as a cancer therapeutic.

  18. Hedgehog signal activation coordinates proliferation and differentiation of fetal liver progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yoshikazu; Itoh, Tohru; Miyajima, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays crucial roles in development and homeostasis of various organs. In the adult liver, it regulates proliferation and/or viability of several types of cells, particularly under injured conditions, and is also implicated in stem/progenitor cell maintenance. However, the role of this signaling pathway during the normal developmental process of the liver remains elusive. Although Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the ventral foregut endoderm from which the liver derives, the expression disappears at the onset of the liver bud formation, and its possible recurrence at the later stages has not been investigated. Here we analyzed the activation and functional relevance of Hh signaling during the mouse fetal liver development. At E11.5, Shh and an activation marker gene for Hh signaling, Gli1, were expressed in Dlk + hepatoblasts, the fetal liver progenitor cells, and the expression was rapidly decreased thereafter as the development proceeded. In the culture of Dlk + hepatoblasts isolated from the E11.5 liver, activation of Hh signaling stimulated their proliferation and this effect was cancelled by a chemical Hh signaling inhibitor, cyclopamine. In contrast, hepatocyte differentiation of Dlk + hepatoblasts in vitro as manifested by the marker gene expression and acquisition of ammonia clearance activity was significantly inhibited by forced activation of Hh signaling. Taken together, these results demonstrate the temporally restricted manner of Hh signal activation and its role in promoting the hepatoblast proliferation, and further suggest that the pathway needs to be shut off for the subsequent hepatic differentiation of hepatoblasts to proceed normally.

  19. Pathway of 3-MCPD-induced apoptosis in human embryonic kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jian; Zhu, Pei; Sun, Chao; Sun, Jiadi; An, Lu; Zhang, Yinzhi; Sun, Xiulan

    2017-01-01

    3-Chloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) is a heat-produced contaminant formed during the preparation of soy sauce worldwide. The present investigation was conducted to determine the molecular aspects of 3-MCPD toxicity on human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293). Cell viability and apoptosis were assessed in response to exposure to 3-MCPD using the MTT assay and high-content screening (HCS). DNA damage, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis-related proteins were evaluated. Genes related with apoptosis were detected by qPCR-array for further understanding the 3-MCPD induced cell apoptosis signaling pathway. Our results clearly showed that 3-MCPD treatment inhibits cell proliferation and reactive oxygen species generation. qPCR-array indicated that nine apoptotic genes were up-regulated more than 2-fold and six down-regulated more than 2-fold. Genes associated with the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, especially BCL2 family genes, changed significantly, indicating that the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway is activated. Death receptor pathway-related genes, TNFRSF11B and TNFRSF1A, changed significantly, indicating that the death receptor pathway is also activated, resulting in the inhibition of cell growth and proliferation as well as induction of apoptosis. To sum up, the experiment results indicated that 3-MCPD induced HEK293 cell toxicity through the death receptor pathway and mitochondrial pathway.

  20. Radiotherapy induces cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma via the ATM and Smad pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Yi; Liu, Jin-Quan; Chen, Dong-Ping; Li, Zhou-Yu; Qi, Bin; He, Lu; Yu, Yi; Yin, Wen-Jin; Wang, Meng-Yao; Lin, Ling

    2017-09-02

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common malignant neoplasm of the head and neck which is harmful to human's health. Radiotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of NPC and it induces immediate cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. However, the mechanism remains unknown. Evidences suggested the activation of Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) pathway and Smad pathway are 2 of the important crucial mediators in the function of radiotherapy. In this study, we performed in vitro assays with human nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE-2 cells and in vivo assays with nude mice to investigate the role of the ATM and Smad pathways in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma with radiotherapy. The results suggested that radiation induced activation of ATM pathway by inducing expression of p-ATM, p-CHK1, p-CHK2, p15 and inhibiting expression of p-Smad3. In addition, Caspase3 expression was increased while CDC25A was decreased, leading to cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, activation of Smad3 can inhibited the ATM pathway and attenuated the efficacy of radiation. In summary, we suggest that both ATM and Smad pathways contribute to the cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis during nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells treated with radiation.

  1. The hedgehog pathway gene shifted functions together with the hmgcr-dependent isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway to orchestrate germ cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Deshpande

    Full Text Available The Drosophila embryonic gonad is assembled from two distinct cell types, the Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs and the Somatic Gonadal Precursor cells (SGPs. The PGCs form at the posterior of blastoderm stage embryos and are subsequently carried inside the embryo during gastrulation. To reach the SGPs, the PGCs must traverse the midgut wall and then migrate through the mesoderm. A combination of local repulsive cues and attractive signals emanating from the SGPs guide migration. We have investigated the role of the hedgehog (hh pathway gene shifted (shf in directing PGC migration. shf encodes a secreted protein that facilitates the long distance transmission of Hh through the proteoglycan matrix after it is released from basolateral membranes of Hh expressing cells in the wing imaginal disc. shf is expressed in the gonadal mesoderm, and loss- and gain-of-function experiments demonstrate that it is required for PGC migration. Previous studies have established that the hmgcr-dependent isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway plays a pivotal role in generating the PGC attractant both by the SGPs and by other tissues when hmgcr is ectopically expressed. We show that production of this PGC attractant depends upon shf as well as a second hh pathway gene gγ1. Further linking the PGC attractant to Hh, we present evidence indicating that ectopic expression of hmgcr in the nervous system promotes the release/transmission of the Hh ligand from these cells into and through the underlying mesodermal cell layer, where Hh can contact migrating PGCs. Finally, potentiation of Hh by hmgcr appears to depend upon cholesterol modification.

  2. Phenotypic high-throughput screening elucidates target pathway in breast cancer stem cell-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Leigh C; Germain, Andrew R; VerPlank, Lynn; Nag, Partha P; Muñoz, Benito; Perez, Jose R; Palmer, Michelle A J

    2012-10-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are resistant to standard cancer treatments and are likely responsible for cancer recurrence, but few therapies target this subpopulation. Due to the difficulty in propagating CSCs outside of the tumor environment, previous work identified CSC-like cells by inducing human breast epithelial cells into an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiated state (HMLE_sh_ECad). A phenotypic screen was conducted against HMLE_sh_ECad with 300 718 compounds from the Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository to identify selective inhibitors of CSC growth. The screen yielded 2244 hits that were evaluated for toxicity and selectivity toward an isogenic control cell line. An acyl hydrazone scaffold emerged as a potent and selective scaffold targeting HMLE_sh_ECad. Fifty-three analogues were acquired and tested; compounds ranged in potency from 790 nM to inactive against HMLE_sh_ECad. Of the analogues, ML239 was best-in-class with an IC(50)= 1.18 µM against HMLE_sh_ECad, demonstrated a >23-fold selectivity over the control line, and was toxic to another CSC-like line, HMLE_shTwist, and a breast carcinoma cell line, MDA-MB-231. Gene expression studies conducted with ML239-treated cells showed altered gene expression in the NF-κB pathway in the HMLE_sh_ECad line but not in the isogenic control line. Future studies will be directed toward the identification of ML239 target(s).

  3. Transcriptomics and physiological analyses reveal co-ordinated alteration of metabolic pathways in Jatropha curcas drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapeta, Helena; Lourenço, Tiago; Lorenz, Stefan; Grumaz, Christian; Kirstahler, Philipp; Barros, Pedro M; Costa, Joaquim Miguel; Sohn, Kai; Oliveira, M Margarida

    2016-02-01

    Jatropha curcas, a multipurpose plant attracting a great deal of attention due to its high oil content and quality for biofuel, is recognized as a drought-tolerant species. However, this drought tolerance is still poorly characterized. This study aims to contribute to uncover the molecular background of this tolerance, using a combined approach of transcriptional profiling and morphophysiological characterization during a period of water-withholding (49 d) followed by rewatering (7 d). Morphophysiological measurements showed that J. curcas plants present different adaptation strategies to withstand moderate and severe drought. Therefore, RNA sequencing was performed for samples collected under moderate and severe stress followed by rewatering, for both roots and leaves. Jatropha curcas transcriptomic analysis revealed shoot- and root-specific adaptations across all investigated conditions, except under severe stress, when the dramatic transcriptomic reorganization at the root and shoot level surpassed organ specificity. These changes in gene expression were clearly shown by the down-regulation of genes involved in growth and water uptake, and up-regulation of genes related to osmotic adjustments and cellular homeostasis. However, organ-specific gene variations were also detected, such as strong up-regulation of abscisic acid synthesis in roots under moderate stress and of chlorophyll metabolism in leaves under severe stress. Functional validation further corroborated the differential expression of genes coding for enzymes involved in chlorophyll metabolism, which correlates with the metabolite content of this pathway. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Induction of discrete apoptotic pathways by bromo-substituted indirubin derivatives in invasive breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolaou, Katerina A. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus); Liapis, Vasilis; Evdokiou, Andreas [Department of Surgery, Basil Hetzel Institute, Adelaide University, Adelaide (Australia); Constantinou, Constantina [St. George' s University of London Medical School at the University of Nicosia, Nicosia (Cyprus); Magiatis, Prokopios; Skaltsounis, Alex L. [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Koumas, Laura; Costeas, Paul A. [Center for Study of Hematological Malignancies, Nicosia (Cyprus); Constantinou, Andreas I., E-mail: andreasc@ucy.ac.cy [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cyprus, Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of 6BIO and 7BIO are evaluated against five breast cancer cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 6BIO induces a caspase dependent apoptotic effect via the intrinsic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO promotes G{sub 2}/M cells cycle arrest. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO triggers a caspase-8 mediated apoptotic pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 7BIO triggers and a caspase independent pathway. -- Abstract: Indirubin derivatives gained interest in recent years for their anticancer and antimetastatic properties. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the anticancer properties of the two novel bromo-substituted derivatives 6-bromoindirubin-3 Prime -oxime (6BIO) and 7-bromoindirubin-3 Prime -oxime (7BIO) in five different breast cancer cell lines. Cell viability assays identified that 6BIO and 7BIO are most effective in preventing the proliferation of the MDA-MB-231-TXSA breast cancer cell line from a total of five breast cancer cell lined examined. In addition it was found that the two compounds induce apoptosis via different mechanisms. 6BIO induces caspase-dependent programmed cell death through the intrinsic (mitochondrial) caspase-9 pathway. 7BIO up-regulates p21 and promotes G{sub 2}/M cell cycle arrest which is subsequently followed by the activation of two different apoptotic pathways: (a) a pathway that involves the upregulation of DR4/DR5 and activation of caspase-8 and (b) a caspase independent pathway. In conclusion, this study provides important insights regarding the molecular pathways leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by two indirubin derivatives that can find clinical applications in targeted cancer therapeutics.

  5. Targeting chondrosarcoma and osteosarcoma cell metabolism : the IGF pathway and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterse, E.F.P.

    2018-01-01

    Thesis explored potential new therapeutic strategies by identifying cellular pathways that are essential for chondrosarcoma and osteosarcoma cell survival. Although clinical trials with IGF1R inhibitors have disappointing results in osteosarcoma, this thesis strengthens the view that the IGF

  6. The regulation of ras-raf signaling pathway on G1 phase of the irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dehuang; Dong Bo; Liu Nongle; Wen Gengyun; Luo Qingliang; Mao Bingzhi

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the way of ras-raf signaling pathway which regulate the G 1 phase in irradiated KG-1 cells. Methods: Blocked the GM-CSF signaling pathway by transfected DN-ras and then momentary transfected cyclin D1 into irradiated KG-1 cells, the effects of cyclin D1 on G 1 phase was examined. Results: The irradiated KG-1 cells transfected DN-ras can't recover form G 1 phase arrest even though the GM-CSF was given,momentary transfected cyclin D1 promote the irradiated KG-1 cells from G 1 arrest. Conclusion: Activation of ras-raf signaling pathway regulate the cell cycle of the irradiated KG-1 cells through promotion the expression of the cyclin D1

  7. Control of cell proliferation, endoreduplication, cell size, and cell death by the retinoblastoma-related pathway in maize endosperm

    KAUST Repository

    Sabelli, Paolo A.

    2013-04-22

    The endospermof cereal grains is one of the most valuable products of modern agriculture. Cereal endosperm development comprises different phases characterized by mitotic cell proliferation, endoreduplication, the accumulation of storage compounds, and programmed cell death. Although manipulation of these processes could maximize grain yield, how they are regulated and integrated is poorly understood. We show that the Retinoblastoma-related (RBR) pathway controls key aspects of endosperm development in maize. Down-regulation of RBR1 by RNAi resulted in up-regulation of RBR3-type genes, as well as the MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE 2-7 gene family and PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN, which encode essential DNA replication factors. Both the mitotic and endoreduplication cell cycles were stimulated. Developing transgenic endosperm contained 42-58% more cells and ~70% more DNA than wild type, whereas there was a reduction in cell and nuclear sizes. In addition, cell death was enhanced. The DNA content of mature endosperm increased 43% upon RBR1 downregulation, whereas storage protein content and kernel weight were essentially not affected. Down-regulation of both RBR1 and CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASE A (CDKA);1 indicated that CDKA;1 is epistatic to RBR1 and controls endoreduplication through an RBR1- dependent pathway. However, the repressive activity of RBR1 on downstream targets was independent from CDKA;1, suggesting diversification of RBR1 activities. Furthermore, RBR1 negatively regulated CDK activity, suggesting the presence of a feedback loop. These results indicate that the RBR1 pathway plays a major role in regulation of different processes during maize endosperm development and suggest the presence of tissue/organlevel regulation of endosperm/seed homeostasis.

  8. Characterization of the loss of SUMO pathway function on cancer cells and tumor proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyue He

    Full Text Available SUMOylation is a post-translational ubiquitin-like protein modification pathway that regulates important cellular processes including chromosome structure, kinetochore function, chromosome segregation, nuclear and sub-nuclear organization, transcription and DNA damage repair. There is increasing evidence that the SUMO pathway is dysregulated in cancer, raising the possibility that modulation of this pathway may have therapeutic potential. To investigate the importance of the SUMO pathway in the context of cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth, we applied lentivirus-based short hairpin RNAs (shRNA to knockdown SUMO pathway genes in human cancer cells. shRNAs for SAE2 and UBC9 reduced SUMO conjugation activity and inhibited proliferation of human cancer cells. To expand upon these observations, we generated doxycycline inducible conditional shRNA cell lines for SAE2 to achieve acute and reversible SAE2 knockdown. Conditional SAE2 knockdown in U2OS and HCT116 cells slowed cell growth in vitro, and SAE2 knockdown induced multiple terminal outcomes including apoptosis, endoreduplication and senescence. Multinucleated cells became senescent and stained positive for the senescence marker, SA-β Gal, and displayed elevated levels of p53 and p21. In an attempt to explain these phenotypes, we confirmed that loss of SUMO pathway activity leads to a loss of SUMOylated Topoisomerase IIα and the appearance of chromatin bridges which can impair proper cytokinesis and lead to multinucleation. Furthermore, knockdown of SAE2 induces disruption of PML nuclear bodies which may further promote apoptosis or senescence. In an in vivo HCT116 xenograft tumor model, conditional SAE2 knockdown strongly impaired tumor growth. These data demonstrate that the SUMO pathway is required for cancer cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, implicating the SUMO pathway as a potential cancer therapeutic target.

  9. The Notch Signaling Pathway Is Balancing Type 1 Innate Lymphoid Cell Immune Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Perchet

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Notch pathway is one of the canonical signaling pathways implicated in the development of various solid tumors. During carcinogenesis, the Notch pathway dysregulation induces tumor expression of Notch receptor ligands participating to escape the immune surveillance. The Notch pathway conditions both the development and the functional regulation of lymphoid subsets. Its importance on T cell subset polarization has been documented contrary to its action on innate lymphoid cells (ILC. We aim to analyze the effect of the Notch pathway on type 1 ILC polarization and functions after disruption of the RBPJk-dependent Notch signaling cascade. Indeed, type 1 ILC comprises conventional NK (cNK cells and type 1 helper innate lymphoid cells (ILC1 that share Notch-related functional characteristics such as the IFNg secretion downstream of T-bet expression. cNK cells have strong antitumor properties. However, data are controversial concerning ILC1 functions during carcinogenesis with models showing antitumoral capacities and others reporting ILC1 inability to control tumor growth. Using various mouse models of Notch signaling pathway depletion, we analyze the effects of its absence on type 1 ILC differentiation and cytotoxic functions. We also provide clues into its role in the maintenance of immune homeostasis in tissues. We show that modulating the Notch pathway is not only acting on tumor-specific T cell activity but also on ILC immune subset functions. Hence, our study uncovers the intrinsic Notch signaling pathway in ILC1/cNK populations and their response in case of abnormal Notch ligand expression. This study help evaluating the possible side effects mediated by immune cells different from T cells, in case of multivalent forms of the Notch receptor ligand delta 1 treatments. In definitive, it should help determining the best novel combination of therapeutic strategies in case of solid tumors.

  10. The CWI Pathway: Regulation of the Transcriptional Adaptive Response to Cell Wall Stress in Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén Sanz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are surrounded by an essential structure, the cell wall, which not only confers cell shape but also protects cells from environmental stress. As a consequence, yeast cells growing under cell wall damage conditions elicit rescue mechanisms to provide maintenance of cellular integrity and fungal survival. Through transcriptional reprogramming, yeast modulate the expression of genes important for cell wall biogenesis and remodeling, metabolism and energy generation, morphogenesis, signal transduction and stress. The yeast cell wall integrity (CWI pathway, which is very well conserved in other fungi, is the key pathway for the regulation of this adaptive response. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the yeast transcriptional program elicited to counterbalance cell wall stress situations, the role of the CWI pathway in the regulation of this program and the importance of the transcriptional input received by other pathways. Modulation of this adaptive response through the CWI pathway by positive and negative transcriptional feedbacks is also discussed. Since all these regulatory mechanisms are well conserved in pathogenic fungi, improving our knowledge about them will have an impact in the developing of new antifungal therapies.

  11. Pathways in pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    du Puy, L.

    2010-01-01

    Pluripotency - the potential to differentiate into derivatives of the three embryonic germ layers endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm - is the main characteristic of embryonic stem (ES) cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of a pre-implantation blastocyst and can self-renew

  12. Principal coordinate analysis assisted chromatographic analysis of bacterial cell wall collection: A robust classification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Keshav; Cava, Felipe

    2018-04-10

    In the present work, Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) is introduced to develop a robust model to classify the chromatographic data sets of peptidoglycan sample. PcoA captures the heterogeneity present in the data sets by using the dissimilarity matrix as input. Thus, in principle, it can even capture the subtle differences in the bacterial peptidoglycan composition and can provide a more robust and fast approach for classifying the bacterial collection and identifying the novel cell wall targets for further biological and clinical studies. The utility of the proposed approach is successfully demonstrated by analysing the two different kind of bacterial collections. The first set comprised of peptidoglycan sample belonging to different subclasses of Alphaproteobacteria. Whereas, the second set that is relatively more intricate for the chemometric analysis consist of different wild type Vibrio Cholerae and its mutants having subtle differences in their peptidoglycan composition. The present work clearly proposes a useful approach that can classify the chromatographic data sets of chromatographic peptidoglycan samples having subtle differences. Furthermore, present work clearly suggest that PCoA can be a method of choice in any data analysis workflow. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Many-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Using Two-Stage Strategy and Parallel Cell Coordinate System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wang; Yen, Gary G; Luo, Guangchun

    2017-06-01

    It is a daunting challenge to balance the convergence and diversity of an approximate Pareto front in a many-objective optimization evolutionary algorithm. A novel algorithm, named many-objective particle swarm optimization with the two-stage strategy and parallel cell coordinate system (PCCS), is proposed in this paper to improve the comprehensive performance in terms of the convergence and diversity. In the proposed two-stage strategy, the convergence and diversity are separately emphasized at different stages by a single-objective optimizer and a many-objective optimizer, respectively. A PCCS is exploited to manage the diversity, such as maintaining a diverse archive, identifying the dominance resistant solutions, and selecting the diversified solutions. In addition, a leader group is used for selecting the global best solutions to balance the exploitation and exploration of a population. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms six chosen state-of-the-art designs in terms of the inverted generational distance and hypervolume over the DTLZ test suite.

  14. Multiciliated cell basal bodies align in stereotypical patterns coordinated by the apical cytoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, Elisa; Kanoh, Hatsuho

    2016-01-01

    Multiciliated cells (MCCs) promote fluid flow through coordinated ciliary beating, which requires properly organized basal bodies (BBs). Airway MCCs have large numbers of BBs, which are uniformly oriented and, as we show here, align linearly. The mechanism for BB alignment is unexplored. To study this mechanism, we developed a long-term and high-resolution live-imaging system and used it to observe green fluorescent protein–centrin2–labeled BBs in cultured mouse tracheal MCCs. During MCC differentiation, the BB array adopted four stereotypical patterns, from a clustering “floret” pattern to the linear “alignment.” This alignment process was correlated with BB orientations, revealed by double immunostaining for BBs and their asymmetrically associated basal feet (BF). The BB alignment was disrupted by disturbing apical microtubules with nocodazole and by a BF-depleting Odf2 mutation. We constructed a theoretical model, which indicated that the apical cytoskeleton, acting like a viscoelastic fluid, provides a self-organizing mechanism in tracheal MCCs to align BBs linearly for mucociliary transport. PMID:27573463

  15. The self-renewal signaling pathways utilized by gastric cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ying; Li, Hui; Hao, Xishan

    2017-04-01

    Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Cancer stem cells are the source of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Self-renewal is a marker of cancer stem cells and also the basis of long-lasting survival and tumor progression. Although the mechanism of gastric cancer stem cell self-renewal is not clear, there are several signaling pathways and environmental factors known to be involved. This mini review describes recent developments in the self-renewal signaling pathway of gastric cancer stem cell research. Advancements made in this field of research will likely support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer.

  16. Locally advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma: molecular pathways, treatment options and new targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Salas, Veronica; Alegre, Marta; Garcés, Joan Ramón; Puig, Lluis

    2014-06-01

    The hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway has been identified as important to normal embryonic development in living organisms and it is implicated in processes including cell proliferation, differentiation and tissue patterning. Aberrant Hh pathway has been involved in the pathogenesis and chemotherapy resistance of different solid and hematologic malignancies. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and medulloblastoma are two well-recognized cancers with mutations in components of the Hh pathway. Vismodegib has recently approved as the first inhibitor of one of the components of the Hh pathway (smoothened). This review attempts to provide current data on the molecular pathways involved in the development of BCC and the therapeutic options available for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic BCC, and the new targeted therapies in development.

  17. Triple phase boundary specific pathway analysis for quantitative characterization of solid oxide cell electrode microstructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Stanley; Ebbehøj, Søren Lyng; Hauch, Anne

    2015-01-01

    of the pathways through which they can be reached. New methods for performing TPB specific pathway analysis on 3D image data are introduced, analyzing the pathway properties of each TPB site in the electrode structure. The methods seek to provide additional information beyond whether the TPB sites are percolating......The density and percolation of Triple phase boundary sites are important quantities in analyzing microstructures of solid oxide fuel cell electrodes from tomography data. However, these measures do not provide descriptions of the quality of the TPB sites in terms of the length and radius...... or not by also analyzing the pathway length to the TPB sites and the bottleneck radius of the pathway. We show how these methods can be utilized in quantifying and relating the TPB specific results to cell test data of an electrode reduction protocol study for Ni/Scandia-and-Yttria-doped-Zirconia (Ni...

  18. Hedgehog pathway regulators influence cervical cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarzija, Ivana [Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (EPFL), Department of Life Sciences, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Beard, Peter, E-mail: peter.beard@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (EPFL), Department of Life Sciences, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unknown cellular mutations complement papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hedgehog pathway components are expressed by cervical cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hedgehog pathway activators and inhibitors regulate cervical cancer cell biology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell immortalization by papillomavirus and activation of Hedgehog are independent. -- Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to be a primary hit that causes cervical cancer. However, infection with this agent, although needed, is not sufficient for a cancer to develop. Additional cellular changes are required to complement the action of HPV, but the precise nature of these changes is not clear. Here, we studied the function of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in cervical cancer. The Hh pathway can have a role in a number of cancers, including those of liver, lung and digestive tract. We found that components of the Hh pathway are expressed in several cervical cancer cell lines, indicating that there could exists an autocrine Hh signaling loop in these cells. Inhibition of Hh signaling reduces proliferation and survival of the cervical cancer cells and induces their apoptosis as seen by the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein cleaved caspase 3. Our results indicate that Hh signaling is not induced directly by HPV-encoded proteins but rather that Hh-activating mutations are selected in cells initially immortalized by HPV. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) ligand induces proliferation and promotes migration of the cervical cancer cells studied. Together, these results indicate pro-survival and protective roles of an activated Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer-derived cells, and suggest that inhibition of this pathway may be a therapeutic option in fighting cervical cancer.

  19. Hedgehog pathway regulators influence cervical cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarzija, Ivana; Beard, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Unknown cellular mutations complement papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis. ► Hedgehog pathway components are expressed by cervical cancer cells. ► Hedgehog pathway activators and inhibitors regulate cervical cancer cell biology. ► Cell immortalization by papillomavirus and activation of Hedgehog are independent. -- Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to be a primary hit that causes cervical cancer. However, infection with this agent, although needed, is not sufficient for a cancer to develop. Additional cellular changes are required to complement the action of HPV, but the precise nature of these changes is not clear. Here, we studied the function of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in cervical cancer. The Hh pathway can have a role in a number of cancers, including those of liver, lung and digestive tract. We found that components of the Hh pathway are expressed in several cervical cancer cell lines, indicating that there could exists an autocrine Hh signaling loop in these cells. Inhibition of Hh signaling reduces proliferation and survival of the cervical cancer cells and induces their apoptosis as seen by the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein cleaved caspase 3. Our results indicate that Hh signaling is not induced directly by HPV-encoded proteins but rather that Hh-activating mutations are selected in cells initially immortalized by HPV. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) ligand induces proliferation and promotes migration of the cervical cancer cells studied. Together, these results indicate pro-survival and protective roles of an activated Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer-derived cells, and suggest that inhibition of this pathway may be a therapeutic option in fighting cervical cancer.

  20. Aurora kinase A revives dormant laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells via FAK/PI3K/Akt pathway activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-yun; He, Chang-yu; Chen, Xue-hua; Su, Li-ping; Liu, Bing-ya; Zhang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Revival of dormant tumor cells may be an important tumor metastasis mechanism. We hypothesized that aurora kinase A (AURKA), a cell cycle control kinase, promotes the transition of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) cells from G0 phase to active division. We therefore investigated whether AURKA could revive dormant tumor cells to promote metastasis. Western blotting revealed that AURKA expression was persistently low in dormant laryngeal cancer Hep2 (D-Hep2) cells and high in non-dormant (T-Hep2) cells. Decreasing AURKA expression in T-Hep2 cells induced dormancy and reduced FAK/PI3K/Akt pathway activity. Increasing AURKA expression in D-Hep2 cells increased FAK/PI3K/Akt pathway activity and enhanced cellular proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis. In addition, FAK/PI3K/Akt pathway inhibition caused dormancy-like behavior and reduced cellular mobility, migration and invasion. We conclude that AURKA may revive dormant tumor cells via FAK/PI3K/Akt pathway activation, thereby promoting migration and invasion in laryngeal cancer. AURKA/FAK/PI3K/Akt inhibitors may thus represent potential targets for clinical LSCC treatment. PMID:27356739

  1. The convergence of radiation and immunogenic cell death signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, Encouse B.; Pellicciotta, Ilenia; Demaria, Sandra; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary H.; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) triggers programmed cell death in tumor cells through a variety of highly regulated processes. Radiation-induced tumor cell death has been studied extensively in vitro and is widely attributed to multiple distinct mechanisms, including apoptosis, necrosis, mitotic catastrophe (MC), autophagy, and senescence, which may occur concurrently. When considering tumor cell death in the context of an organism, an emerging body of evidence suggests there is a reciprocal relationship in which radiation stimulates the immune system, which in turn contributes to tumor cell kill. As a result, traditional measurements of radiation-induced tumor cell death, in vitro, fail to represent the extent of clinically observed responses, including reductions in loco-regional failure rates and improvements in metastases free and overall survival. Hence, understanding the immunological responses to the type of radiation-induced cell death is critical. In this review, the mechanisms of radiation-induced tumor cell death are described, with particular focus on immunogenic cell death (ICD). Strategies combining radiotherapy with specific chemotherapies or immunotherapies capable of inducing a repertoire of cancer specific immunogens might potentiate tumor control not only by enhancing cell kill but also through the induction of a successful anti-tumor vaccination that improves patient survival.

  2. Activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway enhances monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Kun; Nathan Grantham, R.; Trachte, Aaron L.; Mannion, John D.; Wilson, Colleen L.

    2006-01-01

    Monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium has been reported to be one of the early processes in the development of atherosclerosis. In an attempt to develop strategies to prevent or delay atherosclerosis progression, we analyzed effects of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway on monocyte adhesion to various human endothelial cells. Adhesion of fluorescein-labeled monocytes to various human endothelial cells was analyzed under a fluorescent microscope. Unlike sodium chloride, lithium chloride enhanced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. We further demonstrated that inhibitors for glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β or proteosome enhanced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. Results of semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) indicated that activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway did not change expression levels of mRNA for adhesion molecules. In conclusion, the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway enhanced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion without changing expression levels of adhesion molecules

  3. The role of cell cycle in retinal development: cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors co-ordinate cell-cycle inhibition, cell-fate determination and differentiation in the developing retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilitou, Aikaterini; Ohnuma, Shin-ichi

    2010-03-01

    The mature retina is formed through multi-step developmental processes, including eye field specification, optic vesicle evagination, and cell-fate determination. Co-ordination of these developmental events with cell-proliferative activity is essential to achieve formation of proper retinal structure and function. In particular, the molecular and cellular dynamics of the final cell cycle significantly influence the identity that a cell acquires, since cell fate is largely determined at the final cell cycle for the production of postmitotic cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of the cellular mechanisms that underlie the co-ordination of cell-cycle and cell-fate determination, and also describes a molecular role of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) as co-ordinators of cell-cycle arrest, cell-fate determination and differentiation. Copyright (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Two pathways for electrocatalytic oxidation of hydrogen by a nickel bis(diphosphine) complex with pendant amines in the second coordination sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jenny Y; Smith, Stuart E; Liu, Tianbiao; Dougherty, William G; Hoffert, Wesley A; Kassel, W Scott; Rakowski DuBois, M; DuBois, Daniel L; Bullock, R Morris

    2013-07-03

    A nickel bis(diphosphine) complex containing pendant amines in the second coordination sphere, [Ni(P(Cy)2N(t-Bu)2)2](BF4)2 (P(Cy)2N(t-Bu)2 = 1,5-di(tert-butyl)-3,7-dicyclohexyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane), is an electrocatalyst for hydrogen oxidation. The addition of hydrogen to the Ni(II) complex gives three isomers of the doubly protonated Ni(0) complex [Ni(P(Cy)2N(t-Bu)2H)2](BF4)2. Using the pKa values and Ni(II/I) and Ni(I/0) redox potentials in a thermochemical cycle, the free energy of hydrogen addition to [Ni(P(Cy)2N(t-Bu)2)2](2+) was determined to be -7.9 kcal mol(-1). The catalytic rate observed in dry acetonitrile for the oxidation of H2 depends on base size, with larger bases (NEt3, t-BuNH2) resulting in much slower catalysis than n-BuNH2. The addition of water accelerates the rate of catalysis by facilitating deprotonation of the hydrogen addition product before oxidation, especially for the larger bases NEt3 and t-BuNH2. This catalytic pathway, where deprotonation occurs prior to oxidation, leads to an overpotential that is 0.38 V lower compared to the pathway where oxidation precedes proton movement. Under the optimal conditions of 1.0 atm H2 using n-BuNH2 as a base and with added water, a turnover frequency of 58 s(-1) is observed at 23 °C.

  5. Endothelial cells activate the cancer stem cell-associated NANOGP8 pathway in colorectal cancer cells in a paracrine fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Bhattacharya, Rajat; Ye, Xiangcang; Fan, Fan; Boulbes, Delphine R; Xia, Ling; Ellis, Lee M

    2017-08-01

    In colorectal cancer (CRC), cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been hypothesized to mediate cell survival and chemoresistance. Previous studies from our laboratory described a role for liver parenchymal endothelial cells (LPECs) in mediating the CSC phenotype in CRC cells in a paracrine/angiocrine fashion. The objectives of this study were to determine whether endothelial cells (ECs) from different organs can induce the CSC phenotype in CRC cells and to elucidate the signaling pathways involved. We treated a newly developed CRC cell line (HCP-1) and established CRC cell lines (HT29 and SW480) with conditioned medium (CM) from primary ECs isolated from nonmalignant liver, lung, colon mucosa, and kidney. Our results showed that CM from ECs from all organs increased the number of CSCs, as determined by sphere formation, and protein levels of NANOG and OCT4 in CRC cells. With the focus of further elucidating the role of the liver vascular network in mediating the CSC phenotype, we demonstrated that CM from LPECs increased resistance to 5-fluorouracil in CRC cells. Moreover, we showed that LPEC CM specifically induced NANOGP8 expression in CRC cells by specific enzyme digestion and a luciferase reporter assay using a vector containing the NANOGP8 promoter. Lastly, we found that LPEC CM-induced NANOGP8 expression and sphere formation were mediated by AKT activation. Our studies demonstrated a paracrine role for ECs in regulating the CSC phenotype and chemoresistance in CRC cells by AKT-mediated induction of NANOGP8. These studies suggest a more specific approach to target CSCs by blocking the expression of NANOGP8 in cancer cells. © 2017 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. SIGNALING PATHWAYS ASSOCIATED WITH VX EXPOSURE IN MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Director, ECBC, ATTN: RDCB-DRB-D, APG, MD 21010-5424 Excet, Inc., 8001 Braddock Road , Suite 303...Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent adult stem cells that are key regulators of tissue maintenance and repair. These cells have been identified in...adipocytes) and play a significant role in tissue maintenance and repair (15, 16). MSCs have been shown to be capable of self-renewal and can be maintained

  7. Nitrergic neuromuscular transmission in the mouse internal anal sphincter is accomplished by multiple pathways and postjunctional effector cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotherton, A. G.; Peri, L. E.; Sanders, K. M.; Ward, S. M.; Keef, K. D.

    2014-01-01

    The effector cells and second messengers participating in nitrergic neuromuscular transmission (NMT) were investigated in the mouse internal anal sphincter (IAS). Protein expression of guanylate cyclase (GCα, GCβ) and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI) were examined in cryostat sections with dual-labeling immunohistochemical techniques in PDGFRα+ cells, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), and smooth muscle cells (SMC). Gene expression levels were determined with quantitative PCR of dispersed cells from Pdgfrαegfp/+, KitcopGFP/+, and smMHCCre-egfp mice sorted with FACS. The relative gene and protein expression levels of GCα and GCβ were PDGFRα+ cells > ICC ≫ SMC. In contrast, cGKI gene expression sequence was SMC = ICC > PDGFRα+ cells whereas cGKI protein expression sequence was neurons > SMC ≫ ICC = PDGFRα+ cells. The functional role of cGKI was investigated in cGKI−/− mice. Relaxation with 8-bromo (8-Br)-cGMP was greatly reduced in cGKI−/− mice whereas responses to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were partially reduced and forskolin responses were unchanged. A nitrergic relaxation occurred with nerve stimulation (NS, 5 Hz, 60 s) in cGKI+/+ and cGKI−/− mice although there was a small reduction in the cGKI−/− mouse. Nω-nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA) abolished responses during the first 20–30 s of NS in both animals. The GC inhibitor ODQ greatly reduced or abolished SNP and nitrergic NS responses in both animals. These data confirm an essential role for GC in NO-induced relaxation in the IAS. However, the expression of GC and cGKI by all three cell types suggests that each may participate in coordinating muscular responses to NO. The persistence of nitrergic NMT in the cGKI−/− mouse suggests the presence of a significant GC-dependent, cGKI-independent pathway. PMID:25301187

  8. Inhibition of radiation induced migration of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells by blocking of EGF receptor pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickhard, Anja C; Schlegel, Jürgen; Arnold, Wolfgang; Reiter, Rudolf; Margraf, Johanna; Knopf, Andreas; Stark, Thomas; Piontek, Guido; Beck, Carolin; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Scherer, Elias Q; Pigorsch, Steffi

    2011-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that radiation induces migration of glioma cells and facilitates a further spread of tumor cells locally and systemically. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether radiotherapy induces migration in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A further aim was to investigate the effects of blocking the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its downstream pathways (Raf/MEK/ERK, PI3K/Akt) on tumor cell migration in vitro. Migration of tumor cells was assessed via a wound healing assay and proliferation by a MTT colorimeritric assay using 3 HNSCC cell lines (BHY, CAL-27, HN). The cells were treated with increasing doses of irradiation (2 Gy, 5 Gy, 8 Gy) in the presence or absence of EGF, EGFR-antagonist (AG1478) or inhibitors of the downstream pathways PI3K (LY294002), mTOR (rapamycin) and MEK1 (PD98059). Biochemical activation of EGFR and the downstream markers Akt and ERK were examined by Western blot analysis. In absence of stimulation or inhibition, increasing doses of irradiation induced a dose-dependent enhancement of migrating cells (p < 0.05 for the 3 HNSCC cell lines) and a decrease of cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for the 3 HNSCC cell lines). The inhibition of EGFR or the downstream pathways reduced cell migration significantly (almost all p < 0.05 for the 3 HNSCC cell lines). Stimulation of HNSCC cells with EGF caused a significant increase in migration (p < 0.05 for the 3 HNSCC cell lines). After irradiation alone a pronounced activation of EGFR was observed by Western blot analysis. Our results demonstrate that the EGFR is involved in radiation induced migration of HNSCC cells. Therefore EGFR or the downstream pathways might be a target for the treatment of HNSCC to improve the efficacy of radiotherapy

  9. Prodigiosin activates endoplasmic reticulum stress cell death pathway in human breast carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Mu-Yun [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Shen, Yuh-Chiang [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lu, Chien-Hsing [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Yang-Ming University School of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Yang, Shu-Yi [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Ho, Tsing-Fen [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Peng, Yu-Ta [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chia-Che, E-mail: chia_che@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Center, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2012-12-15

    as an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer. ► Prodigiosin-induced cytotoxicity involves ER stress-mediated cell death. ► Prodigiosin transcriptionally induces CHOP to suppress BCL2 for evoking cell death. ► Prodigiosin engages the IRE1–JNK and PERK–eIF2α pathways to up-regulate CHOP.

  10. Prodigiosin activates endoplasmic reticulum stress cell death pathway in human breast carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Mu-Yun; Shen, Yuh-Chiang; Lu, Chien-Hsing; Yang, Shu-Yi; Ho, Tsing-Fen; Peng, Yu-Ta; Chang, Chia-Che

    2012-01-01

    endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer. ► Prodigiosin-induced cytotoxicity involves ER stress-mediated cell death. ► Prodigiosin transcriptionally induces CHOP to suppress BCL2 for evoking cell death. ► Prodigiosin engages the IRE1–JNK and PERK–eIF2α pathways to up-regulate CHOP.

  11. Regulation of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathways in Osteosarcoma Cells Following Oleandrin Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunlong; Zhu, Bin; Yong, Lei; Song, Chunyu; Liu, Xiao; Yu, Huilei; Wang, Peng; Liu, Zhongjun; Liu, Xiaoguang

    2016-11-23

    Our previous study has reported the anti-tumor effect of oleandrin on osteosarcoma (OS) cells. In the current study, we mainly explored its potential regulation on intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathway in OS cells. Cells apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were detected using fluorescence staining and flow cytometry. Caspase-3 activity was detected using a commercial kit. The levels of cytoplasmic cytochrome c, mitochondrial cytochrome c, bcl-2, bax, caspase-9, Fas, FasL, caspase-8 and caspase-3 were detected by Western blotting. z-VAD-fmk was applied to block both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways, and cells apoptosis was also tested. Furthermore, we used z-LEHD-fmk and Fas blocking antibody to inhibit intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, separately, and the selectivity of oleandrin on these pathways was explored. Results showed that oleandrin induced the apoptosis of OS cells, which was accompanied by an increase in ROS and a decrease in MMP. Furthermore, cytochrome c level was reduced in mitochondria but elevated in the cytoplasm. Caspase-3 activity was enhanced by oleandrin in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Oleandrin also down-regulated the expression of bcl-2, but up-regulated bax, caspase-9, Fas, FasL, caspase-8 and caspase-3. In addition, the suppression of both apoptotic pathways by z-VAD-fmk greatly reverted the oleandrin-induced apoptosis. Moreover, the suppression of one pathway by a corresponding inhibitor did not affect the regulation of oleandrin on another pathway. Taken together, we concluded that oleandrin induced apoptosis of OS cells via activating both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  12. Planar cell polarity signaling coordinates oriented cell division and cell rearrangement in clonally expanding growth plate cartilage

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuwei; Li, Ang; Junge, Jason; Bronner, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Both oriented cell divisions and cell rearrangements are critical for proper embryogenesis and organogenesis. However, little is known about how these two cellular events are integrated. Here we examine the linkage between these processes in chick limb cartilage. By combining retroviral-based multicolor clonal analysis with live imaging, the results show that single chondrocyte precursors can generate both single-column and multi-column clones through oriented division followed by cell rearra...

  13. Planar cell polarity signaling coordinates oriented cell division and cell rearrangement in clonally expanding growth plate cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuwei; Li, Ang; Junge, Jason; Bronner, Marianne

    2017-10-10

    Both oriented cell divisions and cell rearrangements are critical for proper embryogenesis and organogenesis. However, little is known about how these two cellular events are integrated. Here we examine the linkage between these processes in chick limb cartilage. By combining retroviral-based multicolor clonal analysis with live imaging, the results show that single chondrocyte precursors can generate both single-column and multi-column clones through oriented division followed by cell rearrangements. Focusing on single column formation, we show that this stereotypical tissue architecture is established by a pivot-like process between sister cells. After mediolateral cell division, N-cadherin is enriched in the post-cleavage furrow; then one cell pivots around the other, resulting in stacking into a column. Perturbation analyses demonstrate that planar cell polarity signaling enables cells to pivot in the direction of limb elongation via this N-cadherin-mediated coupling. Our work provides new insights into the mechanisms generating appropriate tissue architecture of limb skeleton.

  14. BAG3: a multifaceted protein that regulates major cell pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, A; Graziano, V; De Laurenzi, V; Pascale, M; Turco, M C

    2011-01-01

    Bcl2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) protein is a member of BAG family of co-chaperones that interacts with the ATPase domain of the heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 through BAG domain (110–124 amino acids). BAG3 is the only member of the family to be induced by stressful stimuli, mainly through the activity of heat shock factor 1 on bag3 gene promoter. In addition to the BAG domain, BAG3 contains also a WW domain and a proline-rich (PXXP) repeat, that mediate binding to partners different from Hsp70. These multifaceted interactions underlie BAG3 ability to modulate major biological processes, that is, apoptosis, development, cytoskeleton organization and autophagy, thereby mediating cell adaptive responses to stressful stimuli. In normal cells, BAG3 is constitutively present in a very few cell types, including cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle cells, in which the protein appears to contribute to cell resistance to mechanical stress. A growing body of evidence indicate that BAG3 is instead expressed in several tumor types. In different tumor contexts, BAG3 protein was reported to sustain cell survival, resistance to therapy, and/or motility and metastatization. In some tumor types, down-modulation of BAG3 levels was shown, as a proof-of-principle, to inhibit neoplastic cell growth in animal models. This review attempts to outline the emerging mechanisms that can underlie some of the biological activities of the protein, focusing on implications in tumor progression. PMID:21472004

  15. Usp7 promotes medulloblastoma cell survival and metastasis by activating Shh pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Meixiao; Sun, Xiaohan; Liu, Jinxiao; Li, Yan; Li, Yong; He, Xu; Zhou, Zizhang; Lu, Ligong

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitin-specific protease Usp7 plays roles in multiple cellular processes through deubiquitinating and stabilizing numerous substrates, including P53, Pten and Gli. Aberrant Usp7 activity has been implicated in many disorders and tumorigenesis, making it as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Although it is clear that Usp7 is involved in many types of cancer, its role in regulating medulloblastoma (MB) is still unknown. In this study, we show that knockdown of Usp7 inhibits the proliferation and migration of MB cells, while Usp7 overexpression exerts an opposite effect. Furthermore, we establish Usp7 knockout MB cell line using the CRISPR/Cas9 system and further confirm that Usp7 knockout also blocks MB cell proliferation and metastasis. In addition, we reveal that knockdown of Usp7 compromises Shh pathway activity and decrease Gli protein levels, while P53 level and P53 target gene expression have no obvious changes. Finally, we find that Usp7 inhibitors apparently inhibit MB cell viability and migration. Taken together, our findings suggest that Usp7 is important for MB cell proliferation and metastasis by activating Shh pathway, and is a putative therapeutic target for MBs. - Highlights: • Loss of usp7 blocks the proliferation and metastasis of MB cells. • Usp7 regulates MB cell growth and migration through stimulating Shh pathway. • Usp7 inhibitors hamper MB cell proliferation and migration. • Usp7 inhibitors could attenuate Shh pathway activity.

  16. Autonomous rexinoid death signaling is suppressed by converging signaling pathways in immature leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, G R; Flexor, M; Besançon, F; Altucci, L; Rossin, A; Hillion, J; Balajthy, Z; Legres, L; Ségal-Bendirdjian, E; Gronemeyer, H; Lanotte, M

    2001-07-01

    On their own, retinoid X receptor (RXR)-selective ligands (rexinoids) are silent in retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-RXR heterodimers, and no selective rexinoid program has been described as yet in cellular systems. We report here on the rexinoid signaling capacity that triggers apoptosis of immature promyelocytic NB4 cells as a default pathway in the absence of survival factors. Rexinoid-induced apoptosis displays all features of bona fide programmed cell death and is inhibited by RXR, but not RAR antagonists. Several types of survival signals block rexinoid-induced apoptosis. RARalpha agonists switch the cellular response toward differentiation and induce the expression of antiapoptosis factors. Activation of the protein kinase A pathway in the presence of rexinoid agonists induces maturation and blocks immature cell apoptosis. Addition of nonretinoid serum factors also blocks cell death but does not induce cell differentiation. Rexinoid-induced apoptosis is linked to neither the presence nor stability of the promyelocytic leukemia-RARalpha fusion protein and operates also in non-acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Together our results support a model according to which rexinoids activate in certain leukemia cells a default death pathway onto which several other signaling paradigms converge. This pathway is entirely distinct from that triggered by RAR agonists, which control cell maturation and postmaturation apoptosis.

  17. Cell cycle-regulated oscillator coordinates core histone gene transcription through histone acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurat, Christoph F; Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Petschnigg, Julia; Friesen, Helena; Pawson, Tony; Rosebrock, Adam; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Fillingham, Jeffrey; Andrews, Brenda

    2014-09-30

    DNA replication occurs during the synthetic (S) phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle and features a dramatic induction of histone gene expression for concomitant chromatin assembly. Ectopic production of core histones outside of S phase is toxic, underscoring the critical importance of regulatory pathways that ensure proper expression of histone genes. Several regulators of histone gene expression in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are known, yet the key oscillator responsible for restricting gene expression to S phase has remained elusive. Here, we show that suppressor of Ty (Spt)10, a putative histone acetyltransferase, and its binding partner Spt21 are key determinants of S-phase-specific histone gene expression. We show that Spt21 abundance is restricted to S phase in part by anaphase promoting complex Cdc20-homologue 1 (APC(Cdh1)) and that it is recruited to histone gene promoters in S phase by Spt10. There, Spt21-Spt10 enables the recruitment of a cascade of regulators, including histone chaperones and the histone-acetyltransferase general control nonderepressible (Gcn) 5, which we hypothesize lead to histone acetylation and consequent transcription activation.

  18. Coordinated Regulations of mRNA Synthesis and Decay during Cold Acclimation in Arabidopsis Cells.

    KAUST Repository

    Arae, Toshihiro

    2017-04-18

    Plants possess a cold acclimation system to acquire freezing tolerance through pre-exposure to non-freezing low temperatures. The transcriptional cascade of C-repeat binding factors (CBFs)/dehydration response element-binding factors (DREBs) is considered a major transcriptional regulatory pathway during cold acclimation. However, little is known regarding the functional significance of mRNA stability regulation in the response of gene expression to cold stress. The actual level of individual mRNAs is determined by a balance between mRNA synthesis and degradation. Therefore, it is important to assess the regulatory steps to increase our understanding of gene regulation. Here, we analyzed temporal changes in mRNA amounts and half-lives in response to cold stress in Arabidopsis cell cultures based on genome-wide analysis. In this mRNA decay array method, mRNA half-life measurements and microarray analyses were combined. In addition, temporal changes in the integrated value of transcription rates were estimated from the above two parameters using a mathematical approach. Our results showed that several cold-responsive genes, including Cold-regulated 15a, were relatively destabilized, whereas the mRNA amounts were increased during cold treatment by accelerating the transcription rate to overcome the destabilization. Considering the kinetics of mRNA synthesis and degradation, this apparently contradictory result supports that mRNA destabilization is advantageous for the swift increase in CBF-responsive genes in response to cold stress.

  19. Cell cycle-regulated oscillator coordinates core histone gene transcription through histone acetylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurat, Christoph F.; Lambert, Jean-Philippe; Petschnigg, Julia; Friesen, Helena; Pawson, Tony; Rosebrock, Adam; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Fillingham, Jeffrey; Andrews, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication occurs during the synthetic (S) phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle and features a dramatic induction of histone gene expression for concomitant chromatin assembly. Ectopic production of core histones outside of S phase is toxic, underscoring the critical importance of regulatory pathways that ensure proper expression of histone genes. Several regulators of histone gene expression in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are known, yet the key oscillator responsible for restricting gene expression to S phase has remained elusive. Here, we show that suppressor of Ty (Spt)10, a putative histone acetyltransferase, and its binding partner Spt21 are key determinants of S-phase–specific histone gene expression. We show that Spt21 abundance is restricted to S phase in part by anaphase promoting complex Cdc20-homologue 1 (APCCdh1) and that it is recruited to histone gene promoters in S phase by Spt10. There, Spt21-Spt10 enables the recruitment of a cascade of regulators, including histone chaperones and the histone-acetyltransferase general control nonderepressible (Gcn) 5, which we hypothesize lead to histone acetylation and consequent transcription activation. PMID:25228766

  20. Syndecans promote integrin-mediated adhesion of mesenchymal cells in two distinct pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiteford, James; Behrends, Volker; Kirby, Hishani

    2007-01-01

    and signaling through the cytoplasmic domain of syndecan-4. Here an alternate pathway mediated by the extracellular domains of syndecans-2 and -4 is characterized that is independent of both heparan sulphate and syndecan signaling. This pathway is restricted to mesenchymal cells and was not seen in any...... epithelial cell line tested, apart from vascular endothelia. The syndecan ectodomains coated as substrates promoted integrin-dependent attachment, spreading and focal adhesion formation. Syndecan-4 null cells were competent, as were fibroblasts compromised in heparan sulphate synthesis that were unable...

  1. Advances in cell proliferation and apoptosis signal pathway and therapies of polycystic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ying LIAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic kidney disease (PKD is one of the monogenic inherited diseases. In PKD, excessive cell proliferation and fluid secretion, and disruption of the mechanisms controlling tubular diameter may all lead to cyst formation. Current evidence has demonstrated that intracellular calcium ion and cAMP imbalance drive both abnormal cell proliferation and apoptosis signal pathway. The present paper summarized the evidence implicating calcium ion and cAMP as central players in the signaling pathway of cell proliferation and apoptosis in PKD, and considered the potential therapeutic approaches targeted to slow cyst growth in PKD. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.11.13

  2. RNAi screen reveals an Abl kinase-dependent host cell pathway involved in Pseudomonas aeruginosa internalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia F Pielage

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Internalization of the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa by non-phagocytic cells is promoted by rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton, but the host pathways usurped by this bacterium are not clearly understood. We used RNAi-mediated gene inactivation of approximately 80 genes known to regulate the actin cytoskeleton in Drosophila S2 cells to identify host molecules essential for entry of P. aeruginosa. This work revealed Abl tyrosine kinase, the adaptor protein Crk, the small GTPases Rac1 and Cdc42, and p21-activated kinase as components of a host signaling pathway that leads to internalization of P. aeruginosa. Using a variety of complementary approaches, we validated the role of this pathway in mammalian cells. Remarkably, ExoS and ExoT, type III secreted toxins of P. aeruginosa, target this pathway by interfering with GTPase function and, in the case of ExoT, by abrogating P. aeruginosa-induced Abl-dependent Crk phosphorylation. Altogether, this work reveals that P. aeruginosa utilizes the Abl pathway for entering host cells and reveals unexpected complexity by which the P. aeruginosa type III secretion system modulates this internalization pathway. Our results furthermore demonstrate the applicability of using RNAi screens to identify host signaling cascades usurped by microbial pathogens that may be potential targets for novel therapies directed against treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections.

  3. Multiple repair pathways mediate tolerance to chemotherapeutic cross-linking agents in vertebrate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nojima, Kuniharu; Hochegger, Helfrid; Saberi, Alihossein; Fukushima, Toru; Kikuchi, Koji; Yoshimura, Michio; Orelli, Brian J; Bishop, Douglas K; Hirano, Seiki; Ohzeki, Mioko; Ishiai, Masamichi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Takata, Minoru; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Buerstedde, Jean-Marie; Yamazoe, Mitsuyoshi; Kawamoto, Takuo; Araki, Kasumi; Takahashi, Jun A; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Takeda, Shunichi; Sonoda, Eiichiro

    2005-12-15

    Cross-linking agents that induce DNA interstrand cross-links (ICL) are widely used in anticancer chemotherapy. Yeast genetic studies show that nucleotide excision repair (NER), Rad6/Rad18-dependent postreplication repair, homologous recombination, and cell cycle checkpoint pathway are involved in ICL repair. To study the contribution of DNA damage response pathways in tolerance to cross-linking agents in vertebrates, we made a panel of gene-disrupted clones from chicken DT40 cells, each defective in a particular DNA repair or checkpoint pathway, and measured the sensitivities to cross-linking agents, including cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin), mitomycin C, and melphalan. We found that cells harboring defects in translesion DNA synthesis (TLS), Fanconi anemia complementation groups (FANC), or homologous recombination displayed marked hypersensitivity to all the cross-linking agents, whereas NER seemed to play only a minor role. This effect of replication-dependent repair pathways is distinctively different from the situation in yeast, where NER seems to play a major role in dealing with ICL. Cells deficient in Rev3, the catalytic subunit of TLS polymerase Polzeta, showed the highest sensitivity to cisplatin followed by fanc-c. Furthermore, epistasis analysis revealed that these two mutants work in the same pathway. Our genetic comprehensive study reveals a critical role for DNA repair pathways that release DNA replication block at ICLs in cellular tolerance to cross-linking agents and could be directly exploited in designing an effective chemotherapy.

  4. Andrographolide Suppresses Proliferation of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells via Attenuating NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (Andro has been reported to have anticancer activity in multiple types of cancer due to its capacity to inactivate NF-κB pathway. Previous studies showed the therapeutic potential of targeting NF-κB pathway in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. However, the anticancer activity of Andro in NPC has not been reported. In this study, we defined the anticancer effects of Andro in NPC and elucidated its potential mechanisms of action. Our results showed that Andro significantly inhibited the proliferation and invasion of NPC cells (P<0.05, resp.. These anticancer activities were associated with cell apoptosis, cell death and induction of cell cycle arrest, and the downregulation of NF-κB target genes. This work provides evidence that NF-κB pathway is a potential therapeutic target and may also be indispensable in the Andro-mediated anticancer activities in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  5. Gallic acid modulates phenotypic behavior and gene expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by interfering with leptin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eliane Macedo Sobrinho; da Rocha, Rogério Gonçalves; Santos, Hércules Otacílio; Guimarães, Talita Antunes; de Carvalho Fraga, Carlos Alberto; da Silveira, Luiz Henrique; Batista, Paulo Ricardo; de Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes; Melo, Geraldo Aclécio; Santos, Sérgio Henrique; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena; Farias, Lucyana Conceição

    2018-01-01

    Gallic acid is a polyphenolic compost appointed to interfere with neoplastic cells behavior. Evidence suggests an important role of leptin in carcinogenesis pathways, inducing a proliferative phenotype. We investigated the potential of gallic acid to modulate leptin-induced cell proliferation and migration of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. The gallic acid effect on leptin secretion by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms, was also assessed. For this, we performed proliferation, migration, immunocytochemical and qPCR assays. The expression levels of cell migration-related genes (MMP2, MMP9, Col1A1, and E-cadherin), angiogenesis (HIF-1α, mir210), leptin signaling (LepR, p44/42 MAPK), apoptosis (casp-3), and secreted leptin levels by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells were also measured. Gallic acid decreased proliferation and migration of leptin-treated oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, and reduced mRNA expression of MMP2, MMP9, Col1A1, mir210, but did not change HIF-1α. Gallic acid decreased levels of leptin secreted by oral squamous cell carcinoma cells, accordingly with downregulation of p44/42 MAPK expression. Thus, gallic acid appears to break down neoplastic phenotype of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by interfering with leptin pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Modulation of Apoptosis Pathways by Oxidative Stress and Autophagy in β Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maorong Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human islets isolated for transplantation are exposed to multiple stresses including oxidative stress and hypoxia resulting in significant loss of functional β cell mass. In this study we examined the modulation of apoptosis pathway genes in islets exposed to hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, hypoxia, and cytokines. We observed parallel induction of pro- and antiapoptotic pathways and identified several novel genes including BFAR, CARD8, BNIP3, and CIDE-A. As BNIP3 is an inducer of autophagy, we examined this pathway in MIN6 cells, a mouse beta cell line and in human islets. Culture of MIN6 cells under low serum conditions increased the levels of several proteins in autophagy pathway, including ATG4, Beclin 1, LAMP-2, and UVRAG. Amino acid deprivation led to induction of autophagy in human islets. Preconditioning of islets with inducers of autophagy protected them from hypoxia-induced apoptosis. However, induction of autophagy during hypoxia exacerbated apoptotic cell death. ER stress led to induction of autophagy and apoptosis in β cells. Overexpression of MnSOD, an enzyme that scavenges free radicals, resulted in protection of MIN6 cells from cytokine-induced apoptosis. Ceramide, a mediator of cytokine-induced injury, reduced the active phosphorylated form of Akt and downregulated the promoter activity of the antiapoptotic gene bcl-2. Furthermore, cytokine-stimulated JNK pathway downregulated the bcl-2 promoter activity which was reversed by preincubation with SP600125, a JNK inhibitor. Our findings suggest that β cell apoptosis by multiple stresses in islets isolated for transplantation is the result of orchestrated gene expression in apoptosis pathway.

  7. 3-Bromopyruvate treatment induces alterations of metabolic and stress-related pathways in glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasserini, Davide; Davidescu, Magdalena; Orvietani, Pier Luigi; Susta, Federica; Macchioni, Lara; Petricciuolo, Maya; Castigli, Emilia; Roberti, Rita; Binaglia, Luciano; Corazzi, Lanfranco

    2017-01-30

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumour of adults. The metabolic phenotype of GBM cells is highly dependent on glycolysis; therefore, therapeutic strategies aimed at interfering with glycolytic pathways are under consideration. 3-Bromopyruvate (3BP) is a potent antiglycolytic agent, with a variety of targets and possible effects on global cell metabolism. Here we analyzed the changes in protein expression on a GBM cell line (GL15 cells) caused by 3BP treatment using a global proteomic approach. Validation of differential protein expression was performed with immunoblotting and enzyme activity assays in GL15 and U251 cell lines. The results show that treatment of GL15 cells with 3BP leads to extensive changes in the expression of glycolytic enzymes and stress related proteins. Importantly, other metabolisms were also affected, including pentose phosphate pathway, aminoacid synthesis, and glucose derivatives production. 3BP elicited the activation of stress response proteins, as shown by the phosphorylation of HSPB1 at serine 82, caused by the concomitant activation of the p38 pathway. Our results show that inhibition of glycolysis in GL15 cells by 3BP influences different but interconnected pathways. Proteome analysis may help in the molecular characterization of the glioblastoma response induced by pharmacological treatment with antiglycolytic agents. Alteration of the glycolytic pathway characterizes glioblastoma (GBM), one of the most common brain tumours. Metabolic reprogramming with agents able to inhibit carbohydrate metabolism might be a viable strategy to complement the treatment of these tumours. The antiglycolytic agent 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) is able to strongly inhibit glycolysis but it may affect also other cellular pathways and its precise cellular targets are currently unknown. To understand the protein expression changes induced by 3BP, we performed a global proteomic analysis of a GBM cell line (GL15) treated with 3BP. We

  8. Cocoa procyanidins modulate transcriptional pathways linked to inflammation and metabolism in human dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midttun, Helene L E; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2018-01-01

    the mechanistic basis of this inhibition, here we conducted transcriptomic analysis on DCs cultured with either LPS or LPS combined with oligomeric cocoa PC. Procyanidins suppressed a number of genes encoding cytokines and chemokines such as CXCL1, but also genes involved in the cGMP pathway such as GUCY1A3...... (encoding guanylate cyclase soluble subunit alpha-3). Upregulated genes were involved in diverse metabolic pathways, but notably two of the four most upregulated genes (NMB, encoding neuromedin B and ADCY3, encoding adenyl cyclase type 3) were involved in the cAMP signalling pathway. Gene-set enrichment...... analysis demonstrated that upregulated gene pathways were primarily involved in nutrient transport, carbohydrate metabolism and lysosome function, whereas down-regulated gene pathways involved cell cycle, signal transduction and gene transcription, as well as immune function. qPCR analysis verified...

  9. NKT cell activation by Leishmania mexicana LPG: Description of a novel pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora-Chimal, Jaime; Fernández-Figueroa, Edith A; Ruiz-Remigio, Adriana; Wilkins-Rodríguez, Arturo A; Delgado-Domínguez, José; Salaiza-Suazo, Norma; Gutiérrez-Kobeh, Laila; Becker, Ingeborg

    2017-02-01

    NKT cells have been associated with protection against Leishmania donovani, yet their role in infections with Leishmania mexicana has not been addressed, nor has the activation pathway been defined after stimulation with Leishmania mexicana lipophosphoglycan (LPG). We analyzed the activation of NKT cells and their cytokine production in response to Leishmania mexicana LPG. Additionally we compared NKT-cell numbers and cytokine profile in lymph nodes of skin lesions induced by Leishmania mexicana in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. We show that LPG activates NKT cells primarily through the indirect pathway, initiating with TLR2 stimulation of dendritic cells (DC), thereby enhancing TLR2, MHC II, and CD86 expressions and IL-12p70 production. This leads to IFN-γ production by NKT cells. C57BL/6 mice showed enhanced DC activation, which correlated with augmented IFN-γ production by NKT cells. Additionally, infected C57BL/6 mice showed elevated percentages of NKT cells with higher IFN-γ and IL-4 production in lymph nodes. We conclude that the response of NKT cells towards Leishmania mexicana LPG initiates with the indirect activation, after binding of LPG to TLR2 in DC. This indirect activation pathway enables NKT cells to produce IFN-γ during the innate phase of Leishmania infection, the magnitude of which differs between mouse strains. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  10. Arctigenin induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells through ROS/p38MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-chun; Liang, Yun; Tian, Yuan; Hu, Guang-rui

    2016-01-01

    In the current study the antiproliferative effect of arctigenin, plant lignin, was evaluated on human colon cancer cell line HT-29. Furthermore, attempts were made to explore the signaling mechanism which may be responsible for its effect. Cell growth inhibition was assessed by MTT and LDH assays. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to determine cell arrest in the cell cycle phase and apoptosis. Furthermore, to confirm the apoptotic activity of arctigenin, caspase-9 and -3 activities analysis was performed. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) were investigated to determine their role in inducing apoptosis in arctigenin-treated HT-29 colon cancer cell line. MTT and LDH results demonstrated significant cell growth inhibitory effect of arctigenin on HT-29 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, increase in cell number arrested at G2/M phase was observed in flow cytometric analysis upon arctigenin treatment. In addition, arctigenin increased the apoptotic ratio in a dose-dependent manner. The involvement of intrinsic apoptotic pathway was indicated by the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Moreover, increased ROS production, activation of p38 MAPK and changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) also revealed the role of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in cell growth inhibition after arctigenin exposure. Arctigenin induces apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells by regulating ROS and p38 MAPK pathways.

  11. Regorafenib inhibited gastric cancer cells growth and invasion via CXCR4 activated Wnt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiao-Lin; Xu, Qi; Tang, Lei; Sun, Li; Han, Ting; Wang, Li-Wei; Xiao, Xiu-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Regorafenib is an oral small-molecule multi kinase inhibitor. Recently, several clinical trials have revealed that regorafenib has an anti-tumor activity in gastric cancer. However, only part of patients benefit from regorafenib, and the mechanisms of regorafenib's anti-tumor effect need further demonstrating. In this study, we would assess the potential anti-tumor effects and the underlying mechanisms of regorafenib in gastric cancer cells, and explore novel biomarkers for patients selecting of regorafenib. The anti-tumor effects of regorafenib on gastric cancer cells were analyzed via cell proliferation and invasion. The underlying mechanisms were demonstrated using molecular biology techniques. We found that regorafenib inhibited cell proliferation and invasion at the concentration of 20μmol/L and in a dose dependent manner. The anti-tumor effects of regorafenib related to the decreased expression of CXCR4, and elevated expression and activation of CXCR4 could reverse the inhibition effect of regorafenib on gastric cancer cells. Further studies revealed that regorafenib reduced the transcriptional activity of Wnt/β-Catenin pathway and led to decreased expression of Wnt pathway target genes, while overexpression and activation of CXCR4 could attenuate the inhibition effect of regorafenib on Wnt/β-Catenin pathway. Our findings demonstrated that regorafenib effectively inhibited cell proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer cells via decreasing the expression of CXCR4 and further reducing the transcriptional activity of Wnt/β-Catenin pathway.

  12. Gremlin Activates the Smad Pathway Linked to Epithelial Mesenchymal Transdifferentiation in Cultured Tubular Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodrigues-Diez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gremlin is a developmental gene upregulated in human chronic kidney disease and in renal cells in response to transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT is one process involved in renal fibrosis. In tubular epithelial cells we have recently described that Gremlin induces EMT and acts as a downstream TGF-β mediator. Our aim was to investigate whether Gremlin participates in EMT by the regulation of the Smad pathway. Stimulation of human tubular epithelial cells (HK2 with Gremlin caused an early activation of the Smad signaling pathway (Smad 2/3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and Smad-dependent gene transcription. The blockade of TGF-β, by a neutralizing antibody against active TGF-β, did not modify Gremlin-induced early Smad activation. These data show that Gremlin directly, by a TGF-β independent process, activates the Smad pathway. In tubular epithelial cells long-term incubation with Gremlin increased TGF-β production and caused a sustained Smad activation and a phenotype conversion into myofibroblasts-like cells. Smad 7 overexpression, which blocks Smad 2/3 activation, diminished EMT changes observed in Gremlin-transfected tubuloepithelial cells. TGF-β neutralization also diminished Gremlin-induced EMT changes. In conclusion, we propose that Gremlin could participate in renal fibrosis by inducing EMT in tubular epithelial cells through activation of Smad pathway and induction of TGF-β.

  13. The hippo pathway promotes Notch signaling in regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, and oocyte polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Yu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Specification of the anterior-posterior axis in Drosophila oocytes requires proper communication between the germ-line cells and the somatically derived follicular epithelial cells. Multiple signaling pathways, including Notch, contribute to oocyte polarity formation by controlling the temporal and spatial pattern of follicle cell differentiation and proliferation. Here we show that the newly identified Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway plays a crucial role in the posterior follicle cells in the regulation of oocyte polarity. Disruption of the Hippo pathway, including major components Hippo, Salvador, and Warts, results in aberrant follicle-cell differentiation and proliferation and dramatic disruption of the oocyte anterior-posterior axis. These phenotypes are related to defective Notch signaling in follicle cells, because misexpression of a constitutively active form of Notch alleviates the oocyte polarity defects. We also find that follicle cells defective in Hippo signaling accumulate the Notch receptor and display defects in endocytosis markers. Our findings suggest that the interaction between Hippo and classic developmental pathways such as Notch is critical to spatial and temporal regulation of differentiation and proliferation and is essential for development of the body axes in Drosophila.

  14. Yessotoxin as a Tool to Study Induction of Multiple Cell Death Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Suárez Korsnes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes to use the marine algal toxin yessotoxin (YTX to establish reference model experiments to explore medically valuable effects from induction of multiple cell death pathways. YTX is one of few toxins reported to make such induction. It is a small molecule compound which at low concentrations can induce apoptosis in primary cultures, many types of cells and cell lines. It can also induce a non-apoptotic form of programmed cell death in BC3H1 myoblast cell lines. The present contribution reviews arguments that this type of induction may have principal interest outside this particular example. One principal effect of medical interest may be that cancer cells will not so easily adapt to the synergistic effects from induction of more than one death pathway as compared to induction of only apoptosis.

  15. Physical Property Control on the Cellular Uptake Pathway and Spatial Distribution of Nanoparticles in Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sungsook; Seo, Eunseok; Kim, Ki Hean; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-06-01

    Nanoparticles have been developed in broad biomedical research in terms of effective cellular interactions to treat and visualize diseased cells. Considering the charge and polar functional groups of proteins that are embedded in cellular membranes, charged nanoparticles have been strategically developed to enhance electrostatic cellular interactions. In this study, we show that cellular uptake efficiency, pathway, and spatial distribution of gold nanoparticles in a cell are significantly modulated based on the surface condition of gold nanoparticles and human cancer cells that were tuned by controlling the pH of the medium and by introducing an electron beam. Cellular uptake efficiency is increased when electrostatic attraction is induced between the cells and the gold nanoparticles. Cell surface modification changes the cellular uptake pathways of the gold nanoparticles and concentrates the gold nanoparticles at the membrane region. Surface modification of the gold nanoparticles also contributes to deep penetration and homogeneous spatial distributions in a cell.

  16. c-Myb Regulates the T-Bet-Dependent Differentiation Program in B Cells to Coordinate Antibody Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Piovesan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Humoral immune responses are tailored to the invading pathogen through regulation of key transcription factors and their networks. This is critical to establishing effective antibody-mediated responses, yet it is unknown how B cells integrate pathogen-induced signals to drive or suppress transcriptional programs specialized for each class of pathogen. Here, we detail the key role of the transcription factor c-Myb in regulating the T-bet-mediated anti-viral program. Deletion of c-Myb in mature B cells significantly increased serum IgG2c and CXCR3 expression by upregulating T-bet, normally suppressed during Th2-cell-mediated responses. Enhanced expression of T-bet resulted in aberrant plasma cell differentiation within the germinal center, mediated by CXCR3 expression. These findings identify a dual role for c-Myb in limiting inappropriate effector responses while coordinating plasma cell differentiation with germinal center egress. Identifying such intrinsic regulators of specialized antibody responses can assist in vaccine design and therapeutic intervention in B-cell-mediated immune disorders. : Piovesan et al. examine how B cells establish transcriptional programs that result in tailored responses to invading pathogens. The authors find that the transcription factor c-Myb represses the T-bet-mediated anti-viral program in B cells. c-Myb limits inappropriate effector responses while coordinating plasma cell differentiation with germinal center egress. Keywords: B cells, c-Myb, T-bet, immunoglobulin, CXCR3, plasma cell, germinal center

  17. Discovery and molecular characterization of a Bcl-2–regulated cell death pathway in schistosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Erinna F.; Clarke, Oliver B.; Evangelista, Marco; Feng, Zhiping; Speed, Terence P.; Tchoubrieva, Elissaveta B.; Strasser, Andreas; Kalinna, Bernd H.; Colman, Peter M.; Fairlie, W. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an infectious disease caused by parasites of the phylum platyhelminthe. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of a Bcl-2–regulated apoptosis pathway in Schistosoma japonicum and S. mansoni. Genomic, biochemical, and cell-based mechanistic studies provide evidence for a tripartite pathway, similar to that in humans including BH3-only proteins that are inhibited by prosurvival Bcl-2–like molecules, and Bax/Bak-like proteins that facilitate mitochondrial ou...

  18. Development of a pluripotent stem cell derived neuronal model to identify chemically induced pathway perturbations in relation to neurotoxicity: Effects of CREB pathway inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistollato, Francesca; Louisse, Jochem; Scelfo, Bibiana; Mennecozzi, Milena [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP), JRC, Ispra (Italy); Accordi, Benedetta; Basso, Giuseppe [Oncohematology Laboratory, Department of Woman and Child Health, University of Padova, Padova (Italy); Gaspar, John Antonydas [Center of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Institute of Neurophysiology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Zagoura, Dimitra; Barilari, Manuela; Palosaari, Taina [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP), JRC, Ispra (Italy); Sachinidis, Agapios [Center of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Institute of Neurophysiology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Bremer-Hoffmann, Susanne, E-mail: susanne.bremer@jrc.ec.europa.eu [Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP), JRC, Ispra (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    According to the advocated paradigm shift in toxicology, acquisition of knowledge on the mechanisms underlying the toxicity of chemicals, such as perturbations of biological pathways, is of primary interest. Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), such as human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), offer a unique opportunity to derive physiologically relevant human cell types to measure molecular and cellular effects of such pathway modulations. Here we compared the neuronal differentiation propensity of hESCs and hiPSCs with the aim to develop novel hiPSC-based tools for measuring pathway perturbation in relation to molecular and cellular effects in vitro. Among other fundamental pathways, also, the cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB) pathway was activated in our neuronal models and gave us the opportunity to study time-dependent effects elicited by chemical perturbations of the CREB pathway in relation to cellular effects. We show that the inhibition of the CREB pathway, using 2-naphthol-AS-E-phosphate (KG-501), induced an inhibition of neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis, as well as a decrease of MAP2{sup +} neuronal cells. These data indicate that a CREB pathway inhibition can be related to molecular and cellular effects that may be relevant for neurotoxicity testing, and, thus, qualify the use of our hiPSC-derived neuronal model for studying chemical-induced neurotoxicity resulting from pathway perturbations. - Highlights: • HESCs derived neuronal cells serve as benchmark for iPSC based neuronal toxicity test development. • Comparisons between hESCs and hiPSCs demonstrated variability of the epigenetic state • CREB pathway modulation have been explored in relation to the neurotoxicant exposure KG-501 • hiPSC might be promising tools to translate theoretical AoPs into toxicological in vitro tests.

  19. Non-specific chemical inhibition of the Fanconi anemia pathway sensitizes cancer cells to cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemont Céline

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platinum compounds such as cisplatin and carboplatin are DNA crosslinking agents widely used for cancer chemotherapy. However, the effectiveness of platinum compounds is often tempered by the acquisition of cellular drug resistance. Until now, no pharmacological approach has successfully overcome cisplatin resistance in cancer treatment. Since the Fanconi anemia (FA pathway is a DNA damage response pathway required for cellular resistance to DNA interstrand crosslinking agents, identification of small molecules that inhibit the FA pathway may reveal classes of chemicals that sensitize cancer cells to cisplatin. Results Through a cell-based screening assay of over 16,000 chemicals, we identified 26 small molecules that inhibit ionizing radiation and cisplatin-induced FANCD2 foci formation, a marker of FA pathway activity, in multiple human cell lines. Most of these small molecules also compromised ionizing radiation-induced RAD51 foci formation and homologous recombination repair, indicating that they are not selective toward the regulation of FANCD2. These compounds include known inhibitors of the proteasome, cathepsin B, lysosome, CHK1, HSP90, CDK and PKC, and several uncharacterized chemicals including a novel proteasome inhibitor (Chembridge compound 5929407. Isobologram analyses demonstrated that half of the identified molecules sensitized ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin. Among them, 9 demonstrated increased efficiency toward FA pathway-proficient, cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells. Six small molecules, including bortezomib (proteasome inhibitor, CA-074-Me (cathepsin B inhibitor and 17-AAG (HSP90 inhibitor, synergized with cisplatin specifically in FA-proficient ovarian cancer cells (2008 + FANCF, but not in FA-deficient isogenic cells (2008. In addition, geldanamycin (HSP90 inhibitor and two CHK1 inhibitors (UCN-01 and SB218078 exhibited a significantly stronger synergism with cisplatin in FA

  20. Pathway aberrations of murine melanoma cells observed in Paired-End diTag transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Edison

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma is the major cause of skin cancer deaths and melanoma incidence doubles every 10 to 20 years. However, little is known about melanoma pathway aberrations. Here we applied the robust Gene Identification Signature Paired End diTag (GIS-PET approach to investigate the melanoma transcriptome and characterize the global pathway aberrations. Methods GIS-PET technology directly links 5' mRNA signatures with their corresponding 3' signatures to generate, and then concatenate, PETs for efficient sequencing. We annotated PETs to pathways of KEGG database and compared the murine B16F1 melanoma transcriptome with three non-melanoma murine transcriptomes (Melan-a2 melanocytes, E14 embryonic stem cells, and E17.5 embryo. Gene expression levels as represented by PET counts were compared across melanoma and melanocyte libraries to identify the most significantly altered pathways and investigate the expression levels of crucial cancer genes. Results Melanin biosynthesis genes were solely expressed in the cells of melanocytic origin, indicating the feasibility of using the PET approach for transcriptome comparison. The most significantly altered pathways were metabolic pathways, including upregulated pathways: purine metabolism, aminophosphonate metabolism, tyrosine metabolism, selenoamino acid metabolism, galactose utilization, nitrobenzene degradation, and bisphenol A degradation; and downregulated pathways: oxidative phosphorylation, ATPase synthesis, TCA cycle, pyruvate metabolism, and glutathione metabolism. The downregulated pathways concurrently indicated a slowdown of mitochondrial activities. Mitochondrial permeability was also significantly altered, as indicated by transcriptional activation of ATP/ADP, citrate/malate, Mg++, fatty acid and amino acid transporters, and transcriptional repression of zinc and metal ion transporters. Upregulation of cell cycle progression, MAPK, and PI3K/Akt pathways were more limited to certain

  1. Vitamin B12 transport from food to the body's cells--a sophisticated, multistep pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne J; Rasmussen, Mie R; Andersen, Christian B F

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B(12) (B(12); also known as cobalamin) is a cofactor in many metabolic processes; deficiency of this vitamin is associated with megaloblastic anaemia and various neurological disorders. In contrast to many prokaryotes, humans and other mammals are unable to synthesize B(12). Instead...... in the transport pathway are also known culprits of functional B(12) deficiency. Biochemical and genetic approaches have identified novel proteins in the B(12) transport pathway--now known to involve more than 15 gene products--delineating a coherent pathway for B(12) trafficking from food to the body's cells...

  2. The Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor FGD6 coordinates cell polarity and endosomal membrane recycling in osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenblock, Charlotte; Heckel, Tobias; Czupalla, Cornelia; Espírito Santo, Ana Isabel; Niehage, Christian; Sztacho, Martin; Hoflack, Bernard

    2014-06-27

    The initial step of bone digestion is the adhesion of osteoclasts onto bone surfaces and the assembly of podosomal belts that segregate the bone-facing ruffled membrane from other membrane domains. During bone digestion, membrane components of the ruffled border also need to be recycled after macropinocytosis of digested bone materials. How osteoclast polarity and membrane recycling are coordinated remains unknown. Here, we show that the Cdc42-guanine nucleotide exchange factor FGD6 coordinates these events through its Src-dependent interaction with different actin-based protein networks. At the plasma membrane, FGD6 couples cell adhesion and actin dynamics by regulating podosome formation through the assembly of complexes comprising the Cdc42-interactor IQGAP1, the Rho GTPase-activating protein ARHGAP10, and the integrin interactors Talin-1/2 or Filamin A. On endosomes and transcytotic vesicles, FGD6 regulates retromer-dependent membrane recycling through its interaction with the actin nucleation-promoting factor WASH. These results provide a mechanism by which a single Cdc42-exchange factor controlling different actin-based processes coordinates cell adhesion, cell polarity, and membrane recycling during bone degradation. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Identification of Pathways in Liver Repair Potentially Targeted by Secretory Proteins from Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Winkler

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The beneficial impact of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC on both acute and chronic liver diseases has been confirmed, although the molecular mechanisms behind it remain elusive. We aim to identify factors secreted by undifferentiated and hepatocytic differentiated MSC in vitro in order to delineate liver repair pathways potentially targeted by MSC. Methods: Secreted factors were determined by protein arrays and related pathways identified by biomathematical analyses. Results: MSC from adipose tissue and bone marrow expressed a similar pattern of surface markers. After hepatocytic differentiation, CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1, ICAM-1 increased and CD166 (activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule, ALCAM decreased. MSC secreted different factors before and after differentiation. These comprised cytokines involved in innate immunity and growth factors regulating liver regeneration. Pathway analysis revealed cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, chemokine signalling pathways, the complement and coagulation cascades as well as the Januskinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK-STAT and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NOD-like receptor signalling pathways as relevant networks. Relationships to transforming growth factor β (TGF-β and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF1-α signalling seemed also relevant. Conclusion: MSC secreted proteins, which differed depending on cell source and degree of differentiation. The factors might address inflammatory and growth factor pathways as well as chemo-attraction and innate immunity. Since these are prone to dysregulation in most liver diseases, MSC release hepatotropic factors, potentially supporting liver regeneration.

  4. Simultaneous modulation of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways by simvastatin in mediating prostate cancer cell apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goc, Anna; Kochuparambil, Samith T; Al-Husein, Belal; Al-Azayzih, Ahmad; Mohammad, Shuaib; Somanath, Payaningal R

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest the potential benefits of statins as anti-cancer agents. Mechanisms by which statins induce apoptosis in cancer cells are not clear. We previously showed that simvastatin inhibit prostate cancer cell functions and tumor growth. Molecular mechanisms by which simvastatin induce apoptosis in prostate cancer cells is not completely understood. Effect of simvastatin on PC3 cell apoptosis was compared with docetaxel using apoptosis, TUNEL and trypan blue viability assays. Protein expression of major candidates of the intrinsic pathway downstream of simvastatin-mediated Akt inactivation was analyzed. Gene arrays and western analysis of PC3 cells and tumor lysates were performed to identify the candidate genes mediating extrinsic apoptosis pathway by simvastatin. Data indicated that simvastatin inhibited intrinsic cell survival pathway in PC3 cells by enhancing phosphorylation of Bad, reducing the protein expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and cleaved caspases 9/3. Over-expression of PC3 cells with Bcl-2 or DN-caspase 9 did not rescue the simvastatin-induced apoptosis. Simvastatin treatment resulted in increased mRNA and protein expression of molecules such as TNF, Fas-L, Traf1 and cleaved caspase 8, major mediators of intrinsic apoptosis pathway and reduced protein levels of pro-survival genes Lhx4 and Nme5. Our study provides the first report that simvastatin simultaneously modulates intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in the regulation of prostate cancer cell apoptosis in vitro and in vivo, and render reasonable optimism that statins could become an attractive anti-cancer agent

  5. Protein signaling pathways in differentiation of neural stem cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skalníková, Helena; Vodička, Petr; Pelech, S.; Motlík, Jan; Gadher, S. J.; Kovářová, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2008), s. 4547-4559 ISSN 1615-9853 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0538 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : antibody microarray * differentiation * neural stem cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.586, year: 2008

  6. The Hippo pathway: key interaction and catalytic domains in organ growth control, stem cell self-renewal and tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrett, Claire; Furutani-Seiki, Makoto; Bagby, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The Hippo pathway is a conserved pathway that interconnects with several other pathways to regulate organ growth, tissue homoeostasis and regeneration, and stem cell self-renewal. This pathway is unique in its capacity to orchestrate multiple processes, from sensing to execution, necessary for organ expansion. Activation of the Hippo pathway core kinase cassette leads to cytoplasmic sequestration of the nuclear effectors YAP (Yes-associated protein) and TAZ (transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif), consequently disabling their transcriptional co-activation function. Components upstream of the core kinase cassette have not been well understood, especially in vertebrates, but are gradually being elucidated and include cell polarity and cell adhesion proteins.

  7. Single-cell analysis reveals a link between CD3- and CD59-mediated signaling pathways in Jurkat T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipp, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Elevation of intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) is a key signal during T cell activation and is commonly used as a read-out parameter for stimulation of T cell signaling. Upon T cell stimulation a variety of calcium signals is produced by individual cells of the T cell population and the type of calcium signal strongly influences cell fate decisions. The heterogeneous nature of T cells is masked in ensemble measurements, which highlights the need for single-cell measurements. In this study we used single-cell calcium measurements in Jurkat cells to investigate signaling pathways, which are triggered by different proteins, namely CD3 and CD59. By application of an automated cluster algorithm the presented assay provides unbiased analysis of a large data set of individual calcium time traces generated by the whole cell population. By using this method we could demonstrate that the Jurkat population generates heterogeneous calcium signals in a stimulus-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data revealed the existence of a link between CD3- and CD59-mediated signaling pathways. Single-cell calcium measurements in Jurkat cells expressing different levels of the T cell receptor (TCR) complex indicated that CD59-mediated calcium signaling is critically dependent on TCR surface expression levels. In addition, triggering CD59-mediated calcium signaling resulted in down-regulation of TCR surface expression levels, which is known to happen upon direct TCR triggering too. Moreover, by using siRNA-mediated protein knock-downs and protein knock-out Jurkat mutants we could show that CD3- and CD59-mediated calcium signaling require identical key proteins. We therefore explored by which mechanism CD59-mediated signaling couples into TCR-mediated signaling. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments and live-cell protein-protein interaction assays provided no evidence of a direct physical interaction between CD3- and CD59-mediated signaling pathways

  8. Well-to-wheels analysis of hydrogen based fuel-cell vehicle pathways in Shanghai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zhijia; Zhang Xu

    2006-01-01

    Due to high energy efficiency and zero emissions, some believe fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) could revolutionize the automobile industry by replacing internal combustion engine technology, and first boom in China. However, hydrogen infrastructure is one of the major barriers. Because different H 2 pathways have very different energy and emissions effects, the well-to-wheels (WTW) analyses are necessary for adequately evaluating fuel/vehicle systems. The pathways used to supply H 2 for FCVs must be carefully examined by their WTW energy use, greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions, total criteria pollutions emissions, and urban criteria pollutions emissions. Ten hydrogen pathways in Shanghai have been simulated. The results include well-to-wheels energy use, GHGs emissions, total criteria pollutions and urban criteria pollutions. A fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory-called the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model-was used to evaluate well-to-wheels energy and emissions impacts of hydrogen pathways in this study. Because the initial GREET model had no coal and naphtha-based hydrogen pathways, four hydrogen pathway computer programs were added to GREET in the research. To analyze uncertain impacts, commercial software, Crystal Ball(TM) was used to conduct Monte Carlo simulations. Hence, instead of point estimates, the results of this study were probability distributions. Through the research of H 2 pathways in Shanghai, the following conclusions were achieved:(1)All the pathways have significant reductions in WTW petroleum use, except two H 2 pathways from naphtha, which achieve about 20% reductions in WTW petroleum. (2)All the pathways have significant reductions in WTW urban criteria pollutions emissions, except two H 2 pathways from coal, which result in significant increases in WTW urban SO X emissions. (3)The NG-based H 2 pathways have the best WTW energy efficiencies, and the electrolysis H 2 pathways

  9. DIXDC1 activates the Wnt signaling pathway and promotes gastric cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cong; Qiao, Fan; Wei, Ping; Chi, Yayun; Wang, Weige; Ni, Shujuan; Wang, Qifeng; Chen, Tongzhen; Sheng, Weiqi; Du, Xiang; Wang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    DIXDC1 (Dishevelled-Axin domain containing 1) is a DIX (Dishevelled-Axin) domain-possessing protein that promotes colon cancer cell proliferation and increases the invasion and migration ability of non-small-cell lung cancer via the PI3K pathway. As a positive regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, the biological role of DIXDC1 in human gastric cancer and the relationship between DIXDC1 and the Wnt pathway are unclear. In the current study, the upregulation of DIXDC1 was detected in gastric cancer and was associated with advanced TNM stage cancer, lymph node metastasis, and poor prognosis. We also found that the overexpression of DIXDC1 could promote the invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells. The upregulation of MMPs and the downregulation of E-cadherin were found to be involved in the process. DIXDC1 enhanced β-catenin nuclear accumulation, which activated the Wnt pathway. Additionally, the inhibition of β-catenin in DIXDC1-overexpressing cells reversed the metastasis promotion effects of DIXDC1. These results demonstrate that the expression of DIXDC1 is associated with poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients and that DIXDC1 promotes gastric cancer invasion and metastasis through the activation of the Wnt pathway; E-cadherin and MMPs are also involved in this process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cell cycle pathway dysregulation in human keratinocytes during chronic exposure to low arsenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eryani, Laila; Waigel, Sabine; Jala, Venkatakrishna; Jenkins, Samantha F; States, J Christopher

    2017-09-15

    Arsenic is naturally prevalent in the earth's crust and widely distributed in air and water. Chronic low arsenic exposure is associated with several cancers in vivo, including skin cancer, and with transformation in vitro of cell lines including immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). Arsenic also is associated with cell cycle dysregulation at different exposure levels in multiple cell lines. In this work, we analyzed gene expression in HaCaT cells to gain an understanding of gene expression changes contributing to transformation at an early time point. HaCaT cells were exposed to 0 or 100nM NaAsO 2 for 7weeks. Total RNA was purified and analyzed by microarray hybridization. Differential expression with fold change≥|1.5| and p-value≤0.05 was determined using Partek Genomic Suite™ and pathway and network analyses using MetaCore™ software (FDR≤0.05). Cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. 644 mRNAs were differentially expressed. Cell cycle/cell cycle regulation pathways predominated in the list of dysregulated pathways. Genes involved in replication origin licensing were enriched in the network. Cell cycle assay analysis showed an increase in G2/M compartment in arsenite-exposed cells. Arsenite exposure induced differential gene expression indicating dysregulation of cell cycle control, which was confirmed by cell cycle analysis. The results suggest that cell cycle dysregulation is an early event in transformation manifested in cells unable to transit G2/M efficiently. Further study at later time points will reveal additional changes in gene expression related to transformation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulation of Pituitary Stem Cells by Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition Events and Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Leonard Y. M.; Davis, Shannon W.; Brinkmeier, Michelle L.; Camper, Sally A.; Pérez-Millán, María Inés

    2017-01-01

    The anterior pituitary gland is comprised of specialized cell-types that produce and secrete polypeptide hormones in response to hypothalamic input and feedback from target organs. These specialized cells arise from stem cells that express SOX2 and the pituitary transcription factor PROP1, which is necessary to establish the stem cell pool and promote an epithelial to mesenchymal-like transition, releasing progenitors from the niche. The adult anterior pituitary responds to physiological challenge by mobilizing the SOX2-expressing progenitor pool and producing additional hormone-producing cells. Knowledge of the role of signaling pathways and extracellular matrix components in these processes may lead to improvements in the efficiency of differentiation of embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells into hormone producing cells in vitro. Advances in our basic understanding of pituitary stem cell regulation and differentiation may lead to improved diagnosis and treatment for patients with hypopituitarism. PMID:27650955

  12. YAP and the Hippo pathway in pediatric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Atif A; Mohamed, Abdalla D; Gener, Melissa; Li, Weijie; Taboada, Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    The Hippo pathway is an important signaling pathway that controls cell proliferation and apoptosis. It is evolutionarily conserved in mammals and is stimulated by cell-cell contact, inhibiting cell proliferation in response to increased cell density. During early embryonic development, the Hippo signaling pathway regulates organ development and size, and its functions result in the coordinated balance between proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. Its principal effectors, YAP and TAZ, regulate signaling by the embryonic stem cells and determine cell fate and histogenesis. Dysfunction of this pathway contributes to cancer development in adults and children. Emerging studies have shed light on the upregulation of Hippo pathway members in several pediatric cancers and may offer prognostic information on rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma, Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, medulloblastoma, and other brain gliomas. We review the results of such published studies and highlight the potential clinical application of this pathway in pediatric oncologic and pathologic studies. These studies support targeting this pathway as a novel treatment strategy.

  13. MAML1 regulates cell viability via the NF-κB pathway in cervical cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuncharin, Yanin; Sangphech, Naunpun; Kueanjinda, Patipark; Bhattarakosol, Parvapan; Palaga, Tanapat

    2011-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays important roles in tumorigenesis in a context-dependent manner. In human cervical cancer, alterations in Notch signaling have been reported, and both tumor-suppressing and tumor-promoting roles of Notch signaling have been proposed; however, the precise molecular mechanisms governing these roles in cervical cancer remain controversial. MAML is a transcriptional co-activator originally identified by its role in Notch signaling. Recent evidence suggests that it also plays a role in other signaling pathways, such as the p53 and β-catenin pathways. MAML is required for stable formation of Notch transcriptional complexes at the promoters of Notch target genes. Chromosomal translocations affecting MAML have been shown to promote tumorigenesis. In this study, we used a truncated dominant-negative MAML1 (DN-MAML) to investigate the role of MAML in HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines. Three human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa, SiHa and CaSki) expressed all Notch receptors and the Notch target genes Hes1 and MAML1. Among these 3 cell lines, constitutive appearance of cleaved Notch1 was found only in CaSki cells, which suggests that Notch1 is constitutively activated in this cell line. Gamma secretase inhibitor (GSI) treatment, which suppresses Notch receptor activation, completely abrogated this form of Notch1 but had no effect on cell viability. Overexpression of DN-MAML by retroviral transduction in CaSki cells resulted in significant decreases in the mRNA levels of Hes1 and Notch1 but had no effects on the levels of MAML1, p53 or HPV E6/E7. DN-MAML expression induced increased viability of CaSki cells without any effect on cell cycle progression or cell proliferation. In addition, clonogenic assay experiments revealed that overexpression of DN-MAML resulted in increased colony formation compared to the overexpression of the control vector. When the status of the NF-κB pathway was investigated, CaSki cells overexpressing DN

  14. Exploring the Leishmania Hydrophilic Acylated Surface Protein B (HASPB) Export Pathway by Live Cell Imaging Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Lorna; Price, Helen; O'Toole, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania major is a human-infective protozoan parasite transmitted by the bite of the female phlebotomine sand fly. The L. major hydrophilic acylated surface protein B (HASPB) is only expressed in infective parasite stages suggesting a role in parasite virulence. HASPB is a "nonclassically" secreted protein that lacks a conventional signal peptide, reaching the cell surface by an alternative route to the classical ER-Golgi pathway. Instead HASPB trafficking to and exposure on the parasite plasma membrane requires dual N-terminal acylation. Here, we use live cell imaging methods to further explore this pathway allowing visualization of key events in real time at the individual cell level. These methods include live cell imaging using fluorescent reporters to determine the subcellular localization of wild type and acylation site mutation HASPB18-GFP fusion proteins, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) to analyze the dynamics of HASPB in live cells, and live antibody staining to detect surface exposure of HASPB by confocal microscopy.

  15. Intrinsic Apoptosis Pathway in Fallopian Tube Epithelial Cells Induced by Cladribine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewelina Wawryk-Gawda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cladribine is a purine nucleoside analog which initiates the apoptotic mechanism within cells. Moreover, the available data confirms that cladribine, with the participation of the p53 protein, as well as the proapoptotic proteins from the Bcl-2 family, also induces the activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. However, while there has been a lot of research devoted to the effect of cladribine on lymphatic system cells, little is known about the impact of cladribine on the reproductive system. The aim of our study was to evaluate apoptosis in oviduct epithelial cells sourced from 15 different female rats. In so doing, the sections were stained with caspases 3, 9, and 8. Results suggest that cladribine also induces apoptosis in the oviduct epithelial cells by way of the intrinsic pathway. Indeed, the discontinuing of the administration of cladribine leads to a reduction in the amount of apoptotic cells in the oviduct epithelium.

  16. Bioreactors to influence stem cell fate: augmentation of mesenchymal stem cell signaling pathways via dynamic culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatts, Andrew B; Choquette, Daniel T; Fisher, John P

    2013-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising cell source for bone and cartilage tissue engineering as they can be easily isolated from the body and differentiated into osteoblasts and chondrocytes. A cell based tissue engineering strategy using MSCs often involves the culture of these cells on three-dimensional scaffolds; however the size of these scaffolds and the cell population they can support can be restricted in traditional static culture. Thus dynamic culture in bioreactor systems provides a promising means to culture and differentiate MSCs in vitro. This review seeks to characterize key MSC differentiation signaling pathways and provides evidence as to how dynamic culture is augmenting these pathways. Following an overview of dynamic culture systems, discussion will be provided on how these systems can effectively modify and maintain important culture parameters including oxygen content and shear stress. Literature is reviewed for both a highlight of key signaling pathways and evidence for regulation of these signaling pathways via dynamic culture systems. The ability to understand how these culture systems are affecting MSC signaling pathways could lead to a shear or oxygen regime to direct stem cell differentiation. In this way the efficacy of in vitro culture and differentiation of MSCs on three-dimensional scaffolds could be greatly increased. Bioreactor systems have the ability to control many key differentiation stimuli including mechanical stress and oxygen content. The further integration of cell signaling investigations within dynamic culture systems will lead to a quicker realization of the promise of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biochemistry of Stem Cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Hippo pathway controls border cell migration through distinct mechanisms in outer border cells and polar cells of the Drosophila ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Huai; Yeh, Tsung-Han; Wang, Tsu-Wei; Yu, Jenn-Yah

    2014-11-01

    The Hippo pathway is a key signaling cascade in controlling organ size. The core components of this pathway are two kinases, Hippo (Hpo) and Warts (Wts), and a transcriptional coactivator, Yorkie (Yki). Yes-associated protein (YAP, a Yki homolog in mammals) promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell migration in vitro. Here, we use border cells in the Drosophila ovary as a model to study Hippo pathway functions in cell migration in vivo. During oogenesis, polar cells secrete Unpaired (Upd), which activates JAK/STAT signaling of neighboring cells and specifies them into outer border cells. The outer border cells form a cluster with polar cells and undergo migration. We find that hpo and wts are required for migration of the border cell cluster. In outer border cells, overexpression of hpo disrupts polarization of the actin cytoskeleton and attenuates migration. In polar cells, knockdown of hpo and wts or overexpression of yki impairs border cell induction and disrupts migration. These manipulations in polar cells reduce JAK/STAT activity in outer border cells. Expression of upd-lacZ is increased and decreased in yki and hpo mutant polar cells, respectively. Furthermore, forced expression of upd in polar cells rescues defects of border cell induction and migration caused by wts knockdown. These results suggest that Yki negatively regulates border cell induction by inhibiting JAK/STAT signaling. Together, our data elucidate two distinct mechanisms of the Hippo pathway in controlling border cell migration: (1) in outer border cells, it regulates polarized distribution of the actin cytoskeleton; (2) in polar cells, it regulates upd expression to control border cell induction and migration. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  18. Evaluation by mass fragmentography of metabolic pathways of endogenous and exogenous compounds in eukaryote cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padieu, P.; Maume, B.F.

    1977-01-01

    Carbon-14 labelled compounds in cell cultures are used to establish the interconnections between different metabolic pathways as well as the competitive action of effectors on these different pathways. Analysis was performed by the GC-MS combination. Identification was carried out by comparison with the mass spectra of d9-TMS, 35 Cl-TMS and 37 Cl-TMS derivatizations of the culture extracts. Examples are given of the metabolic study of hormonal steroids and of safrale, a carcinogenic compound, by differentiated eukaryotic cells in cultures from the rat

  19. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα regulates granulosa cell tumor (GCT cell proliferation and migration through activation of multiple pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wang

    Full Text Available Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs are the most common ovarian estrogen producing tumors, leading to symptoms of excessive estrogen such as endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial adenocarcinoma. These tumors have malignant potential and often recur. The etiology of GCT is unknown. TGFα is a potent mitogen for many different cells. However, its function in GCT initiation, progression and metastasis has not been determined. The present study aims to determine whether TGFα plays a role in the growth of GCT cells. KGN cells, which are derived from an invasive GCT and have many features of normal granulosa cells, were used as the cellular model. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and RT-PCR results showed that the ErbB family of receptors is expressed in human GCT tissues and GCT cell lines. RT-PCR results also indicated that TGFα and EGF are expressed in the human granulosa cells and the GCT cell lines, suggesting that TGFα might regulate GCT cell function in an autocrine/paracrine manner. TGFα stimulated KGN cell DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, cell viability, cell cycle progression, and cell migration. TGFα rapidly activated EGFR/PI3K/Akt and mTOR pathways, as indicated by rapid phosphorylation of Akt, TSC2, Rictor, mTOR, P70S6K and S6 proteins following TGFα treatment. TGFα also rapidly activated the EGFR/MEK/ERK pathway, and P38 MAPK pathways, as indicated by the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR, MEK, ERK1/2, P38, and CREB after TGFα treatment. Whereas TGFα triggered a transient activation of Akt, it induced a sustained activation of ERK1/2 in KGN cells. Long-term treatment of KGN cells with TGFα resulted in a significant increase in cyclin D2 and a decrease in p27/Kip1, two critical regulators of granulosa cell proliferation and granulosa cell tumorigenesis. In conclusion, TGFα, via multiple signaling pathways, regulates KGN cell proliferation and migration and may play an important role in the growth and metastasis of GCTs.

  20. Curcumin and emodin down-regulate TGF-β signaling pathway in human cervical cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Chandrakant Thacker

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the major cause of cancer related deaths in women, especially in developing countries and Human Papilloma Virus infection in conjunction with multiple deregulated signaling pathways leads to cervical carcinogenesis. TGF-β signaling in later stages of cancer is known to induce epithelial to mesenchymal transition promoting tumor growth. Phytochemicals, curcumin and emodin, are effective as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic compounds against several cancers including cervical cancer. The main objective of this work was to study the effect of curcumin and emodin on TGF-β signaling pathway and its functional relevance to growth, migration and invasion in two cervical cancer cell lines, SiHa and HeLa. Since TGF-β and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways are known to cross talk having common downstream targets, we analyzed the effect of TGF-β on β-catenin (an important player in Wnt/β-catenin signaling and also studied whether curcumin and emodin modulate them. We observed that curcumin and emodin effectively down regulate TGF-β signaling pathway by decreasing the expression of TGF-β Receptor II, P-Smad3 and Smad4, and also counterbalance the tumorigenic effects of TGF-β by inhibiting the TGF-β-induced migration and invasion. Expression of downstream effectors of TGF-β signaling pathway, cyclinD1, p21 and Pin1, was inhibited along with the down regulation of key mesenchymal markers (Snail and Slug upon curcumin and emodin treatment. Curcumin and emodin were also found to synergistically inhibit cell population and migration in SiHa and HeLa cells. Moreover, we found that TGF-β activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HeLa cells, and curcumin and emodin down regulate the pathway by inhibiting β-catenin. Taken together our data provide a mechanistic basis for the use of curcumin and emodin in the treatment of cervical cancer.

  1. Propolis augments apoptosis induced by butyrate via targeting cell survival pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Drago

    Full Text Available Diet is one of the major lifestyle factors affecting incidence of colorectal cancer (CC, and despite accumulating evidence that numerous diet-derived compounds modulate CC incidence, definitive dietary recommendations are not available. We propose a strategy that could facilitate the design of dietary supplements with CC-preventive properties. Thus, nutrient combinations that are a source of apoptosis-inducers and inhibitors of compensatory cell proliferation pathways (e.g., AKT signaling may produce high levels of programmed death in CC cells. Here we report the combined effect of butyrate, an apoptosis inducer that is produced through fermentation of fiber in the colon, and propolis, a honeybee product, on CC cells. We established that propolis increases the apoptosis of CC cells exposed to butyrate through suppression of cell survival pathways such as the AKT signaling. The programmed death of CC cells by combined exposure to butyrate and propolis is further augmented by inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway. Analyses on the contribution of the downstream targets of JNK signaling, c-JUN and JAK/STAT, to the apoptosis of butyrate/propolis-treated CC cells ascertained that JAK/STAT signaling has an anti-apoptotic role; whereas, the role of cJUN might be dependent upon regulatory cell factors. Thus, our studies ascertained that propolis augments apoptosis of butyrate-sensitive CC cells and re-sensitizes butyrate-resistant CC cells to apoptosis by suppressing AKT signaling and downregulating the JAK/STAT pathway. Future in vivo studies should evaluate the CC-preventive potential of a dietary supplement that produces high levels of colonic butyrate, propolis, and diet-derived JAK/STAT inhibitors.

  2. 3'-5' RNA degradation pathways in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubas, Michal Szymon

    RNA synthesis and degradation are key steps in the regulation of gene expression in all living organisms. During the course of his PhD studies, Michal Lubas centred his research on the nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA turnover of both noncoding and coding RNAs in human cells. His proteomic studies...... revealed the interaction network of the main 3'-5' RNA degradation machinery – the RNA exosome complex. One of the key findings was the identification and characterisation of the Nuclear Exosome Targeting (NEXT) complex, important for nuclear functions of the exosome. Michal Lubas also studied the role...

  3. Wounding coordinately induces cell wall protein, cell cycle and pectin methyl esterase genes involved in tuber closing layer and wound periderm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Jonathan D; Lulai, Edward C; Thompson, Asunta L; Suttle, Jeffrey C; Bolton, Melvin D

    2012-04-15

    Little is known about the coordinate induction of genes that may be involved in agriculturally important wound-healing events. In this study, wound-healing events were determined together with wound-induced expression profiles of selected cell cycle, cell wall protein, and pectin methyl esterase genes using two diverse potato genotypes and two harvests (NDTX4271-5R and Russet Burbank tubers; 2008 and 2009 harvests). By 5 d after wounding, the closing layer and a nascent phellogen had formed. Phellogen cell divisions generated phellem layers until cessation of cell division at 28 d after wounding for both genotypes and harvests. Cell cycle genes encoding epidermal growth factor binding protein (StEBP), cyclin-dependent kinase B (StCDKB) and cyclin-dependent kinase regulatory subunit (StCKS1At) were induced by 1 d after wounding; these expressions coordinated with related phellogen formation and the induction and cessation of phellem cell formation. Genes encoding the structural cell wall proteins extensin (StExt1) and extensin-like (StExtlk) were dramatically up-regulated by 1-5 d after wounding, suggesting involvement with closing layer and later phellem cell layer formation. Wounding up-regulated pectin methyl esterase genes (StPME and StPrePME); StPME expression increased during closing layer and phellem cell formation, whereas maximum expression of StPrePME occurred at 5-14 d after wounding, implicating involvement in later modifications for closing layer and phellem cell formation. The coordinate induction and expression profile of StTLRP, a gene encoding a cell wall strengthening "tyrosine-and lysine-rich protein," suggested a role in the formation of the closing layer followed by phellem cell generation and maturation. Collectively, the genes monitored were wound-inducible and their expression profiles markedly coordinated with closing layer formation and the index for phellogen layer meristematic activity during wound periderm development; results were more

  4. Rac1-Rab11-FIP3 regulatory hub coordinates vesicle traffic with actin remodeling and T-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Jérôme; Del Río-Iñiguez, Iratxe; Lasserre, Rémi; Agüera-Gonzalez, Sonia; Cuche, Céline; Danckaert, Anne; McCaffrey, Mary W; Di Bartolo, Vincenzo; Alcover, Andrés

    2016-06-01

    The immunological synapse generation and function is the result of a T-cell polarization process that depends on the orchestrated action of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton and of intracellular vesicle traffic. However, how these events are coordinated is ill defined. Since Rab and Rho families of GTPases control intracellular vesicle traffic and cytoskeleton reorganization, respectively, we investigated their possible interplay. We show here that a significant fraction of Rac1 is associated with Rab11-positive recycling endosomes. Moreover, the Rab11 effector FIP3 controls Rac1 intracellular localization and Rac1 targeting to the immunological synapse. FIP3 regulates, in a Rac1-dependent manner, key morphological events, like T-cell spreading and synapse symmetry. Finally, Rab11-/FIP3-mediated regulation is necessary for T-cell activation leading to cytokine production. Therefore, Rac1 endosomal traffic is key to regulate T-cell activation. © 2016 The Authors.

  5. Protein conservation and variation suggest mechanisms of cell type-specific modulation of signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H Schaefer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins and signaling pathways are present in most cell types and tissues and yet perform specialized functions. To elucidate mechanisms by which these ubiquitous pathways are modulated, we overlaid information about cross-cell line protein abundance and variability, and evolutionary conservation onto functional pathway components and topological layers in the pathway hierarchy. We found that the input (receptors and the output (transcription factors layers evolve more rapidly than proteins in the intermediary transmission layer. In contrast, protein expression variability decreases from the input to the output layer. We observed that the differences in protein variability between the input and transmission layer can be attributed to both the network position and the tendency of variable proteins to physically interact with constitutively expressed proteins. Differences in protein expression variability and conservation are also accompanied by the tendency of conserved and constitutively expressed proteins to acquire somatic mutations, while germline mutations tend to occur in cell type-specific proteins. Thus, conserved core proteins in the transmission layer could perform a fundamental role in most cell types and are therefore less tolerant to germline mutations. In summary, we propose that the core signal transmission machinery is largely modulated by a variable input layer through physical protein interactions. We hypothesize that the bow-tie organization of cellular signaling on the level of protein abundance variability contributes to the specificity of the signal response in different cell types.

  6. Beta-irradiation used for systemic radioimmunotherapy induces apoptosis and activates apoptosis pathways in leukaemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesen, Claudia; Lubatschofski, Annelie; Debatin, Klaus-Michael; Kotzerke, Joerg; Buchmann, Inga; Reske, Sven N.

    2003-01-01

    Beta-irradiation used for systemic radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a promising treatment approach for high-risk leukaemia and lymphoma. In bone marrow-selective radioimmunotherapy, beta-irradiation is applied using iodine-131, yttrium-90 or rhenium-188 labelled radioimmunoconjugates. However, the mechanisms by which beta-irradiation induces cell death are not understood at the molecular level. Here, we report that beta-irradiation induced apoptosis and activated apoptosis pathways in leukaemia cells depending on doses, time points and dose rates. After beta-irradiation, upregulation of CD95 ligand and CD95 receptor was detected and activation of caspases resulting in apoptosis was found. These effects were completely blocked by the broad-range caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk. In addition, irradiation-mediated mitochondrial damage resulted in perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-9 activation and cytochrome c release. Bax, a death-promoting protein, was upregulated and Bcl-x L , a death-inhibiting protein, was downregulated. We also found higher apoptosis rates and earlier activation of apoptosis pathways after gamma-irradiation in comparison to beta-irradiation at the same dose rate. Furthermore, irradiation-resistant cells were cross-resistant to CD95 and CD95-resistant cells were cross-resistant to irradiation, indicating that CD95 and irradiation used, at least in part, identical effector pathways. These findings demonstrate that beta-irradiation induces apoptosis and activates apoptosis pathways in leukaemia cells using both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways. Understanding the timing, sequence and molecular pathways of beta-irradiation-mediated apoptosis may allow rational adjustment of chemo- and radiotherapeutic strategies. (orig.)

  7. Co-ordinate regulation of the cytoskeleton in 3T3 cells overexpressing thymosin-beta4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golla, R; Philp, N; Safer, D; Chintapalli, J; Hoffman, R; Collins, L; Nachmias, V T

    1997-01-01

    In several cell types, short-term increases in the concentration of the G-actin-sequestering peptide thymosin-beta4 (Tbeta4) cause the disassembly of F-actin bundles. To determine the extent of cell adaptability to these reductions in F-actin, we overexpressed Tbeta4 in NIH 3T3 cells. In cell lines with Tbeta4 levels twice those of vector controls, G-actin increased approximately twofold as expected. However, F-actin did not decrease as in short-term experiments but rather also increased approximately twofold so that the G-F ratio remained constant. Surprisingly, the cytoskeletal proteins myosin IIA, alpha-actinin, and tropomyosin also increased nearly twofold. These increases were specific; DNA, total protein, lactic dehydrogenase, profilin, and actin depolymerizing factor levels were unchanged in the overexpressing cells. The Tbeta4 lines spread more fully and adhered to the dish more strongly than vector controls; this altered phenotype correlated with a twofold increase in talin and alpha5-integrin and a nearly threefold increase in vinculin. Focal adhesions, detected by indirect immunofluorescence with antivinculin, were increased in size over the controls. Northern blotting showed that mRNAs for both beta-actin and vinculin were increased twofold in the overexpressing lines. We conclude that 1) NIH 3T3 cells adapt to increased levels of G-actin sequestered by increased Tbeta4 by increasing their total actin so that the F-actin/G-actin ratio remains constant; 2) these cells coordinately increase several cytoskeletal and adhesion plaque proteins; and 3) at least for actin and vinculin, this regulation is at the transcriptional level. We therefore propose that the proteins of this multimember interacting complex making up the actin-based cytoskeleton, are coordinately regulated by factors that control the expression of several proteins. The mechanism may bear similarities to the control of synthesis of another multimember interacting complex, the myofibril of

  8. Live-cell microscopy reveals small molecule inhibitor effects on MAPK pathway dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Anderson

    Full Text Available Oncogenic mutations in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway are prevalent in human tumors, making this pathway a target of drug development efforts. Recently, ATP-competitive Raf inhibitors were shown to cause MAPK pathway activation via Raf kinase priming in wild-type BRaf cells and tumors, highlighting the need for a thorough understanding of signaling in the context of small molecule kinase inhibitors. Here, we present critical improvements in cell-line engineering and image analysis coupled with automated image acquisition that allow for the simultaneous identification of cellular localization of multiple MAPK pathway components (KRas, CRaf, Mek1 and Erk2. We use these assays in a systematic study of the effect of small molecule inhibitors across the MAPK cascade either as single agents or in combination. Both Raf inhibitor priming as well as the release from negative feedback induced by Mek and Erk inhibitors cause translocation of CRaf to the plasma membrane via mechanisms that are additive in pathway activation. Analysis of Erk activation and sub-cellular localization upon inhibitor treatments reveals differential inhibition and activation with the Raf inhibitors AZD628 and GDC0879 respectively. Since both single agent and combination studies of Raf and Mek inhibitors are currently in the clinic, our assays provide valuable insight into their effects on MAPK signaling in live cells.

  9. The fast-recycling receptor Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Bay, Andres E.; Schreiner, Ryan; Benedicto, Ignacio; Paz Marzolo, Maria; Banfelder, Jason; Weinstein, Alan M.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique J.

    2016-01-01

    The basolateral recycling and transcytotic pathways of epithelial cells were previously defined using markers such as transferrin (TfR) and polymeric IgA (pIgR) receptors. In contrast, our knowledge of the apical recycling pathway remains fragmentary. Here we utilize quantitative live-imaging and mathematical modelling to outline the recycling pathway of Megalin (LRP-2), an apical receptor with key developmental and renal functions, in MDCK cells. We show that, like TfR, Megalin is a long-lived and fast-recycling receptor. Megalin enters polarized MDCK cells through segregated apical sorting endosomes and subsequently intersects the TfR and pIgR pathways at a perinuclear Rab11-negative compartment termed common recycling endosomes (CRE). Whereas TfR recycles to the basolateral membrane from CRE, Megalin, like pIgR, traffics to subapical Rab11-positive apical recycling endosomes (ARE) and reaches the apical membrane in a microtubule- and Rab11-dependent manner. Hence, Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelia, with CRE as its apical sorting station. PMID:27180806

  10. [Cell signaling pathways interaction in cellular proliferation: Potential target for therapeutic interventionism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdespino-Gómez, Víctor Manuel; Valdespino-Castillo, Patricia Margarita; Valdespino-Castillo, Víctor Edmundo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, cellular physiology is best understood by analysing their interacting molecular components. Proteins are the major components of the cells. Different proteins are organised in the form of functional clusters, pathways or networks. These molecules are ordered in clusters of receptor molecules of extracellular signals, transducers, sensors and biological response effectors. The identification of these intracellular signaling pathways in different cellular types has required a long journey of experimental work. More than 300 intracellular signaling pathways have been identified in human cells. They participate in cell homeostasis processes for structural and functional maintenance. Some of them participate simultaneously or in a nearly-consecutive progression to generate a cellular phenotypic change. In this review, an analysis is performed on the main intracellular signaling pathways that take part in the cellular proliferation process, and the potential use of some components of these pathways as target for therapeutic interventionism are also underlined. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. Anthraquinone G503 Induces Apoptosis in Gastric Cancer Cells through the Mitochondrial Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuai; Duan, Junting; Ye, Fang; Li, Hanxiang; She, Zhigang; Gao, Guoquan; Yang, Xia

    2014-01-01

    G503 is an anthraquinone compound isolated from the secondary metabolites of a mangrove endophytic fungus from the South China Sea. The present study elucidates the anti-tumor activity and the underlying mechanism of G503. Cell viability assay performed in nine cancer cell lines and two normal cell lines demonstrated that the gastric cancer cell line SGC7901 is the most G503-sensitive cancer cells. G503 induced SGC7901 cell death via apoptosis. G503 exposure activated caspases-3, -8 and -9. Pretreatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK and caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK, but not caspase-8 inbibitor Z-IETD-FMK, attenuated the effect of G503. These results suggested that the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, rather than the extrinsic pathway, was involved in G503-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, G503 increased the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2 in the mitochondria and decreased the ratio in the cytosol. G503 treatment resulted in mitochondrial depolarization, cytochrome c release and the subsequent cleavage of caspase -9 and -3. Moreover, it is reported that the endoplasmic reticulum apoptosis pathway may also be activated by G503 by inducing capase-4 cleavage. In consideration of the lower 50% inhibitory concentration for gastric cancer cells, G503 may serve as a promising candidate for gastric cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25268882

  12. Cancer Stem Cells, EMT, and Developmental Pathway Activation in Pancreatic Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindriksen, Sanne; Bijlsma, Maarten F.

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a disease with remarkably poor patient survival rates. The frequent presence of metastases and profound chemoresistance pose a severe problem for the treatment of these tumors. Moreover, cross-talk between the tumor and the local micro-environment contributes to tumorigenicity, metastasis and chemoresistance. Compared to bulk tumor cells, cancer stem cells (CSC) have reduced sensitivity to chemotherapy. CSC are tumor cells with stem-like features that possess the ability to self-renew, but can also give rise to more differentiated progeny. CSC can be identified based on increased in vitro spheroid- or colony formation, enhanced in vivo tumor initiating potential, or expression of cell surface markers. Since CSC are thought to be required for the maintenance of a tumor cell population, these cells could possibly serve as a therapeutic target. There appears to be a causal relationship between CSC and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pancreatic tumors. The occurrence of EMT in pancreatic cancer cells is often accompanied by re-activation of developmental pathways, such as the Hedgehog, WNT, NOTCH, and Nodal/Activin pathways. Therapeutics based on CSC markers, EMT, developmental pathways, or tumor micro-environment could potentially be used to target pancreatic CSC. This may lead to a reduction of tumor growth, metastatic events, and chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer

  13. Highly proliferative primitive fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells are fueled by oxidative metabolic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed K. Manesia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs in the fetal liver (FL unlike adult bone marrow (BM proliferate extensively, posing different metabolic demands. However, metabolic pathways responsible for the production of energy and cellular building blocks in FL HSCs have not been described. Here, we report that FL HSCs use oxygen dependent energy generating pathways significantly more than their BM counterparts. RNA-Seq analysis of E14.5 FL versus BM derived HSCs identified increased expression levels of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos and the citric acid cycle (TCA. We demonstrated that FL HSCs contain more mitochondria than BM HSCs, which resulted in increased levels of oxygen consumption and reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Higher levels of DNA repair and antioxidant pathway gene expression may prevent ROS-mediated (genotoxicity in FL HSCs. Thus, we here for the first time highlight the underestimated importance of oxygen dependent pathways for generating energy and building blocks in FL HSCs.

  14. Multiple intracellular signaling pathways orchestrate adipocytic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayesh Hafez Ali, Dalia; Abuelreich, Sarah; Alkeraishan, Nora

    2018-01-01

    during adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) and identified 2,589 up-regulated and 2,583 down-regulated mRNA transcripts. Pathway analysis on the up-regulated gene list untraveled enrichment in multiple signaling pathways including insulin receptor......Bone marrow adipocyte formation plays a role in bone homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. However, the transcriptional landscape and signaling pathways associated with adipocyte lineage commitment and maturation are not fully delineated. Thus, we performed global gene expression profiling...... signaling, focal Adhesion, metapathway biotransformation, a number of metabolic pathways e.g. selenium metabolism, Benzo(a)pyrene metabolism, fatty acid, triacylglycerol, ketone body metabolism, tryptophan metabolism, and catalytic cycle of mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMOs). On the other hand...

  15. Curcumin inhibits bladder cancer stem cells by suppressing Sonic Hedgehog pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dengdian; Kong, Xiaochuan; Li, Yuan; Qian, Weiwei; Ma, Jiaxing; Wang, Daming; Yu, Dexin; Zhong, Caiyun

    2017-11-04

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) is responsible for the recurrence of human cancers. Thus, targeting CSCs is considered to be a valid way for human cancer treatment. Curcumin is a major component of phytochemicals that exerts potent anticancer activities. However, the effect of curcumin on bladder cancer stem cells (BCSCs) remains to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of curcumin suppressing bladder cancer stem cells. In this study, UM-UC-3 and EJ cells were cultured in serum-free medium (SFM) to form cell spheres that was characterized as BCSCs. Then cell spheres were separately treated with different concentrations of curcumin and purmorphamine. Cell cycle analysis were used to determine the percentage of cells in different phases. Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR analysis were used to detect the expression of relative molecules. Immunofluorescence staining analysis were also utilized to measure the protein level of CD44. We found that CSC markers, including CD44, CD133, ALDH1-A1, OCT-4 and Nanog, were obviously highly expressed in cell spheres. Moreover, we observed that curcumin reduced the cell spheres formation, decreased the expression of CSC markers, suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis. We also found that curcumin inhibited the activation of Shh pathway, while the inhibitory effects of curcumin on BCSCs could be weakened by upregulation of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) pathway. Altogether, these data suggested that curcumin inhibited the activities of BCSCs through suppressing Shh pathway, which might be an effective chemopreventive agent for bladder cancer intervention. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Dependency of a therapy-resistant state of cancer cells on a lipid peroxidase pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Vasanthi S; Ryan, Matthew J; Dhruv, Harshil D; Gill, Shubhroz; Eichhoff, Ossia M; Seashore-Ludlow, Brinton; Kaffenberger, Samuel D; Eaton, John K; Shimada, Kenichi; Aguirre, Andrew J; Viswanathan, Srinivas R; Chattopadhyay, Shrikanta; Tamayo, Pablo; Yang, Wan Seok; Rees, Matthew G; Chen, Sixun; Boskovic, Zarko V; Javaid, Sarah; Huang, Cherrie; Wu, Xiaoyun; Tseng, Yuen-Yi; Roider, Elisabeth M; Gao, Dong; Cleary, James M; Wolpin, Brian M; Mesirov, Jill P; Haber, Daniel A; Engelman, Jeffrey A; Boehm, Jesse S; Kotz, Joanne D; Hon, Cindy S; Chen, Yu; Hahn, William C; Levesque, Mitchell P; Doench, John G; Berens, Michael E; Shamji, Alykhan F; Clemons, Paul A; Stockwell, Brent R; Schreiber, Stuart L

    2017-07-27

    Plasticity of the cell state has been proposed to drive resistance to multiple classes of cancer therapies, thereby limiting their effectiveness. A high-mesenchymal cell state observed in human tumours and cancer cell lines has been associated with resistance to multiple treatment modalities across diverse cancer lineages, but the mechanistic underpinning for this state has remained incompletely understood. Here we molecularly characterize this therapy-resistant high-mesenchymal cell state in human cancer cell lines and organoids and show that it depends on a druggable lipid-peroxidase pathway that protects against ferroptosis, a non-apoptotic form of cell death induced by the build-up of toxic lipid peroxides. We show that this cell state is characterized by activity of enzymes that promote the synthesis of polyunsaturated lipids. These lipids are the substrates for lipid peroxidation by lipoxygenase enzymes. This lipid metabolism creates a dependency on pathways converging on the phospholipid glutathione peroxidase (GPX4), a selenocysteine-containing enzyme that dissipates lipid peroxides and thereby prevents the iron-mediated reactions of peroxides that induce ferroptotic cell death. Dependency on GPX4 was found to exist across diverse therapy-resistant states characterized by high expression of ZEB1, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition in epithelial-derived carcinomas, TGFβ-mediated therapy-resistance in melanoma, treatment-induced neuroendocrine transdifferentiation in prostate cancer, and sarcomas, which are fixed in a mesenchymal state owing to their cells of origin. We identify vulnerability to ferroptic cell death induced by inhibition of a lipid peroxidase pathway as a feature of therapy-resistant cancer cells across diverse mesenchymal cell-state contexts.

  17. Verteporfin inhibits papillary thyroid cancer cells proliferation and cell cycle through ERK1/2 signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Tian; Wei, Wen-Jun; Wen, Duo; Hu, Jia-Qian; Wang, Yu; Ma, Ben; Cao, Yi-Min; Xiang, Jun; Guan, Qing; Chen, Jia-Ying; Sun, Guo-Hua; Zhu, Yong-Xue; Li, Duan-Shu; Ji, Qing-Hai

    2018-01-01

    Verteporfin, a FDA approved second-generation photosensitizer, has been demonstrated to have anticancer activity in various tumors, but not including papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). In current pre-clinical pilot study, we investigate the effect of verteporfin on proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and tumor growth of PTC. Our results indicate verteporfin attenuates cell proliferation, arrests cell cycle in G2/S phase and induces apoptosis of PTC cells. Moreover, treatment of verteporfin dramatically suppresses tumor growth from PTC cells in xenograft mouse model. We further illustrate that exposure to MEK inhibitor U0126 inactivates phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and MEK in verteporfin-treated PTC cells. These data suggest verteporfin exhibits inhibitory effect on PTC cells proliferation and cell cycle partially via ERK1/2 signalling pathway, which strongly encourages the further application of verteporfin in the treatment against PTC. PMID:29721041

  18. Pathway to 50% Efficient Inverted Metamorphic Concentrator Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisz, John F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steiner, Myles A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jain, Nikhil [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schulte, Kevin L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); France, Ryan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMahon, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Perl, Emmett [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Daniel J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Series-connected five (5J) and six junction (6J) concentrator solar cell strategies have the realistic potential to exceed 50% efficiency to enable low-cost CPV systems. We propose three strategies for developing a practical 6J device. We have overcome many of the challenges required to build such concentrator solar cell devices: We have developed 2.1 eV AlGaInP, 1.7 eV AlGaAs, and 1.7 eV GaInAsP junctions with external radiative efficiency greater than 0.1%. We have developed a transparent tunnel junction that absorbs minimal light intended for the second junction yet resists degradation under thermal load. We have developed metamorphic grades from the GaAs to the InP lattice constant that are transparent to sub-GaAs bandgap light. We have grown and compared low bandgap junctions (0.7eV - 1.2 eV) using metamorphic GaInAs, metamorphic GaInAsP, and GaInAsP lattice-matched to InP. And finally, we have demonstrated excellent performance in a high voltage, low current 4 junction inverted metamorphic device using 2.1, 1.7, 1.4, and 1.1 eV junctions with over 8.7 mA/cm2 one-sun current density that operates up to 1000 suns without tunnel junction failure.

  19. The regulation effect of STAT 5 signaling pathway on the cell cycle progression of irradiated KG-1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Dehuang; Dong Bo; Luo Qingliang; Wen Gengyun; Mao Bingzhi

    2000-01-01

    The author investigated the role of the JAK/STAT signaling pathway regulating cell cycle progression in the irradiated KG-1 cells. By permanent transfecting the cells with DN-STAT 5 cDNA to block the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and then transient transfecting with cyclin D 1 or cyclin B 1 cDNA, the effects of cyclin D 1 protein and cyclin B 1 protein on the cell cycle progression were examined. Results showed that after irradiation with 8Gy 60 Co rays, the irradiated KG-1 cells transfected with only DN-STAT 5 cDNA can not recover form the G 1 arrest, even though GM-CSF was added. Meanwhile, the cells transfected with both the DN-STAT 5 cDNA and cyclin D 1 cDNA or cyclin B 1 cDNA can recover from the G 1 arrest or the G 2 arrest to a great extent. Thus, it was proved indirectly that the JAK/STAT signaling pathway activated by GM-CSF regulated the cell cycle progression through cyclin D 1 and cyclin B 1 protein

  20. Hesperidin inhibits HeLa cell proliferation through apoptosis mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways and cell cycle arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yaoxian; Yu, Hui; Zhang, Jin; Gao, Jing; Ge, Xin; Lou, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Hesperidin (30, 5, 9-dihydroxy-40-methoxy-7-orutinosyl flavanone) is a flavanone that is found mainly in citrus fruits and has been shown to have some anti-neoplastic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of hesperidin on apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa cells and to identify the mechanism involved. Cells were treated with hesperidin (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 μM) for 24, 48, or 72 h and relative cell viability was assessed using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Hesperidin inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Hesperidin-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells was characterized by increased nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, increased levels of GADD153/CHOP and GRP78 indicated hesperidin-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells involved a caspase-dependent pathway, presumably downstream of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. Both of these proteins are hallmarks of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Hesperidin also promoted the formation of reactive oxygen species, mobilization of intracellular Ca 2+ , loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), increased release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria, and promoted capase-3 activation. It also arrested HeLa cells in the G0/G1 phase in the cell cycle by downregulating the expression of cyclinD1, cyclinE1, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 at the protein level. The effect of hesperidin was also verified on the human colon cancer cell HT-29 cells. We concluded that hesperidin inhibited HeLa cell proliferation through apoptosis involving endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways and cell cycle arrest

  1. Rp58 and p27kip1 coordinate cell cycle exit and neuronal migration within the embryonic mouse cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Olivier; Hemming, Isabel Anne; Gladwyn-Ng, Ivan Enghian; Qu, Zhengdong; Li, Shan Shan; Piper, Michael; Heng, Julian Ik-Tsen

    2017-05-15

    During the development of the mammalian cerebral cortex, newborn postmitotic projection neurons are born from local neural stem cells and must undergo radial migration so as to position themselves appropriately to form functional neural circuits. The zinc finger transcriptional repressor Rp58 (also known as Znf238 or Zbtb18) is critical for coordinating corticogenesis, but its underlying molecular mechanism remains to be better characterised. Here, we demonstrate that the co-expression of Rp58 and the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) p27 kip1 is important for E14.5-born cortical neurons to coordinate cell cycle exit and initiate their radial migration. Notably, we find that the impaired radial positioning of Rp58-deficient cortical neurons within the embryonic (E17.5) mouse cortex, as well as their multipolar to bipolar transition from the intermediate zone to the cortical plate can be restored by forced expression of p27 kip1 in concert with suppression of Rnd2, a downstream target gene of Rp58. Furthermore, the restorative effects of p27 kip1 and Rnd2 abrogation are reminiscent of suppressing RhoA signalling in Rp58-deficient cells. Our findings demonstrate functional interplay between a transcriptional regulator and a CDKI to mediate neuroprogenitor cell cycle exit, as well as to promote radial migration through a molecular mechanism consistent with suppression of RhoA signalling.

  2. The plant secretory pathway seen through the lens of the cell wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Meene, A M L; Doblin, M S; Bacic, Antony

    2017-01-01

    Secretion in plant cells is often studied by looking at well-characterised, evolutionarily conserved membrane proteins associated with particular endomembrane compartments. Studies using live cell microscopy and fluorescent proteins have illuminated the highly dynamic nature of trafficking, and electron microscopy studies have resolved the ultrastructure of many compartments. Biochemical and molecular analyses have further informed about the function of particular proteins and endomembrane compartments. In plants, there are over 40 cell types, each with highly specialised functions, and hence potential variations in cell biological processes and cell wall structure. As the primary function of secretion in plant cells is for the biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides and apoplastic transport complexes, it follows that utilising our knowledge of cell wall glycosyltransferases (GTs) and their polysaccharide products will inform us about secretion. Indeed, this knowledge has led to novel insights into the secretory pathway, including previously unseen post-TGN secretory compartments. Conversely, our knowledge of trafficking routes of secretion will inform us about polarised and localised deposition of cell walls and their constituent polysaccharides/glycoproteins. In this review, we look at what is known about cell wall biosynthesis and the secretory pathway and how the different approaches can be used in a complementary manner to study secretion and provide novel insights into these processes.

  3. Murine transgenic embryonic stem cell lines for the investigation of sinoatrial node-related molecular pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Schmitteckert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The elucidation of molecular mechanisms that restrict the potential of pluripotent stem cells and promote cardiac lineage differentiation is of crucial relevance, since embryonic stem cells (ESCs hold great potential for cell based heart therapies. The homeodomain transcription factor Shox2 is essential for the development and proper function of the native cardiac pacemaker, the sinoatrial node. This prompted us to develop a cardiac differentiation model using ESC lines isolated from blastocysts of Shox2-deficient mice. The established cell model provides a fundamental basis for the investigation of molecular pathways under physiological and pathophysiological conditions for evaluating novel therapeutic approaches.

  4. Posterior Inferotemporal Cortex Cells Use Multiple Input Pathways for Shape Encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Carlos R; Lomber, Stephen G; Livingstone, Margaret S

    2017-05-10

    In the macaque monkey brain, posterior inferior temporal (PIT) cortex cells contribute to visual object recognition. They receive concurrent inputs from visual areas V4, V3, and V2. We asked how these different anatomical pathways shape PIT response properties by deactivating them while monitoring PIT activity in two male macaques. We found that cooling of V4 or V2|3 did not lead to consistent changes in population excitatory drive; however, population pattern analyses showed that V4-based pathways were more important than V2|3-based pathways. We did not find any image features that predicted decoding accuracy differences between both interventions. Using the HMAX hierarchical model of visual recognition, we found that different groups of simulated "PIT" units with different input histories (lacking "V2|3" or "V4" input) allowed for comparable levels of object-decoding performance and that removing a large fraction of "PIT" activity resulted in similar drops in performance as in the cooling experiments. We conclude that distinct input pathways to PIT relay similar types of shape information, with V1-dependent V4 cells providing more quantitatively useful information for overall encoding than cells in V2 projecting directly to PIT. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Convolutional neural networks are the best models of the visual system, but most emphasize input transformations across a serial hierarchy akin to the primary "ventral stream" (V1 → V2 → V4 → IT). However, the ventral stream also comprises parallel "bypass" pathways: V1 also connects to V4, and V2 to IT. To explore the advantages of mixing long and short pathways in the macaque brain, we used cortical cooling to silence inputs to posterior IT and compared the findings with an HMAX model with parallel pathways. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/375019-16$15.00/0.

  5. Analysis of porcine granulosa cell death signaling pathways induced by vinclozolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knet, Malgorzata; Wartalski, Kamil; Hoja-Lukowicz, Dorota; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Slomczynska, Maria; Duda, Malgorzata

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that disturbing androgen-signaling pathways in porcine ovarian follicles may cause granulosa cell (GC) death. For this reason, we investigated which apoptotic pathway is initiated after GC exposure to an environmental antiandrogen, vinclozolin (Vnz), in vitro. Immunocytochemistry, Western blots, and fluorometric assays were used to quantify caspase-3 and -9 expression and activity. To elucidate the specific mechanism of Vnz action and toxicity, GCs were assessed for viability, cytotoxicity, and apoptotic activity using the ApoTox-Glo Triplex Assay. To further determine the mechanism of GC death induced by Vnz, we used the Apoptosis Antibody Array Kit. In response to Vnz stimulus, we found an increased level of caspase-3 protein expression (P ≤ 0.001) and an increase in caspase-3 proteolytic activity (P ≤ 0.001), confirming that Vnz is a potent proapoptotic factor. The strong immunoreaction of caspase-9 after Vnz treatment (P ≤ 0.001) suggests that intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis pathway was activated during GC death. On the other hand, caspase-8, being a part of the extrinsic receptor pathway, was also activated (P ≤ 0.001). Therefore, it is possible that Vnz induces porcine granulosal apoptosis also through a parallel pathway. Activation of these two pathways was confirmed by the Apoptosis Antibody Array Kit. In conclusion, it is possible that the intrinsic signaling pathway may not act as an initial trigger for GC apoptosis but might contribute to the amplification and propagation of apoptotic cell death in the granulosa layer after treatment with this antiandrogen. Moreover, Vnz disturbs the physiological process of programmed cell death. Consequently, this could explain why atretic follicles are rapidly removed and suggests that normal function of the ovarian follicle may be destroyed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Network reconstruction of the mouse secretory pathway applied on CHO cell transcriptome data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne Mathilde; Kaas, Christian Schrøder; Brandl, Julian

    2017-01-01

    , counting 801 different components in mouse. By employing our mouse RECON to the CHO-K1 genome in a comparative genomic approach, we could reconstruct the protein secretory pathway of CHO cells counting 764 CHO components. This RECON furthermore facilitated the development of three alternative methods...... to study protein secretion through graphical visualizations of omics data. We have demonstrated the use of these methods to identify potential new and known targets for engineering improved growth and IgG production, as well as the general observation that CHO cells seem to have less strict transcriptional...... regulation of protein secretion than healthy mouse cells.  Conclusions: The RECON of the secretory pathway represents a strong tool for interpretation of data related to protein secretion as illustrated with transcriptomic data of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, the main platform for mammalian protein...

  7. The TOR Signaling Pathway in Spatial and Temporal Control of Cell Size and Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suam Gonzalez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cell size is amenable by genetic and environmental factors. The highly conserved nutrient-responsive Target of Rapamycin (TOR signaling pathway regulates cellular metabolic status and growth in response to numerous inputs. Timing and duration of TOR pathway activity is pivotal for both cell mass built up as well as cell cycle progression and is controlled and fine-tuned by the abundance and quality of nutrients, hormonal signals, growth factors, stress, and oxygen. TOR kinases function within two functionally and structurally discrete multiprotein complexes, TORC1 and TORC2, that are implicated in temporal and spatial control of cell size and growth respectively; however, recent data indicate that such functional distinctions are much more complex. Here, we briefly review roles of the two complexes in cellular growth and cytoarchitecture in various experimental model systems.

  8. The Hedgehog Signalling Pathway in Cell Migration and Guidance: What We Have Learned from Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia J. Araújo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell migration and guidance are complex processes required for morphogenesis, the formation of tumor metastases, and the progression of human cancer. During migration, guidance molecules induce cell directionality and movement through complex intracellular mechanisms. Expression of these molecules has to be tightly regulated and their signals properly interpreted by the receiving cells so as to ensure correct navigation. This molecular control is fundamental for both normal morphogenesis and human disease. The Hedgehog (Hh signaling pathway is evolutionarily conserved and known to be crucial for normal cellular growth and differentiation throughout the animal kingdom. The relevance of Hh signaling for human disease is emphasized by its activation in many cancers. Here, I review the current knowledge regarding the involvement of the Hh pathway in cell migration and guidance during Drosophila development and discuss its implications for human cancer origin and progression.

  9. Phosphoproteomic Analysis Identifies Signaling Pathways Regulated by Curcumin in Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tatsuhiro; Higuchi, Yutaka; Shibagaki, Yoshio; Hattori, Seisuke

    2017-09-01

    Curcumin, a major polyphenol of the spice turmeric, acts as a potent chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agent in several cancer types, including colon cancer. Although various proteins have been shown to be affected by curcumin, how curcumin exerts its anticancer activity is not fully understood. Phosphoproteomic analyses were performed using SW480 and SW620 human colon cancer cells to identify curcumin-affected signaling pathways. Curcumin inhibited the growth of the two cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Thirty-nine curcumin-regulated phosphoproteins were identified, five of which are involved in cancer signaling pathways. Detailed analyses revealed that the mTORC1 and p53 signaling pathways are main targets of curcumin. Our results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer activities of curcumin and future molecular targets for its clinical application. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. Sensitivity analysis of intracellular signaling pathway kinetics predicts targets for stem cell fate control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alborz Mahdavi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Directing stem cell fate requires knowledge of how signaling networks integrate temporally and spatially segregated stimuli. We developed and validated a computational model of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (Stat3 pathway kinetics, a signaling network involved in embryonic stem cell (ESC self-renewal. Our analysis identified novel pathway responses; for example, overexpression of the receptor glycoprotein-130 results in reduced pathway activation and increased ESC differentiation. We used a systematic in silico screen to identify novel targets and protein interactions involved in Stat3 activation. Our analysis demonstrates that signaling activation and desensitization (the inability to respond to ligand restimulation is regulated by balancing the activation state of a distributed set of parameters including nuclear export of Stat3, nuclear phosphatase activity, inhibition by suppressor of cytokine signaling, and receptor trafficking. This knowledge was used to devise a temporally modulated ligand delivery strategy that maximizes signaling activation and leads to enhanced ESC self-renewal.

  11. Natural products induce a G protein-mediated calcium pathway activating p53 in cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginkel, Paul R. van; Yan, Michael B. [UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Bhattacharya, Saswati [UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Polans, Arthur S., E-mail: aspolans@wisc.edu [UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Kenealey, Jason D. [UW Carbone Cancer Center, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53792 (United States); Department of Nutrition, Dietetics and Food Science, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Paclitaxel, etoposide, vincristine and doxorubicin are examples of natural products being used as chemotherapeutics but with adverse side effects that limit their therapeutic window. Natural products derived from plants and having low toxicity, such as quercetin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate and piceatannol, have been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth both in vitro and in pre-clinical models of cancer, but their mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, thus restricting their use as prototypes for developing synthetic analogs with improved anti-cancer properties. We and others have demonstrated that one of the earliest and consistent events upon exposure of tumor cells to these less toxic natural products is a rise in cytoplasmic calcium, activating several pro-apoptotic pathways. We describe here a G protein/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway (InsP3) in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells that mediates between these less toxic natural products and the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. Further, we demonstrate that this elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity and the subsequent transcription of several pro-apoptotic genes encoding PIG8, CD95, PIDD, TP53INP, RRM2B, Noxa, p21 and PUMA. We conclude from our findings that less toxic natural products likely bind to a G protein coupled receptor that activates a G protein-mediated and calcium-dependent pathway resulting selectively in tumor cell death. - Highlights: • Natural products having low toxicity increase cytoplasmic calcium in cancer cells. • A G-protein/IP{sub 3} pathway mediates the release of calcium from the ER. • The elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity. • p53 and other Ca{sup 2+}-dependent pro-apoptotic pathways inhibit cancer cell growth.

  12. Natural products induce a G protein-mediated calcium pathway activating p53 in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginkel, Paul R. van; Yan, Michael B.; Bhattacharya, Saswati; Polans, Arthur S.; Kenealey, Jason D.

    2015-01-01

    Paclitaxel, etoposide, vincristine and doxorubicin are examples of natural products being used as chemotherapeutics but with adverse side effects that limit their therapeutic window. Natural products derived from plants and having low toxicity, such as quercetin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate and piceatannol, have been shown to inhibit tumor cell growth both in vitro and in pre-clinical models of cancer, but their mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated, thus restricting their use as prototypes for developing synthetic analogs with improved anti-cancer properties. We and others have demonstrated that one of the earliest and consistent events upon exposure of tumor cells to these less toxic natural products is a rise in cytoplasmic calcium, activating several pro-apoptotic pathways. We describe here a G protein/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway (InsP3) in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells that mediates between these less toxic natural products and the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. Further, we demonstrate that this elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity and the subsequent transcription of several pro-apoptotic genes encoding PIG8, CD95, PIDD, TP53INP, RRM2B, Noxa, p21 and PUMA. We conclude from our findings that less toxic natural products likely bind to a G protein coupled receptor that activates a G protein-mediated and calcium-dependent pathway resulting selectively in tumor cell death. - Highlights: • Natural products having low toxicity increase cytoplasmic calcium in cancer cells. • A G-protein/IP 3 pathway mediates the release of calcium from the ER. • The elevation of intracellular calcium modulates p53 activity. • p53 and other Ca 2+ -dependent pro-apoptotic pathways inhibit cancer cell growth.

  13. MAP kinase pathways and calcitonin influence CD44 alternate isoform expression in prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, Eric W; Travanty, Emily A; Yang, Kui; Iczkowski, Kenneth A

    2008-01-01

    Dysregulated expression and splicing of cell adhesion marker CD44 is found in many types of cancer. In prostate cancer (PC) specifically, the standard isoform (CD44s) has been found to be downregulated compared with benign tissue whereas predominant variant isoform CD44v7-10 is upregulated. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and paracrine calcitonin are two common factors linked to dysregulated expression and splicing of CD44 in cancer. Calcitonin has been found to increase proliferation and invasion in PC acting through the protein kinase A pathway. In androgen-independent PC with known high CD44v7-10 expression, CD44 total and CD44v7-10 RNA or protein were assessed in response to exogenous and endogenous calcitonin and to inhibitors of protein kinase A, MEK, JNK, or p38 kinase. Benign cells and calcitonin receptor-negative PC cells were also tested. MEK or p38 but not JNK reduced CD44 total RNA by 40%–65% in cancer and benign cells. Inhibition of protein kinase A reduced CD44 total and v7-10 protein expression. In calcitonin receptor-positive cells only, calcitonin increased CD44 variant RNA and protein by 3 h and persisting to 48 h, apparently dependent on an uninhibited p38 pathway. Cells with constitutive CT expression showed an increase in CD44v7-10 mRNA but a decrease in CD44 total RNA. The MEK pathway increases CD44 RNA, while calcitonin, acting through the protein kinase A and p38 pathway, facilitates variant splicing. These findings could be used in the formulation of therapeutic methods for PC targeting CD44 alternate splicing

  14. Proteomics analysis of cytokine-induced dysfunction and death in insulin-producing INS-1E cells: new insights into the pathways involved

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Hertog, Wannes; Overbergh, Lut; Hansen, Kasper Lage

    2007-01-01

    points (1, 4, and 24 h of cytokine exposure) revealed that the major changes were taking place only after 24 h. At this time point 158 proteins were altered in expression (4.1%, n = 4, p ...-cell attack. The aim of the present study was to analyze protein changes in insulin-producing INS-1E cells exposed to inflammatory cytokines in vitro using two-dimensional DIGE. Within two different pH ranges we observed 2214 +/- 164 (pH 4-7) and 1641 +/- 73 (pH 6-9) spots. Analysis at three different time...... reticulum and oxidative stress/defense. We investigated the interactions of these proteins and discovered a significant interaction network (p analysis suggests that proteins of different pathways act coordinately in a beta-cell dysfunction...

  15. Epigenetic inactivation of Notch-Hes pathway in human B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Qing Kuang

    Full Text Available The Notch pathway can have both oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles, depending on cell context. For example, Notch signaling promotes T cell differentiation and is leukemogenic in T cells, whereas it inhibits early B cell differentiation and acts as a tumor suppressor in B cell leukemia where it induces growth arrest and apoptosis. The regulatory mechanisms that contribute to these opposing roles are not understood. Aberrant promoter DNA methylation and histone modifications are associated with silencing of tumor suppressor genes and have been implicated in leukemogenesis. Using methylated CpG island amplification (MCA/DNA promoter microarray, we identified Notch3 and Hes5 as hypermethylated in human B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. We investigated the methylation status of other Notch pathway genes by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Notch3, JAG1, Hes2, Hes4 and Hes5 were frequently hypermethylated in B leukemia cell lines and primary B-ALL, in contrast to T-ALL cell lines and patient samples. Aberrant methylation of Notch3 and Hes5 in B-ALL was associated with gene silencing and was accompanied by decrease of H3K4 trimethylation and H3K9 acetylation and gain of H3K9 trimethylation and H3K27 trimethylation. 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment restored Hes5 expression and decreased promoter hypermethylation in most leukemia cell lines and primary B-ALL samples. Restoration of Hes5 expression by lentiviral transduction resulted in growth arrest and apoptosis in Hes5 negative B-ALL cells but not in Hes5 expressing T-ALL cells. These data suggest that epigenetic modifications are implicated in silencing of tumor suppressor of Notch/Hes pathway in B-ALL.

  16. Epigenetic inactivation of Notch-Hes pathway in human B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shao-Qing; Fang, Zhihong; Zweidler-McKay, Patrick A; Yang, Hui; Wei, Yue; Gonzalez-Cervantes, Emilio A; Boumber, Yanis; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    The Notch pathway can have both oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles, depending on cell context. For example, Notch signaling promotes T cell differentiation and is leukemogenic in T cells, whereas it inhibits early B cell differentiation and acts as a tumor suppressor in B cell leukemia where it induces growth arrest and apoptosis. The regulatory mechanisms that contribute to these opposing roles are not understood. Aberrant promoter DNA methylation and histone modifications are associated with silencing of tumor suppressor genes and have been implicated in leukemogenesis. Using methylated CpG island amplification (MCA)/DNA promoter microarray, we identified Notch3 and Hes5 as hypermethylated in human B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We investigated the methylation status of other Notch pathway genes by bisulfite pyrosequencing. Notch3, JAG1, Hes2, Hes4 and Hes5 were frequently hypermethylated in B leukemia cell lines and primary B-ALL, in contrast to T-ALL cell lines and patient samples. Aberrant methylation of Notch3 and Hes5 in B-ALL was associated with gene silencing and was accompanied by decrease of H3K4 trimethylation and H3K9 acetylation and gain of H3K9 trimethylation and H3K27 trimethylation. 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment restored Hes5 expression and decreased promoter hypermethylation in most leukemia cell lines and primary B-ALL samples. Restoration of Hes5 expression by lentiviral transduction resulted in growth arrest and apoptosis in Hes5 negative B-ALL cells but not in Hes5 expressing T-ALL cells. These data suggest that epigenetic modifications are implicated in silencing of tumor suppressor of Notch/Hes pathway in B-ALL.

  17. Musashi2 modulates K562 leukemic cell proliferation and apoptosis involving the MAPK pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Tan, Shi; Wang, Juan; Chen, Shana; Quan, Jing; Xian, Jingrong; Zhang, Shuai shuai; He, Jingang; Zhang, Ling, E-mail: lingzhang@cqmu.edu.cn

    2014-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein Musashi2 (Msi2) has been identified as a master regulator within a variety of stem cell populations via the regulation of translational gene expression. A recent study has suggested that Msi2 is strongly expressed in leukemic cells of acute myeloid leukemia patients, and elevated Msi2 is associated with poor prognosis. However, the potential role of Msi2 in leukemogenesis is still not well understood. Here, we investigated the effect of Msi2 knockdown on the biological properties of leukemic cells. High expression of Msi2 was found in K562 and KG-1a leukemic cell lines, and low expression was observed in the U937 cell line. We transduced K562 cells with two independent adenoviral shRNA vectors targeting Msi2 and confirmed knockdown of Msi2 at the mRNA and protein levels. Msi2 silencing inhibited cell growth and caused cell cycle arrest by increasing the expression of p21 and decreasing the expression of cyclin D1 and cdk2. In addition, knockdown of Msi2 promoted cellular apoptosis via the upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, Msi2 knockdown resulted in the inactivation of the ERK/MAPK and p38/MAPK pathways, but no remarkable change in p-AKT was observed. These data provide evidence that Msi2 plays an important role in leukemogenesis involving the MAPK signaling pathway, which indicates that Msi2 may be a novel target for leukemia treatment. - Highlights: • Knockdown of Msi2 inhibited K562 cell growth and arrested cell cycle progression. • Knockdown of Msi2 induced K562 cell apoptosis via the regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. • The MAPK pathway was involved in the process of Msi2-mediated leukemogenesis. • Our data indicate that Msi2 is a potential new target for leukemia treatment.

  18. Saw Palmetto Extract Inhibits Metastasis and Antiangiogenesis through STAT3 Signal Pathway in Glioma Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Hong; Shen, Jinglian; Yang, Yang; Che, Yuqin

    2015-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3) plays an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis in human glioma. Previous research indicated that saw palmetto extract markedly inhibited the proliferation of human glioma cells through STAT3 signal pathway. But its effect on tumor metastasis and antiangiogenesis is not clear. This study is to further clear the impact of saw palmetto extract on glioma cell metastasis, antiangiogenesis, and its mechanism. TUNEL ass...

  19. Exosomes Derived from Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Tumor Growth Through Hedgehog Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Qi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs are known to home to sites of tumor microenvironments where they participate in the formation of the tumor microenvironment and to interplay with tumor cells. However, the potential functional effects of MSCs on tumor cell growth are controversial. Here, we, from the view of bone marrow MSC-derived exosomes, study the molecular mechanism of MSCs on the growth of human osteosarcoma and human gastric cancer cells. Methods: MSCs derived from human bone marrow (hBMSCs were isolated and cultured in complete DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% exosome-depleted fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin-streptomycin, cell culture supernatants containing exosomes were harvested and exosome purification was performed by ultracentrifugation. Osteosarcoma (MG63 and gastric cancer (SGC7901 cells, respectively, were treated with hBMSC-derived exosomes in the presence or absence of a small molecule inhibitor of Hedgehog pathway. Cell viability was measured by transwell invasion assay, scratch migration assay and CCK-8 test. The expression of the signaling molecules Smoothened, Patched-1, Gli1 and the ligand Shh were tested by western blot and RT-PCR. Results: In this study, we found that hBMSC-derived exosomes promoted MG63 and SGC7901 cell growth through the activation of Hedgehog signaling pathway. Inhibition of Hedgehog signaling pathway significantly suppressed the process of hBMSC-derived exosomes on tumor growth. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated the new roles of hedgehog signaling pathway in the hBMSCs-derived exosomes induced tumor progression.

  20. Chemically different non-thermal plasmas target distinct cell death pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, O.; Zablotskyy, V.; Chrupina, O.; Lunova, M.; Jirsa, M.; Dejneka, A.; Kubinová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, apr (2017), s. 600 ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : chemically different * non-thermal plasmas * target distinct cell death pathways Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  1. Identifying parasitic current pathways in CIGS solar cells by modelling dark J-V response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, B.L.; Smit, S.; Kniknie, B.J.; Bakker, K.J.; Keuning, W.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Schropp, R.E.I.; Creatore, M.

    2015-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model, which allows for the presence of three types of shunting pathways, has been developed to describe the dark J-V characteristics in CIGS solar cells. Excellent agreement between the model and experimental data was apparent throughout a temperature range of 183-323K.

  2. Frequent disruption of the RB1 pathway in diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Michael Boe; Kania, P W; Ino, Y

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, we analysed 34 de novo diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLCL) from a population-based lymphoma registry for alterations of the RB1 pathway at the genetic (RB1 and CDK4) and protein (pRb, cyclin D1, cyclin D3, CDK4, and E2F-1) level. The results were correlated with the data fr...

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF SIGNALING PATHWAYS MEDIATING A CYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF DENDRITIC CELLS UPON ACTIVATED Т LYMPHOCYTES AND NK CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Tyrinova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Cytotoxic/pro-apoptogenic effects of IFNα-induced dendritic cells (IFN-DCs directed against Т-lymphocytes and NK cells were investigated in healthy donors. Using an allogenic MLC system, it was revealed that IFN-DCs induce apoptosis of both activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, and NK cells. Apoptosis of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes induced by their interaction with IFN-DCs was mediated by various signaling pathways. In particular, activated CD4+Т-lymphocytes were most sensitive to TRAIL- и Fas/ FasL-transduction pathways, whereas activated CD8+ T-lymphocytes were induced to apoptosis via TNFα-mediated pathway. PD-1/B7-H1-signaling pathway also played a distinct role in cytotoxic activity of IFNDCs towards both types of T lymphocytes and activated NK cells. The pro-apoptogenic/cytotoxic activity of IFN-DC against activated lymphocytes may be regarded as a mechanism of a feedback regulation aimed at restriction of immune response and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Moreover, upregulation of proapoptogenic molecules on DCs under pathological conditions may lead to suppression of antigen-specific response, thus contributing to the disease progression.

  4. Sesamol induced apoptotic effect in lung adenocarcinoma cells through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwarin, Boondaree; Weerapreeyakul, Natthida

    2016-07-25

    Sesamol is a phenolic lignan found in sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.) and sesame oil. The anticancer effects and molecular mechanisms underlying its apoptosis-inducing effect were investigated in human lung adenocarcinoma (SK-LU-1) cells. Sesamol inhibited SK-LU-1 cell growth with an IC50 value of 2.7 mM and exhibited less toxicity toward normal Vero cells after 48 h of treatment (Selective index = 3). Apoptotic bodies-the hallmark of apoptosis-were observed in sesamol-treated SK-LU-1 cells, stained with DAPI. Sesamol increased the activity of caspase 8, 9, and 3/7, indicating that apoptotic cell death occurred through both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. Sesamol caused the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential signifying intrinsic apoptosis induction. Decreasing Bid expression revealed crosstalk between the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways; demonstrating clearly that sesamol induces apoptosis through both pathways in human lung adenocarcinoma (SK-LU-1) cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cells deficient in the FANC/BRCA pathway are hypersensitive to plasma levels of formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridpath, John R; Nakamura, Ayumi; Tano, Keizo; Luke, April M; Sonoda, Eiichiro; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Buerstedde, Jean-Marie; Gillespie, David A F; Sale, Julian E; Yamazoe, Mitsuyoshi; Bishop, Douglas K; Takata, Minoru; Takeda, Shunichi; Watanabe, Masami; Swenberg, James A; Nakamura, Jun

    2007-12-01

    Formaldehyde is an aliphatic monoaldehyde and is a highly reactive environmental human carcinogen. Whereas humans are continuously exposed to exogenous formaldehyde, this reactive aldehyde is a naturally occurring biological compound that is present in human plasma at concentrations ranging from 13 to 97 micromol/L. It has been well documented that DNA-protein crosslinks (DPC) likely play an important role with regard to the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of formaldehyde. However, little is known about which DNA damage response pathways are essential for cells to counteract formaldehyde. In the present study, we first assessed the DNA damage response to plasma levels of formaldehyde using chicken DT40 cells with targeted mutations in various DNA repair genes. Here, we show that the hypersensitivity to formaldehyde is detected in DT40 mutants deficient in the BRCA/FANC pathway, homologous recombination, or translesion DNA synthesis. In addition, FANCD2-deficient DT40 cells are hypersensitive to acetaldehyde, but not to acrolein, crotonaldehyde, glyoxal, and methylglyoxal. Human cells deficient in FANCC and FANCG are also hypersensitive to plasma levels of formaldehyde. These results indicate that the BRCA/FANC pathway is essential to counteract DPCs caused by aliphatic monoaldehydes. Based on the results obtained in the present study, we are currently proposing that endogenous formaldehyde might have an effect on highly proliferating cells, such as bone marrow cells, as well as an etiology of cancer in Fanconi anemia patients.

  6. SPAG6 regulates cell apoptosis through the TRAIL signal pathway in myelodysplastic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinxin; Yang, Bihui; Wang, Li; Chen, Liping; Luo, Xiaohua; Liu, Lin

    2017-05-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are a group of malignant clone hematopoietic stem-cell diseases, and the evolution and progression of MDS depend on the abnormal apoptosis of bone marrow cells. Our previous studies have indicated that sperm-associated antigen 6 (SPAG6), located in the uniparental disomy regions of myeloid cells, is overexpressed in patients with MDS as compared to controls, and SPAG6 can inhibit apoptosis of SKM-1. However, the concrete mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, it was found that the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)signal pathway was activated when the expression of SPAG6 was inhibited by SPAG6-shRNA lentivirus in SKM-1 cells. Additionally, the results of flow cytometry, Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and western blot analysis implied that the TRAIL signal pathway could be inhibited by a high expression of SPAG6. However, SPAG6 cannot influence the expression of TRAIL death receptors, except for FADD. Additionally the interaction between FADD and TRAIL death receptors also increased in SKM-1 cells infected with SPAG6-shRNA lentivirus. Thus, our study demonstrates that SPAG6 may regulate apoptosis in SKM-1 through the TRAIL signal pathway, indicating that SPAG6 could be a potential therapeutic target.

  7. Vasopressin activates Akt/mTOR pathway in smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Daniela K.; Brenet, Marianne; Muñoz, Vanessa C.; Burgos, Patricia V.; Villanueva, Carolina I. [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Figueroa, Carlos D. [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Pathology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); González, Carlos B., E-mail: cbgonzal@uach.cl [Department of Physiology, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 509-9200 (Chile); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555 (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •AVP induces mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells cultured in high glucose concentration. •The mTOR phosphorylation is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway activation. •The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation inhibited autophagy and stimulated cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex is a key regulator of autophagy, cell growth and proliferation. Here, we studied the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on mTOR activation in vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in high glucose concentration. AVP induced the mTOR phosphorylation in A-10 cells grown in high glucose, in contrast to cells cultured in normal glucose; wherein, only basal phosphorylation was observed. The AVP-induced mTOR phosphorylation was inhibited by a PI3K inhibitor. Moreover, the AVP-induced mTOR activation inhibited autophagy and increased thymidine incorporation in cells grown in high glucose. This increase was abolished by rapamycin which inhibits the mTORC1 complex formation. Our results suggest that AVP stimulates mTOR phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway and, subsequently, inhibits autophagy and raises cell proliferation in A-10 cells maintained in high glucose concentration.

  8. Bioinformatic Integration of Molecular Networks and Major Pathways Involved in Mice Cochlear and Vestibular Supporting Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Teresa; Gallego-Martinez, Alvaro; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A

    2018-01-01

    Background : Cochlear and vestibular epithelial non-hair cells (ENHCs) are the supporting elements of the cellular architecture in the organ of Corti and the vestibular neuroepithelium in the inner ear. Intercellular and cell-extracellular matrix interactions are essential to prevent an abnormal ion redistribution leading to hearing and vestibular loss. The aim of this study is to define the main pathways and molecular networks in the mouse ENHCs. Methods : We retrieved microarray and RNA-seq datasets from mouse epithelial sensory and non-sensory cells from gEAR portal (http://umgear.org/index.html) and obtained gene expression fold-change between ENHCs and non-epithelial cells (NECs) against HCs for each gene. Differentially expressed genes (DEG) with a log2 fold change between 1 and -1 were discarded. The remaining genes were selected to search for interactions using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and STRING platform. Specific molecular networks for ENHCs in the cochlea and the vestibular organs were generated and significant pathways were identified. Results : Between 1723 and 1559 DEG were found in the mouse cochlear and vestibular tissues, respectively. Six main pathways showed enrichment in the supporting cells in both tissues: (1) "Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteases"; (2) "Calcium Transport I"; (3) "Calcium Signaling"; (4) "Leukocyte Extravasation Signaling"; (5) "Signaling by Rho Family GTPases"; and (6) "Axonal Guidance Si". In the mouse cochlea, ENHCs showed a significant enrichment in 18 pathways highlighting "axonal guidance signaling (AGS)" ( p = 4.37 × 10 -8 ) and "RhoGDI Signaling" ( p = 3.31 × 10 -8 ). In the vestibular dataset, there were 20 enriched pathways in ENHCs, the most significant being "Leukocyte Extravasation Signaling" ( p = 8.71 × 10 -6 ), "Signaling by Rho Family GTPases" ( p = 1.20 × 10 -5 ) and "Calcium Signaling" ( p = 1.20 × 10 -5 ). Among the top ranked networks, the most biologically significant network contained the

  9. Gas-phase behaviour of Ru(II) cyclopentadienyl-derived complexes with N-coordinated ligands by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: fragmentation pathways and energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Paulo J Amorim; Morais, Tânia S; Silva, Tiago J L; Florindo, Pedro; Garcia, M Helena

    2012-08-15

    The gas-phase behaviour of six Ru(II) cyclopentadienyl-derived complexes with N-coordinated ligands, compounds with antitumor activities against several cancer lines, was studied. This was performed with the intent of establishing fragmentation pathways and to determine the Ru-L(N) and Ru-L(P) ligand bond dissociation energies. Such knowledge can be an important tool for the postulation of the mechanisms of action of these anticancer drugs. Two types of instruments equipped with electrospray ionisation were used (ion trap and a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer). The dissociation energies were determined using energy-variable collision-induced dissociation measurements in the ion trap. The FTICR instrument was used to perform MS(n) experiments on one of the compounds and to obtain accurate mass measurements. Theoretical calculations were performed at the density functional theory (DFT) level using two different functionals (B3LYP and M06L) to estimate the dissociation energies of the complexes under study. The influence of the L(N) on the bond dissociation energy (D) of RuCp compounds with different nitrogen ligands was studied. The lability order of L(N) was: imidazole<1-butylimidazole<5-phenyl-1H-tetrazole<1-benzylimidazole. Both the functionals used gave the following ligand lability order: imidazole<1-benzylimidazole<5-phenyl-1H-tetrazole<1-butylimidazole. It is clear that there is an inversion between 1-benzylimidazole and 1-butylimidazole for the experimental and theoretical lability orders. The M06L functional afforded values of D closer to the experimental values. The type of phosphane (L(P) ) influenced the dissociation energies, with values of D being higher for Ru-L(N) with 1-butylimidazole when the phosphane was 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane. The Ru-L(P) bond dissociation energy for triphenylphosphane was independent of the type of complex. The D values of Ru-L(N) and Ru-L(P) were determined for all six compounds and

  10. An efficient delivery of DAMPs on the cell surface by the unconventional secretion pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Wang, Lan; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Lei; Zhang, Dongmei; Min, Zhihui; Xie, Jianhui; Yu, Min; Gu, Jianxin

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Hsp60 transported to cell surface through the classical secretory pathway was modified with N-glycosylation. → HSAPB-N18 could efficiently deliver Hsp60 to the cell surface via the unconventional secretory pathway. → Cell surface Hsp60 delivered by HASPB-N18 has a proper conformation. → HASPB-N18 is an efficient delivery signal for other DAMP molecules such as Hsp70 and HMGB1. -- Abstract: Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are signals released from dying cells evoking the immune system response in several inflammatory disorders. In normal situations, many of DAMPs are nuclear or cytosolic proteins with defined intracellular function, but they could be found on the cell surface following tissue injury. The biological function of the translocated DAMPs is still not well known and an efficient delivery of these molecules on the cell surface is required to clarify their biological effects. In this study, we demonstrated that an unclassical secretory signal peptide, N-terminal 18 amino acids of HASPB (HASPB-N18), could efficiently deliver Hsp60, Hsp70, and HMGB1 on the cell surface. Furthermore, the delivery of these molecules on the cell surface by HASPB-N18 is not limited to a special cell line because several cell lines could use this delivery signal to deliver these molecules on the cell surface. Moreover, we demonstrated that Hsp60 on the cell surface delivered by HASPB-N18 could be recognized by a soluble form of LOX-1, which implies that DAMPs on the cell surface delivered by HASPB-N18 have a proper conformation during transport. Therefore, delivery of DAMPs by HASPB-N18 is a reliable model to further understand the biological significance of DAMPs on the cell surface.

  11. Glioma cell fate decisions mediated by Dll1-Jag1-Fringe in Notch1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaofei; Wang, Ruiqi

    2017-09-21

    The Notch family of proteins plays a vital role in determining cell fates, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. It has been shown that Notch1 and its ligands, Dll1 and Jag1, are overexpressed in many glioma cell lines and primary human gliomas. The roles of Notch1 in some cancers have been firmly established, and recent data implicate that it plays important roles in glioma cell fate decisions. This paper focuses on devising a specific theoretical framework that incorporates Dll1, Jag1, and Fringe in Notch1 signaling pathway to explore their functional roles of these proteins in glioma cells in the tumorigenesis and progression of human gliomas, and to study how glioma cell fate decisions are modulated by both trans-activation and cis-inhibition. This paper presents a computational model for Notch1 signaling pathway in glioma cells. Based on the bifurcation analysis of the model, we show that how the glioma cell fate decisions are modulated by both trans-activation and cis-inhibition mediated by the Fringe protein, providing insight into the design and control principles of the Notch signaling system and the gliomas. This paper presents a computational model for Notch1 signaling pathway in glioma cells based on intertwined dynamics with cis-inhibition and trans-activation involving the proteins Notch1, Dll1, Jag1, and Fringe. The results show that how the glioma cell fate transitions are performed by the Notch1 signaling. Transition from grade III ∼ IV with significantly high Notch1 to grade I ∼ II with high Notch1, and then to normal cells by repressing the Fringe levels or decreasing the strength of enhancement induced by Fringe.

  12. BRAFV600E negatively regulates the AKT pathway in melanoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brenden; Tardell, Christine; Higgins, Brian; Packman, Kathryn; Boylan, John F; Niu, Huifeng

    2012-01-01

    Cross-feedback activation of MAPK and AKT pathways is implicated as a resistance mechanism for cancer therapeutic agents targeting either RAF/MEK or PI3K/AKT/mTOR. It is thus important to have a better understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to improve patient survival benefit from these agents. Here we show that BRAFV600E is a negative regulator of the AKT pathway. Expression of BRAFV600E in NIH3T3 cells significantly suppresses MEK inhibitor (RG7167) or mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamycin) induced AKT phosphorylation (pAKT) and downstream signal activation. Treatment-induced pAKT elevation is found in BRAF wild type melanoma cells but not in a subset of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAFV600E. Knock-down of BRAFV600E in these melanoma cells elevates basal pAKT and downstream signals, whereas knock-down of CRAF, MEK1/2 or ERK1/2 or treatment with a BRAF inhibitor have no impact on pAKT. Mechanistically, we show that BRAFV600E interacts with rictor complex (mTORC2) and regulates pAKT through mTORC2. BRAFV600E is identified in mTORC2 after immunoprecipitation of rictor. Knock-down of rictor abrogates BRAFV600E depletion induced pAKT. Knock-down of BRAFV600E enhances cellular enzyme activity of mTORC2. Aberrant activation of AKT pathway by PTEN loss appears to override the negative impact of BRAFV600E on pAKT. Taken together, our findings suggest that in a subset of BRAFV600E melanoma cells, BRAFV600E negatively regulates AKT pathway in a rictor-dependent, MEK/ERK and BRAF kinase-independent manner. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways.

  13. BRAFV600E negatively regulates the AKT pathway in melanoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenden Chen

    Full Text Available Cross-feedback activation of MAPK and AKT pathways is implicated as a resistance mechanism for cancer therapeutic agents targeting either RAF/MEK or PI3K/AKT/mTOR. It is thus important to have a better understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to improve patient survival benefit from these agents. Here we show that BRAFV600E is a negative regulator of the AKT pathway. Expression of BRAFV600E in NIH3T3 cells significantly suppresses MEK inhibitor (RG7167 or mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamycin induced AKT phosphorylation (pAKT and downstream signal activation. Treatment-induced pAKT elevation is found in BRAF wild type melanoma cells but not in a subset of melanoma cell lines harboring BRAFV600E. Knock-down of BRAFV600E in these melanoma cells elevates basal pAKT and downstream signals, whereas knock-down of CRAF, MEK1/2 or ERK1/2 or treatment with a BRAF inhibitor have no impact on pAKT. Mechanistically, we show that BRAFV600E interacts with rictor complex (mTORC2 and regulates pAKT through mTORC2. BRAFV600E is identified in mTORC2 after immunoprecipitation of rictor. Knock-down of rictor abrogates BRAFV600E depletion induced pAKT. Knock-down of BRAFV600E enhances cellular enzyme activity of mTORC2. Aberrant activation of AKT pathway by PTEN loss appears to override the negative impact of BRAFV600E on pAKT. Taken together, our findings suggest that in a subset of BRAFV600E melanoma cells, BRAFV600E negatively regulates AKT pathway in a rictor-dependent, MEK/ERK and BRAF kinase-independent manner. Our study reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of feedback loops between the MAPK and AKT pathways.

  14. ParA and ParB coordinate chromosome segregation with cell elongation and division during Streptomyces sporulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donczew, Magdalena; Mackiewicz, Paweł; Wróbel, Agnieszka; Flärdh, Klas; Zakrzewska-Czerwińska, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In unicellular bacteria, the ParA and ParB proteins segregate chromosomes and coordinate this process with cell division and chromosome replication. During sporulation of mycelial Streptomyces, ParA and ParB uniformly distribute multiple chromosomes along the filamentous sporogenic hyphal compartment, which then differentiates into a chain of unigenomic spores. However, chromosome segregation must be coordinated with cell elongation and multiple divisions. Here, we addressed the question of whether ParA and ParB are involved in the synchronization of cell-cycle processes during sporulation in Streptomyces. To answer this question, we used time-lapse microscopy, which allows the monitoring of growth and division of single sporogenic hyphae. We showed that sporogenic hyphae stop extending at the time of ParA accumulation and Z-ring formation. We demonstrated that both ParA and ParB affect the rate of hyphal extension. Additionally, we showed that ParA promotes the formation of massive nucleoprotein complexes by ParB. We also showed that FtsZ ring assembly is affected by the ParB protein and/or unsegregated DNA. Our results indicate the existence of a checkpoint between the extension and septation of sporogenic hyphae that involves the ParA and ParB proteins. PMID:27248800

  15. Two Distinct Pathways to Development of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Y.; Enomoto, T.; Kimura, T.; Yoshino, K.; Fujita, M.; Kimura, T.

    2011-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for approximately 95% of the malignant tumors of the vaginal vulva and is mostly found in elderly women. The future numbers of patients with vulva r SCC is expected to rise, mainly because of the proportional increase in the average age of the general population. Two different pathways for vulva r SCC have been put forth. The first pathway is triggered by infection with a high-risk-type Human Papillomavirus (HPV). Integration of the HPV DNA into the host genome leads to the development of a typical vulva r intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), accompanied with overexpression ofP14"ARF and P16"INK4A . This lesion subsequently forms a warty- or basaloid-type SCC. The HPV vaccine is a promising new tool for prevention of this HPV related SCC of the vulva. The second pathway is HPV-independent. Keratinizing SCC develops within a background of lichen sclerosus (LS) through a differentiated VIN. It has a different set of genetic alterations than those in the first pathway, including p53 mutations, allelic imbalances (AI), and microsatellite instability (MSI). Further clinical and basic research is still required to understand and prevent vulvar SCC. Capsule. Two pathway for pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the value are reviewed.

  16. Two Distinct Pathways to Development of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Vulva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Ueda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC accounts for approximately 95% of the malignant tumors of the vaginal vulva and is mostly found in elderly women. The future numbers of patients with vulvar SCC is expected to rise, mainly because of the proportional increase in the average age of the general population. Two different pathways for vulvar SCC have been put forth. The first pathway is triggered by infection with a high-risk-type Human Papillomavirus (HPV. Integration of the HPV DNA into the host genome leads to the development of a typical vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN, accompanied with overexpression of p14ARF and p16INK4A. This lesion subsequently forms a warty- or basaloid-type SCC. The HPV vaccine is a promising new tool for prevention of this HPV related SCC of the vulva. The second pathway is HPV-independent. Keratinizing SCC develops within a background of lichen sclerosus (LS through a differentiated VIN. It has a different set of genetic alterations than those in the first pathway, including p53 mutations, allelic imbalances (AI, and microsatellite instability (MSI. Further clinical and basic research is still required to understand and prevent vulvar SCC. Capsule. Two pathway for pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma of the value are reviewed.

  17. Dysregulated cellular functions and cell stress pathways provide critical cues for activating and targeting natural killer cells to transformed and infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulet, David H; Marcus, Assaf; Coscoy, Laurent

    2017-11-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells recognize and kill cancer cells and infected cells by engaging cell surface ligands that are induced preferentially or exclusively on these cells. These ligands are recognized by activating receptors on NK cells, such as NKG2D. In addition to activation by cell surface ligands, the acquisition of optimal effector activity by NK cells is driven in vivo by cytokines and other signals. This review addresses a developing theme in NK cell biology: that NK-activating ligands on cells, and the provision of cytokines and other signals that drive high effector function in NK cells, are driven by abnormalities that arise from transformation or the infected state. The pathways include genomic damage, which causes self DNA to be exposed in the cytosol of affected cells, where it activates the DNA sensor cGAS. The resulting signaling induces NKG2D ligands and also mobilizes NK cell activation. Other key pathways that regulate NKG2D ligands include PI-3 kinase activation, histone acetylation, and the integrated stress response. This review summarizes the roles of these pathways and their relevance in both viral infections and cancer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Dopamine receptors modulate cytotoxicity of natural killer cells via cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA, a neurotransmitter in the nervous system, has been shown to modulate immune function. We have previously reported that five subtypes of DA receptors, including D1R, D2R, D3R, D4R and D5R, are expressed in T lymphocytes and they are involved in regulation of T cells. However, roles of these DA receptor subtypes and their coupled signal-transduction pathway in modulation of natural killer (NK cells still remain to be clarified. The spleen of mice was harvested and NK cells were isolated and purified by negative selection using magnetic activated cell sorting. After NK cells were incubated with various drugs for 4 h, flow cytometry measured cytotoxicity of NK cells against YAC-1 lymphoma cells. NK cells expressed the five subtypes of DA receptors at mRNA and protein levels. Activation of D1-like receptors (including D1R and D5R with agonist SKF38393 enhanced NK cell cytotoxicity, but activation of D2-like receptors (including D2R, D3R and D4R with agonist quinpirole attenuated NK cells. Simultaneously, SKF38393 elevated D1R and D5R expression, cAMP content, and phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding (CREB level in NK cells, while quinpirole reduced D3R and D4R expression, cAMP content, and phosphorylated CREB level in NK cells. These effects of SKF38393 were blocked by SCH23390, an antagonist of D1-like receptors, and quinpirole effects were abolished by haloperidol, an antagonist of D2-like receptors. In support these results, H89, an inhibitor of phosphokinase A (PKA, prevented the SKF38393-dependent enhancement of NK cells and forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase (AC, counteracted the quinpirole-dependent suppression of NK cells. These findings show that DA receptor subtypes are involved in modulation of NK cells and suggest that D1-like receptors facilitate NK cells by stimulating D1R/D5R-cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway and D2-like receptors suppress NK cells by inhibiting D3R/D4R-cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway. The

  19. Molecular pathways involved in neuronal cell adhesion and membrane scaffolding contribute to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder susceptibility.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dushlaine, C

    2011-03-01

    Susceptibility to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may involve a substantial, shared contribution from thousands of common genetic variants, each of small effect. Identifying whether risk variants map to specific molecular pathways is potentially biologically informative. We report a molecular pathway analysis using the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ratio test, which compares the ratio of nominally significant (P<0.05) to nonsignificant SNPs in a given pathway to identify the \\'enrichment\\' for association signals. We applied this approach to the discovery (the International Schizophrenia Consortium (n=6909)) and validation (Genetic Association Information Network (n=2729)) of schizophrenia genome-wide association study (GWAS) data sets. We investigated each of the 212 experimentally validated pathways described in the Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes in the discovery sample. Nominally significant pathways were tested in the validation sample, and five pathways were found to be significant (P=0.03-0.001); only the cell adhesion molecule (CAM) pathway withstood conservative correction for multiple testing. Interestingly, this pathway was also significantly associated with bipolar disorder (Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (n=4847)) (P=0.01). At a gene level, CAM genes associated in all three samples (NRXN1 and CNTNAP2), which were previously implicated in specific language disorder, autism and schizophrenia. The CAM pathway functions in neuronal cell adhesion, which is critical for synaptic formation and normal cell signaling. Similar pathways have also emerged from a pathway analysis of autism, suggesting that mechanisms involved in neuronal cell adhesion may contribute broadly to neurodevelopmental psychiatric phenotypes.

  20. 4SC-202 activates ASK1-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway to inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Meili, E-mail: fumeilidrlinyi@tom.com [Department of Infectious Disease, Linyi People' s Hospital, Linyi 276000 (China); Wan, Fuqiang [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Linyi Tumor Hospital, Linyi 276000 (China); Li, Zhengling [Department of Nursing, Tengzhou Central People' s Hospital, Tengzhou 277500 (China); Zhang, Fenghua [Department of Operating Room, Linyi People' s Hospital, Linyi 276000 (China)

    2016-03-04

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell activity by 4SC-202, a novel class I HDAC inhibitor (HDACi). The associated signaling mechanisms were also analyzed. We showed that 4SC-202 treatment induced potent cytotoxic and proliferation–inhibitory activities against established HCC cell lines (HepG2, HepB3, SMMC-7721) and patient-derived primary HCC cells. Further, adding 4SC-202 in HCC cells activated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, which was evidenced by mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, cytochrome C cytosol release and caspase-3/-9 activation. Inhibition of this apoptosis pathway, by caspase-3/-9 inhibitors, mPTP blockers, or by shRNA-mediated knockdown of cyclophilin-D (Cyp-D, a key component of mPTP), significantly attenuated 4SC-202-induced HCC cell death and apoptosis. Reversely, over-expression of Cyp-D enhanced 4SC-202's sensitivity in HCC cells. Further studies showed that 4SC-202 induced apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) activation, causing it translocation to mitochondria and physical association with Cyp-D. This mitochondrial ASK1-Cyp-D complexation appeared required for mediating 4SC-202-induced apoptosis activation. ASK1 stable knockdown by targeted-shRNAs largely inhibited 4SC-202-induced mPTP opening, cytochrome C release, and following HCC cell apoptotic death. Together, we suggest that 4SC-202 activates ASK1-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway to potently inhibit human HCC cells. - Highlights: • 4SC-202 exerts potent anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity against established/primary HCC cells. • SC-202-induced anti-HCC cell activity relies on caspase-dependent apoptosis activation. • 4SC-202 activates Cyp-D-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in HCC cells. • 4SC-202 activates ASK1 in HCC cells, causing it translocation to mitochondria. • Mitochondrial ASK1-Cyp-D complexation mediates 4SC-202's activity in HCC cells.

  1. 4SC-202 activates ASK1-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway to inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Meili; Wan, Fuqiang; Li, Zhengling; Zhang, Fenghua

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential anti-hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell activity by 4SC-202, a novel class I HDAC inhibitor (HDACi). The associated signaling mechanisms were also analyzed. We showed that 4SC-202 treatment induced potent cytotoxic and proliferation–inhibitory activities against established HCC cell lines (HepG2, HepB3, SMMC-7721) and patient-derived primary HCC cells. Further, adding 4SC-202 in HCC cells activated mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, which was evidenced by mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, cytochrome C cytosol release and caspase-3/-9 activation. Inhibition of this apoptosis pathway, by caspase-3/-9 inhibitors, mPTP blockers, or by shRNA-mediated knockdown of cyclophilin-D (Cyp-D, a key component of mPTP), significantly attenuated 4SC-202-induced HCC cell death and apoptosis. Reversely, over-expression of Cyp-D enhanced 4SC-202's sensitivity in HCC cells. Further studies showed that 4SC-202 induced apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) activation, causing it translocation to mitochondria and physical association with Cyp-D. This mitochondrial ASK1-Cyp-D complexation appeared required for mediating 4SC-202-induced apoptosis activation. ASK1 stable knockdown by targeted-shRNAs largely inhibited 4SC-202-induced mPTP opening, cytochrome C release, and following HCC cell apoptotic death. Together, we suggest that 4SC-202 activates ASK1-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway to potently inhibit human HCC cells. - Highlights: • 4SC-202 exerts potent anti-proliferative and cytotoxic activity against established/primary HCC cells. • SC-202-induced anti-HCC cell activity relies on caspase-dependent apoptosis activation. • 4SC-202 activates Cyp-D-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in HCC cells. • 4SC-202 activates ASK1 in HCC cells, causing it translocation to mitochondria. • Mitochondrial ASK1-Cyp-D complexation mediates 4SC-202's activity in HCC cells.

  2. Mib1 contributes to persistent directional cell migration by regulating the Ctnnd1-Rac1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Takamasa; Ikeda, Shoko; Watanabe, Saori; Sugawara, Michiko; Itoh, Motoyuki

    2017-10-31

    Persistent directional cell migration is involved in animal development and diseases. The small GTPase Rac1 is involved in F-actin and focal adhesion dynamics. Local Rac1 activity is required for persistent directional migration, whereas global, hyperactivated Rac1 enhances random cell migration. Therefore, precise control of Rac1 activity is important for proper directional cell migration. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of Rac1 activity in persistent directional cell migration is not fully understood. Here, we show that the ubiquitin ligase mind bomb 1 (Mib1) is involved in persistent directional cell migration. We found that knockdown of MIB1 led to an increase in random cell migration in HeLa cells in a wound-closure assay. Furthermore, we explored novel Mib1 substrates for cell migration and found that Mib1 ubiquitinates Ctnnd1. Mib1-mediated ubiquitination of Ctnnd1 K547 attenuated Rac1 activation in cultured cells. In addition, we found that posterior lateral line primordium cells in the zebrafish mib1 ta52b mutant showed increased random migration and loss of directional F-actin-based protrusion formation. Knockdown of Ctnnd1 partially rescued posterior lateral line primordium cell migration defects in the mib1 ta52b mutant. Taken together, our data suggest that Mib1 plays an important role in cell migration and that persistent directional cell migration is regulated, at least in part, by the Mib1-Ctnnd1-Rac1 pathway. Published under the PNAS license.

  3. Boosting the pentose phosphate pathway restores cardiac progenitor cell availability in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katare, Rajesh; Oikawa, Atsuhiko; Cesselli, Daniela; Beltrami, Antonio P; Avolio, Elisa; Muthukrishnan, Deepti; Munasinghe, Pujika Emani; Angelini, Gianni; Emanueli, Costanza; Madeddu, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes impinges upon mechanisms of cardiovascular repair. However, the biochemical adaptation of cardiac stem cells to sustained hyperglycaemia remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate the molecular targets of high glucose-induced damage in cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) from murine and human hearts and attempt safeguarding CPC viability and function through reactivation of the pentose phosphate pathway. Type-1 diabetes was induced by streptozotocin. CPC abundance was determined by flow cytometry. Proliferating CPCs were identified in situ by immunostaining for the proliferation marker Ki67. Diabetic hearts showed marked reduction in CPC abundance and proliferation when compared with controls. Moreover, Sca-1(pos) CPCs isolated from hearts of diabetic mice displayed reduced activity of key enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and transketolase, increased levels of superoxide and advanced glucose end-products (AGE), and inhibition of the Akt/Pim-1/Bcl-2 signalling pathway. Similarly, culture of murine CPCs or human CD105(pos) progenitor cells in high glucose inhibits the pentose phosphate and pro-survival signalling pathways, leading to the activation of apoptosis. In vivo and in vitro supplementation with benfotiamine reactivates the pentose phosphate pathway and rescues CPC availability and function. This benefit is abrogated by either G6PD silencing by small interfering RNA (siRNA) or Akt inhibition by dominant-negative Akt. We provide new evidence of the negative impact of diabetes and high glucose on mechanisms controlling CPC redox state and survival. Boosting the pentose phosphate pathway might represent a novel mechanistic target for protection of CPC integrity.

  4. Insulin resistance enhances the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in ovarian granulosa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linghui Kong

    Full Text Available The ovary is the main regulator of female fertility. Granulosa cell dysfunction may be involved in various reproductive endocrine disorders. Here we investigated the effect of insulin resistance on the metabolism and function of ovarian granulosa cells, and dissected the functional status of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in these cells. Our data showed that dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance in mouse granulosa cells reduced insulin sensitivity, accompanied with an increase in phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Furthermore, up-regulation of cytochrome P450 subfamily 17 and testosterone and down-regulation of progesterone were observed in insulin-resistant mouse granulosa cells. Inhibition of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase after induction of insulin resistance in mouse granulosa cells decreased phosphorylation of p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase, downregulated cytochrome P450 subfamily 17 and lowered progesterone production. This insulin resistance cell model can successfully demonstrate certain mechanisms such as hyperandrogenism, which may inspire a new strategy for treating reproductive endocrine disorders by regulating cell signaling pathways.

  5. Kaempferol induces chondrogenesis in ATDC5 cells through activation of ERK/BMP-2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Manoj; Li, Liang; Cho, Hyoung Kwon; Park, Jong Kun; Soh, Yunjo

    2013-12-01

    Endochondral bone formation occurs when mesenchymal cells condense to differentiate into chondrocytes, the primary cell types of cartilage. The aim of the present study was to identify novel factors regulating chondrogenesis. We investigated whether kaempferol induces chondrogenic differentiation in clonal mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells. Kaempferol treatment stimulated the accumulation of cartilage nodules in a dose-dependent manner. Kaempferol-treated ATDC5 cells stained more intensely with alcian blue staining than control cells, suggesting greater synthesis of matrix proteoglycans in the kaempferol-treated cells. Similarly, kaempferol induced greater activation of alkaline phosphatase activity than control cells, and it enhanced the expression of chondrogenic marker genes, such as collagen type I, collagen type X, OCN, Runx2, and Sox9. Kaempferol induced an acute activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) but not c-jun N-terminal kinase or p38 MAP kinase. PD98059, an inhibitor of MAPK/ERK, decreased in stained cells treated with kaempferol. Furthermore, kaempferol greatly expressed the protein and mRNA levels of BMP-2, suggesting chondrogenesis was stimulated via a BMP-2 pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that kaempferol has chondromodulating effects via an ERK/BMP-2 signaling pathway and could potentially be used as a therapeutic agent for bone growth disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Surfactant protein D delays Fas- and TRAIL-mediated extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djiadeu, Pascal; Kotra, Lakshmi P; Sweezey, Neil; Palaniyar, Nades

    2017-05-01

    Only a few extracellular soluble proteins are known to modulate apoptosis. We considered that surfactant-associated protein D (SP-D), an innate immune collectin present on many mucosal surfaces, could regulate apoptosis. Although SP-D is known to be important for immune cell homeostasis, whether SP-D affects apoptosis is unknown. In this study we aimed to determine the effects of SP-D on Jurkat T cells and human T cells dying by apoptosis. Here we show that SP-D binds to Jurkat T cells and delays the progression of Fas (CD95)-Fas ligand and TRAIL-TRAIL receptor induced, but not TNF-TNF receptor-mediated apoptosis. SP-D exerts its effects by reducing the activation of initiator caspase-8 and executioner caspase-3. SP-D also delays the surface exposure of phosphatidylserine. The effect of SP-D was ablated by the presence of caspase-8 inhibitor, but not by intrinsic pathway inhibitors. The binding ability of SP-D to dying cells decreases during the early stages of apoptosis, suggesting the release of apoptotic cell surface targets during apoptosis. SP-D also delays FasL-induced death of primary human T cells. SP-D delaying the progression of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis could have important implications in regulating immune cell homeostasis at mucosal surfaces.

  7. The Mkk2 MAPKK Regulates Cell Wall Biogenesis in Cooperation with the Cek1-Pathway in Candida albicans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Román, Elvira; Alonso-Monge, Rebeca; Miranda Bedate, A.; Pla, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The cell wall integrity pathway (CWI) plays an important role in the biogenesis of the cell wall in Candida albicans and other fungi. In the present work, the C. albicans MKK2 gene that encodes the putative MAPKK of this pathway was deleted in different backgrounds and the phenotypes of the

  8. Role of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on TGF-β1 signaling pathway in epithelial ovarian cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan-Ivani, Karla; Gabler, Fernando; Selman, Alberto; Vega, Margarita; Romero, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    One of the hypotheses regarding the genesis of epithelial ovarian cancer involves the action of androgens on the proliferation of epithelial ovarian cells, as well as inclusion cysts. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether DHT causes changes in the TGF-β1 pathway that might modify the anti-proliferative effect of the latter. The levels of TGF-β1 protein, of its receptors (TGFBR1 and TGFBR2), of Smad2/3 (canonical signaling pathway protein) and of p21 (cell cycle protein) were assessed in ovarian tissues, epithelial ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780) and control cell lines (HOSE) through the use of immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry. Additionally, cell lines were treated with 100 nmol/L DHT, 10 ng/mL of TGF-β1 and DHT + TGF-β1 during 72 h in the presence and absence of a siRNA against androgen receptor. After treatment, TGFBR1 and TGFBR2 levels were detected through Western blotting and p21 was assessed through immunocytochemistry. Epithelial ovarian cancer tissues showed a decrease in TGF-β1 I receptor (p DHT, protein levels of TGF-β1 receptors (TGFBR1-TGFBR2) showed a decrease (p DHT (p < 0.001). Overall, our results indicate a defect in the canonical TGF-β signaling pathway in epithelial ovarian cancer caused by androgen action, thus suggesting eventual changes in such tissue proliferation rates.

  9. Neurofilament heavy polypeptide regulates the Akt-beta-catenin pathway in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myoung Sook Kim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial dysfunction are common features of aggressive cancer growth. We observed promoter methylation and loss of expression in neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NEFH in a significant proportion of primary esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC samples that were of a high tumor grade and advanced stage. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of NEFH accelerated ESCC cell growth in culture and increased tumorigenicity in vivo, whereas forced expression of NEFH significantly inhibited cell growth and colony formation. Loss of NEFH caused up-regulation of pyruvate kinase-M2 type and down-regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, via activation of the Akt/beta-catenin pathway, resulting in enhanced aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial dysfunction. The acceleration of glycolysis and mitochondrial dysfunction in NEFH-knockdown cells was suppressed in the absence of beta-catenin expression, and was decreased by the treatment of 2-Deoxyglucose, a glycolytic inhibitor, or API-2, an Akt inhibitor. Loss of NEFH activates the Akt/beta-catenin pathway and increases glycolysis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Cancer cells with methylated NEFH can be targeted for destruction with specific inhibitors of deregulated downstream pathways.

  10. Combinatory annotation of cell membrane receptors and signalling pathways of Bombyx mori prothoracic glands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulos, Panagiotis; Samiotaki, Martina; Panayotou, George; Dedos, Skarlatos G.

    2016-01-01

    The cells of prothoracic glands (PG) are the main site of synthesis and secretion of ecdysteroids, the biochemical products of cholesterol conversion to steroids that shape the morphogenic development of insects. Despite the availability of genome sequences from several insect species and the extensive knowledge of certain signalling pathways that underpin ecdysteroidogenesis, the spectrum of signalling molecules and ecdysteroidogenic cascades is still not fully comprehensive. To fill this gap and obtain the complete list of cell membrane receptors expressed in PG cells, we used combinatory bioinformatic, proteomic and transcriptomic analysis and quantitative PCR to annotate and determine the expression profiles of genes identified as putative cell membrane receptors of the model insect species, Bombyx mori, and subsequently enrich the repertoire of signalling pathways that are present in its PG cells. The genome annotation dataset we report here highlights modules and pathways that may be directly involved in ecdysteroidogenesis and aims to disseminate data and assist other researchers in the discovery of the role of such receptors and their ligands. PMID:27576083

  11. Activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway in Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hafner

    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is a highly aggressive skin cancer with an increasing incidence. The understanding of the molecular carcinogenesis of MCC is limited. Here, we scrutinized the PI3K/AKT pathway, one of the major pathways activated in human cancer, in MCC. Immunohistochemical analysis of 41 tumor tissues and 9 MCC cell lines revealed high levels of AKT phosphorylation at threonine 308 in 88% of samples. Notably, the AKT phosphorylation was not correlated with the presence or absence of the Merkel cell polyoma virus (MCV. Accordingly, knock-down of the large and small T antigen by shRNA in MCV positive MCC cells did not affect phosphorylation of AKT. We also analyzed 46 MCC samples for activating PIK3CA and AKT1 mutations. Oncogenic PIK3CA mutations were found in 2/46 (4% MCCs whereas mutations in exon 4 of AKT1 were absent. MCC cell lines demonstrated a high sensitivity towards the PI3K inhibitor LY-294002. This finding together with our observation that the PI3K/AKT pathway is activated in the majority of human MCCs identifies PI3K/AKT as a potential new therapeutic target for MCC patients.

  12. Drug Modulators of B Cell Signaling Pathways and Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosowicz, John G; Lee, Jaeyeun; Peiffer, Brandon; Guo, Zufeng; Chen, Jianmeng; Liao, Gangling; Hayward, S Diane; Liu, Jun O; Ambinder, Richard F

    2017-08-15

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human gammaherpesvirus that establishes a latency reservoir in B cells. In this work, we show that ibrutinib, idelalisib, and dasatinib, drugs that block B cell receptor (BCR) signaling and are used in the treatment of hematologic malignancies, block BCR-mediated lytic induction at clinically relevant doses. We confirm that the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporine and tacrolimus also inhibit BCR-mediated lytic induction but find that rapamycin does not inhibit BCR-mediated lytic induction. Further investigation shows that mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) contributes to BCR-mediated lytic induction and that FK506-binding protein 12 (FKBP12) binding alone is not adequate to block activation. Finally, we show that BCR signaling can activate EBV lytic induction in freshly isolated B cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and that activation can be inhibited by ibrutinib or idelalisib. IMPORTANCE EBV establishes viral latency in B cells. Activation of the B cell receptor pathway activates lytic viral expression in cell lines. Here we show that drugs that inhibit important kinases in the BCR signaling pathway inhibit activation of lytic viral expression but do not inhibit several other lytic activation pathways. Immunosuppressant drugs such as cyclosporine and tacrolimus but not rapamycin also inhibit BCR-mediated EBV activation. Finally, we show that BCR activation of lytic infection occurs not only in tumor cell lines but also in freshly isolated B cells from patients and that this activation can be blocked by BCR inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. Role of CSL-dependent and independent Notch signaling pathways in cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chong; Xing, Rui; Liu, Jing; Xing, Feiyue

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a normally biological phenomenon in various organisms, involving complexly molecular mechanisms with a series of signaling processes. Notch signaling is found evolutionarily conserved in many species, playing a critical role in embryonic development, normal tissue homeostasis, angiogenesis and immunoregulation. The focus of this review is on currently novel advances about roles of CSL-dependent and independent Notch signaling pathways in cell apoptosis. The CSL can bind Notch intracellular domain (NIC) to act as a switch in mediating transcriptional activation or inactivation of the Notch signaling pathway downstream genes in the nucleus. It shows that CSL-dependent signaling regulates the cell apoptosis through Hes-1-PTEN-AKT-mTOR signaling, but rather the CSL-independent signaling mediates the cell apoptosis possibly via NIC-mTORC2-AKT-mTOR signaling, providing a new insight into apoptotic mechanisms.

  14. Coordination between chromosome replication, segregation, and cell division in Caulobacter crescentus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Bugge

    2006-01-01

    Progression through the Caulobacter crescentus cell cycle is coupled to a cellular differentiation program. The swarmer cell is replicationally quiescent, and DNA replication initiates at the swarmer-to-stalked cell transition. There is a very short delay between initiation of DNA replication...

  15. Huaier Extract Induces Autophagic Cell Death by Inhibiting the mTOR/S6K Pathway in Breast Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Wang

    Full Text Available Huaier extract is attracting increased attention due to its biological activities, including antitumor, anti-parasite and immunomodulatory effects. Here, we investigated the role of autophagy in Huaier-induced cytotoxicity in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468 and MCF7 breast cancer cells. Huaier treatment inhibited cell viability in all three cell lines and induced various large membranous vacuoles in the cytoplasm. In addition, electron microscopy, MDC staining, accumulated expression of autophagy markers and flow cytometry revealed that Huaier extract triggered autophagy. Inhibition of autophagy attenuated Huaier-induced cell death. Furthermore, Huaier extract inhibited the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR/S6K pathway in breast cancer cells. After implanting MDA-MB-231 cells subcutaneously into the right flank of BALB/c nu/nu mice, Huaier extract induced autophagy and effectively inhibited xenograft tumor growth. This study is the first to show that Huaier-induced cytotoxicity is partially mediated through autophagic cell death in breast cancer cells through suppression of the mTOR/S6K pathway.

  16. Bipolar cell gap junctions serve major signaling pathways in the human retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kántor, Orsolya; Varga, Alexandra; Nitschke, Roland; Naumann, Angela; Énzsöly, Anna; Lukáts, Ákos; Szabó, Arnold; Németh, János; Völgyi, Béla

    2017-08-01

    Connexin36 (Cx36) constituent gap junctions (GJ) throughout the brain connect neurons into functional syncytia. In the retina they underlie the transmission, averaging and correlation of signals prior conveying visual information to the brain. This is the first study that describes retinal bipolar cell (BC) GJs in the human inner retina, whose function is enigmatic even in the examined animal models. Furthermore, a number of unique features (e.g. fovea, trichromacy, midget system) necessitate a reexamination of the animal model results in the human retina. Well-preserved postmortem human samples of this study are allowed to identify Cx36 expressing BCs neurochemically. Results reveal that both rod and cone pathway interneurons display strong Cx36 expression. Rod BC inputs to AII amacrine cells (AC) appear in juxtaposition to AII GJs, thus suggesting a strategic AII cell targeting by rod BCs. Cone BCs serving midget, parasol or koniocellular signaling pathways display a wealth of Cx36 expression to form homologously coupled arrays. In addition, they also establish heterologous GJ contacts to serve an exchange of information between parallel signaling streams. Interestingly, a prominent Cx36 expression was exhibited by midget system BCs that appear to maintain intimate contacts with bistratified BCs serving other pathways. These findings suggest that BC GJs in parallel signaling streams serve both an intra- and inter-pathway exchange of signals in the human retina.

  17. RNAi screening for characterisation of ER-associated degradation pathways in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Månsson, Mats David Joakim

    in a process termed ER-associated degradation (ERAD). This mechanism proceeds through four steps involving recognition, dislocation, ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. This report describes a high-throughput screening method for identification of hitherto unknown pathways for degradation. We present...... fluorescence-based RNAi screens in mammalian cells on TCR-α-GFP and HANSκLC, for identification of ERAD pathways. By validating the obtained screening hits we concluded that UBE2J2 is involved in TCR-α-GFP degradation, possibly by ubiquitination of C-terminal serine residues in TCR-α-GFP. Additionally, we also...

  18. The hedgehog-signaling pathway is repressed during the osteogenic differentiation of dental follicle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsczeck, Christian; Reck, A; Beck, H C

    2017-01-01

    of repressors of the hedgehog-signaling pathway such as Patched 1 (PTCH1), Suppressor of Fused (SUFU), and Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide (PTHrP). Previous studies suggested that hedgehog proteins induce the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells via a paracrine pathway. Indian hedgehog (IHH......) induced the expression of the osteogenic transcription factor RUNX2. However, a supplementation of the BMP2-based osteogenic differentiation medium with IHH did not induce the expression of RUNX2. Moreover, IHH inhibited slightly the ALP activity and the mineralization of osteogenic-differentiated DFCs...

  19. BRAFV600E Negatively Regulates the AKT Pathway in Melanoma Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Brenden; Tardell, Christine; Higgins, Brian; Packman, Kathryn; Boylan, John F.; Niu, Huifeng

    2012-01-01

    Cross-feedback activation of MAPK and AKT pathways is implicated as a resistance mechanism for cancer therapeutic agents targeting either RAF/MEK or PI3K/AKT/mTOR. It is thus important to have a better understanding of the molecular resistance mechanisms to improve patient survival benefit from these agents. Here we show that BRAFV600E is a negative regulator of the AKT pathway. Expression of BRAFV600E in NIH3T3 cells significantly suppresses MEK inhibitor (RG7167) or mTORC1 inhibitor (rapamy...

  20. New Insights into Glomerular Parietal Epithelial Cell Activation and Its Signaling Pathways in Glomerular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Su

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs have aroused an increasing attention recently. The proliferation of PECs is the main feature of crescentic glomerulonephritis; besides that, in the past decade, PEC activation has been identified in several types of noninflammatory glomerulonephropathies, such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, diabetic glomerulopathy, and membranous nephropathy. The pathogenesis of PEC activation is poorly understood; however, a few studies delicately elucidate the potential mechanisms and signaling pathways implicated in these processes. In this review we will focus on the latest observations and concepts about PEC activation in glomerular diseases and the newest identified signaling pathways in PEC activation.

  1. dMyc functions downstream of Yorkie to promote the supercompetitive behavior of hippo pathway mutant cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Ziosi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic analyses in Drosophila epithelia have suggested that the phenomenon of "cell competition" could participate in organ homeostasis. It has been speculated that competition between different cell populations within a growing organ might play a role as either tumor promoter or tumor suppressor, depending on the cellular context. The evolutionarily conserved Hippo (Hpo signaling pathway regulates organ size and prevents hyperplastic disease from flies to humans by restricting the activity of the transcriptional cofactor Yorkie (yki. Recent data indicate also that mutations in several Hpo pathway members provide cells with a competitive advantage by unknown mechanisms. Here we provide insight into the mechanism by which the Hpo pathway is linked to cell competition, by identifying dMyc as a target gene of the Hpo pathway, transcriptionally upregulated by the activity of Yki with different binding partners. We show that the cell-autonomous upregulation of dMyc is required for the supercompetitive behavior of Yki-expressing cells and Hpo pathway mutant cells, whereas the relative levels of dMyc between Hpo pathway mutant cells and wild-type neighboring cells are critical for determining whether cell competition promotes a tumor-suppressing or tumor-inducing behavior. All together, these data provide a paradigmatic example of cooperation between tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in tumorigenesis and suggest a dual role for cell competition during tumor progression depending on the output of the genetic interactions occurring between confronted cells.

  2. The Fas pathway is involved in pancreatic beta cell secretory function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumann, Desiree M; Maedler, Kathrin; Franklin, Isobel

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic beta cell mass and function increase in conditions of enhanced insulin demand such as obesity. Failure to adapt leads to diabetes. The molecular mechanisms controlling this adaptive process are unclear. Fas is a death receptor involved in beta cell apoptosis or proliferation, depending...... on the activity of the caspase-8 inhibitor FLIP. Here we show that the Fas pathway also regulates beta cell secretory function. We observed impaired glucose tolerance in Fas-deficient mice due to a delayed and decreased insulin secretory pattern. Expression of PDX-1, a beta cell-specific transcription factor...... regulating insulin gene expression and mitochondrial metabolism, was decreased in Fas-deficient beta cells. As a consequence, insulin and ATP production were severely reduced and only partly compensated for by increased beta cell mass. Up-regulation of FLIP enhanced NF-kappaB activity via NF...

  3. Salidroside protects against foam cell formation and apoptosis, possibly via the MAPK and AKT signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jing; Li, Yuanmin; Li, Weiming; Guo, Rong

    2017-10-10

    Foam cell formation and apoptosis are closely associated with atherosclerosis pathogenesis. We determined the effect of salidroside on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced foam cell formation and apoptosis in THP1 human acute monocytic leukemia cells and investigated the associated molecular mechanisms. THP1-derived macrophages were incubated with salidroside for 5 h and then exposed to ox-LDL for 24 h to induce foam cell formation. Cytotoxicity, lipid deposition, apoptosis, and the expression of various proteins were tested using the CCK8 kit, Oil Red O staining, flow cytometry, and western blotting, respectively. Ox-LDL treatment alone promoted macrophage-derived foam cell formation, while salidroside treatment alone inhibited it (p foam cell formation and apoptosis, partly by regulating the MAPK and Akt signaling pathways.

  4. HJURP regulates cellular senescence in human fibroblasts and endothelial cells via a p53-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jong-Ik; Cho, Jung Hee; Kim, Jae-Ryong

    2013-08-01

    Holliday junction recognition protein (HJURP), a centromere protein-A (CENP-A) histone chaperone, mediates centromere-specific assembly of CENP-A nucleosome, contributing to high-fidelity chromosome segregation during cell division. However, the role of HJURP in cellular senescence of human primary cells remains unclear. We found that the expression levels of HJURP decreased in human dermal fibroblasts and umbilical vein endothelial cells in replicative or premature senescence. Ectopic expression of HJURP in senescent cells partially overcame cell senescence. Conversely, downregulation of HJURP in young cells led to premature senescence. p53 knockdown, but not p16 knockdown, abolished senescence phenotypes caused by HJURP reduction. These data suggest that HJURP plays an important role in the regulation of cellular senescence through a p53-dependent pathway and might contribute to tissue or organismal aging and protection of cellular transformation.

  5. Relevance of DNA repair pathways on ascorbic acid effects on Echerichia Coli K-12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slyus, M.A. van; Oliveira, R.L.B. da C.; Felzenszwalb, I.; Gomes, R.A.; Menck, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Inactivation kinetics were performed with repair proficient and deficient Escherichia coli K-12 cells treated with oxidized solutions of ascorbic acid. The repair pathways controlled by the recA and uvrA gene products are essential for cell survival to the treatment. However, SOS chromotest result indicates that the SOS functions are only induced at high and toxic concentrations of the drug. Moreover, single strand breaks in DNA from treated cells are detected, demonstrating genome damage promoted by oxidized solutions of ascorbate. (M.A.C.) [pt

  6. Exposure of Human Lung Cells to Tobacco Smoke Condensate Inhibits the Nucleotide Excision Repair Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel Holcomb

    Full Text Available Exposure to tobacco smoke is the number one risk factor for lung cancer. Although the DNA damaging properties of tobacco smoke have been well documented, relatively few studies have examined its effect on DNA repair pathways. This is especially true for the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway which recognizes and removes many structurally diverse DNA lesions, including those introduced by chemical carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of tobacco smoke on NER in human lung cells. We studied the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC, a surrogate for tobacco smoke, on the NER pathway in two different human lung cell lines; IMR-90 lung fibroblasts and BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells. To measure NER, we employed a slot-blot assay to quantify the introduction and removal of UV light-induced 6-4 photoproducts and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. We find a dose-dependent inhibition of 6-4 photoproduct repair in both cell lines treated with CSC. Additionally, the impact of CSC on the abundance of various NER proteins and their respective RNAs was investigated. The abundance of XPC protein, which is required for functional NER, is significantly reduced by treatment with CSC while the abundance of XPA protein, also required for NER, is unaffected. Both XPC and XPA RNA levels are modestly reduced by CSC treatment. Finally, treatment of cells with MG-132 abrogates the reduction in the abundance of XPC protein produced by treatment with CSC, suggesting that CSC enhances proteasome-dependent turnover of the protein that is mediated by ubiquitination. Together, these findings indicate that tobacco smoke can inhibit the same DNA repair pathway that is also essential for the removal of some of the carcinogenic DNA damage introduced by smoke itself, increasing the DNA damage burden of cells exposed to tobacco smoke.

  7. Signal transduction of p53-independent apoptotic pathway induced by hexavalent chromium in U937 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Yoko; Kondo, Takashi; Zhao Qingli; Ogawa Ryohei; Cui Zhengguo; Feril, Loreto B.; Teranishi, Hidetoyo; Kasuya, Minoru

    2004-01-01

    It has been reported that the hexavalent chromium compound (Cr(VI)) can induce both p53-dependent and p53-independent apoptosis. While a considerable amount of information is available on the p53-dependent pathway, only little is known about the p53-independent pathway. To elucidate the p53-independent mechanism, the roles of the Ca 2+ -calpain- and mitochondria-caspase-dependent pathways in apoptosis induced by Cr(VI) were investigated. When human lymphoma U937 cells, p53 mutated cells, were treated with 20 μM Cr(VI) for 24 h, nuclear morphological changes and DNA fragmentation were observed. Production of hydroxyl radicals revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-spin trapping, and increase of intracellular calcium ion concentration monitored by digital imaging were also observed in Cr(VI)-treated cells. An intracellular Ca 2+ chelator, BAPTA-AM, and calpain inhibitors suppressed the Cr(VI)-induced DNA fragmentation. The number of cells showing low mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), high level of superoxide anion radicals (O 2 - ), and high activity of caspase-3, which are indicators of mitochondria-caspase-dependent pathway, increased significantly in Cr(VI)-treated cells. An antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), decreased DNA fragmentation and inhibited the changes in MMP, O 2 - formation, and activation of caspase-3 induced by Cr(VI). No increase of the expressions of Fas and phosphorylated JNK was observed after Cr(VI) treatment. Cell cycle analysis revealed that the fraction of G2/M phase tended to increase after 24 h of treatment, suggesting that Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis is related to the G2 block. These results indicate that Ca 2+ -calpain- and mitochondria-caspase-dependent pathways play significant roles in the Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis via the G2 block, which are independent of JNK and Fas activation. The inhibition of apoptosis and all its signal transductions by NAC suggests that intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are

  8. Lutein Inhibits the Migration of Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells via Cytosolic and Mitochondrial Akt Pathways (Lutein Inhibits RPE Cells Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Chieh Su

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During the course of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells will de-differentiate, proliferate, and migrate onto the surfaces of the sensory retina. Several studies have shown that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF can induce migration of RPE cells via an Akt-related pathway. In this study, the effect of lutein on PDGF-BB-induced RPE cells migration was examined using transwell migration assays and Western blot analyses. We found that both phosphorylation of Akt and mitochondrial translocation of Akt in RPE cells induced by PDGF-BB stimulation were suppressed by lutein. Furthermore, the increased migration observed in RPE cells with overexpressed mitochondrial Akt could also be suppressed by lutein. Our results demonstrate that lutein can inhibit PDGF-BB induced RPE cells migration through the inhibition of both cytoplasmic and mitochondrial Akt activation.

  9. Par3L enhances colorectal cancer cell survival by inhibiting Lkb1/AMPK signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Taiyuan; Liu, Dongning; Lei, Xiong; Jiang, Qunguang

    2017-01-01

    Partitioning defective 3-like protein (Par3L) is a recently identified cell polarity protein that plays an important role in mammary stem cell maintenance. Previously, we showed that high expression of Par3L is associated with poor survival in malignant colorectal cancer (CRC), but the underlying mechanism remained unknown. To this end, we established a Par3L knockout colorectal cancer cell line using the CRISPR/Cas system. Interestingly, reduced proliferation, enhanced cell death and caspase-3 activation were observed in Par3L knockout (KO) cells as compared with wildtype (WT) cells. Consistent with previous studies, we showed that Par3L interacts with a tumor suppressor protein liver kinase B1 (Lkb1). Moreover, Par3L depletion resulted in abnormal activation of Lkb1/AMPK signaling cascade. Knockdown of Lkb1 in these cells could significantly reduce AMPK activity and partially rescue cell death caused by Par3L knockdown. Furthermore, we showed that Par3L KO cells were more sensitive to chemotherapies and irradiation. Together, these results suggest that Par3L is essential for colorectal cancer cell survival by inhibiting Lkb1/AMPK signaling pathway, and is a putative therapeutic target for CRC. - Highlights: • Par3L knockout using the CRISPR/Cas system induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. • Par3L interacts with Lkb1 and regulates the activity of AMPK signaling cascade. • Par3L knockout cells are more sensitive to treatment of different chemotherapy drugs and irradiation.

  10. Atkinesin-13A Modulates Cell-Wall Synthesis and Cell Expansion in Arabidopsis thaliana via the THESEUS1 Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikura, Ushio; Elsaesser, Lore; Breuninger, Holger; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Clara; Ivakov, Alexander; Laux, Thomas; Findlay, Kim; Persson, Staffan; Lenhard, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Growth of plant organs relies on cell proliferation and expansion. While an increasingly detailed picture about the control of cell proliferation is emerging, our knowledge about the control of cell expansion remains more limited. We demonstrate here that the internal-motor kinesin AtKINESIN-13A (AtKIN13A) limits cell expansion and cell size in Arabidopsis thaliana, with loss-of-function atkin13a mutants forming larger petals with larger cells. The homolog, AtKINESIN-13B, also affects cell expansion and double mutants display growth, gametophytic and early embryonic defects, indicating a redundant role of the two genes. AtKIN13A is known to depolymerize microtubules and influence Golgi motility and distribution. Consistent with this function, AtKIN13A interacts genetically with ANGUSTIFOLIA, encoding a regulator of Golgi dynamics. Reduced AtKIN13A activity alters cell wall structure as assessed by Fourier-transformed infrared-spectroscopy and triggers signalling via the THESEUS1-dependent cell-wall integrity pathway, which in turn promotes the excess cell expansion in the atkin13a mutant. Thus, our results indicate that the intracellular activity of AtKIN13A regulates cell expansion and wall architecture via THESEUS1, providing a compelling case of interplay between cell wall integrity sensing and expansion. PMID:25232944

  11. Variable primary coordination environments of Cd(ɪɪ) binding to three helix bundles provide a pathway for rapid metal exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tebo, Alison G.; Hemmingsen, Lars Bo Stegeager; Pecoraro, Vincent L.

    2015-01-01

    exchange between CdS3O and CdS4 coordination spheres. Correlation of (111m)Cd PAC spectroscopy and (113)Cd NMR spectroscopy suggests that Cd(ii) coordinated to CadC is in fast exchange between CdS3O and CdS4 forms, which may provide a mechanism for rapid sensing of heavy metal contaminants...

  12. Intermedilysin induces EGR-1 expression through calcineurin/NFAT pathway in human cholangiocellular carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susilowati, Heni; Okamura, Hirohiko; Hirota, Katsuhiko; Shono, Masayuki; Yoshida, Kaya; Murakami, Keiji; Tabata, Atsushi; Nagamune, Hideaki; Haneji, Tatsuji; Miyake, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → ILY leads to the accumulation of [Ca 2+ ]i in the nucleus in HuCCT1 cells. → ILY induced activation of NFAT1 through a calcineurin-dependent pathway. → Calcineuri/NFAT pathway is involved in EGR-1 expression in response to ILY treatment. -- Abstract: Intermedilysin (ILY) is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin produced by Streptococcus intermedius, which is associated with human brain and liver abscesses. Although intrahepatic bile duct cells play a valuable role in the pathogenesis of liver abscess, the molecular mechanism of ILY-treated intrahepatic bile duct cells remains unknown. In this study, we report that ILY induced a nuclear accumulation of intracellular calcium ([Ca 2+ ]i) in human cholangiocellular cells HuCCT1. We also demonstrate that 10 ng/ml ILY induced NFAT1 dephosphorylation and its nuclear translocation in HuCCT1 cells. In contrast to the result that ILY induced NF-κB translocation in human hepatic HepG2 cells, ILY did not affect NF-κB localization in HuCCT1 cells. Dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NFAT1 caused by ILY were prevented by [Ca 2+ ]i calcium chelator, BAPTA/AM, and calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine A and tacrolimus. ILY induced early growth response-1 (EGR-1) expression and it was inhibited by the pre-treatment with cyclosporine A, indicating that the calcineurin/NFAT pathway was involved in EGR-1 expression in response to ILY. ILY-induced calcineurin/NFAT1 activation and sequential EGR-1 expression might be related to the pathogenesis of S. intermedius in human bile duct cells.

  13. Intermedilysin induces EGR-1 expression through calcineurin/NFAT pathway in human cholangiocellular carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susilowati, Heni [Department of Oral Microbiology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Okamura, Hirohiko [Department of Histology and Oral Histology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Hirota, Katsuhiko, E-mail: hirota@dent.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral Microbiology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Shono, Masayuki [Support Center for Advanced Medical Sciences, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Yoshida, Kaya [Department of Fundamental Oral Health Science, School of Oral Health and Welfare, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Murakami, Keiji [Department of Oral Microbiology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Tabata, Atsushi; Nagamune, Hideaki [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Life System, Institute of Technology and Science, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Haneji, Tatsuji [Department of Histology and Oral Histology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Miyake, Yoichiro [Department of Oral Microbiology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} ILY leads to the accumulation of [Ca{sup 2+}]i in the nucleus in HuCCT1 cells. {yields} ILY induced activation of NFAT1 through a calcineurin-dependent pathway. {yields} Calcineuri/NFAT pathway is involved in EGR-1 expression in response to ILY treatment. -- Abstract: Intermedilysin (ILY) is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin produced by Streptococcus intermedius, which is associated with human brain and liver abscesses. Although intrahepatic bile duct cells play a valuable role in the pathogenesis of liver abscess, the molecular mechanism of ILY-treated intrahepatic bile duct cells remains unknown. In this study, we report that ILY induced a nuclear accumulation of intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]i) in human cholangiocellular cells HuCCT1. We also demonstrate that 10 ng/ml ILY induced NFAT1 dephosphorylation and its nuclear translocation in HuCCT1 cells. In contrast to the result that ILY induced NF-{kappa}B translocation in human hepatic HepG2 cells, ILY did not affect NF-{kappa}B localization in HuCCT1 cells. Dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of NFAT1 caused by ILY were prevented by [Ca{sup 2+}]i calcium chelator, BAPTA/AM, and calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine A and tacrolimus. ILY induced early growth response-1 (EGR-1) expression and it was inhibited by the pre-treatment with cyclosporine A, indicating that the calcineurin/NFAT pathway was involved in EGR-1 expression in response to ILY. ILY-induced calcineurin/NFAT1 activation and sequential EGR-1 expression might be related to the pathogenesis of S. intermedius in human bile duct cells.

  14. Inhibition of Wnt Signaling Pathways Impairs Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in Endometrial Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintner, Jennifer; Moore, Cheryl G; Whittimore, Judy D; Butler, Megan; Hall, Jennifer V

    2017-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infections represent the predominant cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infections. As an obligate intracellular bacterium, C. trachomatis is dependent on the host cell for survival, propagation, and transmission. Thus, factors that affect the host cell, including nutrition, cell cycle, and environmental signals, have the potential to impact chlamydial development. Previous studies have demonstrated that activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling benefits C. trachomatis infections in fallopian tube epithelia. In cervical epithelial cells chlamydiae sequester β-catenin within the inclusion. These data indicate that chlamydiae interact with the Wnt signaling pathway in both the upper and lower female genital tract (FGT). However, hormonal activation of canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways is an essential component of cyclic remodeling in another prominent area of the FGT, the endometrium. Given this information, we hypothesized that Wnt signaling would impact chlamydial infection in endometrial epithelial cells. To investigate this hypothesis, we analyzed the effect of Wnt inhibition on chlamydial inclusion development and elementary body (EB) production in two endometrial cell lines, Ishikawa (IK) and Hec-1B, in nonpolarized cell culture and in a polarized endometrial epithelial (IK)/stromal (SHT-290) cell co-culture model. Inhibition of Wnt by the small molecule inhibitor (IWP2) significantly decreased inclusion size in IK and IK/SHT-290 cultures ( p Wnt inhibition caused chlamydiae to become aberrant in morphology. EB formation was also impaired in IK, Hec-1B and IK/SHT-290 cultures regardless of whether Wnt inhibition occurred throughout, in the middle (24 hpi) or late (36 hpi) during the development cycle. Overall, these data lead us to conclude that Wnt signaling in the endometrium is a key host pathway for the proper development of C. trachomatis .

  15. Interferon beta induces apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via the TRAIL-signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Anna; Wahab, Lora; Braunschweig, Till; Kapetanakis, Nikiforos-Ioannis; Vokuhl, Christian; Denecke, Bernd; Shen, Lian; Busson, Pierre; Kontny, Udo

    2018-03-06

    The combination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, radiochemotherapy, and maintenance therapy with interferon beta (IFNβ) has led to superior results in the treatment of children and adolescents with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, nothing is known about the mechanism of the antitumor activity of IFNβ in NPC. Here, we investigate the role of IFNβ on apoptosis in NPC cells. Six NPC cell lines, one patient-derived NPC xenograft (PDX) and one SV40-transformed nasoepithelial cell line were used. Induction of apoptosis by IFNβ was measured by flow cytometric analysis of subG1-DNA-content, Hoechst 33258 staining and activation of caspase-3. Dissection of death ligand signaling pathways included measuring surface expression of its components by flow cytometry, activation by death ligands and neutralization with specific antibodies and siRNA. IFNβ induced apoptosis at concentrations achievable in humans in five of six NPC cell lines and in PDX cells but not in nasoepithelial cells. Inhibition of caspases-3 and -8 abrogated this effect suggesting IFNβ promoted apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway. IFNβ induced surface expression of TRAIL and TRAIL-R2 and the addition of an anti-TRAIL-antibody or transfection with TRAIL-siRNA blocked IFNβ-induced apoptosis. No induction of TRAIL-expression was noted in the IFNβ-resistant cell line. In conclusion, IFNβ leads to apoptosis in NPC cells in an autocrine way via the induction of TRAIL expression and subsequent activation of the TRAIL-signaling pathway. The mechanism described could at least partly explain the clinical benefit of IFNβ in the treatment of NPC. Further studies in a mouse-xenograft model are warranted to substantiate this effect in vivo .

  16. Processive motions of MreB micro-filaments coordinate cell wall growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Ethan

    2012-02-01

    Rod-shaped bacteria elongate by the action of cell-wall synthesis complexes linked to underlying dynamic MreB filaments, but how these proteins function to allow continued elongation as a rod remains unknown. To understand how the movement of these filaments relates to cell wall synthesis, we characterized the dynamics of MreB and the cell wall elongation machinery using high-resolution particle tracking in Bacillus subtilis. We found that both MreB and the elongation machinery move in linear paths across the cell, moving at similar rates (˜20nm / second) and angles to the cell body, suggesting they function as single complexes. These proteins move circumferentially around the cell, principally perpendicular to its length. We find that the motions of these complexes are independent, as they can pause and reverse,and also as nearby complexes move independently in both directions across one surface of the cell. Inhibition of cell wall synthesis with antibiotics or depletions in the cell wall synthesis machinery blocked MreB movement, suggesting that the cell wall synthetic machinery is the motor in this system. We propose that bacteria elongate by the uncoordinated, circumferential movements of synthetic complexes that span the plasma membrane and insert radial hoops of new peptidoglycan during their transit.

  17. A novel Drosophila Girdin-like protein is involved in Akt pathway control of cell size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puseenam, Aekkachai [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Insect Biomedical Research Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Yoshioka, Yasuhide [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Venture Laboratory, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Nagai, Rika [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Insect Biomedical Research Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Hashimoto, Reina [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Venture Laboratory, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Suyari, Osamu [Insect Biomedical Research Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Itoh, Masanobu [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Insect Biomedical Research Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Enomoto, Atsushi [Department of Pathology, Center for Neurological Disease and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550 (Japan); Takahashi, Masahide [Insect Biomedical Research Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Department of Pathology, Center for Neurological Disease and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Showa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 466-8550 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Masamitsu, E-mail: myamaguc@kit.ac.jp [Department of Applied Biology, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan); Insect Biomedical Research Center, Kyoto Institute of Technology, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8585 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    The Akt signaling pathway is well known to regulate cell proliferation and growth. Girdin, a novel substrate of Akt, plays a crucial role in organization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell motility under the control of Akt. We here identified a novel Girdin-like protein in Drosophila (dGirdin), which has two isoforms, dGirdin PA and dGirdin PB. dGirdin shows high homology with human Girdin in the N-terminal and coiled-coil domains, while diverging at the C-terminal domain. On establishment of transgenic fly lines, featuring knockdown or overexpression of dGirdin in vivo, overexpression in the wing disc cells induced ectopic apoptosis, implying a role in directing apoptosis. Knockdown of dGirdin in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc cells resulted in reduction of cell size. Furthermore, this was enhanced by half reduction of the Akt gene dose, suggesting that Akt positively regulates dGirdin. In the wing disc, cells in which dGirdin was knocked down exhibited disruption of actin filaments. From these in vivo analyses, we conclude that dGirdin is required for actin organization and regulation of appropriate cell size under control of the Akt signaling pathway.

  18. A novel Drosophila Girdin-like protein is involved in Akt pathway control of cell size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puseenam, Aekkachai; Yoshioka, Yasuhide; Nagai, Rika; Hashimoto, Reina; Suyari, Osamu; Itoh, Masanobu; Enomoto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Masahide; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2009-01-01

    The Akt signaling pathway is well known to regulate cell proliferation and growth. Girdin, a novel substrate of Akt, plays a crucial role in organization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell motility under the control of Akt. We here identified a novel Girdin-like protein in Drosophila (dGirdin), which has two isoforms, dGirdin PA and dGirdin PB. dGirdin shows high homology with human Girdin in the N-terminal and coiled-coil domains, while diverging at the C-terminal domain. On establishment of transgenic fly lines, featuring knockdown or overexpression of dGirdin in vivo, overexpression in the wing disc cells induced ectopic apoptosis, implying a role in directing apoptosis. Knockdown of dGirdin in the Drosophila wing imaginal disc cells resulted in reduction of cell size. Furthermore, this was enhanced by half reduction of the Akt gene dose, suggesting that Akt positively regulates dGirdin. In the wing disc, cells in which dGirdin was knocked down exhibited disruption of actin filaments. From these in vivo analyses, we conclude that dGirdin is required for actin organization and regulation of appropriate cell size under control of the Akt signaling pathway.

  19. Low-Complexity Interference-Free Downlink Channel Assignment with Improved Performance in Coordinated Small Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha M.

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a low-complexity interference-free channel assignment scheme with improved desired downlink performance in coordinated multi-antenna small-coverage access points (APs) that employ the open-access control strategy. The adopted system treats the case when each user can be granted an access to one of the available channels at a time. Moreover, each receive terminal can suppress a limited number of resolvable interfering sources via its highly-correlated receive array. On the other hand, the operation of the deployed APs can be coordinated to serve active users, and the availability of multiple physical channels and the use of uncorrelated transmit antennas at each AP are exploited to improve the performance of supported users. The analysis provides new approaches to use the transmit antenna array at each AP, the multiple physical channels, the receive antenna array at each user in order to identify interference-free channels per each user, and then to select a downlink channel that provides the best possible improved performance. The event of concurrent interference-free channel identification by different users is also treated to further improve the desired link associated with the scheduled user. The analysis considers the practical scenario of imperfect identification of interference-free channel by an active user and/or the imperfectness in scheduling concurrent users requests on the same channel. The developed formulations can be used to study any performance metric and they are applicable for any statistical and geometric channel models. © 2015 IEEE.

  20. Attenuation of everolimus-induced cytotoxicity by a protective autophagic pathway involving ERK activation in renal cell carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yizhou; Tian, Xiaofang; Wang, Quan; He, Weiyang; Fan, Jing; Gou, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Aim The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a critical target for cancer treatment and the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (RAD001) has been approved for treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the limited efficacy of RAD001 has led to the development of drug resistance. Autophagy is closely related to cell survival and death, which may be activated under RAD001 stimulation. The aim of the present study was to identify the underlying mechanisms of RAD001 resistance in RCC cells through cytoprotective autophagy involving activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Methods and results: RAD001 strongly induced autophagy of RCC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as confirmed by Western blot analysis. Importantly, suppression of autophagy by the pharmacological inhibitor chloroquine effectively enhanced RAD001-induced apoptotic cytotoxicity, as demonstrated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and Western blot analysis, indicating a cytoprotective role for RAD001-induced autophagy. In addition, as was shown by the MTT assay, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis, RAD001 robustly activated ERK, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38. Activation of ERK was inhibited by the pharmacological inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244), which effectively promoted RAD001-induced cell death. Moreover, employing AZD6244 markedly attenuated RAD001-induced autophagy and enhanced RAD001-induced apoptosis, which play a central role in RAD001-induced cell death. Furthermore, RAD001-induced autophagy is regulated by ERK-mediated phosphorylation of Beclin-1 and B-cell lymphoma 2, as confirmed by Western blot analysis. Conclusion These results suggest that RAD001-induced autophagy involves activation of the ERK, which may impair cytotoxicity of RAD001 in RCC cells. Thus, inhibition of the activation of ERK pathway-mediated autophagy may be useful to overcome chemoresistance to RAD001. PMID:29719377

  1. A WUSCHEL-Independent Stem Cell Specification Pathway Is Repressed by PHB, PHV and CNA in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chunghee; Clark, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    The homeostatic maintenance of stem cells that carry out continuous organogenesis at the shoot meristem is crucial for plant development. Key known factors act to signal between the stem cells and an underlying group of cells thought to act as the stem cell niche. In Arabidopsis thaliana the homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) is essential for stem cell initiation and maintenance at shoot and flower meristems. Recent data suggest that the WUS protein may move from the niche cells directly into the stem cells to maintain stem cell identity. Here we provide evidence for a second, previously unknown, pathway for stem cell specification at shoot and flower meristems that bypasses the requirement for WUS. We demonstrate that this novel stem cell specification pathway is normally repressed by the activity of the HD-zip III transcription factors PHABULOSA (PHB), PHAVOLUTA (PHV) and CORONA (CNA). When de-repressed, this second stem cell pathway leads to an accumulation of stem cells and an enlargement of the stem cell niche. When de-repressed in a wus mutant background, this second stem cell pathway leads to functional meristems with largely normal cell layering and meristem morphology, activation of WUS cis regulatory elements, and extensive, but not indeterminate, organogenesis. Thus, WUS is largely dispensable for stem cell specification and meristem function, suggesting a set of key stem cell specification factors, competitively regulated by WUS and PHB/PHV/CNA, remain unidentified. PMID:26011610

  2. Co-ordinate transcriptional regulation of dopamine synthesis genes by alpha-synuclein in human neuroblastoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Melisa J; O'Farrell, Casey; Daya, Sneha; Ahmad, Rili; Miller, David W; Hardy, John; Farrer, Matthew J; Cookson, Mark R

    2003-05-01

    Abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies is a neuropathological hallmark of both sporadic and familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Although mutations in alpha-synuclein have been identified in autosomal dominant PD, the mechanism by which dopaminergic cell death occurs remains unknown. We investigated transcriptional changes in neuroblastoma cell lines transfected with either normal or mutant (A30P or A53T) alpha-synuclein using microarrays, with confirmation of selected genes by quantitative RT-PCR. Gene products whose expression was found to be significantly altered included members of diverse functional groups such as stress response, transcription regulators, apoptosis-inducing molecules, transcription factors and membrane-bound proteins. We also found evidence of altered expression of dihydropteridine reductase, which indirectly regulates the synthesis of dopamine. Because of the importance of dopamine in PD, we investigated the expression of all the known genes in dopamine synthesis. We found co-ordinated downregulation of mRNA for GTP cyclohydrolase, sepiapterin reductase (SR), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatic acid decarboxylase by wild-type but not mutant alpha-synuclein. These were confirmed at the protein level for SR and TH. Reduced expression of the orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 was also noted, suggesting that the co-ordinate regulation of dopamine synthesis is regulated through this transcription factor.

  3. Molecular pathways in the bystander response of cells exposed to very low fluences of alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We have examined biological effects in cell populations exposed to very low mean doses of alpha radiation by which only a small fraction of the cells are actually traversed by an alpha particle. We showed earlier that an enhanced frequency of sister chromatid exchanges and HPRT mutations occur in the non-irradiated, 'bystander' cells. The frequency of mutations induced by a single alpha particle traversing the nucleus of a cell was increased nearly fivefold at the lowest fluence studied, a result of mutations occurring in bystander cells. This was associated with a similar increase in the induction of micronuclei, indicating the induction of DNA damage in bystander cells. In order to gain information concerning molecular pathways, we studied changes in gene expression in bystander cells in confluent cultures of human diploid fibroblasts or mouse embryo-derived fibroblasts (MEFs) by western analysis and in-situ immunofluorescence. The expression levels of p53, p21 Waf1 and p34 cdc2 were significantly modulated in bystander cells. The upregulation of p53 and p21 Waf1 did not occur in cultures irradiated at low density, and was markedly reduced in the presence of the gap junction inhibitor lindane. The importance of gap-junction mediated intercellular communication was confirmed in connexin-43 knockout MEFs. Western blot analyses and electrophoretic mobility shift assays indicate that the bystander response is suppressed by incubation with superoxide dismutase as well as an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase, and is associated with the induction of NFKB, suggesting the effect is mediated by oxidative stress. The stress-activated protein kinase p38 and its downstream effector ATF2 are also induced in bystander cells independent of oxidative stress. These results will be discussed in terms of whether activation of the p53 damage response pathway is the direct result of signaling from irradiated cells, or rather is a consequence of DNA induced damage in the bystander

  4. Liver X receptor activation inhibits PC-3 prostate cancer cells via the beta-catenin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youlin, Kuang; Li, Zhang; Weiyang, He; Jian, Kang; Siming, Liang; Xin, Gou

    2017-03-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors family of ligand-dependent transcription factors that play a crucial role in regulating cholesterol metabolism and inflammation. Recent studies show that LXR agonists exhibit anti-cancer activities in a variety of cancer cell lines including prostate. To further identify the potential mechanisms of LXRα activation on prostate cancer, we investigated the effect of LXR agonist T0901317 on PC3 prostate cancer cell and in which activity of beta-catenin pathway involved. Prostate cancer PC3 cells were transfected with LXR-a siRNA and treated with LXR activator T0901317. qRT-PCR and western blot were used to detect the LXR-a expression. beta-catenin, cyclin D1 and c-MYC were analyzed by western blot. Cell apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry and Cell proliferation was assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Cell migration was detected by Transwell chambers. Data showed that T0901317 significantly inhibited PC3 cell proliferation as well as invasion and increased apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, we found that LXRα activation induced the reduction of beta-catenin expression in PC3 cells, and this inhibitory effect could be totally abolished when cells were treated with LXRα. Meanwhile, the expression of beta-catenin target gene cyclin D1 and c-MYC were also decreased. This study provided additional evidence that LXR activation inhibited PC-3 prostate cancer cells via suppressing beta-catenin pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. The Fanconi anemia pathway: Repairing the link between DNA damage and squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romick-Rosendale, Lindsey E.; Lui, Vivian W.Y.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Wells, Susanne I.

    2013-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare inherited recessive disease caused by mutations in one of fifteen genes known to encode FA pathway components. In response to DNA damage, nuclear FA proteins associate into high molecular weight complexes through a cascade of post-translational modifications and physical interactions, followed by the repair of damaged DNA. Hematopoietic cells are particularly sensitive to the loss of these interactions, and bone marrow failure occurs almost universally in FA patients. FA as a disease is further characterized by cancer susceptibility, which highlights the importance of the FA pathway in tumor suppression, and will be the focus of this review. Acute myeloid leukemia is the most common cancer type, often subsequent to bone marrow failure. However, FA patients are also at an extreme risk of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck and gynecological tract, with an even greater incidence in those individuals who have received a bone marrow transplant and recovered from hematopoietic disease. FA tumor suppression in hematopoietic versus epithelial compartments could be mechanistically similar or distinct. Definition of compartment specific FA activities is now critical to assess the effects of today's bone marrow failure treatments on tomorrow's solid tumor development. It is our hope that current therapies can then be optimized to decrease the risk of malignant transformation in both hematopoietic and epithelial cells. Here we review our current understanding of the mechanisms of action of the Fanconi anemia pathway as it contributes to stress responses, DNA repair and squamous cell carcinoma susceptibility

  6. A positive feedback pathway of estrogen biosynthesis in breast cancer cells is contained by resveratrol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yun; Ye Lan; Leung, Lai K.

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19 enzyme or aromatase catalyses the rate-determining step of estrogen synthesis. The transcriptional control of CYP19 gene is highly specific in different cell types, for instance, Promoter I.3/II is commonly used for regulation in breast cancer cells. Recently, a positive feedback pathway for estrogen synthesis has been identified in ERα expressing SK-BR-3 cells. CYP19 mRNA abundance and activity are increased in this pathway and the promoter usage is switched from Promoter I.3/II to I.1 through a non-genomic process. In the present study, effect of the phytocompound resveratrol on this Promoter I.1-controlled expression of aromatase was investigated. Results indicated that resveratrol reduced the estradiol-induced mRNA abundance in SK-BR-3 cells expressing ERα. Luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that resveratrol could also repress the transcriptional control dictated by Promoter I.1. Since the ERE-driven luciferase activity was not repressed by resveratrol, the nuclear events of estrogen were unlikely to be suppressed by resveratrol. Instead the phytochemical reduced the amount of ERK activated by estradiol, which could be the pathway responsible for Promoter I.1 transactivation and the induced CYP19 expression. The present study illustrated that resveratrol impeded the non-genomic induction of estrogen on CYP19

  7. Concise Review: Wnt Signaling Pathways in Skin Development and Epidermal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltri, Anthony; Lang, Christopher; Lien, Wen-Hui

    2018-01-01

    Mammalian skin and its appendages constitute the integumentary system forming a barrier between the organism and its environment. During development, skin epidermal cells divide rapidly and stratify into a multilayered epithelium, as well as invaginate downward in the underlying mesenchyme to form hair follicles (HFs). In postnatal skin, the interfollicular epidermal (IFE) cells continuously proliferate and differentiate while HFs undergo cycles of regeneration. Epidermal regeneration is fueled by epidermal stem cells (SCs) located in the basal layer of the IFE and the outer layer of the bulge in the HF. Epidermal development and SC behavior are mainly regulated by various extrinsic cues, among which Wnt-dependent signaling pathways play crucial roles. This review not only summarizes the current knowledge of Wnt signaling pathways in the regulation of skin development and governance of SCs during tissue homeostasis, but also discusses the potential crosstalk of Wnt signaling with other pathways involved in these processes. Stem Cells 2018;36:22-35. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  8. Cell-Specific PEAR1 Methylation Studies Reveal a Locus that Coordinates Expression of Multiple Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Izzi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal interactions connect distant enhancers and promoters on the same chromosome, activating or repressing gene expression. PEAR1 encodes the Platelet-Endothelial Aggregation Receptor 1, a contact receptor involved in platelet function and megakaryocyte and endothelial cell proliferation. PEAR1 expression during megakaryocyte differentiation is controlled by DNA methylation at its first CpG island. We identified a PEAR1 cell-specific methylation sensitive region in endothelial cells and megakaryocytes that showed strong chromosomal interactions with ISGL20L2, RRNAD1, MRLP24, HDGF and PRCC, using available promoter capture Hi-C datasets. These genes are involved in ribosome processing, protein synthesis, cell cycle and cell proliferation. We next studied the methylation and expression profile of these five genes in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs and megakaryocyte precursors. While cell-specific PEAR1 methylation corresponded to variability in expression for four out of five genes, no methylation change was observed in their promoter regions across cell types. Our data suggest that PEAR1 cell-type specific methylation changes may control long distance interactions with other genes. Further studies are needed to show whether such interaction data might be relevant for the genome-wide association data that showed a role for non-coding PEAR1 variants in the same region and platelet function, platelet count and cardiovascular risk.

  9. ERK-dependent and -independent pathways trigger human neural progenitor cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moors, Michaela; Cline, Jason E.; Abel, Josef; Fritsche, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Besides differentiation and apoptosis, cell migration is a basic process in brain development in which neural cells migrate several centimeters within the developing brain before reaching their proper positions and forming the right connections. For identifying signaling events that control neural migration and are therefore potential targets of chemicals to disturb normal brain development, we developed a human neurosphere-based migration assay based on normal human neural progenitor (NHNP) cells, in which the distance is measured that cells wander over time. Applying this assay, we investigated the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in the regulation of NHNP cell migration. Exposure to model substances like ethanol or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) revealed a correlation between ERK1/2 activation and cell migration. The participation of phospho-(P-) ERK1/2 was confirmed by exposure of the cells to the MEK inhibitor PD98059, which directly prohibits ERK1/2 phosphorylation and inhibited cell migration. We identified protein kinase C (PKC) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as upstream signaling kinases governing ERK1/2 activation, thereby controlling NHNP cell migration. Additionally, treatments with src kinase inhibitors led to a diminished cell migration without affecting ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Based on these results, we postulate that migration of NHNP cells is controlled via ERK1/2-dependent and -independent pathways

  10. Quercetin suppresses HeLa cells by blocking PI3K/Akt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Tao; Fang, Yong; Wang, Shi-Xuan

    2014-10-01

    To explore the effect of quercetin on the proliferation and apoptosis of HeLa cells, HeLa cells were incubated with quercetin at different concentrations. Cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay, cell apoptosis was detected by Annexin-V/PI double labeled cytometry and DNA ladder assay. Cell cycle was flow cytometrically determined and the morphological changes of the cells were observed under a fluorescence microscope after Hoechst 33258 staining and the apoptosis-related proteins in the HeLa cells were assessed by Western blotting. The results showed that quercetin significantly inhibited the growth of HeLa cells and induced obvious apoptosis in vitro in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, quercetin induced apoptosis of HeLa cells in cell cycle-dependent manner because quercetin could induce arrest of HeLa cells at G0/G1 phase. Quercetin treatment down-regulated the expression of the PI3K and p-Akt. In addition, quercetin could down-regulate expression of bcl-2, up-regulate Bax, but exerted no effect on the overall expression of Akt. We are led to conclude that quercetin induces apoptosis via PI3k/Akt pathways, and quercetin has potential to be used as an anti-tumor agent against human cervix cancer.

  11. Essential role of TGF-beta/Smad pathway on statin dependent vascular smooth muscle cell regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rodríguez-Vita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (also called statins exert proven beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. Recent data suggest a protective role for Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta in atherosclerosis by regulating the balance between inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation. However, there are no studies about the effect of statins on TGF-beta/Smad pathway in atherosclerosis and vascular cells. METHODOLOGY: In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs statins enhanced Smad pathway activation caused by TGF-beta. In addition, statins upregulated TGF-beta receptor type II (TRII, and increased TGF-beta synthesis and TGF-beta/Smad-dependent actions. In this sense, statins, through Smad activation, render VSMCs more susceptible to TGF-beta induced apoptosis and increased TGF-beta-mediated ECM production. It is well documented that high doses of statins induce apoptosis in cultured VSMC in the presence of serum; however the precise mechanism of this effect remains to be elucidated. We have found that statins-induced apoptosis was mediated by TGF-beta/Smad pathway. Finally, we have described that RhoA inhibition is a common intracellular mechanisms involved in statins effects. The in vivo relevance of these findings was assessed in an experimental model of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient mice: Treatment with Atorvastatin increased Smad3 phosphorylation and TRII overexpression, associated to elevated ECM deposition in the VSMCs within atheroma plaques, while apoptosis was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: Statins enhance TGF-beta/Smad pathway, regulating ligand levels, receptor, main signaling pathway and cellular responses of VSMC, including apoptosis and ECM accumulation. Our findings show that TGF-beta/Smad pathway is essential for statins-dependent actions in VSMCs.

  12. The N-end rule pathway counteracts cell death by destroying proapoptotic protein fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatkov, Konstantin I; Brower, Christopher S; Varshavsky, Alexander

    2012-07-03

    In the course of apoptosis, activated caspases cleave ∼500 to ∼1,000 different proteins in a mammalian cell. The dynamics of apoptosis involve a number of previously identified, caspase-generated proapoptotic protein fragments, defined as those that increase the probability of apoptosis. In contrast to activated caspases, which can be counteracted by inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, there is little understanding of antiapoptotic responses to proapoptotic protein fragments. One possibility is the regulation of proapoptotic fragments through their selective degradation. The previously identified proapoptotic fragments Cys-RIPK1, Cys-TRAF1, Asp-BRCA1, Leu-LIMK1, Tyr-NEDD9, Arg-BID, Asp-BCL(XL), Arg-BIM(EL), Asp-EPHA4, and Tyr-MET bear destabilizing N-terminal residues. Tellingly, the destabilizing nature (but not necessarily the actual identity) of N-terminal residues of proapoptotic fragments was invariably conserved in evolution. Here, we show that these proapoptotic fragments are short-lived substrates of the Arg/N-end rule pathway. Metabolic stabilization of at least one such fragment, Cys-RIPK1, greatly augmented the activation of the apoptosis-inducing effector caspase-3. In agreement with this understanding, even a partial ablation of the Arg/N-end rule pathway in two specific N-end rule mutants is shown to sensitize cells to apoptosis. We also found that caspases can inactivate components of the Arg/N-end rule pathway, suggesting a mutual suppression between this pathway and proapoptotic signaling. Together, these results identify a mechanistically specific and functionally broad antiapoptotic role of the Arg/N-end rule pathway. In conjunction with other apoptosis-suppressing circuits, the Arg/N-end rule pathway contributes to thresholds that prevent a transient or otherwise weak proapoptotic signal from reaching the point of commitment to apoptosis.

  13. Endocytic pathways involved in PLGA nanoparticle uptake by grapevine cells and role of cell wall and membrane in size selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palocci, Cleofe; Valletta, Alessio; Chronopoulou, Laura; Donati, Livia; Bramosanti, Marco; Brasili, Elisa; Baldan, Barbara; Pasqua, Gabriella

    2017-12-01

    PLGA NPs' cell uptake involves different endocytic pathways. Clathrin-independent endocytosis is the main internalization route. The cell wall plays a more prominent role than the plasma membrane in NPs' size selection. In the last years, many studies on absorption and cell uptake of nanoparticles by plants have been conducted, but the understanding of the internalization mechanisms is still largely unknown. In this study, polydispersed and monodispersed poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) were synthesized, and a strategy combining the use of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), confocal analysis, fluorescently labeled PLGA NPs, a probe for endocytic vesicles (FM4-64), and endocytosis inhibitors (i.e., wortmannin, ikarugamycin, and salicylic acid) was employed to shed light on PLGA NP cell uptake in grapevine cultured cells and to assess the role of the cell wall and plasma membrane in size selection of PLGA NPs. The ability of PLGA NPs to cross the cell wall and membrane was confirmed by TEM and fluorescence microscopy. A strong adhesion of PLGA NPs to the outer side of the cell wall was observed, presumably due to electrostatic interactions. Confocal microscopy and treatment with endocytosis inhibitors suggested the involvement of both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytosis in cell uptake of PLGA NPs and the latter appeared to be the main internalization pathway. Experiments on grapevine protoplasts revealed that the cell wall plays a more prominent role than the plasma membrane in size selection of PLGA NPs. While the cell wall prevents the uptake of PLGA NPs with diameters over 50 nm, the plasma membrane can be crossed by PLGA NPs with a diameter of 500-600 nm.

  14. Retinal Cell Death Caused by Sodium Iodate Involves Multiple Caspase-Dependent and Caspase-Independent Cell-Death Pathways

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    Jasmin Balmer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we have investigated retinal cell-death pathways in response to the retina toxin sodium iodate (NaIO3 both in vivo and in vitro. C57/BL6 mice were treated with a single intravenous injection of NaIO3 (35 mg/kg. Morphological changes in the retina post NaIO3 injection in comparison to untreated controls were assessed using electron microscopy. Cell death was determined by TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL staining. The activation of caspases and calpain was measured using immunohistochemistry. Additionally, cytotoxicity and apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells, primary retinal cells, and the cone photoreceptor (PRC cell line 661W were assessed in vitro after NaIO3 treatment using the ApoToxGlo™ assay. The 7-AAD/Annexin-V staining was performed and necrostatin (Nec-1 was administered to the NaIO3-treated cells to confirm the results. In vivo, degenerating RPE cells displayed a rounded shape and retracted microvilli, whereas PRCs featured apoptotic nuclei. Caspase and calpain activity was significantly upregulated in retinal sections and protein samples from NaIO3-treated animals. In vitro, NaIO3 induced necrosis in RPE cells and apoptosis in PRCs. Furthermore, Nec-1 significantly decreased NaIO3-induced RPE cell death, but had no rescue effect on treated PRCs. In summary, several different cell-death pathways are activated in retinal cells as a result of NaIO3.

  15. The crosstalk between α-irradiated Beas-2B cells and its bystander U937 cells through MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways

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    Fu, Jiamei; Yuan, Dexiao; Xiao, Linlin; Tu, Wenzhi; Dong, Chen; Liu, Weili; Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • α-irradiated Beas-2B cells induced bystander effects in macrophage U937 cells. • The neighboring macrophages enhanced the damage of α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. • MAPK and NF-κB pathways were activated in U937 cells after cell co-culture. • NF-κB and MAPK pathways participated in the bilateral bystander responses. - Abstract: Although accumulated evidence suggests that α-particle irradiation induced bystander effect may relevant to lung injury and cancer risk assessment, the exact mechanisms are not yet elucidated. In the present study, a cell co-culture system was used to investigate the interaction between α-particle irradiated human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas-2B) and its bystander macrophage U937 cells. It was found that the cell co-culture amplified the detrimental effects of α-irradiation including cell viability decrease and apoptosis promotion on both irradiated cells and bystander cells in a feedback loop which was closely relevant to the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways in the bystander U937 cells. When these two pathways in U937 cells were disturbed by special pharmacological inhibitors before cell co-culture, it was found that a NF-κB inhibitor of BAY 11-7082 further enhanced the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in bystander U937 cells, but MAPK inhibitors of SP600125 and SB203580 protected cells from viability loss and apoptosis and U0126 presented more beneficial effect on cell protection. For α-irradiated epithelial cells, the activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in U937 cells participated in detrimental cellular responses since the above inhibitors could largely attenuate cell viability loss and apoptosis of irradiated cells. Our results demonstrated that there are bilateral bystander responses between irradiated lung epithelial cells and macrophages through MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, which accounts for the enhancement of α-irradiation induced damage.

  16. The crosstalk between α-irradiated Beas-2B cells and its bystander U937 cells through MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jiamei; Yuan, Dexiao; Xiao, Linlin; Tu, Wenzhi; Dong, Chen; Liu, Weili; Shao, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • α-irradiated Beas-2B cells induced bystander effects in macrophage U937 cells. • The neighboring macrophages enhanced the damage of α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. • MAPK and NF-κB pathways were activated in U937 cells after cell co-culture. • NF-κB and MAPK pathways participated in the bilateral bystander responses. - Abstract: Although accumulated evidence suggests that α-particle irradiation induced bystander effect may relevant to lung injury and cancer risk assessment, the exact mechanisms are not yet elucidated. In the present study, a cell co-culture system was used to investigate the interaction between α-particle irradiated human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas-2B) and its bystander macrophage U937 cells. It was found that the cell co-culture amplified the detrimental effects of α-irradiation including cell viability decrease and apoptosis promotion on both irradiated cells and bystander cells in a feedback loop which was closely relevant to the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways in the bystander U937 cells. When these two pathways in U937 cells were disturbed by special pharmacological inhibitors before cell co-culture, it was found that a NF-κB inhibitor of BAY 11-7082 further enhanced the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in bystander U937 cells, but MAPK inhibitors of SP600125 and SB203580 protected cells from viability loss and apoptosis and U0126 presented more beneficial effect on cell protection. For α-irradiated epithelial cells, the activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in U937 cells participated in detrimental cellular responses since the above inhibitors could largely attenuate cell viability loss and apoptosis of irradiated cells. Our results demonstrated that there are bilateral bystander responses between irradiated lung epithelial cells and macrophages through MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, which accounts for the enhancement of α-irradiation induced damage.

  17. Role of the Ca2+-Calcineurin-Nuclear Factor of Activated T cell Pathway in Mitofusin-2-Mediated Immune Function of Jurkat Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Ping Xu

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that MFN2 may regulate T cell immune functions primarily through the Ca2+-calcineurin-NFAT pathway. MFN2 may represent a potential therapeutic target for T cell immune dysfunction-related diseases.

  18. Radio-sensitization of WRN helicase deficient cancer cells by targeting homologous recombination pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Pooja; Saha, Bhaskar; Patro, Birija Sankar; Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are primarily repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). However, it is well established that a subset DSBs which are accumulated in IR-induced G2 phase are dependent on homologous recombination (HR). DNA repair deficient tumor cells have been shown to accumulate high levels of DNA damage. Consequently, these cells become hyperdependent on DNA damage response pathways, including the CHK1-kinase-mediated HR-repair. These observations suggest that DNA repair deficient tumors should exhibit increased radio-sensitivity under HR inhibition. Genetic defects leading to functional loss of werner (WRN) protein is associated with genomic instability and increased cancer incidence. WRN function is known to be abrogated in several human cancer cells due to hypermethylation of CpGisland-promoter and transcriptional silencing of WRN gene. In the current investigation, using isogenic pairs of cell lines differing only in the WRN function, we showed that WRN-deficient cell lines were hyper-radiosensitive to CHK1 pharmacologic inhibition. Here, we found that unrepaired DSB was drastically increased in WRN-deficient cells vis-à-vis WRN-proficient cells in response to IR and CHK1 inhibitor (CHK1i). Our results revealed a marginal role of NHEJ pathway accountable for the radio-sensitivity of WRN-deficient cells. Interestingly, silencing CTIP, a HR protein required for RAD51 loading, significantly abrogated the CHK1i-mediated radiosensitivity in WRN-deficient cells. Silencing of WRN or CTIP individually led to no significant difference in the extent of DNA end resection, as required during HR pathway. Imperatively, our results revealed that WRN and CTIP together play a complementary role in executing DNA end resection during HR-mediated repair of IR induced DSBs. Altogether, our data indicated that inhibition of IR-induced HR pathway at RAD51 loading, but not at DSB end resection, make the WRN-deficient cancer cells

  19. Identification of cisplatin-regulated metabolic pathways in pluripotent stem cells.

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    Louise von Stechow

    Full Text Available The chemotherapeutic compound, cisplatin causes various kinds of DNA lesions but also triggers other pertubations, such as ER and oxidative stress. We and others have shown that treatment of pluripotent stem cells with cisplatin causes a plethora of transcriptional and post-translational alterations that, to a major extent, point to DNA damage response (DDR signaling. The orchestrated DDR signaling network is important to arrest the cell cycle and repair the lesions or, in case of damage beyond repair, eliminate affected cells. Failure to properly balance the various aspects of the DDR in stem cells contributes to ageing and cancer. Here, we performed metabolic profiling by mass spectrometry of embryonic stem (ES cells treated for different time periods with cisplatin. We then integrated metabolomics with transcriptomics analyses and connected cisplatin-regulated metabolites with regulated metabolic enzymes to identify enriched metabolic pathways. These included nucleotide metabolism, urea cycle and arginine and proline metabolism. Silencing of identified proline metabolic and catabolic enzymes indicated that altered proline metabolism serves as an adaptive, rather than a toxic response. A group of enriched metabolic pathways clustered around the metabolite S-adenosylmethionine, which is a hub for methylation and transsulfuration reactions and polyamine metabolism. Enzymes and metabolites with pro- or anti-oxidant functions were also enriched but enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species were not measured in cisplatin-treated ES cells. Lastly, a number of the differentially regulated metabolic enzymes were identified as target genes of the transcription factor p53, pointing to p53-mediated alterations in metabolism in response to genotoxic stress. Altogether, our findings reveal interconnecting metabolic pathways that are responsive to cisplatin and may serve as signaling modules in the DDR in pluripotent stem cells.

  20. Interleukin-8 stimulates progesterone production via the MEK pathway in ovarian theca cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Imamura, Eri; Magata, Fumie; Murayama, Chiaki; Miyamoto, Akio

    2013-02-01

    Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a chemoattractant associated with ovulation in the mammalian ovary. This chemokine is also involved in the recruitment and activation of neutrophils. Using bovine tissue, we examined the possible role of IL-8 in steroid production by theca cells of the large ovarian follicles. IL-8 promoted progesterone production and stimulated StAR expression in cultured theca cells. The inhibitor of p38 did not disturb the P4 production and StAR expression in IL-8-treated theca cells. On the other hand, the inhibitor of MEK disturbed the P4 production and expression of StAR in theca cells treated with IL-8. These results suggest that IL-8 is associated with progesterone production in bovine theca cells via the MEK pathway.

  1. Reverse engineering the mechanical and molecular pathways in stem cell morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Gordon, Richard; Cao, Tong

    2015-03-01

    The formation of relevant biological structures poses a challenge for regenerative medicine. During embryogenesis, embryonic cells differentiate into somatic tissues and undergo morphogenesis to produce three-dimensional organs. Using stem cells, we can recapitulate this process and create biological constructs for therapeutic transplantation. However, imperfect imitation of nature sometimes results in in vitro artifacts that fail to recapitulate the function of native organs. It has been hypothesized that developing cells may self-organize into tissue-specific structures given a correct in vitro environment. This proposition is supported by the generation of neo-organoids from stem cells. We suggest that morphogenesis may be reverse engineered to uncover its interacting mechanical pathway and molecular circuitry. By harnessing the latent architecture of stem cells, novel tissue-engineering strategies may be conceptualized for generating self-organizing transplants. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Pathway of deoxynivalenol-induced apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensassi, Fatma; El Golli-Bennour, Emna; Abid-Essefi, Salwa; Bouaziz, Chayma; Hajlaoui, Mohamed Rabeh; Bacha, Hassen

    2009-01-01

    The mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), is generally detected in cereal grains and grain-based food products worldwide. Therefore, DON has numerous toxicological effects on animals and humans. The present investigation was conducted to determine the molecular aspects of DON toxicity on human colon carcinoma cells (HT 29). To this aim, we have monitored the effects of DON on (i) cell viability, (ii) Heat shock protein expressions as a parameter of protective and adaptive response, (iii) oxidative damage and (iv) cell death signalling pathway. Our results clearly showed that DON treatment inhibits cell proliferation, did not induce Hsp 70 protein expression and reactive oxygen species generation. We have also demonstrated that this toxin induced a DNA fragmentation followed by p53 and caspase-3 activations. Finally, our findings suggested that oxidative damage is not the major contributor to DON toxicity. This mycotoxin induces direct DNA lesions and could be considered by this fact as a genotoxic agent inducing cell death via an apoptotic process.

  3. Embryonic stem cell self-renewal pathways converge on the transcription factor Tfcp2l1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shoudong; Li, Ping; Tong, Chang; Ying, Qi-Long

    2013-01-01

    Mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) self-renewal can be maintained by activation of the leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) signalling pathway or dual inhibition (2i) of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (Gsk3) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK). Several downstream targets of the pathways involved have been identified that when individually overexpressed can partially support self-renewal. However, none of these targets is shared among the involved pathways. Here, we show that the CP2 family transcription factor Tfcp2l1 is a common target in LIF/Stat3- and 2i-mediated self-renewal, and forced expression of Tfcp2l1 can recapitulate the self-renewal-promoting effect of LIF or either of the 2i components. In addition, Tfcp2l1 can reprogram post-implantation epiblast stem cells to naïve pluripotent ESCs. Tfcp2l1 upregulates Nanog expression and promotes self-renewal in a Nanog-dependent manner. We conclude that Tfcp2l1 is at the intersection of LIF- and 2i-mediated self-renewal pathways and plays a critical role in maintaining ESC identity. Our study provides an expanded understanding of the current model of ground-state pluripotency. PMID:23942238

  4. Vaginal epithelial cells regulate membrane adhesiveness to co-ordinate bacterial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Jessica A; Klappe, Karin; Kok, Jan Willem; Busscher, Henk J; Reid, Gregor; van der Mei, Henny C

    2016-04-01

    Vaginal epithelium is colonized by different bacterial strains and species. The bacterial composition of vaginal biofilms controls the balance between health and disease. Little is known about the relative contribution of the epithelial and bacterial cell surfaces to bacterial adhesion and whether and how adhesion is regulated over cell membrane regions. Here, we show that bacterial adhesion forces with cell membrane regions not located above the nucleus are stronger than with regions above the nucleus both for vaginal pathogens and different commensal and probiotic lactobacillus strains involved in health. Importantly, adhesion force ratios over membrane regions away from and above the nucleus coincided with the ratios between numbers of adhering bacteria over both regions. Bacterial adhesion forces were dramatically decreased by depleting the epithelial cell membrane of cholesterol or sub-membrane cortical actin. Thus, epithelial cells can regulate membrane regions to which bacterial adhesion is discouraged, possibly to protect the nucleus. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Dexamethasone (DEX induces Osmotic stress transcription factor 1 (Ostf1 through the Akt-GSK3β pathway in freshwater Japanese eel gill cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Chow

    2013-03-01

    Osmosensing and osmoregulatory processes undertaken in gills of euryhaline fish are coordinated by integrative actions of various signaling molecules/transcriptional factors. Considerable numbers of studies report the hyper- and hypo-osmoregulatory functions of fish gills, by illustrating the process of gill cell remodeling and the modulation of the expression of ion channels/transporters. Comparatively mechanistic information relayed from signal integration to transcriptional regulation in mediating gill cell functions has not yet been elucidated. In this study we demonstrate the functional links from cortisol stimulation, to Akt activation, to the expression of the transcriptional factor, Ostf1. Using the synthetic glucocorticoid receptor agonist, dexamethasone (DEX, Ostf1 expression is found to be activated via glucocorticoid receptor (GR and mediated by the Akt-GSK3β signaling pathway. Pharmacological experiments using kinase inhibitors reveal that the expression of Ostf1 is negatively regulated by Akt activation. The inhibition of PI3K or Akt activities, by the specific kinase inhibitors (wortmannin, LY294002 or SH6, stimulates Ostf1 expression, while a reduction of GSK3β activity by LiCl reduces Ostf1 expression. Collectively, our report for the first time indicates that DEX can induce Ostf1 via GR, with the involvement of the Akt-GSK3β signaling pathway in primary eel gill cell cultures. The data also suggest that Ostf1 may play different roles in gill cell survival during seawater acclimation.

  6. Andrographolide inhibits multiple myeloma cells by inhibiting the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Wang, Jianrong

    2016-02-01

    Andrographolide is an active component from the extract of Andrographis paniculata [(Burm.f) Nees], a medicinal plant from the Acanthaceae family. Pharmacological studies have revealed that andrographolide possesses anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, immune regulatory and hepatoprotective properties, and is efficacious in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, while exhibiting low toxicity and low cost. The present study aimed to determine the inhibitory effects of andrographolide on the growth of multiple myeloma (MM) cells and its possible impact on the Toll-like receptor (TLR)4/nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway. Cell proliferation was detected using an MTT assay, cellular apoptosis was measured using flow cytometry, and caspase-9/3 activation were assessed using colorimetric assay kits. Furthermore, TLR4 and NF-κB protein expression was determined by western blot analysis. The results revealed that andrographolide reduced the proliferation, while increasing cellular apoptosis and caspase-9/3 activation of MM cells, in addition to downregulating the expression of TLR4 and NF-κB protein. Of note, TLR4- or NF-κB-targeting small-interfering (si)RNA enhanced the andrographolide-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis of MM cells. The results of the present study therefore suggested that andrographolide inhibited multiple myeloma cells via the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

  7. Exploration of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in zearalenone-treated rat sertoli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ming-Long; Hu, Jin; Guo, Bao-Ping; Niu, Ya-Ru; Xiao, Cheng; Xu, Yin-Xue

    2016-12-01

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced mainly by Fusarium. ZEA causes reproductive disorders and is both cytotoxic and genotoxic in animals; however, little is known regarding the molecular mechanism(s) leading to ZEA toxicity. Sertoli cells are somatic cells that support the development of spermatogenic cells. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of ZEA on the proliferation, apoptosis, and necrosis of rat Sertoli cells to uncover signaling pathways underlying ZEA cytotoxicity. ZEA reduced the proliferation of rat Sertoli cells in a dose-dependent manner, as indicated by a CCK8 assay, while flow cytometry revealed that ZEA caused both apoptosis and necrosis. Immunoblotting revealed that ZEA treatment increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, as well as the expression of FasL and caspases-3, -8, and -9, in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, these data suggest that ZEA induced apoptosis and necrosis in rat Sertoli cells via extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms by which ZEA exhibits cytotoxicity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1731-1739, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Evolution of mitochondrial cell death pathway: Proapoptotic role of HtrA2/Omi in Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igaki, Tatsushi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Tokushige, Naoko; Aonuma, Hiroka; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Miura, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Despite the essential role of mitochondria in a variety of mammalian cell death processes, the involvement of mitochondrial pathway in Drosophila cell death has remained unclear. To address this, we cloned and characterized DmHtrA2, a Drosophila homolog of a mitochondrial serine protease HtrA2/Omi. We show that DmHtrA2 normally resides in mitochondria and is up-regulated by UV-irradiation. Upon receipt of apoptotic stimuli, DmHtrA2 is translocated to extramitochondrial compartment; however, unlike its mammalian counterpart, the extramitochondrial DmHtrA2 does not diffuse throughout the cytosol but stays near the mitochondria. RNAi-mediated knock-down of DmHtrA2 in larvae or adult flies results in a resistance to stress stimuli. DmHtrA2 specifically cleaves Drosophila inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein 1 (DIAP1), a cellular caspase inhibitor, and induces cell death both in vitro and in vivo as potent as other fly cell death proteins. Our observations suggest that DmHtrA2 promotes cell death through a cleavage of DIAP1 in the vicinity of mitochondria, which may represent a prototype of mitochondrial cell death pathway in evolution

  9. Huaier Aqueous Extract Induces Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Arrest in S Phase via JNK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengshuo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Huaier aqueous extract, the main active constituent of Huaier proteoglycan, has antihepatocarcinoma activity in experimental and clinical settings. However, the potential and associated antihepatoma mechanisms of Huaier extract are not yet fully understood. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to elucidate the inhibitory proliferation effect of Huaier extract on apoptosis and cycle of HepG2 and Bel-7402 cells. Our data demonstrated that incubation with Huaier extract resulted in a marked decrease in cell viability dose-dependently. Flow cytometric analysis showed that a 48 h treatment of Huaier extract caused cell apoptosis. Typical apoptotic nucleus alterations were observed with fluorescence microscope after Hoechst staining. Immunoblot analysis further demonstrated that Huaier extract activated caspase 3 and PARP. Additionally, Huaier extract inhibited the activity of p-ERK, p-p38, and p-JNK in terms of MAPK. Furthermore, Huaier extract induced HCC cells arrest in S phase and decreased the cycle related protein expression of β-catenin and cyclin D1. Studies with JNK specific inhibitor, SP600125, showed that Huaier extract induced S phase arrest and decreased β-catenin and cyclin D1 expression via JNK signaling pathway. In conclusion, we verify that Huaier extract causes cell apoptosis and induces hepatocellular carcinoma cells arrest in S phase via JNK pathway, which advances our understanding on the molecular mechanisms of Huaier extract in hepatocarcinoma management.

  10. Integration of Signaling Pathways with the Epigenetic Machinery in the Maintenance of Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Fagnocchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells balance their self-renewal and differentiation potential by integrating environmental signals with the transcriptional regulatory network. The maintenance of cell identity and/or cell lineage commitment relies on the interplay of multiple factors including signaling pathways, transcription factors, and the epigenetic machinery. These regulatory modules are strongly interconnected and they influence the pattern of gene expression of stem cells, thus guiding their cellular fate. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs represent an invaluable tool to study this interplay, being able to indefinitely self-renew and to differentiate towards all three embryonic germ layers in response to developmental cues. In this review, we highlight those mechanisms of signaling to chromatin, which regulate chromatin modifying enzymes, histone modifications, and nucleosome occupancy. In addition, we report the molecular mechanisms through which signaling pathways affect both the epigenetic and the transcriptional state of ESCs, thereby influencing their cell identity. We propose that the dynamic nature of oscillating signaling and the different regulatory network topologies through which those signals are encoded determine specific gene expression programs, leading to the fluctuation of ESCs among multiple pluripotent states or to the establishment of the necessary conditions to exit pluripotency.

  11. Bullatacin Triggered ABCB1-Overexpressing Cell Apoptosis via the Mitochondrial-Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Ju Liang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was to explore bullatacin-mediated multidrug-resistant cell apoptosis at extremely low concentration. To investigate its precise mechanisms, the pathway of cell apoptosis induced by bullatacin was examined. Bullatacin causes an upregulation of ROS and a downregulation of ΔΨm in a concentration-dependent manner in ABCB1-overexpressing KBv200 cells. In addition, cleavers of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP were observed following the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria after bullatacin treatment. However, neither cleavage of caspase-8 nor change of expression level of bcl-2, bax and Fas was observed by the same treatment. Pretreating KBv200 cells with N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant modulator, resulted in a significant reduction of ROS generation and cell apoptosis induced by bullatacin. Bullatacin-induced apoptosis was antagonized by z-LEHD-fmk, a caspase-9 inhibitor, but not by z-IETD-fmk, a caspase-8 inhibitor. These implied that apoptosis of KBv200 cells induced by bullatacin was associated with the mitochondria-dependent pathway that was limited to activation of apical caspase-9.

  12. NOR1 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and migration through modulating the Notch signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Kun; Sun, Peisheng; Yue, Zhongyi; Li, Jian; Xiong, Wancheng; Wang, Jianguo, E-mail: jianguowangjgw@163.com

    2017-03-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Previous studies have reported that the oxidored-nitro domain containing protein 1 (NOR1) is a novel tumor suppressor in several tumors. Recent evidence suggests that NOR1 is strongly expressed in HCC cells. However, its role and mechanism in HCC are unclear. In the current study, Western blot and qPCR detected strong NOR1 mRNA and protein expression in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. After transfection with NOR1 siRNA or pcDNA3.1-myc-his-NOR1, the proliferation and migration of HepG2 and Hep3B cells were analyzed in vitro. HepG2 or Hep3B cells overexpressing NOR1 showed an increased proliferation and migration, whereas siRNA-mediated silencing of NOR1 showed the opposite effect. Furthermore, NOR1 activated the Notch signaling pathway, indicated by increased levels of Notch1, NICD, Hes1, and Hey1 in protein. Importantly, the Notch inhibitor DAPT downregulated Notch activation and further enhanced siNOR1-induced reduction of cell proliferation and migration in HepG2 and Hep3B cells, whereas DAPT reversed the effect of NOR1 overexpression on cell proliferation and migration. In conclusion, these results indicate that NOR1 may be involved in the progression of HCC and thus may be a potential target for the treatment of liver cancer. - Highlights: • NOR1 expression is up-regulated in HCC cells. • NOR1 promotes the proliferation and migration of HCC cells. • NOR1 promotes the progression of HCC cells by activating Notch pathway.

  13. MAML1 regulates cell viability via the NF-{kappa}B pathway in cervical cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuncharin, Yanin [Medical Microbiology Interdisciplinary Program, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, Payathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Sangphech, Naunpun [Biotechnology Program, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Payathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Kueanjinda, Patipark [Medical Microbiology Interdisciplinary Program, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, Payathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Bhattarakosol, Parvapan [Medical Microbiology Interdisciplinary Program, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, Payathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Payathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Palaga, Tanapat, E-mail: tanapat.p@chula.ac.th [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Payathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2011-08-01

    The Notch signaling pathway plays important roles in tumorigenesis in a context-dependent manner. In human cervical cancer, alterations in Notch signaling have been reported, and both tumor-suppressing and tumor-promoting roles of Notch signaling have been proposed; however, the precise molecular mechanisms governing these roles in cervical cancer remain controversial. MAML is a transcriptional co-activator originally identified by its role in Notch signaling. Recent evidence suggests that it also plays a role in other signaling pathways, such as the p53 and {beta}-catenin pathways. MAML is required for stable formation of Notch transcriptional complexes at the promoters of Notch target genes. Chromosomal translocations affecting MAML have been shown to promote tumorigenesis. In this study, we used a truncated dominant-negative MAML1 (DN-MAML) to investigate the role of MAML in HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines. Three human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa, SiHa and CaSki) expressed all Notch receptors and the Notch target genes Hes1 and MAML1. Among these 3 cell lines, constitutive appearance of cleaved Notch1 was found only in CaSki cells, which suggests that Notch1 is constitutively activated in this cell line. Gamma secretase inhibitor (GSI) treatment, which suppresses Notch receptor activation, completely abrogated this form of Notch1 but had no effect on cell viability. Overexpression of DN-MAML by retroviral transduction in CaSki cells resulted in significant decreases in the mRNA levels of Hes1 and Notch1 but had no effects on the levels of MAML1, p53 or HPV E6/E7. DN-MAML expression induced increased viability of CaSki cells without any effect on cell cycle progression or cell proliferation. In addition, clonogenic assay experiments revealed that overexpression of DN-MAML resulted in increased colony formation compared to the overexpression of the control vector. When the status of the NF-{kappa}B pathway was investigated, CaSki cells overexpressing

  14. Nrf2 facilitates repair of radiation induced DNA damage through homologous recombination repair pathway in a ROS independent manner in cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, Sundarraj; Pal, Debojyoti; Sandur, Santosh K., E-mail: sskumar@barc.gov.in

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Nrf2 inhibition in A549 cells led to attenuated DNA repair and radiosensitization. • Influence of Nrf2 on DNA repair is not linked to its antioxidant function. • Nrf2 influences DNA repair through homologous recombination (HR) repair pathway. • Many genes involved in HR pathway show ARE sequences in their upstream region. - Abstract: Nrf2 is a redox sensitive transcription factor that is involved in the co-ordinated transcription of genes involved in redox homeostasis. But the role of Nrf2 in DNA repair is not investigated in detail. We have employed A549 and MCF7 cells to study the role of Nrf2 on DNA repair by inhibiting Nrf2 using all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or by knock down approach prior to radiation exposure (4 Gy). DNA damage and repair analysis was studied by γH2AX foci formation and comet assay. Results suggested that the inhibition of Nrf2 in A549 or MCF7 cells led to significant slowdown in DNA repair as compared to respective radiation controls. The persistence of residual DNA damage even in the presence of free radical scavenger N-acetyl cysteine, suggested that the influence of Nrf2 on DNA repair was not linked to its antioxidant functions. Further, its influence on non-homologous end joining repair pathway was studied by inhibiting both Nrf2 and DNA-PK together. This led to synergistic reduction of survival fraction, indicating that Nrf2 may not be influencing the NHEJ pathway. To investigate the role of homologous recombination repair (HR) pathway, RAD51 foci formation was monitored. There was a significant reduction in the foci formation in cells treated with ATRA or shRNA against Nrf2 as compared to their respective radiation controls. Further, Nrf2 inhibition led to significant reduction in mRNA levels of RAD51. BLAST analysis was also performed on upstream regions of DNA repair genes to identify antioxidant response element and found that many repair genes that are involved in HR pathway may be regulated by Nrf2

  15. TIMP-1 stimulates proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells and Ras effector pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, Takemi; Akahane, Manabu; Shah, Amy; Thorgeirsson, Unnur P.

    2004-01-01

    Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) is a multifunctional protein, which is found in most tissues and body fluids. Here, we demonstrated that recombinant TIMP-1 but not the synthetic matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, GM6001, stimulated proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMC) in a dose-dependent manner. The mitogenic effect was associated with activation of Ras, increased phosphorylation of ERK, and stimulation of cyclin D1 expression. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway was also involved since the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, abolished the TIMP-1-mediated growth stimulation. These data suggest that TIMP-1 activates Ras, which then turns on the ERK and PI3K signaling pathways to promote cell cycle progression of the AoSMC

  16. Differential gene expressions of the MAPK signaling pathway in enterovirus 71-infected rhabdomyosarcoma cells

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    Weifeng Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway plays an important role in response to viral infection. The aim of this study was to explore the function and mechanism of MAPK signaling pathway in enterovirus 71 (EV71 infection of human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD cells. METHODS: Apoptosis of RD cells was observed using annexin V-FITC/PI binding assay under a fluorescence microscope. Cellular RNA was extracted and transcribed to cDNA. The expressions of 56 genes of MAPK signaling pathway in EV71-infected RD cells at 8 h and 20 h after infection were analyzed by PCR array. The levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and TNF-α in the supernatant of RD cells infected with EV71 at different time points were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: The viability of RD cells decreased obviously within 48 h after EV71 infection. Compared with the control group, EV71 infection resulted in the significantly enhanced releases of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-α from infected RD cells (p < 0.05. At 8 h after infection, the expressions of c-Jun, c-Fos, IFN-i, MEKK1, MLK3 and NIK genes in EV71-infected RD cells were up-regulated by 2.08-6.12-fold, whereas other 19 genes (e.g. AKT1, AKT2, E2F1, IKK and NF-κB1 exhibited down-regulation. However, at 20 h after infection, those MAPK signaling molecules including MEKK1, ASK1, MLK2, MLK3, NIK, MEK1, MEK2, MEK4, MEK7, ERK1, JNK1 and JNK2 were up-regulated. In addition, the expressions of AKT2, ELK1, c-Jun, c-Fos, NF-κB p65, PI3K and STAT1 were also increased. CONCLUSION: EV71 infection induces the differential gene expressions of MAPK signaling pathway such as ERK, JNK and PI3K/AKT in RD cells, which may be associated with the secretions of inflammatory cytokines and host cell apoptosis.

  17. Iodine-131 treatment of thyroid cancer cells leads to suppression of cell proliferation followed by induction of cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by regulation of B-cell translocation gene 2-mediated JNK/NF-κB pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, L.M.; Pang, A.X., E-mail: zhaoliming515@126.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Linyi People' s Hospital, Linyi (China); Department of Urology, Linyi People' s Hospital, Linyi (China)

    2017-10-01

    Iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) is widely used for the treatment of thyroid-related diseases. This study aimed to investigate the expression of p53 and BTG2 genes following {sup 131}I therapy in thyroid cancer cell line SW579 and the possible underlying mechanism. SW579 human thyroid squamous carcinoma cells were cultured and treated with {sup 131}I. They were then assessed for {sup 131}I uptake, cell viability, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, p53 expression, and BTG2 gene expression. SW579 cells were transfected with BTG2 siRNA, p53 siRNA and siNC and were then examined for the same aforementioned parameters. When treated with a JNK inhibitor of SP600125 and {sup 131}I or with a NF-kB inhibitor of BMS-345541 and {sup 131}I, non-transfected SW579 cells were assessed in JNK/NFkB pathways. It was observed that {sup 131}I significantly inhibited cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Both BTG2 and p53 expression were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. An increase in cell viability by up-regulation in Bcl2 gene, a decrease in apoptosis by enhanced CDK2 gene expression and a decrease in cell cycle arrest at G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase were also observed in SW579 cell lines transfected with silenced BTG2 gene. When treated with SP600125 and {sup 131}I, the non transfected SW579 cell lines significantly inhibited JNK pathway, NF-kB pathway and the expression of BTG2. However, when treated with BMS-345541 and {sup 131}I, only the NF-kB pathway was suppressed. {sup 131}I suppressed cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and promoted cell cycle arrest of thyroid cancer cells by up-regulating B-cell translocation gene 2-mediated activation of JNK/NF--κB pathways. (author)

  18. Apoptotic Cell Death Induced by Resveratrol Is Partially Mediated by the Autophagy Pathway in Human Ovarian Cancer Cells.

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    Fangfang Lang

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (trans-3,4,5'-trihydroxystilbene is an active compound in food, such as red grapes, peanuts, and berries. Resveratrol exhibits an anticancer effect on various human cancer cells. However, the mechanism of resveratrol-induced anti-cancer effect at the molecular level remains to be elucidated. In this study, the mechanism underlying the anti-cancer effect of resveratrol in human ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR-3 and Caov-3 was investigated using various molecular biology techniques, such as flow cytometry, western blotting, and RNA interference, with a major focus on the potential role of autophagy in resveratrol-induced apoptotic cell death. We demonstrated that resveratrol induced reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, which triggers autophagy and subsequent apoptotic cell death. Resveratrol induced ATG5 expression and promoted LC3 cleavage. The apoptotic cell death induced by resveratrol was attenuated by both pharmacological and genetic inhibition of autophagy. The autophagy inhibitor chloroquine, which functions at the late stage of autophagy, significantly reduced resveratrol-induced cell death and caspase 3 activity in human ovarian cancer cells. We also demonstrated that targeting ATG5 by siRNA also suppressed resveratrol-induced apoptotic cell death. Thus, we concluded that a common pathway between autophagy and apoptosis exists in resveratrol-induced cell death in OVCAR-3 human ovarian cancer cells.

  19. Distributed Multi-Cell Resource Allocation with Price Based ICI Coordination in Downlink OFDMA Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Gangming; Zhu, Shihua; Hui, Hui

    Multi-cell resource allocation under minimum rate request for each user in OFDMA networks is addressed in this paper. Based on Lagrange dual decomposition theory, the joint multi-cell resource allocation problem is decomposed and modeled as a limited-cooperative game, and a distributed multi-cell resource allocation algorithm is thus proposed. Analysis and simulation results show that, compared with non-cooperative iterative water-filling algorithm, the proposed algorithm can remarkably reduce the ICI level and improve overall system performances.

  20. Chemically different non-thermal plasmas target distinct cell death pathways

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Churpita, Olexandr; Lunova, M.; Jirsa, M.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Kubinová, Šárka

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-17, č. článku 600. ISSN 2045-2322 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : chemically different * non-thermal plasmas * target distinct cell death pathways Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  1. Kaempferol induces hepatocellular carcinoma cell death via endoplasmic reticulum stress-CHOP-autophagy signaling pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Haiqing; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Xiangying; Zhang, Xiaohui; Hu, Zhongjie; Li, Liying; Duan, Zhongping; Zhang, Jing; Ren, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Kaempferol is a flavonoid compound that has gained widespread attention due to its antitumor functions. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. The present study investigated the effect of kaempferol on hepatocellular carcinoma and its underlying mechanisms. Kaempferol induced autophagy in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in HepG2 or Huh7 cells, which was evidenced by the significant increase of autophagy-related genes. Inhibition of autophagy pathway, through 3-meth...

  2. Multiple signal transduction pathways in okadaic acid induced apoptosis in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraj, R.; Gupta, Nimesh; Rao, P.V. Lakshmana

    2009-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is the major component of diarrhetic shell fish poisoning toxins and a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 and 2A. We investigated the signal transduction pathways involved in OA induced cell death in HeLa cells. OA induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis at IC50 of 100 nM. OA treatment resulted in time dependent increase in reactive oxygen species and depleted intracellular glutathione levels. Loss of mitochondrial membrane permeability led to translocation of bax, cytochrome-c and AIF from mitochondria to cytosol. The cells under fluorescence microscope showed typical apoptotic morphology with condensed chromatin, and nuclear fragmentation. We investigated the mitochondrial-mediated caspase cascade. The time dependent activation and cleavage of of bax, caspases-8, 10, 9, 3 and 7 was observed in Western blot analysis. In addition to caspase-dependent pathway AIF mediated caspase-independent pathway was involved in OA mediated cell death. OA also caused time dependent inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A activity and phosphorylation of p38 and p42/44 MAP kinases. Inhibitor studies with Ac-DEVO-CHO and Z-VAD-FMK could not prevent the phosphorylation of p38 and p42/44 MAP kinases. Our experiments with caspase inhibitors Ac-DEVD-CHO, Z-IETD-FMK and Z-VAD-FMK inhibited capsase-3, 8 cleavages but did not prevent OA-induced apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. Similarly, pretreatment with cyclosporin-A and N-acetylcysteine could not prevent the DNA fragmentation. In summary, the results of our study show that OA induces multiple signal transduction pathways acting either independently or simultaneously leading to apoptosis

  3. Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells induce immunosuppressive IL-10-producing Th1 cells via the Notch pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, Katrin; Rudolph, Christine; Neumann, Christian; Janke, Marko; Amsen, Derk; Scheffold, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Under homeostasis, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) shift intrahepatic T-cell responses towards tolerance. However, the role of LSECs in the regulation of T-cell-induced liver inflammation is less clear. Here, we studied the capacity of LSECs to modulate pro-inflammatory Th1-cell

  4. Trophoblast cell fusion and differentiation are mediated by both the protein kinase C and a pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waka Omata

    Full Text Available The syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta is an epithelial barrier that interacts with maternal blood and is a key for the transfer of nutrients and other solutes to the developing fetus. The syncytiotrophoblast is a true syncytium and fusion of progenitor cytotrophoblasts is the cardinal event leading to the formation of this layer. BeWo cells are often used as a surrogate for cytotrophoblasts, since they can be induced to fuse, and then express certain differentiation markers associated with trophoblast syncytialization. Dysferlin, a syncytiotrophoblast membrane repair protein, is up-regulated in BeWo cells induced to fuse by treatment with forskolin; this fusion is thought to occur through cAMP/protein kinase A-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesized that dysferlin may also be up-regulated in response to fusion through other pathways. Here, we show that BeWo cells can also be induced to fuse by treatment with an activator of protein kinase C, and that this fusion is accompanied by increased expression of dysferlin. Moreover, a dramatic synergistic increase in dysferlin expression is observed when both the protein kinase A and protein kinase C pathways are activated in BeWo cells. This synergy in fusion is also accompanied by dramatic increases in mRNA for the placental fusion proteins syncytin 1, syncytin 2, as well as dysferlin. Dysferlin, however, was shown to be dispensable for stimulus-induced BeWo cell syncytialization, since dysferlin knockdown lines fused to the same extent as control cells. The classical trophoblast differentiation marker human chorionic gonadotropin was also monitored and changes in the expression closely parallel that of dysferlin in all of the experimental conditions employed. Thus different biochemical markers of trophoblast fusion behave in concert supporting the hypothesis that activation of both protein kinase C and A pathways lead to trophoblastic differentiation.

  5. Pachymic acid promotes induction of autophagy related to IGF-1 signaling pathway in WI-38 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Gyeong; Kim, Moon-Moo

    2017-12-01

    The insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway has spotlighted as a mechanism to elucidate aging associated with autophagy in recent years. Therefore, we have tried to screen an effective compound capable of inducing autophagy to delay aging process. The aim of this study is to investigate whether pachymic acid, a main compound in Poria cocos, induces autophagy in the aged cells. The aging of young cells was induced by treatment with IGF-1 at 50 ng/ml three times every two days. The effect of pachymic acid on cell viability was evaluated in human lung fibroblasts, WI-38 cells, using MTT assay. The induction of autophagy was detected using autophagy detection kit. The expression of proteins related to autophagy and IGF-1 signaling pathway was examined by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence assay. In this study, pachymic acid showed cytotoxic effect in a dose dependent manner and remarkably induced autophagy at the same time. Moreover, pachymic acid increased the expression of proteins related to autophagy such as LC3-II and Beclin1 and decreased the levels of mTor phosphorylation and p70S6K in the aged cells. In particular, pachymic acid increased the expression of p-PI3K, p-FoxO and Catalase. In addition, pachymic acid remarkably increased the expression of IGFBP-3. Above results suggest that pachymic acid could induce autophagy related to IGF-1 signaling pathway in the aged cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Multifunctional role of the transcription factor Blimp1 in coordinating plasma cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnich, Martina; Tagoh, Hiromi; Bönelt, Peter; Axelsson, Elin; Fischer, Maria; Cebolla, Beatriz; Tarakhovsky, Alexander; Nutt, Stephen L.; Jaritz, Markus; Busslinger, Meinrad

    2018-01-01

    Blimp1 is an essential regulator of plasma cells. Here we studied its functions in plasmablast differentiation by identifying regulated Blimp1 target genes. Blimp1 promoted plasmablast migration and adhesion. It repressed several transcription factor genes and Aicda, thus silencing B-cell-specific gene expression, antigen presentation and class switch recombination in plasmablasts. It directly activated genes, leading to increased expression of the plasma cell regulator IRF4 and proteins involved in immunoglobulin secretion. Blimp1 induced immunoglobulin gene transcription by controlling Igh and Igk 3’ enhancers and regulated the posttranscriptional expression switch from the membrane-bound to secreted immunoglobulin heavy-chain by activating Ell2. Notably, Blimp1 recruited chromatin-remodeling and histone-modifying complexes to regulate its target genes. Hence, many essential functions of plasma cells are under Blimp1 control. PMID:26779602

  7. Endocytic Pathways Used by Andes Virus to Enter Primary Human Lung Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Feng Chiang

    Full Text Available Andes virus (ANDV is the major cause of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS in South America. Despite a high fatality rate (up to 40%, no vaccines or antiviral therapies are approved to treat ANDV infection. To understand the role of endocytic pathways in ANDV infection, we used 3 complementary approaches to identify cellular factors required for ANDV entry into human lung microvascular endothelial cells. We screened an siRNA library targeting 140 genes involved in membrane trafficking, and identified 55 genes required for ANDV infection. These genes control the major endocytic pathways, endosomal transport, cell signaling, and cytoskeleton rearrangement. We then used infectious ANDV and retroviral pseudovirions to further characterize the possible involvement of 9 of these genes in the early steps of ANDV entry. In addition, we used markers of cellular endocytosis along with chemical inhibitors of known endocytic pathways to show that ANDV uses multiple routes of entry to infect target cells. These entry mechanisms are mainly clathrin-, dynamin-, and cholesterol-dependent, but can also occur via a clathrin-independent manner.

  8. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles activate IL8-related inflammatory pathways in human colonic epithelial Caco-2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Kristin; Cossais, François; Neve, Horst; Klempt, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles are widely used as food additive or coating material in products of the food and pharmaceutical industry. Studies on various cell lines have shown that TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) induced the inflammatory response and cytotoxicity. However, the influences of TiO2 NPs' exposure on inflammatory pathways in intestinal epithelial cells and their differentiation have not been investigated so far. This study demonstrates that TiO2 NPs with particle sizes ranging between 5 and 10 nm do not affect enterocyte differentiation but cause an activation of inflammatory pathways in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2. 5 and 10 nm NPs' exposures transiently induce the expression of ICAM1, CCL20, COX2 and IL8, as determined by quantitative PCR, whereas larger particles (490 nm) do not. Further, using nuclear factor (NF)-κB reporter gene assays, we show that NP-induced IL8 mRNA expression occurs, in part, through activation of NF-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways.

  9. Semantic Mining based on graph theory and ontologies. Case Study: Cell Signaling Pathways

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    Carlos R. Rangel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we use concepts from graph theory and cellular biology represented as ontologies, to carry out semantic mining tasks on signaling pathway networks. Specifically, the paper describes the semantic enrichment of signaling pathway networks. A cell signaling network describes the basic cellular activities and their interactions. The main contribution of this paper is in the signaling pathway research area, it proposes a new technique to analyze and understand how changes in these networks may affect the transmission and flow of information, which produce diseases such as cancer and diabetes. Our approach is based on three concepts from graph theory (modularity, clustering and centrality frequently used on social networks analysis. Our approach consists into two phases: the first uses the graph theory concepts to determine the cellular groups in the network, which we will call them communities; the second uses ontologies for the semantic enrichment of the cellular communities. The measures used from the graph theory allow us to determine the set of cells that are close (for example, in a disease, and the main cells in each community. We analyze our approach in two cases: TGF-ß and the Alzheimer Disease.

  10. Two Overlapping Domains of a Lyssavirus Matrix Protein That Acts on Different Cell Death Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrous, Florence; Gholami, Alireza; Mouhamad, Shahul; Estaquier, Jérôme; Bourhy, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    The lyssavirus matrix (M) protein induces apoptosis. The regions of the M protein that are essential for triggering cell death pathways are not yet clearly defined. We therefore compared the M proteins from two viruses that have contrasting characteristics in terms of cellular apoptosis: a genotype 3 lyssavirus, Mokola virus (MOK), and a genotype 1 rabies virus isolated from a dog from Thailand (THA). We identified a 20-amino-acid fragment (corresponding to positions 67 to 86) that retained the cell death activities of the full-length M protein from MOK via both the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) activity. We found that the amino acids at positions 77 and 81 have an essential role in triggering these two cell death pathways. Directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the amino acid at position 77 affects CcO activity, whereas the amino acid at position 81 affects TRAIL-dependent apoptosis. Mutations in the full-length M protein that compromised induction of either of these two pathways resulted in delayed apoptosis compared with the time to apoptosis for the nonmutated control. PMID:20631119

  11. Two overlapping domains of a lyssavirus matrix protein that acts on different cell death pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrous, Florence; Gholami, Alireza; Mouhamad, Shahul; Estaquier, Jérôme; Bourhy, Hervé

    2010-10-01

    The lyssavirus matrix (M) protein induces apoptosis. The regions of the M protein that are essential for triggering cell death pathways are not yet clearly defined. We therefore compared the M proteins from two viruses that have contrasting characteristics in terms of cellular apoptosis: a genotype 3 lyssavirus, Mokola virus (MOK), and a genotype 1 rabies virus isolated from a dog from Thailand (THA). We identified a 20-amino-acid fragment (corresponding to positions 67 to 86) that retained the cell death activities of the full-length M protein from MOK via both the tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) activity. We found that the amino acids at positions 77 and 81 have an essential role in triggering these two cell death pathways. Directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the amino acid at position 77 affects CcO activity, whereas the amino acid at position 81 affects TRAIL-dependent apoptosis. Mutations in the full-length M protein that compromised induction of either of these two pathways resulted in delayed apoptosis compared with the time to apoptosis for the nonmutated control.

  12. Kaempferol induces hepatocellular carcinoma cell death via endoplasmic reticulum stress-CHOP-autophagy signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haiqing; Lin, Wei; Zhang, Xiangying; Zhang, Xiaohui; Hu, Zhongjie; Li, Liying; Duan, Zhongping; Zhang, Jing; Ren, Feng

    2017-10-10

    Kaempferol is a flavonoid compound that has gained widespread attention due to its antitumor functions. However, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. The present study investigated the effect of kaempferol on hepatocellular carcinoma and its underlying mechanisms. Kaempferol induced autophagy in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in HepG2 or Huh7 cells, which was evidenced by the significant increase of autophagy-related genes. Inhibition of autophagy pathway, through 3-methyladenine or Atg7 siRNA, strongly diminished kaempferol-induced apoptosis. We further hypothesized that kaempferol can induce autophagy via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway. Indeed, blocking ER stress by 4-phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA) or knockdown of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) with siRNA alleviated kaempferol-induced HepG2 or Huh7 cells autophagy; while transfection with plasmid overexpressing CHOP reversed the effect of 4-PBA on kaempferol-induced autophagy. Our results demonstrated that kaempferol induced hepatocarcinoma cell death via ER stress and CHOP-autophagy signaling pathway; kaempferol may be used as a potential chemopreventive agent for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

  13. Evidence for a Rad18-independent frameshift mutagenesis pathway in human cell-free extracts.

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    Régine Janel-Bintz

    Full Text Available Bypass of replication blocks by specialized DNA polymerases is crucial for cell survival but may promote mutagenesis and genome instability. To gain insight into mutagenic sub-pathways that coexist in mammalian cells, we examined N-2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF-induced frameshift mutagenesis by means of SV40-based shuttle vectors containing a single adduct. We found that in mammalian cells, as previously observed in E. coli, modification of the third guanine of two target sequences, 5'-GGG-3' (3G and 5'-GGCGCC-3' (NarI site, induces -1 and -2 frameshift mutations, respectively. Using an in vitro assay for translesion synthesis, we investigated the biochemical control of these events. We showed that Pol eta, but neither Pol iota nor Pol zeta, plays a major role in the frameshift bypass of the AAF adduct located in the 3G sequence. By complementing PCNA-depleted extracts with either a wild-type or a non-ubiquitinatable form of PCNA, we found that this Pol eta-mediated pathway requires Rad18 and ubiquitination of PCNA. In contrast, when the AAF adduct is located within the NarI site, TLS is only partially dependent upon Pol eta and Rad18, unravelling the existence of alternative pathways that concurrently bypass this lesion.

  14. Low Dose Cadmium Inhibits Proliferation of Human Renal Mesangial Cells via Activation of the JNK Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaocui; Li, Jing; Cheng, Zuowang; Xu, Yinghua; Wang, Xia; Li, Xiaorui; Xu, Dongmei; Kapron, Carolyn M.; Liu, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and environmental pollutant. The kidney is the principal target organ of Cd exposure. Previously, we found that low concentration of Cd damages the integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier. However, little is known about the effects of Cd on renal mesangial cells, which provide structural support for the glomerular capillary loops and regulate intraglomerular blood flow. In this study, human renal mesangial cells (HRMCs) were cultured in the presence of serum and treated with 4 μM Cd. We found that Cd activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, and increases the protein levels of c-Jun and c-Fos. Cd treatment also induces a decrease in proliferation and an increase in apoptosis of HRMCs, but only the decrease in HRMC proliferation was reversed by pretreatment with SP600125, an inhibitor of the JNK pathway. In addition, Cd does not change the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β, the markers of mesangial cells, or the alignment of the filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton of HRMCs. Our data indicate that the JNK pathway mediates the inhibitory effects of Cd on HRMC proliferation. PMID:27739415

  15. The effects of MicroRNA transfections on global patterns of gene expression in ovarian cancer cells are functionally coordinated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Shubin W

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small RNAs that have been linked to a number of diseases including cancer. The potential application of miRNAs in the diagnostics and therapeutics of ovarian and other cancers is an area of intense interest. A current challenge is the inability to accurately predict the functional consequences of exogenous modulations in the levels of potentially therapeutic miRNAs. Methods In an initial effort to systematically address this issue, we conducted miRNA transfection experiments using two miRNAs (miR-7, miR-128. We monitored the consequent changes in global patterns of gene expression by microarray and quantitative (real-time polymerase chain reaction. Network analysis of the expression data was used to predict the consequence of each transfection on cellular function and these predictions were experimentally tested. Results While ~20% of the changes in expression patterns of hundreds to thousands of genes could be attributed to direct miRNA-mRNA interactions, the majority of the changes are indirect, involving the downstream consequences of miRNA-mediated changes in regulatory gene expression. The changes in gene expression induced by individual miRNAs are functionally coordinated but distinct between the two miRNAs. MiR-7 transfection into ovarian cancer cells induces changes in cell adhesion and other developmental networks previously associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT and other processes linked with metastasis. In contrast, miR-128 transfection induces changes in cell cycle control and other processes commonly linked with cellular replication. Conclusions The functionally coordinated patterns of gene expression displayed by different families of miRNAs have the potential to provide clinicians with a strategy to treat cancers from a systems rather than a single gene perspective.

  16. Proline oxidase silencing induces proline-dependent pro-survival pathways in MCF-7 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareba, Ilona; Celinska-Janowicz, Katarzyna; Surazynski, Arkadiusz; Miltyk, Wojciech; Palka, Jerzy

    2018-01-01

    Proline degradation by proline dehydrogenase/proline oxidase (PRODH/POX) contributes to apoptosis or autophagy. The identification of specific pathway of apoptosis/survival regulation is the aim of this study. We generated knocked-down PRODH/POX MCF-7 breast cancer cells (MCF-7shPRODH/POX). PRODH/POX silencing did not affect cell viability. However, it contributed to decrease in DNA and collagen biosynthesis, increase in prolidase activity and intracellular proline concentration as well as increase in the expression of iNOS, NF-κB, mTOR, HIF-1α, COX-2, AMPK, Atg7 and Beclin-1 in MCF-7shPRODH/POX cells. In these cells, glycyl-proline (GlyPro, substrate for prolidase) further inhibited DNA and collagen biosynthesis, maintained high prolidase activity, intracellular concentration of proline and up-regulated HIF-1α, AMPK, Atg7 and Beclin-1, compared to GlyPro-treated MCF-7 cells. In MCF-7 cells, GlyPro increased collagen biosynthesis, concentration of proline and expression of caspase-3, cleaved caspases -3 and -9, iNOS, NF-κB, COX-2 and AMPKβ. PRODH/POX knock-down contributed to pro-survival autophagy pathways in MCF-7 cells and GlyPro-derived proline augmented this process. However, GlyPro induced apoptosis in PRODH/POX-expressing MCF-7 cells as detected by up-regulation of active caspases -3 and -9. The data suggest that PRODH/POX silencing induces autophagy in MCF-7 cells and GlyPro-derived proline supports this process. PMID:29568391

  17. A study on apoptotic signaling pathway in HL-60 cells induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye Jung; Moon, Sung Keun; Lee, Jae Hoon; Moon, Sun Rock

    2001-01-01

    The mechanical insights of death at cancer cells by ionizing radiation are not yet clearly defined. Recent evidences have demonstrated that radiation therapy may induce cell death via activation of signaling pathway for apoptosis in target cells. This study is designed whether ionizing radiation may activate the signaling cascades of apoptosis including caspase family cysteine proteases, Bcl2/Bax, cytochrome c and Fas/Fas-L in target cells. HL-60 cells were irradiated in vitro with 6 MV X-ray at dose ranges from 2 Gy to 32 Gy. The cell viability was tested by MTT assay and the extent of apoptosis was determined using agarose gel electrophoresis. The activities of caspase proteases were measured by proteolytic cleavages of substrates. Western blot analysis was used to monitor PARP, caspase-3, Cytochrome-c, BcI-2, Bax, Fas and Fas-L. Ionizing radiation decreases the viability of HL -60 cells in a time and dose dependent manner. Ionizing radiation-induced death in HL- 60 cells is an apoptotic death which is revealed as characteristic ladder-pattern fragmentation at genomic DNA over 16 Gy at 4 hours. Ionizing radiation induces the activation of caspase-2, 3, 6, 8 and 9 of HL --60 cells in a time-dependent manner. The activation of caspase- 3 protease is also evidenced by the digestion of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and procaspase 3 with 16Gy ionizing irradiation. Anti-apoptotic Bcl2 expression is decreased but apoptotic Bax expression is increased with mitochondrial cytochrome c release in a time- dependent manner. In addition, expression of Fas and Fas-L is also increased in a time dependent manner. These data suggest that ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis is mediated by the activation of various signaling pathways including caspase family cysteine proteases, BcI 2 /Bax, Fas and Fas-L in a time and dose dependent manner

  18. Proteomic Assessment of Biochemical Pathways That Are Critical to Nickel-Induced Toxicity Responses in Human Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yue; Bruno, Maribel; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Wallace, Kathleen; Andrews, Debora; Swank, Adam; Winnik, Witold; Ross, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying toxicity initiated by nickel, a ubiquitous environmental contaminant and known human carcinogen is necessary for proper assessment of its risks to human and environment. Among a variety of toxic mechanisms, disruption of protein responses and protein response-based biochemical pathways represents a key mechanism through which nickel induces cytotoxicity and carcinogenesis. To identify protein responses and biochemical pathways that are critical to nickel-induced toxicity responses, we measured cytotoxicity and changes in expression and phosphorylation status of 14 critical biochemical pathway regulators in human BEAS-2B cells exposed to four concentrations of nickel using an integrated proteomic approach. A subset of the pathway regulators, including interleukin-6, and JNK, were found to be linearly correlated with cell viability, and may function as molecular determinants of cytotoxic responses of BEAS-2B cells to nickel exposures. In addition, 128 differentially expressed proteins were identified by two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry. Principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analyses, and ingenuity signaling pathway analysis (IPA) identified putative nickel toxicity pathways. Some of the proteins and pathways identified have not previously been linked to nickel toxicity. Based on the consistent results obtained from both ELISA and 2-DE proteomic analysis, we propose a core signaling pathway regulating cytotoxic responses of human BEAS-2B cells to nickel exposures, which integrates a small set of proteins involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis pathways, apoptosis, protein degradation, and stress responses including inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:27626938

  19. The Azospirillum brasilense Che1 chemotaxis pathway controls swimming velocity, which affects transient cell-to-cell clumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Amber; Russell, Matthew H; Alexandre, Gladys

    2012-07-01

    The Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway of Azospirillum brasilense contributes to chemotaxis and aerotaxis, and it has also been found to contribute to regulating changes in cell surface adhesive properties that affect the propensity of cells to clump and to flocculate. The exact contribution of Che1 to the control of chemotaxis and flocculation in A. brasilense remains poorly understood. Here, we show that Che1 affects reversible cell-to-cell clumping, a cellular behavior in which motile cells transiently interact by adhering to one another at their nonflagellated poles before swimming apart. Clumping precedes and is required for flocculation, and both processes appear to be independently regulated. The phenotypes of a ΔaerC receptor mutant and of mutant strains lacking cheA1, cheY1, cheB1, or cheR1 (alone or in combination) or with che1 deleted show that Che1 directly mediates changes in the flagellar swimming velocity and that this behavior directly modulates the transient nature of clumping. Our results also suggest that an additional receptor(s) and signaling pathway(s) are implicated in mediating other Che1-independent changes in clumping identified in the present study. Transient clumping precedes the transition to stable clump formation, which involves the production of specific extracellular polysaccharides (EPS); however, production of these clumping-specific EPS is not directly controlled by Che1 activity. Che1-dependent clumping may antagonize motility and prevent chemotaxis, thereby maintaining cells in a metabolically favorable niche.

  20. Control of amino acid transport coordinates metabolic reprogramming in T-cell malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzes, K M; Swamy, M; Hukelmann, J L; Emslie, E; Sinclair, L V; Cantrell, D A

    2017-12-01

    This study explores the regulation and importance of System L amino acid transport in a murine model of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) caused by deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN). There has been a strong focus on glucose transport in leukemias but the present data show that primary T-ALL cells have increased transport of multiple nutrients. Specifically, increased leucine transport in T-ALL fuels mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity which then sustains expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) and c-Myc; drivers of glucose metabolism in T cells. A key finding is that PTEN deletion and phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P 3 ) accumulation is insufficient to initiate leucine uptake, mTORC1 activity, HIF1α or c-Myc expression in T cells and hence cannot drive T-ALL metabolic reprogramming. Instead, a key regulator for leucine transport in T-ALL is identified as NOTCH. Mass spectrometry based proteomics identifies SLC7A5 as the predominant amino acid transporter in primary PTEN -/- T-ALL cells. Importantly, expression of SLC7A5 is critical for the malignant transformation induced by PTEN deletion. These data reveal the importance of regulated amino acid transport for T-cell malignancies, highlighting how a single amino acid transporter can have a key role.

  1. Coordinated Molecular Cross-Talk between Staphylococcus aureus, Endothelial Cells and Platelets in Bloodstream Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina D. Garciarena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic pathogen often carried asymptomatically on the human body. Upon entry to the otherwise sterile environment of the cardiovascular system, S. aureus can lead to serious complications resulting in organ failure and death. The success of S. aureus as a pathogen in the bloodstream is due to its ability to express a wide array of cell wall proteins on its surface that recognise host receptors, extracellular matrix proteins and plasma proteins. Endothelial cells and platelets are important cells in the cardiovascular system and are a major target of bloodstream infection. Endothelial cells form the inner lining of a blood vessel and provide an antithrombotic barrier between the vessel wall and blood. Platelets on the other hand travel throughout the cardiovascular system and respond by aggregating around the site of injury and initiating clot formation. Activation of either of these cells leads to functional dysregulation in the cardiovascular system. In this review, we will illustrate how S. aureus establish intimate interactions with both endothelial cells and platelets leading to cardiovascular dysregulation.

  2. The cardiac glycoside oleandrin induces apoptosis in human colon cancer cells via the mitochondrial pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li; Zhang, Yuming; Zhao, Wanlu; Zhou, Xia; Wang, Chunxia; Deng, Fan

    2017-07-01

    Evidence indicates that the cardiac glycoside oleandrin exhibits cytotoxic activity against several different types of cancer. However, the specific mechanisms underlying oleandrin-induced anti-tumor effects remain largely unknown. The present study examined the anti-cancer effect and underlying mechanism of oleandrin on human colon cancer cells. The cytotoxicity and IC50 of five small molecule compounds (oleandrin, neriifolin, strophanthidin, gitoxigenin, and convallatoxin) in human colon cancer cell line SW480 cells and normal human colon cell line NCM460 cells were determined by cell counting and MTT assays, respectively. Apoptosis was determined by staining cells with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide, followed by flow cytometry. Intracellular Ca 2+ was determined using Fluo-3 AM,glutathione (GSH) levels were measured using a GSH detection kit,and the activity of caspase-3, -9 was measured using a peptide substrate. BAX, pro-caspase-3, -9, cytochrome C and BCL-2 expression were determined by Western blotting. Oleandrin significantly decreased cell viabilities in SW480, HCT116 and RKO cells. The IC50 for SW480 cells was 0.02 µM, whereas for NCM460 cells 0.56 µM. More interestingly, the results of flow cytometry showed that oleandrin potently induced apoptosis in SW480 and RKO cells. Oleandrin downregulated protein expression of pro-caspase-3, -9, but enhanced caspase-3, -9 activities. These effects were accompanied by upregulation of protein expression of cytochrome C and BAX, and downregulation of BCL-2 protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, oleandrin increased intracellular Ca 2+ concentration, but decreased GSH concentration in the cells. The present results suggest that oleandrin induces apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells via the mitochondrial pathway. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism of anti-cancer property of oleandrin.

  3. [Pt(O,O'-acac)(gamma-acac)(DMS)], a new Pt compound exerting fast cytotoxicity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscella, A; Calabriso, N; Fanizzi, F P; De Pascali, S A; Urso, L; Ciccarese, A; Migoni, D; Marsigliante, S

    2008-01-01

    We showed previously that a new Pt complex containing an O,O'-chelated acetylacetonate ligand (acac) and a dimethylsulphide in the Pt coordination sphere, [Pt(O,O'-acac)(gamma-acac)(DMS)], induces apoptosis in HeLa cells. The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that [Pt(O,O'-acac)(gamma-acac)(DMS)] is also cytotoxic in a MCF-7 breast cancer cell line relatively insensitive to cisplatin, and to gain a more detailed analysis of the cell death pathways. Cells were treated with Pt compounds and cytotoxicity tests were performed, together with Western blotting of various proteins involved in apoptosis. The mitochondrial membrane potential was assessed by fluorescence microscopy and spectrofluorometry and the Pt bound to cell fractions was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. In contrast to cisplatin, the cytotoxicity of [Pt(O,O'-acac)(gamma-acac)(DMS)] correlated with cellular accumulation but not with DNA binding. Also, the Pt content in DNA bases was considerably higher for cisplatin than for [Pt(O,O'-acac)(gamma-acac)(DMS)], thus excluding DNA as a target of [Pt(O,O'-acac)(gamma-acac)(DMS)]. [Pt(O,O'-acac)(gamma-acac)(DMS)] exerted high and fast apoptotic processes in MCF-7 cells since it provoked: (a) mitochondria depolarization; (b) cytochrome c accumulation in the cytosol; (c) translocation of Bax and truncated-Bid from cytosol to mitochondria and decreased expression of Bcl-2; (d) cleavage of caspases -7 and -9, and PARP degradation; (e) chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. [Pt(O,O'-acac)(gamma-acac)(DMS)] is highly cytotoxic for MCF-7 cells, cells relatively resistant to many chemotherapeutic agents, as it activates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Hence, [Pt(O,O'-acac)(gamma-acac)(DMS)] has the potential to provide us with new opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  4. Azoxystrobin Induces Apoptosis of Human Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma KYSE-150 Cells through Triggering of the Mitochondrial Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-ke Shi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate that mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis are potential chemotherapeutic target for the treatment of esophageal cancer. Azoxystrobin (AZOX, a methoxyacrylate derived from the naturally occurring strobilurins, is a known fungicide acting as a ubiquinol oxidation (Qo inhibitor of mitochondrial respiratory complex III. In this study, the effects of AZOX on human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma KYSE-150 cells were examined and the underlying mechanisms were investigated. AZOX exhibited inhibitory effects on the proliferation of KYSE-150 cells with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50 of 2.42 μg/ml by 48 h treatment. Flow cytometry assessment revealed that the inhibitory effect of AZOX on KYSE-150 cell proliferation occurred with cell cycle arrest at S phase and increased cell apoptosis in time-dependent and dose-dependent manners. Cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP, caspase-3 and caspase-9 were increased significantly by AZOX. It is worth noted that the Bcl-2/Bax ratios were decreased because of the down-regulated Bcl-2 and up-regulated Bax expression level. Meanwhile, the cytochrome c release was increased by AZOX in KYSE-150 cells. AZOX-induced cytochrome c expression and caspase-3 activation was significantly blocked by Bax Channel Blocker. Intragastric administration of AZOX effectively decreased the tumor size generated by subcutaneous inoculation of KYSE-150 cells in nude mice. Consistently, decreased Bcl-2 expression, increased cytochrome c and PARP level, and activated caspase-3 and caspase-9 were observed in the tumor samples. These results indicate that AZOX can effectively induce esophageal cancer cell apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis, suggesting AZOX or its derivatives may be developed as potential chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of esophageal cancer.

  5. Saikosaponin d induces cell death through caspase-3-dependent, caspase-3-independent and mitochondrial pathways in mammalian hepatic stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ming-Feng; Huang, S. Joseph; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Liu, Pei-Shan; Lin, Kun-I; Liu, Ching-Wen; Hsieh, Wen-Chuan; Shiu, Li-Yen; Chen, Chang-Han

    2016-01-01

    Saikosaponin d (SSd) is one of the main active triterpene saponins in Bupleurum falcatum. It has a steroid-like structure, and is reported to have pharmacological activities, including liver protection in rat, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction in several cancer cell lines. However, the biological functions and molecular mechanisms of mammalian cells under SSd treatment are still unclear. The cytotoxicity and apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) upon SSd treatment were discovered by MTT assay, colony formation assay and flow cytometry. The collage I/III, caspase activity and apoptotic related genes were examined by quantitative PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and ELISA. The mitochondrial functions were monitored by flow cytometry, MitoTracker staining, ATP production and XF24 bioenergetic assay. This study found that SSd triggers cell death via an apoptosis path. An example of this path might be typical apoptotic morphology, increased sub-G1 phase cell population, inhibition of cell proliferation and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. However, the apoptotic effects induced by SSd are partially blocked by the caspase-3 inhibitor, Z-DEVD-FMK, suggesting that SSd may trigger both HSC-T6 and LX-2 cell apoptosis through caspase-3-dependent and independent pathways. We also found that SSd can trigger BAX and BAK translocation from the cytosol to the mitochondria, resulting in mitochondrial function inhibition, membrane potential disruption. Finally, SSd also increases the release of apoptotic factors. The overall analytical data indicate that SSd-elicited cell death may occur through caspase-3-dependent, caspase-3-independent and mitochondrial pathways in mammalian HSCs, and thus can delay the formation of liver fibrosis by reducing the level of HSCs

  6. Modulation of cell metabolic pathways and oxidative stress signaling contribute to acquired melphalan resistance in multiple myeloma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zub, Kamila Anna; Sousa, Mirta Mittelstedt Leal de; Sarno, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    of the AKR1C family involved in prostaglandin synthesis contribute to the resistant phenotype. Finally, selected metabolic and oxidative stress response enzymes were targeted by inhibitors, several of which displayed a selective cytotoxicity against the melphalan-resistant cells and should be further...... and pathways not previously associated with melphalan resistance in multiple myeloma cells, including a metabolic switch conforming to the Warburg effect (aerobic glycolysis), and an elevated oxidative stress response mediated by VEGF/IL8-signaling. In addition, up-regulated aldo-keto reductase levels...

  7. Alterations of the spindle checkpoint pathway in clinicopathologically aggressive CpG island methylator phenotype clear cell renal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Eri; Gotoh, Masahiro; Tian, Ying; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Ono, Masaya; Matsuda, Akio; Takahashi, Yoriko; Miyata, Sayaka; Totsuka, Hirohiko; Chiku, Suenori; Komiyama, Motokiyo; Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Kenji; Yamada, Tesshi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Kanai, Yae

    2015-12-01

    CpG-island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-positive clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are characterized by accumulation of DNA hypermethylation of CpG islands, clinicopathological aggressiveness and poor patient outcome. The aim of this study was to clarify the molecular pathways participating in CIMP-positive renal carcinogenesis. Genome (whole-exome and copy number), transcriptome and proteome (two-dimensional image converted analysis of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) analyses were performed using tissue specimens of 87 CIMP-negative and 14 CIMP-positive clear cell RCCs and corresponding specimens of non-cancerous renal cortex. Genes encoding microtubule-associated proteins, such as DNAH2, DNAH5, DNAH10, RP1 and HAUS8, showed a 10% or higher incidence of genetic aberrations (non-synonymous single-nucleotide mutations and insertions/deletions) in CIMP-positive RCCs, whereas CIMP-negative RCCs lacked distinct genetic characteristics. MetaCore pathway analysis of CIMP-positive RCCs revealed that alterations of mRNA or protein expression were significantly accumulated in six pathways, all participating in the spindle checkpoint, including the "The metaphase checkpoint (p = 1.427 × 10(-6))," "Role of Anaphase Promoting Complex in cell cycle regulation (p = 7.444 × 10(-6))" and "Spindle assembly and chromosome separation (p = 9.260 × 10(-6))" pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expression levels for genes included in such pathways, i.e., AURKA, AURKB, BIRC5, BUB1, CDC20, NEK2 and SPC25, were significantly higher in CIMP-positive than in CIMP-negative RCCs. All CIMP-positive RCCs showed overexpression of Aurora kinases, AURKA and AURKB, and this overexpression was mainly attributable to increased copy number. These data suggest that abnormalities of the spindle checkpoint pathway participate in CIMP-positive renal carcinogenesis, and that AURKA and AURKB may be potential therapeutic targets in more aggressive CIMP-positive RCCs.

  8. Black Rice Anthocyanins Suppress Metastasis of Breast Cancer Cells by Targeting RAS/RAF/MAPK Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang-Yan; Zhou, Jie; Luo, Li-Ping; Han, Bin; Li, Fei; Chen, Jing-Yao; Zhu, Yan-Feng; Chen, Wei; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) drives the biology of 30% of breast cancer cases. As a transducer of HER2 signaling, RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway plays a pivotal role in the development of breast cancer. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive effects of black rice anthocyanins (BRACs) extract and identified their molecular targets in HER2(+) breast cancer cells. Treatment of MDA-MB-453 cells (HER2(+)) with BRACs inhibited cell migration and invasion, suppressed the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (RAF), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and downregulated the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9. BRACs also weakened the interactions of HER2 with RAF, MEK, and JNK proteins, respectively, and decreased the mRNA expression of raf, mek, and jnk. Further, we found combined treatment with BRACs and RAF, MEK, or JNK inhibitors could enhance the antimetastatic activity, compared with that of each treatment. Transient transfection with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) specific for raf, mek, and jnk inhibited their mRNA expression in MDA-MB-453 cells. Moreover, cotreatment with BRACs and siRNA induces a more remarkable inhibitory effect than that by either substance alone. In summary, our study suggested that BRACs suppress metastasis in breast cancer cells by targeting the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway.

  9. Atractylenolide I-mediated Notch pathway inhibition attenuates gastric cancer stem cell traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Li; Mao, Rurong; Shen, Ke; Zheng, Yuanhong; Li, Yueqi [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering and Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, #268, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu, Jianwen, E-mail: liujian@ecust.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Bioreactor Engineering and Shanghai Key Laboratory of New Drug Design, School of Pharmacy, East China University of Science and Technology, #268, 130 Meilong Road, Shanghai 200237 (China); Ni, Lei, E-mail: nilei625@yahoo.com [Department of Respiration, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 197 Ruijin Road II, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • This paper supports the anti-tumor effects of AT-I on gastric cancer in vitro. • AT-I attenuates gastric cancer stem cell traits. • It is the systematic study regarding AT-I suppression of Notch pathway in GC and GCSLCs. - Abstract: Atractylenolide I (AT-I), one of the main naturally occurring compounds of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, has remarkable anti-cancer effects on various cancers. However, its effects on the treatment of gastric cancer remain unclear. Via multiple cellular and molecular approaches, we demonstrated that AT-I could potently inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis through inactivating Notch pathway. AT-I treatment led to the reduction of expressions of Notch1, Jagged1, and its downstream Hes1/ Hey1. Our results showed that AT-I inhibited the self-renewal capacity of gastric stem-like cells (GCSLCs) by suppression of their sphere formation capacity and cell viability. AT-I attenuated gastric cancer stem cell (GCSC) traits partly through inactivating Notch1, leading to reducing the expressions of its downstream target Hes1, Hey1 and CD44 in vitro. Collectively, our results suggest that AT-I might develop as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  10. Recycling of epidermal growth factor-receptor complexes in A431 cells: Identification of dual pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorkin, A.; Krolenko, S.; Kudrjavtceva, N.; Lazebnik, J.; Teslenko, L.; Soderquist, A.M.; Nikolsky, N.

    1991-01-01

    The intracellular sorting of EGF-receptor complexes (EGF-RC) has been studied in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Recycling of EGF was found to occur rapidly after internalization at 37 degrees C. The initial rate of EGF recycling was reduced at 18 degrees C. A significant pool of internalized EGF was incapable of recycling at 18 degrees C but began to recycle when cells were warmed to 37 degrees C. The relative rate of EGF outflow at 37 degrees C from cells exposed to an 18 degrees C temperature block was slower (t1/2 approximately 20 min) than the rate from cells not exposed to a temperature block (t1/2 approximately 5-7 min). These data suggest that there might be both short- and long-time cycles of EGF recycling in A431 cells. Examination of the intracellular EGF-RC dissociation and dynamics of short- and long-time recycling indicated that EGF recycled as EGF-RC. Moreover, EGF receptors that were covalently labeled with a photoactivatable derivative of 125 I-EGF recycled via the long-time pathway at a rate similar to that of 125 I-EGF. Since EGF-RC degradation was also blocked at 18 degrees C, we propose that sorting to the lysosomal and long-time recycling pathway may occur after a highly temperature-sensitive step, presumably in the late endosomes

  11. Atractylenolide I-mediated Notch pathway inhibition attenuates gastric cancer stem cell traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Li; Mao, Rurong; Shen, Ke; Zheng, Yuanhong; Li, Yueqi; Liu, Jianwen; Ni, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper supports the anti-tumor effects of AT-I on gastric cancer in vitro. • AT-I attenuates gastric cancer stem cell traits. • It is the systematic study regarding AT-I suppression of Notch pathway in GC and GCSLCs. - Abstract: Atractylenolide I (AT-I), one of the main naturally occurring compounds of Rhizoma Atractylodis Macrocephalae, has remarkable anti-cancer effects on various cancers. However, its effects on the treatment of gastric cancer remain unclear. Via multiple cellular and molecular approaches, we demonstrated that AT-I could potently inhibit cancer cell proliferation and induce apoptosis through inactivating Notch pathway. AT-I treatment led to the reduction of expressions of Notch1, Jagged1, and its downstream Hes1/ Hey1. Our results showed that AT-I inhibited the self-renewal capacity of gastric stem-like cells (GCSLCs) by suppression of their sphere formation capacity and cell viability. AT-I attenuated gastric cancer stem cell (GCSC) traits partly through inactivating Notch1, leading to reducing the expressions of its downstream target Hes1, Hey1 and CD44 in vitro. Collectively, our results suggest that AT-I might develop as a potential therapeutic drug for the treatment of gastric cancer

  12. Regulation of muscle stem cell functions: a focus on the p38 MAPK signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Segales

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Formation of skeletal muscle fibers (myogenesis during development and after tissue injury in the adult constitutes an excellent paradigm to investigate the mechanisms whereby environmental cues control gene expression programs in muscle stem cells (satellite cells by acting on transcriptional and epigenetic effectors. Here we will review the molecular mechanisms implicated in the transition of satellite cells throughout the distinct myogenic stages (i.e., activation from quiescence, proliferation, differentiation and self-renewal. We will also discuss recent findings on the causes underlying satellite cell functional decline with aging. In particular, our review will focus on the epigenetic changes underlying fate decisions and on how the p38 MAPK signaling pathway integrates the environmental signals at the chromatin to build up satellite cell adaptive responses during the process of muscle regeneration, and how these responses are altered in aging. A better comprehension of the signaling pathways connecting external and intrinsic factors will illuminate the path for improving muscle regeneration in the aged.

  13. Silver Nanoparticles Induce HePG-2 Cells Apoptosis Through ROS-Mediated Signaling Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bing; Li, Yinghua; Lin, Zhengfang; Zhao, Mingqi; Xu, Tiantian; Wang, Changbing; Deng, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Recently, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been shown to provide a novel approach to overcome tumors, especially those of hepatocarcinoma. However, the anticancer mechanism of silver nanoparticles is unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of AgNPs on proliferation and activation of ROS-mediated signaling pathway on human hepatocellular carcinoma HePG-2 cells. A simple chemical method for preparing AgNPs with superior anticancer activity has been showed in this study. AgNPs were detected by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The size distribution and zeta potential of silver nanoparticles were detected by Zetasizer Nano. The average size of AgNPs (2 nm) observably increased the cellular uptake by endocytosis. AgNPs markedly inhibited the proliferation of HePG-2 cells through induction of apoptosis with caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. AgNPs with dose-dependent manner significantly increased the apoptotic cell population (sub-G1). Furthermore, AgNP-induced apoptosis was found dependent on the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and affecting of MAPKs and AKT signaling and DNA damage-mediated p53 phosphorylation to advance HePG-2 cells apoptosis. Therefore, our results show that the mechanism of ROS-mediated signaling pathways may provide useful information in AgNP-induced HePG-2 cell apoptosis.

  14. Altered Expression of Wnt Signaling Pathway Components in Osteogenesis of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Osteoarthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornero-Esteban, Pilar; Peralta-Sastre, Ascensión; Herranz, Eva; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Mucientes, Arkaitz; Abásolo, Lydia; Marco, Fernando; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Lamas, José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized by altered homeostasis of joint cartilage and bone, whose functional properties rely on chondrocytes and osteoblasts, belonging to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). WNT signaling acts as a hub integrating and crosstalking with other signaling pathways leading to the regulation of MSC functions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of a differential signaling between Healthy and OA-MSCs during osteogenesis. MSCs of seven OA patients and six healthy controls were isolated, characterised and expanded. During in vitro osteogenesis, cells were recovered at days 1, 10 and 21. RNA and protein content was obtained. Expression of WNT pathway genes was evaluated using RT-qPCR. Functional studies were also performed to study the MSC osteogenic commitment and functional and post-traslational status of β-catenin and several receptor tyrosine kinases. Several genes were downregulated in OA-MSCs during osteogenesis in vitro. These included soluble Wnts, inhibitors, receptors, co-receptors, several kinases and transcription factors. Basal levels of β-catenin were higher in OA-MSCs, but calcium deposition and expression of osteogenic genes was similar between Healthy and OA-MSCs. Interestingly an increased phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK (ERK1/2) signaling node was present in OA-MSCs. Our results point to the existence in OA-MSCs of alterations in expression of Wnt pathway components during in vitro osteogenesis that are partially compensated by post-translational mechanisms modulating the function of other pathways. We also point the relevance of other signaling pathways in OA pathophysiology suggesting their role in the maintenance of joint homeostasis through modulation of MSC osteogenic potential.

  15. Resveratrol induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in malignant NK cells via JAK2/STAT3 pathway inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quoc Trung, Ly; Espinoza, J Luis; Takami, Akiyoshi; Nakao, Shinji

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell malignancies, particularly aggressive NK cell leukaemias and lymphomas, have poor prognoses. Although recent regimens with L-asparaginase substantially improved outcomes, novel therapeutic approaches are still needed to enhance clinical response. Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol, has been extensively studied for its anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and anti-cancer activities. In this study, we investigated the potential anti-tumour activities of resveratrol against the NK cell lines KHYG-1, NKL, NK-92 and NK-YS. Resveratrol induced robust G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, significantly suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner for all four cell lines. In addition, resveratrol suppressed constitutively active STAT3 in all the cell lines and inhibited JAK2 phosphorylation but had no effect on other upstream mediators of STAT3 activation, such as PTEN, TYK2, and JAK1. Resveratrol also induced downregulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins MCL1 and survivin, two downstream effectors of the STAT3 pathway. Finally, resveratrol induced synergistic effect on the apoptotic and antiproliferative activities of L-asparaginase against KHYG-1, NKL and NK-92 cells. These results suggest that resveratrol may have therapeutic potential against NK cell malignancies. Furthermore, our finding that resveratrol is a bonafide JAK2 inhibitor extends its potential benefits to other diseases with dysregulated JAK2 signaling.

  16. Resveratrol induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in malignant NK cells via JAK2/STAT3 pathway inhibition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ly Quoc Trung

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cell malignancies, particularly aggressive NK cell leukaemias and lymphomas, have poor prognoses. Although recent regimens with L-asparaginase substantially improved outcomes, novel therapeutic approaches are still needed to enhance clinical response. Resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol, has been extensively studied for its anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and anti-cancer activities. In this study, we investigated the potential anti-tumour activities of resveratrol against the NK cell lines KHYG-1, NKL, NK-92 and NK-YS. Resveratrol induced robust G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, significantly suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner for all four cell lines. In addition, resveratrol suppressed constitutively active STAT3 in all the cell lines and inhibited JAK2 phosphorylation but had no effect on other upstream mediators of STAT3 activation, such as PTEN, TYK2, and JAK1. Resveratrol also induced downregulation of the anti-apoptotic proteins MCL1 and survivin, two downstream effectors of the STAT3 pathway. Finally, resveratrol induced synergistic effect on the apoptotic and antiproliferative activities of L-asparaginase against KHYG-1, NKL and NK-92 cells. These results suggest that resveratrol may have therapeutic potential against NK cell malignancies. Furthermore, our finding that resveratrol is a bonafide JAK2 inhibitor extends its potential benefits to other diseases with dysregulated JAK2 signaling.

  17. Ikaros limits follicular B cell activation by regulating B cell receptor signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heizmann, Beate; Sellars, MacLean; Macias-Garcia, Alejandra; Chan, Susan; Kastner, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The Ikaros transcription factor is essential for early B cell development, but its effect on mature B cells is debated. We show that Ikaros is required to limit the response of naive splenic B cells to B cell receptor signals. Ikaros deficient follicular B cells grow larger and enter cell cycle faster after anti-IgM stimulation. Unstimulated mutant B cells show deregulation of positive and negative regulators of signal transduction at the mRNA level, and constitutive phosphorylation of ERK, p38, SYK, BTK, AKT and LYN. Stimulation results in enhanced and prolonged ERK and p38 phosphorylation, followed by hyper-proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK and p38 abrogates the increased proliferative response of Ikaros deficient cells. These results suggest that Ikaros functions as a negative regulator of follicular B cell activation.

  18. Ikaros limits follicular B cell activation by regulating B cell receptor signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heizmann, Beate [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Sellars, MacLean [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Macias-Garcia, Alejandra [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Institute for Medical Engineering and Science at MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chan, Susan, E-mail: scpk@igbmc.fr [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Kastner, Philippe, E-mail: scpk@igbmc.fr [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Faculté de Médecine, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2016-02-12

    The Ikaros transcription factor is essential for early B cell development, but its effect on mature B cells is debated. We show that Ikaros is required to limit the response of naive splenic B cells to B cell receptor signals. Ikaros deficient follicular B cells grow larger and enter cell cycle faster after anti-IgM stimulation. Unstimulated mutant B cells show d