WorldWideScience

Sample records for pathophysiology vertebrates commonly

  1. Common mechanisms of synaptic plasticity in vertebrates and invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzman, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, the literature on learning-related synaptic plasticity in invertebrates has been dominated by models assuming plasticity is mediated by presynaptic changes, whereas the vertebrate literature has been dominated by models assuming it is mediated by postsynaptic changes. Here I will argue that this situation does not reflect a biological reality and that, in fact, invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems share a common set of mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. PMID:20152143

  2. Isolated anomalous origin of the vertebral artery from the common carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, William W; Sabat, Shyamsunder B

    2018-04-18

    Anomalous origins of the vertebral arteries are uncommon and typically associated with other abnormalities of the great vessels. We present a case of an isolated origin of the right vertebral artery from the ipsilateral common carotid artery detected using magnetic resonance angiography. Such variants can significantly affect endovascular and surgical planning.

  3. Pathophysiology and clinical characteristics of pain in most common locations in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppert, W; Zajaczkowska, R; Wordliczek, J; Dobrogowski, J; Woron, J; Krzakowski, M

    2016-12-01

    Pain is one of the most common symptoms in cancer patients, especially in advanced disease. However, pain also accompanies a significant percentage of patients during diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. In some patients pain may be the first symptom of the disease. The causes of pain in cancer patients are often multifactorial including direct and indirect cancer effects, anticancer therapy and co-morbidities. Moreover, pain in cancer patients often has mixed pathophysiology including both nociceptive and neuropathic components, especially in patients with bone metastases. In this article, basic knowledge regarding epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical features of pain in cancer patients with a primary tumour localised in lung, gastrointestinal tract (stomach, colon and pancreas), breast in women and prostate in men are presented. Pain is a common symptom in cancer patients and its appropriate assessment and treatment may significantly improve in patients' and families' quality of life.

  4. Minimal Change Disease and IgA Deposition: Separate Entities or Common Pathophysiology?

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    Brandon S. Oberweis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Minimal Change Disease (MCD is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in children, while IgA nephropathy is the most common cause of glomerulonephritis worldwide. MCD is responsive to glucocorticoids, while the role of steroids in IgA nephropathy remains unclear. We describe a case of two distinct clinical and pathological findings, raising the question of whether MCD and IgA nephropathy are separate entities or if there is a common pathophysiology. Case Report. A 19-year old man with no medical history presented to the Emergency Department with a 20-day history of anasarca and frothy urine, BUN 68 mg/dL, Cr 2.3 mg/dL, urinalysis 3+ RBCs, 3+ protein, and urine protein : creatinine ratio 6.4. Renal biopsy revealed hypertrophic podocytes on light microscopy, podocyte foot process effacement on electron microscopy, and immunofluorescent mesangial staining for IgA. The patient was started on prednisone and exhibited dramatic improvement. Discussion. MCD typically has an overwhelming improvement with glucocorticoids, while the resolution of IgA nephropathy is rare. Our patient presented with MCD with the uncharacteristic finding of hematuria. Given the improvement with glucocorticoids, we raise the question of whether there is a shared pathophysiologic component of these two distinct clinical diseases that represents a clinical variant.

  5. Depressive Disorder, Anxiety Disorder and Chronic Pain: Multiple Manifestations of a Common Clinical and Pathophysiological Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Dávila, Cesar A; Rincón-Hoyos, Hernán G

    A high proportion of depressive disorders are accompanied by anxious manifestations, just as depression and anxiety often present with many painful manifestations, or conversely, painful manifestations cause or worsen depressive and anxious expressions. There is increasingly more evidence of the pathophysiological, and neurophysiological and technical imaging similarity of pain and depression. Narrative review of the pathophysiological and clinical aspects of depression and chronic pain comorbidity. Research articles are included that emphasise the most relevant elements related to understanding the pathophysiology of both manifestations. The pathological origin, physiology and clinical approach to these disorders have been more clearly established with the latest advances in biochemical and cellular techniques, as well as the advent of imaging technologies. This information is systematised with comprehensive images and clinical pictures. The recognition that the polymorphism of inflammation-related genes generates susceptibility to depressive manifestations and may modify the response to antidepressant treatments establishes that the inflammatory response is not only an aetiopathogenic component of pain, but also of stress and depression. Likewise, the similarity in approach with images corroborates not only the structural, but the functional and pathophysiological analogy between depression and chronic pain. Knowledge of depression-anxiety-chronic pain comorbidity is essential in the search for effective therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative Analysis of Vertebrate Dystrophin Loci Indicate Intron Gigantism as a Common Feature

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    Pozzoli, Uberto; Elgar, Greg; Cagliani, Rachele; Riva, Laura; Comi, Giacomo P.; Bresolin, Nereo; Bardoni, Alessandra; Sironi, Manuela

    2003-01-01

    The human DMD gene is the largest known to date, spanning > 2000 kb on the X chromosome. The gene size is mainly accounted for by huge intronic regions. We sequenced 190 kb of Fugu rubripes (pufferfish) genomic DNA corresponding to the complete dystrophin gene (FrDMD) and provide the first report of gene structure and sequence comparison among dystrophin genomic sequences from different vertebrate organisms. Almost all intron positions and phases are conserved between FrDMD and its mammalian counterparts, and the predicted protein product of the Fugu gene displays 55% identity and 71% similarity to human dystrophin. In analogy to the human gene, FrDMD presents several-fold longer than average intronic regions. Analysis of intron sequences of the human and murine genes revealed that they are extremely conserved in size and that a similar fraction of total intron length is represented by repetitive elements; moreover, our data indicate that intron expansion through repeat accumulation in the two orthologs is the result of independent insertional events. The hypothesis that intron length might be functionally relevant to the DMD gene regulation is proposed and substantiated by the finding that dystrophin intron gigantism is common to the three vertebrate genes. [Supplemental material is available online at www.genome.org.] PMID:12727896

  7. Seahorse Brood Pouch Transcriptome Reveals Common Genes Associated with Vertebrate Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Camilla M; Griffith, Oliver W; Qi, Weihong; Thompson, Michael B; Wilson, Anthony B

    2015-12-01

    Viviparity (live birth) has evolved more than 150 times in vertebrates, and represents an excellent model system for studying the evolution of complex traits. There are at least 23 independent origins of viviparity in fishes, with syngnathid fishes (seahorses and pipefish) unique in exhibiting male pregnancy. Male seahorses and pipefish have evolved specialized brooding pouches that provide protection, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and limited nutrient provisioning to developing embryos. Pouch structures differ widely across the Syngnathidae, offering an ideal opportunity to study the evolution of reproductive complexity. However, the physiological and genetic changes facilitating male pregnancy are largely unknown. We used transcriptome profiling to examine pouch gene expression at successive gestational stages in a syngnathid with the most complex brood pouch morphology, the seahorse Hippocampus abdominalis. Using a unique time-calibrated RNA-seq data set including brood pouch at key stages of embryonic development, we identified transcriptional changes associated with brood pouch remodeling, nutrient and waste transport, gas exchange, osmoregulation, and immunological protection of developing embryos at conception, development and parturition. Key seahorse transcripts share homology with genes of reproductive function in pregnant mammals, reptiles, and other live-bearing fish, suggesting a common toolkit of genes regulating pregnancy in divergent evolutionary lineages. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Common metabolic constraints on dive duration in endothermic and ectothermic vertebrates

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    April Hayward

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dive duration in air-breathing vertebrates is thought to be constrained by the volume of oxygen stored in the body and the rate at which it is consumed (i.e., “oxygen store/usage hypothesis”. The body mass-dependence of dive duration among endothermic vertebrates is largely supportive of this model, but previous analyses of ectothermic vertebrates show no such body mass-dependence. Here we show that dive duration in both endotherms and ectotherms largely support the oxygen store/usage hypothesis after accounting for the well-established effects of temperature on oxygen consumption rates. Analyses of the body mass and temperature dependence of dive duration in 181 species of endothermic vertebrates and 29 species of ectothermic vertebrates show that dive duration increases as a power law with body mass, and decreases exponentially with increasing temperature. Thus, in the case of ectothermic vertebrates, changes in environmental temperature will likely impact the foraging ecology of divers.

  9. Vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement

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    Kamani, I.; Syed, I.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com; Green, R.; MacSweeney, F

    2004-10-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is most commonly due to pyogenic or granulomatous infection and typically results in the combined involvement of the intervertebral disc and adjacent vertebral bodies. Non-infective causes include the related conditions of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis) syndrome. Occasionally, these conditions may present purely within the vertebral body, resulting in various combinations of vertebral marrow oedema and sclerosis, destructive lesions of the vertebral body and pathological vertebral collapse, thus mimicking neoplastic disease. This review illustrates the imaging features of vertebral osteomyelitis without disc involvement, with emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings.

  10. Pathophysiology of cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, Darryl C; Fehlings, Michael G

    2006-01-01

    Cervical myelopathy is a group of closely related disorders usually caused by spondylosis or by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and is characterized by compression of the cervical spinal cord or nerve roots by varying degrees and number of levels. The decrease in diameter of the vertebral canal secondary to disc degeneration and osteophytic spurs compresses the spinal cord and nerve roots at one or several levels, producing direct damage and often secondary ischemic changes. Clinicians who treat cervical myelopathy cord injuries should have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology and the processes that are initiated after the spinal cord has been injured. Literature review. Literature review of human cervical myelopathy and clinically relevant animal models to further our understanding of the pathological mechanisms involved. The pathophysiology of cervical myelopathy involves static factors, which result in acquired or developmental stenosis of the cervical canal and dynamic factors, which involve repetitive injury to the cervical cord. These mechanical factors in turn result in direct injury to neurons and glia as well as a secondary cascade of events including ischemia, excitotoxicity, and apoptosis; a pathobiology similar to that occurring in traumatic spinal cord injury. This review summarizes some of the significant pathophysiological processes involved in cervical myelopathy.

  11. Caudal lumbar vertebral fractures in California Quarter Horse and Thoroughbred racehorses.

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    Collar, E M; Zavodovskaya, R; Spriet, M; Hitchens, P L; Wisner, T; Uzal, F A; Stover, S M

    2015-09-01

    To gain insight into the pathophysiology of equine lumbar vertebral fractures in racehorses. To characterise equine lumbar vertebral fractures in California racehorses. Retrospective case series and prospective case-control study. Racehorse post mortem reports and jockey injury reports were retrospectively reviewed. Vertebral specimens from 6 racehorses affected with lumbar vertebral fractures and 4 control racehorses subjected to euthanasia for nonspinal fracture were assessed using visual, radiographic, computed tomography and histological examinations. Lumbar vertebral fractures occurred in 38 Quarter Horse and 29 Thoroughbred racehorses over a 22 year period, primarily involving the 5th and/or 6th lumbar vertebrae (L5-L6; 87% of Quarter Horses and 48% of Thoroughbreds). Lumbar vertebral fractures were the third most common musculoskeletal cause of death in Quarter Horses and frequently involved a jockey injury. Lumbar vertebral specimens contained anatomical variations in the number of vertebrae, dorsal spinous processes and intertransverse articulations. Lumbar vertebral fractures examined in 6 racehorse specimens (5 Quarter Horses and one Thoroughbred) coursed obliquely in a cranioventral to caudodorsal direction across the adjacent L5-L6 vertebral endplates and intervertebral disc, although one case involved only one endplate. All cases had evidence of abnormalities on the ventral aspect of the vertebral bodies consistent with pre-existing, maladaptive pathology. Lumbar vertebral fractures occur in racehorses with pre-existing pathology at the L5-L6 vertebral junction that is likely predisposes horses to catastrophic fracture. Knowledge of these findings should encourage assessment of the lumbar vertebrae, therefore increasing detection of mild vertebral injuries and preventing catastrophic racehorse and associated jockey injuries. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  12. Genome-wide association identifies nine common variants associated with fasting proinsulin levels and provides new insights into the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Strawbridge, Rona; Dupuis, Josée; Prokopenko, Inga; Barker, Adam; Ahlqvist, Emma; Rybin, Denis; Petrie, John; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Dimas, Antigone; Wheeler, Eleanor; Chen, Han; Voight, Benjamin; Taneera, Jalal; Kanoni, Stavroula; Peden, John

    2011-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE - Proinsulin is a precursor of mature insulin and C-peptide. Higher circulating proinsulin levels are associated with impaired b-cell function, raised glucose levels, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies of the insulin processing pathway could provide new insights about T2D pathophysiology. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We have conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association tests of ;2.5 million genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms...

  13. Causes and prevention of in-stent restenosis of vertebral artery origin after stenting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Huipin; Li Shenmao; Zhang Guangping

    2010-01-01

    Vertebral artery stenosis is an important cause of posterior circulation stroke. Vertebral artery stenosis most commonly occurs at its origin site. In recent years, balloon angioplasty and stent implantation have been widely employed in the treatment of vertebral artery origin stenosis. However, the long term outcome of stent implantation is affected by in-stent restenosis. Multiple contributory factors have been identified, but clear understanding of the overall underlying mechanism remains an enigma. With the development of pathophysiology, prevention and treatment methods of in-stent restenosis have been improved. In recent years, drug-eluting stents, radioactive stents and magnetic stents have been widely applied. To some extent, these stents and drug therapy can solve the problem of restenosis. This article aims to review the clinical application and the up-to-date research progresses in preventing and managing vertebral artery origin restenosis. (authors)

  14. Prevalent Vertebral Fractures in Black Women and White Women

    OpenAIRE

    Cauley, Jane A; Palermo, Lisa; Vogt, Molly; Ensrud, Kristine E; Ewing, Susan; Hochberg, Marc; Nevitt, Michael C; Black, Dennis M

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fracture. Hip and clinical fractures are less common in black women, but there is little information on vertebral fractures. We studied 7860 white and 472 black women ≥65 yr of age enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Prevalent vertebral fractures were identified from lateral spine radiographs using vertebral morphometry and defined if any vertebral height ratio was >3 SD below race-specific means for each vertebral level. Infor...

  15. The pathophysiology of bronchiectasis

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    Paul T King

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Paul T KingDepartment of Medicine, Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Monash University, Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Bronchiectasis is defined by permanent and abnormal widening of the bronchi. This process occurs in the context of chronic airway infection and inflammation. It is usually diagnosed using computed tomography scanning to visualize the larger bronchi. Bronchiectasis is also characterized by mild to moderate airflow obstruction. This review will describe the pathophysiology of noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Studies have demonstrated that the small airways in bronchiectasis are obstructed from an inflammatory infiltrate in the wall. As most of the bronchial tree is composed of small airways, the net effect is obstruction. The bronchial wall is typically thickened by an inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes and macrophages which may form lymphoid follicles. It has recently been demonstrated that patients with bronchiectasis have a progressive decline in lung function. There are a large number of etiologic risk factors associated with bronchiectasis. As there is generally a long-term retrospective history, it may be difficult to determine the exact role of such factors in the pathogenesis. Extremes of age and smoking/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be important considerations. There are a variety of different pathogens involved in bronchiectasis, but a common finding despite the presence of purulent sputum is failure to identify any pathogenic microorganisms. The bacterial flora appears to change with progression of disease. Keywords: bronchiectasis, inflammation, obstructive lung disease, pathophysiology, pathology

  16. Pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Rohof, Wout O.

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common digestive diseases in the Western world, with typical symptoms, such as heartburn, regurgitation, or retrosternal pain, reported by 15% to 20% of the general population. The pathophysiology of GERD is multifactorial. Our understanding

  17. Constrained vertebrate evolution by pleiotropic genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Haiyang; Uesaka, Masahiro; Guo, Song

    2017-01-01

    applied to vertebrates than chordates. Furthermore, we found that vertebrates' conserved mid-embryonic developmental programmes are intensively recruited to other developmental processes, and the degree of the recruitment positively correlates with their evolutionary conservation and essentiality...... for normal development. Thus, we propose that the intensively recruited genetic system during vertebrates' organogenesis period imposed constraints on its diversification through pleiotropic constraints, which ultimately led to the common anatomical pattern observed in vertebrates....

  18. Vertebral chondroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali; Unni, Krishnan K.

    2003-01-01

    To determine the age distribution, gender, incidence, and imaging findings of vertebral chondroblastoma, and to compare our series with findings from case reports in the world literature.Design and patients Case records and imaging findings of nine histologically documented vertebral chondroblastomas were retrospectively reviewed for patient age, gender, vertebral column location and level, morphology, matrix, edema, soft tissue mass, spinal canal invasion, and metastases. Our findings were compared with a total of nine patients identified from previous publications in the world literature. The histologic findings in our cases was re-reviewed for diagnosis and specifically for features of calcification and secondary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). Clinical follow-up was requested from referring institutions. Nine of 856 chondroblastomas arose in vertebrae (incidence 1.4%; thoracic 5, lumbar 1, cervical 2, sacral 1). There were six males and three females ranging in age from 5 to 41 years (mean 28 years). Satisfactory imaging from seven patients revealed the tumor to arise from the posterior elements in four and the body in three. All tumors were expansive, six of seven were aggressive, and the spinal canal was significantly narrowed by bone or soft tissue mass in six. In one patient canal invasion was minimal. Calcification was pronounced in two and subtle in four. The sole nonaggressive-appearing tumor was heavily mineralized. Bony edema and secondary ABC were not seen on MR imaging. None of the cases had microscopic features of significant secondary ABC. Calcification, and specifically ''chicken wire'' calcification, was identified in two patients. Pulmonary metastases occurred in none. Vertebral chondroblastoma is a rare neoplasm that presents later in life than its appendicular counterpart. On imaging it is aggressive in appearance with bone destruction, soft tissue mass, and spinal canal invasion. The lesions contain variable amounts of mineral. Secondary

  19. Vertebral chondroblastoma

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    Ilaslan, Hakan; Sundaram, Murali [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Unni, Krishnan K. [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, 200 First Street, SW, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2003-02-01

    To determine the age distribution, gender, incidence, and imaging findings of vertebral chondroblastoma, and to compare our series with findings from case reports in the world literature.Design and patients Case records and imaging findings of nine histologically documented vertebral chondroblastomas were retrospectively reviewed for patient age, gender, vertebral column location and level, morphology, matrix, edema, soft tissue mass, spinal canal invasion, and metastases. Our findings were compared with a total of nine patients identified from previous publications in the world literature. The histologic findings in our cases was re-reviewed for diagnosis and specifically for features of calcification and secondary aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC). Clinical follow-up was requested from referring institutions. Nine of 856 chondroblastomas arose in vertebrae (incidence 1.4%; thoracic 5, lumbar 1, cervical 2, sacral 1). There were six males and three females ranging in age from 5 to 41 years (mean 28 years). Satisfactory imaging from seven patients revealed the tumor to arise from the posterior elements in four and the body in three. All tumors were expansive, six of seven were aggressive, and the spinal canal was significantly narrowed by bone or soft tissue mass in six. In one patient canal invasion was minimal. Calcification was pronounced in two and subtle in four. The sole nonaggressive-appearing tumor was heavily mineralized. Bony edema and secondary ABC were not seen on MR imaging. None of the cases had microscopic features of significant secondary ABC. Calcification, and specifically ''chicken wire'' calcification, was identified in two patients. Pulmonary metastases occurred in none. Vertebral chondroblastoma is a rare neoplasm that presents later in life than its appendicular counterpart. On imaging it is aggressive in appearance with bone destruction, soft tissue mass, and spinal canal invasion. The lesions contain variable amounts of mineral

  20. Rapid onset aggressive vertebral haemangioma.

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    Cheung, Nicholas K; Doorenbosch, Xenia; Christie, John G

    2011-03-01

    Vertebral haemangiomas are generally benign asymptomatic vascular tumours seen commonly in the adult population. Presentations in paediatric populations are extremely rare, which can result in rapid onset of neurological symptoms. We present a highly unusual case of an aggressive paediatric vertebral haemangioma causing significant cord compression. A 13-year-old boy presented with only 2 weeks duration of progressive gait disturbance, truncal ataxia and loss of bladder control. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the spine revealed a large vascular epidural mass extending between T6 and T8 vertebral bodies. Associated displacement and compression of the spinal cord was present. A highly vascular bony lesion was found during surgery. Histopathology identified this tumour to be a vertebral haemangioma. We present an extremely unusual acute presentation of a paediatric vertebral haemangioma. This study highlights the need for early diagnosis, MRI for investigation and urgent surgical management. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  1. Vertebral artery dissection in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: a case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugalingam, Renuka; Reza Pour, Nina; Chuah, Siang Chye; Vo, Thi Mong; Beran, Roy; Hennessy, Annemarie; Makris, Angela

    2016-07-16

    Arterial dissection is a rare complication of pregnancy and puerperium. There have been reports of aortic, coronary and cervical artery dissection in association with preeclampsia, however, vertebral artery dissection is rarely reported particularly in the antenatal setting in the presence of a Hypertensive Disorder of Pregnancy (HDP).The general annual incidence of symptomatic spontaneous cervicocephalic arterial dissection is 0.0026 % and a data registry reported that 2.4 % of these occurred in the post-partum period. The actual incidence of vertebral artery dissection in HDP is unknown as the current literature consists of case series and reports only with most documenting adverse outcomes. Given the presence of collateral circulation, unilateral vertebral artery dissections may go unrecognised and may be more common than suspected. We present a case series of four patients with vertebral artery dissection in association with HDP, two of which occurred in the antenatal setting and two in the post-partum setting. All our patients had favourable outcome with no maternal neurological deficit and live infants. Our discussion covers the proposed pathophysiology of vertebral artery dissection in HDP and the management of it. Our case series highlights the need to consider VAD an important differential diagnosis when assessing pregnant women with headache and neck pain particularly in the context of HDP.

  2. Data on the uptake and metabolism of the vertebrate steroid estradiol-17β from water by the common mussel, Mytilus spp.

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    Tamar I. Schwarz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article primarily provide support for the research article entitled “Mussels (Mytilus spp. display an ability for rapid and high capacity uptake of the vertebrate steroid, estradiol-17β from water” (T.I. Schwarz, I. Katsiadaki, B.H. Maskrey, A.P. Scott, 2016 [1]. Data are presented on the ability of mussels to absorb tritiated estradiol (E2 from water. The data indicate that most of the radioactivity remaining in the water is 1,3,5(10-estratriene-3,17β-diol 3-sulfate (E2 3-S and the radioactivity in the mussel tissue is mainly in the form of fatty acid esters. The latter, following saponification, were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS as intact E2. Data are included that indicate that the remaining radioactivity in the tissue is composed of E2 3-S and unidentified free metabolites. Experimental data included also relate to a the efficiency of extraction of radioactivity from tissue, b the efficiency of separation of free and esterified E2 using solvents and c possible factors affecting the recovery of radioactivity. Finally, preliminary data are provided on concentrations of immunoreactive E2 in the free and ester fractions of tissue extracts from mussels caged in the field.

  3. The Pathophysiology of Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Jessica C.; Kay, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Insomnia disorder is characterized by chronic dissatisfaction with sleep quantity or quality that is associated with difficulty falling asleep, frequent nighttime awakenings with difficulty returning to sleep, and/or awakening earlier in the morning than desired. Although progress has been made in our understanding of the nature, etiology, and pathophysiology of insomnia, there is still no universally accepted model. Greater understanding of the pathophysiology of insomnia may provide important information regarding how, and under what conditions, the disorder develops and is maintained as well as potential targets for prevention and treatment. The aims of this report are (1) to summarize current knowledge on the pathophysiology of insomnia and (2) to present a model of the pathophysiology of insomnia that considers evidence from various domains of research. Working within several models of insomnia, evidence for the pathophysiology of the disorder is presented across levels of analysis, from genetic to molecular and cellular mechanisms, neural circuitry, physiologic mechanisms, sleep behavior, and self-report. We discuss the role of hyperarousal as an overarching theme that guides our conceptualization of insomnia. Finally, we propose a model of the pathophysiology of insomnia that integrates the various types of evidence presented. PMID:25846534

  4. MR imaging of tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis: pictorial review

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    Gouliamos, A.D.; Kehagias, D.T.; Lahanis, S.; Moulopoulou, E.S.; Kalovidouris, A.A.; Trakadas, S.J.; Vlahos, L.j. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Athens (Greece); Athanassopoulou, A.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Asklipiion Hospital, Athens (Greece)

    2001-04-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is one of the most common manifestations of tuberculosis. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered the main imaging modality for the diagnosis, the demonstration of the extent of the disease, and follow-up studies. Vertebral destruction involving two consecutive levels with sparing of the intervertebral disc, disc herniation into the vertebral body, epidural involvement, and paraspinal abscess are the most common MRI findings suggestive of tuberculous vertebral osteomyelitis. (orig.)

  5. V. Terrestrial vertebrates

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    Dean Pearson; Deborah Finch

    2011-01-01

    Within the Interior West, terrestrial vertebrates do not represent a large number of invasive species relative to invasive weeds, aquatic vertebrates, and invertebrates. However, several invasive terrestrial vertebrate species do cause substantial economic and ecological damage in the U.S. and in this region (Pimental 2000, 2007; Bergman and others 2002; Finch and...

  6. Discrete Pathophysiology is Uncommon in Patients with Nonspecific Arm Pain.

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    Kortlever, Joost T P; Janssen, Stein J; Molleman, Jeroen; Hageman, Michiel G J S; Ring, David

    2016-06-01

    Nonspecific symptoms are common in all areas of medicine. Patients and caregivers can be frustrated when an illness cannot be reduced to a discrete pathophysiological process that corresponds with the symptoms. We therefore asked the following questions: 1) Which demographic factors and psychological comorbidities are associated with change from an initial diagnosis of nonspecific arm pain to eventual identification of discrete pathophysiology that corresponds with symptoms? 2) What is the percentage of patients eventually diagnosed with discrete pathophysiology, what are those pathologies, and do they account for the symptoms? We evaluated 634 patients with an isolated diagnosis of nonspecific upper extremity pain to see if discrete pathophysiology was diagnosed on subsequent visits to the same hand surgeon, a different hand surgeon, or any physician within our health system for the same pain. There were too few patients with discrete pathophysiology at follow-up to address the primary study question. Definite discrete pathophysiology that corresponded with the symptoms was identified in subsequent evaluations by the index surgeon in one patient (0.16% of all patients) and cured with surgery (nodular fasciitis). Subsequent doctors identified possible discrete pathophysiology in one patient and speculative pathophysiology in four patients and the index surgeon identified possible discrete pathophysiology in four patients, but the five discrete diagnoses accounted for only a fraction of the symptoms. Nonspecific diagnoses are not harmful. Prospective randomized research is merited to determine if nonspecific, descriptive diagnoses are better for patients than specific diagnoses that imply pathophysiology in the absence of discrete verifiable pathophysiology.

  7. Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention

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    Yi Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity.

  8. Pathophysiology, Evaluation, and Treatment of Bloating

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    Gabbard, Scott L.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal bloating is commonly reported by men and women of all ages. Bloating occurs in nearly all patients with irritable bowel syndrome, and it also occurs in patients with other functional and organic disorders. Bloating is frequently disturbing to patients and frustrating to clinicians, as effective treatments are limited and are not universally successful. Although the terms bloating and abdominal distention are often used interchangeably, these symptoms likely involve different pathophysiologic processes, both of which are still not completely understood. The goal of this paper is to review the pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of bloating and abdominal distention. PMID:22298969

  9. Preeclampsia: from Pathophysiology to Treatment

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    Kaculini Enton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder unique to human pregnancy and is its most common glomerular complication. It occurs in 2% to 8% of pregnancies and is a major contributor to maternal mortality worldwide. Although the pathophysiology of this syndrome is not fully understood, many pathogenetic mechanisms are involved in this disorder. The role of the placenta is crucial in the development of this disorder. Some pathogenetic mechanisms involved in this disease comprise defective deep placentation, autoantibodies to type-1 angiotensin II receptor, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, platelet and thrombin activation, intravascular inflammation, and the imbalance between angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors which is thought to be one of the most crucial mechanisms. Further understanding of the full picture could enhance our current knowledge of the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and improve its treatment. Thus, based on specific biomarkers the diagnosis and subclassification of preeclampsia might be more accurate in identifying patients at risk, monitoring disease progression and providing effective interventions

  10. Factors for vertebral artery injury accompanied by cervical trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Masaaki; Shingu, Hikosuke; Kimura, Isao; Nasu, Yoshiro; Shiotani, Akihide

    2001-01-01

    Injury of the vertebral artery with cerebellar and brain stem infarction is a complication of cervical vertebral trauma. However, the pathogenesis and etiological factors remain to be clarified. In this study, we investigated patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury. This study included 51 patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury who were treated in our department. In these patients, plain X-ray, CT, MRI, and MRA findings were examined. The incidence of vertebral arterial injury was 33.3% (17 of 51 patients with cervical vertebral trauma). In 11 of the 17 patients, dislocation fracture was noted, comprising a markedly high percentage (64.7%). Particularly, vertebral arterial injury was commonly observed in patients with a large dislocation distance and severe paralysis. Cerebellar and brain stem infarction related to vertebral arterial injury was observed in 5 of the 17 patients (29.4%). No infarction developed in patients 50 years old or younger. Infarction was detected in relatively elderly patients. Vertebral arterial injury and cerebellar/brain stem infarction related to cervical vertebral trauma were frequently observed in patients with high energy injury. However, these disorders commonly occurred in elderly patients. Therefore, age-related factors such as arteriosclerosis may also be closely involved. In the acute stage, the state of the vertebral artery should be evaluated by MRA and MRI. Among patients with vertebral arterial injury, caution is needed during follow-up those with risk factors such as high energy injury and advanced age. (author)

  11. Factors for vertebral artery injury accompanied by cervical trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Masaaki; Shingu, Hikosuke; Kimura, Isao; Nasu, Yoshiro; Shiotani, Akihide [San-in Rosai Hospital, Yonago, Tottori (Japan). Spine and Low Back Pain Center

    2001-09-01

    Injury of the vertebral artery with cerebellar and brain stem infarction is a complication of cervical vertebral trauma. However, the pathogenesis and etiological factors remain to be clarified. In this study, we investigated patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury. This study included 51 patients with cervical vertebral and cord injury who were treated in our department. In these patients, plain X-ray, CT, MRI, and MRA findings were examined. The incidence of vertebral arterial injury was 33.3% (17 of 51 patients with cervical vertebral trauma). In 11 of the 17 patients, dislocation fracture was noted, comprising a markedly high percentage (64.7%). Particularly, vertebral arterial injury was commonly observed in patients with a large dislocation distance and severe paralysis. Cerebellar and brain stem infarction related to vertebral arterial injury was observed in 5 of the 17 patients (29.4%). No infarction developed in patients 50 years old or younger. Infarction was detected in relatively elderly patients. Vertebral arterial injury and cerebellar/brain stem infarction related to cervical vertebral trauma were frequently observed in patients with high energy injury. However, these disorders commonly occurred in elderly patients. Therefore, age-related factors such as arteriosclerosis may also be closely involved. In the acute stage, the state of the vertebral artery should be evaluated by MRA and MRI. Among patients with vertebral arterial injury, caution is needed during follow-up those with risk factors such as high energy injury and advanced age. (author)

  12. Imaging the vertebral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Keng Yeow; U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Cross, Justin J.; Antoun, Nagui M. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Davies, John R.; Weissberg, Peter L. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Gillard, Jonathan H. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospitald, University Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based perspective. Normal anatomy, normal variants and a number of pathological entities such as vertebral atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, arteriovenous fistula, subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Imaging the vertebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Keng Yeow; U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Cross, Justin J.; Antoun, Nagui M.; Davies, John R.; Weissberg, Peter L.; Gillard, Jonathan H.

    2005-01-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based perspective. Normal anatomy, normal variants and a number of pathological entities such as vertebral atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, arteriovenous fistula, subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia are discussed. (orig.)

  14. Pathophysiology of glucagon secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, J.; Pabst, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Pathophysiology of glucagon secretion is reviewed in brief separating hyperglucagonemic from hypoclucagonemic states. Many questions concerning the role of glucagon in diabetes mellitus and in other diseases are still unresolved. The clucagon RIA is of clinical significance in a few diseases like glucagonoma, which may present without symptoms of the 'glucagonoma syndrome', the probably very rare hyperglucagonemia and some of the spontaneous hypoglycemias. Glucagon secretion may be evaluated by the determination of fasting immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) and by appropriate function tests as stimulation with i.v. arginine and suppression with oral glucose. However, the glucagon RIA at present is not a routine method, although commercial kits are available. Many pitfalls of radioimmunological glucagon determination still exist. (orig.) [de

  15. Pathophysiology of nocturnal enuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittig, Søren; Kamperis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The perception of the pathogenesis of enuresis has undergone marked changes over the past 30 years from a psychiatric/psychological background to a more somatic model where nighttime urine production and bladder capacity are main components together with an arousal dysfunction that prevents...... that dysfunction of the intrinsic circadian regulation located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus results in dysfunction of one or more of the brainstem centers involved in AVP secretion, arousal function, bladder control, and blood pressure regulation. Furthermore, nocturnal enuresis has a strong genetic influence...... that in some families present as autosomal dominant inheritance with high degree of penetrance. Linkage to several chromosomal areas have been confirmed in such families although a specific causative enuresis gene has not yet been identified. In conclusion, our understanding of enuresis pathophysiology has...

  16. Zygotic Genome Activation in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukam, David; Shariati, S Ali M; Skotheim, Jan M

    2017-08-21

    The first major developmental transition in vertebrate embryos is the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) when maternal mRNAs are degraded and zygotic transcription begins. During the MZT, the embryo takes charge of gene expression to control cell differentiation and further development. This spectacular organismal transition requires nuclear reprogramming and the initiation of RNAPII at thousands of promoters. Zygotic genome activation (ZGA) is mechanistically coordinated with other embryonic events, including changes in the cell cycle, chromatin state, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic component ratios. Here, we review progress in understanding vertebrate ZGA dynamics in frogs, fish, mice, and humans to explore differences and emphasize common features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

    This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

  18. Constrained vertebrate evolution by pleiotropic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiyang; Uesaka, Masahiro; Guo, Song; Shimai, Kotaro; Lu, Tsai-Ming; Li, Fang; Fujimoto, Satoko; Ishikawa, Masato; Liu, Shiping; Sasagawa, Yohei; Zhang, Guojie; Kuratani, Shigeru; Yu, Jr-Kai; Kusakabe, Takehiro G; Khaitovich, Philipp; Irie, Naoki

    2017-11-01

    Despite morphological diversification of chordates over 550 million years of evolution, their shared basic anatomical pattern (or 'bodyplan') remains conserved by unknown mechanisms. The developmental hourglass model attributes this to phylum-wide conserved, constrained organogenesis stages that pattern the bodyplan (the phylotype hypothesis); however, there has been no quantitative testing of this idea with a phylum-wide comparison of species. Here, based on data from early-to-late embryonic transcriptomes collected from eight chordates, we suggest that the phylotype hypothesis would be better applied to vertebrates than chordates. Furthermore, we found that vertebrates' conserved mid-embryonic developmental programmes are intensively recruited to other developmental processes, and the degree of the recruitment positively correlates with their evolutionary conservation and essentiality for normal development. Thus, we propose that the intensively recruited genetic system during vertebrates' organogenesis period imposed constraints on its diversification through pleiotropic constraints, which ultimately led to the common anatomical pattern observed in vertebrates.

  19. The pathophysiology of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Clinton D; Conte, John V

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure is a clinical syndrome that results when the heart is unable to provide sufficient blood flow to meet metabolic requirements or accommodate systemic venous return. This common condition affects over 5 million people in the United States at a cost of $10-38 billion per year. Heart failure results from injury to the myocardium from a variety of causes including ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Less common etiologies include cardiomyopathies, valvular disease, myocarditis, infections, systemic toxins, and cardiotoxic drugs. As the heart fails, patients develop symptoms which include dyspnea from pulmonary congestion, and peripheral edema and ascites from impaired venous return. Constitutional symptoms such as nausea, lack of appetite, and fatigue are also common. There are several compensatory mechanisms that occur as the failing heart attempts to maintain adequate function. These include increasing cardiac output via the Frank-Starling mechanism, increasing ventricular volume and wall thickness through ventricular remodeling, and maintaining tissue perfusion with augmented mean arterial pressure through activation of neurohormonal systems. Although initially beneficial in the early stages of heart failure, all of these compensatory mechanisms eventually lead to a vicious cycle of worsening heart failure. Treatment strategies have been developed based upon the understanding of these compensatory mechanisms. Medical therapy includes diuresis, suppression of the overactive neurohormonal systems, and augmentation of contractility. Surgical options include ventricular resynchronization therapy, surgical ventricular remodeling, ventricular assist device implantation, and heart transplantation. Despite significant understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in heart failure, this disease causes significant morbidity and carries a 50% 5-year mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The remarkable conservation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-binding protein in the honeybee (Apis mellifera) dates the CRH system to a common ancestor of insects and vertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huising, M.O.; Flik, G.

    2005-01-01

    CRH-binding protein (CRH-BP) is a key factor in the regulation of CRH signaling; it modulates the bioactivity and bioavailability of CRH and its related peptides. The conservation of CRH-BP throughout vertebrates was only recently demonstrated. Here we report the presence of CRH-BP in the honeybee

  1. Globally threatened vertebrates on islands with invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Dena R; Zilliacus, Kelly M; Holmes, Nick D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Genovesi, Piero; Ceballos, Gerardo; Tershy, Bernie R; Croll, Donald A

    2017-10-01

    Global biodiversity loss is disproportionately rapid on islands, where invasive species are a major driver of extinctions. To inform conservation planning aimed at preventing extinctions, we identify the distribution and biogeographic patterns of highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates (classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature) and invasive vertebrates on ~465,000 islands worldwide by conducting a comprehensive literature review and interviews with more than 500 experts. We found that 1189 highly threatened vertebrate species (319 amphibians, 282 reptiles, 296 birds, and 292 mammals) breed on 1288 islands. These taxa represent only 5% of Earth's terrestrial vertebrates and 41% of all highly threatened terrestrial vertebrates, which occur in vertebrates was available for 1030 islands (80% of islands with highly threatened vertebrates). Invasive vertebrates were absent from 24% of these islands, where biosecurity to prevent invasions is a critical management tool. On the 76% of islands where invasive vertebrates were present, management could benefit 39% of Earth's highly threatened vertebrates. Invasive mammals occurred in 97% of these islands, with Rattus sp. as the most common invasive vertebrate (78%; 609 islands). Our results provide an important baseline for identifying islands for invasive species eradication and other island conservation actions that reduce biodiversity loss.

  2. Pathophysiology of Glucocorticoid Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitellius, Géraldine; Trabado, Séverine; Bouligand, Jérôme; Delemer, Brigitte; Lombès, Marc

    2018-06-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC), such as cortisol or dexamethasone, control various physiological functions, notably those involved in development, metabolism, inflammatory processes and stress, and exert most of their effects upon binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, encoded by NR3C1 gene). GC signaling follows several consecutive steps leading to target gene transactivation, including ligand binding, nuclear translocation of ligand-activated GR complexes, DNA binding, coactivator interaction and recruitment of functional transcriptional machinery. Any step may be impaired and may account for altered GC signaling. Partial or generalized glucocorticoid resistance syndrome may result in a reduced level of functional GR, a decreased hormone affinity and binding, a defect in nuclear GR translocation, a decrease or lack of DNA binding and/or post-transcriptional GR modifications. To date, 26 loss-of-function NR3C1 mutations have been reported in the context of hypertension, hirsutism, adrenal hyperplasia or metabolic disorders. These clinical signs are generally associated with biological features including hypercortisolism without negative regulatory feedback loop on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Patients had often low plasma aldosterone and renin levels despite hypertension. Only one GR gain-of-function mutation has been described associating Cushing's syndrome phenotype with normal urinary-free cortisol. Some GR polymorphisms (ER22/23EK, GR-9β) have been linked to glucocorticoid resistance and a healthier metabolic profile whereas some others seemed to be associated with GC hypersensitivity (N363S, BclI), increasing cardiovascular risk (diabetes type 2, visceral obesity). This review focuses on the earlier findings on the pathophysiology of GR signaling and presents criteria facilitating identification of novel NR3C1 mutations in selected patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Her...

  4. Pathophysiology of pneumococcal meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldhoff, M.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a serious infectious disease, involving the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord, and the subarachnoid space. In the Netherlands most common causative agents are Streptococcus pneumoniae (72%) and Neisseria meningitidis (11%). The incidence of pneumococcal

  5. Pathophysiology of Cushing's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehm, H L; Voigt, K H

    1979-01-01

    The term Cushing's disease is applied to those cases of Cushing's syndrome in which hypercortisolism is secondary to inappropriate secretion of ACTH by the pituitary. Studies on control of ACTH secretion in these patients reveal: (a) that the episodic secretion of ACTH is similar to the normal; however, frequency and amplitude of the secretory episodes lack the normal circadian rhythm; (b) that ACTH release can be stimulated by vasopressin and metyrapone in a normal or above-normal manner; and (c) that it can be suppressed by large doses of corticosteroids. When the dynamic aspects of the ACTH response to corticosteroid administration are studied, it appears that the normally negative differential feedback mechanism is converted into a positive one, whereas the delayed, integral mechanism is undisturbed. Patients with Cushing's disease in the presence of obvious pituitary tumors cannot be distinguished from those without pituitary tumors by studying only the pituitary function. All these and other well-known facts would favor the concept that ACTH secretion in Cushing's disease is under hypothalamic control whether or not a pituitary tumor is present. Moreover, there are observations that suggest that brain centers superior to the hypophysiotropic area of the hypothalamus are involved in the pathophysiology of Cushing's disease. This concept has led to the discovery of neurotropic drugs that are able to induce complete remission of Cushing's syndrome in a cerain percentage of patients. In some patients with severe psychiatric diseases, neuroendocrine abnormalities are present that resemble closely those characteristic for Cushing's disease. With the most refined neuroradiological methods, pituitary microadenomas are demonstrable in approximately 70% of patients with Cushing's disease, and this number compares well with those of earlier autopsy findings (70 to 80%). In a small number of patients (4 to 10%), these tumors are large and can easily be detected by

  6. Pathophysiology of Pulmonary Hypertension in Chronic Parenchymal Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderjit; Ma, Kevin Cong; Berlin, David Adam

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension commonly complicates chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease. The association of chronic lung disease and pulmonary hypertension portends a worse prognosis. The pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension differs in the presence or absence of lung disease. We describe the physiological determinants of the normal pulmonary circulation to better understand the pathophysiological factors implicated in chronic parenchymal lung disease-associated pulmonary hypertension. This review will focus on the pathophysiology of 3 forms of chronic lung disease-associated pulmonary hypertension: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Functional pathophysiology of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, Kurt A

    2009-01-01

    from important somatic and sensory pathways and acts as a control system of neuronal activities of the cerebral cortex. The principal function of the ARAS is to focus our alertness on specific stimuli or internal processes, which run via complex neuronal cell groups and numerous neurotransmitters that influence various aspects of consciousness and wakefulness. Stimulation of the ARAS produces an arousal reaction as the electric correlate of consciousness; its destruction causes coma and related states. The highest level are cortical (prefrontal and association) networks for recognition, motor activity, longterm memory and attention, the left hemisphere being considered as the dominant one. Different levels of consciousness are distinguished: 1. hyperalertness, 2. alertness (normal state of wakefulness), 3. somnolence or lethargy, 4. obtundation with tendency to fall asleep, 5. stupor, 6. coma and its subtypes, like akinetic mutism, apallic syndrome or persistent vegative state, locked-in syndrome, delirium, and catatonia. They are caused by damages in various functional levels of the brain, by psychogenic factors or experimentally, and are accompanied by characteristic neurological and psychiatric disorders. The relevant morphological lesions can be detected by electrophysiological and imaging studies. The bases of functional anatomy and pathophysiology of consciousness, its cognitive aspects and its major disorders, their causes and functional substrates with reference to sleep and both spontaneous and iatrogenic disorders of consciousness are critically summarized.

  8. TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, Anthony J; de Paiva, Cintia S; Chauhan, Sunil K; Bonini, Stefano; Gabison, Eric E; Jain, Sandeep; Knop, Erich; Markoulli, Maria; Ogawa, Yoko; Perez, Victor; Uchino, Yuichi; Yokoi, Norihiko; Zoukhri, Driss; Sullivan, David A

    2017-07-01

    The TFOS DEWS II Pathophysiology Subcommittee reviewed the mechanisms involved in the initiation and perpetuation of dry eye disease. Its central mechanism is evaporative water loss leading to hyperosmolar tissue damage. Research in human disease and in animal models has shown that this, either directly or by inducing inflammation, causes a loss of both epithelial and goblet cells. The consequent decrease in surface wettability leads to early tear film breakup and amplifies hyperosmolarity via a Vicious Circle. Pain in dry eye is caused by tear hyperosmolarity, loss of lubrication, inflammatory mediators and neurosensory factors, while visual symptoms arise from tear and ocular surface irregularity. Increased friction targets damage to the lids and ocular surface, resulting in characteristic punctate epithelial keratitis, superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis, filamentary keratitis, lid parallel conjunctival folds, and lid wiper epitheliopathy. Hybrid dry eye disease, with features of both aqueous deficiency and increased evaporation, is common and efforts should be made to determine the relative contribution of each form to the total picture. To this end, practical methods are needed to measure tear evaporation in the clinic, and similarly, methods are needed to measure osmolarity at the tissue level across the ocular surface, to better determine the severity of dry eye. Areas for future research include the role of genetic mechanisms in non-Sjögren syndrome dry eye, the targeting of the terminal duct in meibomian gland disease and the influence of gaze dynamics and the closed eye state on tear stability and ocular surface inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Calcium and bone metabolism across women's life stages. Pathophysiology, adiagnosis and treatment of post-pregnancy osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Takumi

    Post-pregnancy osteoporosis is a rare condition with little known pathophysiology. Most cases are diagnosed in the late stage of pregnancy or in the post-partum while breastfeeding, particularly in first pregnancy. Vertebral fractures are most commonly observed and characterized by prolonged severe pain and functional limitations. Measurements of bone mineral density(BMD)of the lumbar spine and proximal femur with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry(DXA)are the clinical methods most commonly used for no fracture women. Conventional radiography will confirm the fracture in most cases, and magnetic resonance(MR), which can be safely used during pregnancy, is effective in detecting vertebral fractures and bone marrow edema. Although the bone resorption increased at the end of pregnancy and lactation, the bone formation increases and the bone structure is almost recovered after cessation of lactating in postpartum. There is much uncertainty about whether pharmacological treatments should be used for osteoporosis that presents during pregnancy and lactation. This is partly because of the lack of a firm evidence base for treatment and also because there is a spontaneous recovery of bone mass and strength after pregnancy or weaning.

  10. The pathophysiology of diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellin, J H

    2001-01-01

    Diarrhea is a very common event after transplantation, but its cause may be difficult to identify. The first step in determining the cause in any particular case is an understanding of the etiology of diarrhea in general. Although diarrhea often is categorized into such types as secretory versus osmotic, or electrolyte transport-related versus motility-related, a thorough understanding of the problem requires knowledge of how the paracrine, immune, nervous and endocrine systems react to each other as well as to infection, drugs or other stimuli.

  11. Influence of physical activity on vertebral strength during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junno, Juho-Antti; Paananen, Markus; Karppinen, Jaro; Tammelin, Tuija; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Lammentausta, Eveliina; Niskanen, Markku; Nieminen, Miika T; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Takatalo, Jani; Tervonen, Osmo; Tuukkanen, Juha

    2013-02-01

    Reduced vertebral strength is a clear risk factor for vertebral fractures. Men and women with vertebral fractures often have reduced vertebral size and bone mineral density (BMD). Vertebral strength is controlled by both genetic and developmental factors. Malnutrition and low levels of physical activity are commonly considered to result in reduced bone size during growth. Several studies have also demonstrated the general relationship between BMD and physical activity in the appendicular skeleton. In this study, we wanted to clarify the role of physical activity on vertebral bodies. Vertebral dimensions appear to generally be less pliant than long bones when lifetime changes occur. We wanted to explore the association between physical activity during late adolescence and vertebral strength parameters such as cross-sectional size and BMD. The association between physical activity and vertebral strength was explored by measuring vertebral strength parameters and defining the level of physical activity during adolescence. The study population consisted of 6,928 males and females who, at 15 to 16 and 19 years of age, responded to a mailed questionnaire inquiring about their physical activity. A total of 558 individuals at the mean age of 21 years underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. We measured the dimensions of the fourth lumbar vertebra from the MRI scans of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 and performed T2* relaxation time mapping, reflective of BMD. Vertebral strength was based on these two parameters. We analyzed the association of physical activity on vertebral strength using the analysis of variance. We observed no association between the level of physical activity during late adolescence and vertebral strength at 21 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomechanical aspects of bone microstructure in vertebrates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-10-29

    Oct 29, 2009 ... Biomechanical or biophysical principles can be applied to study biological structures in their modern or fossil form. Bone is an important tissue in paleontological studies as it is a commonly preserved element in most fossil vertebrates, and can often allow its microstructures such as lacuna and canaliculi to ...

  13. Pediatric congenital vertebral artery arteriovenous malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shownkeen, Harish; Chenelle, Andrew G.; Origitano, Thomas C.; Bova, Davide

    2003-01-01

    Vertebral arteriovenous fistulas are rare in children and the congenital form has been seldom reported in the literature. Prior to using endovascular therapy techniques, only surgery was the main treatment. The most common endovascular treatment is through the use of detachable balloons. This report describes the clinical and radiological findings of a congenital vertebral artery fistula in a 20-month-old child. Balloons could not be safely employed; therefore, embolization was performed with Guglielmi detachable microcoils. We review the history and treatment of these lesions, their clinical presentation, and imaging features, including their outcome, with particular attention to the pediatric population. (orig.)

  14. Imaging of vertebral trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daffner, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This translation of the toolbook published in the 'US-ART' series, offers invaluable help to medical radiologists in the diagnostic imaging and evaluation of complex vertebral traumas which are on the rise, inter alia due to increasingly dangerous leisure sports. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Sepsis: Current Definition, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeb, Abdalsamih M; Hooper, Michael H; Marik, Paul E

    2017-06-01

    Sepsis is a clinical syndrome that results from the dysregulated inflammatory response to infection that leads to organ dysfunction. The resulting losses to society in terms of financial burden, morbidity, and mortality are enormous. We provide a review of sepsis, its underlying pathophysiology, and guidance for diagnosis and management of this common disease. Current established treatments include appropriate antimicrobial agents to target the underlying infection, optimization of intravascular volume to improve stroke volume, vasopressors to counteract vasoplegic shock, and high-quality supportive care. Appropriate implementation of established treatments combined with novel therapeutic approaches promises to continue to decrease the impact of this disease.

  16. Non-contiguous multifocal vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Serratia marcescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jen Xin; Li, Jordan Yuanzhi; Yong, Tuck Yean

    2015-03-01

    Serratia marcescens is a common nosocomial infection but a rare cause of osteomyelitis and more so of vertebral osteomyelitis. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by this organism has been reported in few studies. We report a case of S. marcescens vertebral discitis and osteomyelitis affecting multiple non-contiguous vertebras. Although Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of vertebral osteomyelitis, rare causes, such as S. marcescens, need to be considered, especially when risk factors such as intravenous heroin use, post-spinal surgery and immunosuppression are present. Therefore, blood culture and where necessary biopsy of the infected region should be undertaken to establish the causative organism and determine appropriate antibiotic susceptibility. Prompt diagnosis of S. marcescens vertebral osteomyelitis followed by the appropriate treatment can achieve successful outcomes.

  17. A Case of Duplicated Right Vertebral Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Mayuko; Watanabe, Koichi; Tabira, Yoko; Iwanaga, Joe; Matsuuchi, Wakako; Yoshida, Daichi; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Yamaki, Koh-Ichi

    2018-04-27

    We encountered a case of duplicated right vertebral artery during an anatomical dissection course for medical students in 2015. Two vertebral arteries were found in the right neck of a 91-year-old female cadaver. The proximal leg of the arteries arose from the area between the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery that diverged from the brachiocephalic artery. The distal leg arose from the right subclavian artery as expected. The proximal leg entered the transverse foramen of the fourth cervical vertebra and the distal leg entered the transverse foramen of the sixth cervical vertebra. The two right vertebral arteries joined to form one artery just after the origin of the right vertebral artery of the brachiocephalic artery entered the transverse foramen of the fourth cervical vertebra. This artery then traveled up in the transverse foramina and became the basilar artery, joining with the left vertebral artery. We discuss the embryological origin of this case and review previously reported cases.

  18. Management of osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Dionyssiotis, Yannis

    2010-01-01

    Yannis DionyssiotisRhodes General Hospital, Rhodes, GreeceAbstract: Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with considerable reduction of quality of life, morbidity, and mortality. The management of patients with vertebral fractures should include treatment for osteoporosis and measures to reduce pain and improve mobility. This article provides information for management and rehabilitation of vertebral fractures based on clinical experience and literature.Keywords: vertebral fracture...

  19. Predicting vertebral bone strength by vertebral static histomorphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Ebbesen, Ebbe Nils; Mosekilde, Lis

    2002-01-01

    of the entire vertebral bodies (L-2) were used for histomorphometry. The other iliac crest biopsies and the L-3 were destructively tested by compression. High correlation was found between BV/TV or Tb.Sp and vertebral bone strength (absolute value of r = 0.86 in both cases). Addition of Tb.Th significantly....... No gender-related differences were found in any of the relationships. Neither static histomorphometry nor biomechanical testing of iliac crest bone biopsies is a good predictor of vertebral bone strength.......The study investigates the relationship between static histomorphometry and bone strength of human lumbar vertebral bone. The ability of vertebral histomorphometry to predict vertebral bone strength was compared with that of vertebral densitometry, and also with histomorphometry and bone strength...

  20. Pathophysiological mechanisms of insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we studied pathophysiological mechanisms of insulin resistance in different conditions in humans, i.e. in obesity, during lipid infusions, after hypercaloric feeding, and glucocorticoid treatment. We focused on 3 important hypotheses that are suggested to be implicated in the

  1. Gas embolism: pathophysiology and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, Robert A.; Klein, Jan; Lachmann, Burkhard

    2003-01-01

    Based on a literature search, an overview is presented of the pathophysiology of venous and arterial gas embolism in the experimental and clinical environment, as well as the relevance and aims of diagnostics and treatment of gas embolism. The review starts with a few historical observations and

  2. The amphioxus genome illuminates vertebrate origins and cephalochordate biology

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Linda Z.; Albalat, Ricard; Azumi, Kaoru; Benito-Gutiérrez, Èlia; Blow, Matthew J.; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne; Brunet, Frederic; Butts, Thomas; Candiani, Simona; Dishaw, Larry J.; Ferrier, David E.K.; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Gibson-Brown, Jeremy J.; Gissi, Carmela; Godzik, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Cephalochordates, urochordates, and vertebrates evolved from a common ancestor over 520 million years ago. To improve our understanding of chordate evolution and the origin of vertebrates, we intensively searched for particular genes, gene families, and conserved noncoding elements in the sequenced genome of the cephalochordate Branchiostoma floridae, commonly called amphioxus or lancelets. Special attention was given to homeobox genes, opsin genes, genes involved in neural crest development,...

  3. Pathophysiology of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Starobova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy is a common, dose-dependent adverse effect of several antineoplastics. It can lead to detrimental dose reductions and discontinuation of treatment, and severely affects the quality of life of cancer survivors. Clinically, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy presents as deficits in sensory, motor, and autonomic function which develop in a glove and stocking distribution due to preferential effects on longer axons. The pathophysiological processes are multi-factorial and involve oxidative stress, apoptotic mechanisms, altered calcium homeostasis, axon degeneration and membrane remodeling as well as immune processes and neuroinflammation. This review focusses on the commonly used antineoplastic substances oxaliplatin, cisplatin, vincristine, docetaxel, and paclitaxel which interfere with the cancer cell cycle—leading to cell death and tumor degradation—and cause severe acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies. We discuss drug mechanism of action and pharmacokinetic disposition relevant to the development of peripheral neuropathy, the epidemiology and clinical presentation of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, emerging insight into genetic susceptibilities as well as current understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment approaches.

  4. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  5. Osteomielitis vertebral piógena Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Perrotti

    2009-10-01

    patients who attended a medical clinic with this disease to emphasize its unusual presentation and difficult diagnosis. Lumbar and dorsal spine were the most common sites affected. Dorsolumbar pain and paraparesis were the most frequent symptoms. Staphylococcus aureus were isolated in eight patients, Escherichia coli in one and Haemophilus sp. in other Leukocytosis was observed in only three patients. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was higher than 100 mm in the first hour in two patients. Typical images of pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis were observed in all these patients with magnetic resonance imaging. The main complications were paravertebral and epidural abscesses that were found in five patients. One patient also presented an empyema, seven of them initially received empiric medical treatment, and later specific antibiotics according to the culture and sensitivity results. The rest of the patients were initially treated according to the sensitivity of the isolated germ. Surgical intervention was performed in two patients to drain soft tissue involvement, and in two other to stabilize the spine. All four surgical patients had a full recovery. This report is intended to point out that in patients with dorsolumbar pain and neurological symptoms pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis is a possible diagnosis and has to be treated without delay.

  6. A Unified Pathophysiological Construct of Diabetes and its Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stanley S; Epstein, Solomon; Corkey, Barbara E; Grant, Struan F A; Gavin Iii, James R; Aguilar, Richard B; Herman, Mary E

    2017-09-01

    Advances in understanding diabetes mellitus (DM) through basic and clinical research have helped clarify and reunify a disease state fragmented into numerous etiologies and subtypes. It is now understood that a common pathophysiology drives the diabetic state throughout its natural history and across its varied clinical presentations, a pathophysiology involving metabolic insults, oxidative damage, and vicious cycles that aggravate and intensify organ dysfunction and damage. This new understanding of the disease requires that we revisit existing diagnostics and treatment approaches, which were built upon outmoded assumptions. 'The Common Pathophysiologic Origins of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications Construct' is presented as a more accurate, foundational, and translatable construct of DM that helps make sense of the hitherto ambiguous findings of long-term outcome studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Segmental in vivo vertebral kinematics at the walk, trot and canter: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haussler, K K; Bertram, J E; Gellman, K; Hermanson, J W

    2001-04-01

    Understanding the pathophysiology of equine back problems, for clinical evaluation, treatment or injury prevention, requires understanding of the normal 3-dimensional motion characteristics of the vertebral column. Recent studies have investigated regional vertebral kinematics; however, there are no reported measures of direct in vivo segmental vertebral kinematics in exercising horses. Relative movements between 2 adjacent vertebrae were recorded for 3 horses that were clinically sound and did not have a known history of a back problem. A transducer consisting of 2 fixtures and an array of liquid metal strain gauges (LMSGs) was used to measure 3-dimensional segmental vertebral motion. The transducer was attached directly to Steinmann pins implanted in the dorsal spinous processes of adjacent vertebrae in 3 vertebral regions: thoracic (T14 to T16), lumbar (L1 to L3) and lumbosacral (L6 to S2). Rotational displacements between adjacent vertebrae were calculated from the differential outputs of the LMSG array during walk, trot and canter on a treadmill. Peak magnitudes of dorsoventral flexion, lateral bending and axial rotation were recorded continuously for each stride. The largest motion of the 3 instrumented vertebral segments was at the lumbosacral junction. In general, the greatest magnitude of segmental vertebral motion occurred during the canter and the least during the trot. The dynamic and continuous measure of 3-dimensional in vivo segmental vertebral motion provides an important new perspective for evaluating vertebral motion and back problems in horses.

  8. Assessing pathophysiology of cancer anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviano, Alessandro; Koverech, Angela; Seelaender, Marilia

    2017-09-01

    Cancer anorexia is a negative prognostic factor and is broadly defined as the loss of the interest in food. However, multiple clinical domains contribute to the phenotype of cancer anorexia. The characterization of the clinical and molecular pathophysiology of cancer anorexia may enhance the efficacy of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Clinical trials showed that cancer anorexia should be considered as an umbrella encompassing different signs and symptoms contributing to appetite disruption in cancer patients. Loss of appetite, early satiety, changes in taste and smell are determinants of cancer anorexia, whose presence should be assessed in cancer patients. Interestingly, neuronal correlates of cancer anorexia-related symptoms have been revealed by brain imaging techniques. The pathophysiology of cancer anorexia is complex and involves different domains influencing eating behavior. Limiting the assessment of cancer anorexia to questions investigating changes in appetite may impede correct identification of the targets to address.

  9. The pathophysiology of Peyronie's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sakka, Ahmed I; Salabas, Emre; Dinçer, Murat; Kadioglu, Ates

    2013-09-01

    To review the contemporary knowledge of the pathophysiology of Peyronie's disease (PD). Medline was searched for papers published in English from 2000 to March 2013, using the keywords 'Peyronie's disease' and 'pathophysiology'. More than 300 relevant articles were identified for the purpose of this review. Unfortunately only a few studies had a high level of evidence, and the remaining studies were not controlled in their design. Many theories have been proposed to explain the cause of PD, but the true pathogenesis of PD remains an enigma. Identifying particular growth factors and the specific genes responsible for the induction of PD have been the ultimate goal of research over the past several decades. This would provide the means to devise a possible gene therapy for this devastating condition. We discuss present controversies and new discoveries related to the pathophysiology of this condition. PD is one of the most puzzling diseases in urology. The pathogenesis remains uncertain and there is still controversy about the best management. The pathogenesis of PD has been explored in animal models, cell cultures and clinical trials, but the results have led to further questions. New research on the aetiology and pathogenesis of PD is needed, and which will hopefully improve the understanding and management for patients with this frustrating disease.

  10. Vertebral Augmentation Involving Vertebroplasty or Kyphoplasty for Cancer-Related Vertebral Compression Fractures: An Economic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    versus non-surgical management. Kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty were associated with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $33,471 and $17,870, respectively, per quality-adjusted life-year gained. The budgetary impact of funding vertebral augmentation procedures for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures in adults with cancer in Ontario was estimated at about $2.5 million in fiscal year 2014/15. More widespread use of vertebral augmentation procedures raised total expenditures under a number of scenarios, with costs increasing by $67,302 to $913,386. Our findings suggest that the use of kyphoplasty or vertebroplasty in the management of vertebral compression fractures in patients with cancer may be a cost-effective strategy at commonly accepted willingness-to-pay thresholds. Nonetheless, more widespread use of kyphoplasty (and vertebroplasty to a lesser extent) would likely be associated with net increases in health care costs.

  11. Pathophysiology and management of pediatric ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Mahmoud; Saps, Miguel; Peters, John M

    2003-06-01

    Ascites accumulation is the product of a complex process involving hepatic, renal, systemic, hemodynamic, and neurohormonal factors. The main pathophysiologic theories of ascites formation include the "underfill," "overflow," and peripheral arterial vasodilation hypotheses. These theories are not necessarily mutually exclusive and are linked at some level by a common pathophysiologic thread: The body senses a decreased effective arterial blood volume, leading to stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, arginine-vasopressin feedback loops, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Cornerstones of ascites management include dietary sodium restriction and diuretics. Spironolactone is generally tried initially, with furosemide added if clinical response is suboptimal. More refractory patients require large-volume paracentesis (LVP) accompanied by volume expansion with albumin. Placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is reserved for individuals with compensated liver function who require very frequent sessions of LVP. Peritoneovenous shunts are not used in contemporary ascites management. Liver transplantation remains the definitive therapy for refractory ascites. Although treatment of ascites fails to improve survival, it benefits quality of life and limits the development of such complications as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

  12. [Current concepts in pathophysiology of CRPS I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, F T; Maihöfner, C

    2010-02-01

    Knowledge about the pathophysiology underlying the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) has increased over the last years. Classically, CRPS has been considered to be mainly driven by sympathetic dysfunction with sympathetically maintained pain being its major pathogenetic mechanism. Currently, the disease is understood as result of a complex interplay between altered somatosensory, motor, autonomic and inflammatory systems. Peripheral and central sensitization is a common feature in CRPS as in other neuropathic pain syndromes. One important mechanism is the sensitization of spinal dorsal horn cells via activation of postsynaptic NMDA-receptors by chronic C-fiber input. Differential activity of endogenous pain modulating systems may play a pivotal role in the development of CRPS, too. Neuronal plasticity of the somatosensory cortex accounts for central sensory signs. Also the motor system is subject to central adaptive changes in patients with CRPS. Calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) and substance P mediate neurogenic inflammation. Additionally other proinflammatory cytokines involved in the inflammatory response in CRPS have been identified. In terms of the sympathetic nervous system, recent evidence rather points to a sensitization of adrenergic receptors than to increased efferent sympathetic activity. Particularly the expression of alpha (1)-adrenoceptors on nociceptive C-fibers may play a major role. These pathophysiological ideas do not exclude each other. In fact they complement one another. The variety of the involved systems may explain the versatile clinical picture of CRPS. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  13. Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of Pneumococcal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook-Kanamori, Barry B.; Geldhoff, Madelijn; van der Poll, Tom; van de Beek, Diederik

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Pneumococcal meningitis continues to be associated with high rates of mortality and long-term neurological sequelae. The most common route of infection starts by nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae, which must avoid mucosal entrapment and evade the host immune system after local activation. During invasive disease, pneumococcal epithelial adhesion is followed by bloodstream invasion and activation of the complement and coagulation systems. The release of inflammatory mediators facilitates pneumococcal crossing of the blood-brain barrier into the brain, where the bacteria multiply freely and trigger activation of circulating antigen-presenting cells and resident microglial cells. The resulting massive inflammation leads to further neutrophil recruitment and inflammation, resulting in the well-known features of bacterial meningitis, including cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, cochlear damage, cerebral edema, hydrocephalus, and cerebrovascular complications. Experimental animal models continue to further our understanding of the pathophysiology of pneumococcal meningitis and provide the platform for the development of new adjuvant treatments and antimicrobial therapy. This review discusses the most recent views on the pathophysiology of pneumococcal meningitis, as well as potential targets for (adjunctive) therapy. PMID:21734248

  14. Pathophysiology and Treatment of Alien Hand Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini Sarva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alien hand syndrome (AHS is a disorder of involuntary, yet purposeful, hand movements that may be accompanied by agnosia, aphasia, weakness, or sensory loss. We herein review the most reported cases, current understanding of the pathophysiology, and treatments.Methods: We performed a PubMed search in July of 2014 using the phrases “alien hand syndrome,” “alien hand syndrome pathophysiology,” “alien hand syndrome treatment,” and “anarchic hand syndrome.” The search yielded 141 papers (reviews, case reports, case series, and clinical studies, of which we reviewed 109. Non‐English reports without English abstracts were excluded.Results: Accumulating evidence indicates that there are three AHS variants: frontal, callosal, and posterior. Patients may demonstrate symptoms of multiple types; there is a lack of correlation between phenomenology and neuroimaging findings. Most pathologic and functional imaging studies suggest network disruption causing loss of inhibition as the likely cause. Successful interventions include botulinum toxin injections, clonazepam, visuospatial coaching techniques, distracting the affected hand, and cognitive behavioral therapy.Discussion: The available literature suggests that overlap between AHS subtypes is common. The evidence for effective treatments remains anecdotal, and, given the rarity of AHS, the possibility of performing randomized, placebo‐controlled trials seems unlikely. As with many other interventions for movement disorders, identifying the specific functional impairments caused by AHS may provide the best guidance towards individualized supportive care.

  15. Pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutton, J R; Lassen, N

    1979-01-01

    We review the evidence that acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) occur together more often than is realized. We hypothesize that AMS and HAPO have a common pathophysiological basis: both are due to increased pressure and flow in the microcirculation, causing...

  16. Elucidation of pathophysiology and treatment of neuropathic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vranken, Jan H.

    2012-01-01

    Neuropathic pain, pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system, is relatively common, occurring in about 1% of the population. Studies in animal models describe a number of peripheral and central pathophysiological processes after nerve injury that

  17. Radiotherapy of vertebral hemangiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Kohichi; Hareyama, Masato; Oouchi, Atushi; Sido, Mitsuo; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Tamakawa, Mituharu; Akiba, Hidenari; Morita, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1996, 14 patients (11 females, 3 males) with vertebral hemangioma received treatment with radiotherapy. Thirteen patients had a history of back pain or lumbago and 2 patients had neurological symptoms such as sensory impairment or paraplegia. The standard dose administered was 36 Gy in 18 fractions (five treatments per week). In the 13 patients with pain, this was completely or partially relieved. The condition of a man with hypesthesia of the legs deteriorated and a woman with paraplegia who was treated with decompressive laminectomy followed by radiotherapy recovered completely after irradiation. CT scan before irradiation showed thickened trabeculae as small punctate areas of sclerosis in all patients. At MR imaging before irradiation, T2-weighted MR images showed areas of high intensity in all patients and MR images demonstrated lesion enhancement. However, none of the patients who were treated successfully with radiation demonstrated any changes of the affected vertebra in the conventional radiographic films, CT scan or MR imaging, even 5 years after irradiation. Radiological imaging is indispensable for the diagnosis of vertebral hemangiomas but does not appear to be useful for evaluating the effects of radiotherapy. (orig.)

  18. Molecular pathophysiology of cerebral edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in molecular biology have led to a greater understanding of the individual proteins responsible for generating cerebral edema. In large part, the study of cerebral edema is the study of maladaptive ion transport. Following acute CNS injury, cells of the neurovascular unit, particularly brain endothelial cells and astrocytes, undergo a program of pre- and post-transcriptional changes in the activity of ion channels and transporters. These changes can result in maladaptive ion transport and the generation of abnormal osmotic forces that, ultimately, manifest as cerebral edema. This review discusses past models and current knowledge regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of cerebral edema. PMID:26661240

  19. Narcolepsy: Pathophysiology and Neuropsychological Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Naumann

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy is now recognized as a distinctive disorder with specific pathophysiology and neurochemical abnormalities. Findings on the role of the neuropeptide hypocretin are opening new avenues of research and new strategies for therapy. Recently, neuropsychological and electrophysiological studies have provided evidence for reduced memory performance on standard memory tests in addition to subjective complaints of forgetfulness which may be related to changes in attentional processing. Further studies are, however, necessary to clarify the neuropsychological profile in narcolepsy. This review focuses on the recent advances in understanding narcolepsy.

  20. Velopharyngeal sphincter pathophysiologic aspects in the in cleft palat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collares, Marcus Vinicius Martins

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleft lip and palate are common congenital abnormalities with typical functional disorders on speech, deglutition and middle ear function. Objective: This article reviews functional labiopalatine disorders through a pathophysiological view. Method: We performed a literature search on line, as well as books and periodicals related to velopharyngeal sphincter. Our sources were LILACS, MEDLINE and SciELO databases, and we applied to the research Keywords of interest on the velopharyngeal pathophysiology, for articles published between 1965 and 2007. Conclusion: Velopharyngeal sphincter plays a central role in speech, swallowing and middle ear physiology in patients with labiopalatine cleft. At the end of our bibliographic review, pursuant to the velopharyngeal physiology in individuals with this disorder in the functional speech, deglutition and otologic function, we observed that although there is a great number of published data discussing this issue, further studies are necessary to completely understand the pathophysiology, due to the fact they have been exploited superficially.

  1. The evolutionary origin of the vertebrate body plan: the problem of head segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onai, Takayuki; Irie, Naoki; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The basic body plan of vertebrates, as typified by the complex head structure, evolved from the last common ancestor approximately 530 Mya. In this review, we present a brief overview of historical discussions to disentangle the various concepts and arguments regarding the evolutionary development of the vertebrate body plan. We then explain the historical transition of the arguments about the vertebrate body plan from merely epistemological comparative morphology to comparative embryology as a scientific treatment on this topic. Finally, we review the current progress of molecular evidence regarding the basic vertebrate body plan, focusing on the link between the basic vertebrate body plan and the evolutionarily conserved developmental stages (phylotypic stages).

  2. Osteoporosis with vertebral fractures associated with pregnancy: two case reports

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaetà, Gloria; Mazzantini, Maurizio; Menconi, Agnese; Bottai, Vanna; Falossi, Francesca; Celauro, Ilenia; Guido, Giulio

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PAO) is a rare condition characterized by the occurrence of fragility fractures, most commonly vertebral, in late pregnancy or the early postpartum period. The prevalence, etiology and pathogenesis of this osteoporosis are unknown, although there are several hypotheses attempting to explain the etiopathogenesis of pregnancy associated osteoporosis. In this paper we present two cases of young women who developed severe PAO with vertebral fractur...

  3. Capillary leak syndrome: etiologies, pathophysiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddall, Eric; Khatri, Minesh; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2017-07-01

    In various human diseases, an increase in capillary permeability to proteins leads to the loss of protein-rich fluid from the intravascular to the interstitial space. Although sepsis is the disease most commonly associated with this phenomenon, many other diseases can lead to a "sepsis-like" syndrome with manifestations of diffuse pitting edema, exudative serous cavity effusions, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypotension, and, in some cases, hypovolemic shock with multiple-organ failure. The term capillary leak syndrome has been used to describe this constellation of disease manifestations associated with an increased capillary permeability to proteins. Diseases other than sepsis that can result in capillary leak syndrome include the idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome or Clarkson's disease, engraftment syndrome, differentiation syndrome, the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, viral hemorrhagic fevers, autoimmune diseases, snakebite envenomation, and ricin poisoning. Drugs including some interleukins, some monoclonal antibodies, and gemcitabine can also cause capillary leak syndrome. Acute kidney injury is commonly seen in all of these diseases. In addition to hypotension, cytokines are likely to be important in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury in capillary leak syndrome. Fluid management is a critical part of the treatment of capillary leak syndrome; hypovolemia and hypotension can cause organ injury, whereas capillary leakage of administered fluid can worsen organ edema leading to progressive organ injury. The purpose of this article is to discuss the diseases other than sepsis that produce capillary leak and review their collective pathophysiology and treatment. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Pathophysiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Avi Lemberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE is an emerging disease characterised by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf, lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with TGF-β to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE.

  5. Vertebral basilar artery dissections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hackney, D.B.; Grossman, R.I.; Goldberg, H.I.; Atlas, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    Eleven patients (ten male, one female; range, 2-56 years) presented with posterior circulation ischemic symptoms and were evaluated with computed tomography (CT) (eta=11), arteriography (eta=11), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (eta=6). Angiography showed dissection of a vertebral artery (eta=8), a basilar artery (eta=1), or a combination of both (eta=2). On CT and/or MR images, infarctions were demonstrated in ten of 11 cases. Most frequently involved were the thalmus (eta=7), cerebellum (eta=6), occipital lobes (eta=4), and pons (eta=3). The site of infarction did not correlate with the side or site of angiographic abnormality. In six cases evaluated by all modalities, MR imaging showed more extensive and widespread infarction than did CT and also showed whether or not the infarcts were hemorrhagic. MR imaging was able to demonstrate the presence of intramural dissecting hematoma prior to angiography and to indicate whether or not flow was reconstituted on follow-up examination

  6. Matrix metalloproteinases outside vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino-Puertas, Laura; Goulas, Theodoros; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier

    2017-11-01

    The matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family belongs to the metzincin clan of zinc-dependent metallopeptidases. Due to their enormous implications in physiology and disease, MMPs have mainly been studied in vertebrates. They are engaged in extracellular protein processing and degradation, and present extensive paralogy, with 23 forms in humans. One characteristic of MMPs is a ~165-residue catalytic domain (CD), which has been structurally studied for 14 MMPs from human, mouse, rat, pig and the oral-microbiome bacterium Tannerella forsythia. These studies revealed close overall coincidence and characteristic structural features, which distinguish MMPs from other metzincins and give rise to a sequence pattern for their identification. Here, we reviewed the literature available on MMPs outside vertebrates and performed database searches for potential MMP CDs in invertebrates, plants, fungi, viruses, protists, archaea and bacteria. These and previous results revealed that MMPs are widely present in several copies in Eumetazoa and higher plants (Tracheophyta), but have just token presence in eukaryotic algae. A few dozen sequences were found in Ascomycota (within fungi) and in double-stranded DNA viruses infecting invertebrates (within viruses). In contrast, a few hundred sequences were found in archaea and >1000 in bacteria, with several copies for some species. Most of the archaeal and bacterial phyla containing potential MMPs are present in human oral and gut microbiomes. Overall, MMP-like sequences are present across all kingdoms of life, but their asymmetric distribution contradicts the vertical descent model from a eubacterial or archaeal ancestor. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Matrix Metalloproteinases edited by Rafael Fridman. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasila M Dahdul

    Full Text Available The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO, to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish and multispecies (teleost, amphibian vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages, and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, Gene Ontology (GO, Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL, and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  8. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  9. A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

  10. Congenital abnormalities of the vertebral column in ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proks, Pavel; Stehlik, Ladislav; Paninarova, Michaela; Irova, Katarina; Hauptman, Karel; Jekl, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral column pathologies requiring surgical intervention have been described in pet ferrets, however little information is available on the normal vertebral formula and congenital variants in this species. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe vertebral formulas and prevalence of congenital vertebral anomalies in a sample of pet ferrets. Radiographs of 172 pet ferrets (96 males and 76 females) were included in this retrospective study. In 143 ferrets (83.14%), five different formulas of the vertebral column were recorded with normal morphology of vertebrae (rib attachment included) but with a variable number of thoracic (Th), lumbar (L), and sacral (S) vertebrae. The number of cervical (C) vertebrae was constant in all examined animals. Observed vertebral formulas were C7/Th14/L6/S3 (51.74%), C7/Th14/L6/S4 (22.10%), C7/Th14/L7/S3 (6.98%), C7/Th15/L6/S3 (1.74%), and C7/Th15/L6/S4 (0.58%). Formula C7/Th14/L6/S4 was significantly more common in males than in females (P < 0.05). Congenital spinal abnormalities were found in 29 ferrets (16.86%), mostly localized in the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral regions. The cervical region was affected in only one case. Transitional vertebrae represented the most common congenital abnormalities (26 ferrets) in the thoracolumbar (13 ferrets) and lumbosacral regions (10 ferrets) or simultaneously in both regions (three ferrets). Other vertebral anomalies included block (two ferrets) and wedge vertebra (one ferret). Spina bifida was not detected. Findings from the current study indicated that vertebral formulas may vary in ferrets and congenital abnormalities are common. This should be taken into consideration for surgical planning. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  11. Fisiopatologia da enxaqueca Migraine pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICE B. VINCENT

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A fisiopatologia da enxaqueca ainda não foi completamente elucidada. As principais estruturas envolvidas parecem ser o sistema nervoso central (córtex e tronco cerebral, o sistema trigeminovascular e os vasos correspondentes, outras fibras autonômicas que inervam estes vasos, e os vários agentes vasoativos locais, como a SP, CGRP, NO, VIP, NPY, ACh, NA, NKA, entre outros. A depressão alastrante é o fenômeno neurológico que provavelmente justifica achados experimenais e clínicos na enxaqueca. Ela tem velocidade de propagação semelhante à aura, ativa o núcleo espinhal do trigêmeo e está relacionada à liberação de CGRP e NO. Alterações circulatórias detectadas por métodos complementares reforçam o papel da depressão alastrante. A identificação de anormalidades em pelo menos três loci (cromossomas 19 e 1 na enxaqueca hemiplégica familiar ocorreu recentemente. Elas estão relacionadas a anormalidades nos canais de cálcio voltagem dependentes tipo P/Q, específicos do sistema nervoso central, que regulam a liberação de vários neurotransmissores, incluindo possivelmente a serotonina. A exemplo de outras anormalidades neurológicas paroxísticas que resultam da hiperexcitabilidade da membrana plasmática, é possível que a enxaqueca ocorra devido a uma desordem de canais iônicos.The pathophysiology of migraine is not yet fully understood. The most important structures involved seem to be the central nervous system (cortex and brain stem, the trigeminovascular system and related cranial arteries, other autonomic fibres innervating such vessels, and various local vasoactive agents, including SP, CGRP, NO, VIP, NPY, ACh, NA, NKA, among others. The spreading depression phenomenon may explain clinical as well experimental findings in migraine. Its propagation velocity mirrors what is found in clinical aura, it may activate the spinal trigeminal nucleus and may induce CGRP and NO release. Circulatory changes detected with

  12. Pathophysiology of Manganese-Associated Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Brad A.; Aschner, Michael; Guilarte, Tomas R.; Dydak, Ulrike; Criswell, Susan R.; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Conference Summary Manganese (Mn) is a well established neurotoxin associated with specific damage to the basal ganglia in humans. The phenotype associated with Mn neurotoxicity was first described in two workers with occupational exposure to Mn oxide.(Couper, 1837) Although the description did not use modern clinical terminology, a parkinsonian illness characterized by slowness of movement (bradykinesia), masked facies, and gait impairment (postural instability) appears to have predominated. Nearly 100 years later an outbreak of an atypical parkinsonian illness in a Chilean Mn mine provided a phenotypic description of a fulminant neurologic disorder with parkinsonism, dystonia, and neuropsychiatric symptoms.(Rodier J, 1955) Exposures associated with this syndrome were massive and an order of magnitude greater than modern exposures.(Rodier J, 1955; Hobson et al., 2011) The clinical syndrome associated with Mn neurotoxicity has been called manganism. Modern exposures to Mn occur primarily through occupations in the steel industry and welding. These exposures are often chronic and varied, occurring over decades in the healthy workforce. Although the severe neurologic disorder described by Rodier and Couper are no longer seen, several reports have suggested a possible increased risk of neurotoxicity in these workers.(Racette et al., 2005b; Bowler et al., 2007; Harris et al., 2011) Based upon limited prior imaging and pathologic investigations into the pathophysiology of neurotoxicity in Mn exposed workers,(Huang et al., 2003) many investigators have concluded that the syndrome spares the dopamine system distinguishing manganism from Parkinson disease (PD), the most common cause of parkinsonism in the general population, and a disease with characteristic degenerative changes in the dopaminergic system.(Jankovic, 2005) The purpose of this symposium was to highlight recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of Mn associated neurotoxicity from C. elegans

  13. Understanding changes in cardiovascular pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chummun, Harry

    Cardiovascular pathophysiological changes, such as hypertension and enlarged ventricles, reflect the altered functions of the heart and its circulation during ill-health. This article examines the normal and altered anatomy of the cardiac valves, the contractile elements and enzymes of the myocardium, the significance of the different factors associated with cardiac output, and the role of the autonomic nervous system in the heart beat. It also explores how certain diseases alter these functions and result in cardiac symptoms. Nurses can benefit from knowledge of these specific changes, for example, by being able to ask relevant questions in order to ascertain the nature of a patients condition, by being able to take an effective patient history and by being able to read diagnostic results, such as electrocardiograms and cardiac enzyme results. All this will help nurses to promote sound cardiac care based on a physiological rationale.

  14. Pathophysiology of MDS: genomic aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Motoshi

    2016-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by clonal proliferation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and their apoptosis, and show a propensity to progress to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Although MDS are recognized as neoplastic diseases caused by genomic aberrations of hematopoietic cells, the details of the genetic abnormalities underlying disease development have not as yet been fully elucidated due to difficulties in analyzing chromosomal abnormalities. Recent advances in comprehensive analyses of disease genomes including whole-genome sequencing technologies have revealed the genomic abnormalities in MDS. Surprisingly, gene mutations were found in approximately 80-90% of cases with MDS, and the novel mutations discovered with these technologies included previously unknown, MDS-specific, mutations such as those of the genes in the RNA-splicing machinery. It is anticipated that these recent studies will shed new light on the pathophysiology of MDS due to genomic aberrations.

  15. Kyphoplasty increases vertebral height, decreases both pain score and opiate requirements while improving functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolba, Reda; Bolash, Robert B; Shroll, Joshua; Costandi, Shrif; Dalton, Jarrod E; Sanghvi, Chirag; Mekhail, Nagy

    2014-03-01

    Vertebral compression fractures can result from advanced osteoporosis, or less commonly from metastatic or traumatic insults to the vertebral column, and result in disabling pain and decreased functional capacity. Various vertebral augmentation options including kyphoplasty aim at preventing the sequelae of pain and immobility that can develop as the result of the vertebral fractures. The mechanism for pain relief following kyphoplasty is not entirely understood, and the restoration of a portion of the lost vertebral height is a subject of debate. We retrospectively reviewed radiographic imaging, pain relief, analgesic intake and functional outcomes in 67 consecutive patients who underwent single- or multilevel kyphoplasty with the primary goal of quantifying the restoration of lost vertebral height. We observed a mean of 45% of the lost vertebral height restored postprocedurally. Secondarily, kyphoplasty was associated with significant decreases in pain scores, daily morphine consumption and improvement in patient-reported functional measures. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  16. New insights into pathophysiology of vestibular migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Espinosa-Sanchez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vestibular migraine (VM is a common disorder in which genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors probably contribute to its development. The pathophysiology of VM is unknown; nevertheless in the last few years, several studies are contributing to understand the neurophysiological pathways involved in VM. The current hypotheses are mostly based on the knowledge of migraine itself. The evidence of trigeminal innervation of the labyrinth vessels and the localization of vasoactive neuropeptides in the perivascular afferent terminals of these trigeminal fibers support the involvement of the trigemino-vascular system. The neurogenic inflammation triggered by activation of the trigeminal-vestibulocochlear reflex, with the subsequent inner ear plasma protein extravasation and the release of inflammatory mediators, can contribute to a sustained activation and sensitization of the trigeminal primary afferent neurons explaining VM symptoms. The reciprocal connections between brainstem vestibular nuclei and the structures that modulate trigeminal nociceptive inputs (rostral ventromedial medulla, ventrolateral periaqueductal grey, locus coeruleus and nucleus raphe magnus are critical to understand the pathophysiology of VM. Although cortical spreading depression can affect cortical areas involved in processing vestibular information, functional neuroimaging techniques suggest a dysmodulation in the multimodal sensory integration and processing of vestibular and nociceptive information, resulting from a vestibulo-thalamo-cortical dysfunction, as the pathogenic mechanism underlying VM. The elevated prevalence of VM suggests that multiple functional variants may confer a genetic susceptibility leading to a dysregulation of excitatory-inhibitory balance in brain structures involved in the processing of sensory information, vestibular inputs and pain. The interactions among several functional and structural neural networks could explain the pathogenic

  17. Evolutionary growth process of highly conserved sequences in vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Minaka; Noda, Akiko Ogura; Sakate, Ryuichi; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2012-08-01

    Genome sequence comparison between evolutionarily distant species revealed ultraconserved elements (UCEs) among mammals under strong purifying selection. Most of them were also conserved among vertebrates. Because they tend to be located in the flanking regions of developmental genes, they would have fundamental roles in creating vertebrate body plans. However, the evolutionary origin and selection mechanism of these UCEs remain unclear. Here we report that UCEs arose in primitive vertebrates, and gradually grew in vertebrate evolution. We searched for UCEs in two teleost fishes, Tetraodon nigroviridis and Oryzias latipes, and found 554 UCEs with 100% identity over 100 bps. Comparison of teleost and mammalian UCEs revealed 43 pairs of common, jawed-vertebrate UCEs (jUCE) with high sequence identities, ranging from 83.1% to 99.2%. Ten of them retain lower similarities to the Petromyzon marinus genome, and the substitution rates of four non-exonic jUCEs were reduced after the teleost-mammal divergence, suggesting that robust conservation had been acquired in the jawed vertebrate lineage. Our results indicate that prototypical UCEs originated before the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates and have been frozen as perfect conserved sequences in the jawed vertebrate lineage. In addition, our comparative sequence analyses of UCEs and neighboring regions resulted in a discovery of lineage-specific conserved sequences. They were added progressively to prototypical UCEs, suggesting step-wise acquisition of novel regulatory roles. Our results indicate that conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) consist of blocks with distinct evolutionary history, each having been frozen since different evolutionary era along the vertebrate lineage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Primary extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morasch, Mark D; Phade, Sachin V; Naughton, Peter; Garcia-Toca, Manuel; Escobar, Guillermo; Berguer, Ramon

    2013-05-01

    Extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms are uncommon and are usually associated with trauma or dissection. Primary cervical vertebral aneurysms are even rarer and are not well described. The presentation and natural history are unknown and operative management can be difficult. Accessing aneurysms at the skull base can be difficult and, because the frail arteries are often afflicted with connective tissue abnormalities, direct repair can be particularly challenging. We describe the presentation and surgical management of patients with primary extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms. In this study we performed a retrospective, multi-institutional review of patients with primary aneurysms within the extracranial vertebral artery. Between January 2000 and January 2011, 7 patients, aged 12-56 years, were noted to have 9 primary extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms. All had underlying connective tissue or another hereditary disorder, including Ehler-Danlos syndrome (n=3), Marfan's disease (n=2), neurofibromatosis (n=1), and an unspecified connective tissue abnormality (n=1). Eight of 9 aneurysms were managed operatively, including an attempted bypass that ultimately required vertebral ligation; the contralateral aneurysm on this patient has not been treated. Open interventions included vertebral bypass with vein, external carotid autograft, and vertebral transposition to the internal carotid artery. Special techniques were used for handling the anastomoses in patients with Ehler-Danlos syndrome. Although endovascular exclusion was not performed in isolation, 2 hybrid procedures were performed. There were no instances of perioperative stroke or death. Primary extracranial vertebral artery aneurysms are rare and occur in patients with hereditary disorders. Operative intervention is warranted in symptomatic patients. Exclusion and reconstruction may be performed with open and hybrid techniques with low morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Repeated vertebral augmentation for new vertebral compression fractures of postvertebral augmentation patients: a nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang CL

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cheng-Loong Liang,1 Hao-Kwan Wang,1 Fei-Kai Syu,2 Kuo-Wei Wang,1 Kang Lu,1 Po-Chou Liliang1 1Department of Neurosurgery, E-Da Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; 2Department of Pharmacy, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan Purpose: Postvertebral augmentation vertebral compression fractures are common; repeated vertebral augmentation is usually performed for prompt pain relief. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of repeat vertebral augmentation.Methods: We performed a retrospective, nationwide, population-based longitudinal observation study, using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD of Taiwan. All patients who received vertebral augmentation for vertebral compression fractures were evaluated. The collected data included patient characteristics (demographics, comorbidities, and medication exposure and repeat vertebral augmentation. Kaplan–Meier and stratified Cox proportional hazard regressions were performed for analyses.Results: The overall incidence of repeat vertebral augmentation was 11.3% during the follow-up until 2010. Patients with the following characteristics were at greater risk for repeat vertebral augmentation: female sex (AOR=1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.36, advanced age (AOR=1.60; 95% CI: 1.32–2.08, diabetes mellitus (AOR=4.31; 95% CI: 4.05–5.88, cerebrovascular disease (AOR=4.09; 95% CI: 3.44–5.76, dementia (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.69–2.33, blindness or low vision (AOR=3.72; 95% CI: 2.32–3.95, hypertension (AOR=2.58; 95% CI: 2.35–3.47, and hyperlipidemia (AOR=2.09; 95% CI: 1.67–2.22. Patients taking calcium/ vitamin D (AOR=2.98; 95% CI: 1.83–3.93, bisphosphonates (AOR=2.11; 95% CI: 1.26–2.61, or calcitonin (AOR=4.59; 95% CI: 3.40–5.77 were less likely to undergo repeat vertebral augmentation; however, those taking steroids (AOR=7.28; 95% CI: 6.32–8.08, acetaminophen (AOR=3.54; 95% CI: 2.75–4.83, or nonsteroidal

  20. Transoral vertebral augmentation with polymethylmethacrylate in the treatment of a patient with a dens fracture nonunion and subarticular vertebral body fracture of C2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beall, Douglas P.; Martin, Hal D.; Stapp, Annette M.; Stanfield, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    The injection of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is a minimally invasive, image-guided procedure used to treat vertebral fractures due to osteoporosis, metastatic lesions, multiple myeloma, and benign but destabilizing bone tumors. The injection of PMMA into the C2 vertebral body using the transoral technique has been reported in three separate patients for treatment of benign tumors (a vertebral hemangioma and an aneurysmal bone cyst) and for multiple myeloma in the third patient. Although the injection of PMMA into the vertebral body is most commonly performed to treat benign vertebral compression fractures, a transoral C2 approach has not been reported in the English literature as a treatment for a benign fracture of C2. We report the treatment of a fracture and nonunion of the base of the dens and a subarticular fracture of the vertebral body of C2 using a bilateral transoral approach. (orig.)

  1. Orientation-Selective Retinal Circuits in Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinucci, Paride; Hindges, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Visual information is already processed in the retina before it is transmitted to higher visual centers in the brain. This includes the extraction of salient features from visual scenes, such as motion directionality or contrast, through neurons belonging to distinct neural circuits. Some retinal neurons are tuned to the orientation of elongated visual stimuli. Such 'orientation-selective' neurons are present in the retinae of most, if not all, vertebrate species analyzed to date, with species-specific differences in frequency and degree of tuning. In some cases, orientation-selective neurons have very stereotyped functional and morphological properties suggesting that they represent distinct cell types. In this review, we describe the retinal cell types underlying orientation selectivity found in various vertebrate species, and highlight their commonalities and differences. In addition, we discuss recent studies that revealed the cellular, synaptic and circuit mechanisms at the basis of retinal orientation selectivity. Finally, we outline the significance of these findings in shaping our current understanding of how this fundamental neural computation is implemented in the visual systems of vertebrates.

  2. Rehabilitation in osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    OpenAIRE

    Pratelli, Elisa; Cinotti, Irene; Pasquetti, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    Vertebral fractures occur particularly in osteoporotic patients due to an increased bone fragility. Vertebral fractures influence the quality of life, mobility and mortality. Preventive training exercises and proprioception reeducation can be utilised for improving posture, balance and level of daily function and for decreasing pain. Quality of life is improved even beyond the active training period. This mini review provides information based on the literature for the rehabilitation of osteo...

  3. Tuberculosis 2: Pathophysiology and microbiology of pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-08-01

    Aug 1, 2005 ... February 2013 Downloaded from www.southsudanmedicaljournal.com. MaIN arTIClES. 10. Tuberculosis 2: Pathophysiology and microbiology of pulmonary tuberculosis. Robert L. Serafino Wania MBBS, MrCP, MSc (Trop Med). Pathophysiology. Inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis leads to one of.

  4. An update on oxidative stress-mediated organ pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Kahkashan; Sinha, Krishnendu; Sil, Parames C

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants and drugs can result in pathophysiological situations in the body. Research in this area is essential as the knowledge on cellular survival and death would help in designing effective therapeutic strategies that are needed for the maintenance of the normal physiological functions of the body. In this regard, naturally occurring bio-molecules can be considered as potential therapeutic targets as they are normally available in commonly consumed foodstuffs and are thought to have minimum side effects. This review article describes the detailed mechanisms of oxidative stress-mediated organ pathophysiology and the ultimate fate of the cells either to survive or to undergo necrotic or apoptotic death. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of a number of naturally occurring bioactive molecules in oxidative stress-mediated organ pathophysiology have also been included in the review. The review provides useful information about the recent progress in understanding the mechanism(s) of various types of organ pathophysiology, the complex cross-talk between these pathways, as well as their modulation in stressed conditions. Additionally, it suggests possible therapeutic applications of a number of naturally occurring bioactive molecules in conditions involving oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of biomedical nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liming, E-mail: wangliming@ihep.ac.cn; Chen, Chunying, E-mail: chenchy@nanoctr.cn

    2016-05-15

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widespread used in biomedical fields, daily consuming, and even food industry. It is crucial to understand the safety and biomedical efficacy of NMs. In this review, we summarized the recent progress about the physiological and pathological effects of NMs from several levels: protein-nano interface, NM-subcellular structures, and cell–cell interaction. We focused on the detailed information of nano-bio interaction, especially about protein adsorption, intracellular trafficking, biological barriers, and signaling pathways as well as the associated mechanism mediated by nanomaterials. We also introduced related analytical methods that are meaningful and helpful for biomedical effect studies in the future. We believe that knowledge about pathophysiologic effects of NMs is not only significant for rational design of medical NMs but also helps predict their safety and further improve their applications in the future. - Highlights: • Rapid protein adsorption onto nanomaterials that affects biomedical effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological membrane, intracellular trafficking and specific cellular effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological barriers • The signaling pathways mediated by nanomaterials and related biomedical effects • Novel techniques for studying translocation and biomedical effects of NMs.

  6. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of biomedical nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liming; Chen, Chunying

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widespread used in biomedical fields, daily consuming, and even food industry. It is crucial to understand the safety and biomedical efficacy of NMs. In this review, we summarized the recent progress about the physiological and pathological effects of NMs from several levels: protein-nano interface, NM-subcellular structures, and cell–cell interaction. We focused on the detailed information of nano-bio interaction, especially about protein adsorption, intracellular trafficking, biological barriers, and signaling pathways as well as the associated mechanism mediated by nanomaterials. We also introduced related analytical methods that are meaningful and helpful for biomedical effect studies in the future. We believe that knowledge about pathophysiologic effects of NMs is not only significant for rational design of medical NMs but also helps predict their safety and further improve their applications in the future. - Highlights: • Rapid protein adsorption onto nanomaterials that affects biomedical effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological membrane, intracellular trafficking and specific cellular effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological barriers • The signaling pathways mediated by nanomaterials and related biomedical effects • Novel techniques for studying translocation and biomedical effects of NMs

  7. Pathophysiology of Headaches with a Prominent Vascular Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A Pareja

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular changes, whether preliminary or secondary, seem to accompany most headaches. The literature concerning pathophysiological mechanisms in headaches where vascular phenomena are a major, integral part, ie, migraine and cluster headache syndrome, is reviewed and the most common forms of headache associated with cerebrovascular disease are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the vascular phenomena and on the abundant hypotheses and theories regarding headache mechanisms. This review also presents alternative explanatory models, and compares the available anatomical, physiological and biochemical results.

  8. Pancreatitis in dogs and cats – definitions and pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Penelope Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatitis, or inflammation of the pancreas, is commonly seen in dogs and cats and presents a spectrum of disease severities from acute to chronic and mild to severe. It is usually sterile, but the causes and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. The acute end of the disease spectrum is associated with a high mortality but the potential for complete recovery of organ structure and function if the animal survives. At the other end of the spectrum, chronic pancreatitis in either species c...

  9. Restless Legs Syndrome: From Pathophysiology to Clinical Diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyi Guo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Restless legs syndrome (RLS, a common neurological sensorimotor disorder in western countries, has gained more and more attention in Asian countries. The prevalence of RLS is higher in older people and females. RLS is most commonly related to iron deficiency, pregnancy and uremia. The RLS symptoms show a significant circadian rhythm and a close relationship to periodic limb movements (PLMs in clinical observations, while the pathophysiological pathways are still unknown. The diagnostic criteria have been revised in 2012 to improve the validity of RLS diagnosis. Recent studies have suggested an important role of iron decrease of brain in RLS pathophysiology. Dopaminergic (DA system dysfunction in A11 cell groups has been recognized long ago from clinical treatment and autopsy. Nowadays, it is believed that iron dysfunction can affect DA system from different pathways and opioids have a protective effect on DA system. Several susceptible single nucleotide polymorphisms such as BTBD9 and MEIS1, which are thought to be involved in embryonic neuronal development, have been reported to be associated with RLS. Several pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment are discussed in this review. First-line treatments of RLS include DA agents and α2δ agonists. Augmentation is very common in long-term treatment of RLS which makes prevention and management of augmentation very important for RLS patients. A combination of different types of medication is effective in preventing and treating augmentation. The knowledge on RLS is still limited, the pathophysiology and better management of RLS remain to be discovered.

  10. Facultative parthenogenesis in vertebrates: reproductive error or chance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, K P

    2008-01-01

    Parthenogenesis, the development of an embryo from a female gamete without any contribution of a male gamete, is very rare in vertebrates. Parthenogenetically reproducing species have, so far, only been found in the Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes). Facultative parthenogenesis, switching between sexual and clonal reproduction, although quite common in invertebrates, e.g. Daphnia and aphids, seems to be even rarer in vertebrates. However, isolated cases of parthenogenetic development have been reported in all vertebrate groups. Facultative parthenogenesis in vertebrates has only been found in captive animals but might simply have been overlooked in natural populations. Even though its evolutionary impact is hard to determine and very likely varies depending on the ploidy restoration mechanisms and sex-determining mechanisms involved, facultative parthenogenesis is already discussed in conservation biology and medical research. To raise interest for facultative parthenogenesis especially in evolutionary biology, I summarize the current knowledge about facultative parthenogenesis in the different vertebrate groups, introduce mechanisms of diploid oocyte formation and discuss the genetic consequences and potential evolutionary impact of facultative parthenogenesis in vertebrates.

  11. Hemorrhoids: From basic pathophysiology to clinical management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the pathophysiology, epidemiology, risk factors, classification, clinical evaluation, and current non-operative and operative treatment of hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids are defined as the symptomatic enlargement and distal displacement of the normal anal cushions. The most common symptom of hemorrhoids is rectal bleeding associated with bowel movement. The abnormal dilatation and distortion of the vascular channel, together with destructive changes in the supporting connective tissue within the anal cushion, is a paramount finding of hemorrhoids. It appears that the dysregulation of the vascular tone and vascular hyperplasia might play an important role in hemorrhoidal development, and could be a potential target for medical treatment. In most instances, hemorrhoids are treated conservatively, using many methods such as lifestyle modification, fiber supplement, suppository-delivered anti-inflammatory drugs, and administration of venotonic drugs. Non-operative approaches include sclerotherapy and, preferably, rubber band ligation. An operation is indicated when non-operative approaches have failed or complications have occurred. Several surgical approaches for treating hemorrhoids have been introduced including hemorrhoidectomy and stapled hemorrhoidopexy, but postoperative pain is invariable. Some of the surgical treatments potentially cause appreciable morbidity such as anal stricture and incontinence. The applications and outcomes of each treatment are thoroughly discussed. PMID:22563187

  12. The pathophysiology of amenorrhea in the adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Neville H; Carlson, Jennifer L

    2008-01-01

    Menstrual irregularity is a common occurrence during adolescence, especially within the first 2-3 years after menarche. Prolonged amenorrhea, however, is not normal and can be associated with significant medical morbidity, which differs depending on whether the adolescent is estrogen-deficient or estrogen-replete. Estrogen-deficient amenorrhea is associated with reduced bone mineral density and increased fracture risk, while estrogen-replete amenorrhea can lead to dysfunctional uterine bleeding in the short term and predispose to endometrial carcinoma in the long term. In both situations, appropriate intervention can reduce morbidity. Old paradigms of whom to evaluate for amenorrhea have been challenged by recent research that provides a better understanding of the normal menstrual cycle and its variability. Hypothalamic amenorrhea is the most prevalent cause of amenorrhea in the adolescent age group, followed by polycystic ovary syndrome. In anorexia nervosa, exercise-induced amenorrhea, and amenorrhea associated with chronic illness, an energy deficit results in suppression of hypothalamic secretion of GnRH, mediated in part by leptin. Administration of recombinant leptin to women with hypothalamic amenorrhea has been shown to restore LH pulsatility and ovulatory menstrual cycles. The use of recombinant leptin may improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of hypothalamic amenorrhea in adolescents and may also have therapeutic possibilities.

  13. Clinical manifestations and pathophysiology of lissencephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Shizuo; Sasaki, Koji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Ando, Shoko; Tamura, Yasunori; Fukuda, Kuniaki; Furukawa, Seikyo; Matsumoto, Satoshi.

    1985-01-01

    Four cases of lissencephaly were analyzed in light of clinical manifestations, CT findings and the state of hydrocephalus. Lissencephaly had been diagnosed mainly by autopsy until CT scan was introduced in the early 1970's. Since then, diagnosis of lissencephaly early in life is possible. Presently the major interest in this congenital CNS anomaly, which is caused by a neuronal migration disorder in the relatively late stages of fetal development, is to learn the dynamic pathophysiological state and management. The purpose of this paper is to analyze those points of lissencephaly in diagnosis during life and possible treatment in the hydrocephalic state. The common findings in CT in all four cases are as follows: No. 1. smooth cortical surface (agyria--pachygyria), No. 2. wide sylvian fissure (complete or incomplete lack of opercularization, No. 3. ventricular dilatation (remarkable bilateral enlargement of lateral ventricle and third ventricle--colpocephaly), No. 4. wide subdural or subarachnoid space in supratentorial region, No. 5. periventricular low density, No. 6. midline cavum, No. 7. normal CT findings in posterior fossa structure. Three out of four patients demonstrated full or bulged and tense anterior fontanella. Because of this suggestion of increased intracranial pressure and enlarged ventricles with periventricular lucency in CT findings, one patient underwent CT cisternography for dynamic analysis of the CSF circulation and continuous ICP monitoring for dynamic evaluation of the ICP pattern. The results revealed very much delayed CSF circulation and intermittently increased. ICP, with pressure waves appearing in 35.7 % of all recordings. (J.P.N.)

  14. The biogeography of threatened insular iguanas and opportunities for invasive vertebrate management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tershy, Bernie R.; Newton, Kelly M.; Spatz, Dena R.; Swinnerton, Kirsty; Iverson, John B.; Fisher, Robert N.; Harlow, Peter S.; Holmes, Nick D.; Croll, Donald A.; Iverson, J.B.; Grant, T. D.; Knapp, C. R.; Pasachnik, S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Iguanas are a particularly threatened group of reptiles, with 61% of species at risk of extinction. Primary threats to iguanas include habitat loss, direct and indirect impacts by invasive vertebrates, overexploitation, and human disturbance. As conspicuous, charismatic vertebrates, iguanas also represent excellent flagships for biodiversity conservation. To assist planning for invasive vertebrate management and thus benefit threatened iguana recovery, we identified all islands with known extant or extirpated populations of Critically Endangered and Endangered insular iguana taxa as recognized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. For each island, we determined total area, sovereignty, the presence of invasive alien vertebrates, and human population. For the 23 taxa of threatened insular iguanas we identified 230 populations, of which iguanas were extant on 185 islands and extirpated from 45 islands. Twenty-one iguana taxa (91% of all threatened insular iguana taxa) occurred on at least one island with invasive vertebrates present; 16 taxa had 100% of their population(s) on islands with invasive vertebrates present. Rodents, cats, ungulates, and dogs were the most common invasive vertebrates. We discuss biosecurity, eradication, and control of invasive vertebrates to benefit iguana recovery: (1) on islands already free of invasive vertebrates; (2) on islands with high iguana endemicity; and (3) for species and subspecies with small total populations occurring across multiple small islands. Our analyses provide an important first step toward understanding how invasive vertebrate management can be planned effectively to benefit threatened insular iguanas.

  15. Stroke MRI: pathophysiology, potential and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiehler, J.; Kucinski, T.; Zeumer, H.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRT) is increasingly utilized as the primary imaging modality in major stroke centers. The ability to depict several aspects of individual pathophysiology makes the use of MRI in stroke both attractive and complex. Profound knowledge of the pathophysiology of the imaging findings is crucial for a rational diagnostic workup. The pathophysiology of MRI in stroke will be reviewed considering recent experiences in clinical application, and the potential of stroke MRI will be assessed. Further perspectives like application of 'blood oxygen level dependent' (BOLD) and the use of multiparametric prediction maps will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. Chemical sensitivity: pathophysiology or pathopsychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J

    2013-05-01

    symptoms in some cases. Sustained resolution of the CS state occurs after successful elimination of the accrued body burden of toxicants through natural mechanisms of toxicant bioelimination and/or interventions of clinical detoxification. Despite extensive clinical evidence to support the veracity of this clinical state, many members of the medical community are reluctant to accept this condition as a pathophysiologic disorder. The emerging problem of ubiquitous adverse toxicant exposures in modern society has resulted in escalating numbers of individuals developing a CS disorder. As usual in medical history, iconoclastic ideas and emerging evidence regarding novel disease mechanisms, such as the pathogenesis of CS, have been met with controversy, resistance, and sluggish knowledge translation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Vertebral endplate (modic) changes and the treatment of back pain using antibiotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manniche, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral end-plate changes/modic changes are the MRI-image of inflammatory vertebral endplate damage, most often related to general disc degeneration. However, in a subgroup of patients disc infection may be the causal factor. In patients with prolonged back pain, the prevalence of modic changes......'. Most commonly, Propionibacterium acnes is involved. Long-term antibiotics may be effective....

  18. Pathophysiology of heatstroke in dogs - revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchim, Yaron; Horowitz, Michal; Aroch, Itamar

    2017-01-01

    Heatstroke results from a failure to dissipate accumulated heat during exposure to hot environments, or during strenuous physical exercise under heat stress. It is characterized by core body temperatures > 41°C, with central nervous system dysfunction. Functional morphology and thermoregulatory effectors differences between dogs and humans may require special heatstroke protective adaptations in dogs, however, the risk factors for developing heatstroke are similar in both. In dogs, these include hot, especially highly humid environments, excessive physical activity, obesity, large (>15 kg) body weight, being of certain breed (e.g., Labrador retrievers and brachycephalic breeds), upper airway obstruction and prolonged seizures. Lack of acclimation to heat and physical fitness decreases the survival of heat stroked dogs. At the systemic level, blood pooling within the large internal organs (e.g., spleen, liver) is a major contributor to the development of shock and consequent intestinal ischemia, hypoxia and endothelial hyperpermeability, commonly occurring in heatstroke patients. Evoked serious complications include rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome and ultimately, sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The most common clinical signs in dogs include acute collapse, tachypnea, spontaneous bleeding, shock signs and mental abnormalities, including depression, disorientation or delirium, seizures, stupor and coma. In such dogs, presence of peripheral blood nucleated red blood cells uniquely occurs, and is a highly sensitive diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. Despite early, appropriate body cooling, and intensive supportive treatment, with no available specific treatment to ameliorate the severe inflammatory and hemostatic derangements, the mortality rate is around 50%, similar to that of human heatstroke victims. This review discusses the pathophysiology of canine heatstroke from a veterinarian's point of view

  19. Vertebrate pressure-gradient receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum and stro......The eardrums of all terrestrial vertebrates (tetrapods) are connected through Eustachian tubes or interaural canals. In some of the animals, these connections create pressure-gradient directionality, an enhanced directionality by interaction of sound arriving at both sides of the eardrum....... Recent vertebrates form a continuum from perfect interaural transmission (0 dB in a certain frequency band) and pronounced eardrum directionality (30-40 dB) in the lizards, over somewhat attenuated transmission and limited directionality in birds and frogs, to the strongly attenuated interaural...

  20. Underdiagnosis of Vertebral Collapse on Routine Multidetector Computed Tomography Scan of the Abdomen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaid, H.; Husamaldin, Z.; Bhatt, R.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Vertebral fractures are commonly associated with osteoporosis and have significant morbidity and mortality rates. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are presently considered as a treatable and preventable condition, and early detection is vital for further management. The evaluation of vertebral compression on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scans of the abdomen has, to our knowledge, not been reported before. Purpose: To assess the prevalence of vertebral collapse on routine abdominal CT scans, and to evaluate the usefulness of the multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) capability of MDCT scans in accurately identifying vertebral abnormalities such as vertebral collapse, spondylolisthesis, and retrolisthesis. Material and Methods: A retrospective review of 307 MDCT scans of the abdomen was carried out at a university teaching hospital. Identifiable patient information was anonymized for data protection. All images were reviewed on a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) using sagittal MPR and bone window for the assessment of the vertebrae. Data were collected from the Computerized Radiology Information System (CRIS). Results: Vertebral collapse was seen in 42 (13.6%) of the 307 patients undergoing routine MDCT of the abdomen. Multilevel and single-level collapses were seen in 24 and 18 patients, respectively. Spondylolisthesis was identified in 5.5% (n=17), and retrolisthesis was seen in 0.6% (n=2). All patients with vertebral fracture were older than 50 years. Women were more commonly affected than men. Conclusion: A significant number of patients with vertebral collapse were diagnosed using MPR on MDCT routine scans of the abdomen

  1. Pathophysiological relationships between heart failure and depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, Deborah W; Akintade, Bimbola; Son, Heesook; Woltz, Patricia; Hunt, Dennis; Friedmann, Erika; Hartung, Mary Kay; Thomas, Sue Ann

    2014-04-01

    Depression and anxiety are common comorbid conditions in patients with heart failure. Patients with heart failure and depression have increased mortality. The association of anxiety with increased mortality in patients with heart failure is not established. The purpose of this article is to illustrate the similarities of the underlying pathophysiology of heart failure, depression, and anxiety by using the Biopsychosocial Holistic Model of Cardiovascular Health. Depression and anxiety affect biological processes of cardiovascular function in patients with heart failure by altering neurohormonal function via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic dysregulation, and activation of cytokine cascades and platelets. Patients with heart failure and depression or anxiety may exhibit a continued cycle of heart failure progression, increased depression, and increased anxiety. Understanding the underlying pathophysiological relationships in patients with heart failure who experience comorbid depression and/or anxiety is critical in order to implement appropriate treatments, educate patients and caregivers, and educate other health professionals.

  2. Thalassemia: Pathophysiology and management. Part A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fucharoen, S.; Rowley, P.T.; Paul, N.W.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers divided among the following sections: molecular biology and pathogenesis; pathophysiology - molecular and cellular; clinical manifestations and hematologic changes; cardiopulmonary defects and platelet function; hormones and minerals; and infection and immunology

  3. A vicious circle in chronic lymphoedema pathophysiology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cucchi, F; Rossmeislova, L; Simonsen, L

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lymphoedema is a disease caused by a congenital or acquired damage to the lymphatic system and characterized by complex chains of pathophysiologic events such as lymphatic fluid stasis, chronic inflammation, lymphatic vessels impairment, adipose tissue deposition and fibrosis. These event....... Together, these observations indicate strong reciprocal relationship between lymphatics and adipose tissue and suggest a possible key role of the adipocyte in the pathophysiology of chronic lymphoedema's vicious circle....

  4. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link between the fat body and adipose tissue was examined in this review with the aim of determining the principal factors responsible for resistance to inflammation in the insect fat body. This could be the missing link in the prevention of metabolic disorders in vertebrates, occasioned by obesity. PMID:24758278

  5. Vertebrate Embryonic Cleavage Pattern Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasley, Andrew; Chavez, Shawn; Danilchik, Michael; Wühr, Martin; Pelegri, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The pattern of the earliest cell divisions in a vertebrate embryo lays the groundwork for later developmental events such as gastrulation, organogenesis, and overall body plan establishment. Understanding these early cleavage patterns and the mechanisms that create them is thus crucial for the study of vertebrate development. This chapter describes the early cleavage stages for species representing ray-finned fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, mammals, and proto-vertebrate ascidians and summarizes current understanding of the mechanisms that govern these patterns. The nearly universal influence of cell shape on orientation and positioning of spindles and cleavage furrows and the mechanisms that mediate this influence are discussed. We discuss in particular models of aster and spindle centering and orientation in large embryonic blastomeres that rely on asymmetric internal pulling forces generated by the cleavage furrow for the previous cell cycle. Also explored are mechanisms that integrate cell division given the limited supply of cellular building blocks in the egg and several-fold changes of cell size during early development, as well as cytoskeletal specializations specific to early blastomeres including processes leading to blastomere cohesion. Finally, we discuss evolutionary conclusions beginning to emerge from the contemporary analysis of the phylogenetic distributions of cleavage patterns. In sum, this chapter seeks to summarize our current understanding of vertebrate early embryonic cleavage patterns and their control and evolution.

  6. Learning about Vertebrate Limb Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jennifer O.; Noll, Matthew; Olsen, Shayna

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an upper-level undergraduate laboratory exercise that enables students to replicate a key experiment in developmental biology. In this exercise, students have the opportunity to observe live chick embryos and stain the apical ectodermal ridge, a key tissue required for development of the vertebrate limb. Impressively, every…

  7. Molecular regionalization of the developing amphioxus neural tube challenges major partitions of the vertebrate brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuixech-Crespo, Beatriz; López-Blanch, Laura; Burguera, Demian; Maeso, Ignacio; Sánchez-Arrones, Luisa; Moreno-Bravo, Juan Antonio; Somorjai, Ildiko; Pascual-Anaya, Juan; Puelles, Eduardo; Bovolenta, Paola; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Puelles, Luis; Irimia, Manuel; Ferran, José Luis

    2017-04-01

    All vertebrate brains develop following a common Bauplan defined by anteroposterior (AP) and dorsoventral (DV) subdivisions, characterized by largely conserved differential expression of gene markers. However, it is still unclear how this Bauplan originated during evolution. We studied the relative expression of 48 genes with key roles in vertebrate neural patterning in a representative amphioxus embryonic stage. Unlike nonchordates, amphioxus develops its central nervous system (CNS) from a neural plate that is homologous to that of vertebrates, allowing direct topological comparisons. The resulting genoarchitectonic model revealed that the amphioxus incipient neural tube is unexpectedly complex, consisting of several AP and DV molecular partitions. Strikingly, comparison with vertebrates indicates that the vertebrate thalamus, pretectum, and midbrain domains jointly correspond to a single amphioxus region, which we termed Di-Mesencephalic primordium (DiMes). This suggests that these domains have a common developmental and evolutionary origin, as supported by functional experiments manipulating secondary organizers in zebrafish and mice.

  8. Inference of the ancestral vertebrate phenotype through vestiges of the whole-genome duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onimaru, Koh; Kuraku, Shigehiro

    2018-03-16

    Inferring the phenotype of the last common ancestor of living vertebrates is a challenging problem because of several unresolvable factors. They include the lack of reliable out-groups of living vertebrates, poor information about less fossilizable organs and specialized traits of phylogenetically important species, such as lampreys and hagfishes (e.g. secondary loss of vertebrae in adult hagfishes). These factors undermine the reliability of ancestral reconstruction by traditional character mapping approaches based on maximum parsimony. In this article, we formulate an approach to hypothesizing ancestral vertebrate phenotypes using information from the phylogenetic and functional properties of genes duplicated by genome expansions in early vertebrate evolution. We named the conjecture as 'chronological reconstruction of ohnolog functions (CHROF)'. This CHROF conjecture raises the possibility that the last common ancestor of living vertebrates may have had more complex traits than currently thought.

  9. Corticotropin-releasing hormone: Mediator of vertebrate life stage transitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yugo; Grommen, Sylvia V H; De Groef, Bert

    2016-03-01

    Hormones, particularly thyroid hormones and corticosteroids, play critical roles in vertebrate life stage transitions such as amphibian metamorphosis, hatching in precocial birds, and smoltification in salmonids. Since they synergistically regulate several metabolic and developmental processes that accompany vertebrate life stage transitions, the existence of extensive cross-communication between the adrenal/interrenal and thyroidal axes is not surprising. Synergies of corticosteroids and thyroid hormones are based on effects at the level of tissue hormone sensitivity and gene regulation. In addition, in representative nonmammalian vertebrates, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) stimulates hypophyseal thyrotropin secretion, and thus functions as a common regulator of both the adrenal/interrenal and thyroidal axes to release corticosteroids and thyroid hormones. The dual function of CRH has been speculated to control or affect the timing of vertebrate life history transitions across taxa. After a brief overview of recent insights in the molecular mechanisms behind the synergic actions of thyroid hormones and corticosteroids during life stage transitions, this review examines the evidence for a possible role of CRH in controlling vertebrate life stage transitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gynecomastia: Pathophysiology, Evaluation, and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ruth E.; Murad, M. Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Gynecomastia, defined as benign proliferation of male breast glandular tissue, is usually caused by increased estrogen activity, decreased testosterone activity, or the use of numerous medications. Although a fairly common presentation in the primary care setting and mostly of benign etiology, it can cause patients considerable anxiety. The initial step is to rule out pseudogynecomastia by careful history taking and physical examination. A stepwise approach that includes imaging and laboratory testing to exclude neoplasms and endocrinopathies may facilitate cost-effective diagnosis. If results of all studies are normal, idiopathic gynecomastia is diagnosed. The evidence in this area is mainly of observational nature and lower quality. PMID:19880691

  11. Origin and evolution of retinoid isomerization machinery in vertebrate visual cycle: hint from jawless vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakov, Eugenia; Gubin, Alexander N; Stearn, Olivia; Li, Yan; Campos, Maria Mercedes; Gentleman, Susan; Rogozin, Igor B; Redmond, T Michael

    2012-01-01

    .) in the last common ancestor of the jawless and jawed vertebrates.

  12. Evolution of endothelin receptors in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braasch, Ingo; Schartl, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Endothelin receptors are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the β-group of rhodopsin receptors that bind to endothelin ligands, which are 21 amino acid long peptides derived from longer prepro-endothelin precursors. The most basal Ednr-like GPCR is found outside vertebrates in the cephalochordate amphioxus, but endothelin ligands are only present among vertebrates, including the lineages of jawless vertebrates (lampreys and hagfishes), cartilaginous vertebrates (sharks, rays, and chimaeras), and bony vertebrates (ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned vertebrates including tetrapods). A bona fide endothelin system is thus a vertebrate-specific innovation with important roles for regulating the cardiovascular system, renal and pulmonary processes, as well as for the development of the vertebrate-specific neural crest cell population and its derivatives. Expectedly, dysregulation of endothelin receptors and the endothelin system leads to a multitude of human diseases. Despite the importance of different types of endothelin receptors for vertebrate development and physiology, current knowledge on endothelin ligand-receptor interactions, on the expression of endothelin receptors and their ligands, and on the functional roles of the endothelin system for embryonic development and in adult vertebrates is very much biased towards amniote vertebrates. Recent analyses from a variety of vertebrate lineages, however, have shown that the endothelin system in lineages such as teleost fish and lampreys is more diverse and is divergent from the mammalian endothelin system. This diversity is mainly based on differential evolution of numerous endothelin system components among vertebrate lineages generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication (three in teleosts) during vertebrate evolution. Here we review current understanding of the evolutionary history of the endothelin receptor family in vertebrates supplemented with surveys on the endothelin receptor gene complement of

  13. Pancreatitis in dogs and cats: definitions and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatitis, or inflammation of the pancreas, is commonly seen in dogs and cats and presents a spectrum of disease severities from acute to chronic and mild to severe. It is usually sterile, but the causes and pathophysiology remain poorly understood. The acute end of the disease spectrum is associated with a high mortality but the potential for complete recovery of organ structure and function if the animal survives. At the other end of the spectrum, chronic pancreatitis in either species can cause refractory pain and reduce quality of life. It may also result in progressive exocrine and endocrine functional impairment. There is confusion in the veterinary literature about definitions of acute and chronic pancreatitis and there are very few studies on the pathophysiology of naturally occurring pancreatitis in dogs and cats. This article reviews histological and clinical definitions and current understanding of the pathophysiology and causes in small animals by comparison with the much more extensive literature in humans, and suggests many areas that need further study in dogs and cats. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  14. Vertebral anomalies in children with Alagille syndrome: an analysis of 50 consecutive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, Evelyn; Newman, Vanessa; Haigh, Susan F.; Sidhu, Paul S.; Baker, Alastair

    2002-01-01

    Background: Vertebral anomalies may help differentiate Alagille syndrome from other causes of chronic cholestasis. We suspect significant under-reporting of vertebral anomalies in children with Alagille syndrome. Objective: To compare the vertebral anomalies in Alagille syndrome with those in patients with chronic cholestasis due to other causes. The accuracy of original radiographic reporting was evaluated. Materials and methods: Spinal radiographs of 50 patients with Alagille syndrome and 31 non-Alagille syndrome cholestatic patients were evaluated retrospectively by four trained radiologists. The number, site and type of vertebral anomaly were noted. The consensus evaluation was then compared to the original report. Results: Vertebral anomalies were found in 66% of patients with Alagille syndrome and 9.7% of cholestatic control subjects (P<0.0005). In the patients with Alagille syndrome, incomplete fusion of the anterior arch, most frequently at the D6-9 level, accounted for 123 of 126 anomalies. Multiple vertebral anomalies occurred in 48% of patients with Alagille syndrome (mean 2.5 anomalies). Vertebral anomalies were misreported in 54% of cases of Alagille syndrome. Conclusions: Vertebral anomalies are significantly more common in Alagille syndrome than in chronic cholestasis of other causes and are frequently overlooked. Reporting should be undertaken by a radiologist familiar with the appearance and location of these vertebral anomalies. (orig.)

  15. An invertebrate stomach's view on vertebrate ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Gilbert, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that vertebrate genetic material ingested by invertebrates (iDNA) can be used to investigate vertebrate ecology. Given the ubiquity of invertebrates that feed on vertebrates across the globe, iDNA might qualify as a very powerful tool for 21st century population...

  16. Pathophysiology of overuse tendon injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannus, P.; Paavola, M.; Paakkala, T.; Parkkari, J.; Jaervinen, T.; Jaervinen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Overuse tendon injury is one of the most common injuries in sports.The etiology as well as the pathophysilogical mechanisms leading to tendinopathy are of crucial medical importance.At the moment intrinsic and extrinsic factors are assumed as mechanisms of overuse tendon injury. Except for the acute, extrinsic trauma, the chronic overuse tendon injury is a multifactorial process. There are many other factors, such as local hypoxia, less of nutrition, impaired metabolism and local inflammatory that may also contribute to the development of tissue damage.The exact interaction of these factors cannot be explained entirely at the moment.Further studies will be necessary in order to get more information. (orig.) [de

  17. Imaging Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology with PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Porcello Schilling

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD has been reconceptualised as a dynamic pathophysiological process characterized by preclinical, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and dementia stages. Positron emission tomography (PET associated with various molecular imaging agents reveals numerous aspects of dementia pathophysiology, such as brain amyloidosis, tau accumulation, neuroreceptor changes, metabolism abnormalities and neuroinflammation in dementia patients. In the context of a growing shift toward presymptomatic early diagnosis and disease-modifying interventions, PET molecular imaging agents provide an unprecedented means of quantifying the AD pathophysiological process, monitoring disease progression, ascertaining whether therapies engage their respective brain molecular targets, as well as quantifying pharmacological responses. In the present study, we highlight the most important contributions of PET in describing brain molecular abnormalities in AD.

  18. Current concepts in the pathophysiology of glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Renu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness, is characterized by changes in the optic disc and visual field defects. The elevated intraocular pressure was considered the prime factor responsible for the glaucomatous optic neuropathy involving death of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Extensive investigations into the pathophysiology of glaucoma now reveal the role of multiple factors in the development of retinal ganglion cell death. A better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the onset and progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy is crucial in the development of better therapeutic options. This review is an effort to summarize the current concepts in the pathophysiology of glaucoma so that newer therapeutic targets can be recognized. The literature available in the National Medical Library and online Pubmed search engine was used for literature review.

  19. Recanalisation of spontaneously occluded vertebral artery dissection after subarachnoid haemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Takenori; Onozuka, Satoshi; Horiguchi, Takashi; Yoshida, Kazunari

    2012-10-01

    Spontaneous occlusion is a rare manifestation of ruptured vertebral artery dissection (VAD). Its natural history and treatment strategy have yet to be established due to its rarity. Here, we report five lesions involving spontaneous occlusion of VAD after subarachnoid haemorrhage, among which three lesions showed recanalisation. Based on our experience and previous reports, spontaneous occlusion of ruptured VAD can be classified into two groups-one group with occlusion in the acute stage with a high incidence of recanalisation and another group with occlusion in the chronic stage with a relatively low incidence of recanalisation. The underlying mechanism is likely different in each group, and treatment strategies should also be tailored depending on the pathophysiology.

  20. The origin of vertebrate limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, M I

    1994-01-01

    The earliest tetrapod limbs are polydactylous, morphologically varied and do not conform to an archetypal pattern. These discoveries, combined with the unravelling of limb developmental morphogenetic and regulatory mechanisms, have prompted a re-examination of vertebrate limb evolution. The rich fossil record of vertebrate fins/limbs, although restricted to skeletal tissues, exceeds the morphological diversity of the extant biota, and a systematic approach to limb evolution produces an informative picture of evolutionary change. A composite framework of several phylogenetic hypotheses is presented incorporating living and fossil taxa, including the first report of an acanthodian metapterygium and a new reconstruction of the axial skeleton and caudal fin of Acanthostega gunnari. Although significant nodes in vertebrate phylogeny remain poorly resolved, clear patterns of morphogenetic evolution emerge: median fin origination and elaboration initially precedes that of paired fins; pectoral fins initially precede pelvic fin development; evolving patterns of fin distribution, skeletal tissue diversity and structural complexity become decoupled with increased taxonomic divergence. Transformational sequences apparent from the fish-tetrapod transition are reiterated among extant lungfishes, indicating further directions for comparative experimental research. The evolutionary diversification of vertebrate fin and limb patterns challenges a simple linkage between Hox gene conservation, expression and morphology. A phylogenetic framework is necessary in order to distinguish shared from derived characters in experimental model regulatory systems. Hox and related genomic evolution may include convergent patterns underlying functional and morphological diversification. Brachydanio is suggested as an example where tail-drive patterning demands may have converged with the regulation of highly differentiated limbs in tetrapods.

  1. Dry eye disease: pathophysiology, classification, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Henry D

    2008-04-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disorder of the tear film and ocular surface that results in eye discomfort, visual disturbance, and often ocular surface damage. Although recent research has made progress in elucidating DED pathophysiology, currently there are no uniform diagnostic criteria. This article discusses the normal anatomy and physiology of the lacrimal functional unit and the tear film; the pathophysiology of DED; DED etiology, classification, and risk factors; and DED diagnosis, including symptom assessment and the roles of selected diagnostic tests.

  2. Vascular complications of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Kevin J; Ross, E Raymond S; Norris, Heather; McCollum, Charles N

    2006-10-01

    Five consecutive cases of prosthetic inter-vertebral disc displacement with severe vascular complications on revisional surgery are described. The objective of this case report is to warn spinal surgeons that major vascular complications are likely with anterior displacement of inter-vertebral discs. We have not been able to find a previous report on vascular complications associated with anterior displacement of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs. In all five patients the prosthetic disc had eroded into the bifurcation of the inferior vena cava and the left common iliac vein. In three cases the aortic bifurcation was also involved. The fibrosis was so severe that dissecting out the arteries and veins to provide access to the relevant disc proved impossible. Formal division of the left common iliac vein and artery with subsequent repair was our solution. Anterior inter-vertebral disc displacement was associated with severe vascular injury. Preventing anterior disc displacement is essential in disc design. In the event of anterior displacement, disc removal should be planned with a Vascular Surgeon.

  3. Contaminant exposure in terrestrial vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Philip N.; Cobb, George P.; Godard-Codding, Celine; Hoff, Dale; McMurry, Scott T.; Rainwater, Thomas R.; Reynolds, Kevin D.

    2007-01-01

    Here we review mechanisms and factors influencing contaminant exposure among terrestrial vertebrate wildlife. There exists a complex mixture of biotic and abiotic factors that dictate potential for contaminant exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial vertebrates. Chemical fate and transport in the environment determine contaminant bioaccessibility. Species-specific natural history characteristics and behavioral traits then play significant roles in the likelihood that exposure pathways, from source to receptor, are complete. Detailed knowledge of natural history traits of receptors considered in conjunction with the knowledge of contaminant behavior and distribution on a site are critical when assessing and quantifying exposure. We review limitations in our understanding of elements of exposure and the unique aspects of exposure associated with terrestrial and semi-terrestrial taxa. We provide insight on taxa-specific traits that contribute, or limit exposure to, transport phenomenon that influence exposure throughout terrestrial systems, novel contaminants, bioavailability, exposure data analysis, and uncertainty associated with exposure in wildlife risk assessments. Lastly, we identify areas related to exposure among terrestrial and semi-terrestrial organisms that warrant additional research. - Both biotic and abiotic factors determine chemical exposure for terrestrial vertebrates

  4. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilela, P.; Goulao, A. [Hospital Garcia de Orta, Servico de Neurorradiologia, Almada (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  5. Ischemic stroke: carotid and vertebral artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilela, P.; Goulao, A.

    2005-01-01

    Ischemic strokes may have distinct aetiologies, including several different intrinsic arterial pathological disorders. The diagnosis and understanding of these arterial diseases is critical for the correct management of stroke as different treatment approaches are undertaken according to the aetiology. Atherosclerosis is by far the most common arterial disease among adults, and other pathological processes include arterial dissection, small vessel disease, inflammatory and non-inflammatory vasculopathy and vasomotor disorders. In children, there are several vasculopathies responsible for vaso-occlusive disease such as sickle-cell anemia, acute regressive angiopathy and Moya-Moya disease, neurofibromatosis, dissections, vasculitis associated with intracranial and systemic infections. An overview of the major carotid and vertebral pathological diseases responsible for ischemic stroke in adults and children, highlighting the accuracy of the different imaging modalities for its diagnosis and the imaging appearance of these diseases, is given. (orig.)

  6. Early vertebrate origin and diversification of small transmembrane regulators of cellular ion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkmajer, Sergej; Kirchner, Henriette; Lundell, Leonidas S; Zelenin, Pavel V; Zierath, Juleen R; Makarova, Kira S; Wolf, Yuri I; Chibalin, Alexander V

    2017-07-15

    Small transmembrane proteins such as FXYDs, which interact with Na + ,K + -ATPase, and the micropeptides that interact with sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase play fundamental roles in regulation of ion transport in vertebrates. Uncertain evolutionary origins and phylogenetic relationships among these regulators of ion transport have led to inconsistencies in their classification across vertebrate species, thus hampering comparative studies of their functions. We discovered the first FXYD homologue in sea lamprey, a basal jawless vertebrate, which suggests small transmembrane regulators of ion transport emerged early in the vertebrate lineage. We also identified 13 gene subfamilies of FXYDs and propose a revised, phylogeny-based FXYD classification that is consistent across vertebrate species. These findings provide an improved framework for investigating physiological and pathophysiological functions of small transmembrane regulators of ion transport. Small transmembrane proteins are important for regulation of cellular ion transport. The most prominent among these are members of the FXYD family (FXYD1-12), which regulate Na + ,K + -ATPase, and phospholamban, sarcolipin, myoregulin and DWORF, which regulate the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA). FXYDs and regulators of SERCA are present in fishes, as well as terrestrial vertebrates; however, their evolutionary origins and phylogenetic relationships are obscure, thus hampering comparative physiological studies. Here we discovered that sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a representative of extant jawless vertebrates (Cyclostomata), expresses an FXYD homologue, which strongly suggests that FXYDs predate the emergence of fishes and other jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Using a combination of sequence-based phylogenetic analysis and conservation of local chromosome context, we determined that FXYDs markedly diversified in the lineages leading to cartilaginous fishes (Chondrichthyes) and bony

  7. Prevalent morphometric vertebral fractures in professional male rugby players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hind

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n = 52 and union (n = 43 players (n = 95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3 years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9 kg.m2 participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA. One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1, 40 moderate (grade 2 and 6 severe (grade 3. Multiple vertebral fractures (≥2 were found in 37 players (39%. There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05. The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n = 23, T9 (n = 18 and T10 (n = 21. The mean (SD lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3 indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation.

  8. Retinal vein occlusion: pathophysiology and treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Karia, Niral

    2010-01-01

    Niral KariaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Southend Hospital, Prittlewell Chase, Westcliff on Sea, Essex, United KingdomAbstract: This paper reviews the current thinking about retinal vein occlusion. It gives an overview of its pathophysiology and discusses the evidence behind the various established and emerging treatment paradigms.Keywords: central, hemispheric, branch, retinal vein occlusion, visual loss

  9. Pathophysiology of diurnal drooling in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalf, J.G.; Munneke, M.; Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Swart, B.J.M. de; Borm, G.F.; Bloem, B.R.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Drooling is an incapacitating feature of Parkinson's disease. Better pathophysiological insights are needed to improve treatment. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the cause of drooling is multifactorial. We examined 15 patients with Parkinson's disease with distinct diurnal saliva loss

  10. Kyphoplasty for vertebral augmentation in the elderly with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: scenarios and review of recent studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, Timothy; Heyde, Christoph E; Bednar, Grace; Nguyen, David; Volpi, Elena; Przkora, Rene

    2013-11-01

    Vertebral compression fractures caused by osteoporosis are among the most common fractures in the elderly. The treatment focuses on pain control, maintenance of independence, and management of the osteoporosis. Elderly patients often encounter adverse effects to pain medications, do not tolerate bed rest, and are not ideal candidates for invasive spinal reconstructive surgery. Percutaneous vertebral augmentation (vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty) has become popular as a less-invasive alternative. However, studies have questioned the effectiveness of these procedures. The authors conducted a MEDLINE search using relevant search terms including osteoporosis, osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture, elderly, kyphoplasty and vertebroplasty. Two elderly patients presented with a fracture of their third and first lumbar vertebral body, respectively. One patient progressed well with conservative treatment, whereas the other patient was hospitalized secondary to pain after conservative measures failed to offer improvement. The hospitalized patient subsequently opted for a kyphoplasty and was able to resume his normal daily activities after the procedure. Selecting patients on an individual case-by-case basis can optimize the effectiveness and outcomes of a vertebral augmentation. This process includes the documentation of an osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture with the aide of imaging studies, including the acuity of the fracture as well as the correlation with the physical examination findings. Patients who are functional and improving under a conservative regimen are not candidates for kyphoplasty. However, if the conservative management is not successful after 4 to 6 weeks and the patient is at risk to become bedridden, an augmentation should be considered. A kyphoplasty procedure may be preferred over vertebroplasty, given the lower risk profile and better outcomes regarding spinal alignment. Published by Elsevier HS Journals, Inc.

  11. The origin and diversification of the developmental mechanisms that pattern the vertebrate head skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Square, Tyler; Jandzik, David; Romášek, Marek; Cerny, Robert; Medeiros, Daniel Meulemans

    2017-07-15

    The apparent evolvability of the vertebrate head skeleton has allowed a diverse array of shapes, sizes, and compositions of the head in order to better adapt species to their environments. This encompasses feeding, breathing, sensing, and communicating: the head skeleton somehow participated in the evolution of all these critical processes for the last 500 million years. Through evolution, present head diversity was made possible via developmental modifications to the first head skeletal genetic program. Understanding the development of the vertebrate common ancestor's head skeleton is thus an important step in identifying how different lineages have respectively achieved their many innovations in the head. To this end, cyclostomes (jawless vertebrates) are extremely useful, having diverged from jawed vertebrates approximately 400 million years ago, at the deepest node within living vertebrates. From this ancestral vantage point (that is, the node connecting cyclostomes and gnathostomes) we can best identify the earliest major differences in development between vertebrate classes, and start to address how these might translate onto morphology. In this review we survey what is currently known about the cell biology and gene expression during head development in modern vertebrates, allowing us to better characterize the developmental genetics driving head skeleton formation in the most recent common ancestor of all living vertebrates. By pairing this vertebrate composite with information from fossil chordates, we can also deduce how gene regulatory modules might have been arranged in the ancestral vertebrate head. Together, we can immediately begin to understand which aspects of head skeletal development are the most conserved, and which are divergent, informing us as to when the first differences appear during development, and thus which pathways or cell types might be involved in generating lineage specific shape and structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  12. Gout and the Risk of Non-vertebral Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seoyoung C; Paik, Julie M; Liu, Jun; Curhan, Gary C; Solomon, Daniel H

    2017-02-01

    Prior studies suggest an association between osteoporosis, systemic inflammation, and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6. Conflicting findings exist on the association between hyperuricemia and osteoporosis. Furthermore, it remains unknown whether gout, a common inflammatory arthritis, affects fracture risk. Using data from a US commercial health plan (2004-2013), we evaluated the risk of non-vertebral fracture (ie, forearm, wrist, hip, and pelvis) in patients with gout versus those without. Gout patients were identified with ≥2 diagnosis codes and ≥1 dispensing for a gout-related drug. Non-gout patients, identified with ≥2 visits coded for any diagnosis and ≥1 dispensing for any prescription drugs, were free of gout diagnosis and received no gout-related drugs. Hip fracture was the secondary outcome. Fractures were identified with a combination of diagnosis and procedure codes. Cox proportional hazards models compared the risk of non-vertebral fracture in gout patients versus non-gout, adjusting for more than 40 risk factors for osteoporotic fracture. Among gout patients with baseline serum uric acid (sUA) measurements available, we assessed the risk of non-vertebral fracture associated with sUA. We identified 73,202 gout and 219,606 non-gout patients, matched on age, sex, and the date of study entry. The mean age was 60 years and 82% were men. Over the mean 2-year follow-up, the incidence rate of non-vertebral fracture per 1,000 person-years was 2.92 in gout and 2.66 in non-gout. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-1.12) for non-vertebral fracture and 0.83 (95% CI 0.65-1.07) for hip fracture in gout versus non-gout. Subgroup analysis (n = 15,079) showed no association between baseline sUA and non-vertebral fracture (HR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.93-1.15), adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity score, and number of any prescription drugs. Gout was not associated with a risk of non-vertebral

  13. Evolution of the new vertebrate head by co-option of an ancient chordate skeletal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandzik, David; Garnett, Aaron T; Square, Tyler A; Cattell, Maria V; Yu, Jr-Kai; Medeiros, Daniel M

    2015-02-26

    A defining feature of vertebrates (craniates) is a pronounced head that is supported and protected by a robust cellular endoskeleton. In the first vertebrates, this skeleton probably consisted of collagenous cellular cartilage, which forms the embryonic skeleton of all vertebrates and the adult skeleton of modern jawless and cartilaginous fish. In the head, most cellular cartilage is derived from a migratory cell population called the neural crest, which arises from the edges of the central nervous system. Because collagenous cellular cartilage and neural crest cells have not been described in invertebrates, the appearance of cellular cartilage derived from neural crest cells is considered a turning point in vertebrate evolution. Here we show that a tissue with many of the defining features of vertebrate cellular cartilage transiently forms in the larvae of the invertebrate chordate Branchiostoma floridae (Florida amphioxus). We also present evidence that during evolution, a key regulator of vertebrate cartilage development, SoxE, gained new cis-regulatory sequences that subsequently directed its novel expression in neural crest cells. Together, these results suggest that the origin of the vertebrate head skeleton did not depend on the evolution of a new skeletal tissue, as is commonly thought, but on the spread of this tissue throughout the head. We further propose that the evolution of cis-regulatory elements near an ancient regulator of cartilage differentiation was a major factor in the evolution of the vertebrate head skeleton.

  14. Vertebral morphology influences the development of Schmorl's nodes in the lower thoracic vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomp, Kimberly A; Roberts, Charlotte A; Viðarsdóttir, Una Strand

    2012-12-01

    Schmorl's nodes are the result of herniations of the nucleus pulposus into the adjacent vertebral body and are commonly identified in both clinical and archaeological contexts. The current study aims to identify aspects of vertebral shape that correlate with Schmorl's nodes. Two-dimensional statistical shape analysis was performed on digital images of the lower thoracic spine (T10-T12) of adult skeletons from the late medieval skeletal assemblages from Fishergate House, York, St. Mary Graces and East Smithfield Black Death cemeteries, London, and postmedieval Chelsea Old Church, London. Schmorl's nodes were scored on the basis of their location, depth, and size. Results indicate that there is a correlation between the shape of the posterior margin of the vertebral body and pedicles and the presence of Schmorl's nodes in the lower thoracic spine. The size of the vertebral body in males was also found to correlate with the lesions. Vertebral shape differences associated with the macroscopic characteristics of Schmorl's nodes, indicating severity of the lesion, were also analyzed. The shape of the pedicles and the posterior margin of the vertebral body, along with a larger vertebral body size in males, have a strong association with both the presence and severity of Schmorl's nodes. This suggests that shape and/or size of these vertebral components are predisposing to, or resulting in, vertically directed disc herniation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Supine vs decubitus lateral patient positioning in vertebral fracture assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggiosi, Margaret Anne; Finigan, Judith; Peel, Nicola; Eastell, Richard; Ferrar, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    In vertebral fracture assessment (VFA), lateral scans are obtained with the patient positioned supine (C-arm densitometers) or lateral decubitus (fixed-arm densitometers). We aimed to determine the impact of positioning on image quality and fracture definition. We performed supine and decubitus lateral VFA in 50 postmenopausal women and used the algorithm-based qualitative method to identify vertebral fractures. We compared the 2 techniques for the identification of fractures (kappa analysis) and compared the numbers of unreadable vertebrae (indiscernible endplates) and vertebrae that were projected obliquely (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test). The kappa score for agreement between the VFA techniques (to identify women with vertebral fractures) was 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68-0.99), and for agreement with fracture assessments made from radiographs, kappa was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.57-0.94) for both supine and decubitus lateral VFA. There were more unreadable vertebrae with supine lateral (48 vertebrae in supine lateral compared with 14 in decubitus lateral; p=0.001), but oblique projection was less common (93 vertebrae compared with 145 in decubitus lateral; p=0.002). We conclude that there were significantly different projection effects with supine and decubitus lateral VFA, but these differences did not influence the identification of vertebral fractures in our study sample. Copyright © 2012 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vertebral Artery Dissection Causing Stroke After Trampoline Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casserly, Courtney S; Lim, Rodrick K; Prasad, Asuri Narayan

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to report a case of a 4-year-old boy who had been playing on the trampoline and presented to the emergency department (ED) with vomiting and ataxia, and had a vertebral artery dissection with subsequent posterior circulation infarcts. This study is a chart review. The patient presented to the emergency department with a 4-day history of vomiting and gait unsteadiness. A computed tomography scan of his head revealed multiple left cerebellar infarcts. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging/magnetic resonance angiogram of his head and neck demonstrated multiple infarcts involving the left cerebellum, bilateral thalami, and left occipital lobe. A computed tomography angiogram confirmed the presence of a left vertebral artery dissection. Vertebral artery dissection is a relatively common cause of stroke in the pediatric age group. Trampoline use has been associated with significant risk of injury to the head and neck. Patients who are small and/or young are most at risk. In this case, minor trauma secondary to trampoline use could be a possible mechanism for vertebral artery dissection and subsequent strokes. The association in this case warrants careful consideration because trampoline use could pose a significant risk to pediatric users.

  17. CIRSE Guidelines on Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsoumakidou, Georgia, E-mail: gtsoumakidou@yahoo.com; Too, Chow Wei, E-mail: spyder55@gmail.com; Koch, Guillaume, E-mail: guillaume.koch@gmail.com; Caudrelier, Jean, E-mail: jean.caudrelier@chru-strasbourg.fr; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi, E-mail: gigicazzato@hotmail.it; Garnon, Julien, E-mail: juliengarnon@gmail.com; Gangi, Afshin, E-mail: gangi@unistra.fr [Strasbourg University Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (France)

    2017-03-15

    Vertebral compression fracture (VCF) is an important cause of severe debilitating back pain, adversely affecting quality of life, physical function, psychosocial performance, mental health and survival. Different vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs) are used in order to consolidate the VCFs, relief pain,and whenever posible achieve vertebral body height restoration. In the present review we give the indications, contraindications, safety profile and outcomes of the existing percutaneous VAPs.

  18. The vertebrate Hox gene regulatory network for hindbrain segmentation: Evolution and diversification: Coupling of a Hox gene regulatory network to hindbrain segmentation is an ancient trait originating at the base of vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Hugo J; Bronner, Marianne E; Krumlauf, Robb

    2016-06-01

    Hindbrain development is orchestrated by a vertebrate gene regulatory network that generates segmental patterning along the anterior-posterior axis via Hox genes. Here, we review analyses of vertebrate and invertebrate chordate models that inform upon the evolutionary origin and diversification of this network. Evidence from the sea lamprey reveals that the hindbrain regulatory network generates rhombomeric compartments with segmental Hox expression and an underlying Hox code. We infer that this basal feature was present in ancestral vertebrates and, as an evolutionarily constrained developmental state, is fundamentally important for patterning of the vertebrate hindbrain across diverse lineages. Despite the common ground plan, vertebrates exhibit neuroanatomical diversity in lineage-specific patterns, with different vertebrates revealing variations of Hox expression in the hindbrain that could underlie this diversification. Invertebrate chordates lack hindbrain segmentation but exhibit some conserved aspects of this network, with retinoic acid signaling playing a role in establishing nested domains of Hox expression. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Delayed vertebral diagnosed L4 pincer vertebral fracture, L2-L3 ruptured vertebral lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture - Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Balasa D; Schiopu M; Tunas A; Baz R; Hancu Anca

    2016-01-01

    An association between delayed ruptured lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture and posttraumaticL4 pincer vertebral fracture (A2.3-AO clasification) at different levels is a very rare entity. We present the case of a 55 years old male who falled down from a bicycle. 2 months later because of intense and permanent vertebral lumbar and radicular L2 and L3 pain (Visual Scal Autologus of Pain7-8/10) the patient came to the hospital. He was diagnosed with pincer vertebral L4 fracture (A2....

  20. Hemifacial spasm; The value of vertebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hak Seok; Kim, Myung Soon; Han, Yong Pyo

    1992-01-01

    In order to evaluate the value of vertebral angiography in assesment of hemifacial spasm, We reviewed retrospectively the vertebral angiography of 28 patients (30 cases) with surgically proved hemifacial spasm but normal CT scans of posterior fossa. There were 9 males and 19 females. Angiography revealed vascular focus of hemifacial spasm located at anterior inferior cerebellar artery , posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and vertebral artery in 19, 9, and 2 cases respectively. Right side was involved in 20 cases. All involved vessels were elongated, tortuous, and dilated. In conclusion, vertebral angiography was valuable in evaluating hemifacial spasm of vascular origin in the posterior fossa

  1. Stable coronary syndromes: pathophysiology, diagnostic advances and therapeutic need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, David

    2018-01-01

    The diagnostic management of patients with angina pectoris typically centres on the detection of obstructive epicardial CAD, which aligns with evidence-based treatment options that include medical therapy and myocardial revascularisation. This clinical paradigm fails to account for the considerable proportion (approximately one-third) of patients with angina in whom obstructive CAD is excluded. This common scenario presents a diagnostic conundrum whereby angina occurs but there is no obstructive CAD (ischaemia and no obstructive coronary artery disease—INOCA). We review new insights into the pathophysiology of angina whereby myocardial ischaemia results from a deficient supply of oxygenated blood to the myocardium, due to various combinations of focal or diffuse epicardial disease (macrovascular), microvascular dysfunction or both. Macrovascular disease may be due to the presence of obstructive CAD secondary to atherosclerosis, or may be dynamic due to a functional disorder (eg, coronary artery spasm, myocardial bridging). Pathophysiology of coronary microvascular disease may involve anatomical abnormalities resulting in increased coronary resistance, or functional abnormalities resulting in abnormal vasomotor tone. We consider novel clinical diagnostic techniques enabling new insights into the causes of angina and appraise the need for improved therapeutic options for patients with INOCA. We conclude that the taxonomy of stable CAD could improve to better reflect the heterogeneous pathophysiology of the coronary circulation. We propose the term ‘stable coronary syndromes’ (SCS), which aligns with the well-established terminology for ‘acute coronary syndromes’. SCS subtends a clinically relevant classification that more fully encompasses the different diseases of the epicardial and microvascular coronary circulation. PMID:29030424

  2. Pathophysiology of spontaneous venous gas embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertsen, C. J.; Albertine, K. H.; Pisarello, J. B.; Flores, N. D.

    1991-01-01

    The use of controllable degrees and durations of continuous isobaric counterdiffusion venous gas embolism to investigate effects of venous gas embolism upon blood, cardiovascular, and respiratory gas exchange function, as well as pathological effects upon the lung and its microcirculation is discussed. Use of N2O/He counterdiffusion permitted performance of the pathophysiologic and pulmonary microstructural effects at one ATA without hyperbaric or hypobaric exposures.

  3. Otosclerosis update (1). Pathophysiology and diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kaoru; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Saito, Hideyuki; Kanzaki, Sho; Okamoto, Yasuhide; Mizutari, Kunio; Suzuki, Takashi; Oishi, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    Otosclerosis is an otological disease that typicaly causes conductive hearing loss. This disease is an important clinical entity since hearing impairment in these case can be dramatically improved by surgery. In this review paper, we review recent research into the pathophysiology of otosclerosis and summarize clinical features, audiometry and diagnostic imaging examinations in 160 ears with otosclerosis that we treated surgically in our department. (author)

  4. Jaundice associated pruritis: a review of pathophysiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassari, Ramez; Koea, Jonathan B

    2015-02-07

    To review the underlying pathophysiology and currently available treatments for pruritis associated with jaundice. English language literature was reviewed using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and clinicaltrials.gov for papers and trails addressing the pathophysiology and potential treatments for pruritis associated with jaundice. Recent advances in the understanding of the peripheral anatomy of itch transmission have defined a histamine stimulated pathway and a cowhage stimulated pathway with sensation conveyed centrally via the contralateral spinothalamic tract. Centrally, cowhage and histamine stimulated neurons terminate widely within the thalamus and sensorimotor cortex. The causative factors for itch in jaundice have not been clarified although endogenous opioids, serotonin, steroid and lysophosphatidic acid all play a role. Current guidelines for the treatment of itching in jaundice recommend initial management with biliary drainage where possible and medical management with ursodeoxycholic acid, followed by cholestyramine, rifampicin, naltrexone and sertraline. Other than biliary drainage no single treatment has proved universally effective. Pruritis associated with jaundice is a common but poorly understood condition for which biliary drainage is the most effective therapy. Pharmacological therapy has advanced but remains variably effective.

  5. Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of canine hip dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.L.; Tomlinson, J.L.; Constantinescu, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    Dogs with hip dysplasia are commonly presented to veterinarians for evaluation. Although many causes of the condition have been proposed, a definitive cause has not been established. The multifactorial nature of canine hip dysplasia can confuse client education and management ofthe disease. The basic concept involved is the biomechanical imbalance between the forces on the coxofemoral joint and the associated muscle mass; the result is joint laxity in young, growing dogs. This laxity leads to incongruity; the eventual result is degenerative joint disease. Canine hip dysplasia can affect any breed but is most often reported in large and giant breeds. Understanding the pathophysiology and biomechanics involved with this developmental disease is important in providing clients with diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic information. The selection of treatment is influenced by the following factors:the age, health, and intended use of the patient; clinical signs; diagnostic findings; the availability of treatment; and the financial constraints of the owner. This article discusses the current concepts concerning the pathophysiology and biomechanics of canine hip dysplasia and outlines diagnostic and therapeutic options. The objective of the article is to provide practitioners with a reference for decision making and client education

  6. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and sleep disorders: pathophysiologic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Höller, Yvonne; Brigo, Francesco; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen

    2013-11-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying the development of the most common intrinsic sleep disorders are not completely known. Therefore, there is a great need for noninvasive tools which can be used to better understand the pathophysiology of these diseases. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) offers a method to noninvasively investigate the functional integrity of the motor cortex and its corticospinal projections in neurologic and psychiatric diseases. To date, TMS studies have revealed cortical and corticospinal dysfunction in several sleep disorders, with cortical hyperexcitability being a characteristic feature in some disorders (i.e., the restless legs syndrome) and cortical hypoexcitability being a well-established finding in others (i.e., obstructive sleep apnea syndrome narcolepsy). Several research groups also have applied TMS to evaluate the effects of pharmacologic agents, such as dopaminergic agent or wake-promoting substances. Our review will focus on the mechanisms underlying the generation of abnormal TMS measures in the different types of sleep disorders, the contribution of TMS in enhancing the understanding of their pathophysiology, and the potential diagnostic utility of TMS techniques. We also briefly discussed the possible future implications for improving therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Studies on the Pathophysiology and Genetic Basis of Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Claudia F; Sutherland, Heidi G.; Griffiths, Lyn R

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a neurological disorder that affects the central nervous system causing painful attacks of headache. A genetic vulnerability and exposure to environmental triggers can influence the migraine phenotype. Migraine interferes in many facets of people’s daily life including employment commitments and their ability to look after their families resulting in a reduced quality of life. Identification of the biological processes that underlie this relatively common affliction has been difficult because migraine does not have any clearly identifiable pathology or structural lesion detectable by current medical technology. Theories to explain the symptoms of migraine have focused on the physiological mechanisms involved in the various phases of headache and include the vascular and neurogenic theories. In relation to migraine pathophysiology the trigeminovascular system and cortical spreading depression have also been implicated with supporting evidence from imaging studies and animal models. The objective of current research is to better understand the pathways and mechanisms involved in causing pain and headache to be able to target interventions. The genetic component of migraine has been teased apart using linkage studies and both candidate gene and genome-wide association studies, in family and case-control cohorts. Genomic regions that increase individual risk to migraine have been identified in neurological, vascular and hormonal pathways. This review discusses knowledge of the pathophysiology and genetic basis of migraine with the latest scientific evidence from genetic studies. PMID:24403849

  8. Air leak after lung resection: pathophysiology and patients' implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Cecilia; Miserocchi, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    Protocols for the management of air leaks are critical aspects in the postoperative course of patients following lung resections. Many investigations in the last decade are focusing on the chest tube modalities or preventative measures, however, little is known about the pathophysiology of air leak and the patient perception of this common complication. This review concentrates on understanding the reasons why a pulmonary parenchyma may start to leak or an air leak may be longer than others. Experimental works support the notion that lung overdistension may favor air leak. These studies may represent the basis of future investigations. Furthermore, the standardization of nomenclature in the field of pleural space management and the creation of novel air leak scoring systems have contributed to improve the knowledge among thoracic surgeons and facilitate the organization of trials on this matter. We tried to summarize available evidences about the patient perception of a prolonged air leak and about what would be useful for them in order to prevent worsening of their quality of life. Future investigations are warranted to better understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible of prolonged air leak in order to define tailored treatments and protocols. Improving the care at home with web-based telemonitoring or real time connected chest drainage may in a future improve the quality of life of the patients experience this complication and also enhance hospital finances.

  9. Recent developments in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy

    2015-07-07

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder, the pathophysiology of which is not completely known, although it has been shown that genetic/social learning factors, diet, intestinal microbiota, intestinal low-grade inflammation, and abnormal gastrointestinal endocrine cells play a major role. Studies of familial aggregation and on twins have confirmed the heritability of IBS. However, the proposed IBS risk genes are thus far nonvalidated hits rather than true predisposing factors. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, with the effect exerted by diet seemingly caused by intake of poorly absorbed carbohydrates and fiber. Obesity is a possible comorbidity of IBS. Differences in the microbiota between IBS patients and healthy controls have been reported, but the association between IBS symptoms and specific bacterial species is uncertain. Low-grade inflammation appears to play a role in the pathophysiology of a major subset of IBS, namely postinfectious IBS. The density of intestinal endocrine cells is reduced in patients with IBS, possibly as a result of genetic factors, diet, intestinal microbiota, and low-grade inflammation interfering with the regulatory signals controlling the intestinal stem-cell clonogenic and differentiation activities. Furthermore, there is speculation that this decreased number of endocrine cells is responsible for the visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed gastrointestinal motility, and abnormal gut secretion seen in IBS patients.

  10. Alzheimer's disease: pathophysiology and applications of magnetic nanoparticles as MRI theranostic agents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amiri, H.; Saeidi, K.; Borhani, P.; Manafirad, A.; Ghavami, M.; Zerbi, V.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. During the recent decade, nanotechnology has been widely considered, as a promising tool, for theranosis (diagnosis and therapy) of AD. Here we first discuss pathophysiology and characteristics of AD with a focus on the amyloid cascade

  11. The control of independent students’ work effectiveness during pathophysiology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. V. Melnikova

    2013-06-01

    can guarantee that student is prepared for practical class. Such method of control makes it possible for the teacher to define basic statements of the topic, common laws of pathological processes and peculiarities of these laws display in different organs and organs’ systems during the practical class. It can also help to devote more time during the practical classes for situational problems solutions. There can be no doubt that solution of situational problems on Pathophysiology develops the abilities for intellectual modeling of pathological processes in different organs and systems, allows to use the knowledge of basic sciences and forms the basis of clinical thinking in medical students. Such skills will be helpful for the students to make correct and quick decisions in their future practical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Individual work is an integral part of medical students’ education. It’s effectiveness determines the success of Pathophysiology study. The teacher’s control upon individual work of students will improve their skills in working with educational literature and scientific publications. These skills should make the basis for high professional qualification, which is reached by regular analysis of scientific publications on their medical specialty; for the ability to use scientific discoveries in practical medicine.

  12. Insights into Pathophysiology from Medication-induced Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Morgan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication-induced tremor (MIT is common in clinical practice and there are many medications/drugs that can cause or exacerbate tremors. MIT typically occurs by enhancement of physiological tremor (EPT, but not all drugs cause tremor in this way. In this manuscript, we review how some common examples of MIT have informed us about the pathophysiology of tremor.Methods: We performed a PubMed literature search for published articles dealing with MIT and attempted to identify articles that especially dealt with the medication’s mechanism of inducing tremor.Results: There is a paucity of literature that deals with the mechanisms of MIT, with most manuscripts only describing the frequency and clinical settings where MIT is observed. That being said, MIT emanates from multiple mechanisms depending on the drug and it often takes an individualized approach to manage MIT in a given patient.Discussion: MIT has provided some insight into the mechanisms of tremors we see in clinical practice. The exact mechanism of MIT is unknown for most medications that cause tremor, but it is assumed that in most cases physiological tremor is influenced by these medications. Some medications (epinephrine that cause EPT likely lead to tremor by peripheral mechanisms in the muscle (β-adrenergic agonists, but others may influence the central component (amitriptyline. Other drugs can cause tremor, presumably by blockade of dopamine receptors in the basal ganglia (dopamine-blocking agents, by secondary effects such as causing hyperthyroidism (amiodarone, or by other mechanisms. We will attempt to discuss what is known and unknown about the pathophysiology of the most common MITs.

  13. Review of radiological scoring methods of osteoporotic vertebral fractures for clinical and research settings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, Ling [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-75, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-83, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rivadeneira, Fernando [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-75, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee5-79, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Ly, Felisia; Breda, Stephan J. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-75, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-83, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Zillikens, M.C. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, ' s Gravendijkwal 230, CE, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hofman, Albert [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-75, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Uitterlinden, Andre G. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee21-75, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus Medical Center, Departments of Internal Medicine and Epidemiology, P.O. Box 2040 Ee5-75B, CA, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krestin, Gabriel P.; Oei, Edwin H.G. [Erasmus Medical Center, Department of Radiology, ' s Gravendijkwal 230, CE, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease; vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fractures. Several radiological scoring methods using different criteria for osteoporotic vertebral fractures exist. Quantitative morphometry (QM) uses ratios derived from direct vertebral body height measurements to define fractures. Semi-quantitative (SQ) visual grading is performed according to height and area reduction. The algorithm-based qualitative (ABQ) method introduced a scheme to systematically rule out non-fracture deformities and diagnoses osteoporotic vertebral fractures based on endplate depression. The concordance across methods is currently a matter of debate. This article reviews the most commonly applied standardised radiographic scoring methods for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, attaining an impartial perspective of benefits and limitations. It provides image examples and discusses aspects that facilitate large-scale application, such as automated image analysis software and different imaging investigations. It also reviews the implications of different fracture definitions for scientific research and clinical practice. Accurate standardised scoring methods for assessing osteoporotic vertebral fractures are crucial, considering that differences in definition will have implications for patient care and scientific research. Evaluation of the feasibility and concordance among methods will allow establishing their benefits and limitations, and most importantly, optimise their effectiveness for widespread application. (orig.)

  14. Review of radiological scoring methods of osteoporotic vertebral fractures for clinical and research settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oei, Ling; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Ly, Felisia; Breda, Stephan J.; Zillikens, M.C.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Krestin, Gabriel P.; Oei, Edwin H.G.

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease; vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fractures. Several radiological scoring methods using different criteria for osteoporotic vertebral fractures exist. Quantitative morphometry (QM) uses ratios derived from direct vertebral body height measurements to define fractures. Semi-quantitative (SQ) visual grading is performed according to height and area reduction. The algorithm-based qualitative (ABQ) method introduced a scheme to systematically rule out non-fracture deformities and diagnoses osteoporotic vertebral fractures based on endplate depression. The concordance across methods is currently a matter of debate. This article reviews the most commonly applied standardised radiographic scoring methods for osteoporotic vertebral fractures, attaining an impartial perspective of benefits and limitations. It provides image examples and discusses aspects that facilitate large-scale application, such as automated image analysis software and different imaging investigations. It also reviews the implications of different fracture definitions for scientific research and clinical practice. Accurate standardised scoring methods for assessing osteoporotic vertebral fractures are crucial, considering that differences in definition will have implications for patient care and scientific research. Evaluation of the feasibility and concordance among methods will allow establishing their benefits and limitations, and most importantly, optimise their effectiveness for widespread application. (orig.)

  15. Homenaje a la columna vertebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Brodsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Exiliado en Estados Unidos desde comienzos de la década del setenta, el poeta ruso Joseph Brodsky (1940-1996, adquiere en 1977 la nacionalidad norteamericana. Al año siguiente, una década antes de recibir el Premio Nobel, asiste como miembro de la delegación de Estados Unidos a una reunión internacional del PEN Club, en Río de Janeiro, Brasil, reunión a la que asiste también Mario Vargas Llosa. "Homenaje a la columna vertebral" es la crónica de esa experiencia y de su primera y probablemente única visita a Latinoamérica.

  16. Vertebral architecture in the earliest stem tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Stephanie E; Ahlberg, Per E; Hutchinson, John R; Molnar, Julia L; Sanchez, Sophie; Tafforeau, Paul; Clack, Jennifer A

    2013-02-14

    The construction of the vertebral column has been used as a key anatomical character in defining and diagnosing early tetrapod groups. Rhachitomous vertebrae--in which there is a dorsally placed neural arch and spine, an anteroventrally placed intercentrum and paired, posterodorsally placed pleurocentra--have long been considered the ancestral morphology for tetrapods. Nonetheless, very little is known about vertebral anatomy in the earliest stem tetrapods, because most specimens remain trapped in surrounding matrix, obscuring important anatomical features. Here we describe the three-dimensional vertebral architecture of the Late Devonian stem tetrapod Ichthyostega using propagation phase-contrast X-ray synchrotron microtomography. Our scans reveal a diverse array of new morphological, and associated developmental and functional, characteristics, including a possible posterior-to-anterior vertebral ossification sequence and the first evolutionary appearance of ossified sternal elements. One of the most intriguing features relates to the positional relationships between the vertebral elements, with the pleurocentra being unexpectedly sutured or fused to the intercentra that directly succeed them, indicating a 'reverse' rhachitomous design. Comparison of Ichthyostega with two other stem tetrapods, Acanthostega and Pederpes, shows that reverse rhachitomous vertebrae may be the ancestral condition for limbed vertebrates. This study fundamentally revises our current understanding of vertebral column evolution in the earliest tetrapods and raises questions about the presumed vertebral architecture of tetrapodomorph fish and later, more crownward, tetrapods.

  17. High-altitude adaptations in vertebrate hemoglobins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.

    2007-01-01

    Vertebrates at high altitude are subjected to hypoxic conditions that challenge aerobic metabolism. O2 transport from the respiratory surfaces to tissues requires matching between the O2 loading and unloading tensions and theO2-affinity of blood, which is an integrated function of hemoglobin......, birds and ectothermic vertebrates at high altitude....

  18. Imaging of vertebral fracture in osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronska-Jozwiak, E.; Lewinski, A.; Bieganski, T.

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral collapses are the most frequent fractures in osteoporosis. They are often overlooked, although their presence is a strong risk factor for development of new fractures. Lateral radiographs of the spine are the accepted standard for assessment of fractures. Qualitative (visual), semiquantitative and quantitative (morphometric) techniques are useful in determining the compressive deformities of vertebral bodies. In the present paper, the advantages and the disadvantages of these methods are discussed. The improvement of scan quality allows to use DXA technique to diagnose the fractures, in both - the visual and the morphometric way. The vertebral morphologic assessment also seems to be an important diagnostic tool in pediatric osteoporosis. Application of multidetector CT and especially MR in vertebral imaging of osteoporosis, improves the sensitivity of fracture detection and enables the differentiation of benign from malignant vertebral body collapses. (author)

  19. The prevalence of radiographic vertebral fractures in Latin American countries: the Latin American Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (LAVOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P; Cons-Molina, F; Deleze, M; Ragi, S; Haddock, L; Zanchetta, J R; Jaller, J J; Palermo, L; Talavera, J O; Messina, D O; Morales-Torres, J; Salmeron, J; Navarrete, A; Suarez, E; Pérez, C M; Cummings, S R

    2009-02-01

    In the first population-based study of vertebral fractures in Latin America, we found a 11.18 (95% CI 9.23-13.4) prevalence of radiographically ascertained vertebral fractures in a random sample of 1,922 women from cities within five different countries. These figures are similar to findings from studies in Beijing, China, some regions of Europe, and slightly lower than those found in the USA using the same standardized methodology. We report the first study of radiographic vertebral fractures in Latin America. An age-stratified random sample of 1,922 women aged 50 years and older from Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Puerto Rico were included. In all cases a standardized questionnaire and lateral X-rays of the lumbar and thoracic spine were obtained after informed consent. A standardized prevalence of 11.18 (95% CI 9.23-13.4) was found. The prevalence was similar in all five countries, increasing from 6.9% (95% CI 4.6-9.1) in women aged 50-59 years to 27.8% (95% CI 23.1-32.4) in those 80 years and older (p for trend < 0.001). Among different risk factors, self-reported height loss OR = 1.63 (95% CI: 1.18-2.25), and previous history of fracture OR = 1.52 (95% CI: 1.14-2.03) were significantly (p < 0.003 and p < 0.04 respectably) associated with the presence of radiographic vertebral fractures in the multivariate analysis. In the bivariate analyses HRT was associated with a 35% lower risk OR = 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46-0.93) and physical activity with a 27% lower risk of having a vertebral fracture OR = 0.73 (95% CI: 0.55-0.98), but were not statistically significant in multivariate analyses We conclude that radiographically ascertained vertebral fractures are common in Latin America. Health authorities in the region should be aware and consider implementing measures to prevent vertebral fractures.

  20. Spinal bone marrow necrosis with vertebral compression fracture: differentiation of BMN from AVN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, J S; Fitzgerald, R T; Samant, R S; Harrison, M; Angtuaco, E J

    2014-09-01

    Bone marrow necrosis (BMN) is a rare malignancy-associated hematologic disorder characterized by necrosis of myeloid and stromal marrow elements with preservation of cortical bone. Overlap between the imaging appearances of BMN and avascular necrosis (AVN) raises the potential for diagnostic confusion. We report a case of BMN presenting with a traumatic multi-level vertebral body collapse, and finding that may potentially confound distinction between the two entities. We discuss important pathophysiologic, clinical, and radiologic differences between BMN and AVN with emphasis on features important in the differential diagnosis.

  1. Management of symptomatic vertebral haemangioma in a resource challenged environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeolu, Augustine A; Balogun, James A; Adeleye, Amos O; Adeoye, Peter O; Okolo, Clement A; Ogbole, Godwin I

    2010-07-01

    Vertebral haemangiomas are benign lesions and often asymptomatic. They are more common in the thoracic spine where they may become symptomatic with varying presentations. We present two teenage girls who presented with progressive, nontraumatic paraparesis with no background history of chronic cough or underlying medical illness. The radiologic investigations were suggestive of vertebral haemangiomas of the thoracic spine. They had surgery: transthoracic approach with corpectomy and fusion with iliac crest autograft. The posterior stabilisation in the first patient was with Rush nails and circlage wire and only circlage wire in the second patient. The first patient's post-operative recovery was complicated by graft extrusion necessitating re-opening thoracotomy and graft replacement. They are, however, both ambulant at discharge and have remained so 13 and 15 months post-surgery. We have presented two cases with rewarding outcomes in the face of 'adaptive' instrumentation due to limited resources.

  2. The pathophysiology of lifelong premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE. The phenotype of lifelong PE and therefore also the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is much more complex. A substantial number of men with lifelong PE not only have PE, but also premature erection and premature penile detumescence as part of an acute hypertonic or hypererotic state when engaged in an erotic situation or when making love. As both erectio praecox, ejaculatio praecox, detumescentia praecox, and the hypererotic state are part of the phenotype lifelong PE, it is argued that lifelong PE is not only a disturbance of the timing of ejaculation but also a disturbance of the timing of erection, detumescence and arousal. Since 1998, the pathophysiology of lifelong PE was thought to be mainly mediated by the central serotonergic system in line with genetic polymorphisms of specific serotonergic genes. However, by accepting that lifelong PE is characterized by the reversible hypertonic state the hypothesis of mainly serotonergic dysfunction is no longer tenable. Instead, it has been postulated that the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is mediated by a very complex interplay of central and peripheral serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocinergic, endocrinological, genetic and probably also epigenetic factors. Progress in research of lifelong PE can only be accomplished when a stopwatch is used to measure the IELT and the cut-off point of 1 minute for the definition of lifelong PE is maintained. Current use of validated questionnaires, neglect of

  3. Diagnosing the pathophysiologic mechanisms of nocturnal polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessaert, An-Sofie; Krott, Louise; Hoebeke, Piet; Vande Walle, Johan; Everaert, Karel

    2015-02-01

    Diagnosis of nocturnal polyuria (NP) is based on a bladder diary. Addition of a renal function profile (RFP) for analysis of concentrating and solute-conserving capacity allows differentiation of NP pathophysiology and could facilitate individualized treatment. To map circadian rhythms of water and solute diuresis by comparing participants with and without NP. This prospective observational study was carried out in Ghent University Hospital between 2011 and 2013. Participants with and without NP completed a 72-h bladder dairy. RFP, free water clearance (FWC), and creatinine, solute, sodium, and urea clearance were measured for all participants. The study participants were divided into those with (n=77) and those without (n=35) NP. The mean age was 57 yr (SD 16 yr) and 41% of the participants were female. Compared to participants without NP, the NP group exhibited a higher diuresis rate throughout the night (p=0.015); higher FWC (p=0.013) and lower osmolality (p=0.030) at the start of the night; and persistently higher sodium clearance during the night (p<0.001). The pathophysiologic mechanism of NP was identified as water diuresis alone in 22%, sodium diuresis alone in 19%, and a combination of water and sodium diuresis in 47% of the NP group. RFP measurement in first-line NP screening to discriminate between water and solute diuresis as pathophysiologic mechanisms complements the bladder diary and could facilitate optimal individualized treatment of patients with NP. We evaluated eight urine samples collected over 24h to detect the underlying problem in NP. We found that NP can be attributed to water or sodium diuresis or a combination of both. This urinalysis can be used to adapt treatment according to the underlying mechanism in patients with bothersome consequences of NP, such as nocturia and urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pathophysiology of osteoporosis: new mechanistic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Laura A G; Recker, Robert R

    2012-09-01

    Understanding of the pathophysiology of osteoporosis has evolved to include compromised bone strength and skeletal fragility caused by several factors: (1) defects in microarchitecture of trabeculae, (2) defective intrinsic material properties of bone tissue, (3) defective repair of microdamage from normal daily activities, and (4) excessive bone remodeling rates. These factors occur in the context of age-related bone loss. Clinical studies of estrogen deprivation, antiresorptives, mechanical loading, and disuse have helped further knowledge of the factors affecting bone quality and the mechanisms that underlie them. This progress has led to several new drug targets in the treatment of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pathophysiology of the anorexia of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, John E

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia represents a major problem for older persons leading to weight loss, sarcopenia, functional decline, and mortality. There is increasing information on the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to anorexia. Increasing evidence has shown the importance of gastrointestinal hormones (ghrelin, cholecystokinin, and glucagon-like peptide) and adipokines in producing the anorexia of aging. Numerous neurotransmitters have been shown to be involved in this aging anorexia, but evidence in humans is lacking. The early recognition of anorexia of aging is important to allow intervention and prevent functional deterioration in older persons. Screening tests for anorexia have been developed. New approaches to managing anorexia are being tested.

  6. 95th Anniversary of Pathophysiology in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač, Zdenko

    2017-12-01

    University level of Pathophysiology research and teaching in Croatia had started with the third year of Medical School of Zagreb in academic year 1919./20. Ever since, despite historical changes of the main university stake holder, the state of Croatia, Department of Pathophysiology development progressed and has made visible academic achievements, with a broader effect in medical community. The first 95 years of academic tradition and major achievements are shortly described in this paper. Professor Miroslav Mikuličić envisioned Pathophysiology in close relations with Pharmacology and made the pioneering steps of establishing the "double" department at Šalata. His group was academically very pro-active, with strong international scientific participation and recruitment of professionals. The group published the first voluminous textbook of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology, in Croatian. In fifties, professor Pavao Sokolić established clinical pathophysiology within the Hospital Centre at Rebro. Out of "double" department two new departments were founded, the Pathophysiology one was completed with the clinical ward. That institutional move from Šalata hill to the Rebro hill was a necessary gigantic step and a prerequisite for the proper further development. It was in accordance with the concept of the Mikuličić's program of Pathophysiology from 1917. Pavao Sokolić has been remembered for his visions, deep insights into etiopathogenesis, ability to transfer knowledge and friendly relations to students. Sharp intellectual power, emanating charisma, academic erudition and unique clinical competencies made the legendary image of the "Teacher" - as students used to refer to him with admiration. He was second to no one when complex patient issues were to be resolved. Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb and his Department at Rebro have become a referral point to whom to go to despair. Students recognized in their Teacher the landmark of Croatian medicine, which made a

  7. Lafora disease: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Monaghan, Thomas S

    2010-07-01

    Lafora disease is a rare, fatal, autosomal recessive, progressive myoclonic epilepsy. It may also be considered as a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism because of the formation of polyglucosan inclusion bodies in neural and other tissues due to abnormalities of the proteins laforin or malin. The condition is characterized by epilepsy, myoclonus and dementia. Diagnostic findings on MRI and neurophysiological testing are not definitive and biopsy or genetic studies may be required. Therapy in Lafora disease is currently limited to symptomatic management of the epilepsy, myoclonus and intercurrent complications. With a greater understanding of the pathophysiological processes involved, there is justified hope for future therapies.

  8. Pathophysiology of muscle contractures in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, Margie A; Lieber, Richard L

    2015-02-01

    Patients with cerebral palsy present with a variety of adaptations to muscle structure and function. These pathophysiologic symptoms include functional deficits such as decreased force production and range of motion, in addition to changes in muscle structure such as decreased muscle belly size, increased sarcomere length, and altered extracellular matrix structure and composition. On a cellular level, patients with cerebral palsy have fewer muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells, and altered gene expression. Understanding the nature of these changes may present opportunities for the development of new muscle treatment therapies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Thoracic and lumbar vertebral bone mineral density changes in a natural occurring dog model of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven De Decker

    Full Text Available Ankylosing spinal disorders can be associated with alterations in vertebral bone mineral density (BMD. There is however controversy about vertebral BMD in patients wuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH. DISH in Boxer dogs has been considered a natural occurring disease model for DISH in people. The purpose of this study was to compare vertebral BMD between Boxers with and without DISH. Fifty-nine Boxers with (n=30 or without (n=29 DISH that underwent computed tomography were included. Vertebral BMD was calculated for each thoracic and lumbar vertebra by using an earlier reported and validated protocol. For each vertebral body, a region of interest was drawn on the axial computed tomographic images at three separate locations: immediately inferior to the superior end plate, in the middle of the vertebral body, and superior to the inferior end plate. Values from the three axial slices were averaged to give a mean Hounsfield Unit value for each vertebral body. Univariate statistical analysis was performed to identify factors to be included in a multivariate model. The multivariate model including all dogs demonstrated that vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 24.63; 95% CI 16.07 to 33.19; p <0.001, lumbar vertebrae (Coefficient -17.25; 95% CI -23.42 to -11.09; p < 0.01, and to a lesser extent higher age (Coefficient -0.56; 95% CI -1.07 to -0.05; p = 0.03 were significant predictors for vertebral BMD. When the multivariate model was repeated using only dogs with DISH, vertebral DISH status (Coefficient 20.67; 95% CI, 10.98 to 30.37; p < 0.001 and lumbar anatomical region (Coefficient -38.24; 95% CI, -47.75 to -28.73; p < 0.001 were again predictors for vertebral BMD but age was not. The results of this study indicate that DISH can be associated with decreased vertebral BMD. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the clinical importance and pathophysiology of this finding.

  10. Computerized detection of vertebral compression fractures on lateral chest radiographs: Preliminary results with a tool for early detection of osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Satoshi; Li Feng; Shiraishi, Junji; Li Qiang; Doi, Kunio

    2006-01-01

    Vertebral fracture (or vertebral deformity) is a very common outcome of osteoporosis, which is one of the major public health concerns in the world. Early detection of vertebral fractures is important because timely pharmacologic intervention can reduce the risk of subsequent additional fractures. Chest radiographs are used routinely for detection of lung and heart diseases, and vertebral fractures can be visible on lateral chest radiographs. However, investigators noted that about 50% of vertebral fractures visible on lateral chest radiographs were underdiagnosed or under-reported, even when the fractures were severe. Therefore, our goal was to develop a computerized method for detection of vertebral fractures on lateral chest radiographs in order to assist radiologists' image interpretation and thus allow the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. The cases used in this study were 20 patients with severe vertebral fractures and 118 patients without fractures, as confirmed by the consensus of two radiologists. Radiologists identified the locations of fractured vertebrae, and they provided morphometric data on the vertebral shape for evaluation of the accuracy of detecting vertebral end plates by computer. In our computerized method, a curved search area, which included a number of vertebral end plates, was first extracted automatically, and was straightened so that vertebral end plates became oriented horizontally. Edge candidates were enhanced by use of a horizontal line-enhancement filter in the straightened image, and a multiple thresholding technique, followed by feature analysis, was used for identification of the vertebral end plates. The height of each vertebra was determined from locations of identified vertebral end plates, and fractured vertebrae were detected by comparison of the measured vertebral height with the expected height. The sensitivity of our computerized method for detection of fracture cases was 95% (19/20), with 1.03 (139/135) false

  11. Sexual and gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease: Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Rathi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual and gonadal dysfunction/infertility are quite common in patients with chronic kidney disease. Forty percent of male and 55% of female dialysis patients do not achieve orgasm. The pathophysiology of gonadal dysfunction is multifactorial. It is usually a combination of psychological, physiological, and other comorbid factors. Erectile dysfunction in males is mainly due to arterial factors, venous leakage, psychological factors, neurogenic factors, endocrine factors, and drugs. Sexual dysfunction in females is mainly due to hormonal factors and manifests mainly as menstrual irregularities, amenorrhea, lack of vaginal lubrication, and failure to conceive. Treatment of gonadal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease is multipronged and an exact understanding of underlying pathology is essential in proper management of these patients.

  12. Etiology, pathophysiology and classifications of the diabetic Charcot foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanas, Nikolaos; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2013-01-01

    In people with diabetes mellitus, the Charcot foot is a specific manifestation of peripheral neuropathy that may involve autonomic neuropathy with high blood flow to the foot, leading to increased bone resorption. It may also involve peripheral somatic polyneuropathy with loss of protective sensation and high risk of unrecognized acute or chronic minor trauma. In both cases, there is excess local inflammatory response to foot injury, resulting in local osteoporosis. In the Charcot foot, the acute and chronic phases have been described. The former is characterized by local erythema, edema, and marked temperature elevation, while pain is not a prominent symptom. In the latter, signs of inflammation gradually recede and deformities may develop, increasing the risk of foot ulceration. The most common anatomical classification describes five patterns, according to the localization of bone and joint pathology. This review article aims to provide a brief overview of the diabetic Charcot foot in terms of etiology, pathophysiology, and classification. PMID:23705058

  13. Duplication of the Left Vertebral Artery Origin: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sang Wook; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Young Jun [Dept. of Radiology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Duplication of vertebral arteries is a very rare but clinically important condition. A duplicated vertebral artery origin can influence hemodynamics, pathogenesis of vascular lesions and treatment options. In cases of vertebral artery duplication, the vertebral arteries generally enter the transverse foramen higher up than normal. Awareness of these vertebral artery variants before procedures, such as neurointervention or surgery, may be beneficial. Here, we describe a case of a 51-year-old female patient with left vertebral artery duplication which was detected incidentally.

  14. Duplication of the Left Vertebral Artery Origin: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Wook; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Young Jun

    2013-01-01

    Duplication of vertebral arteries is a very rare but clinically important condition. A duplicated vertebral artery origin can influence hemodynamics, pathogenesis of vascular lesions and treatment options. In cases of vertebral artery duplication, the vertebral arteries generally enter the transverse foramen higher up than normal. Awareness of these vertebral artery variants before procedures, such as neurointervention or surgery, may be beneficial. Here, we describe a case of a 51-year-old female patient with left vertebral artery duplication which was detected incidentally.

  15. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagnarelli, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10–15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292–301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories—a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307–316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119–1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579–589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different

  16. Mitotic chromosome condensation in vertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vagnarelli, Paola, E-mail: P.Vagnarelli@ed.ac.uk

    2012-07-15

    Work from several laboratories over the past 10-15 years has revealed that, within the interphase nucleus, chromosomes are organized into spatially distinct territories [T. Cremer, C. Cremer, Chromosome territories, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in mammalian cells, Nat. Rev. Genet. 2 (2001) 292-301 and T. Cremer, M. Cremer, S. Dietzel, S. Muller, I. Solovei, S. Fakan, Chromosome territories-a functional nuclear landscape, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 18 (2006) 307-316]. The overall compaction level and intranuclear location varies as a function of gene density for both entire chromosomes [J.A. Croft, J.M. Bridger, S. Boyle, P. Perry, P. Teague,W.A. Bickmore, Differences in the localization and morphology of chromosomes in the human nucleus, J. Cell Biol. 145 (1999) 1119-1131] and specific chromosomal regions [N.L. Mahy, P.E. Perry, S. Gilchrist, R.A. Baldock, W.A. Bickmore, Spatial organization of active and inactive genes and noncoding DNA within chromosome territories, J. Cell Biol. 157 (2002) 579-589] (Fig. 1A, A'). In prophase, when cyclin B activity reaches a high threshold, chromosome condensation occurs followed by Nuclear Envelope Breakdown (NEB) [1]. At this point vertebrate chromosomes appear as compact structures harboring an attachment point for the spindle microtubules physically recognizable as a primary constriction where the two sister chromatids are held together. The transition from an unshaped interphase chromosome to the highly structured mitotic chromosome (compare Figs. 1A and B) has fascinated researchers for several decades now; however a definite picture of how this process is achieved and regulated is not yet in our hands and it will require more investigation to comprehend the complete process. From a biochemical point of view a vertebrate mitotic chromosomes is composed of DNA, histone proteins (60%) and non-histone proteins (40%) [6]. I will discuss below what is known to date on the contribution of these two different classes

  17. Mineral metabolism disorders, vertebral fractures and aortic calcifications in stable kidney transplant recipients: The role of gender (EMITRAL study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Torres

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Vitamin D deficiency is more common among female kidney transplant recipients at earlier CKD-T stages, and it contributes to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Prevalent vertebral fractures are only related to high serum PTH levels in female recipients.

  18. Evolution and development of the vertebrate ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsch, B.; Beisel, K. W.

    2001-01-01

    This review outlines major aspects of development and evolution of the ear, specifically addressing issues of cell fate commitment and the emerging molecular governance of these decisions. Available data support the notion of homology of subsets of mechanosensors across phyla (proprioreceptive mechanosensory neurons in insects, hair cells in vertebrates). It is argued that this conservation is primarily related to the specific transducing environment needed to achieve mechanosensation. Achieving this requires highly conserved transcription factors that regulate the expression of the relevant structural genes for mechanosensory transduction. While conserved at the level of some cell fate assignment genes (atonal and its mammalian homologue), the ear has also radically reorganized its development by implementing genes used for cell fate assignment in other parts of the developing nervous systems (e.g., neurogenin 1) and by evolving novel sets of genes specifically associated with the novel formation of sensory neurons that contact hair cells (neurotrophins and their receptors). Numerous genes have been identified that regulate morphogenesis, but there is only one common feature that emerges at the moment: the ear appears to have co-opted genes from a large variety of other parts of the developing body (forebrain, limbs, kidneys) and establishes, in combination with existing transcription factors, an environment in which those genes govern novel, ear-related morphogenetic aspects. The ear thus represents a unique mix of highly conserved developmental elements combined with co-opted and newly evolved developmental elements.

  19. Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Warren; Smith, Charles F; Eskridge, Pamela H; Hoss, Shannon K; Mendelson, Joseph R; Schuett, Gordon W

    2012-12-23

    Facultative parthenogenesis (FP)-asexual reproduction by bisexual species-has been documented in a variety of multi-cellular organisms but only recently in snakes, varanid lizards, birds and sharks. Unlike the approximately 80 taxa of unisexual reptiles, amphibians and fishes that exist in nature, FP has yet to be documented in the wild. Based on captive documentation, it appears that FP is widespread in squamate reptiles (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenians), and its occurrence in nature seems inevitable, yet the task of detecting FP in wild individuals has been deemed formidable. Here we show, using microsatellite DNA genotyping and litter characteristics, the first cases of FP in wild-collected pregnant females and their offspring of two closely related species of North American pitviper snakes-the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus). Our findings support the view that non-hybrid origins of parthenogenesis, such as FP, are more common in squamates than previously thought. With this confirmation, FP can no longer be viewed as a rare curiosity outside the mainstream of vertebrate evolution. Future research on FP in squamate reptiles related to proximate control of induction, reproductive competence of parthenogens and population genetics modelling is warranted.

  20. Human Pathophysiological Adaptations to the Space Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian C. Demontis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Space is an extreme environment for the human body, where during long-term missions microgravity and high radiation levels represent major threats to crew health. Intriguingly, space flight (SF imposes on the body of highly selected, well-trained, and healthy individuals (astronauts and cosmonauts pathophysiological adaptive changes akin to an accelerated aging process and to some diseases. Such effects, becoming manifest over a time span of weeks (i.e., cardiovascular deconditioning to months (i.e., loss of bone density and muscle atrophy of exposure to weightlessness, can be reduced through proper countermeasures during SF and in due time are mostly reversible after landing. Based on these considerations, it is increasingly accepted that SF might provide a mechanistic insight into certain pathophysiological processes, a concept of interest to pre-nosological medicine. In this article, we will review the main stress factors encountered in space and their impact on the human body and will also discuss the possible lessons learned with space exploration in reference to human health on Earth. In fact, this is a productive, cross-fertilized, endeavor in which studies performed on Earth yield countermeasures for protection of space crew health, and space research is translated into health measures for Earth-bound population.

  1. Adropin – physiological and pathophysiological role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Marczuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adropin is a peptide hormone that was discovered in 2008 by Kumar et al. This protein consists of 76 amino acids, and it was originally described as a secreted peptide, with residues 1-33 encoding a secretory signal peptide sequence. The amino acid sequence of this protein in humans, mice and rats is identical. While our knowledge of the exact physiological roles of this poorly understood peptide continues to evolve, recent data suggest a role in energy homeostasis and the control of glucose and fatty acid metabolism. This protein is encoded by the Enho gene, which is expressed primarily in the liver and the central nervous system. The regulation of adropin secretion is controversial. Adropin immunoreactivity has been reported by several laboratories in the circulation of humans, non-human primates and rodents. However, more recently it has been suggested that adropin is a membrane-bound protein that modulates cell-cell communication. Moreover, adropin has been detected in various tissues and body fluids, such as brain, cerebellum, liver, kidney, heart, pancreas, small intestine, endothelial cells, colostrum, cheese whey and milk. The protein level, as shown by previous research, changes in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Adropin is involved in carbohydrate-lipid metabolism, metabolic diseases, central nervous system function, endothelial function and cardiovascular disease. The knowledge of this interesting protein, its exact role and mechanism of action is insufficient. This article provides an overview of the existing literature about the role of adropin, both in physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  2. Imaging assessment of vertebral burst fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Jianlin; Liang Lihua; Wang Yujia

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of radiography, CT and MRI in diagnosis of vertebral burst fracture. Methods: 51 patients with vertebral burst fracture were evaluated with X-ray, CT and MRI, including 3 cases in cervical vertebra, 18 cases in thoracic vertebra, and 30 cases in lumbar vertebra. The imaging features were comparatively studied. Results: Radiography showed decreased height of the vertebral body, increased antero-posterior diameter and the transverse diameter, and/or the widened interpedicle distance, the inter-spinous distance, as well as the bony fragment inserted into the vertebral canal in 28 cases(54.90%). X-ray findings similar to the compression fracture were revealed in 20 cases(39.21%). And missed diagnosis was made in 3 cases (5.88%). CT clearly demon-strated the vertebral body vertically or transversely burst crack in 49 cases (96.07%); bony fragment inserted into the vertebral canal and narrowed vertebral canal in 35 cases(68. 62% ); fracture of spinal appendix in 22 cases(43.14%). Meanwhile MRI showed abnormal signals within the spinal cord in 35 cases (68.62%),injured intervertebral disk in 29 cases(56.86% ), extradural hematoma in 12 cases(23.52% ) and torn posterior longitudinal ligament in 6 cases (11.76%). Conclusions: Radiography is the routine examination, while with limited diagnostic value in vertebral burst fracture. These patients who have nervous symptoms with simple compression fracture or unremarkable on X-ray should receive the CT or MRI examination. CT is better than MRI in demonstrating the fracture and the displaced bony fragment, while MRI is superior to CT in showing nervous injuries. CT and MRI will provide comprehensive information guiding clinical treatment of vertebral burst fracture. (authors)

  3. Handed behavior in hagfish--an ancient vertebrate lineage--and a survey of lateralized behaviors in other invertebrate chordates and elongate vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Tetsuto; Palmer, A Richard

    2014-04-01

    Hagfish represent an ancient lineage of boneless and jawless vertebrates. Among several curious behaviors they exhibit, solitary individuals in one dominant genus of hagfish (Eptatretus spp.) regularly rest in a tightly coiled posture. We present the first systematic treatment of this distinctive behavior. Individual northeastern Pacific hagfish (E. stoutii) exhibited significant handedness (preferred orientation of coiling). However, right-coiling and left-coiling individuals were equally common in the population. Individual hagfish likely develop a preference for one direction by repeating the preceding coiling direction. We also revisit classical accounts of chordate natural history and compare the coiling behavior of Eptatretus with other handed or lateralized behaviors in non-vertebrate chordates, lampreys, and derived vertebrates with elongate bodies. Handed behaviors occur in many of these groups, but they likely evolved independently. In contrast to vertebrates, morphological asymmetries may bias lateralized larval behaviors toward one side in cephalochordates and tunicates. As a consequence, no known handed behavior can be inferred to have existed in the common ancestor of vertebrates.

  4. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Svetlana; Kirzhner, Valery; Korol, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS) analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers) in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM) allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  5. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Frenkel

    Full Text Available Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  6. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dong Yin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C, has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

  7. Rotations in a Vertebrate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Gin

    2003-05-01

    Rotational movements of the head are often considered to be measured in a single three dimensional coordinate system implemented by the semicircular canals of the vestibular system of the inner ear. However, the vertebrate body -- including the nervous system -- obeys rectangular symmetries alien to rotation groups. At best, nervous systems mimic the physical rotation group in a fragmented way, only partially reintegrating physical movements in whole organism responses. The vestibular canal reference frame is widely used in nervous systems, for example by eye movements. It is used to some extent even in the cerebrum, as evidenced by the remission of hemineglect -- in which half of space is ignored -- when the vestibular system is stimulated. However, reintegration of space by the organism remains incomplete. For example, compensatory eye movements (which in most cases aid visual fixation) may disagree with conscious self-motion perception. In addition, movement-induced nausea, illusions, and cue-free perceptions demonstrate symmetry breaking or incomplete spatial symmetries. As part of a long-term project to investigate rotation groups in nervous systems, we have analyzed the symmetry group of a primary vestibulo-spinal projection.

  8. The transradial approach for selective carotid and vertebral angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwasaki, S.; Ueda, K.; Sueyosi, S.; Nagasawa, M.; Ude, K. [Higashiosaka City General Hospital, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Yokoyama, K. [Higashiosaka City General Hospital, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Takayama, K.; Nakagawa, H.; Kichikawa, K. [Nara Medical Univ., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    2002-11-01

    Purpose: The transradial approach is not so popular in cerebral angiography. The purpose of this study was therefore to present our experience of success rate and safety of this method. Material and Methods: From December 1998 to June 2001, 526 carotid and vertebral angiographies with DSA were performed via the radial artery. A 1.4-mm catheter was used through a 1.4-mm introducer sheath. We evaluated the procedure as successful if sufficient images for diagnosis were obtained of the bilateral carotid arteries and unilateral vertebral artery. Each patient was reassessed for any complications, occurring until the next morning. The length of time needed for an examination was measured in the last 10 cases. Results: In all but 5 cases, the procedures were evaluated as successful (99.0%). Unsuccessful cases manifested severe pain at the radial puncture, angiospasm at the radial artery, loop formation at the radial artery, occlusion at the subclavian artery, and an aberrant right subclavian artery. No severe complications including neurological ones were encountered. Minor complications were noted in 17 cases (3.2%): 4 cases of thrombus at the ulnar artery, 1 angiospasm at the radial artery, and 12 cases of small hematoma at the puncture site. The radial approach took 14 min less in the common carotid study and 3 min 30 s less in the internal carotid study than by the femoral approach. Conclusion: The transradial approach enabled selective studies for carotid and vertebral angiography with a high success rate and safety with few complications.

  9. The transradial approach for selective carotid and vertebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, S.; Ueda, K.; Sueyosi, S.; Nagasawa, M.; Ude, K.; Yokoyama, K.; Takayama, K.; Nakagawa, H.; Kichikawa, K.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The transradial approach is not so popular in cerebral angiography. The purpose of this study was therefore to present our experience of success rate and safety of this method. Material and Methods: From December 1998 to June 2001, 526 carotid and vertebral angiographies with DSA were performed via the radial artery. A 1.4-mm catheter was used through a 1.4-mm introducer sheath. We evaluated the procedure as successful if sufficient images for diagnosis were obtained of the bilateral carotid arteries and unilateral vertebral artery. Each patient was reassessed for any complications, occurring until the next morning. The length of time needed for an examination was measured in the last 10 cases. Results: In all but 5 cases, the procedures were evaluated as successful (99.0%). Unsuccessful cases manifested severe pain at the radial puncture, angiospasm at the radial artery, loop formation at the radial artery, occlusion at the subclavian artery, and an aberrant right subclavian artery. No severe complications including neurological ones were encountered. Minor complications were noted in 17 cases (3.2%): 4 cases of thrombus at the ulnar artery, 1 angiospasm at the radial artery, and 12 cases of small hematoma at the puncture site. The radial approach took 14 min less in the common carotid study and 3 min 30 s less in the internal carotid study than by the femoral approach. Conclusion: The transradial approach enabled selective studies for carotid and vertebral angiography with a high success rate and safety with few complications

  10. Convergent evolution of hemoglobin switching in jawed and jawless vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Kim; Stuhlmann, Friederike; Docker, Margaret F; Burmester, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    During development, humans and other jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) express distinct hemoglobin genes, resulting in different hemoglobin tetramers. Embryonic and fetal hemoglobin have higher oxygen affinities than the adult hemoglobin, sustaining the oxygen demand of the developing organism. Little is known about the expression of hemoglobins during development of jawless vertebrates (Agnatha). We identified three hemoglobin switches in the life cycle of the sea lamprey. Three hemoglobin genes are specifically expressed in the embryo, four genes in the filter feeding larva (ammocoete), and nine genes correspond to the adult hemoglobin chains. During the development from the parasitic to the reproductive adult, the composition of hemoglobin changes again, with a massive increase of chain aHb1. A single hemoglobin chain is expressed constitutively in all stages. We further showed the differential expression of other globin genes: Myoglobin 1 is most highly expressed in the reproductive adult, myoglobin 2 expression peaks in the larva. Globin X1 is restricted to the embryo; globin X2 was only found in the reproductive adult. Cytoglobin is expressed at low levels throughout the life cycle. Because the hemoglobins of jawed and jawless vertebrates evolved independently from a common globin ancestor, hemoglobin switching must also have evolved convergently in these taxa. Notably, the ontogeny of sea lamprey hemoglobins essentially recapitulates their phylogeny, with the embryonic hemoglobins emerging first, followed by the evolution of larval and adult hemoglobins.

  11. Cerebellar cortical infarct cavities and vertebral artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocker, Laurens J.L. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kliniek Sint-Jan Radiologie, Brussels (Belgium); Compter, A.; Kappelle, L.J.; Worp, H.B. van der [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht (Netherlands); Luijten, P.R.; Hendrikse, J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-09-15

    Cerebellar cortical infarct cavities are a newly recognised entity associated with atherothromboembolic cerebrovascular disease and worse physical functioning. We aimed to investigate the relationship of cerebellar cortical infarct cavities with symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischaemia and with vascular risk factors. We evaluated the MR images of 46 patients with a recent vertebrobasilar TIA or stroke and a symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis ≥50 % from the Vertebral Artery Stenting Trial (VAST) for the presence of cerebellar cortical infarct cavities ≤1.5 cm. At inclusion in VAST, data were obtained on age, sex, history of vertebrobasilar TIA or stroke, and vascular risk factors. Adjusted risk ratios were calculated with Poisson regression analyses for the relation between cerebellar cortical infarct cavities and vascular risk factors. Sixteen out of 46 (35 %) patients showed cerebellar cortical infarct cavities on the initial MRI, and only one of these 16 patients was known with a previous vertebrobasilar TIA or stroke. In patients with symptomatic vertebrobasilar ischaemia, risk factor profiles of patients with cerebellar cortical infarct cavities were not different from patients without these cavities. Cerebellar cortical infarct cavities are seen on MRI in as much as one third of patients with recently symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis. Since patients usually have no prior history of vertebrobasilar TIA or stroke, cerebellar cortical infarct cavities should be added to the spectrum of common incidental brain infarcts visible on routine MRI. (orig.)

  12. Innate immunity in vertebrates: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera Romo, Mario; Pérez-Martínez, Dayana; Castillo Ferrer, Camila

    2016-06-01

    Innate immunity is a semi-specific and widely distributed form of immunity, which represents the first line of defence against pathogens. This type of immunity is critical to maintain homeostasis and prevent microbe invasion, eliminating a great variety of pathogens and contributing with the activation of the adaptive immune response. The components of innate immunity include physical and chemical barriers, humoral and cell-mediated components, which are present in all jawed vertebrates. The understanding of innate defence mechanisms in non-mammalian vertebrates is the key to comprehend the general picture of vertebrate innate immunity and its evolutionary history. This is also essential for the identification of new molecules with applications in immunopharmacology and immunotherapy. In this review, we describe and discuss the main elements of vertebrate innate immunity, presenting core findings in this field and identifying areas that need further investigation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Tetanus with multiple wedge vertebral collapses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-07-06

    Jul 6, 2012 ... associated with traumatic injury, often a penetrating wound inflicted by dirty ... multiple vertebral collapses and the management chal- .... back pains and swelling as in our patient.9 There are usually no ... The cervical and.

  14. Delayed vertebral diagnosed L4 pincer vertebral fracture, L2-L3 ruptured vertebral lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture - Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasa D

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An association between delayed ruptured lumbar disc hernia, L5 vertebral wedge fracture and posttraumaticL4 pincer vertebral fracture (A2.3-AO clasification at different levels is a very rare entity. We present the case of a 55 years old male who falled down from a bicycle. 2 months later because of intense and permanent vertebral lumbar and radicular L2 and L3 pain (Visual Scal Autologus of Pain7-8/10 the patient came to the hospital. He was diagnosed with pincer vertebral L4 fracture (A2.3-AO clasification and L2-L3 right ruptured lumbar disc hernia in lateral reces. The patient was operated (L2-L3 right fenestration, and resection of lumbar disc hernia, bilateral stabilisation, L3-L4-L5 with titan screws and postero-lateral bone graft L4 bilateral harvested from iliac crest.

  15. Cervical vertebral stenosis associated with a vertebral arch anomaly in the Basset Hound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Decker, S; De Risio, L; Lowrie, M; Mauler, D; Beltran, E; Giedja, A; Kenny, P J; Gielen, I; Garosi, L; Volk, H

    2012-01-01

    To report the clinical presentation, imaging characteristics, treatment results, and histopathological findings of a previously undescribed vertebral malformation in the Basset Hound. Retrospective case series study. Eighteen Basset Hounds presented for evaluation of a suspected cervical spinal cord problem. All dogs underwent computed tomography myelography or magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical region. Thirteen male and 5 female Basset Hounds between 6 months and 10.8 years of age (median: 1.4 years) were studied. Clinical signs varied from cervical hyperesthesia to nonambulatory tetraparesis. Imaging demonstrated a well-defined and smooth hypertrophy of the dorsal lamina and spinous process of ≥ 2 adjacent vertebrae. Although this bony abnormality could decrease the ventrodorsal vertebral canal diameter, dorsal midline spinal cord compression was predominantly caused by ligamentum flavum hypertrophy. The articulation between C4 and C5 was most commonly affected. Three dogs were lost to follow-up, 10 dogs underwent dorsal laminectomy, and medical management was initiated in 5 dogs. Surgery resulted in a good outcome with short hospitalization times (median: 4.5 days) in all dogs, whereas medical management produced more variable results. Histopathology confirmed ligamentum flavum hypertrophy and demonstrated the fibrocartilaginous nature of this anomaly. Dorsal lamina and spinous process hypertrophy leading to ligamentum flavum hypertrophy should be included in the differential diagnosis of Basset Hounds with cervical hyperesthesia or myelopathy. Prognosis after decompressive surgery is favorable. Although a genetic component is suspected, additional studies are needed to determine the specific etiology of this disorder. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Contrast medium-induced nephropathy: the pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, P B; Tepel, Martin

    2006-01-01

    A widespread, rather general, definition of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an impairment in renal function occurring within 3 days following the intravascular administration of contrast media (CM) and the absence of an alternative aetiology. In spite of the vast clinical importance of CIN...... haemodynamics, regional hypoxia, auto-, and paracrine factors (adenosine, endothelin, reactive oxygen species) to direct cytotoxic effects. Although these potential mediators of CIN will be discussed separately, several factors may act in concert to perturb kidney function after exposure to contrast media. From...... the current knowledge of the mechanisms causing CIN, it is not possible to recommend a certain class of contrast media, except to avoid large doses of CM of the first generation. From a pathophysiological perspective, volume expansion is effective in avoiding CIN, since water permeability of the collecting...

  17. [Pathophysiology and treatment of orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masamichi; Noma, Noboru

    "Pain" is one of body defense mechanisms and crucial for the life support. However, orofacial pain such as myofascial pain syndrome, burning mouth syndrome and trigeminal neuralgia plays no part in body defense mechanisms and requires therapeutic intervention. Recent studies have indicated that plastic changes in the activities of trigeminal neurons, satellite glial cells in trigeminal ganglion, secondary neurons, microglia and astrocytes in trigeminal spinal subnucleus following orofacial inflammation and trigeminal nerve injury are responsible for orofacial pain mechanisms. Clinically, it is well known that the etiologic differential diagnosis which consists of careful history-taking and physical examination is essential for therapeutic decision in patients with orofacial pain. This report outlines the current knowledge on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment of orofacial pain.

  18. Pathophysiology, Clinical, and Therapeutic Aspects of Narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Guzel Ozdemir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucination, and sleep paralysis. The exact cause remains unknown, but there is significant evidence that hypocretin deficiency plays an integral role. There have been advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of narcolepsy. It has a negative effect on the quality of life and can restrict the patients from certain careers and activities. Diagnosis relies on patient history and objective data gathered from polysomnography and multiple sleep latency testing. Treatment focuses on symptom relief through medication, education, and behavioral modification. Both classic pharmacological treatments as well as newer options have significant problems, especially because of side effects and abuse potential. Some novel modalities are being examined to expand options for treatment. In this review, the pathophysiological, clinical, and pharmacotherapeutic aspects of narcolepsy are discussed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 271-283

  19. Role of leukotrienes in asthma pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    2000-01-01

    Inflammation is an essential component of asthma pathophysiology. While beta(2)-agonists are often used for short-term relief of acute bronchospasm, anti-inflammatory agents are required for the long-term management of chronic inflammation in this disease. Corticosteroids have emerged as the first......-line anti-inflammatory therapy for asthma management. However, in some patients, especially children, the high doses of corticosteroids that may be required to control features of hyperresponsiveness, including exercise-induced asthma, raise safety concerns. Thus, there is a need for complementary anti......-inflammatory, steroid-sparing agents in asthma therapy. Several inflammatory mediators have been targeted in an attempt to thwart this inflammatory process, but so far with little success. The cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLT), LTC(4), LTD(4), and LTE(4), have been shown to be essential mediators in asthma, making them...

  20. The role of ADAMs in disease pathophysiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    The ADAMs are a family of multidomain transmembrane and secreted proteins involved in both proteolysis and cell adhesion. Altered expression of specific ADAMs is implicated in the pathophysiology of several diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer\\'s disease, cardiac hypertrophy, asthma and cancer. Of these different diseases, it is in cancer where most research has been carried out. Multiple ADAMs, including ADAM-9, ADAM-10, ADAM-12, ADAM-15 and ADAM-17, have been shown to play a role in either cancer formation or progression. Consistent with these findings, increased expression of specific ADAMs in several cancer types was found to correlate with features of aggressive disease and poor prognosis. Currently, selective ADAM inhibitors against ADAM-10 and ADAM-17 are undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Further work is required in order to establish a causative role for ADAMs in rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer\\'s disease, cardiac hypertrophy and asthma.

  1. Hormonally active phytochemicals and vertebrate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Max R; Edwards, Thea M

    2017-06-01

    Living plants produce a diversity of chemicals that share structural and functional properties with vertebrate hormones. Wildlife species interact with these chemicals either through consumption of plant materials or aquatic exposure. Accumulating evidence shows that exposure to these hormonally active phytochemicals (HAPs) often has consequences for behavior, physiology, and fecundity. These fitness effects suggest there is potential for an evolutionary response by vertebrates to HAPs. Here, we explore the toxicological HAP-vertebrate relationship in an evolutionary framework and discuss the potential for vertebrates to adapt to or even co-opt the effects of plant-derived chemicals that influence fitness. We lay out several hypotheses about HAPs and provide a path forward to test whether plant-derived chemicals influence vertebrate reproduction and evolution. Studies of phytochemicals with direct impacts on vertebrate reproduction provide an obvious and compelling system for studying evolutionary toxicology. Furthermore, an understanding of whether animal populations evolve in response to HAPs could provide insightful context for the study of rapid evolution and how animals cope with chemical agents in the environment.

  2. Development and evolution of the vertebrate primary mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, Vladimír; Horácek, Ivan; Cerny, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The vertebrate oral region represents a key interface between outer and inner environments, and its structural and functional design is among the limiting factors for survival of its owners. Both formation of the respective oral opening (primary mouth) and establishment of the food-processing apparatus (secondary mouth) require interplay between several embryonic tissues and complex embryonic rearrangements. Although many aspects of the secondary mouth formation, including development of the jaws, teeth or taste buds, are known in considerable detail, general knowledge about primary mouth formation is regrettably low. In this paper, primary mouth formation is reviewed from a comparative point of view in order to reveal its underestimated morphogenetic diversity among, and also within, particular vertebrate clades. In general, three main developmental modes were identified. The most common is characterized by primary mouth formation via a deeply invaginated ectodermal stomodeum and subsequent rupture of the bilaminar oral membrane. However, in salamander, lungfish and also in some frog species, the mouth develops alternatively via stomodeal collar formation contributed both by the ecto- and endoderm. In ray-finned fishes, on the other hand, the mouth forms via an ectoderm wedge and later horizontal detachment of the initially compressed oral epithelia with probably a mixed germ-layer derivation. A very intriguing situation can be seen in agnathan fishes: whereas lampreys develop their primary mouth in a manner similar to the most common gnathostome pattern, hagfishes seem to undergo a unique oropharyngeal morphogenesis when compared with other vertebrates. In discussing the early formative embryonic correlates of primary mouth formation likely to be responsible for evolutionary–developmental modifications of this area, we stress an essential role of four factors: first, positioning and amount of yolk tissue; closely related to, second, endoderm formation during

  3. CT study of vertebral metastasis: re-realization of the diagnostic role of the vertebral pedicle sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Quanfei; Jiang Bo; Chen Yingming; Zhang Chaohui

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the essence of the vertebral pedicle sign of vertebral metastasis on plain film, and to explore the useful CT signs for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of this tumor. Methods: The CT scans of the spine obtained in 48 patients with vertebral metastases, 19 patients with vertebral tuberculosis, and 11 with vertebral myeloma, were analyzed. The CT findings were correlated with the abnormalities seen on plain films in 34 of the 48 patients (66 vertebrae involved) with vertebral metastasis. Results: 66 vertebrae were involved in the group of metastasis. Of the 28 vertebrae whose vertebral body were completely destroyed, 15 were seen bilateral pedicles destruction; Of the 22 vertebrae with lateral destruction of the body, 16 were noticed unilateral pedicle destruction which located posterior to the involved side of the body. Of the 62 micro-metastatic foci, 56 were scattered in the vertebral body. In the 19 para-spinal soft-tissue masses of vertebral tuberculosis, 5 were noticed calcifications and 12 with postcontrast rings enhancement. The rates of vertebral pedicle destruction of vertebral metastasis and myeloma were not statistically different (X 2 = 0.03, P > 0.50). The locations of destruction of vertebral body in vertebral metastasis and myeloma had no statistical difference (X 2 = 3.52, P > 0.10), but they differed from that in tuberculosis (X 2 = 39.32, P < 0.001). The distribution of lesions within the vertebrae of metastasis and tuberculosis was similar, but was quite different from myeloma. Conclusion: The vertebral metastasis initially occurs in the vertebral body. The vertebral pedicle sign on plain film of vertebral metastasis is the outcome of the posterior invasion of the tumor in the vertebral body, which is of no differential significance for vertebral metastasis and myeloma. Para-spinal soft tissue mass, location of destruction of vertebral body, and the distribution of lesions within the vertebrae may help

  4. Transforming pathophysiology instruction through narrative pedagogy and Socratic questioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, M M

    2001-01-01

    Pathophysiology, heavily content driven, has typically been taught through the use of traditional behavioral pedagogy and a reliance on the formal lecture. The author describes the limitations of this approach to teaching pathophysiology and describes the use of narrative pedagogy and Socratic questioning as alternative methods of instruction to augment lecture methods. Specific strategies for transforming traditional classroom teaching by using Socratic questions in a pathophysiology course for nurse practitioners are described. Student and faculty reactions to the initial efforts to transform pathophysiology instruction are also described.

  5. Temporal trends in vertebral size and shape from medieval to modern-day.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho-Antti Junno

    Full Text Available Human lumbar vertebrae support the weight of the upper body. Loads lifted and carried by the upper extremities cause significant loading stress to the vertebral bodies. It is well established that trauma-induced vertebral fractures are common especially among elderly people. The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological factors that could have affected the prevalence of trauma-related vertebral fractures from medieval times to the present day. To determine if morphological differences existed in the size and shape of the vertebral body between medieval times and the present day, the vertebral body size and shape was measured from the 4th lumbar vertebra using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and standard osteometric calipers. The modern samples consisted of modern Finns and the medieval samples were from archaeological collections in Sweden and Britain. The results show that the shape and size of the 4th lumbar vertebra has changed significantly from medieval times in a way that markedly affects the biomechanical characteristics of the lumbar vertebral column. These changes may have influenced the incidence of trauma- induced spinal fractures in modern populations.

  6. An update on pancreatic pathophysiology (do we have to rewrite pancreatic pathophysiology?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Heinz F

    2014-02-01

    This review focuses on seven aspects of physiology and pathophysiology of the exocrine pancreas that have been intensively discussed and studied within the past few years: (1) the role of neurohormonal mechanisms like melatonin, leptin, or ghrelin in the stimulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion; (2) the initiation processes of acute pancreatitis, like fusion of zymogen granules with lysosomes leading to intracellular activation of trypsinogen by the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin B, or autoactivation of trypsinogen; (3) the role of genes in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis; (4) the role of alcohol and constituents of alcoholic beverages in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis; (5) the role of pancreatic hypertension, neuropathy, and central mechanisms for the pathogenesis of pain in chronic pancreatitis; (6) the relation between exocrine pancreatic function and diabetes mellitus; and (7) pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic steatorrhea.

  7. High prevalence of radiological vertebral fractures in HIV-infected males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torti, Carlo; Mazziotti, Gherardo; Soldini, Pier Antonio; Focà, Emanuele; Maroldi, Roberto; Gotti, Daria; Carosi, Giampiero; Giustina, Andrea

    2012-06-01

    Age-related co-morbidities including osteoporosis are relevant in patients responding to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Vertebral fractures are common osteoporotic fractures and their diagnosis is useful for managing at-risk individuals. However, there are few data from HIV-infected patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and factors associated with vertebral fractures in a population of HIV-infected males. A cross-sectional study of 160 HIV-infected patients with available chest X-rays was conducted from 1998 to 2010. One hundred and sixty-three males with comparable age and with no history of HIV infection were recruited as controls. Semi-quantitative evaluation of vertebral heights in lateral chest X-rays and quantitative morphometry assessment of centrally digitized images using dedicated morphometry software were utilized to detect prevalent vertebral fractures. The result showed that the vertebral fractures were detected in 43/160 (26.9%) HIV-infected patients and in 21/163 (12.9%) controls (P = 0.002). In HIV-infected patients with fractures, 27 had two or more fractures and ten patients had severe fractures. The prevalence of any fractures and multiple fractures in HIV-infected patients receiving cART (29.6 and 20.0%) was slightly higher than in HIV-infected patients not exposed to cART (17.1 and 5.7%), but significantly higher than control subjects (12.9 and 3.7%). At multivariable analyses, body mass index and diabetes mellitus were independently correlated with vertebral fractures in HIV-infected patients. We concluded that a significant proportion of HIV-infected males receiving cART showed vertebral fractures. Furthermore, proactive diagnosis of vertebral fragility fractures is particularly relevant in patients who are overweight or suffer from diabetes.

  8. Conserved form and function of the germinal epithelium through 500 million years of vertebrate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Harry J; Uribe, Mari Carmen; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Mims, Steven D; Parenti, Lynne R

    2016-08-01

    The germinal epithelium, i.e., the site of germ cell production in males and females, has maintained a constant form and function throughout 500 million years of vertebrate evolution. The distinguishing characteristic of germinal epithelia among all vertebrates, males, and females, is the presence of germ cells among somatic epithelial cells. The somatic epithelial cells, Sertoli cells in males or follicle (granulosa) cells in females, encompass and isolate germ cells. Morphology of all vertebrate germinal epithelia conforms to the standard definition of an epithelium: epithelial cells are interconnected, border a body surface or lumen, are avascular and are supported by a basement membrane. Variation in morphology of gonads, which develop from the germinal epithelium, is correlated with the evolution of reproductive modes. In hagfishes, lampreys, and elasmobranchs, the germinal epithelia of males produce spermatocysts. A major rearrangement of testis morphology diagnoses osteichthyans: the spermatocysts are arranged in tubules or lobules. In protogynous (female to male) sex reversal in teleost fishes, female germinal epithelial cells (prefollicle cells) and oogonia transform into the first male somatic cells (Sertoli cells) and spermatogonia in the developing testis lobules. This common origin of cell types from the germinal epithelium in fishes with protogynous sex reversal supports the homology of Sertoli cells and follicle cells. Spermatogenesis in amphibians develops within spermatocysts in testis lobules. In amniotes vertebrates, the testis is composed of seminiferous tubules wherein spermatogenesis occurs radially. Emerging research indicates that some mammals do not have lifetime determinate fecundity. The fact emerged that germinal epithelia occur in the gonads of all vertebrates examined herein of both sexes and has the same form and function across all vertebrate taxa. Continued study of the form and function of the germinal epithelium in vertebrates

  9. Insights into pathophysiology of punding reveal possible treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, A; Petrovic, I

    2010-06-01

    Punding is a stereotyped behavior characterized by an intense fascination with a complex, excessive, nongoal oriented, repetitive activity. Men tend to repetitively tinker with technical equipment such as radio sets, clocks, watches and car engines, the parts of which may be analyzed, arranged, sorted and cataloged but rarely put back together. Women, in contrast, incessantly sort through their handbags, tidy continuously, brush their hair or polish their nails. Punders are normally aware of the inapposite and obtuse nature of the behavior; however, despite the consequent self-injury, they do not stop such behavior. The most common causes of punding are dopaminergic replacement therapy in patients affected by Parkinson's disease (PD) and cocaine and amphetamine use in addicts. The vast majority of information about punding comes from PD cases. A critical review of these cases shows that almost all afflicted patients (90%) were on treatment with drugs acting mainly on dopamine receptors D1 and D2, whereas only three cases were reported in association with selective D2 and D3 agonists. Epidemiological considerations and available data from animal models suggest that punding, drug-induced stereotypies, addiction and dyskinesias all share a common pathophysiological process. Punding may be related to plastic changes in the ventral and dorsal striatal structures, including the nucleus accumbens, and linked to psychomotor stimulation and reward mechanisms. Possible management guidelines are proposed.

  10. Kyphoplasty for severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Zhaohua; Wang Genlin; Yang Huilin; Meng Bin; Chen Kangwu; Jiang Weimin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clininal efficacy of kyphoplasty for severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. Methods: Forty-five patients with severe osteoporotic compressive fractures were treated by kyphoplasty from Jan 2005 to Jan 2009. The compressive rate of the fractured vertebral bodies was more than 75%. According to the morphology of the vertebral compression fracture bodies the unilateral or bilateral balloon kyphoplasty were selected. The anterior vertebral height was measured on a standing lateral radiograph at pre-operative, post-operative (one day after operation) and final follow-up time. A visual analog scale(VAS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI) were chosen to evaluate pain status and functional activity. Results: The mean follow-up was for 21.7 months (in range from 18 to 48 months). The anterior vertebral body height of fracture vertebra was restored from preoperative (18.7 ± 3.1)% to postoperative (51.4 ± 2.3)%, the follow-up period (50.2 ± 2.7)%. There was a significant improvement between preoperative and postoperative values (P 0.05). The VAS was 8.1 ± 1.4 at preoperative, 2.6 ± 0.9 at postoperative, 2.1 ± 0.5 at final follow-up time; and the ODI was preoperative 91.1 ± 2.3, postoperative 30.7 ± 7.1, follow-up period 26.1 ± 5.1. There was statistically significant improvement in the VAS and ODI in the post-operative assessment compared with the pre-operative assessment (P 0.05). Asymptomatic cement leakage occurred in three cases. New vertebral fracture occurred in one case. Conclusion: The study suggests that balloon kyphoplasty is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of severe osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. (authors)

  11. Evolution of circadian organization in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Menaker

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Circadian organization means the way in which the entire circadian system above the cellular level is put together physically and the principles and rules that determine the interactions among its component parts which produce overt rhythms of physiology and behavior. Understanding this organization and its evolution is of practical importance as well as of basic interest. The first major problem that we face is the difficulty of making sense of the apparently great diversity that we observe in circadian organization of diverse vertebrates. Some of this diversity falls neatly into place along phylogenetic lines leading to firm generalizations: i in all vertebrates there is a "circadian axis" consisting of the retinas, the pineal gland and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, ii in many non-mammalian vertebrates of all classes (but not in any mammals the pineal gland is both a photoreceptor and a circadian oscillator, and iii in all non-mammalian vertebrates (but not in any mammals there are extraretinal (and extrapineal circadian photoreceptors. An interesting explanation of some of these facts, especially the differences between mammals and other vertebrates, can be constructed on the assumption that early in their evolution mammals passed through a "nocturnal bottleneck". On the other hand, a good deal of the diversity among the circadian systems of vertebrates does not fall neatly into place along phylogenetic lines. In the present review we will consider how we might better understand such "phylogenetically incoherent" diversity and what sorts of new information may help to further our understanding of the evolution of circadian organization in vertebrates

  12. Pathophysiological mechanisms of severe anaemia in Malawian children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Boele van Hensbroek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Severe anaemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in African children. The aetiology is multi-factorial, but interventions have often targeted only one or a few causal factors, with limited success.We assessed the contribution of different pathophysiological mechanisms (red cell production failure [RCPF], haemolysis and blood loss to severe anaemia in Malawian children in whom etiological factors have been described previously. More complex associations between etiological factors and the mechanisms were explored using structural equation modelling. In 235 children with severe anaemia (haemoglobin<3.2 mMol/L [5.0 g/dl] studied, RCPF, haemolysis and blood loss were found in 48.1%, 21.7% and 6.9%, respectively. The RCPF figure increased to 86% when a less stringent definition of RCPF was applied. RCPF was the most common mechanism in each of the major etiological subgroups (39.7-59.7%. Multiple aetiologies were common in children with severe anaemia. In the final model, nutritional and infectious factors, including malaria, were directly or indirectly associated with RCPF, but not with haemolysis.RCPF was the most common pathway leading to severe anaemia, from a variety of etiological factors, often found in combination. Unlike haemolysis or blood loss, RCPF is a defect that is likely to persist to a significant degree unless all of its contributing aetiologies are corrected. This provides a further explanation for the limited success of the single factor interventions that have commonly been applied to the prevention or treatment of severe anaemia. Our findings underline the need for a package of measures directed against all of the local aetiologies of this often fatal paediatric syndrome.

  13. Migraine and epilepsy: a focus on overlapping clinical, pathophysiological, molecular, and therapeutic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchin, Marino Muxfeldt; Londero, Renata Gomes; Lima, José Eduardo; Bigal, Marcelo Eduardo

    2010-08-01

    The association of epilepsy and migraine has been long recognized. Migraine and epilepsy are both chronic disorders with episodic attacks. Furthermore, headache may be a premonitory or postdromic symptom of seizures, and migraine headaches may cause seizures per se (migralepsy). Migraine and epilepsy are comorbid, sharing pathophysiological mechanisms and common clinical features. Several recent studies identified common genetic and molecular substrates for migraine and epilepsy, including phenotypic-genotypic correlations with mutations in the CACNA1A, ATP1A2, and SCN1A genes, as well as in syndromes due to mutations in the SLC1A3, POLG, and C10orF2 genes. Herein, we review the relationship between migraine and epilepsy, focusing on clinical aspects and some recent pathophysiological and molecular studies.

  14. Evolutionary hierarchy of vertebrate-like heterotrimeric G protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Arunkumar; Mustafa, Arshi; Almén, Markus Sällman; Fredriksson, Robert; Williams, Michael J; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2015-10-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins perform a crucial role as molecular switches controlling various cellular responses mediated by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathway. Recent data have shown that the vertebrate-like G protein families are found across metazoans and their closest unicellular relatives. However, an overall evolutionary hierarchy of vertebrate-like G proteins, including gene family annotations and in particular mapping individual gene gain/loss events across diverse holozoan lineages is still incomplete. Here, with more expanded invertebrate taxon sampling, we have reconstructed phylogenetic trees for each of the G protein classes/families and provide a robust classification and hierarchy of vertebrate-like heterotrimeric G proteins. Our results further extend the evidence that the common ancestor (CA) of holozoans had at least five ancestral Gα genes corresponding to all major vertebrate Gα classes and contain a total of eight genes including two Gβ and one Gγ. Our results also indicate that the GNAI/O-like gene likely duplicated in the last CA of metazoans to give rise to GNAI- and GNAO-like genes, which are conserved across invertebrates. Moreover, homologs of GNB1-4 paralogon- and GNB5 family-like genes are found in most metazoans and that the unicellular holozoans encode two ancestral Gβ genes. Similarly, most bilaterian invertebrates encode two Gγ genes which include a representative of the GNG gene cluster and a putative homolog of GNG13. Interestingly, our results also revealed key evolutionary events such as the Drosophila melanogaster eye specific Gβ subunit that is found conserved in most arthropods and several previously unidentified species specific expansions within Gαi/o, Gαs, Gαq, Gα12/13 classes and the GNB1-4 paralogon. Also, we provide an overall proposed evolutionary scenario on the expansions of all G protein families in vertebrate tetraploidizations. Our robust classification/hierarchy is essential to further

  15. Height gain of vertebral bodies and stabilization of vertebral geometry over one year after vertebroplasty of osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitton, Michael B.; Morgen, Nadine; Herber, Sascha; Dueber, Christoph; Drees, Philipp; Boehm, Bertram

    2008-01-01

    The height gain of vertebral bodies after vertebroplasty and geometrical stability was evaluated over a one-year period. Osteoporotic fractures were treated with vertebroplasty. The vertebral geometry and disc spaces were analysed using reformatted computed tomography (CT) images: heights of the anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral walls, disc spaces, endplate angles, and minimal endplate distances. Vertebrae were assigned to group I [severe compression (anterior height/posterior height) 0.75). A total of 102 vertebral bodies in 40 patients (12 men, 28 women, age 70.3 ± 9.5) were treated with vertebroplasty and prospectively followed for 12 months. Group I showed a greater benefit compared with group II with respect to anterior height gain (+2.1 ± 1.9 vs +0.7 ± 1.6 mm, P < 0.001), reduction of endplate angle (-3.6 ± 4.2 vs -0.8 ± 2.3 , P < 0.001), and compression index (+0.09 ± 0.11 vs +0.01 ± 0.06, P < 0.001). At one-year follow-up, group I demonstrated preserved anterior height gain (+1.5 ± 2.8 mm, P < 0.015) and improved endplate angle (-3.4 ± 4.9 , P < 0.001). In group II, the vertebral heights returned to and were fixed at the pre-interventional levels. Vertebroplasty provided vertebral height gain over one year, particularly in cases with severe compression. Vertebrae with moderate compression were fixed and stabilized at the pre-treatment level over one year. (orig.)

  16. Vertebral Column Resection for Rigid Spinal Deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifi, Comron; Laratta, Joseph L; Petridis, Petros; Shillingford, Jamal N; Lehman, Ronald A; Lenke, Lawrence G

    2017-05-01

    Broad narrative review. To review the evolution, operative technique, outcomes, and complications associated with posterior vertebral column resection. A literature review of posterior vertebral column resection was performed. The authors' surgical technique is outlined in detail. The authors' experience and the literature regarding vertebral column resection are discussed at length. Treatment of severe, rigid coronal and/or sagittal malalignment with posterior vertebral column resection results in approximately 50-70% correction depending on the type of deformity. Surgical site infection rates range from 2.9% to 9.7%. Transient and permanent neurologic injury rates range from 0% to 13.8% and 0% to 6.3%, respectively. Although there are significant variations in EBL throughout the literature, it can be minimized by utilizing tranexamic acid intraoperatively. The ability to correct a rigid deformity in the spine relies on osteotomies. Each osteotomy is associated with a particular magnitude of correction at a single level. Posterior vertebral column resection is the most powerful posterior osteotomy method providing a successful correction of fixed complex deformities. Despite meticulous surgical technique and precision, this robust osteotomy technique can be associated with significant morbidity even in the most experienced hands.

  17. Reproducibility of central lumbar vertebral BMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, F.; Pocock, N.; Griffiths, M.; Majerovic, Y.; Freund, J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Lumbar vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has generally been calculated from a region of interest which includes the entire vertebral body. Although this region excludes part of the transverse processes, it does include the outer cortical shell of the vertebra. Recent software has been devised to calculate BMD in a central vertebral region of interest which excludes the outer cortical envelope. Theoretically this area may be more sensitive to detecting osteoporosis which affects trabecular bone to a greater extent than cortical bone. Apart from the sensitivity of BMD estimation, the reproducibility of any measurement is important owing to the slow rate of change of bone mass. We have evaluated the reproducibility of this new vertebral region of interest in 23 women who had duplicate lumbar spine DXA scans performed on the same day. The patients were repositioned between each measurement. Central vertebral analysis was performed for L2-L4 and the reproducibility of area, bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD calculated as the coefficient of variation; these values were compared with those from conventional analysis. Thus we have shown that the reproducibility of the central BMD is comparable to the conventional analysis which is essential if this technique is to provide any additional clinical data. The reasons for the decrease in reproducibility of the area and hence BMC requires further investigation

  18. Pathophysiology and Biomarkers in Acute Ischemic Stroke – A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pathophysiology of ischemic stroke is complex, and majorly involves excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, apoptosis, etc. Several of the biomarkers are related to these pathophysiologic mechanisms and they may have applications in stroke prediction, diagnosis, assessment, ...

  19. Pathophysiology and Nonsurgical Treatment of Chronic Subdural Hematoma: From Past to Present to Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Dana C; Volovici, Victor; Dirven, Clemens M F; Peul, Wilco C; van Kooten, Fop; Jellema, Korné; van der Gaag, Niels A; Miah, Ishita P; Kho, Kuan H; den Hertog, Heleen M; Lingsma, Hester F; Dammers, Ruben

    2018-05-14

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the more frequent pathologic entities in daily neurosurgical practice. Historically, CSDH was considered progressive recurrent bleeding with a traumatic cause. However, recent evidence has suggested a complex intertwined pathway of inflammation, angiogenesis, local coagulopathy, recurrent microbleeds, and exudates. The aim of the present review is to collect existing data on pathophysiology of CSDH to direct further research questions aiming to optimize treatment for the individual patient. We performed a thorough literature search in PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google scholar, focusing on any aspect of the pathophysiology and nonsurgical treatment of CSDH. After a (minor) traumatic event, the dural border cell layer tears, which leads to the extravasation of cerebrospinal fluid and blood in the subdural space. A cascade of inflammation, impaired coagulation, fibrinolysis, and angiogenesis is set in motion. The most commonly used treatment is surgical drainage. However, because of the pathophysiologic mechanisms, the mortality and high morbidity associated with surgical drainage, drug therapy (dexamethasone, atorvastatin, tranexamic acid, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) might be a beneficial alternative in many patients with CSDH. Based on pathophysiologic mechanisms, animal experiments, and small patient studies, medical treatment may play a role in the treatment of CSDH. There is a lack of level I evidence in the nonsurgical treatment of CSDH. Therefore, randomized controlled trials, currently lacking, are needed to assess which treatment is most effective in each individual patient. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tinnitus: Network pathophysiology-network pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen eElgoyhen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a prevalent disorder. One in 10 adults has clinically significant subjective tinnitus, and for 1 in 100, tinnitus severely affects their quality of life. Despite the significant unmet clinical need for a safe and effective drug targeting tinnitus relief, there is currently not a single FDA-approved drug on the market. The search for drugs that target tinnitus is hampered by the lack of a deep knowledge of the underlying neural substrates of this pathology. Recent studies are increasingly demonstrating that, as described for other central nervous system disorders, tinnitus is a pathology of brain networks. The application of graph theoretical analysis to brain networks has recently provided new information concerning their topology, their robustness and their vulnerability to attacks. Moreover, the philosophy behind drug design and pharmacotherapy in central nervous system pathologies is changing from that of magic bullets that target individual chemoreceptors or disease-causing genes into that of magic shotguns, promiscuous or dirty drugs that target disease-causing networks, also known as network pharmacology. In the present work we provide some insight into how this knowledge could be applied to tinnitus pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy.

  1. Tinnitus: network pathophysiology-network pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgoyhen, Ana B; Langguth, Berthold; Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a prevalent disorder. One in 10 adults has clinically significant subjective tinnitus, and for one in 100, tinnitus severely affects their quality of life. Despite the significant unmet clinical need for a safe and effective drug targeting tinnitus relief, there is currently not a single Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug on the market. The search for drugs that target tinnitus is hampered by the lack of a deep knowledge of the underlying neural substrates of this pathology. Recent studies are increasingly demonstrating that, as described for other central nervous system (CNS) disorders, tinnitus is a pathology of brain networks. The application of graph theoretical analysis to brain networks has recently provided new information concerning their topology, their robustness and their vulnerability to attacks. Moreover, the philosophy behind drug design and pharmacotherapy in CNS pathologies is changing from that of "magic bullets" that target individual chemoreceptors or "disease-causing genes" into that of "magic shotguns," "promiscuous" or "dirty drugs" that target "disease-causing networks," also known as network pharmacology. In the present work we provide some insight into how this knowledge could be applied to tinnitus pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy.

  2. Orthostatic intolerance: potential pathophysiology and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Cherng; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn; Tang, Hung-Shang; Tung, Che-Se

    2004-09-30

    Orthostatic intolerance affects an estimated 1 in 500 persons and causes a wide range of disabilities. After essential hypertension, it is the most frequently encountered dysautonomia, accounting for the majority of patients referred to centers specializing in autonomic disorders. Patients are typically young females with symptoms such as dizziness, visual changes, head and neck discomfort, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety, and, in some cases, syncope. Syncope is the most hazardous symptom of orthostatic intolerance, presumably occurring because of impaired cerebral perfusion and in part to compensatory autonomic mechanisms. The etiology of this syndrome is still unclear but is heterogeneous. Orthostatic intolerance used to be characterized by an overall enhancement of noradrenergic tone at rest in some patients and by a patchy dysautonomia of postganglionic sympathetic fibers with a compensatory cardiac sympathetic activation in others. However, recent advances in molecular genetics are improving our understanding of orthostatic intolerance, such as several genetic diseases (such as Ehler-Danlos syndrome and norepinephrine transporter deficiency) presenting with symptoms typical of orthostatic intolerance. Future work will include investigation of genetic functional mutations underlying interindividual differences in autonomic cardiovascular control, body fluid regulation, and vascular regulation in orthostatic intolerance patients. The goal of this review article is to describe recent advances in understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance and their clinical significance.

  3. [Pathophysiology and new treatment of uveitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Ryoji; Takeda, Atsunobu; Yoshimura, Takeru; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2014-01-01

    Uveitis is narrow-defined inflammation of the uvea, also clinically include all inflammatory conditions in the eye. Uveitis may occur as a consequence of various causes and background, such as autoimmune diseases, infections, and hematopoietic malignancy. We have to treat uveitis not only controlling the inflammation but also maintaining up the visual function of the eye because the most uveitis is chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder. Behçét's disease is a systemic disease and results in loss of vision without adequate treatment. Behçét's disease was a representative of vision loss uveitis because Behçét's patient usually had treatment resistance of conventional treatment, such as colchicine and cyclosporine. However, biological therapy with TNF-α, which started from 2007, has revolutionized the treatment strategy of Behçét's disease. It is not too much to say that Behçét's patient is free from fear of vision loss by the dramatic decrease of ocular attach. Biological therapy is not approved as a treatment of uveitis except Behçét's disease. Some protracted cases of Sarcoidosis and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease are resistant to corticosteroid therapy and require new treatment. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology of uveitis and report new treatment of Behçét's disease by biological therapy.

  4. Orexinergic system and pathophysiology of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreulee, N; Alania, M; Vashalomidze, G; Skhirtladze, E; Kapanadze, Ts

    2010-11-01

    Neuropeptids orexins, also known as the hypocretins, are expressed in the lateral hypothalamus. Orexin-containing cells project widely throughout the brains, are crucial for the regulation of wakefulness and dysfunction of this system is associated with pathophysiology of narcolepsy-cataplexy. Orexin neurons play an important role in motivation, feeding and adaptive behaviors. Distribution of orexinergic receptors in the hippocampus tended to the ideas that orexins might be involved in the functions relating to the hippocampus. Effects of neuropeptide orexin-A on epileptiform activity in hippocampal slices were investigated. 500 µm thick hippocampal slices from 8-10 week-old rodents were used. Field excitatory postsynaptic potential (pop-fEPSP) and population spike in CA1 of hippocamopus were registered using standard protocol of in vitro electrophysiological experiments. Initial slope of the fEPSP and amplitude of II pop-spike were measured. Bursting neurons in CA3 were recorded in modified saline. We have found that orexin-A decreases duration/amplitude of multiple discharges of pop-spikes and inhibits spontaneous epileptiform afterdischarges induced by bicuculline methiodide in CA1. Orexin-A also modulates the frequency of discharges of bursting neurons in CA3. Our results suggest possible involvement of orexinergic system in antiepileptic action. Supported by ISTC Grant G-1318.

  5. Metabolic syndrome pathophysiology and clinical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, Yehuda

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a relatively new definition, designed to help the health care practitioner to easily identify people at risk for the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. With the obesity epidemic, we are witnessing an epidemic of multiple-risk patients. Insulin resistance is the perceived pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and defines its clinical presentation. Hypertension, dyslipedemia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, fatty liver disease, pre-diabetes, sleep and breathing disorder, certain cancers, and cognitive impairment are many of the presentations of the syndrome; patients with any of these conditions are at a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The metabolic syndrome helps identify people at risk to allow early intervention for prevention. Lifestyle modification is the most important part of the management of people with the syndrome. Lately medications--though none approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)--have been recommended by major medical societies when lifestyle modification is not enough or when it fails.

  6. The pathophysiology of trauma-induced coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Daniel; Brohi, Karim

    2012-12-01

    Transfusion paradigms and protocols have evolved at a rapid pace in the last few years to ameliorate the adverse effects of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC). This has occurred despite fragmented and inadequate knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology that they are supposed to treat. This review will collate and assimilate the most recent data about TIC in order to present our state-of-the-art understanding of this condition. TIC was conventionally construed simply as depletion, dysfunction or dilution of procoagulant factors. However, contemporary understanding recognizes it as an imbalance of the dynamic equilibrium between procoagulant factors, anticoagulant factors, platelets, endothelium and fibrinolysis. The endogenous component of TIC (acute traumatic coagulopathy) is not merely a consumptive coagulopathy, but is characterized by isolated factor V inhibition, dysfibrinogenaemia, systemic anticoagulation, impaired platelet function and hyperfibrinolysis. Acute traumatic coagulopathy then becomes exacerbated by hypothermia, acidosis and resuscitation with hypocoagulable fluids. Further improvement in the outcome from trauma-haemorrhage is possible with more refined and tailored haemostatic resuscitation. Achieving this will depend upon a better understanding of the haemostatic defects that develop after injury.

  7. Pathophysiology of AAA: heredity vs environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björck, Martin; Wanhainen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has a complex pathophysiology, in which both environmental and genetic factors play important roles, the most important being smoking. The recently reported falling prevalence rates of AAA in northern Europe and Australia/New Zeeland are largely explained by healthier smoking habits. Dietary factors and obesity, in particular abdominal obesity, are also of importance. A family history of AAA among first-degree relatives is present in approximately 13% of incident cases. The probability that a monozygotic twin of a person with an AAA has the disease is 24%, 71 times higher than that for a monozygotic twin of a person without AAA. Approximately 1000 SNPs in 100 candidate genes have been studied, and three genome-wide association studies were published, identifying different diverse weak associations. An example of interaction between environmental and genetic factors is the effect of cholesterol, where genetic and dietary factors affect levels of both HDL and LDL. True epigenetic studies have not yet been published. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pathophysiology and Immune Dysfunction in Endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Soo Hyun; Monsanto, Stephany P.; Miller, Caragh; Singh, Sukhbir S.; Thomas, Richard; Tayade, Chandrakant

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent, chronic, proinflammatory disease prevalent in 10% of women of reproductive age worldwide. Characterized by the growth of endometrium-like tissue in aberrant locations outside of the uterus, it is responsible for symptoms including chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and subfertility that degrade quality of life of women significantly. In Canada, direct and indirect economic cost of endometriosis amounts to 1.8 billion dollars, and this is elevated to 20 billion dollars in the United States. Despite decades of research, the etiology and pathophysiology of endometriosis still remain to be elucidated. This review aims to bring together the current understanding regarding the pathogenesis of endometriosis with specific focus on mechanisms behind vascularization of the lesions and the contribution of immune factors in facilitating lesion establishment and development. The role of hormones, immune cells, and cytokine signaling is highlighted, in addition to discussing the current pharmaceutical options available for management of pain symptoms in women with endometriosis. PMID:26247027

  9. Pathophysiology and Immune Dysfunction in Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyun Ahn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent, chronic, proinflammatory disease prevalent in 10% of women of reproductive age worldwide. Characterized by the growth of endometrium-like tissue in aberrant locations outside of the uterus, it is responsible for symptoms including chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and subfertility that degrade quality of life of women significantly. In Canada, direct and indirect economic cost of endometriosis amounts to 1.8 billion dollars, and this is elevated to 20 billion dollars in the United States. Despite decades of research, the etiology and pathophysiology of endometriosis still remain to be elucidated. This review aims to bring together the current understanding regarding the pathogenesis of endometriosis with specific focus on mechanisms behind vascularization of the lesions and the contribution of immune factors in facilitating lesion establishment and development. The role of hormones, immune cells, and cytokine signaling is highlighted, in addition to discussing the current pharmaceutical options available for management of pain symptoms in women with endometriosis.

  10. Pathogenesis and treatment of psoriasis: exploiting pathophysiological pathways for precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, Wisam; Nestle, Frank O

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic inflammatory skin disease associated with multi-system manifestations including arthritis and obesity. Our knowledge of the aetiology of the condition, including the key genomic, immune and environmental factors, has led to the development of targeted, precision therapies that alleviate patient morbidity. This article reviews the key pathophysiological pathways and therapeutic targets and highlights future areas of interest in psoriasis research.

  11. The Anatomical Correlation between the Internal Venous Vertebral System and the Cranial Venae Cavae in Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazensky, David; Petrovova, Eva; Danko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the possible variations in the connection between the internal venous vertebral system and the cranial vena cava in rabbit using corrosion technique. The study was carried out on 40 adult New Zealand white rabbits. The venous system was injected by using Batson's corrosion casting kit number 17. We found the connection between the internal venous vertebral system and the cranial vena cava by means of the vertebral veins and the right azygos vein. The vertebral vein was present as independent tributary in 36 cases (90%). In the rest of the cases, it was found as being double, being triple, or forming a common trunk with other veins. The azygos vein was present as independent tributary of the cranial vena cava in 39 cases (97.5%). We found also a common trunk formed by the junction of the deep cervical vein, the right vertebral vein, and the azygos vein in one case (2.5%). The azygos vein received 6, 7, 8, or 9 pairs of dorsal intercostal veins. Documenting the anatomical variations in the rabbit will aid in the planning of future experimental studies and determining the clinical relevance on such studies.

  12. The Anatomical Correlation between the Internal Venous Vertebral System and the Cranial Venae Cavae in Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mazensky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the possible variations in the connection between the internal venous vertebral system and the cranial vena cava in rabbit using corrosion technique. The study was carried out on 40 adult New Zealand white rabbits. The venous system was injected by using Batson's corrosion casting kit number 17. We found the connection between the internal venous vertebral system and the cranial vena cava by means of the vertebral veins and the right azygos vein. The vertebral vein was present as independent tributary in 36 cases (90%. In the rest of the cases, it was found as being double, being triple, or forming a common trunk with other veins. The azygos vein was present as independent tributary of the cranial vena cava in 39 cases (97.5%. We found also a common trunk formed by the junction of the deep cervical vein, the right vertebral vein, and the azygos vein in one case (2.5%. The azygos vein received 6, 7, 8, or 9 pairs of dorsal intercostal veins. Documenting the anatomical variations in the rabbit will aid in the planning of future experimental studies and determining the clinical relevance on such studies.

  13. Vertebral Fractures After Discontinuation of Denosumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummings, Steven R; Ferrari, Serge; Eastell, Richard

    2018-01-01

    . We analyzed the risk of new or worsening vertebral fractures, especially multiple vertebral fractures, in participants who discontinued denosumab during the FREEDOM study or its Extension. Participants received ≥2 doses of denosumab or placebo Q6M, discontinued treatment, and stayed in the study ≥7...... months after the last dose. Of 1001 participants who discontinued denosumab during FREEDOM or Extension, the vertebral fracture rate increased from 1.2 per 100 participant-years during the on-treatment period to 7.1, similar to participants who received and then discontinued placebo (n = 470; 8.5 per 100....... Therefore, patients who discontinue denosumab should rapidly transition to an alternative antiresorptive treatment. Clinicaltrails.gov: NCT00089791 (FREEDOM) and NCT00523341 (Extension). © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research....

  14. Cochlear vertebral entrapment syndrome: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chinghsiung; Lin Shinnkuang E-mail: sk1943@adm.cgmh.org.tw; Chang Yeujhy

    2001-11-01

    The authors describe a patient with isolated involvement of vestibulocochlear nerve by a huge vascular loop from vertebral dolichoectasia. No other neurological deficit was found except for unilateral hearing loss. Abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potential study indicated a retrocochlear lesion. The brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies demonstrated an abnormally enhanced vascular lesion impinged on the left porus acusticus with a displacement of the brainstem to the right. There was no infarction in the brainstem. A cerebral angiography demonstrated a megadolichoectatic horizontal loop at the intracranial portion of the left vertebral artery. There was no thrombus or atherosclerosis in the vertebrobasilar system. A mechanical compression by a vascular loop is the only possible pathogenesis for hearing loss. The authors diagnose this condition as cochlear vertebral entrapment syndrome.

  15. The origin of the vertebrate skeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivar, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The anatomy of the human and other vertebrates has been well described since the days of Leonardo da Vinci and Vesalius. The causative origin of the configuration of the bones and of their shapes and forms has been addressed over the ensuing centuries by such outstanding investigators as Goethe, Von Baer, Gegenbauer, Wilhelm His and D'Arcy Thompson, who sought to apply mechanical principles to morphogenesis. However, no coherent causative model of morphogenesis has ever been presented. This paper presents a causative model for the origin of the vertebrate skeleton, based on the premise that the body is a mosaic enlargement of self-organized patterns engrained in the membrane of the egg cell. Drawings illustrate the proposed hypothetical origin of membrane patterning and the changes in the hydrostatic equilibrium of the cytoplasm that cause topographical deformations resulting in the vertebrate body form.

  16. CARDIOTHORACIC RATIO AND VERTEBRAL HEART SCALE IN CLINICALLY NORMAL BLACK-RUMPED AGOUTIS (DASYPROCTA PRYMNOLOPHA, WAGLER 1831).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Charlys Rhands Coelho; das Neves Diniz, Anaemilia; da Silva Moura, Laecio; das Chagas Araújo Sousa, Francisco; Baltazar, Pollyana Irene; Freire, Larisse Danielle; Guerra, Porfírio Candanedo; de Sousa, João Macedo; Giglio, Robson Fortes; Pessoa, Gerson Tavares; de Sá, Renan Paraguassu; Alves, Flávio Ribeiro

    2015-06-01

    Wild rodents, such as the lowland paca (Cuniculus paca), capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris), rock cavy (Kerodon rupestris), guinea pig (Cavia aperea), and black-rumped agouti (Dasyprocta prymnolopha) are intensely hunted throughout Amazonia and at the semiarid regions of northeastern Brazil. To contribute to the preservation of these species, more information about their anatomy, physiology and pathophysiology is needed. The aim of this study was to standardize the vertebral heart scale (VHS) and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) in clinically normal black-rumped agouti, as well as to compare the results of these two methods, which are commonly used to evaluate the cardiac silhouette in domestic animals. Twelve healthy black-rumped agoutis, divided into two groups (six males and six females), obtained from the Nucleus for Wild Animal Studies and Conservation at the Federal University of Piauí, were radiographed in right and left lateral and dorsoventral projections. The values of the VHS were 8.00±0.31v (the number of thoracic vertebral length spanned by each dimension, starting at T4) for males and 8.11±0.41v for females, and there was no statistical difference between the decubitus (right and left) or between males and females (P>0.05). The CTR mean values obtained were 0.51±0.03 for males, and 0.52±0.02 for females, and there was no statistical difference between the genders (P>0.05). However, there was positive correlation between VHS and CTR (r=0.77 right decubitus and r=0.82 left decubitus). The thoracic and heart diameter had mean values of 6.72±0.61 and 3.48±0.30 cm (males), and for the females, it was 6.61±0.51 and 3.5±0.30 cm, respectively, and there was statistical difference between the genders. The results demonstrated high correlation between the VHS and CTR producing similar results, indicating similar clinical precision for assessing the size of the cardiac silhouette in the black-rumped agoutis.

  17. Unraveling childhood constipation: Pathophysiology, diagnostics and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mugie, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Constipation represents a common worldwide problem in children. In > 90% of children presenting with constipation, no obvious organic cause is found and a diagnosis of functional constipation (FC) is made. Most common symptoms of FC include infrequent bowel movements, painful and hard stools, fecal

  18. Vertebral body osteomyelitis in the horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markel, M.D.; Madigan, J.E.; Lichtensteiger, C.A.; Large, S.M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical signs, laboratory data, results of nuclear scintigraphy and radiographic examination of five horses with vertebral body osteomyelitis are described together with response to treatment. Three horses were less than five months of age. Four horses demonstrated hindlimb paresis and in three a focus of pain in the thoracolumbar region could be identified. An umbilical abscess, a caudal lobe lung abscess and a patent urachus were considered primary niduses of infection in each of three horses. Leucocytosis, neutrophilia, anaemia and elevated fibrinogen were the most consistent laboratory abnormalities. Nuclear scintigraphy was performed in three horses and identified the site of the vertebral lesion which was subsequently evaluated radiographically. In the other two horses radiographic examination in the region of areas of focal pain identified a lesion. Radiographic abnormalities included compression fractures of vertebral bodies (two), proliferative new bone (three) and soft tissue swelling ventral to a vertebral body (one). Two horses, including one with a compression fracture of the second lumbar vertebra, received parenteral antimicrobial therapy for 40 and 74 days, respectively. When re-examined six months later they showed no neurological abnormalities. The other three horses failed to respond to antimicrobial treatment and were humanely destroyed. The horse with a lung abscess also had an abscess cranial to the right tuber coxae which extended into the vertebral bodies of the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae from which Streptococcus zooepidemicus was cultured. A horse with proliferative new bone on the ventral aspect of the fifth and sixth thoracic vertebrae had a mediastinal mass associated with these vertebrae and fungal granulomas, from which Aspergillus species was cultured, in the heart and aorta, trachea, spleen and kidney. The horse with a patent urachus and soft tissue swelling ventral to the vertebral body of the 12th thoracic vertebra

  19. Slipped vertebral epiphysis (report of 2 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Reza Farrokhi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • Avulsion or fracture of posterior ring apophysis of lumbar vertebra is an uncommon cause of radicular low back pain in pediatric age group, adolescents and athletes. This lesion is one of differential diagnosis of disc herniation. We reported two teenage boys with sever low back pain and sciatica during soccer play that ultimately treated with diagnosis of lipped vertebral apophysis.
    • KEY WORDS: Ring Apophysis, vertebral fracture, sciatica, low back pain, disc herniation.

  20. Nocardia brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip; Ammar, Hussam

    2013-04-11

    Nocardia species exist in the environment as a saprophyte; it is found worldwide in soil and decaying plant matter. They often infect patients with underlying immune compromise, pulmonary disease or history of trauma or surgery. The diagnosis of nocardiosis can be easily missed as it mimics many other granulomatous and neoplastic disease. We report a 69-year-old man who presented with chronic back pain and paraparesis. He was found to have Nocardial brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess. Laminectomy and epidural wash out was performed but with no neurological recovery. This is the second reported case of N brasiliensis vertebral osteomyelitis in the literature.

  1. The pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Iwanami, Masaoki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Hirata, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder that is frequently associated with periodic leg movements (PLMS). RLS is generally considered to be a central nervous system (CNS)-related disorder although no specific lesion has been found to be associated with the syndrome. Reduced intracortical inhibition has been demonstrated in RLS by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Some MRI studies have revealed the presence of morphologic changes in the somatosensory cortex, motor cortex and thalamic gray matter. The results of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) studies showed that the limbic and opioid systems also play important roles in the pathophysiology of RLS. A functional MRI study revealed abnormal bilateral cerebellar and thalamic activation during the manifestation of sensory symptoms, with additional red nucleus and reticular formation activity during PLMS. PLMS is likely to occur in patients with spinal cord lesions, and some patients with sensory polyneuropathy may exhibit RLS symptoms. RLS symptoms seem to depend on abnormal spinal sensorimotor integration at the spinal cord level and abnormal central somatosensory processing. PLMS appears to depend on increased excitability of the spinal cord and a decreased supraspinal inhibitory mechanism from the A11 diencephalic dopaminergic system. RLS symptoms respond very dramatically to dopaminergic therapy. The results of analysis by PET and SPECT studies of striatal D2 receptor binding in humans are inconclusive. However, studies in animal models suggest that the participation of the A11 dopaminergic system and the D3 receptor in RLS symptoms. The symptoms of RLS are aggravated in those with iron deficiency, and iron treatment ameliorates the symptoms in some patients. Neuroimaging studies, analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid, and studies on postmortem tissue and use of animal models have indicated that low brain iron concentrations and dysfunction of

  2. Characteristics and natural course of vertebral endplate signal (Modic) changes in the Danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue S; Bendix, Tom; Sorensen, Joan S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vertebral endplate signal changes (VESC) are more common among patients with low back pain (LBP) and/or sciatica than in people who are not seeking care for back pain. The distribution and characteristics of VESC have been described in people from clinical and non-clinical populations...

  3. Altered Mitochondrial Dynamics and TBI Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Diane Fischer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial function is intimately linked to cellular survival, growth, and death. Mitochondria not only generate ATP from oxidative phosphorylation, but also mediate intracellular calcium buffering, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and apoptosis. Electron leakage from the electron transport chain, especially from damaged or depolarized mitochondria, can generate excess free radicals that damage cellular proteins, DNA, and lipids. Furthermore, mitochondrial damage releases pro-apoptotic factors to initiate cell death. Previous studies have reported that traumatic brain injury (TBI reduces mitochondrial respiration, enhances production of ROS, and triggers apoptotic cell death, suggesting a prominent role of mitochondria in TBI pathophysiology. Mitochondria maintain cellular energy homeostasis and health via balanced processes of fusion and fission, continuously dividing and fusing to form an interconnected network throughout the cell. An imbalance of these processes, particularly an excess of fission, can be detrimental to mitochondrial function, causing decreased respiration, ROS production, and apoptosis. Mitochondrial fission is regulated by the cytosolic GTPase, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1, which translocates to the mitochondrial outer membrane to initiate fission. Aberrant Drp1 activity has been linked to excessive mitochondrial fission and neurodegeneration. Measurement of Drp1 levels in purified hippocampal mitochondria showed an increase in TBI animals as compared to sham controls. Analysis of cryo-electron micrographs of these mitochondria also showed that TBI caused an initial increase in the length of hippocampal mitochondria at 24 hours post-injury, followed by a significant decrease in length at 72 hours. Post-TBI administration of Mdivi-1, a pharmacological inhibitor of Drp1, prevented this decrease in mitochondria length. Mdivi-1 treatment also reduced the loss of newborn neurons in the hippocampus and improved

  4. Pathophysiological characterization of asthma transitions across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Syed Hasan; Raza, Abid; Lau, Laurie; Bawakid, Khalid; Karmaus, Wilfried; Zhang, Hongmei; Ewart, Susan; Patil, Veersh; Roberts, Graham; Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh

    2014-11-29

    Adolescence is a period of change, which coincides with disease remission in a significant proportion of subjects with childhood asthma. There is incomplete understanding of the changing characteristics underlying different adolescent asthma transitions. We undertook pathophysiological characterization of transitional adolescent asthma phenotypes in a longitudinal birth cohort. The Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (N = 1456) was reviewed at 1, 2, 4, 10 and 18-years. Characterization included questionnaires, skin tests, spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, bronchial challenge and (in a subset of 100 at 18-years) induced sputum. Asthma groups were "never asthma" (no asthma since birth), "persistent asthma" (asthma at age 10 and 18), "remission asthma" (asthma at age 10 but not at 18) and "adolescent-onset asthma" (asthma at age 18 but not at age 10). Participants whose asthma remitted during adolescence had lower bronchial reactivity (odds ratio (OR) 0.30; CI 0.10 -0.90; p = 0.03) at age 10 plus greater improvement in lung function (forced expiratory flow 25-75% gain: 1.7 L; 1.0-2.9; p = 0.04) compared to persistent asthma by age 18. Male sex (0.3; 0.1-0.7; p adolescent-onset asthma showed eosinophilic airway inflammation (3.0%, 0.7-6.6), not seen in persistent asthma (1.0%, 0-3.9), while remission group had the lowest sputum eosinophil count (0.3%, 0-1.4) and lowest eosinophils/neutrophils ratio of 0.0 (Interquartile range: 0.1). Asthma remission during adolescence is associated with lower initial BHR and greater gain in small airways function, while adolescent-onset asthma is primarily eosinophilic.

  5. Chagas disease. A new pathophysiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redruello, M.; Masoli, O.; Hasson, I.; Cragnolino, D.; Traverso, S.; Perez Balino, N.; Sarmiento, R.; Lazzari, J.; Luluaga, E.

    2002-01-01

    Background: There is scarce information on myocardial perfusion abnormalities and on the coronary vasomotor condition in Chagas disease patients. Aims: To assess regional perfusion abnormalities and the coronary vasomotor response of patients in the chronic phase of Chagas disease. Methods: With the use of 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT imaging and cold pressor test and intracoronary acetylcoline (ACH) perfusion, we studied 9 patients aged 42,6±12 years, 4 males, in the chronic stage of Chagas disease (5 with the indeterminate form and 4 with heart lesion) with normal coronary arteries. Vasomotor responses to intracoronary increasing doses of ACH and to a single dose of nitroglycerine (NTG) were assessed with digital quantitative angiography. Regional myocardial perfusion was evaluated at rest and after cold pressor test by a semi quantitative score analysis in an 18-segment model with 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT images. Results were expressed as mean ± 2SD. Differences between continuous variables were measured by two tails Student's t test for paired variables and the significance level was set at 5 %. Results: All patients had regional perfusion defects and abnormal vasomotor response. The diameter of the left anterior descending artery decreased 34% from a basal diameter of 3.66∫0.95 mm down to 2.42±0.74 mm after maximal response to ACH (p<0.002). NTG infusion augmented its diameter to 3.86±0.77 mm (p<0.0002) that is a 60% increase from post ACH diameter. Myocardial perfusion score was 1∫2.66 at rest and 6.22±3.6 after cold pressor test (p<0.0001). Conclusions: This group of patients in the chronic phase of Chagas disease showed an abnormal vasoconstrictive response to intracoronary ACH and cold-induced perfusion defects suggesting that endothelial dysfunction plays a role in the pathophysiology of chronic Chagas heart disease

  6. Epilepsy in autism: A pathophysiological consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoshiko; Nagao, Yuri; Kimura, Kazue; Hachimori, Kei; Segawa, Masaya

    2010-11-01

    Eighty cases of idiopathic autism with epilepsy and 97 cases without epilepsy were studied to evaluate the pathophysiology of epilepsy in autism. The initial visit to this clinic ranged 8months-30years 3months of age, and the current ages are 5years 8months-42years 3months, 60% reaching to over 30years of age. The average follow up duration is 22.2years±9.4years. The ages of onset of epilepsy were from 7months to 30years of age, with the two peaks at 3.2years and 16.7years. EEG central focus appeared earlier than frontal focus. Abnormality of locomotion and atonic NREM were observed more frequently in epileptic group. These suggest the neuronal system related to abnormality of locomotion and atonic NREM, which are the hypofunction of the brainstem monoaminergic system, is the pathomechanism underling the epilepsy in autism. By showing the abnormal sleep-wake rhythm and locomotion being the very initial symptoms in autism, we had shown the hypofunction of the brainstem monoaminergic system is the initial pathomechanism of autism. Thus, epilepsy in autism is not the secondary manifestation, but one of the pathognomonic symptoms of autism. The brainstem monoaminergic system project to the wider cortical area, and the initial monoaminergic hypofunction may lead to the central focus which appears earlier. The failure of the monoaminergic (serotonergic) system causes dysfunction of the pedunculo-pontine nucleus (PPN) and induces dysfunction of the dopamine (DA) system, and with development of the DA receptor supersensitivity consequently disinhibits the thalamo-frontal pathway, which after maturation of this pathway in teens cause the epileptogenesis in the frontal cortex. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Faecal soiling: pathophysiology of postdefaecatory incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciani, F

    2013-08-01

    Passive postdefaecatory incontinence is poorly understood and yet is an important clinical problem. The aim of this study was to characterize the pathophysiology of postdefaecatory incontinence in patients affected by faecal soiling. Seventy-two patients (30 women, age range 49-79 years; 42 men, age range, 53-75 years) affected by faecal passive incontinence with faecal soiling were included in the study. Two patient groups were identified: Group 1 comprised 42 patients with postdefaecatory incontinence and Group 2 had 30 patients without incontinence after bowel movements. After a preliminary clinical evaluation, including the Faecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI) score and the obstructed defaecation syndrome (ODS) score, all patients of Groups 1 and 2 were studied by means of endoanal ultrasound and anorectal manometry. The results were compared with those from 20 healthy control subjects. A significantly higher ODS score was found in Group 1 (P IAS) in Group 2 (P IAS atrophy and the FISI score (ρs 0.78; P < 0.03). Anal resting pressure (Pmax and Pm ) was significantly lower in Group 2 (P < 0.04). The straining test was considered positive in 30 (71.4%) patients in Group 1, significantly greater than in Group 2 (P < 0.01). A significantly higher conscious rectal sensitivity threshold (CRST) was found in Group 1 patients (P < 0.01). The ODS score, a positive straining test and high CRST values suggest that postdefaecatory incontinence is secondary to impaired defaecation. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  8. Primary vertebral tumours in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Masel, J.; Diard, F.; Ferrari-Ciboldi, F.; Le Dosseur, P.; Labatut, J.

    1984-03-01

    20 cases of primary benign and malignant bone tumours in children were reported. The most common tumours were Ewing's sarcoma, aneurismal bone cyst, benign osteoblastoma and osteoid osteoma. Some rare primary bone tumours in children (osteochondroma, chondroblastoma 6F, primary lymphoma of bone and neurofibromatosis with unusual cervical spinal changes) were also reported. The authors believe that radiographic findings together with clinical history and clinical examination may yield a high percentage of accurate diagnoses. Although microscopy is essential in the final diagnosis, the microscopic report should be also accepted with caution.

  9. Retinal Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channels: From Pathophysiology to Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos Michalakis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The first step in vision is the absorption of photons by the photopigments in cone and rod photoreceptors. After initial amplification within the phototransduction cascade the signal is translated into an electrical signal by the action of cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG channels. CNG channels are ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by the binding of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP. Retinal CNG channels transduce changes in intracellular concentrations of cGMP into changes of the membrane potential and the Ca2+ concentration. Structurally, the CNG channels belong to the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels and share a common gross structure with hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels and voltage-gated potassium channels (KCN. In this review, we provide an overview on the molecular properties of CNG channels and describe their physiological role in the phototransduction pathways. We also discuss insights into the pathophysiological role of CNG channel proteins that have emerged from the analysis of CNG channel-deficient animal models and human CNG channelopathies. Finally, we summarize recent gene therapy activities and provide an outlook for future clinical application.

  10. Estrogens and Androgens in Skeletal Physiology and Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria; Laurent, Michaël R; Dubois, Vanessa; Claessens, Frank; O'Brien, Charles A; Bouillon, Roger; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Manolagas, Stavros C

    2017-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens influence the growth and maintenance of the mammalian skeleton and are responsible for its sexual dimorphism. Estrogen deficiency at menopause or loss of both estrogens and androgens in elderly men contribute to the development of osteoporosis, one of the most common and impactful metabolic diseases of old age. In the last 20 years, basic and clinical research advances, genetic insights from humans and rodents, and newer imaging technologies have changed considerably the landscape of our understanding of bone biology as well as the relationship between sex steroids and the physiology and pathophysiology of bone metabolism. Together with the appreciation of the side effects of estrogen-related therapies on breast cancer and cardiovascular diseases, these advances have also drastically altered the treatment of osteoporosis. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of action of estrogens and androgens on bone, their influences on skeletal homeostasis during growth and adulthood, the pathogenetic mechanisms of the adverse effects of their deficiency on the female and male skeleton, as well as the role of natural and synthetic estrogenic or androgenic compounds in the pharmacotherapy of osteoporosis. We highlight latest advances on the crosstalk between hormonal and mechanical signals, the relevance of the antioxidant properties of estrogens and androgens, the difference of their cellular targets in different bone envelopes, the role of estrogen deficiency in male osteoporosis, and the contribution of estrogen or androgen deficiency to the monomorphic effects of aging on skeletal involution. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Astroglial role in the pathophysiology of status epilepticus: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Sánchez, Karina; Mogilevskaya, Maria; Rodríguez-Pérez, John; Rubiano, María G; Javela, José J; González-Reyes, Rodrigo E

    2018-06-01

    Status epilepticus is a medical emergency with elevated morbidity and mortality rates, and represents a leading cause of epilepsy-related deaths. Though status epilepticus can occur at any age, it manifests more likely in children and elderly people. Despite the common prevalence of epileptic disorders, a complete explanation for the mechanisms leading to development of self-limited or long lasting seizures (as in status epilepticus) are still lacking. Apart from neurons, research evidence suggests the involvement of immune and glial cells in epileptogenesis. Among glial cells, astrocytes represent an ideal target for the study of the pathophysiology of status epilepticus, due to their key role in homeostatic balance of the central nervous system. During status epilepticus, astroglial cells are activated by the presence of cytokines, damage associated molecular patterns and reactive oxygen species. The persistent activation of astrocytes leads to a decrease in glutamate clearance with a corresponding accumulation in the synaptic extracellular space, increasing the chance of neuronal excitotoxicity. Moreover, major alterations in astrocytic gap junction coupling, inflammation and receptor expression, facilitate the generation of seizures. Astrocytes are also involved in dysregulation of inhibitory transmission in the central nervous system and directly participate in ionic homeostatic alterations during status epilepticus. In the present review, we focus on the functional and structural changes in astrocytic activity that participate in the development and maintenance of status epilepticus, with special attention on concurrent inflammatory alterations. We also include potential astrocytic treatment targets for status epilepticus.

  12. Psychiatric manifestations of Graves' hyperthyroidism: pathophysiology and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunevicius, Robertas; Prange, Arthur J

    2006-01-01

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder that is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Other symptoms associated with the disease are goitre, ophthalmopathy, and psychiatric manifestations such as mood and anxiety disorders and, sometimes, cognitive dysfunction. Graves' hyperthyroidism may result in these latter manifestations via the induction of hyperactivity of the adrenergic nervous system. This review addresses the psychiatric presentations, and their pathophysiology and treatment, in patients with hyperthyroidism, based on literature identified by a PubMed/MEDLINE database search. Although the focus is on mental symptoms associated with Graves' disease, it is not always clear from the literature whether patients had Graves' disease: in some studies, the patients were thought to have Graves' disease based on clinical findings such as diffuse goitre or ophthalmopathy or on measurements of thyroid antibodies in serum; however, in other studies, no distinction was made between Graves' hyperthyroidism and hyperthyroidism from other causes. Antithyroid drugs combined with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists are the treatments of choice for hyperthyroidism, as well as for the psychiatric disorders and mental symptoms caused by hyperthyroidism. A substantial proportion of patients have an altered mental state even after successful treatment of hyperthyroidism, suggesting that mechanisms other than hyperthyroidism, including the Graves' autoimmune process per se and ophthalmopathy, may also be involved. When psychiatric disorders remain after restoration of euthyroidism and after treatment with beta-adrenoceptor antagonists, specific treatment for the psychiatric symptoms, especially psychotropic drugs, may be needed.

  13. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal A forma do canal vertebral lombar humano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Zarzur

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of the pedicles. The shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the pedicles tends to be oval or circular, whereas the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava is triangular. Thus, the shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal is not exclusively triangular, as reported in the literature. It is related to the level of the transversal section performed on the lumbar vertebra. This finding should be taken into consideration among factors involved in the spread of solutions introduced into the epidural space.A literatura sobre a anatomia da coluna vertebral descreve como sendo triangular o formato do canal vertebral na região lombar. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar a real forma do canal da coluna vertebral lombar.Dez colunas vertebrais de cadáveres de homens adultos foram dissecadas. Dois cortes transversais foram executados na terceira vértebra lombar. Um corte foi feito no nível das bordas inferiores de dois ligamentos amarelos vizinhos e o outro corte foi transversal, no nível dos pedículos. A forma do canal vertebral variou: no nível dos pedículos ela tende a ser oval ou circular e junto às bordas inferiores dos ligamentos amarelos passa a ser triangular. Portanto, a forma do canal vertebral lombar não é somente triangular; ela depende do nível em que se faz o corte transversal da vértebra. Estes achados devem ser levados em consideração entre os fatores envolvidos na difusão das

  14. Characterizing the location of spinal and vertebral levels in the human cervical spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadotte, D W; Cadotte, A; Cohen-Adad, J; Fleet, D; Livne, M; Wilson, J R; Mikulis, D; Nugaeva, N; Fehlings, M G

    2015-04-01

    Advanced MR imaging techniques are critical to understanding the pathophysiology of conditions involving the spinal cord. We provide a novel, quantitative solution to map vertebral and spinal cord levels accounting for anatomic variability within the human spinal cord. For the first time, we report a population distribution of the segmental anatomy of the cervical spinal cord that has direct implications for the interpretation of advanced imaging studies most often conducted across groups of subjects. Twenty healthy volunteers underwent a T2-weighted, 3T MRI of the cervical spinal cord. Two experts marked the C3-C8 cervical nerve rootlets, C3-C7 vertebral bodies, and pontomedullary junction. A semiautomated algorithm was used to locate the centerline of the spinal cord and measure rostral-caudal distances from a fixed point in the brain stem, the pontomedullary junction, to each of the spinal rootlets and vertebral bodies. Distances to each location were compared across subjects. Six volunteers had 2 additional scans in neck flexion and extension to measure the effects of patient positioning in the scanner. We demonstrated that substantial variation exists in the rostral-caudal position of spinal cord segments among individuals and that prior methods of predicting spinal segments are imprecise. We also show that neck flexion or extension has little effect on the relative location of vertebral-versus-spinal levels. Accounting for spinal level variation is lacking in existing imaging studies. Future studies should account for this variation for accurate interpretation of the neuroanatomic origin of acquired MR signals. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  15. Nitric oxide metabolites during anoxia and reoxygenation in the anoxia-tolerant vertebrate Trachemys scripta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo; Hansen, Marie Niemann; Montesanti, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    this mechanism by up-regulating nitrite and other nitrite/NO metabolites (S-nitroso and iron-nitrosyl compounds) in several tissues when exposed to anoxia. We investigated whether this is a common strategy amongst anoxia-tolerant vertebrates by evaluating NO metabolites in red-eared slider turtles during long......-regulation of nitrite and other NO metabolites could be a general cytoprotective strategy amongst anoxia-tolerant vertebrates. The possible mechanisms of nitrite-derived NO and S-nitrosation in protecting cells from destructive Ca2+ influx during anoxia and in limiting ROS formation during reoxygenation are discussed....

  16. A Comparative Study of Vertebrate Corneal Structure: The Evolution of a Refractive Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Moritz; Shoa, Golroxan; Tran, Stephanie T; Xie, Yilu; Thomasy, Sarah; Raghunathan, Vijay K; Murphy, Christopher; Brown, Donald J; Jester, James V

    2015-04-01

    Although corneal curvature plays an important role in determining the refractive power of the vertebrate eye, the mechanisms controlling corneal shape remain largely unknown. To address this question, we performed a comparative study of vertebrate corneal structure to identify potential evolutionarily based changes that correlate with the development of a corneal refractive lens. Nonlinear optical (NLO) imaging of second-harmonic-generated (SHG) signals was used to image collagen and three-dimensionally reconstruct the lamellar organization in corneas from different vertebrate clades. Second-harmonic-generated images taken normal to the corneal surface showed that corneal collagen in all nonmammalian vertebrates was organized into sheets (fish and amphibians) or ribbons (reptiles and birds) extending from limbus to limbus that were oriented nearly orthogonal (ranging from 77.7°-88.2°) to their neighbors. The slight angular offset (2°-13°) created a rotational pattern that continued throughout the full thickness in fish and amphibians and to the very posterior layers in reptiles and birds. Interactions between lamellae were limited to "sutural" fibers in cartilaginous fish, and occasional lamellar branching in fish and amphibians. There was a marked increase in lamellar branching in higher vertebrates, such that birds ≫ reptiles > amphibians > fish. By contrast, mammalian corneas showed a nearly random collagen fiber organization with no orthogonal, chiral pattern. Our data indicate that nonmammalian vertebrate corneas share a common orthogonal collagen structural organization that shows increased lamellar branching in higher vertebrate species. Importantly, mammalian corneas showed a different structural organization, suggesting a divergent evolutionary background.

  17. A mechanical perspective on vertebral segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truskinovsky, L.; Vitale, G.; Smit, T.H.

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation is a characteristic feature of the vertebrate body plan. The prevailing paradigm explaining its origin is the 'clock and wave-front' model, which assumes that the interaction of a molecular oscillator (clock) with a traveling gradient of morphogens (wave) pre-defines spatial

  18. Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harington, C. R.

    2011-08-01

    Unglaciated parts of the Yukon constitute one of the most important areas in North America for yielding Pleistocene vertebrate fossils. Nearly 30 vertebrate faunal localities are reviewed spanning a period of about 1.6 Ma (million years ago) to the close of the Pleistocene some 10 000 BP (radiocarbon years before present, taken as 1950). The vertebrate fossils represent at least 8 species of fishes, 1 amphibian, 41 species of birds and 83 species of mammals. Dominant among the large mammals are: steppe bison ( Bison priscus), horse ( Equus sp.), woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius), and caribou ( Rangifer tarandus) - signature species of the Mammoth Steppe fauna ( Fig. 1), which was widespread from the British Isles, through northern Europe, and Siberia to Alaska, Yukon and adjacent Northwest Territories. The Yukon faunas extend from Herschel Island in the north to Revenue Creek in the south and from the Alaskan border in the west to Ketza River in the east. The Yukon holds evidence of the earliest-known people in North America. Artifacts made from bison, mammoth and caribou bones from Bluefish Caves, Old Crow Basin and Dawson City areas show that people had a substantial knowledge of making and using bone tools at least by 25 000 BP, and possibly as early as 40 000 BP. A suggested chronological sequence of Yukon Pleistocene vertebrates ( Table 1) facilitates comparison of selected faunas and indicates the known duration of various taxa.

  19. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Agricultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful species…

  20. Did Language Evolve Like the Vertebrate Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Rudolf P.

    2002-01-01

    Offers a critical appraisal of the way in which the idea that human language or some of its features evolved like the vertebrate eye by natural selection is articulated in Pinker and Bloom's (1990) selectionist account of language evolution. Argues that this account is less than insightful because it fails to draw some of the conceptual…

  1. VerSeDa: vertebrate secretome database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortazar, Ana R; Oguiza, José A; Aransay, Ana M; Lavín, José L

    2017-01-01

    Based on the current tools, de novo secretome (full set of proteins secreted by an organism) prediction is a time consuming bioinformatic task that requires a multifactorial analysis in order to obtain reliable in silico predictions. Hence, to accelerate this process and offer researchers a reliable repository where secretome information can be obtained for vertebrates and model organisms, we have developed VerSeDa (Vertebrate Secretome Database). This freely available database stores information about proteins that are predicted to be secreted through the classical and non-classical mechanisms, for the wide range of vertebrate species deposited at the NCBI, UCSC and ENSEMBL sites. To our knowledge, VerSeDa is the only state-of-the-art database designed to store secretome data from multiple vertebrate genomes, thus, saving an important amount of time spent in the prediction of protein features that can be retrieved from this repository directly. VerSeDa is freely available at http://genomics.cicbiogune.es/VerSeDa/index.php. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Interconnections between the Ears in Nonmammalian Vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Albert S.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.

    2010-01-01

    Many of the nonmammalian vertebrates (anurans, lizards, crocodiles, and some bird species) have large, continuous air spaces connecting the middle ears and acoustically coupling the eardrums. Acoustical coupling leads to strongly enhanced directionality of the ear at frequencies where diffraction...... cues are negligible in small-sized animals. The chapter reviews the peripheral basis of directionality in these animal groups....

  3. Neogene vertebrates from the Gargano Peninsula, Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freudenthal, M.

    1971-01-01

    Fissure-fillings in Mesozoic limestones in the Gargano Peninsula yield rich collections of fossil vertebrates, which are characterized by gigantism and aberrant morphology. Their age is considered to be Vallesian or Turolian. The special features of the fauna are probably due to isolation on an

  4. Vertebral Hemangiomas - Aggressive Forms | Allali | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical imaging allows both diagnosis and evaluation of their aggressivity. Objective To assess the role of radiology, embolisation, percutaneous vertebroplasty, radiotherapy and surgery in the diagnosis and treatment of vertebral hemangiomas. Methods We report our experience of five patients who had an average age of ...

  5. Impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebschner, Alexander; Seibel, Henrike; Teilmann, Jonas; Wittekind, Dietrich; Parmentier, Eric; Dähne, Michael; Dietz, Rune; Driver, Jörg; Elk, van Cornelis; Everaarts, Eligius; Findeisen, Henning; Kristensen, Jacob; Lehnert, Kristina; Lucke, Klaus; Merck, Thomas; Müller, Sabine; Pawliczka, Iwona; Ronnenberg, Katrin; Rosenberger, Tanja; Ruser, Andreas; Tougaard, Jakob; Schuster, Max; Sundermeyer, Janne; Sveegaard, Signe; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The project conducts application-oriented research on impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates in the North and Baltic Seas. In distinct subprojects, the hearing sensitivity of harbor porpoises and gray seals as well as the acoustic tolerance limit of harbor porpoises to impulsive noise

  6. Gait post-stroke: Pathophysiology and rehabilitation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyaert, C; Vasa, R; Frykberg, G E

    2015-11-01

    We reviewed neural control and biomechanical description of gait in both non-disabled and post-stroke subjects. In addition, we reviewed most of the gait rehabilitation strategies currently in use or in development and observed their principles in relation to recent pathophysiology of post-stroke gait. In both non-disabled and post-stroke subjects, motor control is organized on a task-oriented basis using a common set of a few muscle modules to simultaneously achieve body support, balance control, and forward progression during gait. Hemiparesis following stroke is due to disruption of descending neural pathways, usually with no direct lesion of the brainstem and cerebellar structures involved in motor automatic processes. Post-stroke, improvements of motor activities including standing and locomotion are variable but are typically characterized by a common postural behaviour which involves the unaffected side more for body support and balance control, likely in response to initial muscle weakness of the affected side. Various rehabilitation strategies are regularly used or in development, targeting muscle activity, postural and gait tasks, using more or less high-technology equipment. Reduced walking speed often improves with time and with various rehabilitation strategies, but asymmetric postural behaviour during standing and walking is often reinforced, maintained, or only transitorily decreased. This asymmetric compensatory postural behaviour appears to be robust, driven by support and balance tasks maintaining the predominant use of the unaffected side over the initially impaired affected side. Based on these elements, stroke rehabilitation including affected muscle strengthening and often stretching would first need to correct the postural asymmetric pattern by exploiting postural automatic processes in various particular motor tasks secondarily beneficial to gait. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Wearing an active spinal orthosis improves back extensor strength in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Gitte Hoff; Pedersen, Louise Nymann; Maribo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    .Study design:Experimental follow-up.Methods:The women used the active spinal orthosis for 3 months. Outcomes were changes in isometric back extensor strength, changes in back pain and changes in physical functioning.Results:A total of 13 women were included in the trial. Wearing the orthosis during a 3-month......Background:Vertebral fractures are the most common clinical manifestations of osteoporosis. Vertebral fractures and reduced back extensor strength can result in hyperkyphosis. Hyperkyphosis is associated with diminished daily functioning and an increased risk of falling. Improvements in back...... extensor strength can result in decreased kyphosis and thus a decreased risk of falls and fractures.Objectives:The aim was to examine the effects of an active spinal orthosis - Spinomed III - on back extensor strength, back pain and physical functioning in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures...

  8. A proposed radiographic classification scheme for congenital thoracic vertebral malformations in brachycephalic "screw-tailed" dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Quintana, Rodrigo; Guevar, Julien; Stalin, Catherine; Faller, Kiterie; Yeamans, Carmen; Penderis, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Congenital vertebral malformations are common in brachycephalic "screw-tailed" dog breeds such as French bulldogs, English bulldogs, Boston terriers, and pugs. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether a radiographic classification scheme developed for use in humans would be feasible for use in these dog breeds. Inclusion criteria were hospital admission between September 2009 and April 2013, neurologic examination findings available, diagnostic quality lateral and ventro-dorsal digital radiographs of the thoracic vertebral column, and at least one congenital vertebral malformation. Radiographs were retrieved and interpreted by two observers who were unaware of neurologic status. Vertebral malformations were classified based on a classification scheme modified from a previous human study and a consensus of both observers. Twenty-eight dogs met inclusion criteria (12 with neurologic deficits, 16 with no neurologic deficits). Congenital vertebral malformations affected 85/362 (23.5%) of thoracic vertebrae. Vertebral body formation defects were the most common (butterfly vertebrae 6.6%, ventral wedge-shaped vertebrae 5.5%, dorsal hemivertebrae 0.8%, and dorso-lateral hemivertebrae 0.5%). No lateral hemivertebrae or lateral wedge-shaped vertebrae were identified. The T7 vertebra was the most commonly affected (11/28 dogs), followed by T8 (8/28 dogs) and T12 (8/28 dogs). The number and type of vertebral malformations differed between groups (P = 0.01). Based on MRI, dorsal, and dorso-lateral hemivertebrae were the cause of spinal cord compression in 5/12 (41.6%) of dogs with neurologic deficits. Findings indicated that a modified human radiographic classification system of vertebral malformations is feasible for use in future studies of brachycephalic "screw-tailed" dogs. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  9. Methods to score vertebral deformities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lems, W. F.; Jahangier, Z. N.; Raymakers, J. A.; Jacobs, J. W.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    The objective was to compare four different scoring methods for vertebral deformities: the semiquantitative Kleerekoper score and three quantitative scores (according to Minne, Melton and Raymakers) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Lateral radiographs of the thoracic and lumbar vertebral

  10. Varied overstrain injuries of the vertebral column conditioned by evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlbach, W

    1983-08-01

    During physiological growth of the juvenile vertebral column, various stages of stability occur which are characterized by the condition of the marginal rim of the vertebral bodies. If the vertebral juvenile column is overstrained, these variations in stability results in a variety of damage to vertebral bodies and vertebral disks. One of these lesions corresponds to Scheuermann's disease (osteochondrosis of vertebral epiphyses in juveniles). Damage of the vertebral column due to overstrain can occur only if the overstrain is applied in upright position. Since Man alone can damage his vertebral column in upright position (as a result of his evolutionary development), Scheuermann's thesis is confirmed that Scheuermann's disease is confined to Man. Spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis is also a damage caused by overstrain. Here, too, the damage can occur only if the load is exercised in upright position, with the exception of a slanted positioning of the intervertebral components.

  11. Varied overstrain injuries of the vertebral column conditioned by evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlbach, W.

    1983-01-01

    During physiological growth of the juvenile vertebral column, various stages of stability occur which are characterized by the condition of the marginal rim of the vertebral bodies. If the vertebral juvenile column is overstrained, these variations in stability results in a variety of damage to vertebral bodies and vertebral disks. One of these lesions corresponds to Scheuermann's disease (osteochondrosis of vertebral epiphyses in juveniles). Damage of the vertebral column due to overstrain can occur only if the overstrain is applied in upright position. Since Man alone can damage his vertebral column in upright position (as a result of his evolutionary development), Scheuermann's thesis is confirmed that Scheuermann's disease is confined to Man. Spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis is also a damage caused by overstrain. Here, too, the damage can occur only if the load is exercised in upright position, with the exception of a slanted positioning of the intervertebral components. (orig.) [de

  12. Varied overstrain injuries of the vertebral column conditioned by evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlbach, W.

    1983-08-01

    During physiological growth of the juvenile vertebral column, various stages of stability occur which are characterized by the condition of the marginal rim of the vertebral bodies. If the vertebral juvenile column is overstrained, these variations in stability results in a variety of damage to vertebral bodies and vertebral disks. One of these lesions corresponds to Scheuermann's disease (osteochondrosis of vertebral epiphyses in juveniles). Damage of the vertebral column due to overstrain can occur only if the overstrain is applied in upright position. Since Man alone can damage his vertebral column in upright position (as a result of his evolutionary development), Scheuermann's thesis is confirmed that Scheuermann's disease is confined to Man. Spondylolysis/spondylolisthesis is also a damage caused by overstrain. Here, too, the damage can occur only if the load is exercised in upright position, with the exception of a slanted positioning of the intervertebral components.

  13. Evolution of vertebrate adaptive immunity: immune cells and tissues, and AID/APOBEC cytidine deaminases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Masayuki

    2015-08-01

    All surviving jawed vertebrate representatives achieve diversity in immunoglobulin-based B and T cell receptors for antigen recognition through recombinatorial rearrangement of V(D)J segments. However, the extant jawless vertebrates, lampreys and hagfish, instead generate three types of variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) through a template-mediated combinatorial assembly of different leucine-rich repeat (LRR) sequences. The clonally diverse VLRB receptors are expressed by B-like lymphocytes, while the VLRA and VLRC receptors are expressed by lymphocyte lineages that resemble αβ and γδ T lymphocytes, respectively. These findings suggest that three basic types of lymphocytes, one B-like and two T-like, are an essential feature of vertebrate adaptive immunity. Around 500 million years ago, a common ancestor of jawed and jawless vertebrates evolved a genetic program for the development of prototypic lymphoid cells as a foundation for an adaptive immune system. This acquisition preceded the convergent evolution of alternative types of clonally diverse receptors for antigens in all vertebrates, as reviewed in this article. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Proton density fat fraction (PDFF) MRI for differentiation of benign and malignant vertebral lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeel, Frederic Carsten; Luetkens, Julian Alexander; Wagenhäuser, Peter Johannes; Meier-Schroers, Michael; Kuetting, Daniel Lloyd; Feißt, Andreas; Gieseke, Jürgen; Schmeel, Leonard Christopher; Träber, Frank; Schild, Hans Heinz; Kukuk, Guido Matthias

    2018-06-01

    To investigate whether proton density fat fraction (PDFF) measurements using a six-echo modified Dixon sequence can help to differentiate between benign and malignant vertebral bone marrow lesions. Sixty-six patients were prospectively enrolled in our study. In addition to conventional MRI at 3.0-Tesla including at least sagittal T2-weighted/spectral attenuated inversion recovery and T1-weighted sequences, all patients underwent a sagittal six-echo modified Dixon sequence of the spine. The mean PDFF was calculated using regions of interest and compared between vertebral lesions. A cut-off value of 6.40% in PDFF was determined by receiver operating characteristic curves and used to differentiate between malignant (benign and malignant vertebral lesions with a high diagnostic accuracy. • Establishing a diagnosis of indeterminate vertebral lesions is a common clinical problem • Benign bone marrow processes may mimic the signal alterations observed in malignancy • PDFF differentiates between benign and malignant lesions with a high diagnostic accuracy • PDFF of non-neoplastic vertebral lesions is significantly higher than that of malignancy • PDFF from six-echo modified Dixon may help avoid potentially harmful bone biopsy.

  15. Spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis: impact of vertebral hypoplasia on the use of the Meyerding classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggemann, P; Kuchta, J; Grosskurth, D; Beyer, H K; Hoeffer, J; Delank, K S

    2012-04-01

    Spondylolysis and isthmic spondylolisthesis are common multifactorial disorders. The extent of slipping of the spondylolytic vertebra is considered a major predicator for prognosis and further follow-up. Vertebral hypoplasia is a common finding associated with spondylolysis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the incidence of hypoplastic vertebral bodies in patients with spondylolysis and in the general population and to analyse the impact of the findings on the measurement and grading of spondylolisthesis. 140 patients with 141 levels of spondylolysis identified by MRI were included in this study. The slippage of the spondylolytic vertebral body and the size in the midline sagittal image were measured and correlated. In addition, a randomised control group was evaluated to test the hypothesis that shortened, hypoplastic vertebral bodies can also be found in the general population. Shortened, hypoplastic vertebrae were found in 50 patients with spondylolysis and none was found in the control group. These shortened vertebrae mimicked spondylolisthesis and in 19 patients the slippage equalled the shortening, thus mimicking spondylolisthesis, although only spondylolysis was present. Sagittal shortening of the spondylolytic vertebra is common and may mimic spondylolisthesis. In order to define and measure spondylolisthesis the shortening of the spondylolytic vertebra has to be taken into account.

  16. The Emerging Role of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation in the Pathophysiology of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorakae, Soulmaz; Teede, Helena; de Courten, Barbora; Lambert, Gavin; Boyle, Jacqueline; Moran, Lisa J

    2015-07-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has become increasingly common over recent years and is associated with reproductive features as well as cardiometabolic risk factors, including visceral obesity, dyslipidemia and impaired glucose homeostasis, and potentially cardiovascular disease. Emerging evidence suggests that these long-term metabolic effects are linked to a low-grade chronic inflammatory state with the triad of hyperinsulinemia, hyperandrogenism, and low-grade inflammation acting together in a vicious cycle in the pathophysiology of PCOS. Dysregulation of the sympathetic nervous system may also act as an important component, potentially creating a tetrad in the pathophysiology of PCOS. The aim of this review is to examine the role of chronic inflammation and the sympathetic nervous system in the development of obesity and PCOS and review potential therapeutic options to alleviate low-grade inflammation in this setting. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. Hypertension and obesity after pediatric kidney transplantation: management based on pathophysiology: A mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice G John

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension after pediatric renal transplant is a common and important risk factor for graft loss and patient survival. The mechanism of post kidney transplant hypertension is complex and multifactorial. Control of blood pressure in renal transplant patients is important but often times blood pressures remain uncontrolled. The management of hypertension and obesity in pediatric kidney transplant patients is based on the pathophysiology. Compared to the general pediatric hypertensive population, special attention needs to be focused on the additional impact of immunosuppressive medications side effects and interactions, recurrent disease, and donor and recipient comorbidities such as obesity on blood pressure control with thoughtful consideration of the risk of graft failure. In general, there is a need for prospective studies in pediatric kidney transplant patients to understand the pathophysiology of hypertension and obesity and the appropriate approach to achieve a balance between the primary need to avoid rejection and the need to lower blood pressure and prevent obesity.

  18. Cement Leakage in Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation for Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures: Analysis of Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Weixing; Jin, Daxiang; Ma, Hui; Ding, Jinyong; Xu, Jixi; Zhang, Shuncong; Liang, De

    2016-05-01

    The risk factors for cement leakage were retrospectively reviewed in 192 patients who underwent percutaneous vertebral augmentation (PVA). To discuss the factors related to the cement leakage in PVA procedure for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. PVA is widely applied for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Cement leakage is a major complication of this procedure. The risk factors for cement leakage were controversial. A retrospective review of 192 patients who underwent PVA was conducted. The following data were recorded: age, sex, bone density, number of fractured vertebrae before surgery, number of treated vertebrae, severity of the treated vertebrae, operative approach, volume of injected bone cement, preoperative vertebral compression ratio, preoperative local kyphosis angle, intraosseous clefts, preoperative vertebral cortical bone defect, and ratio and type of cement leakage. To study the correlation between each factor and cement leakage ratio, bivariate regression analysis was employed to perform univariate analysis, whereas multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to perform multivariate analysis. The study included 192 patients (282 treated vertebrae), and cement leakage occurred in 100 vertebrae (35.46%). The vertebrae with preoperative cortical bone defects generally exhibited higher cement leakage ratio, and the leakage is typically type C. Vertebrae with intact cortical bones before the procedure tend to experience type S leakage. Univariate analysis showed that patient age, bone density, number of fractured vertebrae before surgery, and vertebral cortical bone were associated with cement leakage ratio (Pcement leakage are bone density and vertebral cortical bone defect, with standardized partial regression coefficients of -0.085 and 0.144, respectively. High bone density and vertebral cortical bone defect are independent risk factors associated with bone cement leakage.

  19. The shape of the human lumbar vertebral canal

    OpenAIRE

    Zarzur,Edmundo

    1996-01-01

    Literature on the anatomy of the human vertebral column characterizes the shape of the lumbar vertebral canal as triangular. The purpose of the present study was to determine the precise shape of the lumbar vertebral canal. Ten lumbar vertebral columns of adult male cadavers were dissected. Two transverse sections were performed in the third lumbar vertebra. One section was performed at the level of the lower border of the ligamenta flava, and the other section was performed at the level of t...

  20. Metamerism in cephalochordates and the problem of the vertebrate head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onai, Takayuki; Adachi, Noritaka; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    The vertebrate head characteristically exhibits a complex pattern with sense organs, brain, paired eyes and jaw muscles, and the brain case is not found in other chordates. How the extant vertebrate head has evolved remains enigmatic. Historically, there have been two conflicting views on the origin of the vertebrate head, segmental and non-segmental views. According to the segmentalists, the vertebrate head is organized as a metameric structure composed of segments equivalent to those in the trunk; a metamere in the vertebrate head was assumed to consist of a somite, a branchial arch and a set of cranial nerves, considering that the head evolved from rostral segments of amphioxus-like ancestral vertebrates. Non-segmentalists, however, considered that the vertebrate head was not segmental. In that case, the ancestral state of the vertebrate head may be non-segmented, and rostral segments in amphioxus might have been secondarily gained, or extant vertebrates might have evolved through radical modifications of amphioxus-like ancestral vertebrate head. Comparative studies of mesodermal development in amphioxus and vertebrate gastrula embryos have revealed that mesodermal gene expressions become segregated into two domains anteroposteriorly to specify the head mesoderm and trunk mesoderm only in vertebrates; in this segregation, key genes such as delta and hairy, involved in segment formation, are expressed in the trunk mesoderm, but not in the head mesoderm, strongly suggesting that the head mesoderm of extant vertebrates is not segmented. Taken together, the above finding possibly adds a new insight into the origin of the vertebrate head; the vertebrate head mesoderm would have evolved through an anteroposterior polarization of the paraxial mesoderm if the ancestral vertebrate had been amphioxus-like.

  1. Vertebrate richness and biogeography in the Big Thicket of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael H MacRoberts; Barbara R. MacRoberts; D. Craig Rudolph

    2010-01-01

    The Big Thicket of Texas has been described as rich in species and a “crossroads:” a place where organisms from many different regions meet. We examine the species richness and regional affiliations of Big Thicket vertebrates. We found that the Big Thicket is neither exceptionally rich in vertebrates nor is it a crossroads for vertebrates. Its vertebrate fauna is...

  2. Pathophysiological basis of pharmacotherapy in the hepatorenal syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens H

    2005-01-01

    Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a functional and reversible impairment of renal function in patients with severe cirrhosis. Major pathophysiological elements include liver dysfunction, a circulatory derangement with central hypovolaemia and neurohumoral activation of potent vasoactive systems leading...

  3. Pathophysiology of shunt dysfunction in shunt treated hydrocephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blegvad, C.; Skjolding, A D; Broholm, H

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that shunt dysfunction in the ventricular catheter and the shunt valve is caused by different cellular responses. We also hypothesized that the cellular responses depend on different pathophysiological mechanisms....

  4. Visceral hypersensitivity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome:pathophysiological mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerckhoffs, A.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disease characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort associated with a disordered defecation. No unique pathophysiological mechanism has been identified. It is most likely a multifactorial disease involving alterations in intestinal microbiota

  5. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  6. Evolution of the vertebrate claudin gene family: insights from a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukendi, Christian; Dean, Nicholas; Lala, Rushil; Smith, Jeramiah; Bronner, Marianne E; Nikitina, Natalya V

    2016-01-01

    Claudins are major constituents of tight junctions, contributing both to their intercellular sealing and selective permeability properties. While claudins and claudin-like molecules are present in some invertebrates, the association of claudins with tight junctions has been conclusively documented only in vertebrates. Here we report the sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and comprehensive spatiotemporal expression analysis of the entire claudin gene family in the basal extant vertebrate, the sea lamprey. Our results demonstrate that clear orthologues to about half of all mammalian claudins are present in the lamprey, suggesting that at least one round of whole genome duplication contributed to the diversification of this gene family. Expression analysis revealed that claudins are expressed in discrete and specific domains, many of which represent vertebrate-specific innovations, such as in cranial ectodermal placodes and the neural crest; whereas others represent structures characteristic of chordates, e.g. pronephros, notochord, somites, endostyle and pharyngeal arches. By comparing the embryonic expression of claudins in the lamprey to that of other vertebrates, we found that ancestral expression patterns were often preserved in higher vertebrates. Morpholino mediated loss of Cldn3b demonstrated a functional role for this protein in placode and pharyngeal arch morphogenesis. Taken together, our data provide novel insights into the origins and evolution of the claudin gene family and the significance of claudin proteins in the evolution of vertebrates.

  7. QCI Common

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-18

    There are many common software patterns and utilities for the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute that can and should be shared across projects. Otherwise we find duplication of code which adds unwanted complexity. This is a software product seeks to alleviate this by providing common utilities such as object factories, graph data structures, parameter input mechanisms, etc., for other software products within the ORNL Quantum Computing Institute. This work enables pure basic research, has no export controlled utilities, and has no real commercial value.

  8. Vertebral stabilization using positively threaded profile pins and polymethylmethacrylate, with or without laminectomy, for spinal canal stenosis and vertebral instability caused by congenital thoracic vertebral anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Takeshi; Kanazono, Shinichi; Yoshigae, Yuki; Sharp, Nicholas J H; Muñana, Karen R

    2007-07-01

    To describe diagnostic findings, surgical technique, and outcome in dogs with thoracic spinal canal stenosis and vertebral instability secondary to congenital vertebral anomalies. Retrospective clinical study. Dogs (n=9) with thoracic spinal canal stenosis. Medical records (1995-1996; 2000-2006) of 9 dogs with a myelographic diagnosis of spinal canal stenosis and/or vertebral instability secondary to congenital vertebral anomaly that were surgically managed by vertebral stabilization with or without laminectomy were reviewed. Data on pre- and postoperative neurologic status, diagnostic findings, surgical techniques, and outcomes were retrieved. Follow-up evaluations were performed at 1, 2, and 6 months. Long-term outcome was assessed by means of clinical examination or owner telephone interviews. Spinal cord compression was confirmed by myelography, and in 2 dogs, dynamic compression by stress myelography. Eight dogs regained the ability to ambulate postoperatively. One dog with a partial recovery regained voluntary movement but did not become ambulatory. Spinal cord injury secondary to congenital vertebral anomaly may have a good outcome when treated by vertebral stabilization with or without laminectomy. Adequate stabilization of the vertebrae and improved neurologic outcome were achieved in most dogs. Vertebral stabilization using positively threaded profile pins and polymethylmethacrylate with or without laminectomy is an effective treatment for spinal canal stenosis and vertebral instability secondary to congenital thoracic vertebral anomalies.

  9. Pathophysiology of acute small bowel disease with CT correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwani, N.; Tappouni, R.; Tice, J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review the pathophysiology of acute small bowel diseases, and to correlate the mechanisms of disease with computed tomography (CT) findings. Disease entities will be classified into the following: immune mediated and infectious causes, vascular causes, mechanical causes, trauma, and others. Having an understanding of acute small bowel pathophysiology is a useful teaching tool, and can lead to imaging clues to the most likely diagnosis of acute small bowel disorders.

  10. Evaluation of lumbar vertebral bone marrow changes with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakitsubata, Yousuke; Nabeshima, Kazuki; Kakitsubata, Sachiko; Watanabe, Katsushi (Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan))

    1993-11-01

    Seven hundred nine magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies of the lumbar spine were reviewed to assess the signal intensity (SI) changes in vertebral bone marrow. Marrow changes were classified into four types according to their SI changes on T1-weighted images (T1-WI) and T2-WI. Type 1 changes (decreased SI on T1-WI and increased SI on T2-WI) were identified in 28 patients (3.9%), type 2 changes (increased SI on T1-WI and isointense or slightly increased SI on T2-WI) in 184 (26%), type 3 changes (decreased SI on both T1-WI and T2-WI) in 71 (10%), and type 4 changes (linearly increased SI on T1-WI in the center of the vertebral body) in 142 (20%). Plain radiographs showed sclerotic changes in patients with type 3. In patients with type 1 or 4 changes, no focal abnormalities were observed. Histological evaluation of type 1 change revealed fibrous tissue including cartilaginous formation. Focal replacement by fatty tissue was observed in type 2 and type 4 changes. Bone sclerosis was observed in type 4 change. Type 1, type 2 and type 3 changes, which occurred commonly in the old and in the lower lumbar level, appear to reflect a spectrum of degenerative changes of the bone marrow including both pathological and physiological ones. (author).

  11. Comparative aspects of adult neural stem cell activity in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandel, Heiner; Brand, Michael

    2013-03-01

    At birth or after hatching from the egg, vertebrate brains still contain neural stem cells which reside in specialized niches. In some cases, these stem cells are deployed for further postnatal development of parts of the brain until the final structure is reached. In other cases, postnatal neurogenesis continues as constitutive neurogenesis into adulthood leading to a net increase of the number of neurons with age. Yet, in other cases, stem cells fuel neuronal turnover. An example is protracted development of the cerebellar granular layer in mammals and birds, where neurogenesis continues for a few weeks postnatally until the granular layer has reached its definitive size and stem cells are used up. Cerebellar growth also provides an example of continued neurogenesis during adulthood in teleosts. Again, it is the granular layer that grows as neurogenesis continues and no definite adult cerebellar size is reached. Neuronal turnover is most clearly seen in the telencephalon of male canaries, where projection neurons are replaced in nucleus high vocal centre each year before the start of a new mating season--circuitry reconstruction to achieve changes of the song repertoire in these birds? In this review, we describe these and other examples of adult neurogenesis in different vertebrate taxa. We also compare the structure of the stem cell niches to find common themes in their organization despite different functions adult neurogenesis serves in different species. Finally, we report on regeneration of the zebrafish telencephalon after injury to highlight similarities and differences of constitutive neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration.

  12. Tetrodotoxin Sensitivity of the Vertebrate Cardiac Na+ Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaakko Haverinen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary origin and physiological significance of the tetrodotoxin (TTX resistance of the vertebrate cardiac Na+ current (INa is still unresolved. To this end, TTX sensitivity of the cardiac INa was examined in cardiac myocytes of a cyclostome (lamprey, three teleost fishes (crucian carp, burbot and rainbow trout, a clawed frog, a snake (viper and a bird (quail. In lamprey, teleost fishes, frog and bird the cardiac INa was highly TTX-sensitive with EC50-values between 1.4 and 6.6 nmol·L−1. In the snake heart, about 80% of the INa was TTX-resistant with EC50 value of 0.65 μmol·L−1, the rest being TTX-sensitive (EC50 = 0.5 nmol·L−1. Although TTX-resistance of the cardiac INa appears to be limited to mammals and reptiles, the presence of TTX-resistant isoform of Na+ channel in the lamprey heart suggest an early evolutionary origin of the TTX-resistance, perhaps in the common ancestor of all vertebrates.

  13. The Migration Matrix: Marine Vertebrate Movements in Magnetic Coordinate Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, T. W.; Holdaway, R. N.; Clapham, P. J.; Zerbini, A. N.; Andriolo, A.; Hays, G. C.; Egevang, C.; Domeier, M. L.; Lucas, N.

    2011-12-01

    Determining how vertebrates navigate during their long-distance migrations remains one of the most enduring and fundamental challenges of behavioral ecology. It is widely accepted that spatial orientation relative to a reference datum is a fundamental requirement of long-distance return migration between seasonal habitats, and a variety of viable positional and directional orientation cues, including the sun, stars, and magnetic field, have been documented experimentally. However, a fundamental question remains unanswered: Are empirically observed migratory movements compatible with modern theoretical frameworks of spatial orientation? To address this question, we analysed leatherback turtle (Dermochelys coriacea), arctic tern (Sterna paradisaea), humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), and great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) track maps, frequency distribution diagrams and time-series plots of animal locations in spherical magnetic coordinate space. Our analyses indicates that, although individual migration tracks are spatially and temporally distinct, vertebrate movements are non-randomly distributed in all three spherical magnetic coordinates (i.e. intensity, inclination, and declination). Stop-over locations, migratory destinations, and re-orientation points occur at similar magnetic coordinate locations, relative to tagging areas, in all four species, suggesting that a common system of magnetic orientation likely informs the navigational behaviors of these phylogenetically diverse taxa. Although our analyses demonstrate that the experiment-derived 'magnetic map' goal orientation theoretical framework of animal navigation is compatible with remotely-sensed migration track data, they also indicate that magnetic information is complemented by spatially and temporally contingent celestial stimuli during navigation.

  14. Lumbar Vertebral Canal Diameters in Adult Ugandan Skeletons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Normal values of lumbar vertebral canal diameters are useful in facilitating diagnosis of lumbar vertebral canal stenosis. Various studies have established variation on values between different populations, gender, age, and ethnic groups. Objectives: To determine the lumbar vertebral canal diameters in adult ...

  15. Closure of the vertebral canal in human embryos and fetuses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonen, Hayelom K.; Hikspoors, Jill P. J. M.; Mommen, Greet; Kruepunga, Nutmethee; Köhler, S. Eleonore; Lamers, Wouter H.

    2017-01-01

    The vertebral column is the paradigm of the metameric architecture of the vertebrate body. Because the number of somites is a convenient parameter to stage early human embryos, we explored whether the closure of the vertebral canal could be used similarly for staging embryos between 7 and 10weeks of

  16. Diabetic foot ulcers. Pathophysiology, assessment, and therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowering, C. K.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review underlying causes of diabetic foot ulceration, provide a practical assessment of patients at risk, and outline an evidence-based approach to therapy for diabetic patients with foot ulcers. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted for the period from 1979 to 1999 for articles relating to diabetic foot ulcers. Most studies found were case series or small controlled trials. MAIN MESSAGE: Foot ulcers in diabetic patients are common and frequently lead to lower limb...

  17. Falls: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Relationship to Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Sarah D.; Miller, Ram

    2008-01-01

    Falls are common in the elderly, and frequently result in injury, disability, and institutionalization. Although the causes of falls are complex, most falls result from an interaction between individual characteristics that increase an individual's propensity to fall and acute mediating risk factors that provide the opportunity to fall. Predisposing risk factors include age-associated changes in strength and balance, age-associated comorbidities such as osteoarthritis, visual impairment and d...

  18. Creative Commons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lone

    2006-01-01

    En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"......En Creative Commons licens giver en forfatter mulighed for at udbyde sit værk i en alternativ licensløsning, som befinder sig på forskellige trin på en skala mellem yderpunkterne "All rights reserved" og "No rights reserved". Derved opnås licensen "Some rights reserved"...

  19. Science commons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  20. The Sarmatian vertebrates from Draxeni (Moldavian Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Codrea

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Middle Miocene (Sarmatian vertebrates had been unearthed at Draxeni (Vaslui district. The site is located in the northern area of the Moldavian Platform. There, the sand belonging to Şcheia Formation (Bessarabian is mined in a restricted open pit. This sand is related to a littoral environment (shoreface and foreshore. Some of its levels are rich in mollusc debris. Vertebrate remains, carried into the Bessarabian brackish basin are present too, but in smaller amounts. Mastodon, rhinoceros, hipparionine, tortoise remains had been collected there over several years. All teeth and bones are isolated and bear the marks of intensive rolling by waves and currents. This assemblage is typical for the top of Bessarabian in Moldavia, i.e. soon after the first hipparionine invasion in this part of the Europe. This assemblage can be related to the base of MN 9 unit.

  1. Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Robert Lynn

    1997-04-01

    This new text provides an integrated view of the forces that influence the patterns and rates of vertebrate evolution from the level of living populations and species to those that resulted in the origin of the major vertebrate groups. The evolutionary roles of behavior, development, continental drift, and mass extinctions are compared with the importance of variation and natural selection that were emphasized by Darwin. It is extensively illustrated, showing major transitions between fish and amphibians, dinosaurs and birds, and land mammals to whales. No book since Simpson's Major Features of Evolution has attempted such a broad study of the patterns and forces of evolutionary change. Undergraduate students taking a general or advanced course on evolution, and graduate students and professionals in evolutionary biology and paleontology will find the book of great interest.

  2. Population momentum across vertebrate life histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koons, D.N.; Grand, J.B.; Arnold, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Population abundance is critically important in conservation, management, and demographic theory. Thus, to better understand how perturbations to the life history affect long-term population size, we examined population momentum for four vertebrate classes with different life history strategies. In a series of demographic experiments we show that population momentum generally has a larger effect on long-term population size for organisms with long generation times than for organisms with short generation times. However, patterns between population momentum and generation time varied across taxonomic groups and according to the life history parameter that was changed. Our findings indicate that momentum may be an especially important aspect of population dynamics for long-lived vertebrates, and deserves greater attention in life history studies. Further, we discuss the importance of population momentum in natural resource management, pest control, and conservation arenas. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. CT and MRI of vertebral haemangiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braitinger, S.; Weigert, F.; Held, P.; Obletter, N.; Breit, A.

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective comparative study of CT and MRI was carried out involving 38 vertebral haemangiomas; this revealed a typical signal pattern on MRI from benign lesions. It consists of a hyper-intense signal from the bone marrow affecting the T 1 /T 2 sequences; this may be focal or involve the entire vertebral body. These characteristic signals were compared with CT images of the spine. The areas of bone that produce the high intensity signals on MRI appear on CT as spongey patterns with hypertrophic trabeculae surrounding mostly areas with negative absorption values. An analysis of the changes in the spongiosa has revealed three clearly defined types. The signals derived from haemangiomas extending beyond the bone have an intensity of normal spongiosa; this corresponds with an absence of fat, as demonstrated by CT. Extra-osseous components have low intensity T 1 signals that increase in T 2 sequences. (orig.) [de

  4. Pathophysiology and treatment of psychosis in Parkinson's disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahodne, Laura B; Fernandez, Hubert H

    2008-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) are relatively common and, in addition to creating a disturbance in patients' daily lives, have consistently been shown to be associated with poor outcome. Our understanding of the pathophysiology of psychosis in PD has expanded dramatically over the past 15 years, from an initial interpretation of symptoms as dopaminergic drug adverse effects to the current view of a complex interplay of extrinsic and disease-related factors.PD psychosis has unique clinical features, namely that it arises within a context of a clear sensorium and retained insight, there is relative prominence of visual hallucinations and progression occurs over time. PD psychosis tends to emerge later in the disease course, and disease duration represents one risk factor for its development. The use of anti-PD medications (particularly dopamine receptor agonists) has been the most widely identified risk factor for PD psychosis. Other risk factors discussed in the literature include older age, disease severity, sleep disturbance, cognitive impairment, dementia and/or depression.Recent efforts have aimed to explore the complex pathophysiology of PD psychosis, which is now known to involve an interaction between extrinsic, drug-related and intrinsic, disease-related components. The most important extrinsic factor is use of dopaminergic medication, which plays a prominent role in PD psychosis. Intrinsic factors include visual processing deficits (e.g. lower visual acuity, colour and contrast recognition deficits, ocular pathology and functional brain abnormalities identified amongst hallucinating PD patients); sleep dysregulation (e.g. sleep fragmentation and altered dream phenomena); neurochemical (dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, etc.) and structural abnormalities involving site-specific Lewy body deposition; and genetics (e.g. apolipoprotein E epsilon4 allele and tau H1H1 genotype). Preliminary reports have also shown a potential relationship

  5. Vertebral involvement in SAPHO syndrome: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachtigal, A.; Cardinal, E.; Bureau, N.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada); Sainte-Marie, L.G. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada); Milette, F. [Department of Pathology, Univ. de Montreal, QC (Canada)

    1999-03-01

    We report on the MRI findings in the vertebrae and surrounding soft tissues in two patients with the SAPHO syndrome (Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, Osteitis). The MRI findings include abnormal bone marrow signal, either focal or diffuse, of the vertebral bodies and posterior elements; hyperintense paravertebral soft tissue swelling and abnormal signal of the intervertebral discs. These changes are consistent with discitis and osteitis. (orig.) With 6 figs., 17 refs.

  6. Vertebrate ecology at the Los Medanos site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    October and November 1980 vertebrate ecology study accomplishments are outlined in this report. The report provides a listing of food items found in the crops of Mourning Doves collected at the WIPP Site during 1979 and a listing of small mammal digestive tracts and reproductive tracts that have been removed, labeled and preserved. Scaled Quail collection results are also reported. Each specimen was weighed and sexed and the crop contents of each specimen was removed for analysis

  7. Transmission of Ranavirus between Ectothermic Vertebrate Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Roberto; Gray, Matthew J.; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Wilkes, Rebecca P.; Miller, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3)-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope’s gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis), and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed) individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively), but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen’s persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance. PMID:24667325

  8. Transmission of ranavirus between ectothermic vertebrate hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Brenes

    Full Text Available Transmission is an essential process that contributes to the survival of pathogens. Ranaviruses are known to infect different classes of lower vertebrates including amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Differences in the likelihood of infection among ectothermic vertebrate hosts could explain the successful yearlong persistence of ranaviruses in aquatic environments. The goal of this study was to determine if transmission of a Frog Virus 3 (FV3-like ranavirus was possible among three species from different ectothermic vertebrate classes: Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis larvae, mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis, and red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans. We housed individuals previously exposed to the FV3-like ranavirus with naïve (unexposed individuals in containers divided by plastic mesh screen to permit water flow between subjects. Our results showed that infected gray treefrog larvae were capable of transmitting ranavirus to naïve larval conspecifics and turtles (60% and 30% infection, respectively, but not to fish. Also, infected turtles and fish transmitted ranavirus to 50% and 10% of the naïve gray treefrog larvae, respectively. Nearly all infected amphibians experienced mortality, whereas infected turtles and fish did not die. Our results demonstrate that ranavirus can be transmitted through water among ectothermic vertebrate classes, which has not been reported previously. Moreover, fish and reptiles might serve as reservoirs for ranavirus given their ability to live with subclinical infections. Subclinical infections of ranavirus in fish and aquatic turtles could contribute to the pathogen's persistence, especially when highly susceptible hosts like amphibians are absent as a result of seasonal fluctuations in relative abundance.

  9. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY STROKE NON-HEMORRHAGIC ET CAUSA THROMBUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Kristianto Wijaya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Stroke is one of the most common cause of death worldwide and the third leading cause of death in the United States. Stroke composed 90,000 deaths of women and 60,000 men each year. In Indonesia, 8 of 1000 people suffered a stroke. Stroke is divided into two, non-hemorrhagic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. Most of them (80% is non-hemorrhagic stroke. Non-hemorrhagic stroke can be caused by thrombi or emboli. Understanding the pathophysiology of non-hemorrhagic stroke caused by a thrombus is very important in regard with providing appropriate patient management. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  10. Nestedness of ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean P Graham

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Determining the structure of ectoparasite-host networks will enable disease ecologists to better understand and predict the spread of vector-borne diseases. If these networks have consistent properties, then studying the structure of well-understood networks could lead to extrapolation of these properties to others, including those that support emerging pathogens. Borrowing a quantitative measure of network structure from studies of mutualistic relationships between plants and their pollinators, we analyzed 29 ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks--including three derived from molecular bloodmeal analysis of mosquito feeding patterns--using measures of nestedness to identify non-random interactions among species. We found significant nestedness in ectoparasite-vertebrate host lists for habitats ranging from tropical rainforests to polar environments. These networks showed non-random patterns of nesting, and did not differ significantly from published estimates of nestedness from mutualistic networks. Mutualistic and antagonistic networks appear to be organized similarly, with generalized ectoparasites interacting with hosts that attract many ectoparasites and more specialized ectoparasites usually interacting with these same "generalized" hosts. This finding has implications for understanding the network dynamics of vector-born pathogens. We suggest that nestedness (rather than random ectoparasite-host associations can allow rapid transfer of pathogens throughout a network, and expand upon such concepts as the dilution effect, bridge vectors, and host switching in the context of nested ectoparasite-vertebrate host networks.

  11. Fungal osteomyelitis with vertebral re-ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Guinn, Devon J; Serletis, Demitre; Kazemi, Noojan

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to pulmonary Blastomyces dermatitides. A 27-year-old male presented with three months of chest pains and non-productive cough. Examination revealed diminished breath sounds on the right. CT/MR imaging confirmed a right-sided pre-/paravertebral soft tissue mass and destructive lytic lesions from T2 to T6. CT-guided needle biopsy confirmed granulomatous pulmonary Blastomycosis. Conservative management with antifungal therapy was initiated. Neurosurgical review confirmed no clinical or profound radiographic instability, and the patient was stabilized with TLSO bracing. Serial imaging 3 months later revealed near-resolution of the thoracic soft tissue mass, with vertebral re-ossification from T2 to T6. Fungal osteomyelitis presents a rare entity in the spectrum of spinal infections. In such cases, lytic spinal lesions are classically seen in association with a large paraspinous mass. Fungal infections of the spinal column may be treated conservatively, with surgical intervention reserved for progressive cases manifesting with neurological compromise and/or spinal column instability. Here, we found unexpected evidence for vertebral re-ossification across the affected thoracic levels (T2-6) in response to IV antibiotic therapy and conservative bracing, nearly 3 months later. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Epidemiologia do traumatismo da coluna vertebral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ferraz de Campos

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação epidemiológica retrospectiva de 100 casos de traumatismo da coluna vertebral. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal de dados colhidos por levantamento de prontuário, segundo protocolo de decodificação local. RESULTADOS: Predomínio etário de 20 a 40 anos em 64% dos casos; sexo masculino em 86%; segmento toracolombar mais comumente atingido 64% e 36% para o segmento cervical; principais causas foram às quedas em 40%, seguidas de acidentes automobilísticos em 25% e quedas da laje 23%. A prevalência dos ferimentos por arma de fogo foi de 7%, mergulho em águas rasas 3% e agressões 2%. Houve análise complementar com cruzamentos entre idade, sexo, causa e segmento da coluna vertebral acometido, observando que o segmento cervical teve grande predomínio nas mulheres em relação aos homens em 85,7% X 14,3%. CONCLUSÃO: O traumatismo da coluna vertebral ocorreu predominantemente em homens entre 20 e 40 anos e o segmento cervical foi o mais acometido nas mulheres em relação aos homens na proporção de 6:1.

  13. Definition, Classification, and Pathophysiology of Canine Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzirani, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is a common ocular condition in humans and dogs leading to optic nerve degeneration and irreversible blindness. Primary glaucoma is a group of spontaneous heterogeneous diseases. Multiple factors are involved in its pathogenesis and these factors vary across human ethnic groups and canine breeds, so the clinical phenotypes are numerous and their classification can be challenging and remain superficial. Aging and oxidative stress are major triggers for the manifestation of disease. Multiple, intertwined inflammatory and biochemical cascades eventually alter cellular and extracellular physiology in the optic nerve and trabecular meshwork and lead to vision loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Common approach to common interests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.

  15. Roles for Msx and Dlx homeoproteins in vertebrate development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendall, A J; Abate-Shen, C

    2000-04-18

    This review provides a comparative analysis of the expression patterns, functions, and biochemical properties of Msx and Dlx homeobox genes. These comprise multi-gene families that are closely related with respect to sequence features as well as expression patterns during vertebrate development. Thus, members of the Msx and Dlx families are expressed in overlapping, but distinct, patterns and display complementary or antagonistic functions, depending upon the context. A common theme shared among Msx and Dlx genes is that they are required during early, middle, and late phases of development where their differential expression mediates patterning, morphogenesis, and histogenesis of tissues in which they are expressed. With respect to their biochemical properties, Msx proteins function as transcriptional repressors, while Dlx proteins are transcriptional activators. Moreover, their ability to oppose each other's transcriptional actions implies a mechanism underlying their complementary or antagonistic functions during development.

  16. Cervical vertebral fusion (Klippel-Feil) syndrome with consanguineous parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juberg, R C; Gershanik, J J

    1976-06-01

    We describe a female infant with the cervical vertebral fusion (Klippel-Feil) syndrome whom we recognized at birth because of her short neck, restriction of cervical movement, and low posterior hairline. X-ray examination showed anomalies of C1, and between C2-3 and C3-4; thus, we classified her as type II, with variable cervical fusion. At 24 months she was small and manifested hearing deficiency. The mother and father were consanguineous with five common ancestors four generations ago, which resulted in a coefficient of inbreeding equivalent to a second cousin relationship. The parents and grandparents were phenotypically normal, and the parents were radiologically normal. This form of the syndrome has previously been said to be autosomal dominant. Our conclusion of determination by a single autosomal recessive gene is evidence of genetic heterogeneity.

  17. A Web-based e-learning course: integration of pathophysiology into pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Mimi M Y; Lo, Lisa W L

    2008-11-01

    The Internet is becoming the preferred place to find information. Millions of people go online in search of health and medical information. Likewise, the demand for Web-based courses is growing. This paper presents the development, utilization, and evaluation of a Web-based e-learning course for nursing students, entitled Integration of Pathophysiology into Pharmacology. The pathophysiology component included cardiovascular, respiratory, central nervous and immune system diseases, while the pharmacology component was developed based on 150 commonly used drugs. One hundred and nineteen Year 1 nursing students took part in the course. The Web-based e-learning course materials were uploaded to a WebCT for students' self-directed learning and attempts to pass two scheduled online quizzes. At the end of the semester, students were given a questionnaire to measure the e-learning experience. Their experience in the e-learning course was a positive one. Students stated that they were able to understand rather than memorize the subject content, and develop their problem solving and critical thinking abilities. Online quizzes yielded satisfactory results. In the focus group interview, students indicated that they appreciated the time flexibility and convenience associated with Web-based learning, and also made good suggestions for enhancing Web-based learning. The Web-based approach is promising for teaching and learning pathophysiology and pharmacology for nurses and other healthcare professionals.

  18. Novel Hepatozoon in vertebrates from the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kelly E; Yabsley, Michael J; Johnson, Eileen M; Reichard, Mason V; Panciera, Roger J; Ewing, Sidney A; Little, Susan E

    2011-08-01

    Novel Hepatozoon spp. sequences collected from previously unrecognized vertebrate hosts in North America were compared with documented Hepatozoon 18S rRNA sequences in an effort to examine phylogenetic relationships between the different Hepatozoon organisms found cycling in nature. An approximately 500-base pair fragment of 18S rDNA common to Hepatozoon spp. and some other apicomplexans was amplified and sequenced from the tissues or blood of 16 vertebrate host species from the southern United States, including 1 opossum (Didelphis virginiana), 2 bobcats (Lynx rufus), 1 domestic cat (Felis catus), 3 coyotes (Canis latrans), 1 gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), 4 raccoons (Procyon lotor), 1 pet boa constrictor (Boa constrictor imperator), 1 swamp rabbit (Sylvilagus aquaticus), 1 cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus floridanus), 4 woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes and Neotoma micropus), 3 white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), 8 cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), 1 cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus), 1 eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and 1 woodchuck (Marmota monax). Phylogenetic analyses and comparison with sequences in the existing database revealed distinct groups of Hepatozoon spp., with clusters formed by sequences obtained from scavengers and carnivores (opossum, raccoons, canids, and felids) and those obtained from rodents. Surprisingly, Hepatozoon spp. sequences from wild rabbits were most closely related to sequences obtained from carnivores (97.2% identical), and the sequence from the boa constrictor was most closely related to the rodent cluster (97.4% identical). These data are consistent with recent work identifying prey-predator transmission cycles in Hepatozoon spp. and suggest this pattern may be more common than previously recognized.

  19. Development of the Synarcual in the Elephant Sharks (Holocephali; Chondrichthyes: Implications for Vertebral Formation and Fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerina Johanson

    Full Text Available The synarcual is a structure incorporating multiple elements of two or more anterior vertebrae of the axial skeleton, forming immediately posterior to the cranium. It has been convergently acquired in the fossil group 'Placodermi', in Chondrichthyes (Holocephali, Batoidea, within the teleost group Syngnathiformes, and to varying degrees in a range of mammalian taxa. In addition, cervical vertebral fusion presents as an abnormal pathology in a variety of human disorders. Vertebrae develop from axially arranged somites, so that fusion could result from a failure of somite segmentation early in development, or from later heterotopic development of intervertebral bone or cartilage. Examination of early developmental stages indicates that in the Batoidea and the 'Placodermi', individual vertebrae developed normally and only later become incorporated into the synarcual, implying regular somite segmentation and vertebral development. Here we show that in the holocephalan Callorhinchus milii, uniform and regular vertebral segmentation also occurs, with anterior individual vertebra developing separately with subsequent fusion into a synarcual. Vertebral elements forming directly behind the synarcual continue to be incorporated into the synarcual through growth. This appears to be a common pattern through the Vertebrata. Research into human disorders, presenting as cervical fusion at birth, focuses on gene misexpression studies in humans and other mammals such as the mouse. However, in chondrichthyans, vertebral fusion represents the normal morphology, moreover, taxa such Leucoraja (Batoidea and Callorhinchus (Holocephali are increasingly used as laboratory animals, and the Callorhinchus genome has been sequenced and is available for study. Our observations on synarcual development in three major groups of early jawed vertebrates indicate that fusion involves heterotopic cartilage and perichondral bone/mineralised cartilage developing outside the regular

  20. Comparative analysis of transposable elements highlights mobilome diversity and evolution in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalopin, Domitille; Naville, Magali; Plard, Floriane; Galiana, Delphine; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-01-09

    Transposable elements (TEs) are major components of vertebrate genomes, with major roles in genome architecture and evolution. In order to characterize both common patterns and lineage-specific differences in TE content and TE evolution, we have compared the mobilomes of 23 vertebrate genomes, including 10 actinopterygian fish, 11 sarcopterygians, and 2 nonbony vertebrates. We found important variations in TE content (from 6% in the pufferfish tetraodon to 55% in zebrafish), with a more important relative contribution of TEs to genome size in fish than in mammals. Some TE superfamilies were found to be widespread in vertebrates, but most elements showed a more patchy distribution, indicative of multiple events of loss or gain. Interestingly, loss of major TE families was observed during the evolution of the sarcopterygian lineage, with a particularly strong reduction in TE diversity in birds and mammals. Phylogenetic trends in TE composition and activity were detected: Teleost fish genomes are dominated by DNA transposons and contain few ancient TE copies, while mammalian genomes have been predominantly shaped by nonlong terminal repeat retrotransposons, along with the persistence of older sequences. Differences were also found within lineages: The medaka fish genome underwent more recent TE amplification than the related platyfish, as observed for LINE retrotransposons in the mouse compared with the human genome. This study allows the identification of putative cases of horizontal transfer of TEs, and to tentatively infer the composition of the ancestral vertebrate mobilome. Taken together, the results obtained highlight the importance of TEs in the structure and evolution of vertebrate genomes, and demonstrate their major impact on genome diversity both between and within lineages. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Effects of ADMA upon gene expression: an insight into the pathophysiological significance of raised plasma ADMA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline L Smith

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA is a naturally occurring inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis that accumulates in a wide range of diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction and enhanced atherosclerosis. Clinical studies implicate plasma ADMA as a major novel cardiovascular risk factor, but the mechanisms by which low concentrations of ADMA produce adverse effects on the cardiovascular system are unclear.We treated human coronary artery endothelial cells with pathophysiological concentrations of ADMA and assessed the effects on gene expression using U133A GeneChips (Affymetrix. Changes in several genes, including bone morphogenetic protein 2 inducible kinase (BMP2K, SMA-related protein 5 (Smad5, bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1A, and protein arginine methyltransferase 3 (PRMT3; also known as HRMT1L3, were confirmed by Northern blotting, quantitative PCR, and in some instances Western blotting analysis to detect changes in protein expression. To determine whether these changes also occurred in vivo, tissue from gene deletion mice with raised ADMA levels was examined. More than 50 genes were significantly altered in endothelial cells after treatment with pathophysiological concentrations of ADMA (2 microM. We detected specific patterns of changes that identify pathways involved in processes relevant to cardiovascular risk and pulmonary hypertension. Changes in BMP2K and PRMT3 were confirmed at mRNA and protein levels, in vitro and in vivo.Pathophysiological concentrations of ADMA are sufficient to elicit significant changes in coronary artery endothelial cell gene expression. Changes in bone morphogenetic protein signalling, and in enzymes involved in arginine methylation, may be particularly relevant to understanding the pathophysiological significance of raised ADMA levels. This study identifies the mechanisms by which increased ADMA may contribute to common cardiovascular diseases and thereby indicates possible targets for therapies.

  2. Cervical spondylosis anatomy: pathophysiology and biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedid, Daniel; Benzel, Edward C

    2007-01-01

    Cervical spondylosis is the most common progressive disorder in the aging cervical spine. It results from the process of degeneration of the intervertebral discs and facet joints of the cervical spine. Biomechanically, the disc and the facets are the connecting structures between the vertebrae for the transmission of external forces. They also facilitate cervical spine mobility. Symptoms related to myelopathy and radiculopathy are caused by the formation of osteophytes, which compromise the diameter of the spinal canal. This compromise may also be partially developmental. The developmental process, together with the degenerative process, may cause mechanical pressure on the spinal cord at one or multiple levels. This pressure may produce direct neurological damage or ischemic changes and, thus, lead to spinal cord disturbances. A thorough understanding of the biomechanics, the pathology, the clinical presentation, the radiological evaluation, as well as the surgical indications of cervical spondylosis, is essential for the management of patients with cervical spondylosis.

  3. Falls: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and relationship to fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Sarah D; Miller, Ram R

    2008-12-01

    Falls are common in the elderly, and frequently result in injury and disability. Most falls result from an interaction between individual characteristics that increase an individual's propensity to fall and acute mediating risk factors that provide the opportunity to fall. Predisposing risk factors include age-associated changes in strength and balance, comorbidities such as osteoarthritis, visual impairment and dementia, psychotropic medications, and certain types of footwear. Fewer studies have focused on acute precipitating factors, but environmental and situational factors are clearly important to fall risk. Approximately 30% of falls result in an injury that requires medical attention, with fractures occurring in approximately 10%. In addition to the risk factors for falls, the fall descent, fall impact, and bone strength are all important determinants of whether a fall will result in a fracture. In recent years, numerous studies have been directed toward the development of effective fall and fall-related fracture prevention interventions.

  4. Making the Common Good Common

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How are independent schools to be useful to the wider world? Beyond their common commitment to educate their students for meaningful lives in service of the greater good, can they educate a broader constituency and, thus, share their resources and skills more broadly? Their answers to this question will be shaped by their independence. Any…

  5. The pathology and pathophysiology of vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaria, Raj N

    2017-12-19

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is widely recognised as the second most common type of dementia. Consensus and accurate diagnosis of clinically suspected VaD relies on wide-ranging clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging measures in life but more importantly pathological confirmation. Factors defining subtypes of VaD include the nature and extent of vascular pathologies, degree of involvement of extra and intracranial vessels and the anatomical location of tissue changes as well as time after the initial vascular event. Atherosclerotic and cardioembolic diseases combined appear the most common subtypes of vascular brain injury. In recent years, cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) has gained prominence worldwide as an important substrate of cognitive impairment. SVD is characterised by arteriolosclerosis, lacunar infarcts and cortical and subcortical microinfarcts and diffuse white matter changes, which involve myelin loss and axonal abnormalities. Global brain atrophy and focal degeneration of the cerebrum including medial temporal lobe atrophy are also features of VaD similar to Alzheimer's disease. Hereditary arteriopathies have provided insights into the mechanisms of dementia particularly how arteriolosclerosis, a major contributor of SVD promotes cognitive impairment. Recently developed and validated neuropathology guidelines indicated that the best predictors of vascular cognitive impairment were small or lacunar infarcts, microinfarcts, perivascular space dilation, myelin loss, arteriolosclerosis and leptomeningeal cerebral amyloid angiopathy. While these substrates do not suggest high specificity, VaD is likely defined by key neuronal and dendro-synaptic changes resulting in executive dysfunction and related cognitive deficits. Greater understanding of the molecular pathology is needed to clearly define microvascular disease and vascular substrates of dementia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anthropometric measurements and vertebral deformities. European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS) Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnell, O; O'Neill, T; Felsenberg, D; Kanis, J; Cooper, C; Silman, A J

    1997-08-15

    To investigate the association between anthropometric indices and morphometrically determined vertebral deformity, the authors carried out a cross-sectional study using data from the European Vertebral Osteoporosis Study (EVOS), a population-based study of vertebral osteoporosis in 36 European centers from 19 countries. A total of 16,047 EVOS subjects were included in this analysis, of whom 1,973 subjects (915 males, 1,058 females) (12.3%) aged 50 years or over had one or more vertebral deformities ("cases"). The cases were compared with the 14,074 subjects (6,539 males, 7,535 females) with morphometrically normal spines ("controls"). Data were collected on self-reported height at age 25 years and minimum weight after age 25 years, as well as on current measured height and weight. Body mass index (BMI) and height and weight change were calculated from these data. The relations between these variables and vertebral deformity were examined separately by sex with logistic regression adjusting for age, smoking, and physical activity. In females, there was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing quintile of current weight, current BMI, and weight gain since age 25 years. In males, subjects in the lightest quintile for these measures were at increased risk but there was no evidence of a trend. An ecologic analysis by country revealed a negative correlation between mean BMI and the prevalence of deformity in females but not in males. The authors conclude that low body weight is associated with presence of vertebral deformity.

  7. Isolated unilateral vertebral pedicle fracture caused by a back massage in an elderly patient: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiping; Chen, Wei; Su, Yanling; Yuan, Junhui; Zhang, Yingze

    2013-11-01

    The vertebral pedicle injuries are clinically common. However, the isolated vertebral pedicle fracture with intact vertebral bodies is a rare lesion. We reported a case of a 66-year-old man who experienced a pedicle fracture after a back massage. The patient sustained osteoporosis, long-existing low back pain and nerve compression symptoms without antecedent major trauma. Imaging findings demonstrated an isolated unilateral L5 vertebral pedicle fracture with intact vertebral bodies, spinal canal stenosis at the L4-5 levels, bulging annulus fibrosus at the L4-S1 levels, bilateral spondylolysis and an L5/S1 spondylolisthesis. The patient underwent L4-S1 decompressive laminectomy, L5/S1 discectomy and neurolysis, and reduction and fixation of the L5 vertebral pedicle fracture and L5/S1 spondylolisthesis using the pedicle nail system. At follow-ups, the patient showed good recovery without pain or numbness in the low back and bilateral lower extremities. This study raises the awareness of a complication of alternative medicine and the possibility of a pedicle fracture caused by a low-energy trauma.

  8. Assisted techniques for vertebral cementoplasty: Why should we do it?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, M.; Marcia, S.; Guarnieri, G.; Pereira, V.

    2015-01-01

    Assisted techniques (AT) for vertebral cementoplasty include multiple mini-invasive percutaneous systems in which vertebral augmentation is obtained through mechanical devices with the aim to reach the best vertebral height restoration. As an evolution of the vertebroplasty, the rationale of the AT-treatment is to combine the analgesic and stability effect of cement injection with the restoration of a physiological height for the collapsed vertebral body. Reduction of the vertebral body kyphotic deformity, considering the target of normal spine biomechanics, could improve all systemic potential complications evident in patient with vertebral compression fracture (VCF). Main indications for AT are related to fractures in fragile vertebral osseous matrix and non-osteoporotic vertebral lesions due to spine metastasis or trauma. Many companies developed different systems for AT having the same target but different working cannula, different vertebral height restoration system and costs. Aim of this review is to discuss about vertebral cementoplasty procedures and techniques, considering patient inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as all related minor and/or major interventional complications

  9. Assisted techniques for vertebral cementoplasty: Why should we do it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, M., E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Section of Neuroradiology—“A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples (Italy); Marcia, S. [Section of Radiology—Santissima Trinità Hospital, Cagliari (Italy); Guarnieri, G. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Section of Neuroradiology—“A. Cardarelli” Hospital, Naples (Italy); Pereira, V. [Unit of Interventional Neuroradiology–HUG, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-05-15

    Assisted techniques (AT) for vertebral cementoplasty include multiple mini-invasive percutaneous systems in which vertebral augmentation is obtained through mechanical devices with the aim to reach the best vertebral height restoration. As an evolution of the vertebroplasty, the rationale of the AT-treatment is to combine the analgesic and stability effect of cement injection with the restoration of a physiological height for the collapsed vertebral body. Reduction of the vertebral body kyphotic deformity, considering the target of normal spine biomechanics, could improve all systemic potential complications evident in patient with vertebral compression fracture (VCF). Main indications for AT are related to fractures in fragile vertebral osseous matrix and non-osteoporotic vertebral lesions due to spine metastasis or trauma. Many companies developed different systems for AT having the same target but different working cannula, different vertebral height restoration system and costs. Aim of this review is to discuss about vertebral cementoplasty procedures and techniques, considering patient inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as all related minor and/or major interventional complications.

  10. Evaluation on vertebral endplate injury and adjacent intervertebral disk injury of patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures by MRI and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yu; Shen Huiliang; Fang Xiutong; Zhang Wenbo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between vertebral endplate injury and adjacent intervertebral disk injury of patients with acute or sub-acute osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVC-F) by MRI, and to provide basis for diagnosis of OVCF. Methods: The clinical data of a total of 66 patients with OVCF underwent vertebroplasty (76 fracture of vertebral bodies) were selected. The vertebral endplate injury and adjacent intervertebral disk injury of OVCF patients were detected by MRI. Results: There were 57 vertebral endplate injury in 76 fracture vertebral bodies (75% ). There were only 27 vertebral bodies with vertebral endplate injury in 57 fracture vertebral bodies with endplate injury (47% ), and 22 vertebral with superior and inferior vertebral endplate injury (39% ), and 8 vertebral bodies with inferior vertebral endplate injury (14% ). There were 48 vertebral bodies with intervertebral disc injury in 76 fracture vertebral bodies (63% ). There were 22 intervertebral disc injury located above the fracture of the lumbar spine in 48 vertebral bodies with intervertebral disc injury (45% ), and 19 fracture vertebral bodies with upper and lower intervertebral disc injury (40% ), and 7 intervertebral injuries located below the fracture of the lumbar spine (15% ). Conclusion: Vertebral endplate injury is frequently associated with the adjacent intervertebral disk injury. The clinical diagnosis and treatment should be emphasized in the fracture vertebral endplate damage and adjacent intervertebral disc injury. (authors)

  11. Modulación del crecimiento vertebral mediante electrocoagulación hemicircunferencial vertebral asistida

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero García, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Nuestro trabajo está basado en la posibilidad de controlar el desarrollo asimétrico de los cartílagos de crecimiento vertebral, mediante la realización de una fisiodesis hemivertebral, con electrocoagulación, videoasistida por toracoscópica. Se realizará en cinco niveles torácicos, con un abordaje anterior mínimamente invasivo. Por lo tanto, planteamos como hipótesis de trabajo que La destrucción de las fisis de crecimiento vertebral mediante electrocoagulación, videoasistida por vía toracosc...

  12. Spatial coordination of compensatory eye movements in vertebrates: form and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, W

    1988-01-01

    The semicircular canals of the labyrinth of vertebrates provide one way of motion detection in three-dimensional space. The fully developed form of the vertebrate labyrinth consists of six semicircular canals, three on each side of the head, whose spatial arrangement (vertical canals are placed diagonally in the head, horizontal canals are oriented earth horizontally) follows three interconnected principles: 1) bilateral symmetry, 2) push-pull operational mode, and 3) mutual orthogonality. Other sensory and motor systems related to vestibular reflexes, such as the extraocular muscles or the "optokinetic" coordinate axes encoded in the activity of the visually driven cells of the accessory optic system, share the same geometrical framework. This framework is also reflected in the anatomical networks mediating compensatory eye movements, linking each of the semicircular canals to a particular set of extraocular muscles (so-called principal vestibuloocular reflex connections to yoke muscles). These classical vestibulo-oculomotor relationships have been verified at many levels of the vertebrate hierarchy, including lateral- and frontal-eyed animals. The particular spatial orientation of the semicircular canals requires further comment and phylogenetic evaluation. The spatial arrangement of the vertical canals is already present in fossil ostracoderms, and is also exemplified in lampreys, the modern forms of once abundant agnathan species that populated the Silurian and Devonian oceans. The lampreys and ostracoderms lack horizontal canals, which appear later in all descendent vertebrates. The fully developed vertebrate labyrinth with its six semicircular canals displays distinct differences that are obvious when comparing distant taxa (e.g. elasmobranchs versus other vertebrates). Whereas the common crus of the semicircular canals in teleosts through mammals is formed between the anterior and the posterior semicircular canal, it occurs between the anterior and the

  13. Increased variability of bone tissue mineral density resulting from estrogen deficiency influences creep behavior in a rat vertebral body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Gyoon; Navalgund, Anand R; Tee, Boon Ching; Noble, Garrett J; Hart, Richard T; Lee, Hye Ri

    2012-11-01

    Progressive vertebral deformation increases the fracture risk of a vertebral body in the postmenopausal patient. Many studies have observed that bone can demonstrate creep behavior, defined as continued time-dependent deformation even when mechanical loading is held constant. Creep is a characteristic of viscoelastic behavior, which is common in biological materials. We hypothesized that estrogen deficiency-dependent alteration of the mineral distribution of bone at the tissue level could influence the progressive postmenopausal vertebral deformity that is observed as the creep response at the organ level. The objective of this study was thus to examine whether the creep behavior of vertebral bone is changed by estrogen deficiency, and to determine which bone property parameters are responsible for the creep response of vertebral bone at physiological loading levels using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. Correlations of creep parameters with bone mineral density (BMD), tissue mineral density (TMD) and architectural parameters of both OVX and sham surgery vertebral bone were tested. As the vertebral creep was not fully recovered during the post-creep unloading period, there was substantial residual displacement for both the sham and OVX groups. A strong positive correlation between loading creep and residual displacement was found (r=0.868, pcreep behavior of the OVX group (pcreep caused progressive, permanent reduction in vertebral height for both the sham and OVX groups. In addition, estrogen deficiency-induced active bone remodeling increased variability of trabecular TMD in the OVX group. Taken together, these results suggest that increased variability of trabecular TMD resulting from high bone turnover influences creep behavior of the OVX vertebrae. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The antiphospholipid syndrome: from pathophysiology to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Simone; Pappalardo, Fabrizio; Murdaca, Giuseppe; Indiveri, Francesco; Puppo, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune acquired thrombophilia characterized by recurrent thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity in the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). APS can be primary, if it occurs in the absence of any underlying disease, or secondary, if it is associated with another autoimmune disorder, most commonly systemic lupus erythematosus. The exact pathogenetic mechanism of APS is unknown, but different, not mutually exclusive, models have been proposed to explain how anti-PL autoantibodies might lead to thrombosis and pregnancy morbidity. Diagnosis of APS requires that a patient has both a clinical manifestation (arterial or venous thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity) and persistently positive aPL, but the clinical spectrum of the disease encompasses additional manifestations which may affect every organ and cannot be explained exclusively by a prothrombotic state. Treatment for aPL-positive patients is based on the patient's clinical status, presence of an underlying autoimmune disease, and history of thrombotic events. In case of aPL positivity without previous thrombotic events, the treatment is mainly focused on reduction of additional vascular risk factors, while treatment of patients with definite APS is based on long-term anticoagulation. Pregnancy complications are usually managed with low-dose aspirin in association with low molecular weight heparin. Refractory forms of APS could benefit from adding hydroxychloroquine and/or intravenous immunoglobulin to anticoagulation therapy. Promising novel treatments include anti-B cell monoclonal antibodies, new-generation anticoagulants, and complement cascade inhibitors. The objective of this review paper is to summarize the recent literature on APS from pathogenesis to current therapeutic options.

  15. Neurological complications of drug abuse: pathophysiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman, J; Haapaniemi, H M; Hillbom, M

    2000-11-01

    Drug abuse is associated with a variety of neurological complications. The use of certain recreational drugs shows a marked temporal association with the onset of both haemorrhagic and ischaemic strokes, the majority of which develop within minutes to 1 h after the administration of the index drug. Delayed onset of stroke has also been observed. Acute, severe elevation of blood pressure, cardiac dysrhythmias, cerebral vasospasm, vasculitis, embolization due to infective endocarditis or dilated cardiomyopathy, embolization due to foreign material injected with the diluents under non-sterile conditions and 'street drug' contaminants with cardiovascular effects have been suggested as possible underlying mechanisms. Rupture of aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations have been detected in up to half of the patients with haemorrhagic stroke due to cocaine abuse. The less common findings reported have included a mycotic cerebrovascular aneurysm in a patient with infective endocarditis and haemorrhagic stroke. In addition to stroke, cocaine seems to provoke vascular headache. Seizures precipitated by recreational drug abuse are usually caused by acute intoxication in contrast to the withdrawal seizures encountered in subjects with alcohol abuse. Movement disorders and cerebral atrophy correlating with the duration of abuse have been described. Snorting of organic solvents may cause encephalopathy. Cases of spongiform leukoencephalopathy in heroin addicts have also been reported. Peripheral neuropathy is occasionally precipitated by drug poisoning after intravenous administration. Impurities of the drug, risky administration techniques, and the use of mixtures of various drugs, frequently with simultaneous alcohol drinking, should be taken into account when assessing the background of the adverse event as well as the overall lifestyle of the addicted subjects.

  16. Health economic aspects of vertebral augmentation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgström, F; Beall, D P; Berven, S; Boonen, S; Christie, S; Kallmes, D F; Kanis, J A; Olafsson, G; Singer, A J; Åkesson, K

    2015-04-01

    We reviewed all peer-reviewed papers analysing the cost-effectiveness of vertebroplasty and balloon kyphoplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. In general, the procedures appear to be cost effective but are very dependent upon model input details. Better data, rather than new models, are needed to answer outstanding questions. Vertebral augmentation procedures (VAPs), including vertebroplasty (VP) and balloon kyphoplasty (BKP), seek to stabilise fractured vertebral bodies and reduce pain. The aim of this paper is to review current literature on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs as well as to discuss the challenges for economic evaluation in this research area. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify existing published studies on the cost-effectiveness of VAPs in patients with osteoporosis. Only peer-reviewed published articles that fulfilled the criteria of being regarded as full economic evaluations including both morbidity and mortality in the outcome measure in the form of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were included. The search identified 949 studies, of which four (0.4 %) were identified as relevant with one study added later. The reviewed studies differed widely in terms of study design, modelling framework and data used, yielding different results and conclusions regarding the cost-effectiveness of VAPs. Three out of five studies indicated in the base case results that VAPs were cost effective compared to non-surgical management (NSM). The five main factors that drove the variations in the cost-effectiveness between the studies were time horizon, quality of life effect of treatment, offset time of the treatment effect, reduced number of bed days associated with VAPs and mortality benefit with treatment. The cost-effectiveness of VAPs is uncertain. In answering the remaining questions, new cost-effectiveness analysis will yield limited benefit. Rather, studies that can reduce the uncertainty in the underlying data

  17. [Development and application of artificial vertebral body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Tao; Zhang, Feng; Gao, Zheng-Chao; Niu, Bin-Bin; Li, Yu-Huan; He, Xi-Jing

    2017-12-25

    Artificial vertebral body has achieved good results in treating spinal tumors, tuberculosis, fracture and other diseases. Currently, artificial vertebral body with variety of kinds and pros and cons, is generally divided into two types: fusion type and movable type. The former according to whether the height could be adjusted and strength of self-stability is divided into three types: support-fixed type, adjust-fixed type and self-fixed type. Whether the height of self-fixed type could be adjusted is dependent on structure of collar thread rotation. The latter is due to mobile device of ball-and-socket joints or hollow structures instead of the disc which retains the activity of the spine to some extent. Materials of artificial vertebral body include metals, ceramics, biomaterials, polymer composites and other materials. Titanium with a dominant role in the metal has developed to the third generation, but there are still defects such as poor surface bioactivity; ceramics with the representative of hydroxyapatite composite, magnetic bioceramics, polycrystalline alumina ceramics and so on, which have the defects of processing complex and uneven mechanical properties; biological material is mainly dominated by xenogeneic bone, which is closest to human bone in structure and properties, but has defects of low toughness and complex production; polymer composites according to biological characteristics in general consists of biodegradable type and non-biodegradable type which are respectively represented by poly-lactide and polyethylene, each with advantages and disadvantages. Although the design and materials of prosthesis have made great progress, it is difficult to fully meet requirements of spinal implants and they need be further optimized. 3D printing technology makes process of the complex structure of prosthesis and individual customization possible and has broad development prospects. However, long production cycles and high cost of defect should be overcome

  18. Vertebrate gravity sensors as dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers verterbrate gravity receptors as dynamic sensors. That is, it is hypothesized that gravity is a constant force to which an acceleration-sensing system would readily adapt. Premises are considered in light of the presence of kinocilia on hair cells of vertebrate gravity sensors; differences in loading of the sensors among species; and of possible reduction in loading by inclusion of much organic material in otoconia. Moreover, organic-inorganic interfaces may confer a piezoelectric property upon otoconia, which increase the sensitivity of the sensory system to small accelerations. Comparisons with man-made accelerometers are briefly taken up.

  19. Homology in vertebrates bone mineral structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batdehmbehrehl, G.; Chultehm, D.; Sangaa, D.

    1999-01-01

    Using the neutron diffraction method a domination of low crystal syngonic (sp. gr. P63/m) phase Ca 5 [PO 4 ] 3 (OH, F, Cl) in bull and sheep bones as well as in the fossil dinosaur bone has been established and crystal phases in all the bones have identical structure (homology). The result becomes to be an important contribution to fundamental science such as biological evolution and to be useful in medical practice and solution of radiobiological problems connected with vertebrates and man. (author)

  20. The identification and functional annotation of RNA structures conserved in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seemann, Ernst Stefan; Mirza, Aashiq Hussain; Hansen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    Structured elements of RNA molecules are essential in, e.g., RNA stabilization, localization and protein interaction, and their conservation across species suggests a common functional role. We computationally screened vertebrate genomes for Conserved RNA Structures (CRSs), leveraging structure-b......-structured counterparts. Our findings of transcribed uncharacterized regulatory regions that contain CRSs support their RNA-mediated functionality.......Structured elements of RNA molecules are essential in, e.g., RNA stabilization, localization and protein interaction, and their conservation across species suggests a common functional role. We computationally screened vertebrate genomes for Conserved RNA Structures (CRSs), leveraging structure......-based, rather than sequence-based, alignments. After careful correction for sequence identity and GC content, we predict ~516k human genomic regions containing CRSs. We find that a substantial fraction of human-mouse CRS regions (i) co-localize consistently with binding sites of the same RNA binding proteins...

  1. Endplates Changes Related to Age and Vertebral Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fernando P. S. Herrero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endplate separations are defined as the presence of a space between the hyaline cartilage and the cortical bone of the adjacent vertebral body. This study evaluates endplate separations from the vertebral body and intervertebral discs and verifies if endplate separation is related to age and the spinal level. Groups were formed based on age (20–40 and 41–85 years old and the vertebral segment (T7-T8 and L4-L5 segments. Histological analysis included assessment of the length of the vertebral endplates, the number and dimensions of the separations, and orientation of the collagen fibers, in the mid-sagittal slice. Two indexes were created: the separation index (number of separations/vertebral length and separation extension index (sum of all separations/vertebral length. The results of the study demonstrated a direct relationship between the density of separations in the endplate and two variables: age and spinal level.

  2. Vertebral morphometry by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanov, M.

    2002-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are a key feature of overt osteoporosis. Different X-ray morphometric techniques have been developed for quantification of changes in vertebral body shape. In recent years, a new method was implemented based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Morphometric X-ray absorptiometry, MXA, is a source of lower radiation and there is no image distortion. Several aspects of its application are under heavy discussion: image quality, accuracy and precision, reference databases, age changes in vertebral shape. The differential diagnosis of vertebral fracture/deformity is difficult. MXA has prove its value in large epidemiological studies on prevalence of vertebral deformities, as well in assessing the effects of different diseases and medications on vertebral body architecture. MXA is a promising method for future research and clinical work. (author)

  3. CT and MRI characteristics of vertebral tuberculosis (34 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Wenbing; Liao Qinghou; Wu Shiqiang; Huang Tao; Deng Yufang; Liu Jianming

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore CT and MRI characteristics of vertebral tuberculosis. Methods: 34 patients with vertebral tuberculosis proved by clinic or pathology were analyzed retrospectively. Of these patients, 20 were performed with CT examination and 24 with MRI, 10 with both CT and MRI. The results were compared mutually. Results: The CT features of vertebral tuberculosis were bone destruction, paraspinal abscess, spinal canal involvement. The MRI features of vertebral tuberculosis were bone destruction, intervertebral disc destruction, paraspinal abscess, spinal canal involvement, sub-ligamental spread. Conclusion: Vertebral tuberculosis showed multiple characteristics on CT and MRI. CT is useful in showing sequester and calcification, and MRI is useful in showing sub-ligamental spread, epidural and spinal cord involvement. Combining CT with and MRI is helpful for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of vertebral tuberculosis. (authors)

  4. Quantification of localized vertebral deformities using a sparse wavelet-based shape model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewail, R; Elsafi, A; Durdle, N

    2008-01-01

    Medical experts often examine hundreds of spine x-ray images to determine existence of various pathologies. Common pathologies of interest are anterior osteophites, disc space narrowing, and wedging. By careful inspection of the outline shapes of the vertebral bodies, experts are able to identify and assess vertebral abnormalities with respect to the pathology under investigation. In this paper, we present a novel method for quantification of vertebral deformation using a sparse shape model. Using wavelets and Independent component analysis (ICA), we construct a sparse shape model that benefits from the approximation power of wavelets and the capability of ICA to capture higher order statistics in wavelet space. The new model is able to capture localized pathology-related shape deformations, hence it allows for quantification of vertebral shape variations. We investigate the capability of the model to predict localized pathology related deformations. Next, using support-vector machines, we demonstrate the diagnostic capabilities of the method through the discrimination of anterior osteophites in lumbar vertebrae. Experiments were conducted using a set of 150 contours from digital x-ray images of lumbar spine. Each vertebra is labeled as normal or abnormal. Results reported in this work focus on anterior osteophites as the pathology of interest.

  5. Nervous systems and scenarios for the invertebrate-to-vertebrate transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nicholas D

    2016-01-05

    Older evolutionary scenarios for the origin of vertebrates often gave nervous systems top billing in accordance with the notion that a big-brained Homo sapiens crowned a tree of life shaped mainly by progressive evolution. Now, however, tree thinking positions all extant organisms equidistant from the tree's root, and molecular phylogenies indicate that regressive evolution is more common than previously suspected. Even so, contemporary theories of vertebrate origin still focus on the nervous system because of its functional importance, its richness in characters for comparative biology, and its central position in the two currently prominent scenarios for the invertebrate-to-vertebrate transition, which grew out of the markedly neurocentric annelid and enteropneust theories of the nineteenth century. Both these scenarios compare phyla with diverse overall body plans. This diversity, exacerbated by the scarcity of relevant fossil data, makes it challenging to establish plausible homologies between component parts (e.g. nervous system regions). In addition, our current understanding of the relation between genotype and phenotype is too preliminary to permit us to convert gene network data into structural features in any simple way. These issues are discussed here with special reference to the evolution of nervous systems during proposed transitions from invertebrates to vertebrates. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. MR imaging of degenerative lumbar disc disease emphasizing on signal intensity changes in vertebral body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Keiko; Ida, Masahiro; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Harada, Junta; Tada, Shimpei

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 400 patients with degenerative disc disease. Signal changes and their sites in the vertebral body were classified and referred to narrowing of the intervertebral disc space. MR findings were compared with those of plain roentgenograms of the lumbar spine. Signal changes in the vertebral body were noted in 83 cases (102 vertebral bodies). Low-intensity abnormality on both T1- and T2-weighted images (WI) was the most common finding, and was most frequently seen at the end plate and/or the angle. These changes were correlated with narrowing of the disc space and osteosclerosis on the plain roentgenogram of the lumbar spine. Signal changes occasionally occurred in the inner region of the vertebral body, and these lesions tended to show a high-intensity abnormality on T1-WI. We conclude that signal changes in degenerative disc disease are not specific, but are sometimes difficult to distinguish from the signal changes in other conditions such as spinal tumor or bone marrow disorder. (author)

  7. The painted turtle, Chrysemys picta: a model system for vertebrate evolution, ecology, and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Nicole

    2009-07-01

    Painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) are representatives of a vertebrate clade whose biology and phylogenetic position hold a key to our understanding of fundamental aspects of vertebrate evolution. These features make them an ideal emerging model system. Extensive ecological and physiological research provide the context in which to place new research advances in evolutionary genetics, genomics, evolutionary developmental biology, and ecological developmental biology which are enabled by current resources, such as a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of C. picta, and the imminent development of additional ones such as genome sequences and cDNA and expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries. This integrative approach will allow the research community to continue making advances to provide functional and evolutionary explanations for the lability of biological traits found not only among reptiles but vertebrates in general. Moreover, because humans and reptiles share a common ancestor, and given the ease of using nonplacental vertebrates in experimental biology compared with mammalian embryos, painted turtles are also an emerging model system for biomedical research. For example, painted turtles have been studied to understand many biological responses to overwintering and anoxia, as potential sentinels for environmental xenobiotics, and as a model to decipher the ecology and evolution of sexual development and reproduction. Thus, painted turtles are an excellent reptilian model system for studies with human health, environmental, ecological, and evolutionary significance.

  8. The anatomy and pathophysiology of extracranial atherosclerotic cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, R.A.J.

    1984-01-01

    The brain is supplied by two pairs of arteries, the large carotid arteries anteriorly and the vertebral arteries (so called because they are so close to the vertebral column) posteriorly. All four arteries enter the skull at the base of the brain and are connected in the arterial circle of Willis, a unique safety device that permits arterial blood to cross from one side to the other, in case of need, or from front to back or back to front. When one inflow artery is narrowed or occluded, flow increases via other inflow arteries to maintain pressure and flow within the circle. This collateral circulation is also assisted by inflow to the circle through the orbit. When needed, arterial blood reaches the circle of Willis from the face by traversing the orbit in reverse direction. In unusual circumstances, blood in the circle of Willis can leave the brain and flow down the vertebral artery-the so-called ''vertebral steal.'' The authors provide a detailed description of the anatomy, particularly as it affects the signs, symptoms, and noninvasive diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease

  9. Extracranial vertebral artery rupture likely secondary to "cupping therapy" superimposed on spontaneous dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae Young; Huh, Chae Wook; Choi, Chang Hwa; Lee, Jae Il

    2016-12-01

    The extracranial vertebral artery (VA) is vulnerable to dissection and the V3 segment is the most common location for dissection. Dissection accounts for about 2% of all ischemic strokes and can occur after trauma or chiropractic neck maneuvers. We report an extremely rare case of spontaneous extracranial VA dissection presenting with posterior neck hematoma aggravated after cupping therapy, a treatment in traditional Oriental medicine. We treated the patient successfully by endovascular treatment without any complication. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Multiple Atraumatic Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures in an Adolescent with Suprasellar Germinoma: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CC Wong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a patient with multiple atraumatic osteoporotic vertebral fractures in an adolescent with suprasellar germinoma and also review of relevant literature. The patient suffered from a rare adolescent brain tumour with common complications which are often overlooked and give rise to significant morbidity. Suprasellar germinoma is an intracranial neoplasm, that in addition to its rarity, has variable clinical presentation. Despite appropriate treatment and good outcome, tumour related morbidity is still of concern for these patients.

  11. Evolution of the vertebrate neurocranium : problems of the premandibular domain and the origin of the trabecula

    OpenAIRE

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Ahlberg, Per E.

    2018-01-01

    The subdivision of the gnathostome neurocranium into an anterior neural crest-derived moiety and a posterior mesodermal moiety has attracted the interest of researchers for nearly two centuries. We present a synthetic scenario for the evolution of this structure, uniting developmental data from living cyclostomes and gnathostomes with morphological data from fossil stem gnathostomes in a common phylogenetic framework. Ancestrally, vertebrates had an anteroposteriorly short forebrain, and the ...

  12. Biological annihilation via the ongoing sixth mass extinction signaled by vertebrate population losses and declines

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Ehrlich, Paul R.; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2017-01-01

    The strong focus on species extinctions, a critical aspect of the contemporary pulse of biological extinction, leads to a common misimpression that Earth’s biota is not immediately threatened, just slowly entering an episode of major biodiversity loss. This view overlooks the current trends of population declines and extinctions. Using a sample of 27,600 terrestrial vertebrate species, and a more detailed analysis of 177 mammal species, we show the extremely high degree of population decay in...

  13. Generalized seizures in the right hippocampus sclerosis combined with hypoplasia of the right vertebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchev, L.; Toneva, J.; Manolova, T.; Manchev, I.; Valcheva, V.

    2016-01-01

    We present a clinical case of generalized epileptic seizures, occurring suddenly. The common finding from MRI of the brain is sclerosis of the right hippocampus, while MR angiography shows hypoplasia of the right vertebral artery. There are EEG signs for single foci of abnormal activity more on the right side. An anticonvulsant and symptomatic treatment demonstrate a favorable result. Under discussion is the question of surgery treatment. Key words: Hippocampal Sclerosis. MRI. Epileptic Seizures

  14. Molecular pathology of vertebral deformities in hyperthermic Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Baeverfjord, Grete; Torgersen, Jacob; Hjelde, Kirsti; Takle, Harald

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Hyperthermia has been shown in a number of organisms to induce developmental defects as a result of changes in cell proliferation, differentiation and gene expression. In spite of this, salmon aquaculture commonly uses high water temperature to speed up developmental rate in intensive production systems, resulting in an increased frequency of skeletal deformities. In order to study the molecular pathology of vertebral deformities, Atlantic salmon was subjected to hyperther...

  15. Vascular complications of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Kevin J.; Ross, E. Raymond S.; Norris, Heather; McCollum, Charles N.

    2006-01-01

    Five consecutive cases of prosthetic inter-vertebral disc displacement with severe vascular complications on revisional surgery are described. The objective of this case report is to warn spinal surgeons that major vascular complications are likely with anterior displacement of inter-vertebral discs. We have not been able to find a previous report on vascular complications associated with anterior displacement of prosthetic inter-vertebral discs. In all five patients the prosthetic disc had e...

  16. Delirium pathophysiology: An updated hypothesis of the etiology of acute brain failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, José R

    2017-12-26

    Delirium is the most common neuropsychiatric syndrome encountered by clinicians dealing with older adults and the medically ill and is best characterized by 5 core domains: cognitive deficits, attentional deficits, circadian rhythm dysregulation, emotional dysregulation, and alteration in psychomotor functioning. An extensive literature review and consolidation of published data into a novel interpretation of known pathophysiological causes of delirium. Available data suggest that numerous pathological factors may serve as precipitants for delirium, each having differential effects depending on patient-specific patient physiological characteristics (substrate). On the basis of an extensive literature search, a newly proposed theory, the systems integration failure hypothesis, was developed to bring together the most salient previously described theories, by describing the various contributions from each into a complex web of pathways-highlighting areas of intersection and commonalities and explaining how the variable contribution of these may lead to the development of various cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions characteristic of delirium. The specific cognitive and behavioral manifestations of the specific delirium picture result from a combination of neurotransmitter function and availability, variability in integration and processing of sensory information, motor responses to both external and internal cues, and the degree of breakdown in neuronal network connectivity, hence the term acute brain failure. The systems integration failure hypothesis attempts to explain how the various proposed delirium pathophysiologic theories interact with each other, causing various clinically observed delirium phenotypes. A better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of delirium may eventually assist in designing better prevention and management approaches. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension – Pathophysiology Based on Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubisavljević Srdjan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition, idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH is a pathological state characterized by an increase in intracranial pressure; however, there are no obvious intracranial pathological processes. The pathophysiology of this disorder is not clear, although there are many reports related to it.

  18. Pathophysiology of diurnal drooling in Parkinson’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenie van den Engel-Hoek; Johanna Kalf; Bastiaan Bloem; George Borm; Machiel Zwarts; Bert de Swart; Marten Munneke

    2011-01-01

    Drooling is an incapacitating feature of Parkinson's disease. Better pathophysiological insights are needed to improve treatment. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the cause of drooling is multifactorial. We examined 15 patients with Parkinson's disease with distinct diurnal saliva loss

  19. New insights into the pathophysiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a significant problem after major surgery, but the pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. The interpretation of available studies is difficult due to differences in neuropsychological test batteries as well as the lack...

  20. Parkinson's disease : The syndrome, the pathogenesis and pathophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Anna L.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterised by a slowly expanding degeneration of neurons particularly in the mesencephalon. The causes are unknown although risk factors in the genetic and toxic domain are being discovered. An important pathophysiological feature in PD is the loss of part of the

  1. Pathophysiology and Contributing Factors in Postprostatectomy Incontinence: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Farag, F.; Bauer, R.M.M.J.; Sandhu, J.; Ridder, D. de; Stenzl, A.

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: The incidence and awareness of postprostatectomy incontinence (PPI) has increased during the past few years, probably because of an increase in prostate cancer surgery. Many theories have been postulated to explain the pathophysiology of PPI. OBJECTIVE: The current review scrutinizes

  2. Pathophysiological and pharmacotherapeutic aspects of serotonin and serotonergic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, P. A.; Blauw, G. J.; van Brummelen, P.

    1990-01-01

    A survey shall be given on the physiological, pathophysiological and pharmacotherapeutic backgrounds of the biogenic amine 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5HT), to be preceded by a few historical remarks. 5HT is biosynthesized from L-tryptophan via hydroxylation and subsequent decarboxylation. 5HT

  3. Unravelling narcolepsy : from pathophysiology to measuring treatment effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der A.

    2017-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a disorder of the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, with as its major features excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis and disturbed nocturnal sleep. The first part of this thesis concernes an overview of the pathophysiology,

  4. Effects of Triphasic Exercise on Blood Rheology and Pathophysiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to study the relevance of physiology and pathophysiology in blood rheology as effects of triphasic exercise. Regular exercise which has been established as life prolonging has led to decrease in both peripheral vascular and coronary morbidity that has been associated with certain improvements in ...

  5. Reintroduction of locally extinct vertebrates impacts arid soil fungal communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laurence J; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Introduced species have contributed to extinction of native vertebrates in many parts of the world. Changes to vertebrate assemblages are also likely to alter microbial communities through coextinction of some taxa and the introduction of others. Many attempts to restore degraded habitats involve removal of exotic vertebrates (livestock and feral animals) and reintroduction of locally extinct species, but the impact of such reintroductions on microbial communities is largely unknown. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer I (ITS1) region to examine whether replacing exotic vertebrates with reintroduced native vertebrates led to changes in soil fungal communities at a reserve in arid central Australia. Soil fungal diversity was significantly different between dune and swale (interdune) habitats. Fungal communities also differed significantly between sites with exotic or reintroduced native vertebrates after controlling for the effect of habitat. Several fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) found exclusively inside the reserve were present in scats from reintroduced native vertebrates, providing a direct link between the vertebrate assemblage and soil microbial communities. Our results show that changes to vertebrate assemblages through local extinctions and the invasion of exotic species can alter soil fungal communities. If local extinction of one or several species results in the coextinction of microbial taxa, the full complement of ecological interactions may never be restored. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Vertebral metastases: characteristic MRI findings due to epidural carcinomatous inflitration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutzelmann, A.; Palmie, S.; Freund, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: In cases of lumbar vertebral metastasis associated with anterior epidural carcinomatous infiltration, we have observed that infiltrations tend to respect the midline. This study led to the systematic recognition of these phenomena in vertebral metastases. Materials and Methods: 11 Patients with 17 vertebral metastases and adjacent anterior epidural infiltration were reviewed retrospectively. All cases were studied by MRI. The routinely used imaging technique included spin echo (SE) T 1 and T 2 weighted sequences in the sagittal plane native and T 1 -SE without and with Gd-DTPA in the axial planes. The radiological findings of these phenomena and the anatomy were studied. Results: We observed these phenomena to be uni- or bilateral in 88.3% of all cases with intraspinal anterior epidural carcinomatous infiltration, especially in that part of the vertebral body where the basal vertebral venous plexus was located. Conclusion: We conclude that vertebral metastases respect the midline. We interpret this fact as being due the anatomy of the vertebral body and especially its stabilization by the posterior longitudinal ligament. These findings may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of vertebral body metastases with epidural infiltration in contrast to intraspinal processes which proceed with the destruction of the vertebral body. (orig.) [de

  7. Use of cervical vertebral dimensions for assessment of children growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Maria de Paula; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether skeletal maturation using cephalometric radiographs could be used in a Brazilian population. The study population was selected from the files of the Oral Radiological Clinic of the Dental School of Piracicaba, Brazil and consisted of 128 girls and 110 boys (7.0 to 15.9 years old) who had cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs taken on the same day. Cervical vertebral bone age was evaluated using the method described by Mito and colleagues in 2002. Bone age was assessed by the Tanner-Whitehouse (TW3) method and was used as a gold standard to determine the reliability of cervical vertebral bone age. An analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test were used to compare cervical vertebral bone age, bone age and chronological age at 5% significance level. The analysis of the Brazilian female children data showed that there was a statistically significant difference (pcervical vertebral bone age and chronological age and between bone age and chronological age. However no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) was found between cervical vertebral bone age and bone age. Differently, the analysis of the male children data revealed a statistically significant difference (pcervical vertebral bone age and bone age and between cervical vertebral bone age and chronological age (pmaturation on cephalometric radiographs by determination of vertebral bone age can be applied to Brazilian females only. The development of a new method to objectively evaluate cervical vertebral bone age in males is needed.

  8. Establishment of the Vertebrate Germ Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Chia; Munisha, Mumingjiang; Gutierrez, Juan B; Dougan, Scott T

    2017-01-01

    The process of germ layer formation is a universal feature of animal development. The germ layers separate the cells that produce the internal organs and tissues from those that produce the nervous system and outer tissues. Their discovery in the early nineteenth century transformed embryology from a purely descriptive field into a rigorous scientific discipline, in which hypotheses could be tested by observation and experimentation. By systematically addressing the questions of how the germ layers are formed and how they generate overall body plan, scientists have made fundamental contributions to the fields of evolution, cell signaling, morphogenesis, and stem cell biology. At each step, this work was advanced by the development of innovative methods of observing cell behavior in vivo and in culture. Here, we take an historical approach to describe our current understanding of vertebrate germ layer formation as it relates to the long-standing questions of developmental biology. By comparing how germ layers form in distantly related vertebrate species, we find that highly conserved molecular pathways can be adapted to perform the same function in dramatically different embryonic environments.

  9. [A vertebral arteriovenous fistula diagnosed by auscultation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Escalera, G; Diaz-Delgado Peñas, R; Carrasco Marina, M Ll; Maraña Perez, A; Ialeggio, D

    2015-01-01

    Cervical artery fistulas are rare arteriovenous malformations. The etiology of the vertebral arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) can be traumatic or spontaneous. They tend to be asymptomatic or palpation or continuous vibration in the cervical region. An arteriography is necessary for a definitive diagnosis. The treatment is complete embolization of the fistula. We present the case of a two year-old male, where the mother described it «like a washing machine in his head». On palpation during the physical examination, there was a continuous vibration, and a continuous murmur in left cervical region. A vascular malformation in vertebral region was clinically suspected, and confirmed with angio-MRI and arteriography. AVF are rare in childhood. They should be suspected in the presence of noises, palpation or continuous vibration in the cervical region. Early diagnosis can prevent severe complications in asymptomatic children. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Permo-Triassic vertebrate extinctions: A program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, E. C.

    1988-01-01

    Since the time of the Authors' study on this subject, a great deal of new information has become available. Concepts of the nature of extinctions have changed materially. The Authors' conclusion that a catastrophic event was not responsible for the extinction of vertebrates has modified to the extent that hypotheses involving either the impact of a massive extra-terrestrial body or volcanism provide plausible but not currently fully testable hypotheses. Stated changes resulted in a rapid decrease in organic diversity, as the ratio of origins of taxa to extinctions shifted from strongly positive to negative, with momentary equilibrium being reached at about the Permo-Triassic boundary. The proximate causes of the changes in the terrestrial biota appear to lie in two primary factors: (1) strong climatic changes (global mean temperatures, temperature ranges, humidity) and (2) susceptibility of the dominant vertebrates (large dicynodonts) and the glossopteris flora to disruption of the equlibrium of the world ecosystem. The following proximate causes have been proposed: (1) rhythmic fluctuations in solar radiation, (2) tectonic events as Pangea assembled, altering land-ocean relationships, patterns of wind and water circulation and continental physiography, (3) volcanism, and (4) changes subsequent to impacts of one or more massive extra terrestrial objects, bodies or comets. These hypotheses are discussed.

  11. Tandemly Arrayed Genes in Vertebrate Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Pan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs are duplicated genes that are linked as neighbors on a chromosome, many of which have important physiological and biochemical functions. Here we performed a survey of these genes in 11 available vertebrate genomes. TAGs account for an average of about 14% of all genes in these vertebrate genomes, and about 25% of all duplications. The majority of TAGs (72–94% have parallel transcription orientation (i.e., they are encoded on the same strand in contrast to the genome, which has about 50% of its genes in parallel transcription orientation. The majority of tandem arrays have only two members. In all species, the proportion of genes that belong to TAGs tends to be higher in large gene families than in small ones; together with our recent finding that tandem duplication played a more important role than retroposition in large families, this fact suggests that among all types of duplication mechanisms, tandem duplication is the predominant mechanism of duplication, especially in large families. Finally, several species have a higher proportion of large tandem arrays that are species-specific than random expectation.

  12. A membrane-bound vertebrate globin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Blank

    Full Text Available The family of vertebrate globins includes hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other O(2-binding proteins of yet unclear functions. Among these, globin X is restricted to fish and amphibians. Zebrafish (Danio rerio globin X is expressed at low levels in neurons of the central nervous system and appears to be associated with the sensory system. The protein harbors a unique N-terminal extension with putative N-myristoylation and S-palmitoylation sites, suggesting membrane-association. Intracellular localization and transport of globin X was studied in 3T3 cells employing green fluorescence protein fusion constructs. Both myristoylation and palmitoylation sites are required for correct targeting and membrane localization of globin X. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a vertebrate globin has been identified as component of the cell membrane. Globin X has a hexacoordinate binding scheme and displays cooperative O(2 binding with a variable affinity (P(50∼1.3-12.5 torr, depending on buffer conditions. A respiratory function of globin X is unlikely, but analogous to some prokaryotic membrane-globins it may either protect the lipids in cell membrane from oxidation or may act as a redox-sensing or signaling protein.

  13. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickford Danielle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution.

  14. Primary bone lymphoma with multiple vertebral involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat Hussain Dar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old student presented with 2 months history of fever and night sweats, 15 days history of low backache, progressive weakness of both limbs of 7 days duration, and urinary retention for last 24 h. Examination revealed a sensory level at D 10 dermatome and grade two power in both the lower limbs with absent reflexes. Examination of spine revealed a knuckle at T8 level, which was tender on palpation. MRI spine showed erosion of D11-12 and L1 in vertebral bodies with destruction of left pedicles, transverse processes and lamina, and a prominent psoas abscess. Post gadolinium study revealed ring-enhancing lesions in the D11-12 and L1 vertebrae as well as the dural sac. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC and bone biopsy demonstrated a non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma (NHL, large cell high-grade of the spine (primary, which as per age is the youngest case of NHL ever reported in literature with multiple vertebral involvement.

  15. Reliability of cervical vertebral maturation staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Billie-Jean; Burnside, Girvan; Harrison, Jayne E

    2016-07-01

    Growth and its prediction are important for the success of many orthodontic treatments. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method for the assessment of mandibular growth. A group of 20 orthodontic clinicians, inexperienced in CVM staging, was trained to use the improved version of the CVM method for the assessment of mandibular growth with a teaching program. They independently assessed 72 consecutive lateral cephalograms, taken at Liverpool University Dental Hospital, on 2 occasions. The cephalograms were presented in 2 different random orders and interspersed with 11 additional images for standardization. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement values were evaluated using the weighted kappa statistic. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement values were substantial (weighted kappa, 0.6-0.8). The overall intraobserver agreement was 0.70 (SE, 0.01), with average agreement of 89%. The interobserver agreement values were 0.68 (SE, 0.03) for phase 1 and 0.66 (SE, 0.03) for phase 2, with average interobserver agreement of 88%. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement values of classifying the vertebral stages with the CVM method were substantial. These findings demonstrate that this method of CVM classification is reproducible and reliable. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Midterm Follow-Up of Vertebral Geometry and Remodeling of the Vertebral Bidisk Unit (VDU) After Percutaneous Vertebroplasty of Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitton, Michael Bernhard; Koch, Ulrike; Drees, Philip; Dueber, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate geometrical stability and preservation of height gain of vertebral bodies after percutaneous vertebroplasty during 2 years' follow-up and to elucidate the geometric remodeling process of the vertebral bidisk unit (VDU) of the affected segment. Patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures with pain resistant to analgetic drugs were treated with polymethylmethacrylate vertebroplasty. Mean ± standard error cement volume was 5.1 ± 2.0 ml. Vertebral geometry was documented by sagittal and coronal reformations from multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and lateral vertebral heights, end plate angles, and compression index (CI = anterior/posterior height). Additionally, the VDU (vertebral bodies plus both adjacent disk spaces) was calculated from the multidetector computed tomography data sets: anterior, posterior, and both lateral aspects. Patients were assigned to two groups: moderate compression with CI of >0.75 (group 1) and severe compression with CI of o vs. -1.0 ± 2.7 o , P o , P < 0.01) and compression indices (+0.11 ± 0.15, P < 0.01). Thus, posterior height loss of vertebrae and adjacent intervertebral disk spaces contributed to a remodeling of the VDU, resulting in some compensation of the kyphotic malposition of the affected vertebral segment. Vertebroplasty improved vertebral geometry during midterm follow-up. In severe vertebral compression, significant height gain and improvement of end plate angles were achieved. The remodeling of the VDUs contributes to reduction of kyphosis and an overall improvement of the statics of the spine.

  17. Light adaptation and the evolution of vertebrate photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshedian, Ala; Fain, Gordon L

    2017-07-15

    Lamprey are cyclostomes, a group of vertebrates that diverged from lines leading to jawed vertebrates (including mammals) in the late Cambrian, 500 million years ago. It may therefore be possible to infer properties of photoreceptors in early vertebrate progenitors by comparing lamprey to other vertebrates. We show that lamprey rods and cones respond to light much like rods and cones in amphibians and mammals. They operate over a similar range of light intensities and adapt to backgrounds and bleaches nearly identically. These correspondences are pervasive and detailed; they argue for the presence of rods and cones very early in the evolution of vertebrates with properties much like those of rods and cones in existing vertebrate species. The earliest vertebrates were agnathans - fish-like organisms without jaws, which first appeared near the end of the Cambrian radiation. One group of agnathans became cyclostomes, which include lamprey and hagfish. Other agnathans gave rise to jawed vertebrates or gnathostomes, the group including all other existing vertebrate species. Because cyclostomes diverged from other vertebrates 500 million years ago, it may be possible to infer some of the properties of the retina of early vertebrate progenitors by comparing lamprey to other vertebrates. We have previously shown that rods and cones in lamprey respond to light much like photoreceptors in other vertebrates and have a similar sensitivity. We now show that these affinities are even closer. Both rods and cones adapt to background light and to bleaches in a manner almost identical to other vertebrate photoreceptors. The operating range in darkness is nearly the same in lamprey and in amphibian or mammalian rods and cones; moreover background light shifts response-intensity curves downward and to the right over a similar range of ambient intensities. Rods show increment saturation at about the same intensity as mammalian rods, and cones never saturate. Bleaches decrease

  18. The odontoid process invagination in normal subjects, Chiari malformation and Basilar invagination patients: Pathophysiologic correlations with angular craniometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, J?nio A.; Botelho, Ricardo V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Craniometric studies have shown that both Chiari malformation (CM) and basilar invagination (BI) belong to a spectrum of malformations. A more precise method to differentiate between these types of CVJM is desirable. The Chamberlain′s line violation (CLV) is the most common method to identify BI. The authors sought to clarify the real importance of CLV in the spectrum of craniovertebral junction malformations (CVJM) and to identify possible pathophysiological relationships. Me...

  19. Imperfect isolation: factors and filters shaping Madagascar's extant vertebrate fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonds, Karen E; Godfrey, Laurie R; Ali, Jason R; Goodman, Steven M; Vences, Miguel; Sutherland, Michael R; Irwin, Mitchell T; Krause, David W

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of phylogenetic topology and estimates of divergence timing have facilitated a reconstruction of Madagascar's colonization events by vertebrate animals, but that information alone does not reveal the major factors shaping the island's biogeographic history. Here, we examine profiles of Malagasy vertebrate clades through time within the context of the island's paleogeographical evolution to determine how particular events influenced the arrival of the island's extant groups. First we compare vertebrate profiles on Madagascar before and after selected events; then we compare tetrapod profiles on Madagascar to contemporary tetrapod compositions globally. We show that changes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic in the proportions of Madagascar's tetrapod clades (particularly its increase in the representation of birds and mammals) are tied to changes in their relative proportions elsewhere on the globe. Differences in the representation of vertebrate classes from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic reflect the effects of extinction (i.e., the non-random susceptibility of the different vertebrate clades to purported catastrophic global events 65 million years ago), and new evolutionary opportunities for a subset of vertebrates with the relatively high potential for transoceanic dispersal potential. In comparison, changes in vertebrate class representation during the Cenozoic are minor. Despite the fact that the island's isolation has resulted in high vertebrate endemism and a unique and taxonomically imbalanced extant vertebrate assemblage (both hailed as testimony to its long isolation), that isolation was never complete. Indeed, Madagascar's extant tetrapod fauna owes more to colonization during the Cenozoic than to earlier arrivals. Madagascar's unusual vertebrate assemblage needs to be understood with reference to the basal character of clades originating prior to the K-T extinction, as well as to the differential transoceanic dispersal advantage of other, more

  20. Neurorehabilitation in stroke produced by vertebral artery dissection: case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanescu Ioana

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arterial dissections are a common cause of stroke in the young (mean age 44 to 46 years. Primary lesion is a tear of the arterial intima, which promotes platelet aggregation, thrombus formation, which further produced vessel stenosis / occlusion, distal embolism or vessel wall rupture. Vertebral artery (VA dissection appear most commonly in extracranial segments V2 and V3, and could be spontaneous (with underlying predispositions or triggered by various traumatisms. Clinicaly, VA dissection produces an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack , preceded by local symptoms such as neck pain or headache. The diagnosis is confirmed by neurovascular imaging. Treatment of symptomatic VA dissections respect indications of treatment in ischemic strokes. Prognosis is mostly favorable in extracranial dissections. We present the case of a left VA dissection in V2 segment, produced by physical effort (swimming, which causes 2 ischemic lesions, one in the territory of the left posterior cerebral artery and the other in the territory of the left posterolateral chorroidal artery. Patient’s treatment included antiplatelet agents, statines, and an adapted physical rehabilitation program. At three months he showed significant clinical improvement with regain of autonomy and partial recanalisation at angio-MRI of the V2 segment of the dissected artery.

  1. Vertebrate land invasions-past, present, and future: an introduction to the symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley-Ross, Miriam A; Hsieh, S Tonia; Gibb, Alice C; Blob, Richard W

    2013-08-01

    The transition from aquatic to terrestrial habitats was a seminal event in vertebrate evolution because it precipitated a sudden radiation of species as new land animals diversified in response to novel physical and biological conditions. However, the first stages of this environmental transition presented numerous challenges to ancestrally aquatic organisms, and necessitated changes in the morphological and physiological mechanisms that underlie most life processes, among them movement, feeding, respiration, and reproduction. How did solutions to these functional challenges evolve? One approach to this question is to examine modern vertebrate species that face analogous demands; just as the first tetrapods lived at the margins of bodies of water and likely moved between water and land regularly, many extant fishes and amphibians use their body systems in both aquatic and terrestrial habitats on a daily basis. Thus, studies of amphibious vertebrates elucidate the functional demands of two very different habitats and clarify our understanding of the initial evolutionary challenges of moving onto land. A complementary approach is to use studies of the fossil record and comparative development to gain new perspectives on form and function of modern amphibious and non-amphibious vertebrate taxa. Based on the synthetic approaches presented in the symposium, it is clear that our understanding of aquatic-to-terrestrial transitions is greatly improved by the reciprocal integration of paleontological and neontological perspectives. In addition, common themes and new insights that emerged from this symposium point to the value of innovative approaches, new model species, and cutting-edge research techniques to elucidate the functional challenges and evolutionary changes associated with vertebrates' invasion of the land.

  2. Evaluation of Anterior Vertebral Interbody Fusion Using Osteogenic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplanted in Collagen Sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wencheng; Dong, Youhai; Hong, Yang; Guang, Qian; Chen, Xujun

    2016-05-01

    The study used a rabbit model to achieve anterior vertebral interbody fusion using osteogenic mesenchymal stem cells (OMSCs) transplanted in collagen sponge. We investigated the effectiveness of graft material for anterior vertebral interbody fusion using a rabbit model by examining the OMSCs transplanted in collagen sponge. Anterior vertebral interbody fusion is commonly performed. Although autogenous bone graft remains the gold-standard fusion material, it requires a separate surgical procedure and is associated with significant short-term and long-term morbidity. Recently, mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow have been studied in various fields, including posterolateral spinal fusion. Thus, we hypothesized that cultured OMSCs transplanted in porous collagen sponge could be used successfully even in anterior vertebral interbody fusion. Forty mature male White Zealand rabbits (weight, 3.5-4.5 kg) were randomly allocated to receive one of the following graft materials: porous collagen sponge plus cultured OMSCs (group I); porous collagen sponge alone (group II); autogenous bone graft (group III); and nothing (group IV). All animals underwent anterior vertebral interbody fusion at the L4/L5 level. The lumbar spine was harvested en bloc, and the new bone formation and spinal fusion was evaluated using radiographic analysis, microcomputed tomography, manual palpation test, and histologic examination at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. New bone formation and bony fusion was evident as early as 8 weeks in groups I and III. And there was no statistically significant difference between 8 and 12 weeks. At both time points, by microcomputed tomography and histologic analysis, new bone formation was observed in both groups I and III, fibrous tissue was observed and there was no new bone in both groups II and IV; by manual palpation test, bony fusion was observed in 40% (4/10) of rabbits in group I, 70% (7/10) of rabbits in group III, and 0% (0/10) of rabbits in both groups

  3. Global patterns in post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peco, Begoña; Laffan, Shawn W; Moles, Angela T

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that species interactions such as granivory are more intense in the tropics. However, this has rarely been tested. A global dataset of post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates for 79 native plant species from semi-natural and natural terrestrial habitats ranging from 55° N to 45° S, was compiled from the global literature to test the hypothesis that post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and vertebrates is more intense at lower latitudes. We also quantified the relationship between post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates and by invertebrates to global climatic features including temperature, actual evapotranspiration (AET) and rainfall seasonality. Linear mixed effect models were applied to describe the relationships between seed removal and latitude, hemisphere and climatic variables controlling for the effect of seed mass. Post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates was negatively related to latitude. In contrast, post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates was positively but weakly related to latitude. Mean annual temperature and actual evapotranspiration were positively related to post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates, but not to post-dispersal seed removal by vertebrates, which was only marginally negatively related to rainfall seasonality. The inclusion of seed mass improved the fit of all models, but the term for seed mass was not significant in any model. Although a good climatic model for predicting post-dispersal seed predation by vertebrates at the global level was not found, our results suggest different and opposite latitudinal patterns of post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates vs vertebrates. This is the first time that a negative relationship between post-dispersal seed removal by invertebrates and latitude, and a positive relationship with temperature and AET have been documented at a global-scale. These results have important implications for understanding global patterns in plant

  4. Physiology of cell volume regulation in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Lambert, Ian H; Pedersen, Stine F

    2009-01-01

    and their regulation by, e.g., membrane deformation, ionic strength, Ca(2+), protein kinases and phosphatases, cytoskeletal elements, GTP binding proteins, lipid mediators, and reactive oxygen species, upon changes in cell volume. We also discuss the nature of the upstream elements in volume sensing in vertebrate...... organisms. Importantly, cell volume impacts on a wide array of physiological processes, including transepithelial transport; cell migration, proliferation, and death; and changes in cell volume function as specific signals regulating these processes. A discussion of this issue concludes the review.......The ability to control cell volume is pivotal for cell function. Cell volume perturbation elicits a wide array of signaling events, leading to protective (e.g., cytoskeletal rearrangement) and adaptive (e.g., altered expression of osmolyte transporters and heat shock proteins) measures and, in most...

  5. Morel-Lavallee Lesions-Review of Pathophysiology, Clinical Findings, Imaging Findings and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diviti, Sreelatha; Gupta, Nishant; Hooda, Kusum; Sharma, Komal; Lo, Lawrence

    2017-04-01

    Morel-Lavallee lesion is a post-traumatic soft tissue degloving injury. This is commonly associated with sports injury caused by a shearing force resulting in separation of the hypodermis from the deeper fascia. Most common at the greater trochanter, these injuries also occur at flank, buttock, lumbar spine, scapula and the knee. Separation of the tissue planes result in a complex serosanguinous fluid collection with areas of fat within it. The imaging appearance is variable and non specific, potentially mimicking simple soft tissue haematoma, superficial bursitis or necrotic soft tissue neoplasms. If not treated in the acute or early sub acute settings, these collections are at risk for superinfection, overlying tissue necrosis and continued expansion. In this review article, we discuss the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, imaging features and differential diagnostic considerations of Morel-Lavallee lesions. Role of imaging in guiding prompt and appropriate treatment has also been discussed.

  6. Reconstruction techniques in the treatment of vertebral neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, R; Boriani, S; Casadei, R; Bandiera, S; De Iure, F; Campanacci, L; Demitri, S; Orsini, U; Di Fiore, M

    1997-01-01

    The authors present a new system for the topographical description of vertebral neoplasms. The general criteria of reconstruction after curettage or vertebral resection are evaluated. The literature is reviewed in terms of the use of prostheses, bone grafts, cement and stabilization systems in the treatment of tumors of the spine. Indications for the different methods are discussed.

  7. Vertebral fractures in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with corticosteroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lems, W. F.; Jahangier, Z. N.; Jacobs, J. W.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    To examine the relationship between roentgenological deformities of the vertebral column and clinical manifestations of vertebral fractures in patients with RA, treated with glucocorticosteroids (Cs). In all outpatients of Utrecht University Hospital with RA, who were currently using Cs (n = 52),

  8. Preoperative MRI evaluation of vertebral hemangiomas treated with percutaneous vertebroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoping; Wu Chungen; Li Minghua; Li Yuehua; Gu Yifeng; Cheng Yongde

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical value of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging examination in guiding the treatment of vertebral hemangiomas with percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP). Methods: A total of 286 patients with vertebral hemangiomas detected on spine MRI in authors' Department were enrolled in this study. The patient's age, the lesion's size and location, the clinical symptoms, MRI findings, etc. were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 336 vertebral bodies were affected in 286 patients. The lesions were mainly located at the lumbar spine (43.15%) and the thoracic spine (37.80%). The highest incidence of disease was seen in 50-59 years old patients (34.62%). The mean diameter of the lesions was 14.56 mm. Solitary lesion was seen in 85.66% of patients, while two vertebral bodies involved were seen in 10.14% of patients. Twelve cases (4.20%) simply presented as back pain at the related vertebral bodies. Two patients showed signs due to spinal cord compression. All aggressive vertebral hemangiomas were manifested as iso-lower signal on T1-weighted images and higher signal on T2-weighted images. Simple PVP was performed in 4 cases, and subtotal tumor excision together with PVP was carried out in two patients with aggressive vertebral hemangiomas. Conclusion: Evaluation of vertebral hemangiomas with MRI performed prior to percutaneous vertebroplasty is very helpful in guiding the selection of therapeutic scheme. (authors)

  9. Cooperative Learning as a Tool To Teach Vertebrate Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, John L.; Perigo, Nan

    2000-01-01

    Describes a method for teaching biology that includes more investigative exercises that foster an environment for cooperative learning in introductory laboratories that focus on vertebrates. Fosters collaborative learning by facilitating interaction between students as they become experts on their representative vertebrate structures. (SAH)

  10. Vertebrate Osmoregulation: A Student Laboratory Exercise Using Teleost Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boily P.; Rees, B. B.; Williamson, L. A. C.

    2007-01-01

    Here, we describe a laboratory experiment as part of an upper-level vertebrate physiology course for biology majors to investigate the physiological response of vertebrates to osmoregulatory challenges. The experiment involves measuring plasma osmolality and Na[superscript +] -K[superscript +] -ATPase activity in gill tissue of teleost fish…

  11. 50 CFR 17.84 - Special rules-vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special rules-vertebrates. 17.84 Section 17.84 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....84 Special rules—vertebrates. (a) Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel (Sciurus niger cinereus). (1) The...

  12. Closed cervical spine trauma associated with bilateral vertebral artery injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloen, P.; Patterson, J. D.; Wintman, B. I.; Ozuna, R. M.; Brick, G. W.

    1999-01-01

    Bilateral vertebral artery injuries in closed cervical spine injuries are uncommon, but early recognition and treatment are important to prevent neurological deterioration. A case of bilateral vertebral injuries in a 35-year-old motor vehicle accident victim is presented, and the current literature

  13. Checklist of vertebrate animals of the Cascade Head Experimental Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Maser; Jerry F. Franklin

    1974-01-01

    Three months, April and August 1971 and August 1972, were spent studying the vertebrate fauna of Cascade Head Experimental Forest. The resulting annotated checklist includes 9 amphibians, 2 reptiles, 35 birds, and 40 mammals. A standardized animal habitat classification is presented in an effort to correlate the vertebrates in some meaningful way to their environment...

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE The pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vertebral artery injury in all patients who have fractures involving the transverse foraminae of the cervical spine, those with facet joint dislocations, and those with fractures involving the first to the third cervical vertebrae. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern and prevalence of vertebral artery injury using CTA in ...

  15. Correlation between cervical vertebral and dental maturity in Iranian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heravi, Farzin; Imanimoghaddam, Mahrokh; Rahimi, Hoda

    2011-12-01

    Determination of the skeletal maturation is extremely important in clinical orthodontics. Cervical vertebral maturation is an effective diagnostic tool for determining the adolescent growth spurt. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the stages of calcification of teeth and the cervical vertebral maturity stages.

  16. Investigation of vertebral ''end plate sclerosis''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.W.; Mathie, A.G.; Jackson, J.E.; Hughes, S.P.F.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the association between vertebral ''end plate sclerosis'' and neck pain. A retrospective study was carried out of lateral cervical spine radiographs with a Picture Archive and Communication System (PACS). Two hundred patients' files were randomly assessed, comprising four equal groups, A to D. The mean ages of the patients were 62±7.4 years, 61±7.5 years, 40±5.6 years and 23±5.6 years respectively. In group A, all patients had symptoms of neck pain and a radiographic diagnosis of ''end plate sclerosis'' of the cervical spine. In groups B to D, asymptomatic patients were recruited and their age groups were 50-69, 30-49 and 10-29 years respectively. Using the PACS, the radiographic density and the sagittal diameter, thickness and area of the end plates at the C5 level were measured. Results and conclusions: No significant differences were found in the radiographic density of the end plates either between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups (groups A and B), or between different age groups (groups B, C and D). A significant increase in end plate area and thickness was found, however, in both group B (P<0.005) and group C (P<0.01) in comparison with group D. This indicates that the extent of end plate sclerosis increases with age. Our results suggest that the radiographic density of cervical vertebral end plates correlates neither with neck pain nor with increasing age. The radiological sign of ''end plate sclerosis'' may be over-reported, further limiting its value in the assessment of patients with cervical spondylosis. (orig.)

  17. [Correlation analysis of cement leakage with volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body and vertebral body wall incompetence in percutaneous vertebroplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, De; Ye, Linqiang; Jiang, Xiaobing; Huang, Weiquan; Yao, Zhensong; Tang, Yongchao; Zhang, Shuncong; Jin, Daxiang

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the risk factors of cement leakage in percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) for osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF). Between March 2011 and March 2012, 98 patients with single level OVCF were treated by PVP, and the clinical data were analyzed retrospectively. There were 13 males and 85 females, with a mean age of 77.2 years (range, 54-95 years). The mean disease duration was 43 days (range, 15-120 days), and the mean T score of bone mineral density (BMD) was -3.8 (range, -6.7- -2.5). Bilateral transpedicular approach was used in all the patients. The patients were divided into cement leakage group and no cement leakage group by occurrence of cement leakage based on postoperative CT. Single factor analysis was used to analyze the difference between 2 groups in T score of BMD, operative level, preoperative anterior compression degree of operative vertebrae, preoperative middle compression degree of operative vertebrae, preoperative sagittal Cobb angle of operative vertebrae, preoperative vertebral body wall incompetence, cement volume, and volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body. All relevant factors were introduced to logistic regression analysis to analyze the risk factors of cement leakage. All procedures were performed successfully. The mean operation time was 40 minutes (range, 30-50 minutes), and the mean volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body was 24.88% (range, 7.84%-38.99%). Back pain was alleviated significantly in all the patients postoperatively. All patients were followed up with a mean time of 8 months (range, 6-12 months). Cement leakage occurred in 49 patients. Single factor analysis showed that there were significant differences in the volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body and preoperative vertebral body wall incompetence between 2 groups (P 0.05). The logistic regression analysis showed that the volume ratio of intravertebral bone cement to vertebral body (P

  18. Prevalence of silent vertebral fractures detected by vertebral fracture assessment in young Portuguese men with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ana Paula; Rui Mascarenhas, Mário; Silva, Carlos Francisco; Távora, Isabel; Bicho, Manuel; do Carmo, Isabel; de Oliveira, António Gouveia

    2015-02-01

    Hyperthyroidism is a risk factor for reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporotic fractures. Vertebral fracture assessment (VFA) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a radiological method of visualization of the spine, which enables patient comfort and reduced radiation exposure. This study was carried out to evaluate BMD and the prevalence of silent vertebral fractures in young men with hyperthyroidism. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a group of Portuguese men aged up to 50 years and matched in hyperthyroidism (n=24) and control (n=24) groups. A group of 48 Portuguese men aged up to 50 years was divided and matched in hyperthyroidism (n=24) and control (n=24) groups. BMD (g/cm(2)) at L1-L4, hip, radius 33%, and whole body as well as the total body masses (kg) were studied by DXA. VFA was used to detect fractures and those were classified by Genant's semiquantitative method. No patient had previously been treated for hyperthyroidism, osteoporosis, or low bone mass. Adequate statistical tests were used. The mean age, height, and total fat mass were similar in both groups (P≥0.05). The total lean body mass and the mean BMD at lumbar spine, hip, and whole body were significantly decreased in the hyperthyroidism group. In this group, there was also a trend for an increased prevalence of reduced BMD/osteoporosis and osteoporotic vertebral fractures. The results obtained using VFA technology (confirmed by X-ray) suggest that the BMD changes in young men with nontreated hyperthyroidism may lead to the development of osteoporosis and vertebral fractures. This supports the pertinence of using VFA in the routine of osteoporosis assessment to detect silent fractures precociously and consider early treatment. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  19. Phagocytosis by Thrombocytes is a Conserved Innate Immune Mechanism in Lower Vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Takahiro; Nakayasu, Chihaya; Rieger, Aja M; Barreda, Daniel R; Somamoto, Tomonori; Nakao, Miki

    2014-01-01

    Thrombocytes, nucleated hemostatic blood cells of non-mammalian vertebrates, are regarded as the functional equivalent of anucleated mammalian platelets. Additional immune functions, including phagocytosis, have also been suggested for thrombocytes, but no conclusive molecular or cellular experimental evidence for their potential ingestion and clearance of infiltrating microbes has been provided till date. In the present study, we demonstrate the active phagocytic ability of thrombocytes in lower vertebrates using teleost fishes and amphibian models. Ex vivo, common carp thrombocytes were able to ingest live bacteria as well as latex beads (0.5-3 μm in diameter) and kill the bacteria. In vivo, we found that thrombocytes represented nearly half of the phagocyte population in the common carp total peripheral blood leukocyte pool. Phagocytosis efficiency was further enhanced by serum opsonization. Particle internalization led to phagolysosome fusion and killing of internalized bacteria, pointing to a robust ability for microbe elimination. We find that this potent phagocytic activity is shared across teleost (Paralichthys olivaceus) and amphibian (Xenopus laevis) models examined, implying its conservation throughout the lower vertebrate lineage. Our results provide novel insights into the dual nature of thrombocytes in the immune and homeostatic response and further provide a deeper understanding of the potential immune function of mammalian platelets based on the conserved and vestigial functions.

  20. Phagocytosis by thrombocytes is a conserved innate immune mechanism in lower vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro eNagasawa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Thrombocytes, nucleated hemostatic blood cells of nonmammalian vertebrates, are regarded as the functional equivalent of anucleated mammalian platelets. Additional immune functions, including phagocytosis, have also been suggested for thrombocytes, but no conclusive molecular or cellular experimental evidence for their potential ingestion and clearance of infiltrating microbes has been provided till date. In the present study, we demonstrate the active phagocytic ability of thrombocytes in lower vertebrates using teleost fishes and amphibian models. Ex vivo, common carp thrombocytes were able to ingest live bacteria as well as latex beads (0.5–3 μm in diameter and kill the bacteria. In vivo, we found that thrombocytes represented nearly half of the phagocyte population in the common carp total peripheral blood leukocyte pool. Phagocytosis efficiency was further enhanced by serum opsonization. Particle internalization led to phagolysosome fusion and killing of internalized bacteria, pointing to a robust ability for microbe elimination. We find that this potent phagocytic activity is shared across teleost (Paralichthys olivaceus and amphibian (Xenopus laevis models examined, implying its conservation throughout the lower vertebrate lineage. Our results provide novel insights into the dual nature of thrombocytes in the immune and homeostatic response and further provide a deeper understanding of the potential immune function of mammalian platelets based on the conserved and vestigial functions.

  1. HbE/β-Thalassemia and Oxidative Stress: The Key to Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Novel Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Rhoda Elison; Sibmooh, Nathawut; Fucharoen, Suthat; Friedman, Joel M

    2017-05-10

    Oxidative stress and generation of free radicals are fundamental in initiating pathophysiological mechanisms leading to an inflammatory cascade resulting in high rates of morbidity and death from many inherited point mutation-derived hemoglobinopathies. Hemoglobin (Hb)E is the most common point mutation worldwide. The β E -globin gene is found in greatest frequency in Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. With the wave of worldwide migration, it is entering the gene pool of diverse populations with greater consequences than expected. While HbE by itself presents as a mild anemia and a single gene for β-thalassemia is not serious, it remains unexplained why HbE/β-thalassemia (HbE/β-thal) is a grave disease with high morbidity and mortality. Patients often exhibit defective physical development, severe chronic anemia, and often die of cardiovascular disease and severe infections. Recent Advances: This article presents an overview of HbE/β-thal disease with an emphasis on new findings pointing to pathophysiological mechanisms derived from and initiated by the dysfunctional property of HbE as a reduced nitrite reductase concomitant with excess α-chains exacerbating unstable HbE, leading to a combination of nitric oxide imbalance, oxidative stress, and proinflammatory events. Additionally, we present new therapeutic strategies that are based on the emerging molecular-level understanding of the pathophysiology of this and other hemoglobinopathies. These strategies are designed to short-circuit the inflammatory cascade leading to devastating chronic morbidity and fatal consequences. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 794-813.

  2. HbE/β-Thalassemia and Oxidative Stress: The Key to Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Novel Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibmooh, Nathawut; Fucharoen, Suthat

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxidative stress and generation of free radicals are fundamental in initiating pathophysiological mechanisms leading to an inflammatory cascade resulting in high rates of morbidity and death from many inherited point mutation-derived hemoglobinopathies. Hemoglobin (Hb)E is the most common point mutation worldwide. The βE-globin gene is found in greatest frequency in Southeast Asia, including Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. With the wave of worldwide migration, it is entering the gene pool of diverse populations with greater consequences than expected. Critical Issues: While HbE by itself presents as a mild anemia and a single gene for β-thalassemia is not serious, it remains unexplained why HbE/β-thalassemia (HbE/β-thal) is a grave disease with high morbidity and mortality. Patients often exhibit defective physical development, severe chronic anemia, and often die of cardiovascular disease and severe infections. Recent Advances: This article presents an overview of HbE/β-thal disease with an emphasis on new findings pointing to pathophysiological mechanisms derived from and initiated by the dysfunctional property of HbE as a reduced nitrite reductase concomitant with excess α-chains exacerbating unstable HbE, leading to a combination of nitric oxide imbalance, oxidative stress, and proinflammatory events. Future Directions: Additionally, we present new therapeutic strategies that are based on the emerging molecular-level understanding of the pathophysiology of this and other hemoglobinopathies. These strategies are designed to short-circuit the inflammatory cascade leading to devastating chronic morbidity and fatal consequences. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 794–813. PMID:27650096

  3. Pathophysiological significance and therapeutic applications of snake venom protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Rupamoni; Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2017-06-01

    Protease inhibitors are important constituents of snake venom and play important roles in the pathophysiology of snakebite. Recently, research on snake venom protease inhibitors has provided valuable information to decipher the molecular details of various biological processes and offer insight for the development of some therapeutically important molecules from snake venom. The process of blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, in addition to affecting platelet function, are well known as the major targets of several snake venom protease inhibitors. This review summarizes the structure-functional aspects of snake venom protease inhibitors that have been described to date. Because diverse biological functions have been demonstrated by protease inhibitors, a comparative overview of their pharmacological and pathophysiological properties is also highlighted. In addition, since most snake venom protease inhibitors are non-toxic on their own, this review evaluates the different roles of individual protease inhibitors that could lead to the identification of drug candidates and diagnostic molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modern iron replacement therapy: clinical and pathophysiological insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, Domenico; Ugolini, Sara; Busti, Fabiana; Marchi, Giacomo; Castagna, Annalisa

    2018-01-01

    Iron deficiency, with or without anemia, is extremely frequent worldwide, representing a major public health problem. Iron replacement therapy dates back to the seventeenth century, and has progressed relatively slowly until recently. Both oral and intravenous traditional iron formulations are known to be far from ideal, mainly because of tolerability and safety issues, respectively. At the beginning of this century, the discovery of hepcidin/ferroportin axis has represented a turning point in the knowledge of the pathophysiology of iron metabolism disorders, ushering a new era. In the meantime, advances in the pharmaceutical technologies are producing newer iron formulations aimed at minimizing the problems inherent with traditional approaches. The pharmacokinetic of oral and parenteral iron is substantially different, and diversities have become even clearer in light of the hepcidin master role in regulating systemic iron homeostasis. Here we review how iron therapy is changing because of such important advances in both pathophysiology and pharmacology.

  5. Different Pathophysiological Phenotypes among Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) can be considered a syndrome with several different pathophysiological mechanisms leading to hyperglycemia. Nonetheless, T2D is treated according to algorithms as if it was one disease entity. Methods: We investigated the prevalence of different pathophysiological phenotypes...... or secondary diabetes), classic obesity-associated insulin resistant diabetes ( f-P-C-peptide >= 568 pmol/l) and a normoinsulinopenic group (333 age of our new T2D patients was 61 years (range 21-95 years), 57% were men. We found that 3.0% newly diagnosed T2D patients...... suffered from LADA, 3.9% from secondary diabetes, 6.0% from steroid induced diabetes 5.9% had insulinopenic diabetes, whereas 56.7% presented the classic obesity-associated insulin-resistant phenotype. 24.6% was classified as normoinsulinopenic patients. Conclusion: We conclude that newly diagnosed T2D...

  6. Pathophysiological analyses of leptomeningeal heterotopia using gyrencephalic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Kobayashi, Naoki; Uda, Natsu; Hirota, Miwako; Kawasaki, Hiroshi

    2018-03-15

    Leptomeningeal glioneuronal heterotopia (LGH) is a focal malformation of the cerebral cortex and frequently found in patients with thanatophoric dysplasia (TD). The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying LGH formation are still largely unclear because of difficulties in obtaining brain samples from human TD patients. Recently, we established a new animal model for analysing cortical malformations of human TD by utilizing our genetic manipulation technique for gyrencephalic carnivore ferrets. Here we investigated the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the formation of LGH using our TD ferrets. We found that LGH was formed during corticogenesis in TD ferrets. Interestingly, we rarely found Ki-67-positive and phospho-histone H3-positive cells in LGH, suggesting that LGH formation does not involve cell proliferation. We uncovered that vimentin-positive radial glial fibers and doublecortin-positive migrating neurons were accumulated in LGH. This result may indicate that preferential cell migration into LGH underlies LGH formation. Our findings provide novel mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of LGH in TD.

  7. The pathophysiology of arterial vasodilatation and hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    transplantation and point to the pathophysiological significance of portal hypertension. In this paper we aimed to review current knowledge on the pathophysiology of arterial vasodilatation and the hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension often develop complications from a variety of organ systems leading to a multiple organ failure. The combination of liver failure and portal hypertension result in a hyperdynamic circulatory state partly owing to simultaneous splanchnic and peripheral...... arterial vasodilatation. Increases in circulatory vasodilators are believed to be due to portosystemic shunting and bacterial translocation leading to redistribution of the blood volume with central hypovolemia. Portal hypertension per se and increased splanchnic blood flow are mainly responsible...

  8. Hypertension in women--pathophysiological and clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdine, Serap; Arslan, Eren; Olszanecka, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is the most important risk factor, responsible for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide, both in men and women. Cardiovascular disorders in women are still underestimated, due to lower absolute risk calculations and the underdetection of classical risk factors. In recent years the differences in pathophysiology and the clinical presentation and treatment of cardiac diseases in women have become fields of interest and research. Several studies have examined gender-related differences in the pathophysiology of hypertension, its prevalence and control. The influence of menopause, obesity and salt-sensitivity on the pathogenesis of hypertension in women has been widely investigated. This article presents current data on differences in prevalence, control and mechanisms of hypertension in women.

  9. Gender Differences in Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, and Treatment of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giosia, Paolo; Giorgini, Paolo; Stamerra, Cosimo Andrea; Petrarca, Marco; Ferri, Claudio; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2018-02-14

    This review aims to examine gender differences in both the epidemiology and pathophysiology of hypertension and to explore gender peculiarities on the effects of antihypertensive agents in decreasing BP and CV events. Men and women differ in prevalence, awareness, and control rate of hypertension in an age-dependent manner. Studies suggest that sex hormones changes play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of hypertension in postmenopausal women. Estrogens influence the vascular system inducing vasodilatation, inhibiting vascular remodeling processes, and modulating the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system and the sympathetic system. This leads to a protective effect on arterial stiffness during reproductive age that is dramatically reversed after menopause. Data on the efficacy of antihypertensive therapy between genders are conflicting, and the underrepresentation of aged women in large clinical trials could influence the results. Therefore, further clinical research is needed to uncover potential gender differences in hypertension to promote the development of a gender-oriented approach to antihypertensive treatment.

  10. Pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Venegas-Mariño

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS is a disease characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction (UAO, with decreased airflow, intermittent hypoxemia, and awakening during sleep. Two essential factors are related to the pathophysiology of OSAHS: anatomical alterations and reduction or absence of neural control. While studying OSAHS, the site or sites of obstruction of the UA should be identified; they may extend from the nasal wings to the hypopharynx. Another important factor in this syndrome is the nervous influence on muscle tone of the hypopharynx, as well as the changes in blood pH, which are secondary to micro-arousals. Body position and sleep stage determine the severity. The pathophysiology of OSAHS should be understood to properly study a patient and provide the best treatment option.

  11. Migraine aura pathophysiology: the role of blood vessels and microembolisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dalkara, Turgay; Nozari, Ala; Moskowitz, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Migraine attacks with auras are sometimes associated with underlying hereditary or acquired cerebrovascular disorders. A unifying pathophysiological explanation linking migraine to these conditions has been diffcult to identify. On the basis of genetic and epidemiological evidence, we suggest that changes in blood vessels, hypoperfusion disorders, and microembolisation can cause neurovascular dysfunction and evoke cortical spreading depression, an event that is widely thought to underlie aura...

  12. Pathophysiology of pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal D Patel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although they may present with significant morbidity, pelvic organ prolapse and stress urinary incontinence are mainly afflicitions that affect quality of life. To appropiately treat these entities, comprehension of the various theories of pathophysiology is paramount. Utilizing a Medline search, this article reviews recent data concerning intrinsic (i.e., genetics, postmenopausal status and extrinsic factors (i.e., previous hysterectomy, childbirth leading to organ prolapse or stress incontinence

  13. Imaging of human vertebral surface using ultrasound RF data received at each element of probe for thoracic anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuki; Taki, Hirofumi; Onishi, Eiko; Yamauchi, Masanori; Kanai, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    Epidural anesthesia is a common technique for perioperative analgesia and chronic pain treatment. Since ultrasonography is insufficient for depicting the human vertebral surface, most examiners apply epidural puncture by body surface landmarks on the back such as the spinous process and scapulae without any imaging, including ultrasonography. The puncture route to the epidural space at thoracic vertebrae is much narrower than that at lumber vertebrae, and therefore, epidural anesthesia at thoracic vertebrae is difficult, especially for a beginner. Herein, a novel imaging method is proposed based on a bi-static imaging technique by making use of the transmit beam width and direction. In an in vivo experimental study on human thoracic vertebrae, the proposed method succeeded in depicting the vertebral surface clearly as compared with conventional B-mode imaging and the conventional envelope method. This indicates the potential of the proposed method in visualizing the vertebral surface for the proper and safe execution of epidural anesthesia.

  14. Relationships among msx gene structure and function in zebrafish and other vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekker, M; Akimenko, M A; Allende, M L; Smith, R; Drouin, G; Langille, R M; Weinberg, E S; Westerfield, M

    1997-10-01

    The zebrafish genome contains at least five msx homeobox genes, msxA, msxB, msxC, msxD, and the newly isolated msxE. Although these genes share structural features common to all Msx genes, phylogenetic analyses of protein sequences indicate that the msx genes from zebrafish are not orthologous to the Msx1 and Msx2 genes of mammals, birds, and amphibians. The zebrafish msxB and msxC are more closely related to each other and to the mouse Msx3. Similarly, although the combinatorial expression of the zebrafish msx genes in the embryonic dorsal neuroectoderm, visceral arches, fins, and sensory organs suggests functional similarities with the Msx genes of other vertebrates, differences in the expression patterns preclude precise assignment of orthological relationships. Distinct duplication events may have given rise to the msx genes of modern fish and other vertebrate lineages whereas many aspects of msx gene functions during embryonic development have been preserved.

  15. Restenosis after stenting in symptomatic vertebral arterial orifice disease and considerations for better outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jun Young; Park, Hyun; Kwon, Oki

    2017-01-01

    We have performed stenting in 11 patients with symptomatic vertebral arterial orifice stenosis refractory to medical treatment or impairment in anterior circulation. Three of the 11 patients experienced asymptomatic severe in-stent restenosis or occlusion. Bare metal stents were used in those three patients, two of whom received revascularization therapy. Development of sufficient cervical collateral channels reconstituting the distal vertebral artery was the common feature in patients with asymptomatic in-stent restenosis. In selecting appropriate stents, consideration of mechanical strength and drug-eluting properties of a stent according to characteristics of the target vessel is important to reduce the risk of in-stent restenosis. Any decision to perform revascularization should be based on the presence of abundant cervical collaterals as well as clinical symptoms of vertebrobasilar ischemia. PMID:28304206

  16. Determinants of prevalent vertebral fractures and progressive bone loss in long-term hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Jan; Ohlidalova, Kristina; Opatrna, Sylvie; Ferda, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal fractures are common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, consensus regarding technique and site of bone examination has not been reached in HD patients. Seventy-two patients (44% females) aged 65 (1.4) years, treated with HD for 43 (4.6) months were examined with quantitative computed tomography and 53 of them re-examined after 1 year. Bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine was established separately for cortical and trabecular bone, prevalent vertebral fractures were determined. Data are given as mean (standard error). At least one vertebral fracture was discovered in 15 (21%) patients. In a logistic regression model, fractures were best predicted by cortical BMD: OR 0.96 (CI 0.94, 0.99), p multiple regression analysis, time on dialysis was found to be independently correlated to cortical BMD (R = 0.35, p decrement may impose an increased risk of fractures on long-term dialysis patients.

  17. Measurements of vertebral shape by radiographic morphometry: sex differences and relationships with vertebral level and lumbar lordosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, X G; Sun, Y; Boonen, S; Nicholson, P H.F.; Dequeker, J [Arthritis and Metabolic Bone Disease Research Unit, U.Z. Pellenberg, Division of Rheumatology, Pellenberg (Belgium); Brys, P [Radiology Department, University Hospitals, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Felsenberg, D [Radiology Department, Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Objective. To examine sex-related and vertebral-level-specific differences in vertebral shape and to investigate the relationships between the lumbar lordosis angle and vertebral morphology. Design and patients. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine radiographs were obtained with a standardized protocol in 142 healthy men and 198 healthy women over 50 years old. Anterior (Ha), central (Hc) and posterior (Hp) heights of each vertebra from T4 to L4 were measured using a digitizing technique, and the Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were calculated. The lumbar lordosis angle was measured on the lateral lumbar spine radiographs. Results. Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were smaller in men than women by 1.8% and 0.7%, respectively, and these ratios varied with vertebral level. Significant correlations were found between vertebral shape and the lumbar lordosis angle. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that vertebral shape varies significantly with sex, vertebral level and lumbar lordosis angle. Awareness of these relationships may help prevent misdiagnosis in clinical vertebral morphometry. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 17 refs.

  18. Measurements of vertebral shape by r[iographic morphometry: sex differences and relationships with vertebral level and lumbar lordosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, X.G.; Sun, Y.; Boonen, S.; Nicholson, P.H.F.; Dequeker, J.; Brys, P.; Felsenberg, D.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To examine sex-related and vertebral-level-specific differences in vertebral shape and to investigate the relationships between the lumbar lordosis angle and vertebral morphology. Design and patients. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine r[iographs were obtained with a standardized protocol in 142 healthy men and 198 healthy women over 50 years old. Anterior (Ha), central (Hc) and posterior (Hp) heights of each vertebra from T4 to L4 were measured using a digitizing technique, and the Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were calculated. The lumbar lordosis angle was measured on the lateral lumbar spine r[iographs. Results. Ha/Hp and Hc/Hp ratios were smaller in men than women by 1.8% and 0.7%, respectively, and these ratios varied with vertebral level. Significant correlations were found between vertebral shape and the lumbar lordosis angle. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that vertebral shape varies significantly with sex, vertebral level and lumbar lordosis angle. Awareness of these relationships may help prevent misdiagnosis in clinical vertebral morphometry. (orig.)

  19. The lamprey: a jawless vertebrate model system for examining origin of the neural crest and other vertebrate traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Stephen A; Bronner, Marianne E

    2014-01-01

    Lampreys are a group of jawless fishes that serve as an important point of comparison for studies of vertebrate evolution. Lampreys and hagfishes are agnathan fishes, the cyclostomes, which sit at a crucial phylogenetic position as the only living sister group of the jawed vertebrates. Comparisons between cyclostomes and jawed vertebrates can help identify shared derived (i.e. synapomorphic) traits that might have been inherited from ancestral early vertebrates, if unlikely to have arisen convergently by chance. One example of a uniquely vertebrate trait is the neural crest, an embryonic tissue that produces many cell types crucial to vertebrate features, such as the craniofacial skeleton, pigmentation of the skin, and much of the peripheral nervous system (Gans and Northcutt, 1983). Invertebrate chordates arguably lack unambiguous neural crest homologs, yet have cells with some similarities, making comparisons with lampreys and jawed vertebrates essential for inferring characteristics of development in early vertebrates, and how they may have evolved from nonvertebrate chordates. Here we review recent research on cyclostome neural crest development, including research on lamprey gene regulatory networks and differentiated neural crest fates. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Blended Learning Versus Traditional Lecture in Introductory Nursing Pathophysiology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissitt, Andrea Marie

    2016-04-01

    Currently, many undergraduate nursing courses use blended-learning course formats with success; however, little evidence exists that supports the use of blended formats in introductory pathophysiology courses. The purpose of this study was to compare the scores on pre- and posttests and course satisfaction between traditional and blended course formats in an introductory nursing pathophysiology course. This study used a quantitative, quasi-experimental, nonrandomized control group, pretest-posttest design. Analysis of covariance compared pre- and posttest scores, and a t test for independent samples compared students' reported course satisfaction of the traditional and blended course formats. Results indicated that the differences in posttest scores were not statistically significant between groups. Students in the traditional group reported statistically significantly higher satisfaction ratings than students in the blended group. The results of this study support the need for further research of using blended learning in introductory pathophysiology courses in undergraduate baccalaureate nursing programs. Further investigation into how satisfaction is affected by course formats is needed. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Pathophysiological analyses of periventricular nodular heterotopia using gyrencephalic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Hoshiba, Yoshio; Morita, Kazuya; Uda, Natsu; Hirota, Miwako; Minamikawa, Maki; Ebisu, Haruka; Shinmyo, Yohei; Kawasaki, Hiroshi

    2017-03-15

    Although periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) is often found in the cerebral cortex of people with thanatophoric dysplasia (TD), the pathophysiology of PNH in TD is largely unknown. This is mainly because of difficulties in obtaining brain samples of TD patients and a lack of appropriate animal models for analyzing the pathophysiology of PNH in TD. Here we investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of PNH in the cerebral cortex of TD by utilizing a ferret TD model which we recently developed. To make TD ferrets, we electroporated fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8) into the cerebral cortex of ferrets. Our immunohistochemical analyses showed that PNH nodules in the cerebral cortex of TD ferrets were mostly composed of cortical neurons, including upper layer neurons and GABAergic neurons. We also found disorganizations of radial glial fibers and of the ventricular lining in the TD ferret cortex, indicating that PNH may result from defects in radial migration of cortical neurons along radial glial fibers during development. Our findings provide novel mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of PNH in TD. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Tics and Tourette's: update on pathophysiology and tic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganos, Christos

    2016-08-01

    To describe recent advances in the pathophysiology of tics and Tourette syndrome, and novel insights on tic control. The cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops are implicated in generation of tics. Disruption of GABAergic inhibition lies at the core of tic pathophysiology, but novel animal models also implicate cholinergic and histaminergic neurotransmission. Tourette syndrome patients have altered awareness of volition and enhanced formation of habits. Premonitory urges are not the driving force behind all tics. The intensity of premonitory urges depends on patients' capacity to perceive interoceptive signals. The insular cortex is a key structure in this process. The trait intensity of premonitory urges is not a prerequisite of voluntary tic inhibition, a distinct form of motor control. Voluntary tic inhibition is most efficient in the body parts that tic the least. The prefrontal cortex is associated with the capacity to inhibit tics. The management of tics includes behavioral, pharmacological and surgical interventions. Treatment recommendations differ based on patients' age. The study of Tourette syndrome pathophysiology involves different neural disciplines and provides novel, exciting insights of brain function in health and disease. These in turn provide the basis for innovative treatment approaches of tics and their associations.

  3. Spasmodic Dysphonia: A Review. Part 2: Characterization of Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Justin M; Ludlow, Christy L; Bansberg, Stephen F; Adler, Charles H; Lott, David G

    2017-10-01

    Objective The purpose of this review is to describe the recent advances in characterizing spasmodic dysphonia. Spasmodic dysphonia is a task-specific focal laryngeal dystonia characterized by irregular and uncontrolled voice breaks. The pathophysiology is poorly understood, and there are diagnostic difficulties. Data Sources PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Library. Review Methods The data sources were searched using the following search terms: ( spasmodic dysphonia or laryngeal dystonia) and ( etiology, aetiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis, or pathophysiology). Conclusion The diagnosis of spasmodic dysphonia can be difficult due to the lack of a scientific consensus on diagnostic criteria and the fact that other voice disorders may present similarly. Confusion can arise between spasmodic dysphonia and muscle tension dysphonia. Spasmodic dysphonia symptoms are tied to particular speech sounds, whereas muscle tension dysphonia is not. With the advent of more widespread use of high-speed laryngoscopy and videokymography, measures of the disruptions in phonation and delays in the onset of vocal fold vibration after vocal fold closure can be quantified. Recent technological developments have expanded our understanding of the pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia. Implications for Practice A 3-tiered approach, involving a questionnaire, followed by speech assessment and nasolaryngoscopy is the most widely accepted method for making the diagnosis in most cases. More experimental and invasive techniques such as electromyography and neuroimaging have been explored to further characterize spasmodic dysphonia and aid in diagnosing difficult cases.

  4. Central voice production and pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Niv; Simonyan, Kristina; Blitzer, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Our ability to speak is complex, and the role of the central nervous system in controlling speech production is often overlooked in the field of otolaryngology. In this brief review, we present an integrated overview of speech production with a focus on the role of central nervous system. The role of central control of voice production is then further discussed in relation to the potential pathophysiology of spasmodic dysphonia (SD). Peer-review articles on central laryngeal control and SD were identified from PUBMED search. Selected articles were augmented with designated relevant publications. Publications that discussed central and peripheral nervous system control of voice production and the central pathophysiology of laryngeal dystonia were chosen. Our ability to speak is regulated by specialized complex mechanisms coordinated by high-level cortical signaling, brainstem reflexes, peripheral nerves, muscles, and mucosal actions. Recent studies suggest that SD results from a primary central disturbance associated with dysfunction at our highest levels of central voice control. The efficacy of botulinum toxin in treating SD may not be limited solely to its local effect on laryngeal muscles and also may modulate the disorder at the level of the central nervous system. Future therapeutic options that target the central nervous system may help modulate the underlying disorder in SD and allow clinicians to better understand the principal pathophysiology. NA.Laryngoscope, 128:177-183, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Acute Kidney Injury: Definition, Pathophysiology and Clinical Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Konstantinos; Spanou, Loukia

    2016-05-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a clinical syndrome that complicates the course and worsens the outcome in a significant number of hospitalised patients. Recent advances in clinical and basic research will help with a more accurate definition of this syndrome and in the elucidation of its pathogenesis. With this knowledge we will be able to conduct more accurate epidemiologic studies in an effort to gain a better understanding of the impact of this syndrome. AKI is a syndrome that rarely has a sole and distinct pathophysiology. Recent evidence, in both basic science and clinical research, is beginning to change our view for AKI from a single organ failure syndrome to a syndrome where the kidney plays an active role in the progress of multi-organ dysfunction. Accurate and prompt recognition of AKI and better understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the various clinical phenotypes are of great importance to research for effective therapeutic interventions. In this review we provide the most recent updates in the definition, epidemiology and pathophysiology of AKI.

  6. Palliative radiation for vertebral metastases: the effect of variation in prescription parameters on the dose received at depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, Rachael; Robinson, Graham; Gutierrez, Eric; Kirkbride, Peter; McLean, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the effect of prescription parameters on the dose received by the spine during palliative radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: In a survey, members of the Canadian Association of Radiation Oncologists were asked to define their prescription parameters for vertebral metastases. The depth of the spinal canal and vertebral body at 8 spinal levels was measured in 20 magnetic resonance imaging studies (MRIs). Survey results were applied to the measurements to assess the dose received at depth. The depth of spinal structures assessed at simulation and by diagnostic imaging was compared. Results: Prescriptions were most commonly to D max 3 cm or 5 cm using 60 Co-6MV photons delivering 8-30 Gy in 1-10 fractions. Mean depths from MRI were: posterior spinal canal, 5.5 cm; anterior spinal canal, 6.9 cm; and anterior vertebral body, 9.6 cm. Application of the prescription parameters from the survey to these measurements showed a wide range in the dose at depth with variation in technique. Depths measured at simulation correlated well with diagnostic imaging. Conclusion: The spinal canal and vertebral body lie >5 cm beneath the skin, and the dose received varies by up to 50% with changes in prescription depth. We suggest a suitable prescription point for vertebral metastases and a method for determining this at simulation

  7. Mexican patients with HIV have a high prevalence of vertebral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Mata-Marín

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Low bone mineral density (BMD and fragility fractures are common in individuals infected with HIV, who are undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART. In high-income countries, dual energy X-ray absorptiometrry is typically used to evaluate osteopenia or osteoporosis in HIV infected individuals. However, this technology is unavailable in low and-middle income countries, so a different approach is needed. The aim of this study was to use X-ray scans of the spine to determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for vertebral fractures in HIV-infected patients in a tertiary-care hospital in Mexico. We conducted a cross-sectional study of outpatients who were >40 years old and receiving ART at the Hospital de Infectología, La Raza National Medical Center in Mexico City, Mexico. We used semi-quantitative morphometric analysis of centrally digitized X-ray images to assess vertebral deformities in the spine. Anterior, middle and posterior vertebral heights were measured, and height ratios were calculated. For each vertebral body, fractures were graded on the basis of height ratio reductions, and a spine deformity index’ (SDI value was calculated by summing the grades of the vertebral deformities: An SDI>1 was indicative of a vertebral fracture. We included 104 patients, 87% of whom were men. The median age was 49 years [interquartile range (IQR 42-52]. Themost common stage of HIV infection, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control,was B2 in 40 (39% of patients. Forty seven (45% patients were on ART regimens that included protease inhibitors (PIs and 100 (96% being treated with tenofovir. The median time of ART was 6.5 years (IQR1.6-9.0. Of the 104 patients in our study, 83 (80% had undetectable viral load, as assessed by HIV-1 RNA levels, 32 (31% showed evidence of a previous fracture, 4 (4% were co-infected with hepatitis C virus, and 57 (55% had a history of corticosteroid treatment. The prevalence of vertebral fractures was 25%, 95

  8. ANOMALOUS PREVERTEBRAL COURSE OF THE LEFT VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Recorrido prevertebral anómalo de la arteria vertebral izquierda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash B Billakanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La arteria vertebral es una de las arterias que irriga el cerebro. El conocimiento de la anatomía normal y las variantes de la arteria vertebral adquiere importancia en la práctica clínica y la radiología vascular. El origen anómalo de la arteria vertebral del arco de la aorta o cualquiera de las arterias del cuello ha sido reportado por muchos autores. En este informe se presenta una variación del curso prevertebral de la arteria vertebral izquierda. La arteria vertebral tenía su origen habitual en la arteria subclavia con un largo curso prevertebral y entraba en el foramen transversarium de la vértebra CII. El origen y recorrido de la arteria vertebral en el lado derecho fue normal. Clínicamente es importante conocer el origen y curso del segmento prevertebral de la arteria vertebral y las posibles variaciones. El presente informe debería ser de interés para el médico vascular con respecto a las variaciones en el cuello y región torácica, y puede dar idea para dilucidar el mecanismo de desarrollo de la angiogénesis. Vertebral artery is one of the arteries supplying the brain. Knowledge of the normal and variant anatomy of the vertebral artery assumes importance in clinical practice and vascular radiology. Anomalous origins of the vertebral artery from the arch of the aorta or any one of the arteries of the neck have been reported by several authors. In this report a variation of the prevertebral course of the left vertebral artery is being presented. The Vertebral artery had usual origin from the subclavian artery and had a longer prevertebral course to enter the foramen transversarium of the CII vertebra. The origin and course of the vertebral artery on the right side was normal. It is clinically important to know the origin and course of the prevertebral segment of the vertebral artery and possible variations. The present report should be of interest for clinicians with regard to vascular variations in the neck and thoracic

  9. Effect of Capsaicin Cream on Chronic Low Back Pain in Patients With Inter-Vertebral Disc Herniation

    OpenAIRE

    Fayazi; Farokhpyam; Talali

    2015-01-01

    Background Low back pain is one of the most common debilitating disorders worldwide and the third cause of visiting a physician. One of the most common causes of low back pain is spinal disc herniation. Still there is no general agreement on the most effective treatment for it. Objectives This study aimed to determine the effect of Capsaicin cream on low back pain in patients with inter-vertebral disc herniation in Ahvaz. ...

  10. The contribution of thoracic vertebral deformity and arthropathy to trunk pain in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Coxson, Harvey O; Coupal, Tyler M; Lam, Stephen; Munk, Peter L; Leipsic, Jonathon; Reid, W Darlene

    2018-04-01

    Pain, commonly localized to the trunk in individuals with COPD, may be due to osteoporosis-related vertebral deformity and chest wall hyper-expansion causing misalignment of joints between the ribs and vertebrae. The purpose of this study was to determine if thoracic vertebral deformity and arthropathy were independent contributors to trunk pain in COPD patients compared to people with a significant smoking history. Participants completed the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) on the same day as chest CT scans and spirometry. Current and ex-smokers were separated into COPD (n = 91) or non-COPD (n = 80) groups based on spirometry. Subsequently, CT images were assessed for thoracic vertebral deformity, bone attenuation values, and arthropathy of thoracic vertebral joints. The trunk area was the most common pain location in both COPD and non-COPD groups. Thoracic vertebral deformity and costotransverse joint arthropathy were independent contributors to trunk pain in COPD patients (adjusted OR = 3.55 and 1.30, respectively) whereas alcohol consumption contributed to trunk pain in the non-COPD group (adjusted OR = 0.35 in occasional alcohol drinkers; 0.08 in non-alcohol drinkers). The spinal deformity index and the number of narrowed disc spaces were significantly positively related to the BPI intensity, interference, and total scores significantly in COPD patients. Trunk pain, at least in part, is caused by thoracic vertebral deformity, and costotransverse and intervertebral arthropathy in patients living with COPD. The results of this study provided the foundation for the management of pain, which requires further exploration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physiology and Pathophysiology in Ultra-Marathon Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat Knechtle

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this overview, we summarize the findings of the literature with regards to physiology and pathophysiology of ultra-marathon running. The number of ultra-marathon races and the number of official finishers considerably increased in the last decades especially due to the increased number of female and age-group runners. A typical ultra-marathoner is male, married, well-educated, and ~45 years old. Female ultra-marathoners account for ~20% of the total number of finishers. Ultra-marathoners are older and have a larger weekly training volume, but run more slowly during training compared to marathoners. Previous experience (e.g., number of finishes in ultra-marathon races and personal best marathon time is the most important predictor variable for a successful ultra-marathon performance followed by specific anthropometric (e.g., low body mass index, BMI, and low body fat and training (e.g., high volume and running speed during training characteristics. Women are slower than men, but the sex difference in performance decreased in recent years to ~10–20% depending upon the length of the ultra-marathon. The fastest ultra-marathon race times are generally achieved at the age of 35–45 years or older for both women and men, and the age of peak performance increases with increasing race distance or duration. An ultra-marathon leads to an energy deficit resulting in a reduction of both body fat and skeletal muscle mass. An ultra-marathon in combination with other risk factors, such as extreme weather conditions (either heat or cold or the country where the race is held, can lead to exercise-associated hyponatremia. An ultra-marathon can also lead to changes in biomarkers indicating a pathological process in specific organs or organ systems such as skeletal muscles, heart, liver, kidney, immune and endocrine system. These changes are usually temporary, depending on intensity and duration of the performance, and usually normalize after the race. In

  12. Prenatal cocaine exposure and its impact on cognitive functions of offspring: a pathophysiological insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkioka, Eleana; Korou, Laskarina Maria; Daskalopoulou, Afrodite; Misitzi, Angelica; Batsidis, Eleni; Bakoyiannis, Ioannis; Pergialiotis, Vasilios

    2016-07-01

    It is estimated that approximately 0.5%-3% of fetuses are prenatally exposed to cocaine (COC). The neurodevelopmental implications of this exposure are numerous and include motor skill impairments, alterations of social function, predisposition to anxiety, and memory function and attention deficits; these implications are commonly observed in experimental studies and ultimately affect both learning and IQ. According to previous studies, the clinical manifestations of prenatal COC exposure seem to persist at least until adolescence. The pathophysiological cellular processes that underlie these impairments include dysfunctional myelination, disrupted dendritic architecture, and synaptic alterations. On a molecular level, various neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, catecholamines, and γ-aminobutyric acid seem to participate in this process. Finally, prenatal COC abuse has been also associated with functional changes in the hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis that mediate neuroendocrine responses. The purpose of this review is to summarize the neurodevelopmental consequences of prenatal COC abuse, to describe the pathophysiological pathways that underlie these consequences, and to provide implications for future research in the field.

  13. Potential Role of Extracellular Vesicles in the Pathophysiology of Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, P S S; O'Connell, Kelly; Finnerty, Thomas Kyle

    2018-01-23

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small vesicles secreted by cells and are known to carry sub-cellular components including microRNA, proteins, and lipids. Due to their ability to transport cargo between cells, EVs have been identified as important regulators of various pathophysiological conditions and can therefore influence treatment outcomes. In particular, the significance of microRNAs in EV-mediated cell-cell communication is well-documented. While the influence of EVs and the cargo delivered by EVs has been extensively reviewed in other neurological disorders, the available literature on the potential role of EVs in the pathophysiology of drug addiction has not been reviewed. Hence, in this article, the known effects of commonly abused drugs (ethanol, nicotine, opiates, cocaine, and cannabinoids) on EV secretion have been reviewed. In addition, the potential role of drugs of abuse in affecting the delivery of EV-packaged microRNAs, and the subsequent impact on neuronal health and continued drug dependence, has been discussed.

  14. The hypertension of Cushing's syndrome: controversies in the pathophysiology and focus on cardiovascular complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidori, Andrea M.; Graziadio, Chiara; Paragliola, Rosa Maria; Cozzolino, Alessia; Ambrogio, Alberto G.; Colao, Annamaria; Corsello, Salvatore M.; Pivonello, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome is associated with increased mortality, mainly due to cardiovascular complications, which are sustained by the common development of systemic arterial hypertension and metabolic syndrome, which partially persist after the disease remission. Cardiovascular diseases and hypertension associated with endogenous hypercortisolism reveal underexplored peculiarities. The use of exogenous corticosteroids also impacts on hypertension and cardiovascular system, especially after prolonged treatment. The mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension differ, whether glucocorticoid excess is acute or chronic, and the source endogenous or exogenous, introducing inconsistencies among published studies. The pleiotropic effects of glucocorticoids and the overlap of the several regulatory mechanisms controlling blood pressure suggest that a rigorous comparison of in-vivo and in-vitro studies is necessary to draw reliable conclusions. This review, developed during the first ‘Altogether to Beat Cushing's syndrome’ workshop held in Capri in 2012, evaluates the most important peculiarities of hypertension associated with CS, with a particular focus on its pathophysiology. A critical appraisal of most significant animal and human studies is compared with a systematic review of the few available clinical trials. A special attention is dedicated to the description of the clinical features and cardiovascular damage secondary to glucocorticoid excess. On the basis of the consensus reached during the workshop, a pathophysiology-oriented therapeutic algorithm has been developed and it could serve as a first attempt to rationalize the treatment of hypertension in Cushing's syndrome. PMID:25415766

  15. Pathophysiology of GPCR Homo- and Heterodimerization: Special Emphasis on Somatostatin Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi K. Somvanshi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs are cell surface proteins responsible for translating >80% of extracellular reception to intracellular signals. The extracellular information in the form of neurotransmitters, peptides, ions, odorants etc is converted to intracellular signals via a wide variety of effector molecules activating distinct downstream signaling pathways. All GPCRs share common structural features including an extracellular N-terminal, seven-transmembrane domains (TMs linked by extracellular/intracellular loops and the C-terminal tail. Recent studies have shown that most GPCRs function as dimers (homo- and/or heterodimers or even higher order of oligomers. Protein-protein interaction among GPCRs and other receptor proteins play a critical role in the modulation of receptor pharmacology and functions. Although ~50% of the current drugs available in the market target GPCRs, still many GPCRs remain unexplored as potential therapeutic targets, opening immense possibility to discover the role of GPCRs in pathophysiological conditions. This review explores the existing information and future possibilities of GPCRs as tools in clinical pharmacology and is specifically focused for the role of somatostatin receptors (SSTRs in pathophysiology of diseases and as the potential candidate for drug discovery.

  16. Iron, dopamine, genetics, and hormones in the pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farhan H; Ahlberg, Caitlyn D; Chow, Christopher A; Shah, Divya R; Koo, Brian B

    2017-08-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common, chronic neurologic condition, which causes a persistent urge to move the legs in the evening that interferes with sleep. Human and animal studies have been used to study the pathophysiologic state of RLS and much has been learned about the iron and dopamine systems in relation to RLS. Human neuropathologic and imaging studies have consistently shown decreased iron in different brain regions including substantia nigra and thalamus. These same areas also demonstrate a state of relative dopamine excess. While it is not known how these changes in dopamine or iron produce the symptoms of RLS, genetic and hormone studies of RLS have identified other biologic systems or genes, such as the endogenous opioid and melanocortin systems and BTBD9 and MEIS1, that may explain some of the iron or dopamine changes in relation to RLS. This manuscript will review what is known about the pathophysiology of RLS, especially as it relates to changes in iron, dopamine, genetics, and hormonal systems.

  17. Pathophysiology of visual disorders induced by phosphodiesterase inhibitors in the treatment of erectile dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moschos MM

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Marilita M Moschos, Eirini Nitoda 1st Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece Aim: The aim of this review was to summarize the ocular action of the most common phosphodiesterase (PDE inhibitors used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and the subsequent visual disorders.Method: This is a literature review of several important articles focusing on the pathophysiology of visual disorders induced by PDE inhibitors.Results: PDE inhibitors have been associated with ocular side effects, including changes in color vision and light perception, blurred vision, transient alterations in electroretinogram (ERG, conjunctival hyperemia, ocular pain, and photophobia. Sildenafil and tadalafil may induce reversible increase in intraocular pressure and be involved in the development of nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy. Reversible idiopathic serous macular detachment, central serous chorioretinopathy, and ERG disturbances have been related to the significant impact of sildenafil and tadalafil on retinal perfusion.Discussion: So far, PDE inhibitors do not seem to cause permanent toxic effects on chorioretinal tissue and photoreceptors. However, physicians should write down any visual symptom observed during PDE treatment and refer the patients to ophthalmologists. Keywords: erectile dysfunction, pathophysiological mechanisms, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, PDE5, visual disorders

  18. The adverse pathophysiological effects of outdoor air pollution on the body tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Perčič

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-term exposure to outdoor air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. There are many published studies about the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in response of the body tissues to outdoor air pollution exposure. The aim of our review was to investigate the problem of outdoor air pollution and health effects of pathological mechanisms, with specific goal to point out public health intervention strategies based upon a clearer understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of outdoor air pollution. A systematic literature review was carried out in two bibliographic databases, Science Direct and PubMed, in the period from January 1995 to December 2015. We conducted a systematic analysis of 95 studies, 43 of them being review studies and 52 original studies. The systematic analysis was done in three steps, for each body tissue separately (respiratory diseases, cardiovascular diseases, neurologic diseases and diabetes mellitus. This insight into literature review may help foster more effective preventive measures at the public health level as well as potential intervention strategies based upon a clearer understanding of the involved pathways.

  19. Pathophysiology of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a role for mucosa integrity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, R

    2013-10-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is very prevalent and has a high burden on health security system costs. Nevertheless, pathophysiology is complex and not well-understood. Several mechanisms have been proposed: decreased salivation, impaired esophageal clearance, decreased lower esophageal sphincter pressure resting tone, presence of hiatal hernia, increased number of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs), increased acid, and pepsin secretion, pyloric incompetence provoking duodeno-gastro-esophageal reflux of bile acids and trypsin. Independent of the relevance of each mechanism, the ultimate phenomenon is that mucosal epithelium is exposed for a longer time to agents as acid and pepsin or is in contact to luminal agents not commonly present in gastric refluxate as trypsin or bile acids. This leads to a visible damage of the epithelium (erosive esophagitis -EE) or impairing mucosal integrity without any sign of macroscopic alteration as occurs in non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). Luminal factors are not the only responsible for such impairment; more recent data indicate that endogenous factors may also play a role. This review will update the most recent findings on the putative pathophysiological mechanisms and specially will focus on the role of esophageal mucosal integrity in GERD. Methodologies used for the evaluation of mucosal integrity, its relevance in EE and NERD, its involvement in symptoms perception and the effect of luminal and endogenous factors will be discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Erectile dysfunction as a manifestation of urogenital autonomic neuropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes: epidemiology, classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Gagik Radikovich Galstyan; yana Grigor'evna Shwarts; Sergey Anatol'evich Dubsky; Aleksandr Evgen'evich Lepetukhin; Roman Viktorovich Rozhivanov; Dmitry Gennadievich Kurbatov

    2014-01-01

    Sexual dysfunction characterized by a significant decline in the quality of life of patients and leading to infertility and problems in social life is diagnosed in more than 40% of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM).Erectile dysfunction is the most common sexual disorder in DM patients. The article describes epidemiology, classification, pathophysiology, diagnostic and treatment of erectile dysfunction in T1DM patients.

  1. DMPD: Pathophysiological roles of interleukin-18 in inflammatory liver diseases. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10807517 Pathophysiological roles of interleukin-18 in inflammatory liver diseases....l) Show Pathophysiological roles of interleukin-18 in inflammatory liver diseases. PubmedID 10807517 Title P...athophysiological roles of interleukin-18 in inflammatory liver diseases. Authors

  2. The role of the notochord in amniote vertebral column segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Lizzy; Pang, Angel S W; Evans, Susan E; Stern, Claudio D

    2018-07-01

    The vertebral column is segmented, comprising an alternating series of vertebrae and intervertebral discs along the head-tail axis. The vertebrae and outer portion (annulus fibrosus) of the disc are derived from the sclerotome part of the somites, whereas the inner nucleus pulposus of the disc is derived from the notochord. Here we investigate the role of the notochord in vertebral patterning through a series of microsurgical experiments in chick embryos. Ablation of the notochord causes loss of segmentation of vertebral bodies and discs. However, the notochord cannot segment in the absence of the surrounding sclerotome. To test whether the notochord dictates sclerotome segmentation, we grafted an ectopic notochord. We find that the intrinsic segmentation of the sclerotome is dominant over any segmental information the notochord may possess, and no evidence that the chick notochord is intrinsically segmented. We propose that the segmental pattern of vertebral bodies and discs in chick is dictated by the sclerotome, which first signals to the notochord to ensure that the nucleus pulposus develops in register with the somite-derived annulus fibrosus. Later, the notochord is required for maintenance of sclerotome segmentation as the mature vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs form. These results highlight differences in vertebral development between amniotes and teleosts including zebrafish, where the notochord dictates the segmental pattern. The relative importance of the sclerotome and notochord in vertebral patterning has changed significantly during evolution. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Do lower vertebrates suffer from motion sickness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, Dmitri

    The poster presents literature data and results of the author’s studies with the goal to find out whether the lower animals are susceptible to motion sickness (Lychakov, 2012). In our studies, fish and amphibians were tested for 2 h and more by using a rotating device (f = 0.24 Hz, a _{centrifugal} = 0.144 g) and a parallel swing (f = 0.2 Hz, a _{horizontal} = 0.059 g). The performed studies did not revealed in 4 fish species and in toads any characteristic reactions of the motion sickness (sopite syndrome, prodromal preparatory behavior, vomiting). At the same time, in toads there appeared characteristic stress reactions (escape response, an increase of the number of urinations, inhibition of appetite), as well as some other reactions not associated with motion sickness (regular head movements, eye retractions). In trout fry the used stimulation promoted division of the individuals into the groups differing by locomotor reaction to stress, as well as the individuals with the well-expressed compensatory reaction that we called the otolithotropic reaction. Analysis of results obtained by other authors confirms our conclusions. Thus, the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals, are immune to motion sickness either under the land conditions or under conditions of weightlessness. On the basis of available experimental data and theoretical concepts of mechanisms of development the motion sickness, formulated in several hypotheses (mismatch hypothesis, Traisman‘ s hypothesis, resonance hypothesis), there presented the synthetic hypothesis of motion sickness that has the conceptual significance. According to the hypothesis, the unusual stimulation producing sensor-motor or sensor-sensor conflict or an action of vestibular and visual stimuli of frequency of about 0.2 Hz is perceived by CNS as poisoning and causes the corresponding reactions. The motion sickness actually is a byproduct of technical evolution. It is suggested that in the lower vertebrates, unlike mammals

  4. Conodonts, Calcichordates and the Origin of Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bergström

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of early deuterostome evolution and relationships has been hampered by the lack of soft-part preservation in most groups. In addition, a recently revealed upside-down life orientation of vertebrates (the only real notoneuralians compared to other bilateral animals has been misinterpreted as evidence for a unique body design in all deuterostomes, misleading any search for relatives. Regarding echinoderms, the variety of body plans is confusing. The interpretation of some fossils with echinoderm-type calcite skeletons as “calcichordate” ancestors of chordates, however, involves a hypothetical reconstruction of an unusual body plan and a long series of hypothetical transitions. The number of necessary steps is much lower if cephalochordates (amphioxus or lancelet are derived directly from hemichordate enteropneusts. “Sensation interpretations” of fossils (Yunnanozoon, Cathaymyrus from Burgess Shale type deposits have added further confusion. Soft-part preservation of conodont animals, with V-shaped myomeres and a notochord, shows that they were segmented chordates, while probable eyes and teeth suggest that they were already on the vertebrate side. Die Interpretation früher Deuterostomia hinsichtlich ihrer Evolution und verwandtschaftlichen Beziehungen ist in den meisten Gruppen durch den Mangel an Weichkörpererhaltung sehr erschwert. Die kürzlich entdeckte Tatsache, daß Vertebraten, d. h. die einzigen echten Notoneuralia, im Gegensatz zu anderen bilateral symmetrischen Organismen eine mit ihrer ursprünglichen Oberseite nach unten gerichtete Lebensstellung einnehmen, hat zu der irrtümlichen Ansicht geführt, daß alle Deuostomia über einen im Tierreich einzigartigen Bauplan verfügen. Diese Interpretation brachte naturgemäß jede Suche nach Verwandtschaftsverhältnissen auf Abwege. Hinsichtlich der Echinodermata ist die bauplanmäßige Variation in der Tat verwirrend. Die Interpretation einiger Fossilien mit

  5. Vertebrate species introductions in the United States and its territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witmer, Gary W.; Fuller, Pam L.

    2011-01-01

    At least 1,065 introduced vertebrate species have been introduced in the United States and its territories, including at least 86 mammalian, 127 avian, 179 reptilian/amphibian, and 673 fish species. Examples in each major taxonomic group include domestic cat, small Indian mongoose, red fox, goat, pig, rabbit, rats, house mouse, gray squirrel, nutria, starling, Indian common myna, red-vented bulbul, brown treesnake, red-eared slider, brown trout, tilapia, and grass carp. We briefly review some of these species and the types of damage they cause. We then review the basic types of methods used for control or eradication of each taxonomic group, including physical, chemical, biological, and cultural methods. We discuss some of the challenges in managing these species, including issues with the use of toxicants, land access, public attitudes, and monitoring difficulties. Finally, we list some ongoing research and future research needs, including improved detection methods, improved attractants, improved barriers, improved capture methods, fertility control, and risk assessment methods.

  6. REE compositions in fossil vertebrate dental tissues indicate biomineral preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žigaite, Ž.; Kear, B.; Pérez-Huerta, A.; Jeffries, T.; Blom, H.

    2012-04-01

    Rare earth element (REE) abundances have been measured in a number of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic dental tissues using Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Fossil vertebrates analysed comprise scales and tesserae of Silurian and Devonian acanthodians, chondrichthyans, galeaspids, mongolepids, thelodonts, as well as teeth of Cretaceous lungfish and marine reptiles. The evaluation of fossil preservation level has been made by semi-quantitative spot geochemistry analyses on fine polished teeth and scale thin sections, using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Fossil teeth and scales with significant structure and colour alteration have shown elevated heavy element concentrations, and the silicification of bioapatite has been common in their tissues. Stable oxygen isotope measurements (δ18O) of bulk biomineral have been conducted in parallel, and showed comparatively lower heavy oxygen values in the same fossil tissues with stronger visible alteration. Significant difference in REE concentrations has been observed between the dentine and enamel of Cretaceous plesiosaurs, suggesting the enamel to be more geochemically resistant to diagenetic overprint.

  7. Vertebrate species introductions in the United States and its territories

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    Gary W. WITMER, Pam L. FULLER

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available At least 1,065 introduced vertebrate species have been introduced in the United States and its territories, including at least 86 mammalian, 127 avian, 179 reptilian/amphibian, and 673 fish species. Examples in each major taxonomic group include domestic cat, small Indian mongoose, red fox, goat, pig, rabbit, rats, house mouse, gray squirrel, nutria, starling, Indian common myna, red-vented bulbul, brown treesnake, red-eared slider, brown trout, tilapia, and grass carp. We briefly review some of these species and the types of damage they cause. We then review the basic types of methods used for control or eradication of each taxonomic group, including physical, chemical, biological, and cultural methods. We discuss some of the challenges in managing these species, including issues with the use of toxicants, land access, public attitudes, and monitoring difficulties. Finally, we list some ongoing research and future research needs, including improved detection methods, improved attractants, improved barriers, improved capture methods, fertility control, and risk assessment methods [Current Zoology 57 (5: 559–567, 2011].

  8. Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis presenting severe vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Cihat; Atamaz, Funda Calis; Akkurt, Halil; Akkoc, Yesim

    2014-01-01

    The syndrome of pregnancy-associated osteoporosis (PAO) is a rare disorder which occurs either in late pregnancy or early post-partum period leading to fragility fracture(s), most commonly in the vertebral bodies. We presented two cases with PAO who had compression fractures at multiple levels involving five vertebrae in one case and 10 vertebrae in the other. Their spinal bone mineral density values were below -2.5 standard deviations. Anti-osteoporotic treatments with nasal calcitonin 400 IU/day, vitamin D 300.000 IU single dose, calcium 1000 mg/day, vitamin D 880 IU/day were initiated. In one case, kyphoplasty was performed by a spinal surgeon. In addition to a thoracolumbosacral orthosis, a rehabilitation program including muscle strengthening, range of motion, relaxation and weight-bearing exercises was started for both cases. These cases emphasize that all pregnant women with complaints of back/lumbar pain should be carefully evaluated. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. Observer agreement in pediatric semiquantitative vertebral fracture diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siminoski, Kerry; Lentle, Brian; Matzinger, Mary Ann; Shenouda, Nazih; Ward, Leanne M.

    2014-01-01

    The Genant semiquantitative (GSQ) method has been a standard procedure for diagnosis of vertebral fractures in adults but has only recently been shown to be of clinical utility in children. Observer agreement using the GSQ method in this age group has not been described. To evaluate observer agreement on vertebral readability and vertebral fracture diagnosis using the GSQ method in pediatric vertebral morphometry. Spine radiographs of 186 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were evaluated independently by three radiologists using the same GSQ methodology as in adults. A subset of 100 radiographs was evaluated on two occasions. An average of 4.7% of vertebrae were unreadable for the three radiologists. Intraobserver Cohen's kappa (κ) on readability ranged from 0.434 to 0.648 at the vertebral level and from 0.416 to 0.611 at the patient level, while interobserver κ for readability had a range of 0.330 to 0.504 at the vertebral level and 0.295 to 0.467 at the patient level. Intraobserver κ for the presence of vertebral fracture had a range of 0.529 to 0.726 at the vertebral level and was 0.528 to 0.767 at the patient level. Interobserver κ for fracture at the vertebral level ranged from 0.455 to 0.548 and from 0.433 to 0.486 at the patient level. Most κ values for both intra- and interobserver agreement in applying the GSQ method to pediatric spine radiographs were in the moderate to substantial range, comparable to the performance of the technique in adult studies. The GSQ method should be considered for use in pediatric research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  10. Observer agreement in pediatric semiquantitative vertebral fracture diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siminoski, Kerry [University of Alberta, Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging and Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Edmonton (Canada); Lentle, Brian [University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada); Matzinger, Mary Ann; Shenouda, Nazih [University of Ottawa, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Department of Medical Imaging, Ottawa (Canada); Ward, Leanne M. [University of Ottawa, Department of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa (Canada); Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Research Institute, Ottawa (Canada); Collaboration: The Canadian STOPP Consortium

    2014-04-15

    The Genant semiquantitative (GSQ) method has been a standard procedure for diagnosis of vertebral fractures in adults but has only recently been shown to be of clinical utility in children. Observer agreement using the GSQ method in this age group has not been described. To evaluate observer agreement on vertebral readability and vertebral fracture diagnosis using the GSQ method in pediatric vertebral morphometry. Spine radiographs of 186 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were evaluated independently by three radiologists using the same GSQ methodology as in adults. A subset of 100 radiographs was evaluated on two occasions. An average of 4.7% of vertebrae were unreadable for the three radiologists. Intraobserver Cohen's kappa (κ) on readability ranged from 0.434 to 0.648 at the vertebral level and from 0.416 to 0.611 at the patient level, while interobserver κ for readability had a range of 0.330 to 0.504 at the vertebral level and 0.295 to 0.467 at the patient level. Intraobserver κ for the presence of vertebral fracture had a range of 0.529 to 0.726 at the vertebral level and was 0.528 to 0.767 at the patient level. Interobserver κ for fracture at the vertebral level ranged from 0.455 to 0.548 and from 0.433 to 0.486 at the patient level. Most κ values for both intra- and interobserver agreement in applying the GSQ method to pediatric spine radiographs were in the moderate to substantial range, comparable to the performance of the technique in adult studies. The GSQ method should be considered for use in pediatric research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  11. Distal vertebral artery reconstruction when managing vertebrobasilar insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Galaktionov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a literature review devoted to the reconstruction of the distal vertebral artery and a clinical case of successful surgical treatment of a patient suffering from vertebrobasilar insufficiency caused by occlusion of the vertebral artery in a proximal segment. The external carotid artery-distal vertebral artery bypass was performed by using the radial artery.Received 27 February 2017. Revised 25 July 2017. Accepted 3 August 2017.Funding: The study did not have sponsorship.Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. 

  12. Vertebral column aggressive osteoblastoma: two cases report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabedotti, Ismail Fernando; Sabedotti, Valdir

    2007-01-01

    Osteoblastoma is a bone neoplasy that in most circumstances present a low aggressive aspect on radiographic studies, but in some cases may acquire an aggressive pattern, rupturing the bone cortex and invading nearby structures. Most cases occur on the vertebral column, especially at the posterior arch and occasionally involving the vertebral body. Differential diagnosis of the aggressive form is made with osteosarcomas. This review reports two cases of osteoblastomas involving vertebral column, with an aggressive pattern on radiologic studies, and their histologic confirmation. (author)

  13. Gut Melatonin in Vertebrates: Chronobiology and Physiology

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    Dr. Saumen Kumar Maitra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, following discovery in the bovine pineal gland, has been detected in several extra-pineal sources including gastrointestinal tract or gut. Arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AANAT is the key regulator of its biosynthesis. Melatonin in pineal is rhythmically produced with a nocturnal peak in synchronization with environmental light-dark cycle. A recent study on carp reported first that melatonin levels and intensity of a ~23kDa AANAT protein in each gut segment also exhibit significant daily variations but, unlike pineal, show a peak at midday in all seasons. Extensive experimental studies ruled out direct role of light-dark conditions in determining temporal pattern of gut melatoninergic system in carp, and opened up possible role of environmental non-photic cue(s as its synchronizer. Based on mammalian findings, physiological significance of gut derived melatonin also appears unique because its actions at local levels sharing paracrine and/or autocrine functions have been emphasized. The purpose of this mini-review is to summarize existing data on the chronobiology and physiology of gut melatonin and to emphasize their relation with the same hormone derived in the pineal in vertebrates including fish.

  14. Extracellular matrix dynamics during vertebrate axis formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czirók, András; Rongish, Brenda J; Little, Charles D

    2004-04-01

    The first evidence for the dynamics of in vivo extracellular matrix (ECM) pattern formation during embryogenesis is presented below. Fibrillin 2 filaments were tracked for 12 h throughout the avian intraembryonic mesoderm using automated light microscopy and algorithms of our design. The data show that these ECM filaments have a reproducible morphogenic destiny that is characterized by directed transport. Fibrillin 2 particles initially deposited in the segmental plate mesoderm are translocated along an unexpected trajectory where they eventually polymerize into an intricate scaffold of cables parallel to the anterior-posterior axis. The cables coalesce near the midline before the appearance of the next-formed somite. Moreover, the ECM filaments define global tissue movements with high precision because the filaments act as passive motion tracers. Quantification of individual and collective filament "behaviors" establish fate maps, trajectories, and velocities. These data reveal a caudally propagating traveling wave pattern in the morphogenetic movements of early axis formation. We conjecture that within vertebrate embryos, long-range mechanical tension fields are coupled to both large-scale patterning and local organization of the ECM. Thus, physical forces or stress fields are essential requirements for executing an emergent developmental pattern-in this case, paraxial fibrillin cable assembly.

  15. Medullar compression caused by vertebral hemangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo Catling, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    This is case of a 41 years old feminine patient in whom a unique primary bone tumor injury was demonstrated, diagnosed as a bone hemangioma, located at T-7, with grew and compressed the spinal cord. These bone vascular and frequently observed in the radiological studies and autopsies, in a sporadic form are only symptomatic, growing and affecting the nervous roots and the spinal cord. The clinical history of the patient is described with the preoperative studies and magnetic resonance 6 years after the surgery: The medical literature of these primary bony injuries is reviewed and as they are treated. Objectives: to present the clinical history of a patient who consults having medullar compression syndrome caused by an unusual extra-medullar tumor injury, of bony origin, primary and benign, with clinical controls 8 years after the operation and without evidence of tumor recurrences. The medical literature of this bone pathology is reviewed. Methodology: the clinical history of the patient is described, who was treated surgically successfully, because spinal cord was decompressed without neurological sequels. Vertebral instability was not observed and nor diagnosed. The patient was periodically taken care of with last control of magnetic resonance 6 years after the surgery and last medical control 8 years later. Medical publications are extensively reviewed

  16. Vertebral bony tumor of giant cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo Carling, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    This is a report of a 37 years old, masculine patient, in whom a unique primary bone injury was demonstrated, located at T-11, diagnosed as a giant cells tumor (osteoclastoma). Location is described in the literature as unusual. The clinical presentation of the injury is described, as the initial radiological studies and magnetic resonance images 8 years after surgical treatment, with no neoplasic recurrences. The medical literature of these primary bone injuries and its treatment was also reviewed. Objectives: to present a patient with an unusual extramedullar tumor injury, of primary bone origin, benign, treated surgically and who has a post surgical follow-up of 8 years. Local tumor recurrence and not pulmonary metastasis was demonstrated. The medical literature of this bone pathology that affects the spine in an infrequent manner, was also reviewed, specially the related to medical, surgical and radio-therapeutic treatments. Methodology: the clinical history of the patient is described, who was successfully operated, because the expansive tumor was totally drawn out, without neurological injury; inter operating or post-operating vertebral instability was not observed or diagnosed. The patient was controlled in periodic form, with last medical checkup and of magnetic resonance 8 years after the surgery. The medical publications existing are reviewed

  17. Organotin Exposure and Vertebrate Reproduction: A Review

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    Julia Fernandez Puñal de Araújo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Organotin (OTs compounds are organometallic compounds that are widely used in industry, such as in the manufacture of plastics, pesticides, paints, and others. OTs are released into the environment by anthropogenic actions, leading to contact with aquatic and terrestrial organisms that occur in animal feeding. Although OTs are degraded environmentally, reports have shown the effects of this contamination over the years because it can affect organisms of different trophic levels. OTs act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs, which can lead to several abnormalities in organisms. In male animals, OTs decrease the weights of the testis and epididymis and reduce the spermatid count, among other dysfunctions. In female animals, OTs alter the weights of the ovaries and uteri and induce damage to the ovaries. In addition, OTs prevent fetal implantation and reduce mammalian pregnancy rates. OTs cross the placental barrier and accumulate in the placental and fetal tissues. Exposure to OTs in utero leads to the accumulation of lipid droplets in the Sertoli cells and gonocytes of male offspring in addition to inducing early puberty in females. In both genders, this damage is associated with the imbalance of sex hormones and the modulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis. Here, we report that OTs act as reproductive disruptors in vertebrate studies; among the compounds are tetrabutyltin, tributyltin chloride, tributyltin acetate, triphenyltin chloride, triphenyltin hydroxide, dibutyltin chloride, dibutyltin dichloride, diphenyltin dichloride, monobutyltin, and azocyclotin.

  18. Mapping and Quantifying Terrestrial Vertebrate Biodiversity at ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to assess, report, map, and forecast functions of ecosystems is critical to our capacity to make informed decisions to maintain the sustainable nature of our environment. Because of the variability among living organisms and levels of organization (e.g. genetic, species, ecosystem), biodiversity has always been difficult to measure precisely, especially within a systematic manner and over multiple scales. In answer to this challenge, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has created a partnership with other Federal agencies, academic institutions, and Non-Governmental Organizations to develop the EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas), an online national Decision Support Tool that allows users to view and analyze the geographical description of the supply and demand for ecosystem services, as well as the drivers of change. As part of the EnviroAtlas, an approach has been developed that uses deductive habitat models for all terrestrial vertebrates of the conterminous United States and clusters them into biodiversity metrics that relate to ecosystem service-relevant categories. Metrics, such as species and taxon richness, have been developed and integrated with other measures of biodiversity. Collectively, these metrics provide a consistent scalable process from which to make geographic comparisons, provide thematic assessments, and to monitor status and trends in biodiversity. The national biodiversity component operates across approximatel

  19. Comparative analyses of bidirectional promoters in vertebrates

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    Taylor James

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthologous genes with deep phylogenetic histories are likely to retain similar regulatory features. In this report we utilize orthology assignments for pairs of genes co-regulated by bidirectional promoters to map the ancestral history of the promoter regions. Results Our mapping of bidirectional promoters from humans to fish shows that many such promoters emerged after the divergence of chickens and fish. Furthermore, annotations of promoters in deep phylogenies enable detection of missing data or assembly problems present in higher vertebrates. The functional importance of bidirectional promoters is indicated by selective pressure to maintain the arrangement of genes regulated by the promoter over long evolutionary time spans. Characteristics unique to bidirectional promoters are further elucidated using a technique for unsupervised classification, known as ESPERR. Conclusion Results of these analyses will aid in our understanding of the evolution of bidirectional promoters, including whether the regulation of two genes evolved as a consequence of their proximity or if function dictated their co-regulation.

  20. Vascular development in the vertebrate pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoglu, D. Berfin; Chong, Diana C.; Villasenor, Alethia; Magenheim, Judith; Barry, David M.; Lee, Simon; Marty-Santos, Leilani; Fu, Stephen; Dor, Yuval; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-01-01

    The vertebrate pancreas is comprised of a highly branched tubular epithelium, which is intimately associated with an extensive and specialized vasculature. While we know a great deal about basic vascular anatomy of the adult pancreas, as well as islet capillaries, surprisingly little is known about the ontogeny of its blood vessels. Here, we analyze development of the pancreatic vasculature in the mouse embryo. We show that pancreatic epithelial branches intercalate with the fine capillary plexus of the surrounding pancreatic mesenchyme. Endothelial cells (ECs) within this mesenchyme are heterogeneous from the onset of organogenesis. Pancreatic arteries take shape before veins, in a manner analogous to early embryonic vessels. The main central artery forms during mid-gestation, as a result of vessel coalescence and remodeling of a vascular plexus. In addition, we show that vessels in the forming pancreas display a predictable architecture that is dependent on VEGF signaling. Over-expression of VEGF disrupts vascular patterning and arteriovenous differentiation within the developing pancreas. This study constitutes a first-time cellular and molecular characterization of pancreatic blood vessels, as they coordinately grow along with the pancreatic epithelium. PMID:27789228

  1. Vascular development in the vertebrate pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizoglu, D Berfin; Chong, Diana C; Villasenor, Alethia; Magenheim, Judith; Barry, David M; Lee, Simon; Marty-Santos, Leilani; Fu, Stephen; Dor, Yuval; Cleaver, Ondine

    2016-12-01

    The vertebrate pancreas is comprised of a highly branched tubular epithelium, which is intimately associated with an extensive and specialized vasculature. While we know a great deal about basic vascular anatomy of the adult pancreas, as well as islet capillaries, surprisingly little is known about the ontogeny of its blood vessels. Here, we analyze development of the pancreatic vasculature in the mouse embryo. We show that pancreatic epithelial branches intercalate with the fine capillary plexus of the surrounding pancreatic mesenchyme. Endothelial cells (ECs) within this mesenchyme are heterogeneous from the onset of organogenesis. Pancreatic arteries take shape before veins, in a manner analogous to early embryonic vessels. The main central artery forms during mid-gestation, as a result of vessel coalescence and remodeling of a vascular plexus. In addition, we show that vessels in the forming pancreas display a predictable architecture that is dependent on VEGF signaling. Over-expression of VEGF disrupts vascular patterning and arteriovenous differentiation within the developing pancreas. This study constitutes a first-time in-depth cellular and molecular characterization of pancreatic blood vessels, as they coordinately grow along with the pancreatic epithelium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Trunk muscle activity is modified in osteoporotic vertebral fracture and thoracic kyphosis with potential consequences for vertebral health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Greig

    Full Text Available This study explored inter-relationships between vertebral fracture, thoracic kyphosis and trunk muscle control in elderly people with osteoporosis. Osteoporotic vertebral fractures are associated with increased risk of further vertebral fractures; but underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Several factors may explain this association, including changes in postural alignment (thoracic kyphosis and altered trunk muscle contraction patterns. Both factors may increase risk of further fracture because of increased vertebral loading and impaired balance, which may increase falls risk. This study compared postural adjustments in 24 individuals with osteoporosis with and without vertebral fracture and with varying degrees of thoracic kyphosis. Trunk muscle electromyographic activity (EMG associated with voluntary arm movements was recorded and compared between individuals with and without vertebral fracture, and between those with low and high thoracic kyphosis. Overall, elderly participants in the study demonstrated co-contraction of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles during forwards arm movements, but those with vertebral fractures demonstrated a more pronounced co-contraction than those without fracture. Individuals with high thoracic kyphosis demonstrated more pronounced alternating flexor and extensor EMG bursts than those with less kyphosis. Co-contraction of trunk flexor and extensor muscles in older individuals contrasts the alternating bursts of antagonist muscle activity in previous studies of young individuals. This may have several consequences, including altered balance efficacy and the potential for increased compressive loads through the spine. Both of these outcomes may have consequences in a population with fragile vertebrae who are susceptible to fracture.

  3. Analysis on the value of the multi-slice spiral CT and MRI scanning for applying to the identifying diagnosis of the new and old vertebral compresion fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Zhiyi; Gao Shuming; Li Dasheng; Pei Lijun; Qu Hui

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and explore the value of the mutislice spiral CT (MSCT) scanning, its reconstructive technology and MRI scanning for applying to the identifying diagnosis of new and old vertebral compresion fracture. Methods: One hundred and sixty-seven cases with the new and old vertebral compresion fracture who have 189 vertebrae in total were examined using the MSCT scanning, their imaging information were postprocessed with 2D and 3D reconstruction at the work station. Thirty-four patients with overall 43 vertebrae were carried out by MRI scanning and their images were compared with those of MSCT. Results: They had the highest proportion of vertebrae in L1 with accounting for 27.68% (31/112) and 35.06% (27/77) among the patients with new and old vertebral compresion fracture, respectively. The next was T12, L2 and T11. There were statistically significant differences between new and old cases in such appearance as fracture line clear and sharp (102 and 21), contusion and hemorrhage of spinal cord (15 and 0), parenchyma shadow beside vertebrae(103 and 11), appendant fracture(26 and 5), organ's lacerated wound around vertebral body (30 and 0), discus intervertebrales vacuum (10 and 36), derangement and hardening of vertebral bone trabecularism (29 and 51) (P 1 WI signal, 27 vertebrae with the T 2 WI fat-suppresion irregular high signal were demonstrated in MRI scanning among 27 vertebrae of 21 cases with new vertebral compresion fracture. While 16 vertebrae with the T 1 WI and T 2 WI signals were the same as those of the normal vertebrae, 16 vertebrae were the T 2 WI fat-suppresion low signal among 13 cases with old vertebral compresion fracture. Conclusions: The MSCT plays an important role in identifying diagnosis for the most of the patients with the new and old vertebral compresion fracture, while MRI scanning may reflect the pathophysiological characteristics in diagnosis of the spinal cord and the ligament lesion. Therefore, the MSCT and MRI scanning

  4. Genetic and evolutionary analyses of the human bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2 in the pathophysiology of obesity.

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    Dorit Schleinitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2 is essential for BMP signalling and may be involved in the regulation of adipogenesis. The BMPR2 locus has been suggested as target of recent selection in human populations. We hypothesized that BMPR2 might have a role in the pathophysiology of obesity.Evolutionary analyses (dN/dS, Fst, iHS were conducted in vertebrates and human populations. BMPR2 mRNA expression was measured in 190 paired samples of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. The gene was sequenced in 48 DNA samples. Nine representative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped for subsequent association studies on quantitative traits related to obesity in 1830 German Caucasians. An independent cohort of 925 Sorbs was used for replication. Finally, relation of genotypes to mRNA in fat was examined.The evolutionary analyses indicated signatures of selection on the BMPR2 locus. BMPR2 mRNA expression was significantly increased both in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue of 37 overweight (BMI>25 and 30 kg/m² compared with 44 lean subjects (BMI< 25 kg/m² (P<0.001. In a case-control study including lean and obese subjects, two intronic SNPs (rs6717924, rs13426118 were associated with obesity (adjusted P<0.05. Combined analyses including the initial cohort and the Sorbs confirmed a consistent effect for rs6717924 (combined P = 0.01 on obesity. Moreover, rs6717924 was associated with higher BMPR2 mRNA expression in visceral adipose tissue.Combined BMPR2 genotype-phenotype-mRNA expression data as well as evolutionary aspects suggest a role of BMPR2 in the pathophysiology of obesity.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Enhancement Patterns at the Different Ages of Symptomatic Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Ja Yeon; Lee, Joon Woo; Kim, Jung Eun; Kang, Heung Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    To investigate the magnetic resonance (MR) enhancement patterns of symptomatic osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (VCF) according to the fracture age, based on the successful single-level percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) cases. The study included 135 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced MR imaging and successful PVP from 2005 to 2010 due to a single- level osteoporotic VCF. Two radiologists blinded to the fracture age evaluated the MR enhancement patterns in consensus. The MR enhancement patterns were classified according to the enhancing proportion to the vertebral height and the presence or extent of a non-enhancing cleft within the enhancing area on sagittal plane. The Fisher' exact test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test were performed to assess the differences in the MR enhancement patterns according to the fracture age. Symptomatic VCFs show variable MR enhancement patterns in all fracture ages. A diffuse enhancing area can be seen in not only the hyperacute and acute VCFs but also the chronic symptomatic VCFs. Symptomatic VCFs having a segmental enhancing area were all included in the hyperacute or acute stage. Most symptomatic osteoporotic VCFs had a non-enhancing cleft in the enhanced vertebral body (128/135, 94.8%). There was no statistical difference of the enhancement pattern according to the fracture age. Symptomatic VCFs show variable MR enhancement patterns in all fracture ages. The most common pattern is a non-enhancing cleft within a diffuse enhanced vertebra.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Enhancement Patterns at the Different Ages of Symptomatic Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Ja Yeon; Lee, Joon Woo; Kim, Jung Eun; Kang, Heung Sik

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the magnetic resonance (MR) enhancement patterns of symptomatic osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (VCF) according to the fracture age, based on the successful single-level percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) cases. The study included 135 patients who underwent contrast-enhanced MR imaging and successful PVP from 2005 to 2010 due to a single- level osteoporotic VCF. Two radiologists blinded to the fracture age evaluated the MR enhancement patterns in consensus. The MR enhancement patterns were classified according to the enhancing proportion to the vertebral height and the presence or extent of a non-enhancing cleft within the enhancing area on sagittal plane. The Fisher' exact test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test were performed to assess the differences in the MR enhancement patterns according to the fracture age. Symptomatic VCFs show variable MR enhancement patterns in all fracture ages. A diffuse enhancing area can be seen in not only the hyperacute and acute VCFs but also the chronic symptomatic VCFs. Symptomatic VCFs having a segmental enhancing area were all included in the hyperacute or acute stage. Most symptomatic osteoporotic VCFs had a non-enhancing cleft in the enhanced vertebral body (128/135, 94.8%). There was no statistical difference of the enhancement pattern according to the fracture age. Symptomatic VCFs show variable MR enhancement patterns in all fracture ages. The most common pattern is a non-enhancing cleft within a diffuse enhanced vertebra.

  7. Interphyletic relationships in the use of nesting cavities: mutualism, competition and amensalism among hymenopterans and vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, José P.; Wamiti, Wanyoike; Polo, Vicente; Muchai, Muchane

    2013-09-01

    Although competition is usually assumed to be the most common interaction between closely related organisms that share limiting resources, the relationships linking distant taxa that use the same nesting sites are poorly understood. In the present study, we examine the interactions among social hymenopterans (honeybees and wasps) and vertebrates in tropical ecosystems of East Africa. By analysing the preferences of these three groups for nest boxes that were empty or previously occupied by a different taxon, we try to establish whether the relationships among them are commensal, mutualistic, competitive or amensal. Vertebrates and honeybees selected nest boxes that had previously been occupied by the other, which suggests that each obtains some benefit from the other. This relationship can be considered mutualistic, although a mutual preference for each others' nests does not exclude a competitive interaction. Vertebrates and wasps preferred nest boxes not previously occupied by the other, which suggests that they compete for tree cavities. Finally, wasps seemed to completely refuse cavities previously used by honeybees, while the bees occupied cavities regardless of whether they had been previously used by wasps, an apparently amensal relationship. These results indicate that the interdependence between distantly related taxa is stronger and more complex than previously described, which may have important implications for population dynamics and community structure.

  8. TALE transcription factors during early development of the vertebrate brain and eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Dorothea; Frank, Dale

    2014-01-01

    Our brain's cognitive performance arises from the coordinated activities of billions of nerve cells. Despite a high degree of morphological and functional differences, all neurons of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) arise from a common field of multipotent progenitors. Cell fate specification and differentiation are directed by multistep processes that include inductive/external cues, such as the extracellular matrix or growth factors, and cell-intrinsic determinants, such as transcription factors and epigenetic modulators of proteins and DNA. Here we review recent findings implicating TALE-homeodomain proteins in these processes. Although originally identified as HOX-cofactors, TALE proteins also contribute to many physiological processes that do not require HOX-activity. Particular focus is, therefore, given to HOX-dependent and -independent functions of TALE proteins during early vertebrate brain development. Additionally, we provide an overview about known upstream and downstream factors of TALE proteins in the developing vertebrate brain and discuss general concepts of how TALE proteins function to modulate neuronal cell fate specification. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Risk of vertebral insufficiency fractures in relation to compressive strength predicted by quantitative computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggemann, M.; Hilweg, D.; Seidel, S.; Horst, M.; Brinckmann, P.

    1991-01-01

    Vertebral insufficiency fractures may result from excessive loading of normal and routine loading of osteoporotic spines. Fractures occur when the mechanical load exceeds the vertebral compressive strength, i.e., the maximum load a vertebra can tolerate. Vertebral compressive strength is determined by trabecular bone density and the size of end-plate area. Both parameters can be measured non-invasively by quanti-tative computed tomography (QCT). In 75 patients compressive strength (i.e., trabecular bone density and endplate area) of the vertebra L3 was determined using QCT. In addition, conventional radiographs of the spines were analysed for the prevalence of insufficiency fractures in each case. By relating fracture prevalence to strength, 3 fracture risk groups were found: a high-risk group with strength values of L3 5 kN and a fracture risk near 0 percent. Biomechanical measurements and model calculations indicate that spinal loads of 3 to 4 kN at L3/4 will be common in everyday activities. These data and the results described above suggest that spines with strength values of L3<3 kN are at an extremely high risk of insufficiency fractures in daily life. Advantages of fracture risk assessment by strength determination over risk estimation based on clinically used trabecular bone density measurements are discussed. (author). 18 refs.; 4 figs

  10. Evolution of high mobility group nucleosome-binding proteins and its implications for vertebrate chromatin specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Romero, Rodrigo; Eirín-López, José M; Ausió, Juan

    2015-01-01

    High mobility group (HMG)-N proteins are a family of small nonhistone proteins that bind to nucleosomes (N). Despite the amount of information available on their structure and function, there is an almost complete lack of information on the molecular evolutionary mechanisms leading to their exclusive differentiation. In the present work, we provide evidence suggesting that HMGN lineages constitute independent monophyletic groups derived from a common ancestor prior to the diversification of vertebrates. Based on observations of the functional diversification across vertebrate HMGN proteins and on the extensive silent nucleotide divergence, our results suggest that the long-term evolution of HMGNs occurs under strong purifying selection, resulting from the lineage-specific functional constraints of their different protein domains. Selection analyses on independent lineages suggest that their functional specialization was mediated by bursts of adaptive selection at specific evolutionary times, in a small subset of codons with functional relevance-most notably in HMGN1, and in the rapidly evolving HMGN5. This work provides useful information to our understanding of the specialization imparted on chromatin metabolism by HMGNs, especially on the evolutionary mechanisms underlying their functional differentiation in vertebrates. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Diagnosis of vertebral fractures on lateral chest X-ray: Intraobserver agreement of semi-quantitative vertebral fracture assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagt-Willems, H.C. van der; Munster, B.C. van; Leeflang, M.; Beuerle, E.; Tulner, C.R.; Lems, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • (Lateral) chest X-ray's are often performed in older individuals for various reasons. • Vertebral fractures are visualized on lateral chest X-ray, but the diagnosis of vertebral fractures is until now only validated on (lateral) spine X-ray's. • This study shows that a (lateral) chest X-ray is sufficient for the diagnosis of vertebral fractures. • Older individuals with a vertebral fracture on a (lateral) chest X-ray do not need further radiography with thoracic spine X-ray or vertebral fracture assessment with DXA. - Abstract: Background: In clinical practice lateral images of the chest are performed for various reasons. As these lateral chest X rays show the vertebrae of the thoracic and thoraco-lumbar region, we wondered if these X-rays can be used for evaluation of vertebral fractures instead of separate thoracic spine X-rays. Methods: To evaluate the agreement and intraobserver reliability of the semi-quantitative method for vertebral fractures on the lateral chest X-ray (X-chest) in comparison to the lateral thoracic spine X-ray (X-Tspine), two observers scored vertebral fractures on X-Tspine and twice on X-chest, separately, blinded and in different time periods. Agreement and Cohens’ kappa were calculated for a diagnosis of any fracture on patient level and on vertebral body level. The study was done in patients visiting an outpatient geriatric day clinic, with a high prevalence of vertebral fractures. Results: 109 patients were included. The intraobserver agreement for X-chest versus X-Tspine was 95–98% for the two levels of fracturing, with a Cohen's kappa of 0.88–0.91. The intraobserver agreement and reliability of the re-test on the X-chest showed an agreement between 91 and 98% with a Cohen's kappa of 0.81–0.93. More vertebrae were visible on the X-chest, mean 10.2, SD 0.66 versus mean 9.8, SD 0.73 on the X-Tspine (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results show good agreement and intraobserver reliability on

  12. Diagnosis of vertebral fractures on lateral chest X-ray: Intraobserver agreement of semi-quantitative vertebral fracture assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagt-Willems, H.C. van der, E-mail: Hvanderjagt@spaarneziekenhuis.nl [Department of Geriatrics, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Internal Medicine, Spaarne Hospital, Hoofddorp (Netherlands); Munster, B.C. van [Department of Internal Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Geriatrics, Gelre Hospitals, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Leeflang, M. [Department of Geriatrics, Gelre Hospitals, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Beuerle, E. [Department of Radiology, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tulner, C.R. [Department of Geriatrics, Slotervaart Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lems, W.F. [Department of Rheumatology, VU Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • (Lateral) chest X-ray's are often performed in older individuals for various reasons. • Vertebral fractures are visualized on lateral chest X-ray, but the diagnosis of vertebral fractures is until now only validated on (lateral) spine X-ray's. • This study shows that a (lateral) chest X-ray is sufficient for the diagnosis of vertebral fractures. • Older individuals with a vertebral fracture on a (lateral) chest X-ray do not need further radiography with thoracic spine X-ray or vertebral fracture assessment with DXA. - Abstract: Background: In clinical practice lateral images of the chest are performed for various reasons. As these lateral chest X rays show the vertebrae of the thoracic and thoraco-lumbar region, we wondered if these X-rays can be used for evaluation of vertebral fractures instead of separate thoracic spine X-rays. Methods: To evaluate the agreement and intraobserver reliability of the semi-quantitative method for vertebral fractures on the lateral chest X-ray (X-chest) in comparison to the lateral thoracic spine X-ray (X-Tspine), two observers scored vertebral fractures on X-Tspine and twice on X-chest, separately, blinded and in different time periods. Agreement and Cohens’ kappa were calculated for a diagnosis of any fracture on patient level and on vertebral body level. The study was done in patients visiting an outpatient geriatric day clinic, with a high prevalence of vertebral fractures. Results: 109 patients were included. The intraobserver agreement for X-chest versus X-Tspine was 95–98% for the two levels of fracturing, with a Cohen's kappa of 0.88–0.91. The intraobserver agreement and reliability of the re-test on the X-chest showed an agreement between 91 and 98% with a Cohen's kappa of 0.81–0.93. More vertebrae were visible on the X-chest, mean 10.2, SD 0.66 versus mean 9.8, SD 0.73 on the X-Tspine (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results show good agreement and intraobserver reliability on

  13. Bone pain induced by metastatic cancer: pathophysiology and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas-Herrera, Isaias; Huertas-Gabert, Luis Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Cancer patients who develop bone metastases are an estimated 60 to 84% . Of these 79% experienced pain syndromes are difficult to manage, of which 50% die without adequate pain relief and with a poor quality of life. Therefore, it is necessary to have accessible and effective medications for the management of this condition. The pathophysiology of pain in bone is reviewed and the drugs used most frequently in the management of this type of cancer pain are described. Furthermore an algorithm of 6 steps is presented and can guide the physician when making a therapeutic decision. (author) [es

  14. Pathophysiology of Portal Hypertension and Its Clinical Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yeon Seok; Shah, Vijay H

    2011-01-01

    Portal hypertension is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis. Intrahepatic vascular resistance due to architectural distortion and intrahepatic vasoconstriction, increased portal blood flow due to splanchnic vasodilatation, and development of collateral circulation have been considered as major factors for the development of portal hypertension. Recently, sinusoidal remodeling and angiogenesis have been focused as potential etiologic factors and various researchers have tried to improve portal hypertension by modulating these new targets. This article reviews potential new treatments in the context of portal hypertension pathophysiology concepts. PMID:25755320

  15. The pathophysiology of the nodular and micronodular small bowel fold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmsted, W.W.; Ros, P.R.; Moser, R.P.; Shekita, K.M.; Lichtenstein, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    The normal small bowel fold is easily seen on conventional studies of the small intestine, but visualization of the small bowel villus is at the limit of resolution of current roentgenographic technique. When the villi are enlarged, they appear radiographically as an irregularity or micronodularity of the small bowel fold. The anatomy of the fold and the pathophysiology of diseases producing fold nodularity (tumor,inflammatory disease, NLH, mastocytosis) and micronodularity (lymphangiectasia, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, Whipple disease) are presented, with an emphasis on radiologic-pathologic correlation. The radiologist should suggest certain diseases or conditions based on the roentgenographic characteristics of the closely analyzed small bowel fold

  16. Pathophysiology of the nodular and micronodular small bowel fold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmstead, W.W.; Ros, P.R.; Moser, R.P.; Shekitka, K.M.; Lichtenstein, J.E.; Buck, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The normal small bowel fold is easily seen on conventional studies of the small intestine, but visualization of the small bowel villus is just at the resolution of current roentgenographic technique. When the villi are enlarged, they can be seen radiographically as an irregularity or micronodularity of the small bowel fold. The anatomy of the fold and the pathophysiology of diseases producing fold nodularity (tumor, inflammatory disease, NLH, mastocytosis) and micronodularity (lymphangiectasia, Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, Whipple disease) are presented, with an emphasis on radiologic-pathologic correlation. The radiologist should suggest certain diseases or conditions based on the roentgenographic characteristics of the closely analyzed small bowel fold

  17. Obesity and Pulmonary Hypertension: A Review of Pathophysiologic Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E. Friedman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH is a potentially life-threatening condition arising from a wide variety of pathophysiologic mechanisms. Effective treatment requires a systematic diagnostic approach to identify all reversible mechanisms. Many of these mechanisms are relevant to those afflicted with obesity. The unique mechanisms of PH in the obese include obstructive sleep apnea, obesity hypoventilation syndrome, anorexigen use, cardiomyopathy of obesity, and pulmonary thromboembolic disease. Novel mechanisms of PH in the obese include endothelial dysfunction and hyperuricemia. A wide range of effective therapies exist to mitigate the disability of PH in the obese.

  18. The Sphenopalatine Ganglion: Anatomy, Pathophysiology, and Therapeutic Targeting in Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Matthew S; Robertson, Carrie E; Kaplan, Eugene; Ailani, Jessica; Charleston, Larry; Kuruvilla, Deena; Blumenfeld, Andrew; Berliner, Randall; Rosen, Noah L; Duarte, Robert; Vidwan, Jaskiran; Halker, Rashmi B; Gill, Nicole; Ashkenazi, Avi

    2016-02-01

    The sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) has attracted the interest of practitioners treating head and face pain for over a century because of its anatomical connections and role in the trigemino-autonomic reflex. In this review, we discuss the anatomy of the SPG, as well as what is known about its role in the pathophysiology of headache disorders, including cluster headache and migraine. We then address various therapies that target the SPG, including intranasal medication delivery, new SPG blocking catheter devices, neurostimulation, chemical neurolysis, and ablation procedures. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  19. Pathophysiological aspects of ureterorenoscopic management of upper urinary tract calculi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osther, Palle J S; Pedersen, Katja V; Lildal, Søren K

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Indications for ureterorenoscopy are expanding without hard scientific evidence to support its efficacy. Therefore, it is extremely important to focus on potential harmful effects of the procedure itself. This review explores how physiology of the upper urinary tract reacts...... of the β-receptor agonist isoproterenol in the irrigation fluid has shown a potential for reducing both intrarenal pressure and ureteral tone during ureterorenoscopy. SUMMARY: Upper urinary tract physiology has unique features that may be pushed into pathophysiological processes by the unique elements...

  20. Oral submucous fibrosis: An update on pathophysiology of malignant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Gururaj; Patil, Shekar Gowda; Aljabab, Abdulsalam S; Lin, Kuan-Chou; Merkx, M A W; Gao, Shan; Brennan, Peter A

    2017-07-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a potentially malignant condition associated with areca nut chewing. Formerly confined to the Indian subcontinent, it is now often seen in Asian populations of the United Kingdom, USA and other developed countries, and is therefore a serious problem for global health. What makes it more sinister is the malignant transformation rate, which has been reported to be around 7.6% over a 17-year period. In this concise article, we review the current trends in the pathophysiology of malignant transformation of OSMF. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.