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Sample records for pathophysiology acid bicarbonate

  1. Peptic ulcer pathophysiology: acid, bicarbonate, and mucosal function

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    Højgaard, L; Mertz Nielsen, A; Rune, S J

    1996-01-01

    The previously accepted role of gastric acid hypersecretion in peptic ulcer disease has been modified by studies showing no correlation between acid output and clinical outcome of ulcer disease, or between ulcer recurrence rate after vagotomy and preoperative acid secretion. At the same time......, studies have been unable to demonstrate increased acidity in the duodenal bulb in patients with duodenal ulcer, and consequently more emphasis has been given to the mucosal protecting mechanisms. The existence of an active gastric and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion creates a pH gradient from...... cell removal and repair regulated by epidermal growth factor. Sufficient mucosal blood flow, including a normal acid/base balance, is important for subepithelial protection. In today's model of ulcer pathogenesis, gastric acid and H. pylori work in concert as aggressive factors, with the open question...

  2. Pancreatic ductal bicarbonate secretion: challenge of the acinar acid load

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    Peter eHegyi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Acinar and ductal cells of the exocrine pancreas form a close functional unit. Although most studies contain data either on acinar or ductal cells, an increasing number of evidence highlights the importance of the pancreatic acinar-ductal functional unit. One of the best examples for this functional unit is the regulation of luminal pH by both cell types. Protons co-released during exocytosis from acini cause significant acidosis, whereas, bicarbonate secreted by ductal cells cause alkalization in the lumen. This suggests that the first and probably one of the most important role of bicarbonate secretion by pancreatic ductal cells is not only to neutralize the acid chyme entering into the duodenum from the stomach, but to neutralize acidic content secreted by acinar cells. To accomplish this role, it is more than likely that ductal cells have physiological sensing mechanisms which would allow them to regulate luminal pH. To date, four different classes of acid-sensing ion channels have been identified in the gastrointestinal tract (transient receptor potential ion channels, two-pore domain potassium channel, ionotropic purinoceptor and acid-sensing ion channel, however, none of these have been studied in pancreatic ductal cells. In this mini-review, we summarize our current knowledge of these channels and urge scientists to characterize ductal acid-sensing mechanisms and also to investigate the challenge of the acinar acid load on ductal cells.

  3. Pathophysiological aspect of metabolic acid-base disorders

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    Nešović-Ostojić Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaing the arterial pH values (in normal range of 7,35-7,45 is one of the main principles of homeostasis. Regulatory responses, including chemical buffering (extracellular, intracellular, sceletal, the regulation of pCO2 by the respiratory system, and the regulation of [HCO3-] by the kidneys, act in concert to maintain normal arterial pH value. The main extracellular chemical buffer is bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffer system. The kidneys contribute to the regulation of hydrogen (and bicarbonate in body fluids in two ways. Proximal tubules are important in bicarbonate reabsorption and distal tubules excrete hydrogen ion (as ammonium ion or titratable acid. There are four simple acid-base disorders: metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis; respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis. Metabolic acidosis can occur because of an increase in endogenous acid production (such as lactate and ketoacids, loss of bicarbonate (as in diarrhea, or accumulation of endogenous acids (as in renal failure. Metabolic acidosis can also be with high and normal (hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis anion gap. Renal tubular acidosis (RTA is a form of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis which occurs when the renal damage primarily affects tubular function. The main problem in distal RTA is reduced H+ excretion in distal tubule. Type 2 RTA is also called proximal RTA because the main problem is greatly impaired reabsorption of bicarbonate in proximal tubule. Impaired cation exchange in distal tubule is the main problem in RTA type 4. Metabolic alkalosis occurs as a result of net gain of [HCO3-] or loss of nonvolatile acid from extracellular fluids. Metabolic alkalosis can be associated with reduced or increased extracellular volume.

  4. Modulation of the cardiac sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter by the renin angiotensin aldosterone system: pathophysiological consequences.

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    De Giusti, Verónica C; Ciancio, María C; Orlowski, Alejandro; Aiello, Ernesto A

    2013-01-01

    The sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) is one of the major alkalinizing mechanisms in the cardiomyocytes. It has been demonstrated the existence of at least two functional isoforms, one that promotes the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na(+) per 1 molecule of HCO(-) 3 (electroneutral isoform; NBCn1) and the other one that generates the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na(+) per 2 molecules of HCO(-) 3 (electrogenic isoform; NBCe1). Both isoforms are important to maintain intracellular pH (pH i ) and sodium concentration ([Na(+)] i ). In addition, NBCe1 generates an anionic repolarizing current that modulates the action potential duration (APD). The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) is implicated in the modulation of almost all physiological cardiac functions and is also involved in the development and progression of cardiac diseases. It was reported that angiotensin II (Ang II) exhibits an opposite effect on NBC isoforms: it activates NBCn1 and inhibits NBCe1. The activation of NBCn1 leads to an increase in pH i and [Na(+)] i , which indirectly, due to the stimulation of reverse mode of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), conduces to an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. On the other hand, the inhibition of NBCe1 generates an APD prolongation, potentially representing a risk of arrhythmias. In the last years, the potentially altered NBC function in pathological scenarios, as cardiac hypertrophy and ischemia-reperfusion, has raised increasing interest among investigators. This review attempts to draw the attention on the relevant regulation of NBC activity by RAAS, since it modulates pH i and [Na(+)] i , which are involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, the damage produced by ischemia-reperfusion and the generation of arrhythmic events, suggesting a potential role of NBC in cardiac diseases.

  5. MODULATION OF THE CARDIAC SODIUM/BICARBONATE COTRANSPORTER BY THE RENIN ANGIOTENSIN ALDOSTERONE SYSTEM: PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES.

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    Verónica Celeste De Giusti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC is one of the major alkalinizing mechanisms in the cardiomyocytes. It has been demonstrated the existence of at least two functional isoforms, one that promotes the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na+ per 1 molecule of HCO3- (electroneutral isoform; NBCn1 and the other one that generates the co-influx of 1 molecule of Na+ per 2 molecules of HCO3- (electrogenic isoform; NBCe1. Both isoforms are important to maintain intracellular pH (pHi and sodium concentration ([Na+]i. In addition, NBCe1 generates an anionic repolarizing current that modulates the action potential duration (APD. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS is implicated in the modulation of almost all physiological cardiac functions and is also involved in the development and progression of cardiac diseases. It was reported that angiotensin II (Ang II exhibits an opposite effect on NBC isoforms: it activates NBCn1 and inhibits NBCe1. The activation of NBCn1 leads to an increase in pHi and [Na+]i, which indirectly, due to the stimulation of reverse mode of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX, conduces to an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. On the other hand, the inhibition of NBCe1 generates an APD prolongation, potentially representing a risk of arrhythmias. In the last years, the potentially altered NBC function in pathological scenarios, as cardiac hypertrophy and ischemia-reperfusion, has raised increasing interest among investigators. This review attempts to draw the attention on the relevant regulation of NBC activity by RAAS, since it modulates pHi and [Na+]i, which are involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, the damage produced by ischemia-reperfusion and the generation of arrhythmic events, suggesting a potential role of NBC in cardiac diseases.

  6. Bicarbonate Concentration, Acid-Base Status, and Mortality in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study.

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    Raphael, Kalani L; Murphy, Rachel A; Shlipak, Michael G; Satterfield, Suzanne; Huston, Hunter K; Sebastian, Anthony; Sellmeyer, Deborah E; Patel, Kushang V; Newman, Anne B; Sarnak, Mark J; Ix, Joachim H; Fried, Linda F

    2016-02-05

    Low serum bicarbonate associates with mortality in CKD. This study investigated the associations of bicarbonate and acid-base status with mortality in healthy older individuals. We analyzed data from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, a prospective study of well functioning black and white adults ages 70-79 years old from 1997. Participants with arterialized venous blood gas measurements (n=2287) were grouped into respiratory alkalosis, and 1.35 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.69) for metabolic alkalosis categories. Respiratory acidosis did not associate with mortality. In generally healthy older individuals, low serum bicarbonate associated with higher mortality independent of systemic pH and potential confounders. This association seemed to be present regardless of whether the cause of low bicarbonate was metabolic acidosis or respiratory alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis also associated with higher mortality. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Bicarbonate sensing in mouse cortical astrocytes during extracellular acid/base disturbances

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    Naoshin, Zinnia; Defren, Sabrina; Schmaelzle, Jana; Weber, Tobias; Schneider, Hans‐Peter

    2017-01-01

    Key points The present study suggests that the electrogenic sodium–bicarbonate cotransporter, NBCe1, supported by carbonic anhydrase II, CAII, provides an efficient mechanism of bicarbonate sensing in cortical astrocytes. This mechanism is proposed to play a major role in setting the pHi responses to extracellular acid/base challenges in astrocytes.A decrease in extracellular [HCO3 −] during isocapnic acidosis and isohydric hypocapnia, or an increase in intracellular [HCO3 −] during hypercapnic acidosis, was effectively sensed by NBCe1, which carried bicarbonate out of the cells under these conditions, and caused an acidification and sodium fall in WT astrocytes, but not in NBCe1‐knockout astrocytes.Isocapnic acidosis, hypercapnic acidosis and isohydric hypocapnia evoked inward currents in NBCe1‐ and CAII‐expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes, but not in native oocytes, suggesting that NBCe1 operates in the outwardly directed mode under these conditions consistent with our findings in astrocytes.We propose that bicarbonate sensing of astrocytes may have functional significance during extracellular acid/base disturbances in the brain, as it not only alters intracellular pH/[HCO3 −]‐dependent functions of astrocytes, but also modulates the extracellular pH/[HCO3 −] in brain tissue. Abstract Extracellular acid/base status of the mammalian brain undergoes dynamic changes during many physiological and pathological events. Although intracellular pH (pHi) of astrocytes responds to extracellular acid/base changes, the mechanisms mediating these changes have remained unresolved. We have previously shown that the electrogenic sodium–bicarbonate cotransporter, NBCe1, is a high‐affinity bicarbonate carrier in cortical astrocytes. In the present study, we investigated whether NBCe1 plays a role in bicarbonate sensing in astrocytes, and in determining the pHi responses to extracellular acid/base challenges. We measured changes in intracellular H+ and Na+ in

  8. Estimated net endogenous acid production and serum bicarbonate in African Americans with chronic kidney disease.

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    Scialla, Julia J; Appel, Lawrence J; Astor, Brad C; Miller, Edgar R; Beddhu, Srinivasan; Woodward, Mark; Parekh, Rulan S; Anderson, Cheryl A M

    2011-07-01

    Metabolic acidosis may contribute to morbidity and disease progression in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The ratio of dietary protein, the major source of nonvolatile acid, to dietary potassium, which is naturally bound to alkali precursors, can be used to estimate net endogenous acid production (NEAP). We tested the association between estimated NEAP and serum bicarbonate in patients with CKD. NEAP was estimated among 462 African American adults with hypertensive CKD using published equations: NEAP (mEq/d) = -10.2 + 54.5 (protein [g/d]/potassium [mEq/d]). Dietary protein and potassium intake were estimated from 24-hour urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and potassium, respectively. All of the eligible measurements during follow-up were modeled using generalized linear regression clustered by participant and adjusted for demographics, 24-hour urinary sodium, kidney function, and selected medications. Higher NEAP was associated with lower serum bicarbonate in a graded fashion (P trend patients with stage 4/5 CKD (-2.43 mEq/L, P disease (-0.77 mEq/L, P = 0.01; P-interaction = 0.02). Reducing NEAP, through reduction of dietary protein and increased intake of fruits and vegetables, may prevent metabolic acidosis in patients with CKD.

  9. Shock wave synthesis of amino acids from solutions of ammonium formate and ammonium bicarbonate

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    Suzuki, Chizuka; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Takamichi; Sekine, Toshimori; Nakazawa, Hiromoto; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2015-07-01

    The emergence of life's building blocks, such as amino acids and nucleobases, on the prebiotic Earth was a critical step for the beginning of life. Reduced species with low mass, such as ammonia, amines, or carboxylic acids, are potential precursors for these building blocks of life. These precursors may have been provided to the prebiotic ocean by carbonaceous chondrites and chemical reactions related to meteorite impacts on the early Earth. The impact of extraterrestrial objects on Earth occurred more frequently during this period than at present. Such impacts generated shock waves in the ocean, which have the potential to progress chemical reactions to form the building blocks of life from reduced species. To simulate shock-induced reactions in the prebiotic ocean, we conducted shock-recovery experiments on ammonium bicarbonate solution and ammonium formate solution at impact velocities ranging from 0.51 to 0.92 km/s. In the products from the ammonium formate solution, several amino acids (glycine, alanine, ß-alanine, and sarcosine) and aliphatic amines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine) were detected, although yields were less than 0.1 mol % of the formic acid reactant. From the ammonium bicarbonate solution, smaller amounts of glycine, methylamine, ethylamine, and propylamine were formed. The impact velocities used in this study represent minimum cases because natural meteorite impacts typically have higher velocities and longer durations. Our results therefore suggest that shock waves could have been involved in forming life's building blocks in the ocean of prebiotic Earth, and potentially in aquifers of other planets, satellites, and asteroids.

  10. The acid-base effects of continuous hemofiltration with lactate or bicarbonate buffered replacement fluids.

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    Tan, H K; Uchino, S; Bellomo, R

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate, quantify and compare the effects of continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) with lactate or bicarbonate-buffered replacement fluids on acid-base balance. Randomized double crossover study. Intensive Care Unit of Tertiary Medical Center. Eight patients with severe acute renal failure. Random allocation to either 2 hours of isovolemic lactate-buffered (treatment A) CVVH or 2 hours of bicarbonate-buffered (treatment B) CVVH with cross over and with same procedure repeated the following day (double cross over). Timed collections of arterial blood and ultrafiltrate (UF), measurement of blood and UF gases and lactate concentrations and calculation of buffer-base mass balance. At baseline, both groups of patients had a similar, slight metabolic alkalosis (pH: 7.45 vs. 7.45; BE 3.9 mEq/L for treatment A and 4.0 for treatment B) and a serum bicarbonate of 28.1 mmol/L for treatment A vs. 28.3 mmol/L for treatment B; all NS. This alkalosis was present despite slight hyperlactatemia in both groups (A: 2.4 mmol/L vs. B 2.8 mmol/; NS). Within 60 minutes of treatment, however, treatment A led to a significantly higher lactate concentration (3.9 vs 2.5 mmol/L; p = 0.0011), a significantly lower BE (2.3 vs 4.1 mEq/L; p = 0.0019) and a significantly lower bicarbonate concentration (26.7 vs. 28.3 mmol/L; p = 0.0038) in the presence of an unchanged PaCO2. These differences persisted during the study period. The UF of patients receiving treatment A contained more lactate (10.2 vs 2.9 mmol/L; p buffer-base balance of +20.4 mEq/h compared to -2.6 mEq/h for treatment B; p buffered replacement fluids induces iatrogenic hyperlactatemia. Such hyperlactatemia is associated with an acidifying effect despite a positive buffer-base balance.

  11. Sodium Bicarbonate-Ascorbic Acid Combination for Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Undergoing Catheterization.

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    Komiyama, Kota; Ashikaga, Takashi; Inagaki, Dai; Miyabe, Tomonori; Arai, Marina; Yoshida, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Satoshi; Nakada, Akihiro; Kawamura, Iwanari; Masuda, Shinichiro; Nagamine, Sho; Hojo, Rintaro; Aoyama, Yuya; Tsuchiyama, Takaaki; Fukamizu, Seiji; Shibui, Takashi; Sakurada, Harumizu

    2017-01-25

    Sodium bicarbonate and ascorbic acid have been proposed to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). The present study evaluated the effect of their combined use on CIN incidence.Methods and Results:We prospectively enrolled 429 patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD: baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) prior to elective coronary catheterization. CIN was defined as absolute (≥0.5 mg/dL) or relative (≥25%) increase in serum creatinine within 72 h. In the saline hydration (n=218) and combined sodium bicarbonate+ascorbic acid (n=211) groups, a total of 1,500-2,500 mL 0.9% saline was given before and after the procedure. In addition, the combination group received 20 mEq sodium bicarbonate and 3 g ascorbic acid i.v. before the procedure, followed by 2 g ascorbic acid after the procedure and a further 2 g after 12 h. There were no significant differences between the basic characteristics and contrast volume in the 2 groups. CIN occurred in 19 patients (8.7%) in the saline group, and in 6 patients (2.8%) in the combined treatment group (P=0.008). Combined sodium bicarbonate and ascorbic acid could prevent CIN following catheterization in CKD patients.

  12. Addition of Sodium Bicarbonate to Irrigation Solution May Assist in Dissolution of Uric Acid Fragments During Ureteroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paonessa, Jessica E; Williams, James C; Lingeman, James E

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We hypothesized that adding sodium bicarbonate (bicarb) to normal saline (NS) irrigation during ureteroscopy in patients with uric acid (UA) nephrolithiasis may assist in dissolving small stone fragments produced during laser lithotripsy. In vitro testing was performed to determine....../L NS yielded a dissolution rate averaging 22% ± 7% per hour, which was nearly five times higher than NS alone. There was a trend for an increase in mean dissolution rate with higher temperature but this increase was not significant (p = 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: The addition of bicarbonate to NS more than...

  13. Acid-base profile and predictors of metabolic acidosis in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis with lactate- and bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis solutions.

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    Fourtounas, Costas; Savidaki, Eirini; Roumelioti, Marilena; Dousdampanis, Periklis; Hardalias, Andreas; Kalliakmani, Pantelitsa; Papachristou, Evangelos; Drakopoulos, Anastasios; Goumenos, Dimitrios S; Vlachojannis, Jannis G

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis correction is one of the goals of renal replacement therapy. Correction of acidosis in peritoneal dialysis (PD) may be affected by PD modalities such as automated PD (APD) or by new solutions containing a combination of bicarbonate and lactate as a buffer [bicarbonate continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD)]. The aim of the present study was to examine the acid-base status of our PD population and to compare the effects of APD, lactate CAPD, and bicarbonate CAPD on serum bicarbonate levels. We studied 35 stable patients undergoing APD (n = 15), lactate-buffered (35 mEq/L) CAPD (n = 14), and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered CAPD (n = 6) for 48.5 +/- 38.1 months. Most of our patients had serum bicarbonate levels in the normal range. In 3 patients (8%), HCO3 was below 22 mEq/L, and in 8 patients (22%; APD = 2, lactate CAPD = 2, bicarbonate CAPD = 4), HCO3 was above 28 mEq/L. We found no statistically significant correlations between HCO3 serum levels and PD prescription, peritoneal membrane characteristics, or intake of calcium carbonate and sevelamer hydrochloride. Patients on bicarbonate CAPD had higher HCO3 serum levels, but this difference disappeared when corrections for duration of dialysis, residual urine volume, and PD adequacy indices were applied. In the studied PD population, adequate correction of metabolic acidosis was achieved, as reflected in serum bicarbonate levels. We observed no difference in serum bicarbonate levels between APD and lactate CAPD patients. The new bicarbonate-buffered PD solutions are more biocompatible and can result in higher serum bicarbonate levels. However, a significant number of PD patients on bicarbonate-buffered solutions may become alkalotic. The clinical significance of these results needs further examination in prospective studies.

  14. Effects of fat source and dietary sodium bicarbonate plus straw on the conjugated linoleic acid content of milk of dairy cows.

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    Troegeler-Meynadier, Annabelle; Nicot, Marie-Claude; Enjalbert, Francis

    2007-10-01

    The effects of fat source (0.7 kg of fatty acids from extruded soybeans or palmitic acid), of sodium bicarbonate (0.3 kg) plus straw (1 kg) and the interaction of these treatments on the content of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the milk of dairy cows were examined. During nine weeks a group of 10 cows received a ration with palmitic acid and bicarbonate plus straw (ration PAB). During three periods of three weeks a second group of 10 cows received successively a ration with extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw (ration ESB), a ration with palmitic acid without bicarbonate or straw (ration PA), and a ration with extruded soybeans without bicarbonate or straw (ration ES). Rations ES and ESB increased the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk, but decreased milk fat content, compared to rations PAB and PA. Ration ESB led to the greatest milk CLA content, by a synergy between the high amount of dietary fat, and the action of bicarbonate plus straw, favouring trans11 isomers of CLA and C18:1, presumably via a ruminal pH near neutrality. Ration ES favoured trans10 isomers, not desaturated in the mammary gland, so that the milk CLA content was lower than with ration ESB, and resulted in the lowest milk fat content. In conclusion, a ration supplemented with both extruded soybeans and bicarbonate plus straw, was an efficient way to increase the CLA content in the milk of dairy cows.

  15. Three-Stream, Bicarbonate-Based Hemodialysis Solution Delivery System Revisited: With an Emphasis on Some Aspects of Acid-Base Principles.

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    Lew, Susie Q; Kohn, Orly F; Cheng, Yuk-Lun; Kjellstrand, Carl M; Ing, Todd S

    2017-06-01

    Hemodialysis patients can acquire buffer base (i.e., bicarbonate and buffer base equivalents of certain organic anions) from the acid and base concentrates of a three-stream, dual-concentrate, bicarbonate-based, dialysis solution delivery machine. The differences between dialysis fluid concentrate systems containing acetic acid versus sodium diacetate in the amount of potential buffering power were reviewed. Any organic anion such as acetate, citrate, or lactate (unless when combined with hydrogen) delivered to the body has the potential of being converted to bicarbonate. The prescribing physician aware of the role that organic anions in the concentrates can play in providing buffering power to the final dialysis fluid, will have a better knowledge of the amount of bicarbonate and bicarbonate precursors delivered to the patient. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Variability of Acid-Base Status in Acetate-Free Biofiltration 84% versus Bicarbonate Dialysis

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    Harzallah Kais

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate goal of hemodialysis (HD treatment is to achieve the highest level of efficacy in the presence of maximal clinical tolerance. With an aim to offer good hemodynamic stability, as observed during the acetate-free biofiltration 14% (AFB 14% to patients who are intolerant to bicarbonate dialysis (BD and with less cost, we have developed since June 1994, a new HD technique, namely AFB 84%. This study was carried out to analyze acid-base variations during the AFB 84% in comparison to BD in hemodynamically stable patients on regular HD. This was a prospective randomized crossover study carried out on 12 patients (6 males and 6 females for a total of 144 HD sessions (72 BD and 72 AFB 84%. Patients with decompensated cardiomyopathy, respiratory diseases or uncontrolled hypertension were not included in the trial. All the patients were treated with BD or AFB 84%; the latter is characterized by the absence of acetate in the dialysate and a complete correction of buffer balance by post-dilutional infusion of bicarbonate-based replacement solution. The comparison of pre-dialysis arterial acid-base and blood-gas parameters revealed no significant differences of pH, HCO 3 - and paCO 2 levels between the two techniques. Analysis of post-dialysis parameters showed that, among patients dialyzed with BD, there was over correction of metabolic acidosis with a tendency towards metabolic alkalosis. In contrast, in patients dialyzed with AFB 84%, we observed a significant improvement in pH and HCO 3 - levels but the increase in paCO2 level was not significant. A comparison of these parameters between the two techniques showed statistically significant difference in pH, HCO3 - and paCO2 levels, but not for paO2 level. AFB 84% can offer some important advantages with the complete absence of acetate from the substitution fluids, and permits a better correction of metabolic acidosis than BD, without causing alkalosis.

  17. In Vivo Predictive Dissolution: Comparing the Effect of Bicarbonate and Phosphate Buffer on the Dissolution of Weak Acids and Weak Bases.

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    Krieg, Brian J; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2015-09-01

    Bicarbonate is the main buffer in the small intestine and it is well known that buffer properties such as pKa can affect the dissolution rate of ionizable drugs. However, bicarbonate buffer is complicated to work with experimentally. Finding a suitable substitute for bicarbonate buffer may provide a way to perform more physiologically relevant dissolution tests. The dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs was conducted in bicarbonate and phosphate buffer using rotating disk dissolution methodology. Experimental results were compared with the predicted results using the film model approach of (Mooney K, Mintun M, Himmelstein K, Stella V. 1981. J Pharm Sci 70(1):22-32) based on equilibrium assumptions as well as a model accounting for the slow hydration reaction, CO2 + H2 O → H2 CO3 . Assuming carbonic acid is irreversible in the dehydration direction: CO2 + H2 O ← H2 CO3 , the transport analysis can accurately predict rotating disk dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in bicarbonate buffer. The predictions show that matching the dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in phosphate and bicarbonate buffer is possible. The phosphate buffer concentration necessary to match physiologically relevant bicarbonate buffer [e.g., 10.5 mM (HCO3 (-) ), pH = 6.5] is typically in the range of 1-25 mM and is very dependent upon drug solubility and pKa . © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  18. Optimization of sodium bicarbonate injection for acid scrubbing in hospital waste incineration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozainee, M.; Salleh, M.; Mutahharah, M.M.; Anwar Johari

    2010-01-01

    Optimization of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) injection for acid hydrochloric (HCl) scrubbing was conducted on a hospital waste incineration plant. The plant employs a rotary kiln system having burning capacity of 350 kg/h hospital waste (average calorific value of 17.4 MJ/kg) and is operated on a 24 hr/ day basis. Currently, NaHCO 3 injection rate is 25 kg/h as recommended by manufacturer to meet the Department of Environment (DOE) standard emission limit of 200 mg/Nm 3 HCl. Testing of HCl emission at various injection rates of 25, 20, 15 and 10 kg/ h results in HCl final concentration in the range of 0.58-7.13, 5.63-7.74, 0.07-2.99 and 3-28 mg/Nm 3 respectively. The results showed that NaHCO 3 injection rate as low as 10 kg/ h could still meet the HCl stipulated emission limit. Economic comparison between 25 and 10 kg/ h injection rates showed that total saving on NaHCO 3 and disposal of fly ash was RM 22,000 per month (equivalent to saving RM 260,000 per year) when using 10 kg/ h injection rate. It was concluded from the study that optimum injection rate would not only save cost and reduce wastage but also reduce bag house loading rate and prolong the life span of filter bags. (author)

  19. Evaluation tissue dissolution property of 2.5 % Sodium Hypochlorite Prepared by Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Bicarbonate: An in vitro

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    Hamid Razavian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Successful endodontic treatment requires chemical preparation in addition to mechanical preparation. The most common material for chemical preparations is sodium hypochlorite. One way to reduce the effects of pH adjustment is the use of sodium hypochlorite. The present paper was conducted to examine the effect of dilution with hydrochloric acid and sodium bicarbonate and reduce pH on ability of tissue solubility of sodium hypochlorite. The present study was conducted in vitro on bovine muscle tissue. Ability of tissue solubility was conducted in four groups respectively with active ingredient including 1 sodium hypochlorite diluted with distilled water 2 sodium hypochlorite diluted with sodium bicarbonate 3 sodium hypochlorite diluted with hydrochloric acid and finally 4 distilled water (control group. Each sample was firstly weighed and then placed in contact with 10 m/L solution for 60 minutes (five 12 -minute intervals. The sample was weighted every five minutes and solution was renewed. The results were analyzed using SPSS-21 Software based on variance analysis, Tukey and T-test (α=0.05. The findings showed that there was significant difference between first, second and third groups in terms of ability of tissue solubility. However, the tissue solubility in second and third groups was lower than first group and it was similar in second and third groups (P Value <0.001. Reduction of sodium bicarbonate PH using sodium hypochlorite and hydrochloric acid reduces ability of tissue solubility in sodium hypochlorite.

  20. Acid-Base Disorders in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Pathophysiological Review

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    Cosimo Marcello Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to development of acidosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its deleterious effects on outcome and mortality rate. Renal compensatory adjustments consequent to acidosis are also described in detail with emphasis on differences between acute and chronic respiratory acidosis. Mixed acid-base disturbances due to comorbidity and side effects of some drugs in these patients are also examined, and practical considerations for a correct diagnosis are provided.

  1. Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion involves two proton pumps.

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    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L; Haanes, Kristian A; Krabbe, Simon; Nitschke, Roland; Hede, Susanne E

    2011-01-07

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium express H(+)/HCO(3)(-) transporters, which depend on gradients created by the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. However, the model cannot fully account for high-bicarbonate concentrations, and other active transporters, i.e. pumps, have not been explored. Here we show that pancreatic ducts express functional gastric and non-gastric H(+)-K(+)-ATPases. We measured intracellular pH and secretion in small ducts isolated from rat pancreas and showed their sensitivity to H(+)-K(+) pump inhibitors and ion substitutions. Gastric and non-gastric H(+)-K(+) pumps were demonstrated on RNA and protein levels, and pumps were localized to the plasma membranes of pancreatic ducts. Quantitative analysis of H(+)/HCO(3)(-) and fluid transport shows that the H(+)-K(+) pumps can contribute to pancreatic secretion in several species. Our results call for revision of the bicarbonate transport physiology in pancreas, and most likely other epithelia. Furthermore, because pancreatic ducts play a central role in several pancreatic diseases, it is of high relevance to understand the role of H(+)-K(+) pumps in pathophysiology.

  2. Utilization of sodium bicarbonate for the neutralization of acid components in exhaust gases; Verwendung von Natriumbicarbonat zur Neutralisation saurer Bestandteile in Abgasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Thomas [Solvay Chemicals GmbH, Rheinberg (Germany). Technisches Marketing

    2013-03-01

    The SOLVAIR dry process using sodium bicarbonate as absorbent facilitates an uncomplicated and efficient purification of exhaust gases from different processes. The products from exhaust gas purification can be used either directly in a producing process or subsequently to a treatment process in the chemical process. The author of this contribution reports on the utilization of sodium bicarbonate in the neutralisation of pour components in exhaust gases such as hydrochloric acid, sulphur dioxide and nitrous dioxides. Further aspects of this contribution are the energy efficiency and the recycling of reaction products.

  3. Metabolism of very long-chain Fatty acids: genes and pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Takayuki; Kihara, Akio

    2014-02-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are highly diverse in terms of carbon (C) chain-length and number of double bonds. FAs with C>20 are called very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). VLCFAs are found not only as constituents of cellular lipids such as sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids but also as precursors of lipid mediators. Our understanding on the function of VLCFAs is growing in parallel with the identification of enzymes involved in VLCFA synthesis or degradation. A variety of inherited diseases, such as ichthyosis, macular degeneration, myopathy, mental retardation, and demyelination, are caused by mutations in the genes encoding VLCFA metabolizing enzymes. In this review, we describe mammalian VLCFAs by highlighting their tissue distribution and metabolic pathways, and we discuss responsible genes and enzymes with reference to their roles in pathophysiology.

  4. Addition of Sodium Bicarbonate to Irrigation Solution May Assist in Dissolution of Uric Acid Fragments During Ureteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paonessa, Jessica E; Williams, James C; Lingeman, James E

    2018-04-01

    We hypothesized that adding sodium bicarbonate (bicarb) to normal saline (NS) irrigation during ureteroscopy in patients with uric acid (UA) nephrolithiasis may assist in dissolving small stone fragments produced during laser lithotripsy. In vitro testing was performed to determine whether dissolution of UA fragments could be accomplished within 1 hour. In total 100% UA renal calculi were fragmented, filtered, and separated by size. Fragment sizes were <0.5 mm and 0.5 to 1 mm. Similar amounts of stone material were agitated in solution at room temperature. Four solutions were tested (NS, NS +1 ampule bicarb/L, NS +2, NS +3). Both groups were filtered to remove solutions after fixed periods. Filtered specimens were dried and weighed. Fragment dissolution rates were calculated as percent removed per hour. Additional testing was performed to determine whether increasing the temperature of solution affected dissolution rates. For fragments <0.5 mm, adding 2 or 3 bicarb ampules/L NS produced a dissolution rate averaging 91% ± 29% per hour. This rate averaged 226% faster than NS alone. With fragments 0.5 to 1 mm, addition of 2 or 3 bicarb ampules/L NS yielded a dissolution rate averaging 22% ± 7% per hour, which was nearly five times higher than NS alone. There was a trend for an increase in mean dissolution rate with higher temperature but this increase was not significant (p = 0.30). The addition of bicarbonate to NS more than doubles the dissolution rate of UA stone fragments and fragments less than 0.5 mm can be completely dissolved within 1 hour. Addition of bicarb to NS irrigation is a simple and inexpensive approach that may assist in the dissolution of UA fragments produced during ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy. Further studies are needed to determine whether a clinical benefit exists.

  5. Ursodeoxycholic Acid Ameliorates Intrahepatic Cholestasis Independent of Biliary Bicarbonate Secretion in Vil2kd/kd Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Ryo; Kawaguchi, Kotoku; Togashi, Fumitaka; Sugata, Masato; Masuda, Shizuka; Asano, Shinji

    2017-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is a hydrophilic bile acid that possesses many pharmacological effects, including increasing bile flow, changing the hydrophobicity of the bile acid pool, and modulation of the immune response. UDCA has been approved for treating cholestatic liver disease, such as primary biliary cholangitis. However, several unanticipated severe side effects of UDCA are observed in cholestatic patients, and its pharmacological benefits remain controversial. We reported that ezrin-knockdown (Vil2 kd/kd ) mice exhibited severe hepatic injury because of a functional disorder in bile duct fluidity and alkalinity regulation, resembling human intrahepatic cholestatic disease. Here we used Vil2 kd/kd mice as a cholestatic model to investigate the pharmacological effects of UDCA. We investigated the effects of oral and parenteral administration of UDCA on Vil2 kd/kd mice. In Vil2 kd/kd mice, fed a 0.5% (w/w) UDCA diet for 3 weeks, hepatic injury was exacerbated, although oral administration of a lower dose of UDCA slightly improved hepatic function in Vil2 kd/kd mice. On the other hand, intraperitoneal administration of UDCA (50 mg/kg/d) ameliorated hepatic function and markedly reduced periductal fibrosis and cholangiocyte proliferation in Vil2 kd/kd mice although biliary pH and HCO 3 - concentration were not improved. The expression levels of inflammatory and profibrotic genes were also significantly decreased in these mice. Furthermore, UDCA prevented cholangiocytes from hydrophobic bile acid-induced cytotoxicity independent of extracellular pH in in vitro experiments. These results suggest that an appropriate dosage of UDCA can ameliorate the intrahepatic cholestasis in Vil2 kd/kd mice without changing the biliary bicarbonate secretion.

  6. Sodium acetate induces a metabolic alkalosis but not the increase in fatty acid oxidation observed following bicarbonate ingestion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gordon I; Jeukendrup, Asker E; Ball, Derek

    2007-07-01

    We conducted this study to quantify the oxidation of exogenous acetate and to determine the effect of increased acetate availability upon fat and carbohydrate utilization in humans at rest. Eight healthy volunteers (6 males and 2 females) completed 2 separate trials, 7 d apart in a single-blind, randomized, crossover design. On each occasion, respiratory gas and arterialized venous blood samples were taken before and during 180 min following consumption of a drink containing either sodium acetate (NaAc) or NaHCO3 at a dose of 2 mmol/kg body mass. Labeled [1,2 -13C] NaAc was added to the NaAc drink to quantify acetate oxidation. Both sodium salts induced a mild metabolic alkalosis and increased energy expenditure (P < 0.05) to a similar magnitude. NaHCO3 ingestion increased fat utilization from 587 +/- 83 kJ/180 min to 693 +/- 101 kJ/180 min (P = 0.01) with no change in carbohydrate utilization. Following ingestion of NaAc, the amount of fat and carbohydrate utilized did not differ from the preingestion values. However, oxidation of the exogenous acetate almost entirely (90%) replaced the additional fat that had been oxidized during the bicarbonate trial. We determined that 80.1 +/- 2.3% of an exogenous source of acetate is oxidized in humans at rest. Whereas NaHCO3 ingestion increased fat oxidation, a similar response did not occur following NaAc ingestion despite the fact both sodium salts induced a similar increase in energy expenditure and shift in acid-base balance.

  7. Functional properties of bicarbonates and lactic acid on chicken breast retail display properties and cooked meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nakia; Sharma, Vijendra; Brown, Nettie; Mohan, Anand

    2015-02-01

    Whole chicken breast was injected with potassium bicarbonate (PB), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and potassium lactate (K-lactate) and salt, alone or in combination at different concentration levels. The objectives were to 1) investigate the effects of different concentration of PB, SB, and PL on instrumental color, water-holding capacity (WHC), objective tenderness, expressible moisture, and moisture content and 2) evaluate whether sodium-containing ingredients can be replaced with potassium as a potential strategy to reduce total sodium content in the finished product. Results showed that chicken breast tissue marinated with SB and PB had greater moisture retention, display characteristics, and cooked product qualities than chicken breast tissue injected with water and the nonmarinated control. The L* values (lightness) did not change over the period of retail display and were not different compared to the control (P>0.05). The chicken breast enhanced with SB, PB, and K-lactate retained better retail display color than the controls (marinated with water and nonmarinated). Increasing the potassium bicarbonate concentration from 0.5 to 1.5% significantly improved the water-holding capacity (82.17 to 92.61%; Pmeat quality than SB. This study suggests that chicken breast tissue can be marinated with KB as a healthier alternative to phosphate or SB. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Assessing the survival of MRC5 and a549 cell lines upon exposure to pyruvic Acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate - biomed 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Ibrahim O; Lewis, Veshell L; Ayensu, Wellington K; Cameron, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is among the most prevalent and deadly cancers in United States. In general, cancer cells are known to exhibit higher rates of glycolysis in comparison to normal cells. In attempting to exploit this unique cancer-dependent ATP generation phenomenon, it was our hypothesis that upon exposure to organic inhibitors of glycolysis, cancer cells would not survive normally and that their growth and viability would be vastly decreased; essential glycolytic ATP production will be exhausted to the point of collapsing energy utilization. Furthermore, we hypothesize that no negative effect would be seen with exposures to organic inhibitors for normal lung cells. The human lung fibroblast MRC-5 and the human A549 alveolar epithelial cell lines were used as in vitro models of normal lung and lung cancers respectively. Using standard methods, both cell lines were maintained and exposed to pyruvic acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate reagents at concentration levels ranging from 31.3-2,000 µg/ml in 96 well plates in quadruplets and experiments repeated at least three times using MTT, and cell counting (T4 Cellometer) assays as well as phase-contrast photo-imaging for parallel morphological displays of any changes in the course of their vitality and metabolic activities. Our results indicate that exposure of both cell lines to these organics resulted in concentration dependent cell destruction/cell survival depending on the cell line exposed. Pyruvic acid, sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate showed statistically significant (pcancer biotherapeutics.

  9. Conjugated linoleic acids content in M.longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers fed a concentrate supplemented with soybean oil, sodium bicarbonate-based monensin, fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M K; Jin, G L; Ji, B J; Chang, S S; Jeong, J; Smith, S B; Choi, S H

    2010-06-01

    We hypothesized that increasing ruminal pH would lead to enrichment of adipose tissue with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Twenty-four Korean native (Hanwoo) steers were used to investigate the additive effects of monensin (30ppm, SO-BM) and/or fish oil (0.7%, SO-BMF) in the diets along with soybean oil (7%) and sodium bicarbonate (0.5%, SO-B) on cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLAs in adipose tissue. The steers were assigned to randomly four groups of six animals each based on body weight. The control group (CON) was fed a commercial concentrate for the late fattening stage. Supplementation of oil and sodium bicarbonate reduced feed intake and daily gain, and fish oil further decreased feed intake (P<0.001) and daily gain (P<0.087) compared to steers fed other diets. Total CLA and CLA isomers in M.longissimus dorsi were not affected when steers were fed SO-B and SO-BM diets compared with those of steers fed CON and SO-BMF diets. However, total poly unsaturated fatty acids were higher (P=0.03) in steers fed SO than in CON steers. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Hydrogen Production and Storage on a Formic Acid/Bicarbonate Platform using Water-Soluble N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes of Late Transition Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantke, Dominik; Pardatscher, Lorenz; Drees, Markus; Cokoja, Mirza; Herrmann, Wolfgang A; Kühn, Fritz E

    2016-10-06

    The synthesis and characterization of two water-soluble bis-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes of rhodium and iridium is presented. Both compounds are active in H 2 generation from formic acid and in hydrogenation of bicarbonate to formate. The rhodium derivative is most active in both reactions, reaching a TOF of 39 000 h -1 and a TON of 449 000 for H 2 production. The catalytic hydrogenation reactions were carried out in an autoclave system and analyzed using the integrated peak areas in the 1 H NMR spectra. Decomposition of formic acid was investigated using a Fisher-Porter bottle equipped with a pressure transducer. Long-term stability for hydrogen evolution was tested by surveillance of the gas flow rate. The procedure does not require any additives like amines or inert gas conditions. Density functional theory calculations in agreement with experimental results suggest a bicarbonate reduction mechanism involving a second catalyst molecule, which provides an external hydride acting as reducing agent. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Reversed electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1 is the major acid loader during recovery from cytosolic alkalosis in mouse cortical astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theparambil, Shefeeq M; Naoshin, Zinnia; Thyssen, Anne; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2015-08-15

    The regulation of H(+) i from cytosolic alkalosis has generally been attributed to the activity of Cl(-) -coupled acid loaders/base extruders in most cell types, including brain cells. The present study demonstrates that outwardly-directed sodium bicarbonate cotransport via electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1) mediates the major fraction of H(+) i regulation from cytosolic alkalosis in mouse cortical astrocytes. Cl(-) -coupled acid-loading transporters play only a minor role in the regulation of H(+) i from alkalosis in mouse cortical astrocytes. NBCe1-mediated H(+) i regulation from alkalosis was dominant, with the support of intracellular carbonic anhydrase II, even when the intra- and extracellular [HCO3 (-) ] was very low (sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1) and for carbonic anhydrase (CA) isoform II. An acute cytosolic alkalosis was induced by the removal of either CO2 /HCO3 (-) or butyric acid, and the subsequent acid loading was analysed by monitoring changes in cytosolic H(+) or Na(+) using ion-sensitive fluorescent dyes. We have identified that NBCe1 reverses during alkalosis and contributes more than 70% to the rate of recovery from alkalosis by extruding Na(+) and HCO3 (-) . After CA inhibition or in CAII-knockout (KO) cells, the rate of recovery was reduced by 40%, and even by 70% in the nominal absence of CO2 /HCO3 (-) . Increasing the extracellular K(+) concentration modulated the rate of acid loading in wild-type cells, but not in NBCe1-KO cells. Removing chloride had only a minor effect on the recovery from alkalosis. Reversal of NBCe1 by reducing pH/[HCO3 (-) ] was demonstrated in astrocytes and in Xenopus oocytes, in which human NBCe1 was heterologously expressed. The results obtained suggest that reversed NBCe1, supported by CAII activity, plays a major role in acid-loading cortical astrocytes to support recovery from cytosolic alkalosis. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  12. Is Bicarbonate Therapy Useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Kate

    2017-03-01

    Despite concerns about the negative effects of metabolic acidosis, there is minimal evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration is an effective treatment. In addition, sodium bicarbonate therapy is associated with many adverse effects, including paradoxic intracellular acidosis, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypernatremia, and hyperosmolality. Definitive recommendations regarding bicarbonate therapy are challenging as there is little high-quality evidence available. In most clinical scenarios of metabolic acidosis, treatment efforts should focus on resolution of the underlying cause, and sodium bicarbonate therapy should be used with caution, if at all. An exception to this is kidney disease, wherein sodium bicarbonate therapy may have a valuable role. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Does Altered Uric Acid Metabolism Contribute to Diabetic Kidney Disease Pathophysiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Ambreen; Zager, Philip

    2018-03-01

    Multiple experimental and clinical studies have identified pathways by which uric acid may facilitate the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in people with diabetes. However, it remains uncertain if the association of uric acid with CKD represents a pathogenic effect or merely reflects renal impairment. In contrast to many published reports, a recent Mendelian randomization study did not identify a causal link between uric acid and CKD in people with type 1 diabetes. Two recent multicenter randomized control trials, Preventing Early Renal Function Loss in Diabetes (PERL) and FEbuxostat versus placebo rAndomized controlled Trial regarding reduced renal function in patients with Hyperuricemia complicated by chRonic kidney disease stage 3 (FEATHER), were recently designed to assess if uric acid lowering slows progression of CKD. We review the evidence supporting a role for uric acid in the pathogenesis of CKD in people with diabetes and the putative benefits of uric acid lowering.

  14. Metabolism of Very Long-Chain Fatty Acids: Genes and Pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Sassa, Takayuki; Kihara, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids (FAs) are highly diverse in terms of carbon (C) chain-length and number of double bonds. FAs with C>20 are called very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). VLCFAs are found not only as constituents of cellular lipids such as sphingolipids and glycerophospholipids but also as precursors of lipid mediators. Our understanding on the function of VLCFAs is growing in parallel with the identification of enzymes involved in VLCFA synthesis or degradation. A variety of inherited diseases, suc...

  15. Sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1 in the kidney medullary thick ascending limb cell line is upregulated under acidic conditions and enhances ammonium transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soojung; Lee, Hye Jeong; Yang, Han Soo; Thornell, Ian M; Bevensee, Mark O; Choi, Inyeong

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of bicarbonate transporters on ammonium/ammonia uptake in the medullary thick ascending limb cell line ST-1. Cells were treated with 1 mm ouabain and 0.2 mM bumetanide to minimize carrier-mediated NH(4)(+) transport, and the intracellular accumulation of (14)C-methylammonium/methylammonia ((14)C-MA) was determined. In CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)-free solution, cells at normal pH briefly accumulated (14)C-MA over 7 min and reached a plateau. In CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) solution, however, cells markedly accumulated (14)C-MA over the experimental period of 30 min. This CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)-dependent accumulation was reduced by the bicarbonate transporter blocker, 4,4-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2-disulfonate (DIDS; 0.5 mM). Replacing Cl(-) with gluconate reduced the accumulation, but the reduction was more substantial in the presence of DIDS. Incubation of cells at pH 6.8 (adjusted with NaHCO(3) in 5% CO(2)) for 24 h lowered the mean steady-state intracellular pH to 6.96, significantly lower than 7.28 for control cells. The presence of DIDS reduced (14)C-MA accumulation in control conditions but had no effect after acidic incubation. Immunoblotting showed that NBCn1 was upregulated after acidic incubation and in NH(4)Cl-containing media. The Cl(-)-HCO(3)(-) exchanger AE2 was present, but its expression remained unaffected by acidic incubation. Expressed in Xenopus oocytes, NBCn1 increased carrier-mediated (14)C-MA transport, which was abolished by replacing Na(+). Two-electrode voltage clamp of oocytes exhibited negligible current after NH(4)Cl application. These results suggest that DIDS-sensitive HCO(3)(-) extrusion normally governs NH(4)(+)/NH(3) uptake in the medullary thick ascending limb cells. We propose that, in acidic conditions, DIDS-sensitive HCO(3)(-) extrusion is inactivated, while NBCn1 is upregulated to stimulate NH(4)(+) transport.

  16. The role of aspartic acid residues 405 and 416 of the kidney isotype of sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter 1 in its targeting to the plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucher, Volodymyr; Li, Emily Y.; Conforti, Laura; Zahedi, Kamyar A.

    2012-01-01

    The NH2 terminus of the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1) plays an important role in its targeting to the plasma membrane. To identify the amino acid residues that contribute to the targeting of NBCe1 to the plasma membrane, polarized MDCK cells were transfected with expression constructs coding for green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged NBCe1 NH2-terminal deletion mutants, and the localization of GFP-tagged proteins was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Our results indicate that the amino acids between residues 399 and 424 of NBCe1A contain important sequences that contribute to its localization to the plasma membrane. Site-directed mutagenesis studies showed that GFP-NBCe1A mutants D405A and D416A are retained in the cytoplasm of the polarized MDCK epithelial cells. Examination of functional activities of D405A and D416A reveals that their activities are reduced compared with the wild-type NBCe1A. Similarly, aspartic acid residues 449 and 460 of pancreatic NBCe1 (NBCe1B), which correspond to residues 405 and 416 of NBCe1A, are also required for its full functional activity and accurate targeting to the plasma membrane. In addition, while replacement of D416 with glutamic acid did not affect the targeting or functional activity of NBCe1A, substitution of D405 with glutamic acid led to the retention of the mutated protein in the intracellular compartment and impaired functional activity. These studies demonstrate that aspartic acid residues 405 and 416 in the NH2 terminus of NBCe1A are important in its accurate targeting to the plasma membrane. PMID:22442137

  17. The possible role of essential fatty acids in the pathophysiology of malnutrition : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, EN; Muskiet, FAJ; Boersma, ER

    2004-01-01

    Biochemical evidence of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD) may exist in protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). EFAD is characterised by low 18:2omega6, often in combination with low 20:4omega6 and 22:6omega3, and high 18: 1 omega9 and 20:3omega9. Some PEM symptoms, notably skin changes, impaired

  18. A new model to study the role of arachidonic acid in colon cancer pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Yang-Yi; Callaway, Evelyn; Monk, Jennifer M.; Goldsby, Jennifer S.; Yang, Peiying; Vincent, Logan; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) gene expression has been shown to promote cylcooxygenase-dependent colon cancer development. Controversy associated with the role of COX2 inhibitors indicates that additional work is needed to elucidate the effects of arachidonic acid (AA) derived (cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase) eicosanoids in cancer initiation, progression and metastasis. We have recently developed a novel Fads1 knockout mouse model, which allows for the investigation of AA...

  19. The effect of nitrate, bicarbonate and natural organic matter on the degradation of sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid by simulated solar irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Liang, E-mail: lmao@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Meng, Cui; Zeng, Chao; Ji, Yuefei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Yang, Xi, E-mail: yangxi@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Gao, Shixiang [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Our experiments revealed that a model sunscreen agent, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), can be effectively transformed through reactions that are mediated by simulated solar irradiation. We systematically explored the effects of nitrate ions, bicarbonate and different types of natural organic matter (NOM) on the degradation of PABA by simulated solar irradiation. Experimental data suggest that these components ubiquitous in nature water have different influence on the rates of the photoinduced removal of PABA. Products were extracted and analyzed using LC/MS and a total of four products probably resulting from {center_dot}OH and {center_dot}NO{sub 2} radicals attack were identified and the possible reaction pathways were proposed. The findings in this study provide useful information for understanding the environmental transformation of sunscreen agent in aquatic system. - Highlights: {yields} In this study, we found that p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) can be removed by simulated solar irradiation from water. {yields} Influence of environmental components on the photodegradation of PABA was further studied. {yields} We verified using LC/MS that PABA was transformed into four compounds. {yields} We proposed the possible reaction pathways probably resulting from {center_dot}OH and {center_dot}NO{sub 2} radicals attack to PABA.

  20. The effect of nitrate, bicarbonate and natural organic matter on the degradation of sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid by simulated solar irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Liang; Meng, Cui; Zeng, Chao; Ji, Yuefei; Yang, Xi; Gao, Shixiang

    2011-01-01

    Our experiments revealed that a model sunscreen agent, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), can be effectively transformed through reactions that are mediated by simulated solar irradiation. We systematically explored the effects of nitrate ions, bicarbonate and different types of natural organic matter (NOM) on the degradation of PABA by simulated solar irradiation. Experimental data suggest that these components ubiquitous in nature water have different influence on the rates of the photoinduced removal of PABA. Products were extracted and analyzed using LC/MS and a total of four products probably resulting from ·OH and ·NO 2 radicals attack were identified and the possible reaction pathways were proposed. The findings in this study provide useful information for understanding the environmental transformation of sunscreen agent in aquatic system. - Highlights: → In this study, we found that p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) can be removed by simulated solar irradiation from water. → Influence of environmental components on the photodegradation of PABA was further studied. → We verified using LC/MS that PABA was transformed into four compounds. → We proposed the possible reaction pathways probably resulting from ·OH and ·NO 2 radicals attack to PABA.

  1. Chlorinated Phospholipids and Fatty Acids: (Pathophysiological Relevance, Potential Toxicity, and Analysis of Lipid Chlorohydrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Schröter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorinated phospholipids are formed by the reaction of hypochlorous acid (HOCl, generated by the enzyme myeloperoxidase under inflammatory conditions, and the unsaturated fatty acyl residues or the head group. In the first case the generated chlorohydrins are both proinflammatory and cytotoxic, thus having a significant impact on the structures of biomembranes. The latter case leads to chloramines, the properties of which are by far less well understood. Since HOCl is also widely used as a disinfecting and antibacterial agent in medicinal, industrial, and domestic applications, it may represent an additional source of danger in the case of abuse or mishandling. This review discusses the reaction behavior of in vivo generated HOCl and biomolecules like DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates but will focus on phospholipids. Not only the beneficial and pathological (toxic effects of chlorinated lipids but also the importance of these chlorinated species is discussed. Some selected cleavage products of (chlorinated phospholipids and plasmalogens such as lysophospholipids, (chlorinated free fatty acids and α-chloro fatty aldehydes, which are all well known to massively contribute to inflammatory diseases associated with oxidative stress, will be also discussed. Finally, common analytical methods to study these compounds will be reviewed with focus on mass spectrometric techniques.

  2. A New Model to Study the Role of Arachidonic Acid in Colon Cancer Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-Yi; Callaway, Evelyn; M Monk, Jennifer; S Goldsby, Jennifer; Yang, Peiying; Vincent, Logan; S Chapkin, Robert

    2016-09-01

    A significant increase in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) gene expression has been shown to promote cylcooxygenase-dependent colon cancer development. Controversy associated with the role of COX2 inhibitors indicates that additional work is needed to elucidate the effects of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived (cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase) eicosanoids in cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. We have recently developed a novel Fads1 knockout mouse model that allows for the investigation of AA-dependent eicosanoid deficiency without the complication of essential fatty acid deficiency. Interestingly, the survival rate of Fads1-null mice is severely compromised after 2 months on a semi-purified AA-free diet, which precludes long-term chemoprevention studies. Therefore, in this study, dietary AA levels were titrated to determine the minimal level required for survival, while maintaining a distinct AA-deficient phenotype. Null mice supplemented with AA (0.1%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 2.0%, w/w) in the diet exhibited a dose-dependent increase (P sibling littermate control mice. These data indicate that (i) basal/minimal dietary AA supplementation (0.6%) expands the utility of the Fads1-null mouse model for long-term cancer prevention studies and (ii) that AA content in the colonic epithelium modulates colon cancer risk. Cancer Prev Res; 9(9); 750-7. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  3. The Effect of Buffering High Acid Load Meal with Sodium Bicarbonate on Postprandial Glucose Metabolism in Humans-A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozan, Pinar; Blythe, Jackson C; Greenfield, Jerry R; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit

    2017-08-11

    Background: High dietary acid load relates to increased risk of type 2 diabetes in epidemiological studies. We aimed to investigate whether buffering a high acid load meal with an alkalizing treatment changes glucose metabolism post meal. Methods: Non-diabetic participants ( n = 32) were randomized to receive either 1680 mg NaHCO₃ or placebo, followed by a high acid load meal in a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover (1-4 weeks apart) study. Thirty (20 men) participants completed the study. Venous blood pH, serum bicarbonate, blood glucose, serum insulin, C -peptide, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), and plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations were measured at baseline (fasting) and at 15-30 min intervals for 3 h post meal. Results: The treatment was well tolerated. Venous blood pH declined in the first 15 min post meal with the placebo ( p = 0.001), but not with NaHCO₃ ( p = 0.86) and remained decreased with the placebo for 3 h ( p interaction = 0.04). On average over the 3 h blood pH iAUC was greater with NaHCO₃ compared with placebo ( p = 0.02). However, postprandial glucose, insulin, C -peptide, NEFA and GLP-1 were not different between treatments ( p interaction ≥ 0.07). Conclusions: An alkalizing medication administered pre-meal has no acute effect on glycaemia and insulin response in healthy individuals. Long-term interventions in at-risk populations are necessary to investigate the effect of sustained alkalization on glucose metabolism.

  4. Acid-base and hemodynamic status of patients with intraoperative hemorrhage using two solution types: Crystalloid Ringer lactate and 1.3% sodium bicarbonate in half-normal saline solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Sayed Jalal; Heidari, Sayed Morteza; Yaraghi, Ahmad; Seirafi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative hemorrhage is one of the problems during surgery and, if it happens in a high volume without an immediate action to control, it can be fatal. Nowadays, various injectable solutions are used. The aim of this study was to compare the acid-base and hemodynamic status of the patient using two solutions, Ringer lactate and 1.3% sodium bicarbonate, in half saline solution. This clinical trial was performed at the Al-Zahra Hospital in 2013 on 66 patients who were randomly selected and put in two studied groups at the onset of hemorrhage. For the first group, crystalloid Ringer lactate solution and for the second group, 1.3% sodium bicarbonate in half-normal saline solution was used. Electrocardiogram, heart rate, O2 saturation non-invasive blood pressure and end-tidal CO2 were monitored. The arterial blood gas, blood electrolytes, glucose and blood urea nitrogen were measured before serum and blood injection. After the infusion of solutions and before blood transfusions, another sample was sent for measurement of blood parameters. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. The mean arterial pressure was significantly higher in the second group than in the first group at some times after the infusion of solutions. pHh levels, base excess, bicarbonate, sodium, strong ion differences and osmolarity were significantly greater and potassium and chloride were significantly lower in the second group than in the first group after the infusion of solutions. 1.3% sodium bicarbonate in half-normal saline solution can lead to a proper correction of hemodynamic instability. By maintaining hemodynamic status, osmolarity and electrolytes as well as better balance of acid-base, 1.3% sodium bicarbonate solution in half-normal saline solution can be more effective than Ringer lactate solution during intraoperative bleeding.

  5. A new model to study the role of arachidonic acid in colon cancer pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yang-Yi; Callaway, Evelyn; Monk, Jennifer M.; Goldsby, Jennifer S.; Yang, Peiying; Vincent, Logan; Chapkin, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) gene expression has been shown to promote cylcooxygenase-dependent colon cancer development. Controversy associated with the role of COX2 inhibitors indicates that additional work is needed to elucidate the effects of arachidonic acid (AA) derived (cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase) eicosanoids in cancer initiation, progression and metastasis. We have recently developed a novel Fads1 knockout mouse model, which allows for the investigation of AA-dependent eicosanoid deficiency without the complication of essential fatty acid deficiency. Interestingly, the survival rate of Fads1 null mice is severely compromised after 2 months on a semi-purified AA-free diet, which precludes long-term chemoprevention studies. Therefore, in this study, dietary AA levels were titrated to determine the minimal level required for survival, while maintaining a distinct AA-deficient phenotype. Null mice supplemented with AA (0.1, 0.4, 0.6, 2.0%, w/w) in the diet exhibited a dose-dependent increase (P diet were injected with a colon-specific carcinogen (azoxymethane) in order to assess cancer susceptibility. Null mice exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) reduced levels/multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as compared to wild type sibling littermate control mice. These data indicate that (i) basal/minimal dietary AA supplementation (0.6%) expands the utility of the Fads1 Null mouse model for long-term cancer prevention studies, and (ii) that AA content in the colonic epithelium modulates colon cancer risk. PMID:27339171

  6. Carbonic acid ionization and the stability of sodium bicarbonate and carbonate ion pairs to 200 °C - A potentiometric and spectrophotometric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefánsson, Andri; Bénézeth, Pascale; Schott, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    Carbonic acid ionization and sodium bicarbonate and carbonate ion pair formation constants have been experimentally determined in dilute hydrothermal solutions to 200 °C. Two experimental approaches were applied, potentiometric acid-base titrations at 10-60 °C and spectrophotometric pH measurements using the pH indicators, 2-napthol and 4-nitrophenol, at 25-200 °C. At a given temperature, the first and second ionization constants of carbonic acid (K1, K2) and the ion pair formation constants for NaHCO(aq)(K) and NaCO3-(aq)(K) were simultaneously fitted to the data. Results of this study compare well with previously determined values of K1 and K2. The NaHCO(aq) and NaCO3-(aq) ion pair formation constants vary between 25 and 200 °C having values of logK=-0.18 to 0.58 and logK=1.01 to 2.21, respectively. These ion pairs are weak at low-temperatures but become increasingly important with increasing temperature under neutral to alkaline conditions in moderately dilute to concentrated NaCl solutions, with NaCO3-(aq) predominating over CO32-(aq) in ⩾0.1 M NaCl solution at temperatures above 100 °C. The results demonstrate that NaCl cannot be considered as an inert (non-complexing) electrolyte in aqueous carbon dioxide containing solutions at elevated temperatures.

  7. Determining serum bicarbonate; a simple syringe titrator and colorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOONE, C W; FIELD, J B

    1953-12-01

    The use of a tuberculin syringe as a burette has made possible an easy bedside technique for the determination of serum bicarbonate. By combining it with the use of a simple colorimeter, a relatively untrained person can do numerous bicarbonate determinations with a high degree of accuracy. The same technique also lends itself to other colorimetric clinical procedures such as determination of gastric acidity.

  8. Effects of intravenous hyperosmotic sodium bicarbonate on arterial and cerebrospinal fluid acid-base status and cardiovascular function in calves with experimentally induced respiratory and strong ion acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Joachim F; Constable, Peter D; Smith, Geoffrey W; Mathur, Sheerin M; Morin, Dawn E; Tranquilli, William J

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of hyperosmotic sodium bicarbonate (HSB) administration on arterial and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acid-base balance and cardiovascular function in calves with experimentally induced respiratory and strong ion (metabolic) acidosis. Ten healthy male Holstein calves (30-47 kg body weight) were instrumented under halothane anesthesia to permit cardiovascular monitoring and collection of blood samples and CSE Respiratory acidosis was induced by allowing the calves to spontaneously ventilate, and strong ion acidosis was subsequently induced by i.v. administration of L-lactic acid. Calves were then randomly assigned to receive either HSB (8.4% NaHCO3; 5 ml/kg over 5 minutes, i.v.; n=5) or no treatment (controls, n=5) and monitored for 1 hour. Mixed respiratory and strong ion acidosis was accompanied by increased heart rate, cardiac index, mean arterial pressure, cardiac contractility (maximal rate of change of left ventricular pressure), and mean pulmonary artery pressure. Rapid administration of HSB immediately corrected the strong ion acidosis, transiently increased arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P(CO2)), and expanded the plasma volume. The transient increase in arterial P(CO2) did not alter CSF P(CO2) or induce paradoxical CSF acidosis. Compared to untreated control calves, HSB-treated calves had higher cardiac index and contractility and a faster rate of left ventricular relaxation for 1 hour after treatment, indicating that HSB administration improved myocardial systolic function. We conclude that rapid i.v. administration of HSB provided an effective and safe method for treating strong ion acidosis in normovolemic halothane-anesthetized calves with experimentally induced respiratory and strong ion acidosis. Fear of inducing paradoxical CSF acidosis is not a valid reason for withholding HSB administration in calves with mixed respiratory and strong ion acidosis.

  9. Cation-Coupled Bicarbonate Transporters

    OpenAIRE

    Aalkjaer, Christian; Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Choi, Inyeong; Lee, Soojung

    2014-01-01

    Cation-coupled HCO3− transport was initially identified in the mid-1970s when pioneering studies showed that acid extrusion from cells is stimulated by CO2/HCO3− and associated with Na+ and Cl− movement. The first Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporter (NCBT) was expression-cloned in the late 1990s. There are currently five mammalian NCBTs in the SLC4-family: the electrogenic Na,HCO3-cotransporters NBCe1 and NBCe2 (SLC4A4 and SLC4A5 gene products); the electroneutral Na,HCO3-cotransporter NBCn1 ...

  10. Effect of nitrate, carbonate/bicarbonate, humic acid, and H2O2 on the kinetics and degradation mechanism of Bisphenol-A during UV photolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Young-Min; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2018-08-01

    In this study, the effects of natural water components (nitrate, carbonate/bicarbonate, and humic acid) on the kinetics and degradation mechanisms of bisphenol A (BPA) during UV-C photolysis and UV/H 2 O 2 reaction were examined. The presence of NO 3 - (0.04-0.4 mM) and CO 3 2- /HCO 3 - (0.4-4 mM) ions increased BPA degradation during UV photolysis. Humic acid less than 3 mg/L promoted BPA degradation, but greater than 3 mg/L of humic acid inhibited BPA degradation. During the UV/H 2 O 2 reaction, all water matrix components acted as radical scavengers in the order of humic acid > CO 3 2- /HCO 3 -  > NO 3 - . All of the degradation reactions agreed with the pseudo-first-order kinetics. While eight byproducts (m/z = 122, 136, 139, 164, 181, 244, 273, 289) were identified in UV-C/NO 3 - photolysis reaction, four (m/z = 122, 136, 164, 244) and three byproducts (m/z = 122, 136, 164) were observed during UV-C/NO 3 - /CO 3 2- /HCO 3 - and UV-C/CO 3 2- /HCO 3 - reactions. Nitrogenated and hydrogenated byproducts were first observed during the UV-C/NO 3 - photolysis, but only hydrogenated byproducts as adducts were detected during the UV-C/NO 3 - /CO 3 2- /HCO 3 - photolysis. Nitrogenated and hydrogenated byproducts were formed in the early stage of degradation by OH or NO 2 radicals, and these byproducts were subsequently degraded into smaller compounds with further reaction during UV-C/NO 3 - and UV-C/NO 3 - /CO 3 2- /HCO 3 - reactions. In contrast, BPA was directly degraded into smaller compounds by β-scission of the isopropyl group by CO 3 - /HCO 3 radicals during UV-C/CO 3 2- /HCO 3 - reaction. Our results imply that the water components can change the degradation mechanism of BPA during UV photolysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pancreatic bicarbonate secretion involves two proton pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium expres...

  12. The role of oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation in maintaining acid-base balance and its influence on the cardiovascular system in chronic hemodialysis patients - results of a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiculeț, C; Zară, O; Bogeanu, C; Văcăroiu, I; Aron, G

    2016-01-01

    Background: Major acid-base variations during dialysis and the imbalances in serum calcium levels intensified by them play a role in cardiovascular damage of hemodialysis patients. Early vascular walls modifications can be objectified by determining the pulse wave velocity (PWV) - a marker of vascular stiffness that is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events. Material and methods: This was a prospective study conducted on 63 chronic hemodialysis patients with diuresis above 500 mL/ 24 hours and predialysis blood pressure below 160 mmHg (treatment controlled) randomized in two groups for 12 months - the study group receiving interdialitic oral sodium bicarbonate doses and control group, without oral sodium bicarbonate supplementation, but receiving higher bicarbonate prescriptions in dialysis. All the patients were monthly evaluated by biochemical tests (serum calcium, phosphate, iPTH, bicarbonate), the assessment of prescribed doses of phosphate binders being undergone. Two PWV determinations and chest X-ray exams for coronary calcifications were done - at the beginning and end of the study for every patient. Results: In the study group (n = 29), the mean age was 56.48 ± 12.78 years and the average duration of dialysis was 55.51 ± 34.53 months, the mean dialysis bicarbonate was 29.81 ± 1.41 mEq/ L and 27 of them (subgroup 0) had alkaline reserve (AR) 20-22 mEq/ L. The control group (n = 34) had a mean age of 57.35 ± 15.32 years and the mean dialysis duration 59.67 ± 34.79 months, with an average level of dialysis bicarbonate of 33 ± 2.2 mEq/ L necessary to maintain AR within guidelines. Depending on the mean AR obtained, this group was divided into three subgroups (subgroup 1, subgroup 2, and subgroup 3). There were statistically significant differences regarding the necessary of dialysis bicarbonate (p < 0.001), average serum calcium levels (p < 0.001) and serum phosphorus (p < 0.001), as well as PWV mean values and the number of vascular

  13. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven [ 35 S]-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid, and 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (IC 50 , ∼40 μM). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation

  14. [Renal response to intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate in newborn infants of different gestational ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso-Gutiérrez, L; Araujo, B; Fuse-Moteji, R; del Castillo, E D

    1976-01-01

    The study comprised a series of 16 neonates made up of 5 patients of 33 weeks of gestation, 5 infants of 35 weeks and 6 more of 40 weeks of gestation. Blood pH, PaCO2 and HCO3- were measured together with bicarbonate, ammonium, titrable acidity and hydrogen ions in urine before and after intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate. Before infusion of bicarbonate, titrable acidity, ammonium and net acidity in urine were higher in accordance with a greater gestational age. As the administration of bicarbonate elapsed, titrable acidity, ammonium and net acidity dropped with increase in concentration of bicarbonate. A hypothesis is set forth that the differences found in the factors evaluated in urine before administration of bicarbonate depend on the physiologic characteristics set in the newborn by gestational age.

  15. Bicarbonate Transport During Enamel Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kaifeng; Paine, Michael L

    2017-11-01

    Amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation) is a biomineralization process consisting primarily of two stages (secretory stage and maturation stage) with unique features. During the secretory stage, the inner epithelium of the enamel organ (i.e., the ameloblast cells) synthesizes and secretes enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) into the enamel space. The protein-rich enamel matrix forms a highly organized architecture in a pH-neutral microenvironment. As amelogenesis transitions to maturation stage, EMPs are degraded and internalized by ameloblasts through endosomal-lysosomal pathways. Enamel crystallite formation is initiated early in the secretory stage, however, during maturation stage the more rapid deposition of calcium and phosphate into the enamel space results in a rapid expansion of crystallite length and mineral volume. During maturation-stage amelogenesis, the pH value of enamel varies considerably from slightly above neutral to acidic. Extracellular acid-base balance during enamel maturation is tightly controlled by ameloblast-mediated regulatory networks, which include significant synthesis and movement of bicarbonate ions from both the enamel papillary layer cells and ameloblasts. In this review we summarize the carbonic anhydrases and the carbonate transporters/exchangers involved in pH regulation in maturation-stage amelogenesis. Proteins that have been shown to be instrumental in this process include CA2, CA6, CFTR, AE2, NBCe1, SLC26A1/SAT1, SLC26A3/DRA, SLC26A4/PDS, SLC26A6/PAT1, and SLC26A7/SUT2. In addition, we discuss the association of miRNA regulation with bicarbonate transport in tooth enamel formation.

  16. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, Anette; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus

    1996-01-01

    this incidental finding is explained by more potent gastric acid inhibition by omeprazole or might be caused by the different mode of drug action. Basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion rates were measured in the same subjects in control experiments (n=17) and after pretreatment with high......H 6.9 v 6.8; p>0.05). Omeprazole caused higher rates of basal (mean (SEM)) (597 (48) v 351 (39) mu mol/h; pstimulated (834 (72) v 474 (66) mu mol/h; pstimulated (3351 (678) v 2550 (456) mu mol/h; p>0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion compared with control...... experiments. Also the combination of omeprazole and ranitidine increased (p=0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion, while ranitidine alone caused no change in either basal or stimulated secretion. In the stomach basal as well as vagally stimulated bicarbonate secretion was independent of the means of acid...

  17. Tetraethylammonium bicarbonate trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heping Li

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C8H20N+·CHO3−·3H2O, the bicarbonate anion, which has a small mean deviation from the plane of 0.0014 Å, fully utilises its three O and one H atom to form various O—H...O hydrogen bonds with the three water molecules in the asymmetric unit, generating a hydrogen-bonded layer, which extends along (10overline{1}. The tetraethylammonium cations, as the guest species, are accommodated between every two neighboring layers, constructing a sandwich-like structure with an interlayer distance of 7.28 Å.

  18. Regulators of Slc4 bicarbonate transporter activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Thornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4, Na-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2, electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2, and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE, as well as a borate transporter (BTR1. These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO3– either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO3– transporter contributes to a cell’s ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s (e.g., Na+ or Cl–. In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both classical and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family.

  19. Acid Inhibitory Effect of a Combination of Omeprazole and Sodium Bicarbonate (CDFR0209) Compared With Delayed-Release Omeprazole 40 mg Alone in Healthy Adult Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu-Nam; Yang, Sung-Won; Kim, Hyunil; Kwak, Seong Shin; Kim, Young-Sang; Cho, Doo-Yeoun

    2018-01-01

    CDFR0209, a combination of an immediate-release formulation of omeprazole 40 mg and sodium bicarbonate 1100 mg, has been developed to treat acid-related disorders. We compared the acid inhibitory effects of CDFR0209 and delayed-release omeprazole (omeprazole-DR, Losec 40 mg) after repeated dosing in Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy adult male subjects. In this 2-period crossover study, 30 subjects were randomized to CDFR0209 or omeprazole-DR daily for 7 days. An ambulatory continuous 24-hour intragastric pH recording was performed at baseline and on days 1 and 7 of each administration period. Integrated gastric acidity was calculated from time-weighted average hydrogen ion concentrations at each hour of the 24-hour record. An analysis of variance model was used to test the pharmacodynamic equivalence of CDFR0209 and omeprazole-DR, using the natural logarithmic transformation of the percent decrease from baseline in integrated gastric acidity for the 24-hour interval after the seventh dose of each omeprazole formulation. The geometric least-squares mean ratios (CDFR0209/omeprazole-DR) of the percent decrease from baseline in integrated gastric acidity was 0.98 (90%CI, 0.93-1.07). Both CDFR0209 and omeprazole-DR are equally effective in decreasing integrated gastric acidity at steady state. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  20. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb extract alleviates pathophysiological changes in experimental in vivo and in vitro models of high fat diet/fatty acid induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Dandekar, Deven S; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-03-01

    The present study was aim to evaluate protective role of Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) extract against high fat diet/fatty acid induced pathophysiological alterations in experimental model of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Effect of SR extract on plasma levels of markers of hepatic damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress, status of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and histopathological changes in liver tissue were evaluated in high fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice. Also, the effect of SR supplementation on lipid accumulation, lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and cell viability were evaluated in oleic acid treated HepG2 cells. Supplementation of NASH mice with SR extract prevented high fat diet induced elevation in plasma marker enzymes of liver damage, plasma and hepatic lipids, mitochondrial oxidative stress and compromised enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status. Further, addition of SR extract to in vitro HepG2 cells minimized oleic acid induced lipid accumulation, higher lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity and reduced cell viability. These in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SR extract has the potential of preventing high fat/fatty acid induced NASH mainly due to its hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Bicarbonate Balance and Prescription in ESRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramowitz, Matthew K

    2017-03-01

    The optimal approach to managing acid-base balance is less well defined for patients receiving hemodialysis than for those receiving peritoneal dialysis. Interventional studies in hemodialysis have been limited and inconsistent in their findings, whereas more compelling data are available from interventional studies in peritoneal dialysis. Both high and low serum bicarbonate levels associate with an increased risk of mortality in patients receiving hemodialysis, but high values are a marker for poor nutrition and comorbidity and are often highly variable from month to month. Measurement of pH would likely provide useful additional data. Concern has arisen regarding high-bicarbonate dialysate and dialysis-induced alkalemia, but whether these truly cause harm remains to be determined. The available evidence is insufficient for determining the optimal target for therapy at this time. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  2. Stopped-flow studies of carbon dioxide hydration and bicarbonate dehydration in H2O and D2O. Acid-base and metal ion catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocker, Y.; Bjorkquist, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    The approach to equilibrium between carbon dioxide and bicarbonate has been followed by zero-order kinetics both from direction of CO 2 hydration and HCO 3 - dehydration. The rates are monitored at 25.0 0 C using stopped-flow indicator technique in H 2 O as well as D 2 O. The hydration of CO 2 is subject to catalysis by H 2 O (k 0 = 2.9 x 10 -2 s -1 ) and OH - (k/sub OH - / = 6.0 x 10 3 M -1 s -1 ). The value of 0.63 for the ratio k/sub OH - //k/sub OD - / is consistent with a mechanism utilizing a direct nucleophilic attack of OH - on CO 2 . In reverse direction HCO 3 - dehydration is catalyzed predominantly by H 3 O + (k/sub H 3 O + / 4.1 x 10 4 M -1 s -1 ) and to a much lesser degree by H 2 O (k 0 = 2 x 10 -4 s -1 ). The value of 0.56 for ratio k/sub H 3 O + //kD 3 O + / indicates that HCO 3 - may be protonated either in a preequilibrium step or in a rate-determining dehydration step. Both the hydration of CO 2 and the dehydration of bicarbonate are subject to general catalysis. For CO 2 , dibasic phosphate, a zinc imidazole complex, and a copper imidazole complex all enhanced the rate of hydration with respective rate coefficients of 3 x 10 -1 , 6.0, and 2.5 M -1 s -1 . For bicarbonate, monobasic phosphate catalyzed the rate of dehydration (k/sub H 2 PO 4 - / = 1 x 10 -1 M -1 s -1 ). Additionally in going from an ionic strength of 0.1 to 1.0 there was a negligible salt effect for the water-catalyzed hydration of CO 2 . However, the rate constant for the hydronium ion catalyzed dehydration of HCO 3 - was reduced from 4.1 x 10 4 M -1 s -1 to 2.3 x 10 4 M -1 s -1 for the same change in ionic strength. Finally the rate of CO 2 uptake by the complex Co(NH 3 ) 5 OH 2 3+ was followed spectrophotometrically both in H 2 O and D 2 O to determine the solvent isotope effect for a reaction known to involve a nucleophilic attack of a Co(III)-hydroxo complex on CO 2

  3. Expression and/or activity of the SVCT2 ascorbate transporter may be decreased in many aggressive cancers, suggesting potential utility for sodium bicarbonate and dehydroascorbic acid in cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Mark F

    2013-10-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimer transcription factor whose elevated activity in many cancers helps them to survive under hypoxic conditions and enhances their capacity to grow invasively, establish metastases, and survive chemo- or radiotherapy. Optimal intracellular levels of ascorbate suppress the level and transcriptional activity of HIF-1under normoxic or mildly hypoxic conditions by supporting the activity of proly and asparagyl hydroxylases that target HIF-1alpha. High intracellular ascorbate can also work in various ways to down-regulate activation of NF-kappaB which, like HIF-1 is constitutively active in many cancers and promotes aggressive behavior - in part by promoting transcription of HIF-1alpha. Yet recent evidence suggests that, even in the context of adequate ascorbate nutrition, the intracellular ascorbate content of many aggressive cancers may be supoptimal for effective HIF-1 control. This likely reflects low expression or activity of the SVCT2 ascorbate transporter. The expression of SVCT2 in cancers has so far received little study; but the extracellular acidity characteristic of many tumors would be expected to reduce the activity of this transporter, which has a mildly alkaline pH optimum. Unfortunately, since SVCT2 has a high affinity for ascorbate, and its activity is nearly saturated at normal healthy serum levels of this vitamin, increased oral administration of ascorbate would be unlikely to have much impact on the intracellular ascorbate content of tumors. However, cancers in which HIF-1 is active express high levels of glucose transporters such as GLUT-1, and these transporters can promote influx of dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) via facilitated diffusion; once inside the cell, DHA is rapidly reduced to ascorbate, which effectively is "trapped" within the cell. Hence, episodic intravenous infusions of modest doses of DHA may have potential for optimizing the intracellular ascorbate content of cancers, potentially

  4. Ingestion of Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3) Following a Fatiguing Bout of Exercise Accelerates Postexercise Acid-Base Balance Recovery and Improves Subsequent High-Intensity Cycling Time to Exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Lewis A; Rimmer, Steven; Osler, Callum J; Higgins, Matthew F

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluated the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) on postexercise acid-base balance recovery kinetics and subsequent high-intensity cycling time to exhaustion. In a counterbalanced, crossover design, nine healthy and active males (age: 23 ± 2 years, height: 179 ± 5 cm, body mass: 74 ± 9 kg, peak mean minute power (W peak ) 256 ± 45 W, peak oxygen uptake (V̇O 2peak ) 46 ± 8 ml.kg -1 .min -1 ) performed a graded incremental exercise test, two familiarization and two experimental trials. Experimental trials consisted of cycling to volitional exhaustion (T LIM1 ) at 100% W PEAK on two occasions (T LIM1 and T LIM2 ) interspersed by a 90 min passive recovery period. Using a double-blind approach, 30 min into a 90 min recovery period participants ingested either 0.3 g.kg -1 body mass sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) or a placebo (PLA) containing 0.1 g.kg -1 body mass sodium chloride (NaCl) mixed with 4 ml.kg -1 tap water and 1 ml.kg -1 orange squash. The mean differences between T LIM2 and T LIM1 was larger for PLA compared with NaHCO 3 (-53 ± 53 vs. -20 ± 48 s; p = .008, d = 0.7, CI =-0.3, 1.6), indicating superior subsequent exercise time to exhaustion following NaHCO 3 . Blood lactate [Bla - ] was similar between treatments post T LIM1 , but greater for NaHCO 3 post T LIM2 and 5 min post T LIM2 . Ingestion of NaHCO 3 induced marked increases (p < .01) in both blood pH (+0.07 ± 0.02, d = 2.6, CI = 1.2, 3.7) and bicarbonate ion concentration [HCO 3 - ] (+6.8 ± 1.6 mmo.l -1 , d = 3.4, CI = 1.8, 4.7) compared with the PLA treatment, before T LIM2 . It is likely both the acceleration of recovery, and the marked increases of acid-base after T LIM1 contributed to greater T LIM2 performance compared with the PLA condition.

  5. The Reproducibility of Blood Acid Base Responses in Male Collegiate Athletes Following Individualised Doses of Sodium Bicarbonate: A Randomised Controlled Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Lewis A; Deb, Sanjoy K; Sparks, Andy S; McNaughton, Lars R

    2017-10-01

    Current evidence suggests sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) should be ingested based upon the individualised alkalotic peak of either blood pH or bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) because of large inter-individual variations (10-180 min). If such a strategy is to be practical, the blood analyte response needs to be reproducible. This study aimed to evaluate the degree of reproducibility of both time to peak (TTP) and absolute change in blood pH, HCO 3 - and sodium (Na + ) following acute NaHCO 3 ingestion. Male participants (n = 15) with backgrounds in rugby, football or sprinting completed six randomised treatments entailing ingestion of two doses of 0.2 g·kg -1 body mass (BM) NaHCO 3 (SBC2a and b), two doses of 0.3 g·kg -1 BM NaHCO 3 (SBC3a and b) or two control treatments (CON1a and b) on separate days. Blood analysis included pH, HCO 3 - and Na + prior to and at regular time points following NaHCO 3 ingestion over a 3-h period. HCO 3 - displayed greater reproducibility than pH in intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis for both TTP (HCO 3 - SBC2 r = 0.77, P = 0.003; SBC3 r = 0.94, P < 0.001; pH SBC2 r = 0.62, P = 0.044; SBC3 r = 0.71, P = 0.016) and absolute change (HCO 3 - SBC2 r = 0.89, P < 0.001; SBC3 r = 0.76, P = 0.008; pH SBC2 r = 0.84, P = 0.001; SBC3 r = 0.62, P = 0.041). Our results indicate that both TTP and absolute change in HCO 3 - is more reliable than pH. As such, these data provide support for an individualised NaHCO 3 ingestion strategy to consistently elicit peak alkalosis before exercise. Future work should utilise an individualised NaHCO 3 ingestion strategy based on HCO 3 - responses and evaluate effects on exercise performance.

  6. Bicarbonate kinetics in Indian males

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    ized kinetics of bicarbonate using a three-compartment model, to assess which compartmental fluxes changed dur- .... total VCO2 was < 3 % and the average respiratory quotient ..... a part of the nonrespiratory losses of 13CO2 occur to this.

  7. Apparent Bicarbonate Space in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Repetto, Horacio A.; Penna, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    The amount needed to change the concentration of a solute requires the knowledge of its volume of distribution in the solution. Electrolytes that do not participate in active metabolic reactions have a fixed volume of distribution that corresponds to the volume of water in which they solubilize. Bicarbonate infusion is used to correct hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Its volume of distribution (bicarbonate space) changes with its participation in the blood buffer systems. In other words, it...

  8. Serum bicarbonate and bone mineral density in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L; Abramowitz, Matthew K

    2015-02-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis leads to bone mineral loss and results in lower bone mineral density (BMD), which is a risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures. The effect of low-level metabolic acidosis on bone density in the general population is unknown. Cross-sectional study. 9,724 nationally representative adults 20 years or older in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 1999-2004. Serum bicarbonate level. Lumbar and total BMD, as well as low lumbar and total bone mass, defined as 1.0 SD below the sex-specific mean value of young adults. BMD was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and serum bicarbonate was measured in all participants. Both men and women with lower serum bicarbonate levels were more likely to be current smokers and had higher body mass index and estimated net endogenous acid production. There was a significant linear trend across quartiles of serum bicarbonate with lumbar BMD in the total population, as well as in sex-specific models (P=0.02 for all 3 models, P=0.1 for interaction). For total BMD, a significant association was seen with serum bicarbonate level for women but not men (P=0.02 and P=0.1, respectively; P=0.8 for interaction), and a significant association was seen for postmenopausal women but not premenopausal women (P=0.02 and P=0.2, respectively; P=0.5 for interaction). Compared with women with serum bicarbonate levels <24mEq/L, those with serum bicarbonate levels ≥27mEq/L had 0.018-g/cm(2) higher total BMD (95% CI, 0.004-0.032; P=0.01) and 31% lower odds of having low total bone mass (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99; P=0.049). Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of serum bicarbonate. Subgroup differences are not definitive. Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with lower BMD in US adults. Further studies should examine whether serum bicarbonate levels should be incorporated into the diagnostic assessment and management of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation

  9. Critical role of bicarbonate and bicarbonate transporters in cardiac function

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Yamei; Vairamani, Kanimozhi; Shull, Gary E

    2014-01-01

    Bicarbonate is one of the major anions in mammalian tissues and extracellular fluids. Along with accompanying H+, HCO3- is generated from CO2 and H2O, either spontaneously or via the catalytic activity of carbonic anhydrase. It serves as a component of the major buffer system, thereby playing a critical role in pH homeostasis. Bicarbonate can also be utilized by a variety of ion transporters, often working in coupled systems, to transport other ions and organic substrates across cell membrane...

  10. [Acid-base imbalance in acute obstructive uropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyĭ, L E

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate impairment of acid-base balance (ABB) in acute obstructive uropathies. Evaluation of acid-base balance was performed by pH, partial carbon dioxide pressure, plasma bicarbonate concentration, buffer bases, basis excess, hydrogen ion concentration. An automatic gas analyzer was used, plasma anion gap was calculated. Characteristic ABB alterations in different acute obstructive uropathies were detected. Acidotic shifts in acute obstruction of the upper urinary tracts and its inflammatory complications were assessed pathophysiologically. A comparative study of pathological acid-base disorders in acute supra- and infravesical obstructive uropathies was performed.

  11. Bicarbonate/chloride antiport in Vero cells: II. Mechanisms for bicarbonate-dependent regulation of intracellular pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsnes, S.; Ludt, J.; Tonnessen, T.I.; Sandvig, K.

    1987-01-01

    The rates of bicarbonate-dependent uptake and efflux of 22 Na + in Vero cells were studied and compared with the uptake and efflux of 36 Cl - . Both processes were strongly inhibited by DIDS. Whereas the transport of chloride increased approximately ten-fold when the internal pH was increased over a narrow range around neutrality, the uptake of Na + was much less affected by changes in pH. The bicarbonate-linked uptake of 22 Na + was dependent on internal Cl- but not on internal Na + . At a constant external concentration of HCO 3 -, the amount of 22 Na + associated with the cells increased when the internal concentration of HCO 3 - decreased and vice versa, which is compatible with the possibility that the ion pair NaCO 3 - is the transported species and that the transport is symmetric across the membrane. Bicarbonate inhibited the uptake of 36 Cl - both in the absence and presence of Na + . At alkaline internal pH, HCO 3 - stimulated the efflux of 36 Cl - from preloaded cells, while at acidic internal pH both Na + and HCO 3 - were required to induce 36 Cl - efflux. We propose a model for how bicarbonate-dependent regulation of the internal pH may occur. This model implies the existence of two bicarbonate transport mechanisms that, under physiological conditions, transport OH(-)-equivalents in opposite directions across the plasma membrane

  12. Sodium Bicarbonate mouth rinse: An Uncommon Complication

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Mehmet Coskunses

    2012-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a natural buffer that maintains a healthy pH in mouth to promote a clean and fresh oral environment. Sodium-bicarbonate rinse is empirically suggested to patients by dentist and people around, and may prove to be harmful. In this short communication, we present chemical burn of oral mucosa because of sodium-bicarbonate rinse after misfit dental impression.

  13. Serum bicarbonate and dehydration severity in gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Narchi, H.

    1998-01-01

    The concentration of bicarbonate was measured in serum samples from 106 children with gastroenteritis and dehydration. A concentration less than 22 mmol/l was more common in children with severe dehydration, but the magnitude of bicarbonate reduction was not significantly different with increasing degrees of dehydration. Doctors should not rely on the serum bicarbonate concentration when assessing fluid deficit.



  14. Bicarbonate uptake by marine Crenarchaeota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuchter, C.; Schouten, S.; Boschker, H.T.S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    Biphytanyl membrane lipids and 16S rRNA sequences derived from marine Crenarchaeota were detected in shallow North Sea surface water in February 2002. To investigate the carbon fixation mechanism of these uncultivated archaea in situ 13C bicarbonate tracer experiments were performed with this water

  15. Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, A M; Peyrebrune, M C; Ingham, S A; Bailey, D M; Folland, J P

    2008-06-01

    Sodium bicarbonate ingestion has been shown to improve performance in single-bout, high intensity events, probably due to an increase in buffering capacity, but its influence on single-bout swimming performance has not been investigated. The effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 200 m freestyle swimming performance were investigated in elite male competitors. Following a randomised, double blind counterbalanced design, 9 swimmers completed maximal effort swims on 3 separate occasions: a control trial (C); after ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB: NaHCO3 300 mg . kg (-1) body mass); and after ingestion of a placebo (P: CaCO3 200 mg . kg (-1) body mass). The SB and P agents were packed in gelatine capsules and ingested 90 - 60 min prior to each 200 m swim. Mean 200 m performance times were significantly faster for SB than C or P (1 : 52.2 +/- 4.7; 1 : 53.7 +/- 3.8; 1 : 54.0 +/- 3.6 min : ss; p bicarbonate were all elevated pre-exercise in the SB compared to C and P trials (p < 0.05). Post-200 m blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher following the SB trial compared with P and C (p < 0.05). It was concluded that SB supplementation can improve 200 m freestyle performance time in elite male competitors, most likely by increasing buffering capacity.

  16. New advances in cell physiology and pathophysiology of the exocrine pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mössner, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    This review provides some aspects on the physiology of stimulation and inhibition of pancreatic digestive enzyme secretion and the pathophysiology of pancreatic acinar cell function leading to pancreatitis. Cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates both directly via CCK-A receptors on acinar cells and indirectly via CCK-B receptors on nerves, followed by acetylcholine release, pancreatic enzyme secretion. It is still not known whether CCK-A receptors exist in human acinar cells, in contrast to acinar cells of rodents where CCK-A receptors have been well described. CCK has numerous actions both in the periphery and in the central nervous systems. CCK inhibits gastric motility and regulates satiety. Another major function of CCK is stimulation of gallbladder contraction. This function enables that bile acids act simultaneously with pancreatic lipolytic enzymes. Secretin is a major stimulator of bicarbonate secretion. Trypsinogen is activated by the gut mucosal enzyme enterokinase. The other pancreatic proenzymes are activated by trypsin. Termination of enzyme secretion may be regulated by negative feedback mechanisms via destruction of CCK-releasing peptides by trypsin. Furthermore, the ileum may act as a brake by release of inhibitory hormones such as PYY and somatostatin. In the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis, fusion of zymogen granules with lysosomes leading to intracellular activation of trypsinogen is regarded as an initiation step. This activation of trypsinogen may be caused by the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin B. However, autoactivation of trypsinogen itself may be a possibility in pathogenesis. Autoactivation is enhanced in certain mutations of trypsinogen. Furthermore, an imbalance of protease inhibitors and active proteases may be involved. The role of pancreatic lipolytic enzymes, the role of bicarbonate secretion, and toxic Ca(2+) signals by excessive liberation from the endoplasmic reticulum have to be discussed in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis

  17. High bicarbonate assimilation in the dark by Arctic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Galand, Pierre E; Casamayor, Emilio O; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Bertilsson, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    Although both autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms incorporate CO₂ in the dark through different metabolic pathways, this process has usually been disregarded in oxic marine environments. We studied the significance and mediators of dark bicarbonate assimilation in dilution cultures inoculated with winter Arctic seawater. At stationary phase, bicarbonate incorporation rates were high (0.5-2.5 μg C L⁻¹ d⁻¹) and correlated with rates of bacterial heterotrophic production, suggesting that most of the incorporation was due to heterotrophs. Accordingly, very few typically chemoautotrophic bacteria were detected by 16S rRNA gene cloning. The genetic analysis of the biotin carboxylase gene accC putatively involved in archaeal CO₂ fixation did not yield any archaeal sequence, but amplified a variety of bacterial carboxylases involved in fatty acids biosynthesis, anaplerotic pathways and leucine catabolism. Gammaproteobacteria dominated the seawater cultures (40-70% of cell counts), followed by Betaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria as shown by catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARDFISH). Both Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were active in leucine and bicarbonate uptake, while Flavobacteria did not take up bicarbonate, as measured by microautoradiography combined with CARDFISH. Within Gammaproteobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas-Colwellia and Oleispira were very active in bicarbonate uptake (ca. 30 and 70% of active cells, respectively), while the group Arctic96B-16 did not take up bicarbonate. Our results suggest that, potentially, the incorporation of CO₂ can be relevant for the metabolism of specific Arctic heterotrophic phylotypes, promoting the maintenance of their cell activity and/or longer survival under resource depleted conditions.

  18. Bicarbonate diffusion through mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, E H; Miller, J; Engel, E

    1995-09-01

    The mucus layer overlying duodenal epithelium maintains a pH gradient against high luminal acid concentrations. Despite these adverse conditions, epithelial surface pH remains close to neutrality. The exact nature of the gradient-forming barrier remains unknown. The barrier consists of mucus into which HCO3- is secreted. Quantification of the ability of HCO3- to establish and maintain the gradient depends on accurate measurement of this ion's diffusion coefficient through mucus. We describe new experimental and mathematical methods for diffusion measurement and report diffusion coefficients for HCO3- diffusion through saline, 5% mucin solutions, and rat duodenal mucus. The diffusion coefficients were 20.2 +/- 0.10, 3.02 +/- 0.31, and 1.81 +/- 0.12 x 10(-6) cm2/s, respectively. Modeling of the mucobicarbonate layer with this latter value suggests that for conditions of high luminal acid strength the neutralization of acid by HCO3- occurs just above the epithelial surface. Under these conditions the model predicts that fluid convection toward the lumen could be important in maintaining the pH gradient. In support of this hypothesis we were able to demonstrate a net luminal fluid flux of 5 microliters.min-1.cm-2 after perfusion of 0.15 N HCl in the rat duodenum.

  19. Muscarinic M1 receptor inhibition reduces gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and promotes gastric prostaglandin E2 synthesis in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Eskerod, O

    1995-01-01

    stimulated gastric and basal duodenal bicarbonate secretion by about 50% (p basal and vagally stimulated PGE2 output increased significantly (p ...The selective muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist, pirenzepine, considerably stimulates duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the rat and increases gastric luminal release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in humans. This study, therefore, looked at the effect of pirenzepine on bicarbonate secretion...... sham feeding and acid exposure (HCl 0.1 M; 20 ml; 5 min) of the duodenal bulb increased mucosal bicarbonate secretion from 191 (14) mumol/cm x h to 266 (27) mumol/cm x h (p basal and vagally...

  20. Toward an in vivo dissolution methodology: a comparison of phosphate and bicarbonate buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jennifer J; McNamara, Daniel P; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the difference between the pharmaceutical phosphate buffers and the gastrointestinal bicarbonates in dissolution of ketoprofen and indomethacin, to illustrate the dependence of buffer differential on biopharmaceutical properties of BCS II weak acids, and to recommend phosphate buffers equivalent to bicarbonates. The intrinsic dissolution rates of ketoprofen and indomethacin were experimentally measured using a rotating disk method at 37 degrees C in USP SIF/FaSSIF and various concentrations of bicarbonates. Theoretical models including an improved reaction plane model and a film model were applied to estimate the surrogate phosphate buffers equivalent to the bicarbonates. Experimental results show that the intrinsic dissolution rates of ketoprofen and indomethacin in USP and FaSSIF phosphate buffers are 1.5-3.0 times that in the 15 mM bicarbonates. Theoretical analysis demonstrates that the buffer differential is largely dependent on the drug pK(a) and second on solubility, and weakly dependent on the drug diffusivity. Further, in accordance with the drug pK(a), solubility and diffusivity, a simple phosphate surrogate was proposed to match an average bicarbonate value (15 mM) of the upper gastrointestinal region. Specifically, phosphate buffers of 13-15 mM and 3-4 mM were recommended for ketoprofen and indomethacin, respectively. For both ketoprofen and indomethacin, the intrinsic dissolution using the phosphate surrogate buffers closely approximated the 15 mM bicarbonate buffer. This work demonstrates the substantial difference between pharmaceutical phosphates and physiological bicarbonates in determining the drug intrinsic dissolution rates of BCS II weak acids, such as ketoprofen and indomethacin. Surrogate phosphates were recommended in order to closely reflect the in vivo dissolution of ketoprofen and indomethacin in gastrointestinal bicarbonates, which has significant implications for defining buffer systems for

  1. INTRAHIPPOCAMPAL ADMINISTRATION OF IBOTENIC ACID INDUCED CHOLINERGIC DYSFUNCTION via NR2A/NR2B EXPRESSION: IMPLICATIONS OF RESVERATROL AGAINST ALZHEIMER DISEASE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chennakesavan eKarthick

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although several drugs revealed moderate amelioration of symptoms, none of them have sufficient potency to prevent or reverse the progression towards Alzheimer’s disease (AD pathology. Resveratrol (RSV, a polyphenolic compound has shown an outstanding therapeutic effect on a broad spectrum of diseases like age-associated neurodegeneration, inflammation etc. The present study was thus conducted to assess the therapeutic efficacy of RSV in ameliorating the deleterious effects of Ibotenic acid (IBO in male Wistar rats. Stereotactic intrahippocampal administration of IBO (5µg/µl lesioned rats impairs cholinergic transmission, learning and memory performance that is rather related to AD and thus chosen as a suitable model to understand the drug efficacy in preventing AD pathophysiology. Since IBO is an agonist of glutamate, it is expected to exhibit an excitotoxic effect by altering glutamatergic receptors like NMDA receptor. The current study displayed significant alterations in the mRNA expression of NR2A and NR2B subunits of NMDA receptors, and further it is surprising to note that cholinergic receptors decreased in expression particularly α7-nAChR with increased m1AChR. RSV administration (20mg/kg body weight, i.p significantly reduced these changes in IBO induced rats. Glutamatergic and cholinergic receptor alterations were associated with significant changes in the behavioral parameters of rats induced by IBO. While RSV improved spatial learning performance, attenuated immobility and improvised open field activity in IBO induced rats. NR2B activation in the present study might mediate cell death through oxidative stress that form the basis of abnormal behavioral pattern in IBO induced rats. Interestingly, RSV that could efficiently encounter oxidative stress have significantly decreased stress markers viz., nitrite, PCO, and MDA levels by enhancing antioxidant status. Histopathological analysis displayed significant reduction in the

  2. Preparation of anode-electrolyte structures using graphite, sodium bicarbonate or citric acid as pore forming agents for application in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz Fiuza, Raigenis da; Silva, Marcos Aurelio da; Guedes, Bruna C.; Pontes, Luiz A.; Boaventura, Jaime Soares [UFBA, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil). Energy and Materials Science Group

    2010-07-01

    Cermets based on Ni supported on YSZ or GDC were prepared for use as anode in direct reform SOFCs. NaHCO3 (Na-Ni-YSZ and Na-Ni-GDC) or citric acid (Ac-Ni-YSZ and Ac-Ni-GDC) were used as pore forming agents (PFAs). The SOFC anode was also prepared using graphite (G-Ni-YSZ and G-Ni-GDC) as PFA for the purposes of comparison. The testing unitary SOFC, planar type, was made by pressing the anode-electrolyte assembly, followed by sintering at 1500 C. After this, LSM (lanthanum and strontium manganite) paint was used for the cathode deposition. The powdered cermets were evaluated in ethanol steam reforming at 650 C. The ethanol conversion was 84% and 32% for cermets Na-Ni-YSZ and G-Ni-YSZ, respectively and the selectivity to H{sub 2} was 32 and 20% for the two cermets, respectively. The Na-Ni-YSZ cermet was ten times more resistant to carbon deposition than the G-Ni-YSZ cermet. SEM micrographs of the anode-electrolyte assembly showed that the use of NaHCO{sub 3} as PFA created a well formed interface between layers with homogeneously distributed pores. In contrast, graphite as PFA formed a loose interface between anode and electrolyte. The performance of the unitary SOFC was evaluated using ethanol, hydrogen or methane as fuel. The cell operated well using any of these fuels; however, they exhibited different electrochemical behavior. (orig.)

  3. Treatment with Potassium Bicarbonate Lowers Calcium Excretion and Bone Resorption in Older Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Harris, Susan S.; Palermo, Nancy J.; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen; Rasmussen, Helen M.; Dallal, Gerard E.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Bicarbonate has been implicated in bone health in older subjects on acid-producing diets in short-term studies. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of potassium bicarbonate and its components on changes in bone resorption and calcium excretion over 3 months in older men and women. Design, Participants, and Intervention: In this double-blind, controlled trial, 171 men and women age 50 and older were randomized to receive placebo or 67.5 mmol/d of potassium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate, or potassium chloride for 3 months. All subjects received calcium (600 mg of calcium as triphosphate) and 525 IU of vitamin D3 daily. Main Outcome Measures: Twenty-four-hour urinary N-telopeptide and calcium were measured at entry and after 3 months. Changes in these measures were compared across treatment groups in the 162 participants included in the analyses. Results: Bicarbonate affected the study outcomes, whereas potassium did not; the two bicarbonate groups and the two no bicarbonate groups were therefore combined. Subjects taking bicarbonate had significant reductions in urinary N-telopeptide and calcium excretion, when compared with subjects taking no bicarbonate (both before and after adjustment for baseline laboratory value, sex, and changes in urinary sodium and potassium; P = 0.001 for both, adjusted). Potassium supplementation did not significantly affect N-telopeptide or calcium excretion. Conclusions: Bicarbonate, but not potassium, had a favorable effect on bone resorption and calcium excretion. This suggests that increasing the alkali content of the diet may attenuate bone loss in healthy older adults. PMID:18940881

  4. Uses and misuses of sodium bicarbonate in the neonatal intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Amélie; Sahni, Rakesh

    2017-10-01

    Over the past several decades, bicarbonate therapy continues to be used routinely in the treatment of acute metabolic acidosis in critically ill neonates despite the lack of evidence for its effectiveness in the treatment of acid-base imbalance, and evidence indicating that it may be detrimental. Clinicians often feel compelled to use bicarbonate since acidosis implies a need for such therapy and thus the justification for its use is based on hearsay rather than science. This review summarizes the evidence and refutes the clinical practice of administering sodium bicarbonate to treat metabolic acidosis associated with several specific clinical syndromes in neonates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnesium bicarbonate as an in situ uranium lixiviant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibert, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    In the subsurface solution mining of mineral values, especially uranium, in situ, magnesium bicarbonate leaching solution is used instead of sodium, potassium and ammonium carbonate and bicarbonates. The magnesium bicarbonate solution is formed by combining carbon dioxide with magnesium oxide and water. The magnesium bicarbonate lixivant has four major advantages over prior art sodium, potassium and ammonium bicarbonates

  6. The Pathophysiology of Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Jessica C.; Kay, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Insomnia disorder is characterized by chronic dissatisfaction with sleep quantity or quality that is associated with difficulty falling asleep, frequent nighttime awakenings with difficulty returning to sleep, and/or awakening earlier in the morning than desired. Although progress has been made in our understanding of the nature, etiology, and pathophysiology of insomnia, there is still no universally accepted model. Greater understanding of the pathophysiology of insomnia may provide important information regarding how, and under what conditions, the disorder develops and is maintained as well as potential targets for prevention and treatment. The aims of this report are (1) to summarize current knowledge on the pathophysiology of insomnia and (2) to present a model of the pathophysiology of insomnia that considers evidence from various domains of research. Working within several models of insomnia, evidence for the pathophysiology of the disorder is presented across levels of analysis, from genetic to molecular and cellular mechanisms, neural circuitry, physiologic mechanisms, sleep behavior, and self-report. We discuss the role of hyperarousal as an overarching theme that guides our conceptualization of insomnia. Finally, we propose a model of the pathophysiology of insomnia that integrates the various types of evidence presented. PMID:25846534

  7. Use of bicarbonate buffer systems for dissolution characterization of enteric-coated proton pump inhibitor tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hiroko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Goda, Yukihiro

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of buffer systems (bicarbonate or phosphate at different concentrations) on the in vitro dissolution profiles of commercially available enteric-coated tablets. In vitro dissolution tests were conducted using an USP apparatus II on 12 enteric-coated omeprazole and rabeprazole tablets, including innovator and generic formulations in phosphate buffers, bicarbonate buffers and a media modified Hanks (mHanks) buffer. Both omeprazole and rabeprazole tablets showed similar dissolution profiles among products in the compendial phosphate buffer system. However, there were large differences between products in dissolution lag time in mHanks buffer and bicarbonate buffers. All formulations showed longer dissolution lag times at lower concentrations of bicarbonate or phosphate buffers. The dissolution rank order of each formulation differed between mHanks buffer and bicarbonate buffers. A rabeprazole formulation coated with a methacrylic acid copolymer showed the shortest lag time in the high concentration bicarbonate buffer, suggesting varied responses depending on the coating layer and buffer components. Use of multiple dissolution media during in vitro testing, including high concentration bicarbonate buffer, would contribute to the efficient design of enteric-coated drug formulations. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.

  8. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Jason C; Hirscher, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 g.kg(-1) BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate [HR] [HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p < or = 0.001) and BE (p < 0.001), but not for pH (p = 0.48). Post hoc analysis revealed higher presparring HCO3(-) and BE for the BICARB condition, but no differences between the BICARB and PLAC conditions postsparring. There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 g.kg(-1)) improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance.

  9. Native Small Airways Secrete Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsuddin, A. K. M.; Quinton, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cl− impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl− transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3−) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3− transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3− secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidi...

  10. [Vitamin C+sodium bicarbonate versus sodium bicarbonate alone in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, L; Triki, M; Ibn Elhaj, Z; Ben Halima, A; Boukhris, M; Ben Amara, W; Keskes, H; Kraiem, S; Lahidheb, D; Marrakchi, S; Kammoun, I; Addad, F; Kachboura, S

    2017-09-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a common and severe complication in interventional cardiology. The aim of our study was to compare the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in two accelerated hydration protocols: the first one by the serum bicarbonate and the second combining the serum bicarbonate and oral vitamin C. This is a multicenter prospective, randomized study conducted between October 2012 and May 2013, including 160 patients. The mean age of our study population was 60.8±9.3 years (36-83 years). The two study groups were comparable in terms of cardiovascular risk factors, concomitant medication, and baseline serum creatinine. The CIN incidence was 6.3% in the vitamin C group and 10% in the control group (P=0.38). No significant difference was observed in terms of CIN incidence between the different subgroups analyzed. According to our study, ascorbic acid administered orally as part of an accelerated hydration protocol does not reduce the incidence of CIN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. 21 CFR 582.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate. 582.1135 Section 582.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product....

  14. Remediation of uranium contaminated soils with bicarbonate extraction and microbial U(VI) reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips , Elizabeth J.P.; Landa, Edward R.; Lovely, Derek R.

    1995-01-01

    A process for concentrating uranium from contaminated soils in which the uranium is first extracted with bicarbonate and then the extracted uranium is precipitated with U(VI)-reducing microorganisms was evaluated for a variety of uranuum-contaminated soils. Bicarbonate (100 mM) extracted 20–94% of the uranium that was extracted with nitric acid. The U(VI)-reducing microorganism,Desulfovibrio desulfuricans reduced the U(VI) to U(IV) in the bicarbonate extracts. In some instances unidentified dissolved extracted components, presumably organics, gave the extract a yellow color and inhibited U(VI) reduction and/or the precipitation of U(IV). Removal of the dissolved yellow material with the addition of hydrogen peroxide alleviated this inhibition. These results demonstrate that bicarbonate extraction of uranium from soil followed by microbial U(VI) reduction might be an effective mechanism for concentrating uranium from some contaminated soils.

  15. Remediation of uranium contaminated soils with bicarbonate extraction and microbial U(VI) reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, E.J.P.; Landa, E.R.; Lovley, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    A process for concentrating uranium from contaminated soils in which the uranium is first extracted with bicarbonate and then the extracted uranium is precipitated with U(VI)-reducing microorganisms was evaluated for a variety of uranium-contaminated soils. Bicarbonate (100 mM) extracted 20-94% of the uranium that was extracted with nitric acid. The U(VI)-reducing microorganism, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans reduced the U(VI) to U(IV) in the bicarbonate extracts. In some instances unidentified dissolved extracted components, presumably organics, gave the extract a yellow color and inhibited U(VI) reduction and/or the precipitation of U(IV). Removal of the dissolved yellow material with the addition of hydrogen peroxide alleviated this inhibition. These results demonstrate that bicarbonate extraction of uranium from soil followed by microbial U(VI) reduction might be an effective mechanism for concentrating uranium from some contaminated soils. (author)

  16. The Structure of a Cyanobacterial Bicarbonate Transport Protein, CmpA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Koppenaal, David W.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-26

    Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae, are the most abundant autotrophs in aquatic environments and form the base of the food chain by fixing carbon and nitrogen into cellular biomass. To compensate for the low selectivity of Rubisco for CO₂ over O₂, Cyanobacteria have developed highly efficient CO₂concentrating machinery of which the ABC transport system CmpABCD from Synechocystis PCC 6803 is one component. Here we describe the structure of the bicarbonate binding protein, CmpA, in the absence and presence of bicarbonate and carbonic acid. CmpA is highly homologous to the nitrate transport protein, NrtA. CmpA binds carbonic acid at the entrance to the ligand-binding pocket whereas bicarbonate binds in nearly an identical location compared to nitrate binding to NrtA. Unexpectedly, bicarbonate binding is accompanied by a metal ion, identified as Ca²⁺ via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The binding of bicarbonate and metal is highly cooperative and suggests that CmpA co-transports bicarbonate and calcium.

  17. The absorption spectra of Pu(VI), -(V) and -(IV) produced electrochemically in carbonate-bicarbonate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, D.W.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    Absorption spectra in carbonate and bicarbonate media have been measured for various oxidation states of plutonium. The oxidation state of plutonium was adjusted electrochemically (Pu(VI)-V), Esub(f)=+0.11 V vs. SCE) to avoid contamination by redox reagents. In carbonate medium the spectra of Pu(VI) and Pu(V) showed marked differences from the spectra of the same oxidation state in acidic solutions. In bicarbonate the spectra of Pu(VI) and Pu(IV) also differed from the corresponding spectra in acidic media. Reduction to Pu(III) resulted in a precipitate in both carbonate and bicarbonate media. (author)

  18. Physiological responses in swine treated with water containing sodium bicarbonate as a prophylactic for gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J T; Argenzio, R A; Eisemann, J H

    2004-09-01

    Maintenance of gastric pH above 4.0 aids the prevention of bile acid-mediated ulcerative damage to the pars esophageal tissue in pigs. One means of doing so is the addition of buffering compounds, such as sodium bicarbonate, to the water supply; however, any potential physiological effect of buffer consumption has yet to be determined. Experiment 1 tested the acute effects of buffer addition to the water supply on systemic acid-base and electrolyte balance in swine (BW 40.7 +/- 3.0 kg). Consumption of water calculated to a 200 mOsm solution with sodium bicarbonate for 24 h increased (P sodium bicarbonate can safely be added to the water supply for pigs, with no clinically relevant alterations in acid-base balance because the animals readily compensate for buffer intake.

  19. Bicarbonate and dichloroacetate: Evaluating pH altering therapies in a mouse model for metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Natasha K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glycolytic nature of malignant tumors contributes to high levels of extracellular acidity in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor acidity is a driving force in invasion and metastases. Recently, it has been shown that buffering of extracellular acidity through systemic administration of oral bicarbonate can inhibit the spread of metastases in a mouse model for metastatic breast cancer. While these findings are compelling, recent assessments into the use of oral bicarbonate as a cancer intervention reveal limitations. Methods We posited that safety and efficacy of bicarbonate could be enhanced by dichloroacetate (DCA, a drug that selectively targets tumor cells and reduces extracellular acidity through inhibition of glycolysis. Using our mouse model for metastatic breast cancer (MDA-MB-231, we designed an interventional survival study where tumor bearing mice received bicarbonate, DCA, or DCA-bicarbonate (DB therapies chronically. Results Dichloroacetate alone or in combination with bicarbonate did not increase systemic alkalosis in mice. Survival was longest in mice administered bicarbonate-based therapies. Primary tumor re-occurrence after surgeries is associated with survival rates. Although DB therapy did not significantly enhance oral bicarbonate, we did observe reduced pulmonary lesion diameters in this cohort. The DCA monotherapy was not effective in reducing tumor size or metastases or improving survival time. We provide in vitro evidence to suggest this outcome may be a function of hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment. Conclusions DB combination therapy did not appear to enhance the effect of chronic oral bicarbonate. The anti-tumor effect of DCA may be dependent on the cancer model. Our studies suggest DCA efficacy is unpredictable as a cancer therapy and further studies are necessary to determine the role of this agent in the tumor microenvironment.

  20. Bicarbonate and dichloroacetate: Evaluating pH altering therapies in a mouse model for metastatic breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The glycolytic nature of malignant tumors contributes to high levels of extracellular acidity in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor acidity is a driving force in invasion and metastases. Recently, it has been shown that buffering of extracellular acidity through systemic administration of oral bicarbonate can inhibit the spread of metastases in a mouse model for metastatic breast cancer. While these findings are compelling, recent assessments into the use of oral bicarbonate as a cancer intervention reveal limitations. Methods We posited that safety and efficacy of bicarbonate could be enhanced by dichloroacetate (DCA), a drug that selectively targets tumor cells and reduces extracellular acidity through inhibition of glycolysis. Using our mouse model for metastatic breast cancer (MDA-MB-231), we designed an interventional survival study where tumor bearing mice received bicarbonate, DCA, or DCA-bicarbonate (DB) therapies chronically. Results Dichloroacetate alone or in combination with bicarbonate did not increase systemic alkalosis in mice. Survival was longest in mice administered bicarbonate-based therapies. Primary tumor re-occurrence after surgeries is associated with survival rates. Although DB therapy did not significantly enhance oral bicarbonate, we did observe reduced pulmonary lesion diameters in this cohort. The DCA monotherapy was not effective in reducing tumor size or metastases or improving survival time. We provide in vitro evidence to suggest this outcome may be a function of hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment. Conclusions DB combination therapy did not appear to enhance the effect of chronic oral bicarbonate. The anti-tumor effect of DCA may be dependent on the cancer model. Our studies suggest DCA efficacy is unpredictable as a cancer therapy and further studies are necessary to determine the role of this agent in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:21663677

  1. Bicarbonate and dichloroacetate: Evaluating pH altering therapies in a mouse model for metastatic breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robey, Ian F; Martin, Natasha K

    2011-01-01

    The glycolytic nature of malignant tumors contributes to high levels of extracellular acidity in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor acidity is a driving force in invasion and metastases. Recently, it has been shown that buffering of extracellular acidity through systemic administration of oral bicarbonate can inhibit the spread of metastases in a mouse model for metastatic breast cancer. While these findings are compelling, recent assessments into the use of oral bicarbonate as a cancer intervention reveal limitations. We posited that safety and efficacy of bicarbonate could be enhanced by dichloroacetate (DCA), a drug that selectively targets tumor cells and reduces extracellular acidity through inhibition of glycolysis. Using our mouse model for metastatic breast cancer (MDA-MB-231), we designed an interventional survival study where tumor bearing mice received bicarbonate, DCA, or DCA-bicarbonate (DB) therapies chronically. Dichloroacetate alone or in combination with bicarbonate did not increase systemic alkalosis in mice. Survival was longest in mice administered bicarbonate-based therapies. Primary tumor re-occurrence after surgeries is associated with survival rates. Although DB therapy did not significantly enhance oral bicarbonate, we did observe reduced pulmonary lesion diameters in this cohort. The DCA monotherapy was not effective in reducing tumor size or metastases or improving survival time. We provide in vitro evidence to suggest this outcome may be a function of hypoxia in the tumor microenvironment. DB combination therapy did not appear to enhance the effect of chronic oral bicarbonate. The anti-tumor effect of DCA may be dependent on the cancer model. Our studies suggest DCA efficacy is unpredictable as a cancer therapy and further studies are necessary to determine the role of this agent in the tumor microenvironment

  2. The Pathophysiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Avi Lemberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE is an emerging disease characterised by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf, lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with TGF-β to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE.

  3. Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity.

  4. Pathophysiology of cervical myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, Darryl C; Fehlings, Michael G

    2006-01-01

    Cervical myelopathy is a group of closely related disorders usually caused by spondylosis or by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament and is characterized by compression of the cervical spinal cord or nerve roots by varying degrees and number of levels. The decrease in diameter of the vertebral canal secondary to disc degeneration and osteophytic spurs compresses the spinal cord and nerve roots at one or several levels, producing direct damage and often secondary ischemic changes. Clinicians who treat cervical myelopathy cord injuries should have a basic understanding of the pathophysiology and the processes that are initiated after the spinal cord has been injured. Literature review. Literature review of human cervical myelopathy and clinically relevant animal models to further our understanding of the pathological mechanisms involved. The pathophysiology of cervical myelopathy involves static factors, which result in acquired or developmental stenosis of the cervical canal and dynamic factors, which involve repetitive injury to the cervical cord. These mechanical factors in turn result in direct injury to neurons and glia as well as a secondary cascade of events including ischemia, excitotoxicity, and apoptosis; a pathobiology similar to that occurring in traumatic spinal cord injury. This review summarizes some of the significant pathophysiological processes involved in cervical myelopathy.

  5. High bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Patricia; Junqua, Aurelie; Guignard-Perret, Anne; Raoux, Aude; Perier, Magali; Raverot, Veronique; Claustrat, Bruno; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Inocente, Clara Odilia; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the levels of plasma bicarbonate levels in narcoleptic children. Clinical, electrophysiological data and bicarbonate levels were evaluated retrospectively in children seen in our paediatric national reference centre for hypersomnia. The cohort included 23 control subjects (11.5 ± 4 years, 43% boys) and 51 patients presenting de-novo narcolepsy (N) (12.7 ± 3.7 years, 47% boys). In narcoleptic children, cataplexy was present in 78% and DQB1*0602 was positive in 96%. The control children were less obese (2 versus 47%, P = 0.001). Compared with control subjects, narcoleptic children had higher bicarbonate levels (P = 0.02) as well as higher PCO2 (P < 0.01) and lower venous pH gas (P < 0.01). Bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L(-1) were found in 41.2% of the narcoleptic children and 4.2% of the controls (P = 0.001). Bicarbonate levels were correlated with the Adapted Epworth Sleepiness Scale (P = 0.01). Narcoleptic patients without obesity often had bicarbonate levels higher than 27 mmol L (-1) (55 versus 25%, P = 0.025). No differences were found between children with and without cataplexy. In conclusion, narcoleptic patients had higher bicarbonate plasma levels compared to control children. This result could be a marker of hypoventilation in this pathology, provoking an increase in PCO2 and therefore a respiratory acidosis, compensated by an increase in plasma bicarbonates. This simple screening tool could be useful for prioritizing children for sleep laboratory evaluation in practice. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. Bicarbonate utilization by leaf protoplasts from Potamogeton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staal, M.; Elzenga, J.T.M.; Prins, H.B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Leaves from the submerged angiosperm P. lucens are able to assimilate bicarbonate. These leaves behave polarly: during bicarbonate utilization protons (H + ) are excreted by the cells of the lower epidermis, while hydroxyl (OH - ) ions are excreted by the upper epidermal cells. It has been proposed that acidification of the apoplast is a prerequisite for bicarbonate utilization. To test this hypothesis 14 C fixation by protoplasts was determined at different pH values. Also experiments, using the isotopic disequilibrium technique were performed. They showed that at pH values > 8, bicarbonate is a major carbon source for photosynthesis in protoplasts, despite the absence of cell walls and polarity. At pH values around 6, the rate of 14 C-fixation in protoplasts equals that of intact leaves. At pH values > 8, however, intact leaves show a higher rate. From this, and other experiments, the authors conclude that at least 2 processes contribute to bicarbonate utilization in P. lucens leaves: active transport (H + -HCO 3 - symport?) and acidification of the apoplast resulting in the conversion of bicarbonate into CO 2 . Polarity may increase the efficiency of both

  7. Sodium bicarbonate on severe metabolic acidosis during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Shin; Kim, Youn-Jung; Sohn, Chang Hwan; Seo, Dong Woo; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Donnino, Michael W; Kim, Won Young

    2018-04-01

    Sodium bicarbonate administration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is controversial. Current guidelines recommend sodium bicarbonate injection in patients with existing metabolic acidosis, but clinical trials, particularly, those involving patients with acidosis, are limited. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate administration in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients with severe metabolic acidosis during prolonged CPR. Prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled pilot trial was conducted between January 2015 and December 2015, at a single center emergency department (ED). After 10 minutes of CPR, patients who failed to achieve return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and with severe metabolic acidosis (pH<7.1 or bicarbonate <10 mEq/L) were enrolled. Sodium bicarbonate (n=25) or normal saline (n=25) were administered. The primary end point was sustained ROSC. The secondary end points were the change of acidosis and good neurologic survival. Sodium bicarbonate group had significant effect on pH (6.99 vs. 6.90, P=0.038) and bicarbonate levels (21.0 vs. 8.0 mEq/L, P=0.007). However, no significant differences showed between sodium bicarbonate and placebo groups in sustained ROSC (4.0% vs. 16.0%, P=0.349) or good neurologic survival at 1 month (0.0% vs. 4.0%, P=1.000). The use of sodium bicarbonate improved acid-base status, but did not improve the rate of ROSC and good neurologic survival. We could not draw a conclusion, but our pilot data could be used to design a larger trial to verify the efficacy of sodium bicarbonate. NCT02303548 (http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov).

  8. Altered colonic mucosal Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (PUFA derived lipid mediators in ulcerative colitis: new insight into relationship with disease activity and pathophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Masoodi

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is a relapsing inflammatory disorder of unconfirmed aetiology, variable severity and clinical course, characterised by progressive histological inflammation and with elevation of eicosanoids which have a known pathophysiological role in inflammation. Therapeutic interventions targetting eicosanoids (5-aminosalicylates (ASA are effective first line and adjunctive treatments in mild-moderate UC for achieving and sustaining clinical remission. However, the variable clinical response to 5-ASA and frequent deterioration in response to cyclo-oxygenase (COX inhibitors, has prompted an in depth simultaneous evaluation of multiple lipid mediators (including eicosanoids within the inflammatory milieu in UC. We hypothesised that severity of inflammation is associated with alteration of lipid mediators, in relapsing UC.Study was case-control design. Mucosal lipid mediators were determined by LC-MS/MS lipidomics analysis on mucosal biopsies taken from patients attending outpatients with relapsing UC. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to investigate the association of mucosal lipid mediators, with the disease state and severity graded histologically.Levels of PGE2, PGD2, TXB2, 5-HETE, 11-HETE, 12-HETE and 15-HETE are significantly elevated in inflamed mucosa and correlate with severity of inflammation, determined using validated histological scoring systems.Our approach of capturing inflammatory mediator signature at different stages of UC by combining comprehensive lipidomics analysis and computational modelling could be used to classify and predict mild-moderate inflammation; however, predictive index is diminished in severe inflammation. This new technical approach could be developed to tailor drug treatments to patients with active UC, based on the mucosal lipid mediator profile.

  9. Is Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy Still Up To Date?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Kurt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sodium bicarbonate (SB, which has a vital role in the regulation of acid-base balance of all tissues and organs, is one of the most important buffering systems of the body. SB plays an important role in the treatment of poisoning caused by numerous agents including mainly salicylate and tricyclic antidepressants. In metabolic acidosis (MA occurred in patient with systemic and metabolic diseases, first, the primary disease should be treated and in the case of low bicarbonate levels such as diarrhea and renal tubular acidosis, missing SB should be recovered. As the kidney has an important role in acid-base balance, SB is widely used in the treatment of acute and chronic renal failure. Although there is no conclusive evidence to prevent contrast nephropathy, SB comes to the fore compared to other agents. SB is used due to MA and its effects occurring in acute renal failure. In addition, SB treatment applied to reduce the increased acid levels in chronic kidney failure may reduce mortality. While SB can be used as individualized in lactic acidosis and cardiac arrest cases, it can be used safely as a performance enhancer for athletes. SB is used widely in gastrointestinal tract diseases due to its antacid effects and its routine use is not recommended in diabetic ketoacidosis. These data demonstrate that SB is still popular and it will retain its popularity in the near future.

  10. The pathophysiology of bronchiectasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul T King

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Paul T KingDepartment of Medicine, Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Monash University, Monash Medical Centre, Melbourne, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Bronchiectasis is defined by permanent and abnormal widening of the bronchi. This process occurs in the context of chronic airway infection and inflammation. It is usually diagnosed using computed tomography scanning to visualize the larger bronchi. Bronchiectasis is also characterized by mild to moderate airflow obstruction. This review will describe the pathophysiology of noncystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Studies have demonstrated that the small airways in bronchiectasis are obstructed from an inflammatory infiltrate in the wall. As most of the bronchial tree is composed of small airways, the net effect is obstruction. The bronchial wall is typically thickened by an inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes and macrophages which may form lymphoid follicles. It has recently been demonstrated that patients with bronchiectasis have a progressive decline in lung function. There are a large number of etiologic risk factors associated with bronchiectasis. As there is generally a long-term retrospective history, it may be difficult to determine the exact role of such factors in the pathogenesis. Extremes of age and smoking/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may be important considerations. There are a variety of different pathogens involved in bronchiectasis, but a common finding despite the presence of purulent sputum is failure to identify any pathogenic microorganisms. The bacterial flora appears to change with progression of disease. Keywords: bronchiectasis, inflammation, obstructive lung disease, pathophysiology, pathology

  11. Indomethacin decreases gastroduodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase inhibitors reduce mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the duodenum, but the evidence for their effect on bicarbonate secretion in the stomach remains controversial. We have, therefore, studied how indomethacin influences gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal...... healthy volunteers. Bicarbonate and PGE2 were measured in the gastroduodenal effluents by back-titration and radioimmunoassay, respectively. RESULTS: Vagal stimulation and duodenal luminal acidification (0.1 M HCl; 20 ml; 5 min) increased gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion (p ... markedly inhibited both basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion, and this reduction was similar to the degree of cyclooxygenase inhibition estimated by the luminal release of PGE2 (p

  12. Pathophysiology of glucagon secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, J.; Pabst, H.W.

    1980-01-01

    Pathophysiology of glucagon secretion is reviewed in brief separating hyperglucagonemic from hypoclucagonemic states. Many questions concerning the role of glucagon in diabetes mellitus and in other diseases are still unresolved. The clucagon RIA is of clinical significance in a few diseases like glucagonoma, which may present without symptoms of the 'glucagonoma syndrome', the probably very rare hyperglucagonemia and some of the spontaneous hypoglycemias. Glucagon secretion may be evaluated by the determination of fasting immunoreactive glucagon (IRG) and by appropriate function tests as stimulation with i.v. arginine and suppression with oral glucose. However, the glucagon RIA at present is not a routine method, although commercial kits are available. Many pitfalls of radioimmunological glucagon determination still exist. (orig.) [de

  13. Pathophysiology of nocturnal enuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittig, Søren; Kamperis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The perception of the pathogenesis of enuresis has undergone marked changes over the past 30 years from a psychiatric/psychological background to a more somatic model where nighttime urine production and bladder capacity are main components together with an arousal dysfunction that prevents...... that dysfunction of the intrinsic circadian regulation located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus results in dysfunction of one or more of the brainstem centers involved in AVP secretion, arousal function, bladder control, and blood pressure regulation. Furthermore, nocturnal enuresis has a strong genetic influence...... that in some families present as autosomal dominant inheritance with high degree of penetrance. Linkage to several chromosomal areas have been confirmed in such families although a specific causative enuresis gene has not yet been identified. In conclusion, our understanding of enuresis pathophysiology has...

  14. Dialysate bicarbonate variation in maintenance hemodiafiltration patients: Impact on serum bicarbonate, intradialytic hypotension and interdialytic weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Márcio; Cândido, Cristina; Felgueiras, Joana; Clemente, José; Barros, Sara; Farbota, Rostislav; Vera, Filipa; Matos, Antero; Sousa, Francisco

    2017-07-01

    The dialysate bicarbonate (DB) influences the acid-base balance in dialysis patients. Very low and high serum bicarbonate (SB) have been related with a higher mortality. Acid-base balance also has been associated with hemodynamic effects in these patients. The trial aim was to compare the effect of DB concentration variation on SB levels in maintenance hemodiafiltration (HDF) patients and the effect on intradialytic hypotension and interdialytic weight gain. A prospective study, with 9 months of follow-up, involving 93 patients, divided in two groups: group 1 and group 2 with a DB of 34 mmol/L and 30 mmol/L, respectively, with monitoring of pre and post HDF SB, intradialytic hypotension, and interdialytic weight gain. Pre dialysis SB was higher in group 1: median concentration of 22.7 mmol/L vs. 21.1 mmol/L (P < 0.001). Post dialysis SB levels were higher in group 1: median concentration of 28.0 mmol/L vs. 25.3 mmol/L (P < 0.001). Post dialysis SB in alkalotic range was only detected in group 1 (51.2% of the patients). No significant differences were detected in intradialytic hypotension rate [28.0 vs. 27.4 episodes per 1000 sessions in group 1 and 2, respectively, (P = 0.906)] or in average interdialytic weight gain [2.9% vs. 3.0% in group 1 and 2, respectively, (P = 0.710)]. DB of 30 mmol/L appears to be associated with SB levels closer to physiological levels than 34 mmol/L. The bicarbonate dialysate, in the tested concentrations, did not appear to have a significant impact on intradialytic hypotension and interdialytic weight gain in maintenance HDF patients. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  15. Thermodynamics of aqueous carbonate solutions including mixtures of sodium carbonate, bicarbonate, and chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiper, J.C.; Pitzer, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    Recently the authors examined electrochemical-cell data leading to values of the activity coefficient for aqueous sodium bicarbonate. Since that preliminary analysis, new experimental measurements have been published which contribute significantly to the overall thermodynamic understanding of (sodium carbonate + sodium bicarbonate + carbonic acid). In this more extensive examination we consider a wide variety of measurements leading to activity coefficients of Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ and NaHCO/sub 3/ from 273 to 323 K and to relative molar enthalpies and heat capacities at 298.15 K. Tables of thermodynamic quantities at selected temperatures are included. 47 references, 2 figures, 6 tables.

  16. Sodium bicarbonate treatment during transient or sustained lactic acidemia in normoxic and normotensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Valenza

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Lactic acidosis is a frequent cause of poor outcome in the intensive care settings. We set up an experimental model of lactic acid infusion in normoxic and normotensive rats to investigate the systemic effects of lactic acidemia per se without the confounding factor of an underlying organic cause of acidosis. METHODOLOGY: Sprague Dawley rats underwent a primed endovenous infusion of L(+ lactic acid during general anesthesia. Normoxic and normotensive animals were then randomized to the following study groups (n = 8 per group: S sustained infusion of lactic acid, S+B sustained infusion+sodium bicarbonate, T transient infusion, T+B transient infusion+sodium bicarbonate. Hemodynamic, respiratory and acid-base parameters were measured over time. Lactate pharmacokinetics and muscle phosphofructokinase enzyme's activity were also measured. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Following lactic acid infusion blood lactate rose (P<0.05, pH (P<0.05 and strong ion difference (P<0.05 drop. Some rats developed hemodynamic instability during the primed infusion of lactic acid. In the normoxic and normotensive animals bicarbonate treatment normalized pH during sustained infusion of lactic acid (from 7.22 ± 0.02 to 7.36 ± 0.04, P<0.05 while overshoot to alkalemic values when the infusion was transient (from 7.24 ± 0.01 to 7.53 ± 0.03, P<0.05. When acid load was interrupted bicarbonate infusion affected lactate wash-out kinetics (P<0.05 so that blood lactate was higher (2.9 ± 1 mmol/l vs. 1.0 ± 0.2, P<0.05, group T vs. T+B respectively. The activity of phosphofructokinase enzyme was correlated with blood pH (R2 = 0.475, P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: pH decreased with acid infusion and rose with bicarbonate administration but the effects of bicarbonate infusion on pH differed under a persistent or transient acid load. Alkalization affected the rate of lactate disposal during the transient acid load.

  17. Regulation and roles of bicarbonate transport in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej eGorbatenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A unifying feature of solid tumors is a markedly altered pH profile compared to normal tissues. This reflects that solid tumors, despite completely different origins, often share several phenotypic properties with implications for intra- and extracellular pH. These include: a metabolic shift in most cancer cells towards more acid-producing pathways, reflecting both oncogenic signaling and the development of hypoxia in poorly perfused regions of the tumors; the poorly perfused and often highly dense tumor microenvironment, reducing the diffusive flux of acid equivalents compared to that in normal tissues; and the markedly altered regulation of the expression and activity of pH-regulatory transport proteins in the cancer cells. While some of these properties of tumors have been well described in recent years, the great majority of the research in this clinically important area has focused on proton transport, in particular via the Na+/H+-exchanger 1 (SLC9A1, NHE1 and various H+ ATPases. We have, however, recently demonstrated that at least under some conditions, including in vitro models of HER2 positive breast cancer, and measurements obtained directly in freshly dissected human mammary tumors, bicarbonate transporters such as the electroneutral Na+,HCO3--cotransporter (SLC4A7, NBCn1, are upregulated and play central roles in pH regulation. In this review, we summarize and discuss the current knowledge regarding the regulation and roles of bicarbonate transport in cancer.

  18. Bicarbonate adsorption band of the chromatography for carbon isotope separation using anion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kunihiko; Obanawa, Heiichiro; Hata, Masahisa; Sato, Katsuya

    1985-01-01

    The equilibria of bicarbonate ion between two phases were studied for the carbon isotope separation using anion exchangers. The condition of the formation of a bicarbonate adsorption band was quantitatively discussed. The formation of the adsorption band depends on the difference of S-potential which is the sum of the standard redection chemical potentials and L-potential which is the sum of the reduction chemical potential. The isotopic separation factor observed was about 1.012, independent of the concentrations of acid and alkali in the solutions. The isotopic separation factor was considered to be determined by the reaction of bicarbonate ion on anion exchangers and carbon dioxide dissolved in solutions. The enriched carbon isotope whose isotopic abundance ratio ( 13 C/ 12 C) was 1.258 was obtained with the column packed with anion exchangers. (author)

  19. Intestinal bicarbonate secretion by marine teleost fish - why and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Rod W.; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Grosell, Martin Hautopp

    2002-01-01

    Calcium, Precipitation, Osmoregulation, pH-stat titration, Water absorption, Chloride-bicarbonate exchange......Calcium, Precipitation, Osmoregulation, pH-stat titration, Water absorption, Chloride-bicarbonate exchange...

  20. Prebiotic Peptide (Amide) Bond Synthesis Accelerated by Glycerol and Bicarbonate Under Neutral to Alkaline Dry-Down Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J. G.; Weber, A. L.

    2017-01-01

    Past studies of prebiotic peptide bond synthesis have generally been carried out in the acidic to neutral pH range [1, 2]. Here we report a new process for peptide bond (amide) synthesis in the neutral to alkaline pH range that involves simple dry-down heating of amino acids in the presence of glycerol and bicarbonate. Glycerol was included in the reaction mixture as a solvent and to provide hydroxyl groups for possible formation of ester intermediates previously implicated in peptide bond synthesis under acidic to neutral conditions [1]. Bicarbonate was added to raise the reaction pH to 8-9.

  1. Metabolism of [14C] bicarbonate by Streptococcus lactis: the synthesis, uptake and excretion of aspartate by resting cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, A.J.; Rice, G.H.; Jago, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    Resting cells of Streptococcus lactis C10 were able to synthesize aspartic acid de novo but could not actively transport aspartic acid into the cell. Intracellular aspartate was excreted from the cell in the presence of glucose but did not exchange with any extracellular amino acids. The results indicate that Str. lactis C10 obtains the aspartic acid it requires for growth by bicarbonate fixation instead of by the utilization of extracellular aspartic acid. (author)

  2. In SilicoModel-driven Assessment of the Effects of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Deficiency on Glutamate and Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: Implications for Understanding Schizophrenia Pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Rimjhim; Kalmady, Sunil Vasu; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan

    2017-05-31

    Deficient brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the important mechanisms underlying the neuroplasticity abnormalities in schizophrenia. Aberration in BDNF signaling pathways directly or circuitously influences neurotransmitters like glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). For the first time, this study attempts to construct and simulate the BDNF-neurotransmitter network in order to assess the effects of BDNF deficiency on glutamate and GABA. Using CellDesigner, we modeled BDNF interactions with calcium influx via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)- Calmodulin activation; synthesis of GABA via cell cycle regulators protein kinase B, glycogen synthase kinase and β-catenin; transportation of glutamate and GABA. Steady state stability, perturbation time-course simulation and sensitivity analysis were performed in COPASI after assigning the kinetic functions, optimizing the unknown parameters using random search and genetic algorithm. Study observations suggest that increased glutamate in hippocampus, similar to that seen in schizophrenia, could potentially be contributed by indirect pathway originated from BDNF. Deficient BDNF could suppress Glutamate decarboxylase 67-mediated GABA synthesis. Further, deficient BDNF corresponded to impaired transport via vesicular glutamate transporter, thereby further increasing the intracellular glutamate in GABAergic and glutamatergic cells. BDNF also altered calcium dependent neuroplasticity via NMDAR modulation. Sensitivity analysis showed that Calmodulin, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and CREB regulated transcription coactivator-1 played significant role in this network. The study presents in silico quantitative model of biochemical network constituting the key signaling molecules implicated in schizophrenia pathogenesis. It provides mechanistic insights into putative contribution of deficient BNDF towards alterations in neurotransmitters and neuroplasticity that are consistent with current

  3. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium bicarbonate. 184.1135 Section 184.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 18...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS §...

  6. Ranking of factors determining potassium mass balance in bicarbonate haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Teutonico, Annalisa; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Lomonte, Carlo

    2015-03-01

    . Bivariate linear regression analyses showed that only mean plasma K(+), hcgAUCK(+) and mean blood bicarbonates were significantly related to K(+)MB. Again, only mean plasma K(+) and hcgAUCK(+) predicted K(+)MB at the multiple linear regression analysis. Our studies enabled to establish the ranking of factors determining intradialysis K(+)MB: plasma K(+) → dialysate K(+) gradient is the main determinant; acid-base balance plays a much less important role. The duration of HD session per se is an independent determinant of K(+)MB. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  7. Pathophysiology of Glucocorticoid Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitellius, Géraldine; Trabado, Séverine; Bouligand, Jérôme; Delemer, Brigitte; Lombès, Marc

    2018-06-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC), such as cortisol or dexamethasone, control various physiological functions, notably those involved in development, metabolism, inflammatory processes and stress, and exert most of their effects upon binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR, encoded by NR3C1 gene). GC signaling follows several consecutive steps leading to target gene transactivation, including ligand binding, nuclear translocation of ligand-activated GR complexes, DNA binding, coactivator interaction and recruitment of functional transcriptional machinery. Any step may be impaired and may account for altered GC signaling. Partial or generalized glucocorticoid resistance syndrome may result in a reduced level of functional GR, a decreased hormone affinity and binding, a defect in nuclear GR translocation, a decrease or lack of DNA binding and/or post-transcriptional GR modifications. To date, 26 loss-of-function NR3C1 mutations have been reported in the context of hypertension, hirsutism, adrenal hyperplasia or metabolic disorders. These clinical signs are generally associated with biological features including hypercortisolism without negative regulatory feedback loop on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Patients had often low plasma aldosterone and renin levels despite hypertension. Only one GR gain-of-function mutation has been described associating Cushing's syndrome phenotype with normal urinary-free cortisol. Some GR polymorphisms (ER22/23EK, GR-9β) have been linked to glucocorticoid resistance and a healthier metabolic profile whereas some others seemed to be associated with GC hypersensitivity (N363S, BclI), increasing cardiovascular risk (diabetes type 2, visceral obesity). This review focuses on the earlier findings on the pathophysiology of GR signaling and presents criteria facilitating identification of novel NR3C1 mutations in selected patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Prebiotic Peptide (Amide) Bond Synthesis Accelerated by Glycerol and Bicarbonate Under Neutral to Alkaline Dry-Down Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J. G.; Weber, A. L.

    2017-07-01

    We report a new process for robust peptide bond synthesis in the pH 6–10 range that involves dry-down heating of amino acids in the presence of glycerol and bicarbonate (substrates: L-alanine, L-2-aminobutyric acid, β-alanine, isoserine).

  9. Reappraisal of bicarbonate secretion by the human oesophagus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of omeprazole to healthy volunteers was recently reported to increase proximal duodenal mucosalbicarbonate secretion. As human oesophagus also secretes bicarbonate, the hypothesis was tested that omeprazole may stimulate oesophagealbicarbonate secretion and thus......: The median rates (95% confidence intervals)of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate secretion, corrected for contaminating salivary and gastric bicarbonate, were 89 (33-150) and 121 (63-203)mumol/h/10 cm (p > 0.5) in omeprazole and ranitidine treated subjects respectively. Salivary and gastric bicarbonate...... be overestimated. As omeprazole and ranitidine did not affect bicarbonate secretion differently there was no evidence that omeprazole acts on icarbonate secretory cells in the oesophageal mucosa....

  10. Pathophysiology of Cushing's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehm, H L; Voigt, K H

    1979-01-01

    The term Cushing's disease is applied to those cases of Cushing's syndrome in which hypercortisolism is secondary to inappropriate secretion of ACTH by the pituitary. Studies on control of ACTH secretion in these patients reveal: (a) that the episodic secretion of ACTH is similar to the normal; however, frequency and amplitude of the secretory episodes lack the normal circadian rhythm; (b) that ACTH release can be stimulated by vasopressin and metyrapone in a normal or above-normal manner; and (c) that it can be suppressed by large doses of corticosteroids. When the dynamic aspects of the ACTH response to corticosteroid administration are studied, it appears that the normally negative differential feedback mechanism is converted into a positive one, whereas the delayed, integral mechanism is undisturbed. Patients with Cushing's disease in the presence of obvious pituitary tumors cannot be distinguished from those without pituitary tumors by studying only the pituitary function. All these and other well-known facts would favor the concept that ACTH secretion in Cushing's disease is under hypothalamic control whether or not a pituitary tumor is present. Moreover, there are observations that suggest that brain centers superior to the hypophysiotropic area of the hypothalamus are involved in the pathophysiology of Cushing's disease. This concept has led to the discovery of neurotropic drugs that are able to induce complete remission of Cushing's syndrome in a cerain percentage of patients. In some patients with severe psychiatric diseases, neuroendocrine abnormalities are present that resemble closely those characteristic for Cushing's disease. With the most refined neuroradiological methods, pituitary microadenomas are demonstrable in approximately 70% of patients with Cushing's disease, and this number compares well with those of earlier autopsy findings (70 to 80%). In a small number of patients (4 to 10%), these tumors are large and can easily be detected by

  11. [Functional pathophysiology of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, Kurt A

    2009-01-01

    from important somatic and sensory pathways and acts as a control system of neuronal activities of the cerebral cortex. The principal function of the ARAS is to focus our alertness on specific stimuli or internal processes, which run via complex neuronal cell groups and numerous neurotransmitters that influence various aspects of consciousness and wakefulness. Stimulation of the ARAS produces an arousal reaction as the electric correlate of consciousness; its destruction causes coma and related states. The highest level are cortical (prefrontal and association) networks for recognition, motor activity, longterm memory and attention, the left hemisphere being considered as the dominant one. Different levels of consciousness are distinguished: 1. hyperalertness, 2. alertness (normal state of wakefulness), 3. somnolence or lethargy, 4. obtundation with tendency to fall asleep, 5. stupor, 6. coma and its subtypes, like akinetic mutism, apallic syndrome or persistent vegative state, locked-in syndrome, delirium, and catatonia. They are caused by damages in various functional levels of the brain, by psychogenic factors or experimentally, and are accompanied by characteristic neurological and psychiatric disorders. The relevant morphological lesions can be detected by electrophysiological and imaging studies. The bases of functional anatomy and pathophysiology of consciousness, its cognitive aspects and its major disorders, their causes and functional substrates with reference to sleep and both spontaneous and iatrogenic disorders of consciousness are critically summarized.

  12. Effect of sodium bicarbonate administration on mortality in patients with lactic acidosis: a retrospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jeong Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lactic acidosis is a common cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis. Sodium bicarbonate may be considered for an arterial pH <7.15 but paradoxically depresses cardiac performance and exacerbates acidosis by enhancing lactate production. This study aimed to evaluate the cause and mortality rate of lactic acidosis and to investigate the effect of factors, including sodium bicarbonate use, on death. METHODS: We conducted a single center analysis from May 2011 through April 2012. We retrospectively analyzed 103 patients with lactic acidosis among 207 patients with metabolic acidosis. We used SOFA and APACHE II as severity scores to estimate illness severity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and Cox regression analysis models were used to identify factors that affect mortality. RESULTS: Of the 103 patients with a mean age of 66.1±11.4 years, eighty-three patients (80.6% died from sepsis (61.4%, hepatic failure, cardiogenic shock and other causes. The percentage of sodium bicarbonate administration (p = 0.006, catecholamine use, ventilator care and male gender were higher in the non-survival group than the survival group. The non-survival group had significantly higher initial and follow-up lactic acid levels, lower initial albumin, higher SOFA scores and APACHE II scores than the survival group. The mortality rate was significantly higher in patients who received sodium bicarbonate. Sodium bicarbonate administration (p = 0.016 was associated with higher mortality. Independent factors that affected mortality were SOFA score (Exp (B = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.12-2.63, p = 0.013 and sodium bicarbonate administration (Exp (B = 6.27, 95% CI = 1.10-35.78, p = 0.039. CONCLUSIONS: Lactic acidosis, which has a high mortality rate, should be evaluated in patients with metabolic acidosis. In addition, sodium bicarbonate should be prescribed with caution in the case of lactic acidosis because sodium bicarbonate

  13. Metabolism of [14C]bicarbonate by Streptococcus lactis: identification and distribution of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillier, A.J.; Jago, G.R.

    1978-01-01

    Streptococcus lactis C10, grown in tryptone-yeast extract-lactose broth containing [ 14 C] bicarbonate, incorporated radioactivity into the protein and nucleic acid fractions of the cell as well as into compounds which were excreted by the organism into the growth medium. Aspartic acid was the first compound to be labelled and was the only amino acid labelled in the cell protein. All 4 bases were labelled in the cell RNA. Aspartic, succunuc and lactic acids were the radioactive compounds excreted into the growth medium. (U.K.)

  14. Adropin – physiological and pathophysiological role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Marczuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adropin is a peptide hormone that was discovered in 2008 by Kumar et al. This protein consists of 76 amino acids, and it was originally described as a secreted peptide, with residues 1-33 encoding a secretory signal peptide sequence. The amino acid sequence of this protein in humans, mice and rats is identical. While our knowledge of the exact physiological roles of this poorly understood peptide continues to evolve, recent data suggest a role in energy homeostasis and the control of glucose and fatty acid metabolism. This protein is encoded by the Enho gene, which is expressed primarily in the liver and the central nervous system. The regulation of adropin secretion is controversial. Adropin immunoreactivity has been reported by several laboratories in the circulation of humans, non-human primates and rodents. However, more recently it has been suggested that adropin is a membrane-bound protein that modulates cell-cell communication. Moreover, adropin has been detected in various tissues and body fluids, such as brain, cerebellum, liver, kidney, heart, pancreas, small intestine, endothelial cells, colostrum, cheese whey and milk. The protein level, as shown by previous research, changes in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Adropin is involved in carbohydrate-lipid metabolism, metabolic diseases, central nervous system function, endothelial function and cardiovascular disease. The knowledge of this interesting protein, its exact role and mechanism of action is insufficient. This article provides an overview of the existing literature about the role of adropin, both in physiological and pathophysiological conditions.

  15. Seawater bicarbonate removal during hydrothermal circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskurowski, G. K.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; Reeves, E.; Lilley, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    High temperature fluids sampled at hydrothermal vents represent a complex alteration product of water-rock reactions on a multi-component mixture of source fluids. Sources to high-temperature hydrothermal samples include the 'original' seawater present in the recharge limb of circulation, magmatically influenced fluids added at depth as well as any seawater entrained during sampling. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are typically enriched in magmatic volatiles, with CO2 the dominant species, characterized by concentrations of 10's-100's of mmol/kg (1, 2). Typically, the high concentration of CO2 relative to background seawater bicarbonate concentrations (~2.3 mmol/kg) obscures a full analysis of the fate of seawater bicarbonate during high-temperature hydrothermal circulation. Here we present data from a suite of samples collected over the past 15 years from high-temperature hydrothermal vents at 9N, Endeavour, Lau Basin, and the MAR that have endmember CO2 concentrations less than 10 mmol/kg. Using stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements these samples provide a unique opportunity to examine the balance between 'original' seawater bicarbonate and CO2 added from magmatic sources. Multiple lines of evidence from multiple hydrothermal settings consistently points to the removal of ~80% of the 'original' 2.3 mmol/kg seawater bicarbonate. Assuming that this removal occurs in the low-temperature, 'recharge' limb of hydrothermal circulation, this removal process is widely occurring and has important contributions to the global carbon cycle over geologic time. 1. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, & Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422(6934):878-881. 2. Seewald J, Cruse A, & Saccocia P (2003) Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216(4):575-590.

  16. Infusion of sodium bicarbonate in experimentally induced metabolic acidosis does not provoke cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acidosis in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, Saman; Zello, Gordon A; Lohmann, Katharina L; Alcorn, Jane; Hamilton, Don L; Naylor, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    In a crossover study, 5 calves were made acidotic by intermittent intravenous infusion of isotonic hydrochloric acid (HCl) over approximately 24 h. This was followed by rapid (4 h) or slow (24 h) correction of blood pH with isotonic sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) to determine if rapid correction of acidemia produced paradoxical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acidosis. Infusion of HCl produced a marked metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation. Venous blood pH (mean ± S(x)) was 7.362 ± 0.021 and 7.116 ± 0.032, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2), torr) 48.8 ± 1.3 and 34.8 ± 1.4, and bicarbonate (mmol/L), 27.2 ± 1.27 and 11 ± 0.96; CSF pH was 7.344 ± 0.031 and 7.240 ± 0.039, Pco(2) 42.8 ± 2.9 and 34.5 ± 1.4, and bicarbonate 23.5 ± 0.91 and 14.2 ± 1.09 for the period before the infusion of hydrochloric acid and immediately before the start of sodium bicarbonate correction, respectively. In calves treated with rapid infusion of sodium bicarbonate, correction of venous acidemia was significantly more rapid and increases in Pco(2) and bicarbonate in CSF were also more rapid. However, there was no significant difference in CSF pH. After 4 h of correction, CSF pH was 7.238 ± 0.040 and 7.256 ± 0.050, Pco(2) 44.4 ± 2.2 and 34.2 ± 2.1, and bicarbonate 17.8 ± 1.02 and 14.6 ± 1.4 for rapid and slow correction, respectively. Under the conditions of this experiment, rapid correction of acidemia did not provoke paradoxical CSF acidosis.

  17. Ammonium Bicarbonate Addition Improves the Detection of Proteins by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarvar, Elahe; Venter, Andre R.

    2017-06-01

    The analysis of protein by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is considered impractical due to a mass-dependent loss in sensitivity with increase in protein molecular weights. With the addition of ammonium bicarbonate to the DESI-MS analysis the sensitivity towards proteins by DESI was improved. The signal to noise ratio (S/N) improvement for a variety of proteins increased between 2- to 3-fold relative to solvent systems containing formic acid and more than seven times relative to aqueous methanol spray solvents. Three methods for ammonium bicarbonate addition during DESI-MS were investigated. The additive delivered improvements in S/N whether it was mixed with the analyte prior to sample deposition, applied over pre-prepared samples, or simply added to the desorption spray solvent. The improvement correlated well with protein pI but not with protein size. Other ammonium or bicarbonate salts did not produce similar improvements in S/N, nor was this improvement in S/N observed for ESI of the same samples. As was previously described for ESI, DESI also caused extensive protein unfolding upon the addition of ammonium bicarbonate. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Population pharmacodynamic model of bicarbonate response to acetazolamide in mechanically ventilated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Acetazolamide is commonly given to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with metabolic alkalosis. Little is known of the pharmacodynamics of acetazolamide in the critically ill. We undertook the pharmacodynamic modeling of bicarbonate response to acetazolamide in COPD patients under mechanical ventilation. Methods This observational, retrospective study included 68 invasively ventilated COPD patients who received one or multiple doses of 250 or 500 mg of acetazolamide during the weaning period. Among the 68 investigated patients, 207 time-serum bicarbonate observations were available for analysis. Population pharmacodynamics was modeled using a nonlinear mixedeffect model. The main covariates of interest were baseline demographic data, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) at ICU admission, cause of respiratory failure, co-prescription of drugs interfering with the acid-base equilibrium, and serum concentrations of protein, creatinin, potassium and chloride. The effect of acetazolamide on serum bicarbonate levels at different doses and in different clinical conditions was subsequently simulated in silico. Results The main covariates interacting with acetazolamide pharmacodynamics were SAPS II at ICU admission (P = 0.01), serum chloride (P 500 mg twice daily is required to reduce serum bicarbonate concentrations > 5 mmol/L in the presence of high serum chloride levels or coadministration of systemic corticosteroids or furosemide. Conclusions This study identified several covariates that influenced acetazolamide pharmacodynamics and could allow a better individualization of acetazolamide dosing when treating COPD patients with metabolic alkalosis. PMID:21917139

  19. Gastric bicarbonate secretion and release of prostaglandin E2 are increased in duodenal ulcer patients, but not in Helicobacter pylori positive healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Mertz-Nielsen; Hillingsø, Jens; Frøkiær, Hanne

    1996-01-01

    Background: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E(2) than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality...... was present also in the stomach of DU patients. Methods: Simultaneous determinations of gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal release of PGE(2) were performed in 16 healthy volunteers (5 Helicobacter pylori-positive) and 8 inactive DU patients (all H. pylori-positivr). Results: In healthy...... be responsible for the abnormally high gastric secretion of bicarbonate in inactive DU patients. Th; defective duodenal secretion of bicarbonate observed in these patients may be a consequence of previous ulceration rather than the mere presence of H. pylori infection....

  20. Exclusion of dietary sodium bicarbonate from a wheat-based diet: effects on milk production and ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepel, L; Hayirli, A

    2011-01-01

    Milk production, rumen fermentation, and whole-tract apparent nutrient digestibility in response to feeding 20% steam-rolled wheat with or without sodium bicarbonate were evaluated in 12 Holstein cows averaging 165±16 DIM. Cows were fed 1 of 2 isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets containing either 0 or 0.75% sodium bicarbonate on a DM basis for 21 d in a crossover design. Rumen fluid samples were obtained 18 times during the last 2 d of each period, and fecal samples were collected on 12 occasions from d 18 to 21 of each period. Removal of sodium bicarbonate from the diet did not affect DMI (21.0 kg/d), yields of milk (30.8 kg/d), or milk components (1.16, 1.01, and 1.40 kg/d for fat, protein, and lactose, respectively). Whole-tract apparent digestibility of DM, CP, ADF, and NDF did not differ between the 2 treatments (75.3, 76.6, 67.2, and 63.6%, respectively). The mean rumen pH was 6.24 and was not affected by excluding sodium bicarbonate from the diet. Rumen NH3-N (12.31 mg/dL) and lactic acid (3.63 mM) concentrations were not different, whereas total volatile fatty acids concentration tended to increase when sodium bicarbonate was present in the diet (110 vs. 116 mM). However, average concentrations of the individual volatile fatty acids, as a proportion of total volatile fatty acids, were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, dairy cow diets can include up to 20% steam-rolled wheat without the need for added sodium bicarbonate as long as the diets are formulated to meet the fiber requirements of the cow. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Pathophysiology of chronic diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerok, W

    2000-10-12

    The symptom of diarrhoea is defined as an abnormally frequent discharge from the bowel (more than 3 times a day) and a semisolid or fluid consistency of the faecal matter. Diarrhoea is termed chronic when it lasts more than four weeks. Diarrhoea is the result of disturbances in enteral water and electrolyte balance. Increased intestinal motility is usually not the cause but the result of diarrhoea. Transport of water through the gut is dependent on the osmotic gradient between interstitium and gut lumen. The secretion of chloride ions by the cells of the intestinal glands plays a major role in water secretion into the gut lumen, while sodium and potassium absorption in the villous zone of the enterocytes is crucial for enteral water absorption. Enteral water and electrolyte balance is regulated by the autonomic and enteral nervous system, by gastrointestinal hormones and signal messengers of mesenchymal cells. Pathogenetically, one distinguishes between secretory and osmotic diarrhoea. Furthermore, mixed forms of both pathogenic types can occur. The various types can be differentiated clinically and by the "osmotic gap". Diarrhoea can be a symptom of various diseases. Its pathogenesis is illustrated using examples of diarrhoea in pathological bile acid absorption, bacterial infections, carbohydrate malabsorption or disaccharidase insufficiency and in chronic inflammatory bowel disease.

  2. Recovery of [CO2]T from Aqueous Bicarbonate using a Gas Permeable Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-25

    coulometer. For the potentiometric titrations , the entire 150 mL of the water/bicarbonate solution sample was collected and titrated with 0.2 M HCl...High Precision Determination of Titration Alkalinity and Total Carbon Dioxide Content of Sea Water by Potentiometric Titration . Deep-Sea Res. 1970...IL 60436) [8] or by strong acid titration [18,19]. All solutions for the coulometer were of reagent grade and purchased from UIC Inc. The lower

  3. Metabolic Acidosis or Respiratory Alkalosis? Evaluation of a Low Plasma Bicarbonate Using the Urine Anion Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlle, Daniel; Chin-Theodorou, Jamie; Tucker, Bryan M

    2017-09-01

    Hypobicarbonatemia, or a reduced bicarbonate concentration in plasma, is a finding seen in 3 acid-base disorders: metabolic acidosis, chronic respiratory alkalosis and mixed metabolic acidosis and chronic respiratory alkalosis. Hypobicarbonatemia due to chronic respiratory alkalosis is often misdiagnosed as a metabolic acidosis and mistreated with the administration of alkali therapy. Proper diagnosis of the cause of hypobicarbonatemia requires integration of the laboratory values, arterial blood gas, and clinical history. The information derived from the urinary response to the prevailing acid-base disorder is useful to arrive at the correct diagnosis. We discuss the use of urine anion gap, as a surrogate marker of urine ammonium excretion, in the evaluation of a patient with low plasma bicarbonate concentration to differentiate between metabolic acidosis and chronic respiratory alkalosis. The interpretation and limitations of urine acid-base indexes at bedside (urine pH, urine bicarbonate, and urine anion gap) to evaluate urine acidification are discussed. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Disrupting Hypoxia-Induced Bicarbonate Transport Acidifies Tumor Cells and Suppresses Tumor Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Alan; Hulikova, Alzbeta; Ledaki, Ioanna; Snell, Cameron; Singleton, Dean; Steers, Graham; Seden, Peter; Jones, Dylan; Bridges, Esther; Wigfield, Simon; Li, Ji-Liang; Russell, Angela; Swietach, Pawel; Harris, Adrian L

    2016-07-01

    Tumor hypoxia is associated clinically with therapeutic resistance and poor patient outcomes. One feature of tumor hypoxia is activated expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), a regulator of pH and tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that impeding the reuptake of bicarbonate produced extracellularly by CA9 could exacerbate the intracellular acidity produced by hypoxic conditions, perhaps compromising cell growth and viability as a result. In 8 of 10 cancer cell lines, we found that hypoxia induced the expression of at least one bicarbonate transporter. The most robust and frequent inductions were of the sodium-driven bicarbonate transporters SLC4A4 and SLC4A9, which rely upon both HIF1α and HIF2α activity for their expression. In cancer cell spheroids, SLC4A4 or SLC4A9 disruption by either genetic or pharmaceutical approaches acidified intracellular pH and reduced cell growth. Furthermore, treatment of spheroids with S0859, a small-molecule inhibitor of sodium-driven bicarbonate transporters, increased apoptosis in the cell lines tested. Finally, RNAi-mediated attenuation of SLC4A9 increased apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer spheroids and dramatically reduced growth of MDA-MB-231 breast tumors or U87 gliomas in murine xenografts. Our findings suggest that disrupting pH homeostasis by blocking bicarbonate import might broadly relieve the common resistance of hypoxic tumors to anticancer therapy. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3744-55. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Current status of bicarbonate in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, Mirela; Rahman, Mahboob; Hostetter, Thomas H

    2015-03-01

    Metabolic acidosis was one of the earliest complications to be recognized and explained pathologically in patients with CKD. Despite the accumulated evidence of deleterious effects of acidosis, treatment of acidosis has been tested very little, especially with respect to standard clinical outcomes. On the basis of fundamental research and small alkali supplementation trials, correcting metabolic acidosis has a strikingly broad array of potential benefits. This review summarizes the published evidence on the association between serum bicarbonate and clinical outcomes. We discuss the role of alkali supplementation in CKD as it relates to retarding kidney disease progression, improving metabolic and musculoskeletal complications. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Tetra?ethyl?ammonium bicarbonate trihydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Heping; Hou, Yimin; Yang, Yunxia

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C8H20N+·CHO3−·3H2O, the bicarbonate anion, which has a small mean deviation from the plane of 0.0014 Å, fully utilises its three O and one H atom to form various O—H...O hydrogen bonds with the three water molecules in the asymmetric unit, generating a hydrogen-bonded layer, which extends along (10overline{1}). The tetraethylammonium cations, as the guest species, are accommodated between every two neighboring lay...

  7. Pathophysiological mechanisms of insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, M.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we studied pathophysiological mechanisms of insulin resistance in different conditions in humans, i.e. in obesity, during lipid infusions, after hypercaloric feeding, and glucocorticoid treatment. We focused on 3 important hypotheses that are suggested to be implicated in the

  8. Pathophysiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Rohof, Wout O.

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common digestive diseases in the Western world, with typical symptoms, such as heartburn, regurgitation, or retrosternal pain, reported by 15% to 20% of the general population. The pathophysiology of GERD is multifactorial. Our understanding

  9. Gas embolism: pathophysiology and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulst, Robert A.; Klein, Jan; Lachmann, Burkhard

    2003-01-01

    Based on a literature search, an overview is presented of the pathophysiology of venous and arterial gas embolism in the experimental and clinical environment, as well as the relevance and aims of diagnostics and treatment of gas embolism. The review starts with a few historical observations and

  10. The phosphaturic effect of sodium bicarbonate and acetazolamide in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulop, Milford; Brazeau, Paul

    1968-01-01

    Urinary inorganic phosphate excretion was studied before and during the administration of sodium bicarbonate and acetazolamide in dogs that were not given infusions of phosphate. The excretion fraction of filtered phosphate increased after sodium bicarbonate or acetazolamide was given. This phosphaturia was attributed to decreased tubular reabsorption of phosphate consequent to alkalinization of either tubular urine or cells. PMID:5645865

  11. Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy in Patients with Metabolic Acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Mouriño-Bayolo, David; Castro-Quintela, Elvira; Domínguez-Montero, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. Sodium bicarbonate is the predominant buffer used in dialysis fluids and patients on maintenance dialysis are subjected to a load of sodium bicarbonate during the sessions, suffering a transient metabolic alkalosis of variable severity. Side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate therapy include hypercapnia, hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, and QTc interval prolongation. The potential impact of regular sodium bicarbonate therapy on worsening vascular calcifications in patients with chronic kidney disease has been insufficiently investigated. PMID:25405229

  12. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Bukhave, K

    1996-01-01

    with control experiments. Also the combination of omeprazole and ranitidine increased (p = 0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion, while ranitidine alone caused no change in either basal or stimulated secretion. In the stomach basal as well as vagally stimulated bicarbonate secretion was independent of the means...

  13. Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy in Patients with Metabolic Acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María M. Adeva-Andany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. Sodium bicarbonate is the predominant buffer used in dialysis fluids and patients on maintenance dialysis are subjected to a load of sodium bicarbonate during the sessions, suffering a transient metabolic alkalosis of variable severity. Side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate therapy include hypercapnia, hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, and QTc interval prolongation. The potential impact of regular sodium bicarbonate therapy on worsening vascular calcifications in patients with chronic kidney disease has been insufficiently investigated.

  14. In vivo predictive dissolution: transport analysis of the CO2 , bicarbonate in vivo buffer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Brian J; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2014-11-01

    Development of an oral in vivo predictive dissolution medium for acid drugs with a pKa in the physiological range (e.g., Biopharmaceutics Classification System Class IIa) requires transport analysis of the complex in vivo CO2 /bicarbonate buffering system. In this report, we analyze this buffer system using hydrodynamically defined rotating disk dissolution. Transport analysis of drug flux was predicted using the film model approach of Mooney et al based on equilibrium assumptions as well as accounting for the slow hydration reaction, CO2 + H2 O → H2 CO3 . The accuracy of the models was compared with experimentally determined results using the rotating disk dissolution of ibuprofen, indomethacin, and ketoprofen. The equilibrium and slow hydration reaction rate models predict significantly different dissolution rates. The experimental results are more accurately predicted by accounting for the slow hydration reaction under a variety of pH and hydrodynamic conditions. Although the complex bicarbonate buffering system requires further consideration given its dynamic nature in vivo, a simplifying irreversible reaction (IRR) transport analysis accurately predicts in vitro rotating disk dissolution rates of several carboxylic acid drugs. This IRR transport model provides further insight into bicarbonate buffer and can be useful in developing more physiologically relevant buffer systems for dissolution testing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  15. Rhabdomyolysis and Artifactual Increase in Plasma Bicarbonate Concentration in an Amazon Parrot (Amazona species).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leissinger, Mary K; Johnson, James G; Tully, Thomas N; Gaunt, Stephen D

    2017-09-01

    A 7-year-old male Amazon parrot housed outdoors presented with acute collapse, marked lethargy, and open-mouth breathing. The patient had stiffness of the pectoral muscles, and petechiation and ecchymosis noted around the eyes and beneath the mandible. Laboratory data revealed markedly increased aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase activity consistent with rhabdomyolysis, as well as markedly increased plasma bicarbonate concentration. Marked clinical improvement and resolution of laboratory abnormalities occurred with fluid therapy, administration of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication, and husbandry modifications, including indoor housing and dietary alteration. A spurious increase in bicarbonate measurement as documented in equine and bovine cases of rhabdomyolysis also occurred in this avian patient and must be considered for accurate interpretation of acid-base status in exotic species presenting with consistent clinical signs.

  16. Metabolomic Responses of Guard Cells and Mesophyll Cells to Bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Biswapriya B.; de Armas, Evaldo; Tong, Zhaohui; Chen, Sixue

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 presently at 400 ppm is expected to reach 550 ppm in 2050, an increment expected to affect plant growth and productivity. Paired stomatal guard cells (GCs) are the gate-way for water, CO2, and pathogen, while mesophyll cells (MCs) represent the bulk cell-type of green leaves mainly for photosynthesis. We used the two different cell types, i.e., GCs and MCs from canola (Brassica napus) to profile metabolomic changes upon increased CO2 through supplementation with bicarbonate (HCO3 -). Two metabolomics platforms enabled quantification of 268 metabolites in a time-course study to reveal short-term responses. The HCO3 - responsive metabolomes of the cell types differed in their responsiveness. The MCs demonstrated increased amino acids, phenylpropanoids, redox metabolites, auxins and cytokinins, all of which were decreased in GCs in response to HCO3 -. In addition, the GCs showed differential increases of primary C-metabolites, N-metabolites (e.g., purines and amino acids), and defense-responsive pathways (e.g., alkaloids, phenolics, and flavonoids) as compared to the MCs, indicating differential C/N homeostasis in the cell-types. The metabolomics results provide insights into plant responses and crop productivity under future climatic changes where elevated CO2 conditions are to take center-stage. PMID:26641455

  17. Assessing pathophysiology of cancer anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviano, Alessandro; Koverech, Angela; Seelaender, Marilia

    2017-09-01

    Cancer anorexia is a negative prognostic factor and is broadly defined as the loss of the interest in food. However, multiple clinical domains contribute to the phenotype of cancer anorexia. The characterization of the clinical and molecular pathophysiology of cancer anorexia may enhance the efficacy of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Clinical trials showed that cancer anorexia should be considered as an umbrella encompassing different signs and symptoms contributing to appetite disruption in cancer patients. Loss of appetite, early satiety, changes in taste and smell are determinants of cancer anorexia, whose presence should be assessed in cancer patients. Interestingly, neuronal correlates of cancer anorexia-related symptoms have been revealed by brain imaging techniques. The pathophysiology of cancer anorexia is complex and involves different domains influencing eating behavior. Limiting the assessment of cancer anorexia to questions investigating changes in appetite may impede correct identification of the targets to address.

  18. The pathophysiology of Peyronie's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sakka, Ahmed I; Salabas, Emre; Dinçer, Murat; Kadioglu, Ates

    2013-09-01

    To review the contemporary knowledge of the pathophysiology of Peyronie's disease (PD). Medline was searched for papers published in English from 2000 to March 2013, using the keywords 'Peyronie's disease' and 'pathophysiology'. More than 300 relevant articles were identified for the purpose of this review. Unfortunately only a few studies had a high level of evidence, and the remaining studies were not controlled in their design. Many theories have been proposed to explain the cause of PD, but the true pathogenesis of PD remains an enigma. Identifying particular growth factors and the specific genes responsible for the induction of PD have been the ultimate goal of research over the past several decades. This would provide the means to devise a possible gene therapy for this devastating condition. We discuss present controversies and new discoveries related to the pathophysiology of this condition. PD is one of the most puzzling diseases in urology. The pathogenesis remains uncertain and there is still controversy about the best management. The pathogenesis of PD has been explored in animal models, cell cultures and clinical trials, but the results have led to further questions. New research on the aetiology and pathogenesis of PD is needed, and which will hopefully improve the understanding and management for patients with this frustrating disease.

  19. Influence of bicarbonate on the sensitivity of renin release to sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Jensen, B L

    1989-01-01

    glomeruli treated with bicarbonate/chloride exchange inhibitor (DNDS), NaCl/KCl cotransport inhibitor (bumetanide), or Na+/H+ antiport inhibitor (amiloride) in the presence or absence of bicarbonate. In addition, the sensitivity to increases in osmolality by addition of sucrose was tested in the presence...... or absence of bicarbonate. Renin release from time controls superfused with a bicarbonate-free Ringer was identical to release from glomeruli superfused with a bicarbonate Ringer. DNDS (0.11 or 1.1 mM) had no effect on renin release in a bicarbonate Ringer. 30 mM sucrose inhibited renin release independently...... of bicarbonate. 15 mM NaCl stimulated renin release when bicarbonate was absent, while it caused an inhibition in the presence of bicarbonate. When bicarbonate/chloride exchange was inhibited, addition of NaCl stimulated renin release even when bicarbonate was present. The effect of NaCl on renin release...

  20. Gastric bicarbonate secretion and release of prostaglandin E2 are increased in duodenal ulcer patients but not in Helicobacter pylori-positive healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, Jens; Frøkiaer, H

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E2 than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality was pres......BACKGROUND: Duodenal ulcer (DU) patients have impaired proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion at rest and in response to luminal acid with higher acid-stimulated mucosal release of prostaglandin (PG) E2 than healthy subjects. Our purpose was to determine whether this abnormality...... was present also in the stomach of DU patients. METHODS: Simultaneous determinations of gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion and luminal release of PGE2 were performed in 16 healthy volunteers (5 Helicobacter pylori-positive) and 8 inactive DU patients (all H. pylori-positive). RESULTS: In healthy...... for the abnormally high gastric secretion of bicarbonate in inactive DU patients. The defective duodenal secretion of bicarbonate observed in these patients may be a consequence of previous ulceration rather than the mere presence of H. pylori infection....

  1. Activity coefficient of aqueous sodium bicarbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitzer, Kenneth S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Peiper, J. Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1980-09-01

    The determination of the activity coefficient and related properties of sodium bicarbonate presents special problems because of the appreciable vapor pressure of CO2 above such solutions. With the development of reliable equations for the thermodynamic properties of mixed electrolytes, it is possible to determine the parameters for NaHCO3 from cell measurements or NaCl-NaHCO3 mixtures. Literature data are analyzed to illustrate the method and provide interim values, hoever it is noted that further measurements over a wider range of concentrations would yield more definitive results. Lastly, an estimate is also given for the activity coefficient of KHCO3.

  2. Recovery of boric acid from ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, C.W.

    1976-01-01

    The recovery of boric acid from an anion exchange resin is improved by eluting the boric acid with an aqueous solution of ammonium bicarbonate. The boric acid can be readily purified and concentrated by distilling off the water and ammonium bicarbonate. This process is especially useful for the recovery of boric acid containing a high percentage of 10 B which may be found in some nuclear reactor coolant solutions. 10 claims

  3. Unusual radiolytic behavior of neptunium ions in aqueous bicarbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilov, V.P.; Gogolev, A.V.; Pikaev, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    Behavior of neptunium ions in carbonate and bicarbonate aqueous solutions saturated with air, oxygen or argon during gamma radiation ( 60 Co) by doses up to 3 kGy at dose rates 10 and 25 Gy/min was studied by the method of spectrophotometry. It is shown that in neptunium (5) bicarbonate solution nearly complete (95%) neptunium ion oxidation occurs under the effect of radiation, whereas no oxidation is observed in carbonate solution. Radiation-chemical yield of neptunium (5) oxidation and stationary concentration of neptunium (6) ions depend on concentration of bicarbonate-ions. Explanation to the results obtained is made from the viewpoint of potential radiolytic reactions [ru

  4. Repeated High Intensity Bouts with Long Recovery: Are Bicarbonate or Carbohydrate Supplements an Option?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Stöggl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of varying recovery modes and the influence of preexercise sodium bicarbonate and carbohydrate ingestion on repeated high intensity performance, acid-base response, and recovery were analyzed in 12 well-trained males. They completed three repeated high intensity running bouts to exhaustion with intervening recovery periods of 25 min under the following conditions: sodium bicarbonate, active recovery (BIC; carbohydrate ingestion, active recovery (CHO; placebo ingestion, active recovery (ACTIVE; placebo ingestion, passive recovery (PASSIVE. Blood lactate (BLa, blood gases, heart rate, and time to exhaustion were collected. The three high intensity bouts had a duration of 138±9, 124±6, and 121±6 s demonstrating a decrease from bout 1 to bout 3. Supplementation strategy had no effect on performance in the first bout, even with differences in pH and bicarbonate (HCO3-. Repeated sprint performance was not affected by supplementation strategy when compared to ACTIVE, while PASSIVE resulted in a more pronounced decrease in performance compared with all other interventions. BIC led to greater BLa, pH, and HCO3- values compared with all other interventions, while for PASSIVE the opposite was found. BLa recovery was lowest in PASSIVE; recovery in pH, and HCO3- was lower in PASSIVE and higher in BIC.

  5. Molecular pathophysiology of cerebral edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in molecular biology have led to a greater understanding of the individual proteins responsible for generating cerebral edema. In large part, the study of cerebral edema is the study of maladaptive ion transport. Following acute CNS injury, cells of the neurovascular unit, particularly brain endothelial cells and astrocytes, undergo a program of pre- and post-transcriptional changes in the activity of ion channels and transporters. These changes can result in maladaptive ion transport and the generation of abnormal osmotic forces that, ultimately, manifest as cerebral edema. This review discusses past models and current knowledge regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of cerebral edema. PMID:26661240

  6. Narcolepsy: Pathophysiology and Neuropsychological Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Naumann

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy is now recognized as a distinctive disorder with specific pathophysiology and neurochemical abnormalities. Findings on the role of the neuropeptide hypocretin are opening new avenues of research and new strategies for therapy. Recently, neuropsychological and electrophysiological studies have provided evidence for reduced memory performance on standard memory tests in addition to subjective complaints of forgetfulness which may be related to changes in attentional processing. Further studies are, however, necessary to clarify the neuropsychological profile in narcolepsy. This review focuses on the recent advances in understanding narcolepsy.

  7. Does Aerobic Respiration Produce Carbon Dioxide or Hydrogen Ion and Bicarbonate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Erik R

    2018-05-01

    Maintenance of intracellular pH is critical for clinical homeostasis. The metabolism of glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids yielding the generation of adenosine triphosphate in the mitochondria is accompanied by the production of acid in the Krebs cycle. Both the nature of this acidosis and the mechanism of its disposal have been argued by two investigators with a long-abiding interest in acid-base physiology. They offer different interpretations and views of the molecular mechanism of this intracellular pH regulation during normal metabolism. Dr. John Severinghaus has posited that hydrogen ion and bicarbonate are the direct end products in the Krebs cycle. In the late 1960s, he showed in brain and brain homogenate experiments that acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, reduces intracellular pH. This led him to conclude that hydrogen ion and bicarbonate are the end products, and the role of intracellular carbonic anhydrase is to rapidly generate diffusible carbon dioxide to minimize acidosis. Dr. Erik Swenson posits that carbon dioxide is a direct end product in the Krebs cycle, a more widely accepted view, and that acetazolamide prevents rapid intracellular bicarbonate formation, which can then codiffuse with carbon dioxide to the cell surface and there be reconverted for exit from the cell. Loss of this "facilitated diffusion of carbon dioxide" leads to intracellular acidosis as the still appreciable uncatalyzed rate of carbon dioxide hydration generates more protons. This review summarizes the available evidence and determines that resolution of this question will require more sophisticated measurements of intracellular pH with faster temporal resolution.

  8. Bicarbonate buffered peritoneal dialysis fluid upregulates angiopoietin-1 and promotes vessel maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwendolyn Eich

    Full Text Available Ultrafiltration decline is a progressive issue for patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD and can be caused by peritoneal angiogenesis induced by PD fluids. A recent pediatric trial suggests better preservation of ultrafiltration with bicarbonate versus lactate buffered fluid; underlying molecular mechanisms are unknown.Angiogenic cytokine profile, tube formation capacity and Receptor Tyrosine Kinase translocation were assessed in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells following incubation with bicarbonate (BPDF and lactate buffered (LPDF, pH neutral PD fluid with low glucose degradation product content and lactate buffered, acidic PD fluid with high glucose degradation product content (CPDF. Peritoneal biopsies from age-, PD-vintage- and dialytic glucose exposure matched, peritonitis-free children on chronic PD underwent automated histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry.In endothelial cells angiopoietin-1 mRNA and protein abundance increased 200% upon incubation with BPDF, but decreased by 70% with LPDF as compared to medium control; angiopoietin-2 remained unchanged. Angiopoietin-1/Angiopoietin-2 protein ratio was 15 and 3-fold increased with BPDF compared to LPDF and medium. Time-lapse microscopy with automated network analysis demonstrated less endothelial cell tube formation with BPDF compared to LPDF and CPDF incubation. Receptor Tyrosine Kinase translocated to the cell membrane in BPDF but not in LPDF or CPDF incubated endothelial cells. In children dialyzed with BPDF peritoneal vessels were larger and angiopoietin-1 abundance in CD31 positive endothelium higher compared to children treated with LPDF.Bicarbonate buffered PD fluid promotes vessel maturation via upregulation of angiopoietin-1 in vitro and in children on dialysis. Our findings suggest a molecular mechanism for the observed superior preservation of ultrafiltration capacity with bicarbonate buffered PD fluid with low glucose degradation product content.

  9. Application of probiotics and different size of sodium bicarbonate powders for feedlot sheep fattening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supratman, Hery; Ramdani, Diky; Kuswaryan, Sondy; Budinuryanto, Dwi Cipto; Joni, I. Made

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports the use of probiotic and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of feedlot sheep. Probiotics from Heriyaki powder can function as forge preservative and sodium bicarbonate as an artificial rumen buffer that helps to stabilize pH levels in sheep's stomach. The objectives of this formulation is to improve the rumen function, feed efficiency and reduce the risk of acidosis leading to a significant increase of average daily gain (ADG, gram/head/day) of feedlot sheep. Heriyaki probiotic liquid was prepared by fermenting beans mixed with sugarcane molasses while Heriyaki powder was obtained by mixing the Heriyaki probiotic liquid with rice hull powder and additional molasses sugarcane in anaerobic condition for 5 days. The powder was then applied for preparing whole maize silage 0.5 wt% in anaerobic condition for 7 days before feeding. Meanwhile, the feed concentrate contained acid buffer of sodium bicarbonate powder at different doses and sizes [0.35 wt% commercial size (T1), 0.18 wt% mesh -400 (T2) and 0.35 wt% mesh -400 (T3)]. The diet treatment was a total mixed ratio containing 1 kg silage and 700 g concentrate. The experiment was conducted to compare the effect of 3 different treatments (T1, T2 and T3) on dry matter intake (DMI, g/day), ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of feedlot sheep for 2 months fattening, where each treatment was applied into a flock colony for 6 heads of sheep with three flock replications involving 54 heads of sheep in total for all the treatments. The results showed no difference (P>0.05) in DMI, ADG and FCR of feedlot sheep confirming the use of low-dose and finer sodium bicarbonate powder in T2 yield a targeted ADG of > 110 g but being more efficient than other treatments.

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone (ID 331, 1402) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium and maintenance of normal bone. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member...... States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituents that are the subject of the health claim are carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium. The Panel considers that carbonate and bicarbonate salts of sodium and potassium are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effects are “acid...... the dietary intake of carbonate or bicarbonate salts of sodium or potassium and maintenance of normal bone....

  11. The effects of sodium bicarbonate during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi-Ming; Wu, Shih-Hao; Li, Wen-Cheng; Kuo, Chan-Wei; Chen, Shou-Yen; Chen, Jih-Chang

    2013-03-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (for >15 minutes). The retrospective cohort study consisted of adult patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) with the diagnosis of cardiac arrest in 2009. Data were retrieved from the institutional database. A total of 92 patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on whether they were treated (group1, n = 30) or not treated (group 2, n = 62) with sodium bicarbonate. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between groups. The median time interval between the administration of CPR and sodium bicarbonate injection was 36.0 minutes (IQR: 30.5-41.8 minutes). The median amount of bicarbonate injection was 100.2 mEq (IQR: 66.8-104.4). Patients who received a sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged CPR had a higher percentage of return of spontaneous circulation, but not statistical significant (ROSC, 40.0% vs. 32.3%; P = .465). Sustained ROSC was achieved by 2 (6.7%) patients in the sodium bicarbonate treatment group, with no survival to discharge. No significant differences in vital signs after ROSC were detected between the 2 groups (heart rate, P = .124; systolic blood pressure, P = .094). Sodium bicarbonate injection during prolonged CPR was not associated with ROSC after adjust for variables by regression analysis (Table 3; P = .615; odds ratio, 1.270; 95% confidence interval: 0.501-3.219) The administration of sodium bicarbonate during prolonged CPR did not significantly improve the rate of ROSC in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  13. Stability of sodium bicarbonate solutions in polyolefin bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Jennifer; McPherson, Timothy B; Kolling, William M

    2010-06-15

    The stability of sodium bicarbonate solutions in sterile water for injection or 5% dextrose injection stored at 21-24 degrees C or 2-4 degrees C was evaluated. Sodium bicarbonate injection was obtained in 50-mL vials of 8.4% (1 meq/mL). A total of 50, 100, or 150 meq of sodium bicarbonate was added to each 1-L polyolefin bag of either sterile water for injection or 5% dextrose injection. All solutions were prepared in a laminar-airflow hood using aseptic technique. Bags were punctured once to remove headspace air and once for the addition of each 50 meq of sodium bicarbonate. Six replicates of each test solution were prepared. The solutions were stored at 21-24 degrees C and 2-4 degrees C. Control solutions (50 and 150 meq) were similarly prepared in triplicate. Control solutions were sparged with either nitrogen gas or oxygen gas before storage. Sodium bicarbonate stability was assessed by measuring solution pH. Bicarbonate content was measured utilizing titration. Both pH and bicarbonate concentrations were measured immediately upon preparation and on days 3, 5, and 7 for both test and control solutions. All 95% confidence interval values for sample solution pH remained within 7.0-8.5 for seven days at 2-4 degrees C. Sodium bicarbonate solutions of 50, 100, and 150 meq in sterile water for injection or 5% dextrose injection were stable for up to seven days when refrigerated. The 50-meq solution was stable for up to 48 hours when stored at room temperature, and the 100- and 150-meq solutions were stable for up to 30 hours when stored at room temperature.

  14. Myocardial uptake of thallium-201 augmented with bicarbonate: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetzel, K.R.; Westerman, B.R.; Quinn, J.L. III; Meyers, S.; Barresi, V.

    1977-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate was used to enhance the myocardial concentration of Tl-201 in rabbits and dogs. Organ distribution studies in rabbits and in vivo imaging in dogs showed a 1.5 to 2-fold increase in myocardial Tl-201 concentration in bicarbonate-treated animals as compared with matched controls. Image improvement was noted, with threefold enhancement of myocardium-to-liver ratios. The results suggest that a similar improvement may be possible for clinical myocardial imaging

  15. Flue Gas Desulfurization by Mechanically and Thermally Activated Sodium Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Walawska Barbara; Szymanek Arkadiusz; Pajdak Anna; Nowak Marzena

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of study on structural parameters (particle size, surface area, pore volume) and the sorption ability of mechanically and thermally activated sodium bicarbonate. The sorption ability of the modified sorbent was evaluated by: partial and overall SO2 removal efficiency, conversion rate, normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR). Sodium bicarbonate was mechanically activated by various grinding techniques, using three types of mills: fluid bed opposed jet mill, fine i...

  16. Fisiopatologia da enxaqueca Migraine pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICE B. VINCENT

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A fisiopatologia da enxaqueca ainda não foi completamente elucidada. As principais estruturas envolvidas parecem ser o sistema nervoso central (córtex e tronco cerebral, o sistema trigeminovascular e os vasos correspondentes, outras fibras autonômicas que inervam estes vasos, e os vários agentes vasoativos locais, como a SP, CGRP, NO, VIP, NPY, ACh, NA, NKA, entre outros. A depressão alastrante é o fenômeno neurológico que provavelmente justifica achados experimenais e clínicos na enxaqueca. Ela tem velocidade de propagação semelhante à aura, ativa o núcleo espinhal do trigêmeo e está relacionada à liberação de CGRP e NO. Alterações circulatórias detectadas por métodos complementares reforçam o papel da depressão alastrante. A identificação de anormalidades em pelo menos três loci (cromossomas 19 e 1 na enxaqueca hemiplégica familiar ocorreu recentemente. Elas estão relacionadas a anormalidades nos canais de cálcio voltagem dependentes tipo P/Q, específicos do sistema nervoso central, que regulam a liberação de vários neurotransmissores, incluindo possivelmente a serotonina. A exemplo de outras anormalidades neurológicas paroxísticas que resultam da hiperexcitabilidade da membrana plasmática, é possível que a enxaqueca ocorra devido a uma desordem de canais iônicos.The pathophysiology of migraine is not yet fully understood. The most important structures involved seem to be the central nervous system (cortex and brain stem, the trigeminovascular system and related cranial arteries, other autonomic fibres innervating such vessels, and various local vasoactive agents, including SP, CGRP, NO, VIP, NPY, ACh, NA, NKA, among others. The spreading depression phenomenon may explain clinical as well experimental findings in migraine. Its propagation velocity mirrors what is found in clinical aura, it may activate the spinal trigeminal nucleus and may induce CGRP and NO release. Circulatory changes detected with

  17. Understanding changes in cardiovascular pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chummun, Harry

    Cardiovascular pathophysiological changes, such as hypertension and enlarged ventricles, reflect the altered functions of the heart and its circulation during ill-health. This article examines the normal and altered anatomy of the cardiac valves, the contractile elements and enzymes of the myocardium, the significance of the different factors associated with cardiac output, and the role of the autonomic nervous system in the heart beat. It also explores how certain diseases alter these functions and result in cardiac symptoms. Nurses can benefit from knowledge of these specific changes, for example, by being able to ask relevant questions in order to ascertain the nature of a patients condition, by being able to take an effective patient history and by being able to read diagnostic results, such as electrocardiograms and cardiac enzyme results. All this will help nurses to promote sound cardiac care based on a physiological rationale.

  18. Pathophysiology of MDS: genomic aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Motoshi

    2016-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by clonal proliferation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and their apoptosis, and show a propensity to progress to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Although MDS are recognized as neoplastic diseases caused by genomic aberrations of hematopoietic cells, the details of the genetic abnormalities underlying disease development have not as yet been fully elucidated due to difficulties in analyzing chromosomal abnormalities. Recent advances in comprehensive analyses of disease genomes including whole-genome sequencing technologies have revealed the genomic abnormalities in MDS. Surprisingly, gene mutations were found in approximately 80-90% of cases with MDS, and the novel mutations discovered with these technologies included previously unknown, MDS-specific, mutations such as those of the genes in the RNA-splicing machinery. It is anticipated that these recent studies will shed new light on the pathophysiology of MDS due to genomic aberrations.

  19. Preeclampsia: from Pathophysiology to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaculini Enton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder unique to human pregnancy and is its most common glomerular complication. It occurs in 2% to 8% of pregnancies and is a major contributor to maternal mortality worldwide. Although the pathophysiology of this syndrome is not fully understood, many pathogenetic mechanisms are involved in this disorder. The role of the placenta is crucial in the development of this disorder. Some pathogenetic mechanisms involved in this disease comprise defective deep placentation, autoantibodies to type-1 angiotensin II receptor, endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress, platelet and thrombin activation, intravascular inflammation, and the imbalance between angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors which is thought to be one of the most crucial mechanisms. Further understanding of the full picture could enhance our current knowledge of the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and improve its treatment. Thus, based on specific biomarkers the diagnosis and subclassification of preeclampsia might be more accurate in identifying patients at risk, monitoring disease progression and providing effective interventions

  20. Mechanisms of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Reduction for Saline (NaCl and Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Patrick Burgess

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephropathy following contrast media (CM exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb. The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid.

  1. Bicarbonate catalysis of exchange synthesis of [51Cr]Cr(III)-EDTA and other chromium complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, F.L.; Strashun, A.M.; Lopez, C.; Steigman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Exchange syntheses of trivalent chromium complexes often require heating, thus limiting tagging of heat-sensitive biological compounds with 51 Cr. Bicarbonate at pH 6, accelerates the formation of mM Cr-EDTA. Accordingly, room temperature catalysis with [ 51 Cr]Cr(III) at 10 -7 -10 -8 M was investigated. Complexes were successfully formed with EDTA and iminodiacetic acid (electrophoretic analysis) and acetylacetone and tropolone (analyzed by chloroform extraction). The formation of these complexes normally requires extensive heating. (author)

  2. Na/K citrate versus sodium bicarbonate in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh Mohamed Abouzeid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN is one of the important complications of radiographic procedures, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is also one of the common causes of acute kidney injury. The pathogenesis is postulated to be the effect of oxygen- free radicals and hyperosmolar stress on the renal medulla. It is reported that the production of superoxide is most active at acid environment. K/Na citrate is well known as a urine alkalini- zation medium, and this has been evaluated earlier with standard hydration for reduction of CIN and was stated to be efficient. We aimed to determine the efficacy of Na/K citrate in reducing the frequency of CIN in comparison to sodium bicarbonate in patients after coronary angiography. Two hundred and ten patients with renal dysfunction [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, 60 mL/min/1.73 m2or less] who underwent elective or emergency coronary angiography (CAG with/without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI at our institution were enrolled into the study. The patients were randomized into two groups, Group 1-Taking Na/K citrate and Group 2-Taking sodium bicarbonate. Radiographic contrast agent iohexol was used. Change in creatinine, percent change in creatinine, percent change in eGFR, change in serum potassium, and urine pH were all compared between the two groups. There was no significant difference for prevention of CIN when comparing the Na/K citrate with sodium bicarbonate solution in patients exposed to CAG with or without PCI. Mean absolute change in eGFR after 48 h after administration of contrast between sodium bicarbonate group and Na/K citrate group was −0.60 ± 1.58 versus −0.71 ± 1.38. Serum potassium decreased postprocedure in the sodium bicarbonate group than in the citrate group (3.90 ± 0.33 vs. 4.14 ± 0.39. Both agents are equally effective in reducing the incidence of CIN, but the citrate would possibly be a safer option for patients at risk of

  3. Sodium setpoint and gradient in bicarbonate hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Losurdo, Nicola; Teutonico, Annalisa; Lomonte, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The demonstration of an individual osmolar setpoint in hemodialysis (HD) is crucial to individualize dialysate sodium concentrations. Furthermore, the diffusive gradient between plasma and dialysate sodium is important in the "fine tuning" of the intradialytic sodium mass balance (MB). The design of this study included part A: a retrospective analysis of predialysis plasma sodium concentrations extracted from a 6-year database in our HD population (147 prevalent white anuric patients); and part B: study of intradialytic sodium kinetics in 48 patients undergoing one 4-hour bicarbonate HD session. Direct potentiometry with an ion-selective electrode was used for sodium measurements. Study part A: the mean number of plasma sodium measurements per patient was 16.06 ± 14.03 over a mean follow-up of 3.55 ± 1.76 years. The mean of the averaged plasma sodium concentrations was 136.7 ± 2.1 mmol/L, with a low mean intraindividual coefficient of variation (1.39 ± 0.4). Study part B: mean predialysis and postdialysis plasma sodium concentrations were 135.8 ± 0.9 and 138.0 ± 0.9 mmol/L (p<0.001). Mean inlet dialyzer sodium concentration was 138.7 ± 1.1 mmol/L; the hourly diffusion concentration gradients showed a statistically significant transfer from dialysate to plasma (Wilks ? <0.0001). A statistically significant relationship was found between sodium MB and diffusion gradient (p<0.02), and between sodium MB and ultrafiltration volume (p<0.01). A relatively "fixed" and individual osmolar setpoint in HD patients was shown for the first time in a long-term follow-up. A dialysate sodium concentration of 140 mmol/L determined a dialysate to plasma sodium gradient.

  4. Hemodynamic effects of sodium bicarbonate administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katheria, A C; Brown, M K; Hassan, K; Poeltler, D M; Patel, D A; Brown, V K; Sauberan, J B

    2017-05-01

    To describe the hemodynamic changes that occur with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) administration in premature neonates. This retrospective study included premature neonates 23 to 31+6 weeks of gestational age who underwent continuous cardiac and cerebral monitoring as participants in prospective trials at our institution, and who received NaHCO 3 infused over 30 min in the first 24 h of life. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate, cardiac output (CO), SpO 2 and cerebral oximetry (StO 2 ) were captured every 2 s. A baseline was established for all continuous data and averaged over the 10 min before NaHCO 3 administration. Baseline was compared with measurements over 10 min epochs until 80 min after administration. Arterial blood gases before and within 1 h of administration were also compared. Significance was set at P<0.05. A total of 36 subjects received NaHCO 3 (1.3±0.3 mEq kg -1 ) in the first 24 h (14±8.5 h) of life. NaHCO 3 administration increased pH (7.23 vs 7.28, P<0.01) and decreased base deficit (-8.9 vs -6.8, P<0.01) and PaCO 2 (45 vs 43 mm Hg, P<0.05). There was a transient but significant (P<0.05) decrease in systemic BP coinciding with an increase in cerebral oxygenation without an increase in oxygen extraction. CO did not change. Early postnatal NaHCO 3 administration does not acutely improve CO but does cause transient fluctuations in cerebral and cardiovascular hemodynamics in extremely premature infants.

  5. Physical Compatibility of Magnesium Sulfate and Sodium Bicarbonate in a Pharmacy-compounded Bicarbonate-buffered Hemofiltration Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, Brad; Henning, Stacey A.; Jin, Haksong; Kolf, Mike; Rehak, Nadja N.; Danner, Robert L.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Grimes, George J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the physical compatibility of magnesium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate in a pharmacy-compounded bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solution used at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (http://www.cc.nih.gov). METHODS Two hemofiltration fluid formulations with a bicarbonate of 50 mEq/L and a magnesium of 1.5 mEq/L or 15 mEq/L were prepared in triplicate with an automated compounding device. The hemofiltration solution with a bicarbonate of 50 mEq/L and a magnesium of 1.5 mEq/L contains the maximum concentration of additives that we use in clinical practice. The hemofiltration solution of 15 mEq/L of magnesium and 50 mEq/L of bicarbonate was used to study the physicochemical properties of this interaction. The solutions were stored without light protection at 22 to 25 °C for 48 hours. Physical compatibility was assessed by visual inspection and microscopy. The pH of the solutions was assayed at 3 to 4 hours and 52 to 53 hours after compounding. In addition, electrolyte and glucose concentrations in the solutions were assayed at two time points after preparation: 3 to 4 hours and 50 to 51 hours. RESULTS No particulate matter was observed by visual and microscopic inspection in the compounded hemofiltration solutions at 48 hours. Electrolyte and glucose concentrations and pH were similar at both time points after solution preparation. CONCLUSION Magnesium sulfate (1.5 mEq/L) and sodium bicarbonate (50 mEq/L) were physically compatible in a pharmacy-compounded bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solution at room temperature without light protection at 48 hours. PMID:20237384

  6. Tuberculosis 2: Pathophysiology and microbiology of pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-08-01

    Aug 1, 2005 ... February 2013 Downloaded from www.southsudanmedicaljournal.com. MaIN arTIClES. 10. Tuberculosis 2: Pathophysiology and microbiology of pulmonary tuberculosis. Robert L. Serafino Wania MBBS, MrCP, MSc (Trop Med). Pathophysiology. Inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis leads to one of.

  7. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of biomedical nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Liming, E-mail: wangliming@ihep.ac.cn; Chen, Chunying, E-mail: chenchy@nanoctr.cn

    2016-05-15

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widespread used in biomedical fields, daily consuming, and even food industry. It is crucial to understand the safety and biomedical efficacy of NMs. In this review, we summarized the recent progress about the physiological and pathological effects of NMs from several levels: protein-nano interface, NM-subcellular structures, and cell–cell interaction. We focused on the detailed information of nano-bio interaction, especially about protein adsorption, intracellular trafficking, biological barriers, and signaling pathways as well as the associated mechanism mediated by nanomaterials. We also introduced related analytical methods that are meaningful and helpful for biomedical effect studies in the future. We believe that knowledge about pathophysiologic effects of NMs is not only significant for rational design of medical NMs but also helps predict their safety and further improve their applications in the future. - Highlights: • Rapid protein adsorption onto nanomaterials that affects biomedical effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological membrane, intracellular trafficking and specific cellular effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological barriers • The signaling pathways mediated by nanomaterials and related biomedical effects • Novel techniques for studying translocation and biomedical effects of NMs.

  8. Pathophysiologic mechanisms of biomedical nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liming; Chen, Chunying

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials (NMs) have been widespread used in biomedical fields, daily consuming, and even food industry. It is crucial to understand the safety and biomedical efficacy of NMs. In this review, we summarized the recent progress about the physiological and pathological effects of NMs from several levels: protein-nano interface, NM-subcellular structures, and cell–cell interaction. We focused on the detailed information of nano-bio interaction, especially about protein adsorption, intracellular trafficking, biological barriers, and signaling pathways as well as the associated mechanism mediated by nanomaterials. We also introduced related analytical methods that are meaningful and helpful for biomedical effect studies in the future. We believe that knowledge about pathophysiologic effects of NMs is not only significant for rational design of medical NMs but also helps predict their safety and further improve their applications in the future. - Highlights: • Rapid protein adsorption onto nanomaterials that affects biomedical effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological membrane, intracellular trafficking and specific cellular effects • Nanomaterials and their interaction with biological barriers • The signaling pathways mediated by nanomaterials and related biomedical effects • Novel techniques for studying translocation and biomedical effects of NMs

  9. Effects of Glycine, Water, Ammonia, and Ammonium Bicarbonate on the Oligomerization of Methionine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Otake, Tsubasa; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2017-06-01

    The abiotic oligomerization of amino acids may have created primordial, protein-like biological catalysts on the early Earth. Previous studies have proposed and evaluated the potential of diagenesis for the amino acid oligomerization, simulating the formation of peptides that include glycine, alanine, and valine, separately. However, whether such conditions can promote the formation of peptides composed of multiple amino acids remains unclear. Furthermore, the chemistry of pore water in sediments should affect the oligomerization and degradation of amino acids and oligomers, but these effects have not been studied extensively. In this study, we investigated the effects of water, ammonia, ammonium bicarbonate, pH, and glycine on the oligomerization and degradation of methionine under high pressure (150 MPa) and high temperature conditions (175 °C) for 96 h. Methionine is more difficult to oligomerize than glycine and methionine dimer was formed in the incubation of dry powder of methionine. Methionine oligomers as long as trimers, as well as methionylglycine and glycylmethionine, were formed under every condition with these additional compounds. Among the compounds tested, the oligomerization reaction rate was accelerated by the presence of water and by an increase in pH. Ammonia also increased the oligomerization rate but consumed methionine by side reactions and resulted in the rapid degradation of methionine and its peptides. Similarly, glycine accelerated the oligomerization rate of methionine and the degradation of methionine, producing water, ammonia, and bicarbonate through its decomposition. With Gly, heterogeneous dimers (methionylglycine and glycylmethionine) were formed in greater amounts than with other additional compounds although smaller amount of these heterogeneous dimers were formed with other additional compounds. These results suggest that accelerated reaction rates induced by water and co-existing reactive compounds promote the oligomerization

  10. Effect of bicarbonate and lactate buffer on glucose and lactate metabolism during hemodiafiltration in patients with multiple organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Marc-Daniel; Revelly, Jean-Pierre; Tappy, Luc; Berger, Mette M; Schaller, Marie-Denise; Cayeux, Marie-Christine; Martinez, Alexandre; Chioléro, René-Louis

    2004-06-01

    To compare the effects of sodium bicarbonate and lactate for continuous veno-venous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) in critically ill patients. Prospective crossed-over controlled trial in the surgical and medical ICUs of a university hospital. Eight patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) requiring CVVHDF. Each patient received the two buffers in a randomized sequence over two consecutive days. The following variables were determined: acid-base parameters, lactate production and utilization ((13)C lactate infusion), glucose turnover (6,6(2)H(2)-glucose), gas exchange (indirect calorimetry). No side effect was observed during lactate administration. Baseline arterial acid-base variables were equal with the two buffers. Arterial lactate (2.9 versus 1.5 mmol/l), glycemia (+18%) and glucose turnover (+23%) were higher in the lactate period. Bicarbonate and glucose losses in CVVHDF were substantial, but not lactate elimination. Infusing (13)C lactate increased plasma lactate levels equally with the two buffers. Lactate clearance (7.8+/-0.8 vs 7.5+/-0.8 ml/kg per min in the bicarbonate and lactate periods) and endogenous production rates (14.0+/-2.6 vs 13.6+/-2.6 mmol/kg per min) were similar. (13)C lactate was used as a metabolic substrate, as shown by (13)CO(2) excretion. Glycemia and metabolic rate increased significantly and similarly during the two periods during lactate infusion. Lactate was rapidly cleared from the blood of critically ill patients without acute liver failure requiring CVVHDF, being transformed into glucose or oxidized. Lactate did not exert undesirable effects, except moderate hyperglycemia, and achieved comparable effects on acid-base balance to bicarbonate.

  11. Beneficial effect of sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water on gallstone risk and weight control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Stefano Ginanni; Ferri, Flaminia; Mordenti, Michela; Iuliano, Luigi; Siciliano, Maria; Burza, Maria Antonella; Sordi, Bruno; Caciotti, Barbara; Pacini, Maria; Poli, Edoardo; Santis, Adriano De; Roda, Aldo; Colliva, Carolina; Simoni, Patrizia; Attili, Adolfo Francesco

    2012-03-07

    To investigate the effect of drinking sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium thermal water (TW) on risk factors for atherosclerosis and cholesterol gallstone disease. Postmenopausal women with functional dyspepsia and/or constipation underwent a 12 d cycle of thermal (n = 20) or tap (n = 20) water controlled drinking. Gallbladder fasting volume at ultrasound, blood vitamin E, oxysterols (7-β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol), bile acid (BA), triglycerides, total/low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at the end of the study. Food consumption, stool frequency and body weight were recorded daily. Blood lipids, oxysterols and vitamin E were not affected by either thermal or tap water consumption. Fasting gallbladder volume was significantly (P water group (19.0 ± 1.4 mL vs 19.4 ± 1.5 mL). Total serum BA concentration was significantly (P water group (3.41 ± 0.46 μmol vs 2.91 ± 0.56 μmol). The increased BA concentration after TW consumption was mainly accounted for by glycochenodeoxycholic acid. The number of pasta (P water group. Body weight did not change at the end of the study as compared to baseline in both groups. Sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water consumption has a positive effect on lithogenic risk and intestinal transit and allows maintenance of a stable body weight despite a high food intake.

  12. TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, Anthony J; de Paiva, Cintia S; Chauhan, Sunil K; Bonini, Stefano; Gabison, Eric E; Jain, Sandeep; Knop, Erich; Markoulli, Maria; Ogawa, Yoko; Perez, Victor; Uchino, Yuichi; Yokoi, Norihiko; Zoukhri, Driss; Sullivan, David A

    2017-07-01

    The TFOS DEWS II Pathophysiology Subcommittee reviewed the mechanisms involved in the initiation and perpetuation of dry eye disease. Its central mechanism is evaporative water loss leading to hyperosmolar tissue damage. Research in human disease and in animal models has shown that this, either directly or by inducing inflammation, causes a loss of both epithelial and goblet cells. The consequent decrease in surface wettability leads to early tear film breakup and amplifies hyperosmolarity via a Vicious Circle. Pain in dry eye is caused by tear hyperosmolarity, loss of lubrication, inflammatory mediators and neurosensory factors, while visual symptoms arise from tear and ocular surface irregularity. Increased friction targets damage to the lids and ocular surface, resulting in characteristic punctate epithelial keratitis, superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis, filamentary keratitis, lid parallel conjunctival folds, and lid wiper epitheliopathy. Hybrid dry eye disease, with features of both aqueous deficiency and increased evaporation, is common and efforts should be made to determine the relative contribution of each form to the total picture. To this end, practical methods are needed to measure tear evaporation in the clinic, and similarly, methods are needed to measure osmolarity at the tissue level across the ocular surface, to better determine the severity of dry eye. Areas for future research include the role of genetic mechanisms in non-Sjögren syndrome dry eye, the targeting of the terminal duct in meibomian gland disease and the influence of gaze dynamics and the closed eye state on tear stability and ocular surface inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The pathophysiology of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Clinton D; Conte, John V

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure is a clinical syndrome that results when the heart is unable to provide sufficient blood flow to meet metabolic requirements or accommodate systemic venous return. This common condition affects over 5 million people in the United States at a cost of $10-38 billion per year. Heart failure results from injury to the myocardium from a variety of causes including ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Less common etiologies include cardiomyopathies, valvular disease, myocarditis, infections, systemic toxins, and cardiotoxic drugs. As the heart fails, patients develop symptoms which include dyspnea from pulmonary congestion, and peripheral edema and ascites from impaired venous return. Constitutional symptoms such as nausea, lack of appetite, and fatigue are also common. There are several compensatory mechanisms that occur as the failing heart attempts to maintain adequate function. These include increasing cardiac output via the Frank-Starling mechanism, increasing ventricular volume and wall thickness through ventricular remodeling, and maintaining tissue perfusion with augmented mean arterial pressure through activation of neurohormonal systems. Although initially beneficial in the early stages of heart failure, all of these compensatory mechanisms eventually lead to a vicious cycle of worsening heart failure. Treatment strategies have been developed based upon the understanding of these compensatory mechanisms. Medical therapy includes diuresis, suppression of the overactive neurohormonal systems, and augmentation of contractility. Surgical options include ventricular resynchronization therapy, surgical ventricular remodeling, ventricular assist device implantation, and heart transplantation. Despite significant understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in heart failure, this disease causes significant morbidity and carries a 50% 5-year mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Serum Bicarbonate Concentration and Cognitive Function in Hypertensive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobre, Mirela; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Bates, Jeffrey T; Chonchol, Michel B; Cohen, Debbie L; Hostetter, Thomas H; Raphael, Kalani L; Taylor, Addison A; Lerner, Alan J; Wright, Jackson T; Rahman, Mahboob

    2018-04-06

    Cognitive function worsens as kidney function declines, but mechanisms contributing to this association are not completely understood. Metabolic acidosis, a common complication of CKD, leads to neural networks overexcitation and is involved in cerebral autoregulation. We aimed to evaluate the association between serum bicarbonate concentration as a measure of metabolic acidosis, and cognitive function in hypertensive adults with and without CKD. Five cognitive summary scores were measured (global cognitive function, executive function, memory, attention/concentration, and language) in 2853 participants in the Systolic BP Intervention Trial (SPRINT). Multivariable linear regression models adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, systolic BP, medications, eGFR and albuminuria evaluated the cross-sectional association between bicarbonate and cognition at SPRINT baseline. In a subset ( n =681) who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging, the models were adjusted for white matter hyperintensity volume, vascular reactivity, and cerebral blood flow. The mean age (SD) was 68 (8.5) years. Global cognitive and executive functions were positively associated with serum bicarbonate (estimate [SEM]: 0.014 [0.006]; P =0.01, and 0.018 [0.006]; P =0.003, respectively). Each 1 mEq/L lower bicarbonate level had a similar association with global cognitive and executive function as being 4.3 and 5.4 months older, respectively. The association with global cognition persisted after magnetic resonance imaging findings adjustment (estimate [SEM]: 0.03 [0.01]; P =0.01). There was no association between serum bicarbonate level and memory, attention/concentration, and language. In a large cohort of hypertensive adults, higher serum bicarbonate levels were independently associated with better global cognitive and executive performance. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01206062). Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. Rate constant for reaction of hydroxyl radicals with bicarbonate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxton, G.V.; Elliot, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The rate constant for reaction of hydroxyl radicals with the bicarbonate ion has been determined to be 8.5 x 10 6 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . This value was calculated from: the measured rate of formation of the CO 3 - radical in pulsed electron irradiation of bicarbonate solutions over the pH range 7.0 to 9.4; the pK for the equilibrium HCO 3 - = CO 3 2- + H + ; and the rate constant for hydroxyl radicals reacting with the carbonate ion. (author)

  16. Stroke MRI: pathophysiology, potential and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiehler, J.; Kucinski, T.; Zeumer, H.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRT) is increasingly utilized as the primary imaging modality in major stroke centers. The ability to depict several aspects of individual pathophysiology makes the use of MRI in stroke both attractive and complex. Profound knowledge of the pathophysiology of the imaging findings is crucial for a rational diagnostic workup. The pathophysiology of MRI in stroke will be reviewed considering recent experiences in clinical application, and the potential of stroke MRI will be assessed. Further perspectives like application of 'blood oxygen level dependent' (BOLD) and the use of multiparametric prediction maps will be discussed. (orig.) [de

  17. Calcium balance in pediatric online hemodiafiltration: Beware of sodium and bicarbonate in the dialysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchetta, Justine; Sellier-Leclerc, Anne-Laure; Bertholet-Thomas, Aurélia; Carlier, Marie-Christine; Cartier, Régine; Cochat, Pierre; Ranchin, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Online hemodiafiltration (oHDF) is increasingly used in children; we treated 28 children since 2009, adapting this technique to pediatric patients. In this service evaluation audit, we assessed plasma electrolytes to evaluate the evolution of total (tCa) and ionized (iCa) during a session, as well as dialysate calcium (dCa) concentrations. Using a 1.25 mmol Ca/L-dialysate, both tCa and iCa decreased during the session, with iCa falling below 1.1 mmol/L in 4/5 patients. In contrast, using a 1.5 mmol Ca/L-dialysate, iCa remained normal in all patients. Major discrepancies were observed between the expected and the measured dCa: 1.25 vs. 1.01 (0.83-1.04), and 1.5 vs. 1.47 (0.85-1.75) mmol/L, respectively (results presented as median [range]). These differences were explained by the modality of reconstituting dialysate: increasing bicarbonates and/or decreasing sodium requested in the dialysate decreases calcium extraction from the acid preparation. Proof of concept was given when requesting in an "ex-vivo" setting modifications in the requested sodium and bicarbonate in dialysate directly on the Fresenius machine. Nephrologists should be aware that "high bicarbonate and/or low sodium" requirements in oHDF decrease calcium in the dialysate. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Cost-effective bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine through deliberate bicarbonate incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Huang, Bin; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2015-05-15

    Bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine is desired to minimize its environmental impacts, but faces common challenges, i.e., enriching sufficient salt-tolerant denitrifying bacteria and stabilizing brine salinity and alkalinity for stable brine biotreatment and economically removing undesired organics derived in biotreatment. Incorporation of 0.25 M bicarbonate in 0.5 M chloride brine little affected resin regeneration but created a benign alkaline condition to favor bio-based brine regeneration. The first-quarter sulfate-mainly enriched spent brine (SB) was acidified with carbon source acetic acid for using CaCl2 at an efficiency >80% to remove sulfate. Residual Ca(2+) was limited below 2 mM by re-mixing the first-quarter and remained SB to favor denitrification. Under [Formula: see text] system buffered pH condition (8.3-8.8), nitrate was removed at 0.90 gN/L/d by hematite-enriched well-settled activated sludge (SVI 8.5 ml/g) and the biogenic alkalinity was retained as bicarbonate. The biogenic alkalinity met the need of alkalinity in removing residual Ca(2+) after sulfate removal and in CaCl2-induced CaCO3 flocculation to remove 63% of soluble organic carbon (SOC) in biotreated brine. Carbon-limited denitrification was also operated after activated sludge acclimation with sulfide to cut SOC formation during denitrification. Overall, this bicarbonate-incorporation approach, stabilizing the brine salinity and alkalinity for stable denitrification and economical removal of undesired SOC, suits long-term cost-effective brine bioregeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Degradation of Organophosphorus Pesticides in Water during UV/H2O2 Treatment: Role of Sulphate and Bicarbonate Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Am Fadaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photodegradation of two organophosphorus pesticides, malathian and diazinon, by sulfate radicals and bicarbonate radicals in aqueous solution were studied. The effect of the operational parameters such as pH, salt concentration, water type, H2O2 concentration and initial concentration of pesticides was studied. Gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC–MS was used for analyses of pesticides. When salt effect was studied, it was found that sodium bicarbonate was the most powerful inhibitor used, while sodium sulfate was the weakest one. The highest degradation in UV/H2O2 process for malathion was found in alkaline condition and for diazinon in acidic condition. The photodegradation in all waters used in this work exhibited first order kinetics. Photodegradation rate in distilled water was higher than real water. The degradation of pesticides increased with increasing of H2O2 concentration.

  20. Chemical sensitivity: pathophysiology or pathopsychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J

    2013-05-01

    symptoms in some cases. Sustained resolution of the CS state occurs after successful elimination of the accrued body burden of toxicants through natural mechanisms of toxicant bioelimination and/or interventions of clinical detoxification. Despite extensive clinical evidence to support the veracity of this clinical state, many members of the medical community are reluctant to accept this condition as a pathophysiologic disorder. The emerging problem of ubiquitous adverse toxicant exposures in modern society has resulted in escalating numbers of individuals developing a CS disorder. As usual in medical history, iconoclastic ideas and emerging evidence regarding novel disease mechanisms, such as the pathogenesis of CS, have been met with controversy, resistance, and sluggish knowledge translation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exhaust gas purification with sodium bicarbonate. Analysis and evaluation; Abgasreinigung mit Natriumhydrogencarbonat. Analyse und Bewertung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quicker, Peter; Rotheut, Martin; Schulten, Marc [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet Technologie der Energierohstoffe (TEER); Athmann, Uwe [dezentec ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    The dry exhaust gas cleaning uses sodium bicarbonate in order to absorb acid components of exhaust gases such as sulphur dioxide or hydrochloric acid. Recently, sodium and calcium based adsorbents are compared with respect to their economic and ecologic options. None of the investigations performed considered decidedly practical experiences from the system operation such as differences in the management, availability, personnel expenditure and maintenance expenditure. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on exhaust gas cleaning systems using sodium carbonate as well as lime adsorbents. The operators of these exhaust gas cleaning systems were questioned on their experiences, and all relevant operational data (consumption of additives, consumption of energy, emissions, standstill, maintenance effort) were recorded and evaluated at a very detailed level.

  2. An investigation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of hydrofluoric acid intoxication in rats and pigs. Interim report concerning the results of phase 2.1: The effect of sodium fluoride infusion on the plasma concentrations of lactate and magnesium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boink ABTJ; de Wildt DJ; de Jong Y; de Groot G; Vaessen HAMG; Meulenbelt J; van Dijk A; Vosmeer H

    1990-01-01

    From a previous study it was concluded that intravenous infusion of sodium fluoride (NaF) in rats is a suitable model to study the toxicity of hydrofluoric acid. In this supplementary study we investigated the effect of intravenous infusion of a high and low dose of NaF (120 and 25 mg.kg -1.hr

  3. Thalassemia: Pathophysiology and management. Part A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fucharoen, S.; Rowley, P.T.; Paul, N.W.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers divided among the following sections: molecular biology and pathogenesis; pathophysiology - molecular and cellular; clinical manifestations and hematologic changes; cardiopulmonary defects and platelet function; hormones and minerals; and infection and immunology

  4. Validating the utilisation of venous bicarbonate as a predictor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Crush injury secondary to sjambok beatings is a well-described phenomenon in southern Africa. Owing to a number of factors, it can result in acute kidney injury (AKI). In 1992, Muckart et al. described a risk stratification system using venous bicarbonate (VB) that can be used in the management of these ...

  5. Regulation of Photosystem II Electron transport by Bicarbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensen, van J.J.S.

    2012-01-01

    In oxygenic photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is fixed by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and further reduced to carbohydrates. However, CO2, in the form of carbonate or bicarbonate, is also directly involved in the “light reactions” through structural and regulatory roles

  6. The stable nonequilibrium state of bicarbonate aqueous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeikov, V. L.; Vilenskaya, N. D.; Ha, Do Minh; Malyshenko, S. I.; Buravleva, E. V.; Yablonskaya, O. I.; Timofeev, K. N.

    2012-09-01

    Data obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and chemiluminescence analysis indicate that in aqueous solutions of bicarbonates, superoxide radical and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced. The stationary level of the superoxide radical is found to increase when a solution is illuminated. Reactions involving ROS are shown to be accompanied by the generation of electron excitation energy, keeping bicarbonate solutions in a stable nonequilibrium state. The system can emit part of this energy. Variations in emitting activity are found to correlate with variations in the cosmophysical factors. The emitting activity of solutions is found to vary in the presence of low and ultralow concentrations of hydrated fullerenes. It is noted that the phenomenon of spontaneous charge separation in aqueous systems (G. H. Pollack) could play a role in maintaining a stable nonequilibrium state in bicarbonate systems where the reactions with ROS participation are catalyzed by forms of carbonate. It is concluded that the abovementioned properties of bicarbonate aqueous systems most likely keep living matter whose structural basis is formed by these systems in a stable excited state, thereby making it highly sensitive to the action of external factors with low and ultralow intensities.

  7. Influence of bicarbonate on ventilatory drive in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mos-Oppersma, Eline; Doorduin, Jonne; van der Hoeven, J.G.; Veltink, Peter; Heunks, Leo M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute hypoventilation results in CO2 retention and respiratory acidosis. Bicarbonate retention aims to restore pH level. However, after institution of mechanical ventilation metabolic alkalosis may develop, which could impair respiratory drive. Aim To investigate whether increased plasma

  8. Spontaneous gastric rupture after Sodium Bicarbonate consumption: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, A; Domínguez, C; Perdomo, C F

    2017-08-01

    Spontaneous gastric rupture is a rare condition however a prompt diagnosis and treatment are necessary to decrease mortality and morbidity. We report a case of stomach rupture after the ingestion of Sodium Bicarbonate (SB); imaging findings with a brief review of the literature are presented. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Neutral sodium/bicarbonate/sulfate hot waters in geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahon, W.A.J. (Dept. of Industrial and Scientific Research, Wairakei, New Zealand); Klyen, L.E.; Rhode, M.

    1980-03-01

    The least understood thermal water is a near neutral water which contains varying amounts of bicarbonate and sulfate as the major anions, low concentrations of chloride (< 30 ppM) and sodium as the major cation. In the past this water has been referred to as a sodium bicarbonate water but present studies suggest that the quantities of bicarbonate and sulfate in this water type are frequently of the same order. Of particular interest is the distribution and position of the sodium/bicarbonate/sulfate water in the same and different systems. Many hot springs in Indonesia, for example, discharge water of this composition. Present studies indicate that this water type can originate from high temperature reservoirs which form the secondary steam heated part of a normal high temperature geothermal system. The hydrological conditions producing these waters in geothermal systems are investigated and the relationship between the water type and vapor dominated systems is discussed. It is suggested that the major water type occurring in the so called vapor dominated parts of geothermal systems is this water. The water does not simply represent steam condensate, rather it consists essentially of meteoric water which has been steam heated. The water composition results from the interaction of carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide with meteoric water and the rocks confining this water in the aquifer.

  10. Sodium Bicarbonate for Control of ICP: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Frederick A; Sader, Nicholas; West, Michael; Gillman, Lawrence M

    2018-01-01

    Our goal was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the use of intravenous sodium bicarbonate for intracranial pressure (ICP) reduction in patients with neurologic illness. Data sources: articles from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to April 2015), reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature were searched. 2 reviewers independently extracted data including population characteristics and treatment characteristics. The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and Grading of Recommendation Assessment Development and Education methodology. Our search strategy produced a total 559 citations. Three original articles were included in the review. There were 2 prospective studies, 1 randomized control trial and 1 single arm, and 1 retrospective case report.Across all studies there were a total of 19 patients studied, with 31 episodes of elevated ICP being treated. Twenty-one of those episodes were treated with sodium bicarbonate infusion, with the remaining 10 treated with hypertonic saline in a control model. All elevated ICP episodes treated with sodium bicarbonate solution demonstrated a significant drop in ICP, without an elevation of serum partial pressure of carbon dioxide. No significant complications were described. There currently exists Oxford level 4, Grading of Recommendation Assessment Development and Education D evidence to support an ICP reduction effect with intravenous sodium bicarbonate in TBI. No comments on its impact in other neuropathologic states, or on patient outcomes, can be made at this time.

  11. Bicarbonate attenuates arterial desaturation during maximal exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henning B; Bredmose, Per P; Strømstad, Morten

    2002-01-01

    The contribution of pH to exercise-induced arterial O2 desaturation was evaluated by intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate (Bic, 1 M; 200-350 ml) or an equal volume of saline (Sal; 1 M) at a constant infusion rate during a "2,000-m" maximal ergometer row in five male oarsmen. Blood...

  12. Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in Diabetic Hyperglycemic Emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Machado Ramírez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state are two of the major metabolic emergencies that may occur. These conditions are not always treated properly.Objective: to describe the metabolic hyperglycemic emergencies in diabetic patients treated in the Intensive Care Unit, and to assess the use of sodium bicarbonate. Methods: a descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted including 52 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit of the Enrique Cabrera Hospital from 2000 through 2007. The following variables were analyzed: type of diabetes mellitus, type of acute complication, use or not of sodium bicarbonate, blood gases, ionogram and progress of patients. Kitabchi criteria were used for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and its severity and for the diagnosis of the hyperglycemic state as well. Criteria proposed by an Expert Committee of the American Diabetes Association and a World Health Organization Expert Committee were adopted for the diagnosis of diabetes and its classification. Results: diabetic ketoacidosis was confirmed in 57,5 % of type 1 diabetic patients and in 42,5 % of those with type 2 diabetes. Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was observed in 23,0 % of type 2 diabetics. There was not any death among patients with diabetic ketoacidosis who did not use sodium bicarbonate whereas 80,0 % of patients with hyperglycemic state who used it died. Conclusions: diabetic ketoacidosis was the most common complication. Mortality due to ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic state was high. Sodium bicarbonate was not properly used.

  13. Production of sodium bicarbonate from a basic process stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkamp, G.J.; Van Spronsen, J.; Hasselaar, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present invention is in the area of the treatment of a gas flow containing carbon dioxide obtained from burning at least one organic waste or feed stream, on the one hand to produce sodium bicarbonate and optionally remove and/or recover molybdenum compounds and/or other impurities from the said

  14. A vicious circle in chronic lymphoedema pathophysiology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cucchi, F; Rossmeislova, L; Simonsen, L

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lymphoedema is a disease caused by a congenital or acquired damage to the lymphatic system and characterized by complex chains of pathophysiologic events such as lymphatic fluid stasis, chronic inflammation, lymphatic vessels impairment, adipose tissue deposition and fibrosis. These event....... Together, these observations indicate strong reciprocal relationship between lymphatics and adipose tissue and suggest a possible key role of the adipocyte in the pathophysiology of chronic lymphoedema's vicious circle....

  15. Dry process of smokes treatment with sodium bicarbonate and the recycling of sodic wastes; Proceso seco de depuracion de humos con bicarbonato sodico de reciclado de productos sodicos residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalan, X.

    1996-12-01

    The Neutrec process of Solvay for the acid emissions treatment by sodium bicarbonate is using in Belgium, France, Italy, The Netherland and Spain. there are 28 facilities for the smokes treatment. these smokes are coming from the urban, sanitary and hazardous wastes. The Neutrec process is using dry reactive for neutralizing the acid smoker. (Author)

  16. Sodium bicarbonate-augmented stress thallium myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarin, Badal; Chugh, Pradeep Kumar; Kaushal, Dinesh; Soni, Nakse Lal; Sawroop, Kishan; Mondal, Anupam; Bhatnagar, Aseem

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that sodium bicarbonate in pharmacological doses induces transient alkalosis, causing intracellular transport of serum potassium. The aims of this study were (a) to investigate whether, in humans, myocardial thallium-201 uptake can be augmented by pretreatment with a single bolus of sodium bicarbonate at a pharmacological dose, (b) to verify general safety aspects of the intervention and (c) to evaluate the clinical implications of augmentation of 201 Tl uptake, if any. Routine exercise myocardial scintigraphy was performed twice in eight adult volunteers (five normal and three abnormal), once without intervention and the second time (within a week) following intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (88 mEq in 50 ml) as a slow bolus 1 h prior to the injection of 201 Tl. Conventional myocardial thallium study was compared with sodium bicarbonate interventional myocardial scintigraphy with respect to myocardial uptake (counts per minute per mCi injected dose), washout patterns in normal and abnormal myocardial segments, and overall clinical interpretation based on planar and single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) images. All patients remained asymptomatic after the intervention. A mean increase of 53% in myocardial uptake of thallium was noted in post-exercise acquisitions after the intervention, confirming uptake of the tracer via the potassium-hydrogen pump and its augmentation by transient alkalosis. The washout pattern remained unchanged. The visual quality of planar and SPET images improved significantly after the intervention. Out of the five abnormal myocardial segments identified in three cases, four showed significant filling-in after the intervention, causing the diagnosis to be upgraded from ''partial scar'' to ''ischaemia'', or from ''ischaemia'' to ''normal''. The overall scan impression changed in two out of three such cases. Sodium bicarbonate augmentation may have significant implications for stress-thallium scintigraphy

  17. Sodium bicarbonate-augmented stress thallium myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarin, Badal; Chugh, Pradeep Kumar; Kaushal, Dinesh; Soni, Nakse Lal; Sawroop, Kishan; Mondal, Anupam; Bhatnagar, Aseem [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Brig. S. K. Mazumdar Road, 110054, Delhi (India)

    2004-04-01

    It is well known that sodium bicarbonate in pharmacological doses induces transient alkalosis, causing intracellular transport of serum potassium. The aims of this study were (a) to investigate whether, in humans, myocardial thallium-201 uptake can be augmented by pretreatment with a single bolus of sodium bicarbonate at a pharmacological dose, (b) to verify general safety aspects of the intervention and (c) to evaluate the clinical implications of augmentation of {sup 201}Tl uptake, if any. Routine exercise myocardial scintigraphy was performed twice in eight adult volunteers (five normal and three abnormal), once without intervention and the second time (within a week) following intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate (88 mEq in 50 ml) as a slow bolus 1 h prior to the injection of {sup 201}Tl. Conventional myocardial thallium study was compared with sodium bicarbonate interventional myocardial scintigraphy with respect to myocardial uptake (counts per minute per mCi injected dose), washout patterns in normal and abnormal myocardial segments, and overall clinical interpretation based on planar and single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) images. All patients remained asymptomatic after the intervention. A mean increase of 53% in myocardial uptake of thallium was noted in post-exercise acquisitions after the intervention, confirming uptake of the tracer via the potassium-hydrogen pump and its augmentation by transient alkalosis. The washout pattern remained unchanged. The visual quality of planar and SPET images improved significantly after the intervention. Out of the five abnormal myocardial segments identified in three cases, four showed significant filling-in after the intervention, causing the diagnosis to be upgraded from ''partial scar'' to ''ischaemia'', or from ''ischaemia'' to ''normal''. The overall scan impression changed in two out of three such cases. Sodium

  18. Nanomaterials-Based Approaches for the Modulation of Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Hee Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HCO3- and fluid secretion are major functions of all epithelia, and alterations in HCO3- secretion by sodium bicarbonate cotransporters are associated with many epithelial diseases, such as renal, ocular, and dental abnormalities. Electrolyte and fluid exits are synergistically mediated by the intracellular second messengers, cAMP and Ca2+, and this raises the possibility that ion transporters are involved in simple secretion and more complicated forms of regulation. Evidence indicates that HCO3- transport is regulated by the assemblage of Na+-HCO3- cotransporters (NBCs into complexes by multiple regulatory factors. Recently the specific regulatory functions of factors that interact with NBCe1, especially NBCe1-B, have been elucidated. In this review, I focus on the structural characteristics of electrogenic NBCe1, pathophysiology of NBCe1, and molecular mechanisms responsible for transporter regulation. Moreover I propose the possibility to apply nanomaterials combined with regulatory factors for modulating the activity of NBC transporters as a potential development of therapeutic drug.

  19. Grocery store baking soda. A source of sodium bicarbonate in the management of chronic metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, B E; Gates, J; Morris, R C

    1984-02-01

    Oral sodium bicarbonate is used to treat metabolic acidosis in patients with renal tubular acidosis. Since infants and young children are unable to swallow tablets, those affected must ingest sodium bicarbonate in a powder or liquid form. Pharmacy-weighed sodium bicarbonate is expensive and inconvenient to obtain; some pharmacists are reluctant to provide it. We determined that the sodium bicarbonate contained in 8-oz boxes of Arm and Hammer Baking Soda was sufficiently constant in weight that, dissolved in water to a given volume, it yielded a quantitatively acceptable therapeutic solution of sodium bicarbonate at a cost of approximately 3 percent of that of pharmacy-weighed sodium bicarbonate. Grocery store baking soda can be a safe, economical, and convenient source of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of chronic metabolic acidosis in infants and young children.

  20. Idiopathic recurrent calcium urolithiasis (IRCU: pathophysiology evaluated in light of oxidative metabolism, without and with variation of several biomarkers in fasting urine and plasma - a comparison of stone-free and -bearing male patients, emphasizing mineral, acid-base, blood pressure and protein status*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwilie PO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IRCU is traditionally considered as lifestyle disease (associations with, among others, overweight, obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, arising from excess, in 24 h urine, of calcium (Ca salts (calcium oxalate (CaOx, calcium phosphate (CaPi, supersaturation of, and crystallization in, tubular fluid and urine, causing crystal-induced epithelial cell damage, proteinuria, crystal aggregation and uroliths. Methods Another picture emerges from the present uncontrolled study of 154 male adult IRCU patients (75 stone-bearing (SB and 79 age-matched stone-free (SF, in whom stone-forming and other parameters in fasting urine and plasma were contrasted with five biomarkers (see footnote of oxidative metabolism (OM, without and with variation of markers. Results 1 In SB vs. SF unstratified OM biomarkers were statistically unchanged, but the majority of patients was overweight; despite, in SB vs. SF urine pH, total and non-albumin protein concentration were elevated, fractional urinary uric acid excretion and blood bicarbonate decreased, whereas urine volume, sodium, supersaturation with CaOx and CaPi (as hydroxyapatite were unchanged; 2 upon variation of OM markers (strata below and above median numerous stone parameters differed significant!', among others urine volume, total protein, Ca/Pi ratio, pH, sodium, potassium, plasma Ca/Pi ratio and parathyroid hormone, blood pressure, renal excretion of non-albumin protein and other substances; 3 a significant shift from SF to SB patients occurred with increase of urine pH, decrease of blood bicarbonate, and increase of diastolic blood pressure, whereas increase of plasma uric acid impacted only marginally; 4 in both SF and SB patients a strong curvilinear relationship links a rise of urine Ca/Pi to urine Ca/Pi divided by plasma Ca/Pi, but in SB urine Ca/Pi failed to correlate significantly with urine hydroxyapatite supersaturation; 5 also in SB, plasma Ca/Pi and urinary nitrate were

  1. Imaging Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology with PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Porcello Schilling

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD has been reconceptualised as a dynamic pathophysiological process characterized by preclinical, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and dementia stages. Positron emission tomography (PET associated with various molecular imaging agents reveals numerous aspects of dementia pathophysiology, such as brain amyloidosis, tau accumulation, neuroreceptor changes, metabolism abnormalities and neuroinflammation in dementia patients. In the context of a growing shift toward presymptomatic early diagnosis and disease-modifying interventions, PET molecular imaging agents provide an unprecedented means of quantifying the AD pathophysiological process, monitoring disease progression, ascertaining whether therapies engage their respective brain molecular targets, as well as quantifying pharmacological responses. In the present study, we highlight the most important contributions of PET in describing brain molecular abnormalities in AD.

  2. Current concepts in the pathophysiology of glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Renu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness, is characterized by changes in the optic disc and visual field defects. The elevated intraocular pressure was considered the prime factor responsible for the glaucomatous optic neuropathy involving death of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Extensive investigations into the pathophysiology of glaucoma now reveal the role of multiple factors in the development of retinal ganglion cell death. A better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the onset and progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy is crucial in the development of better therapeutic options. This review is an effort to summarize the current concepts in the pathophysiology of glaucoma so that newer therapeutic targets can be recognized. The literature available in the National Medical Library and online Pubmed search engine was used for literature review.

  3. Jaundice associated pruritis: a review of pathophysiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassari, Ramez; Koea, Jonathan B

    2015-02-07

    To review the underlying pathophysiology and currently available treatments for pruritis associated with jaundice. English language literature was reviewed using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and clinicaltrials.gov for papers and trails addressing the pathophysiology and potential treatments for pruritis associated with jaundice. Recent advances in the understanding of the peripheral anatomy of itch transmission have defined a histamine stimulated pathway and a cowhage stimulated pathway with sensation conveyed centrally via the contralateral spinothalamic tract. Centrally, cowhage and histamine stimulated neurons terminate widely within the thalamus and sensorimotor cortex. The causative factors for itch in jaundice have not been clarified although endogenous opioids, serotonin, steroid and lysophosphatidic acid all play a role. Current guidelines for the treatment of itching in jaundice recommend initial management with biliary drainage where possible and medical management with ursodeoxycholic acid, followed by cholestyramine, rifampicin, naltrexone and sertraline. Other than biliary drainage no single treatment has proved universally effective. Pruritis associated with jaundice is a common but poorly understood condition for which biliary drainage is the most effective therapy. Pharmacological therapy has advanced but remains variably effective.

  4. Dry eye disease: pathophysiology, classification, and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Henry D

    2008-04-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disorder of the tear film and ocular surface that results in eye discomfort, visual disturbance, and often ocular surface damage. Although recent research has made progress in elucidating DED pathophysiology, currently there are no uniform diagnostic criteria. This article discusses the normal anatomy and physiology of the lacrimal functional unit and the tear film; the pathophysiology of DED; DED etiology, classification, and risk factors; and DED diagnosis, including symptom assessment and the roles of selected diagnostic tests.

  5. Pathophysiology, Evaluation, and Treatment of Bloating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Scott L.; Crowell, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal bloating is commonly reported by men and women of all ages. Bloating occurs in nearly all patients with irritable bowel syndrome, and it also occurs in patients with other functional and organic disorders. Bloating is frequently disturbing to patients and frustrating to clinicians, as effective treatments are limited and are not universally successful. Although the terms bloating and abdominal distention are often used interchangeably, these symptoms likely involve different pathophysiologic processes, both of which are still not completely understood. The goal of this paper is to review the pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment of bloating and abdominal distention. PMID:22298969

  6. Is bicarbonate stable in and on the calcite surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, M. P.; Rodriguez-Blanco, J. D.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2016-03-01

    We have used density functional theory with the COSMO-RS implicit solvent model to predict the pKa for the deprotonation of bicarbonate to carbonate, i.e. HCO3- CO32- + H+, when HCO3- is included in, and adsorbed on, a calcite surface. We have used cluster models (80-100 atoms) to represent the flat {10.4} surface, acute steps, obtuse steps, two types of kinks on the acute step and two types of kinks on the obtuse steps. Based on the predicted pKa values, which range from -6.0 to 2.4 depending on the surface site, we conclude that bicarbonate deprotonates to carbonate when it is in calcite even when pH in solution is very low. This is true for all surface sites, even for solutions where 2.4 < pH < 6.35, where H2CO30 is the dominant dissolved species. When bicarbonate is adsorbed on calcite, the predicted pKa for deprotonation is 7.5, which is ∼3 pH units lower than in aqueous solution, 10.35. This means that adsorbed carbonate is stable even when the concentration of dissolved CO32- is several orders of magnitude lower. This has a significant effect on surface charge and thus the behaviour of the calcite surface. Our results help explain the potential determining behaviour of the carbonate species in calcite-water systems, particularly in the pH range where the bicarbonate species dominates in water and where the carbonate species dominates at the surface, i.e. when 7.5 < pH < 10.35. Our atomic scale data for the various calcite surface sites provide the needed input to improve and constrain surface complexation modelling and are especially useful for predicting behaviour in systems where experiments are difficult or impossible, such as at high temperature and pressure.

  7. Anaesthetic Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate and its Effects on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetic efficacy of Sodium bicarbonate (NaHC03) and its effects on haematology of African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in five different concentrations [0.00 g/L (control), 50.00, 100.00, 150.00 and 200.00 g/L] were determined in two sizes: juvenile (mean length 26.64 cm ± 3.11SD; mean weight 356.21 g ± 12.91SD) ...

  8. Leaching of uranium from Syrian phosphorite (sodium carbonate-bicarbonate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Jamous, J.Kh.

    1991-01-01

    The leaching of uranium from Syrian phosphorite by sodium carbonate-bicarbonate solution has been studied, using a batch technique. Parameters influencing percentage extraction of uranium that are considered and studies in this work are: Leachant concentration, particle size, heat treatment, leachant renewal, phosphorite renewal and contact time. All measurements of uranium from aqueous solutions were carried out by fluorometry. (author). 12 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Is bicarbonate stable in and on the calcite surface?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Martin Peter; Rodriguez Blanco, Juan Diego; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane

    2016-01-01

    We have used density functional theory with the COSMO-RS implicit solvent model to predict the pKa for the deprotonation of bicarbonate to carbonate, i.e. HCO3− CO32− + H+, when HCO3− is included in, and adsorbed on, a calcite surface. We have used cluster models (80–100 atoms) to represent...... the flat {10.4} surface, acute steps, obtuse steps, two types of kinks on the acute step and two types of kinks on the obtuse steps. Based on the predicted pKa values, which range from −6.0 to 2.4 depending on the surface site, we conclude that bicarbonate deprotonates to carbonate when it is in calcite...... even when pH in solution is very low. This is true for all surface sites, even for solutions where 2.4 bicarbonate is adsorbed on calcite, the predicted pKa for deprotonation is 7.5, which is ∼3 pH units lower than in aqueous solution...

  10. Bicarbonate-dependent secretion and proteolytic processing of recombinant myocilin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Daniel Aroca-Aguilar

    Full Text Available Myocilin is an extracellular glycoprotein of poorly understood function. Mutations of this protein are involved in glaucoma, an optic neuropathy characterized by a progressive and irreversible visual loss and frequently associated with elevated intraocular pressure. We previously showed that recombinant myocilin undergoes an intracellular proteolytic processing by calpain II which cleaves the central region of the protein, releasing one N- and one C-terminal fragment. Myocilin cleavage is reduced by glaucoma mutations and it has been proposed to participate in intraocular pressure modulation. To identify possible factors regulating the proteolytic processing of recombinant myocilin, we used a cellular model in which we analyzed how different culture medium parameters (i.e., culture time, cell density, pH, bicarbonate concentration, etc. affect the presence of the extracellular C-terminal fragment. Extracellular bicarbonate depletion associated with culture medium acidification produced a reversible intracellular accumulation of full-length recombinant myocilin and incremented its intracellular proteolytic processing, raising the extracellular C-terminal fragment percentage. It was also determined that myocilin intracellular accumulation depends on its N-terminal region. These data suggest that aqueous humor bicarbonate variations could also modulate the secretion and cleavage of myocilin present in ocular tissues.

  11. Thermally decarboxylated sodium bicarbonate: Interactions with water vapour, calorimetric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Volkova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC was used to study interactions between water vapour and the surface of thermally converted sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3. The decarboxylation degree of the samples was varied from 3% to 35% and the humidity range was 54–100%. The obtained enthalpy values were all exothermic and showed a positive linear correlation with decarboxylation degrees for each humidity studied. The critical humidity, 75% (RHo, was determined as the inflection point on a plot of the mean−ΔHkJ/mole Na2CO3 against RH. Humidities above the critical humidity lead to complete surface dissolution. The water uptake (m was determined after each calorimetric experiment, complementing the enthalpy data. A mechanism of water vapour interaction with decarboxylated samples, including the formation of trona and Wegscheider’s salt on the bicarbonate surface is proposed for humidities below RHo. Keywords: Isothermal titration calorimetry, Sodium bicarbonate, Sodium carbonate, Trona salt, Wegscheider’s salt, Enthalpy, Relative humidity, Pyrolytic decarboxylation

  12. Reliability and effect of sodium bicarbonate: buffering and 2000-m rowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Amelia J; Slater, Gary J; Gore, Christopher J; Dawson, Brian; Burke, Louise M

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect and reliability of acute and chronic sodium bicarbonate ingestion for 2000-m rowing ergometer performance (watts) and blood bicarbonate concentration [HCO3-]. In a crossover study, 7 well-trained rowers performed paired 2000-m rowing ergometer trials under 3 double-blinded conditions: (1) 0.3 grams per kilogram of body mass (g/kg BM) acute bicarbonate; (2) 0.5 g/kg BM daily chronic bicarbonate for 3 d; and (3) calcium carbonate placebo, in semi-counterbalanced order. For 2000-m performance and [HCO3-], we examined differences in effects between conditions via pairwise comparisons, with differences interpreted in relation to the likelihood of exceeding smallest worthwhile change thresholds for each variable. We also calculated the within-subject variation (percent typical error). There were only trivial differences in 2000-m performance between placebo (277 ± 60 W), acute bicarbonate (280 ± 65 W) and chronic bicarbonate (282 ± 65 W); however, [HCO3-] was substantially greater after acute bicarbonate, than with chronic loading and placebo. Typical error for 2000-m mean power was 2.1% (90% confidence interval 1.4 to 4.0%) for acute bicarbonate, 3.6% (2.5 to 7.0%) for chronic bicarbonate, and 1.6% (1.1 to 3.0%) for placebo. Postsupplementation [HCO3-] typical error was 7.3% (5.0 to 14.5%) for acute bicarbonate, 2.9% (2.0 to 5.7%) for chronic bicarbonate and 6.0% (1.4 to 11.9%) for placebo. Performance in 2000-m rowing ergometer trials may not substantially improve after acute or chronic bicarbonate loading. However, performances will be reliable with both acute and chronic bicarbonate loading protocols.

  13. Outcomes after Angiography with Sodium Bicarbonate and Acetylcysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Steven D; Gallagher, Martin; Jneid, Hani; Garcia, Santiago; Cass, Alan; Thwin, Soe-Soe; Conner, Todd A; Chertow, Glenn M; Bhatt, Deepak L; Shunk, Kendrick; Parikh, Chirag R; McFalls, Edward O; Brophy, Mary; Ferguson, Ryan; Wu, Hongsheng; Androsenko, Maria; Myles, John; Kaufman, James; Palevsky, Paul M

    2018-02-15

    Intravenous sodium bicarbonate and oral acetylcysteine are widely used to prevent acute kidney injury and associated adverse outcomes after angiography without definitive evidence of their efficacy. Using a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned 5177 patients at high risk for renal complications who were scheduled for angiography to receive intravenous 1.26% sodium bicarbonate or intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride and 5 days of oral acetylcysteine or oral placebo; of these patients, 4993 were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. The primary end point was a composite of death, the need for dialysis, or a persistent increase of at least 50% from baseline in the serum creatinine level at 90 days. Contrast-associated acute kidney injury was a secondary end point. The sponsor stopped the trial after a prespecified interim analysis. There was no interaction between sodium bicarbonate and acetylcysteine with respect to the primary end point (P=0.33). The primary end point occurred in 110 of 2511 patients (4.4%) in the sodium bicarbonate group as compared with 116 of 2482 (4.7%) in the sodium chloride group (odds ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 1.22; P=0.62) and in 114 of 2495 patients (4.6%) in the acetylcysteine group as compared with 112 of 2498 (4.5%) in the placebo group (odds ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.33; P=0.88). There were no significant between-group differences in the rates of contrast-associated acute kidney injury. Among patients at high risk for renal complications who were undergoing angiography, there was no benefit of intravenous sodium bicarbonate over intravenous sodium chloride or of oral acetylcysteine over placebo for the prevention of death, need for dialysis, or persistent decline in kidney function at 90 days or for the prevention of contrast-associated acute kidney injury. (Funded by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development and the National Health and Medical Research

  14. Retinal vein occlusion: pathophysiology and treatment options

    OpenAIRE

    Karia, Niral

    2010-01-01

    Niral KariaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Southend Hospital, Prittlewell Chase, Westcliff on Sea, Essex, United KingdomAbstract: This paper reviews the current thinking about retinal vein occlusion. It gives an overview of its pathophysiology and discusses the evidence behind the various established and emerging treatment paradigms.Keywords: central, hemispheric, branch, retinal vein occlusion, visual loss

  15. Pathophysiology of diurnal drooling in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalf, J.G.; Munneke, M.; Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Swart, B.J.M. de; Borm, G.F.; Bloem, B.R.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Drooling is an incapacitating feature of Parkinson's disease. Better pathophysiological insights are needed to improve treatment. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the cause of drooling is multifactorial. We examined 15 patients with Parkinson's disease with distinct diurnal saliva loss

  16. Modification of a single tryptophan residue in human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase by peroxynitrite in the presence of bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakura, F; Matsumoto, T; Fujimura, T; Taka, H; Murayama, K; Imai, T; Uchida, K

    2001-07-09

    Human recombinant Cu,Zn-SOD was reacted with peroxynitrite in a reaction mixture containing 150 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) 25 mM sodium bicarbonate, and 0.1 mM diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid. Disappearance of fluorescence emission at 350 nm, which could be attributed to modification of a single tryptophan residue, was observed in the modified enzyme with a pH optimum of around 8.4. A fluorescence decrease with the same pH optimum was also observed without sodium bicarbonate, but with less efficiency. Amino acid contents of the modified enzyme showed no significant difference in all amino acids except the loss of a single tryptophan residue of the enzyme. The peroxynitrite-modified enzyme showed an increase in optical absorption around 350 nm and 30% reduced enzyme activity based on the copper contents. The modified enzyme showed the same electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum as that of the control enzyme. The modified Cu,Zn-SOD showed a single protein band in sodium dodecyl sulfate--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS--PAGE) and five protein bands in non-denaturing PAGE. From this evidence, we conclude that nitration and/or oxidation of the single tryptophan 32 and partial inactivation of the enzyme activity of Cu,Zn-SOD is caused by a peroxynitrite-carbon dioxide adduct without perturbation of the active site copper integrity.

  17. In vitro dissolution of proton-pump inhibitor products intended for paediatric and geriatric use in physiological bicarbonate buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Shokrollahi, Honaz

    2015-05-15

    Proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) products based on enteric coated multiparticulates are design to meet the needs of patients who cannot swallow tablets such as children and older adults. Enteric coated PPI preparations exhibit delays in in vivo absorption and onset of antisecretory effects, which is not reflected by the rapid in vitro dissolution in compendial pH 6.8 phosphate buffer commonly used for assessment of these products. A more representative and physiological medium, pH 6.8 mHanks bicarbonate buffer, was used in this study to evaluate the in vitro dissolution of enteric coated multiparticulate-based PPI products. Commercially available omeprazole, lansoprazole and esomeprazole products were subject to dissolution tests using USP-II apparatus in pH 4.5 phosphate buffer saline for 45 min (acid stage) followed by pH 6.8 phosphate buffer or pH 6.8 mHanks bicarbonate buffer. In pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, all nine tested products displayed rapid and comparable dissolution profiles meeting the pharmacopeia requirements for delayed release preparations. In pH 6.8 mHanks buffer, drug release was delayed and failed the pharmacopeia requirements from most enteric coated preparations. Despite that the same enteric polymer, methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate copolymer (1:1), was applied to all commercial multiparticulate-based products, marked differences were observed between dissolution profiles of these preparations. The use of pH 6.8 physiological bicarbonate (mHanks) buffer can serve as a useful tool to provide realistic and discriminative in vitro release assessment of enteric coated PPI preparations and to assist rational formulation development of these products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypoxia and bicarbonate could limit the expression of iron acquisition genes in Strategy I plants by affecting ethylene synthesis and signaling in different ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María J; García-Mateo, María J; Lucena, Carlos; Romera, Francisco J; Rojas, Carmen L; Alcántara, Esteban; Pérez-Vicente, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    In a previous work, it was shown that bicarbonate (one of the most important factors causing Fe chlorosis in Strategy I plants) can limit the expression of several genes involved in Fe acquisition. Hypoxia is considered another important factor causing Fe chlorosis, mainly on calcareous soils. However, to date it is not known whether hypoxia aggravates Fe chlorosis by affecting bicarbonate concentration or by specific negative effects on Fe acquisition. Results found in this work show that hypoxia, generated by eliminating the aeration of the nutrient solution, can limit the expression of several Fe acquisition genes in Fe-deficient Arabidopsis, cucumber and pea plants, like the genes for ferric reductases AtFRO2, PsFRO1 and CsFRO1; iron transporters AtIRT1, PsRIT1 and CsIRT1; H(+) -ATPase CsHA1; and transcription factors AtFIT, AtbHLH38, and AtbHLH39. Interestingly, the limitation of the expression of Fe-acquisition genes by hypoxia did not occur in the Arabidopsis ethylene constitutive mutant ctr1, which suggests that the negative effect of hypoxia is related to ethylene, an hormone involved in the upregulation of Fe acquisition genes. As for hypoxia, results obtained by applying bicarbonate to the nutrient solution suggests that ethylene is also involved in its negative effect, since ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid; ethylene precursor) partially reversed the negative effect of bicarbonate on the expression of Fe acquisition genes. Taken together, the results obtained show that hypoxia and bicarbonate could induce Fe chlorosis by limiting the expression of Fe acquisition genes, probably because each factor negatively affects different steps of ethylene synthesis and/or signaling. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. Effects of gas composition in headspace and bicarbonate concentrations in media on gas and methane production, degradability, and rumen fermentation using in vitro gas production techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan Kumar; Yu, Zhongtang

    2013-07-01

    Headspace gas composition and bicarbonate concentrations in media can affect methane production and other characteristics of rumen fermentation in in vitro gas production systems, but these 2 important factors have not been evaluated systematically. In this study, these 2 factors were investigated with respect to gas and methane production, in vitro digestibility of feed substrate, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile using in vitro gas production techniques. Three headspace gas compositions (N2+ CO2+ H2 in the ratio of 90:5:5, CO2, and N2) with 2 substrate types (alfalfa hay only, and alfalfa hay and a concentrate mixture in a 50:50 ratio) in a 3×2 factorial design (experiment 1) and 3 headspace compositions (N2, N2 + CO2 in a 50:50 ratio, and CO2) with 3 bicarbonate concentrations (80, 100, and 120 mM) in a 3×3 factorial design (experiment 2) were evaluated. In experiment 1, total gas production (TGP) and net gas production (NGP) was the lowest for CO2, followed by N2, and then the gas mixture. Methane concentration in headspace gas after fermentation was greater for CO2 than for N2 and the gas mixture, whereas total methane production (TMP) and net methane production (NMP) were the greatest for CO2, followed by the gas mixture, and then N2. Headspace composition did not affect in vitro digestibility or the VFA profile, except molar percentages of propionate, which were greater for CO2 and N2 than for the gas mixture. Methane concentration in headspace gas, TGP, and NGP were affected by the interaction of headspace gas composition and substrate type. In experiment 2, increasing concentrations of CO2 in the headspace decreased TGP and NGP quadratically, but increased the concentrations of methane, NMP, and in vitro fiber digestibility linearly, and TMP quadratically. Fiber digestibility, TGP, and NGP increased linearly with increasing bicarbonate concentrations in the medium. Concentrations of methane and NMP were unaffected by bicarbonate concentration, but

  20. Dynamic volume changes in astrocytes are an intrinsic phenomenon mediated by bicarbonate ion flux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare M Florence

    Full Text Available Astrocytes, the major type of non-neuronal cells in the brain, play an important functional role in extracellular potassium ([K(+](o and pH homeostasis. Pathological brain states that result in [K(+](o and pH dysregulation have been shown to cause astrocyte swelling. However, whether astrocyte volume changes occur under physiological conditions is not known. In this study we used two-photon imaging to visualize real-time astrocyte volume changes in the stratum radiatum of the hippocampus CA1 region. Astrocytes were observed to swell by 19.0±0.9% in response to a small physiological increase in the concentration of [K(+](o (3 mM. Astrocyte swelling was mediated by the influx of bicarbonate (HCO(3- ions as swelling was significantly decreased when the influx of HCO(3- was reduced. We found: 1 in HCO(3- free extracellular solution astrocytes swelled by 5.4±0.7%, 2 when the activity of the sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC was blocked the astrocytes swelled by 8.3±0.7%, and 3 in the presence of an extracellular carbonic anhydrase (CA inhibitor astrocytes swelled by 11.4±0.6%. Because a significant HCO(3- efflux is known to occur through the γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA channel, we performed a series of experiments to determine if astrocytes were capable of HCO(3- mediated volume shrinkage with GABA channel activation. Astrocytes were found to shrink -7.7±0.5% of control in response to the GABA(A channel agonist muscimol. Astrocyte shrinkage from GABA(A channel activation was significantly decreased to -5.0±0.6% of control in the presence of the membrane-permeant CA inhibitor acetazolamide (ACTZ. These dynamic astrocyte volume changes may represent a previously unappreciated yet fundamental mechanism by which astrocytes regulate physiological brain functioning.

  1. Pathophysiology of spontaneous venous gas embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertsen, C. J.; Albertine, K. H.; Pisarello, J. B.; Flores, N. D.

    1991-01-01

    The use of controllable degrees and durations of continuous isobaric counterdiffusion venous gas embolism to investigate effects of venous gas embolism upon blood, cardiovascular, and respiratory gas exchange function, as well as pathological effects upon the lung and its microcirculation is discussed. Use of N2O/He counterdiffusion permitted performance of the pathophysiologic and pulmonary microstructural effects at one ATA without hyperbaric or hypobaric exposures.

  2. Otosclerosis update (1). Pathophysiology and diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kaoru; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Saito, Hideyuki; Kanzaki, Sho; Okamoto, Yasuhide; Mizutari, Kunio; Suzuki, Takashi; Oishi, Naoki

    2009-01-01

    Otosclerosis is an otological disease that typicaly causes conductive hearing loss. This disease is an important clinical entity since hearing impairment in these case can be dramatically improved by surgery. In this review paper, we review recent research into the pathophysiology of otosclerosis and summarize clinical features, audiometry and diagnostic imaging examinations in 160 ears with otosclerosis that we treated surgically in our department. (author)

  3. Effect of beta-alanine, with and without sodium bicarbonate, on 2000-m rowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Ruth M; Harris, Roger C; Martin, Dan; Smith, Perry; Macklin, Ben; Gualano, Bruno; Sale, Craig

    2013-10-01

    To examine the effect of beta-alanine only and beta-alanine with sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 2,000-m rowing performance. Twenty well-trained rowers (age 23 ± 4 y; height 1.85 ± 0.08 m; body mass 82.5 ± 8.9 kg) were assigned to either a placebo or beta-alanine (6.4 g · d(-1) for 4 weeks) group. A 2,000-m rowing time trial (TT) was performed before supplementation (Baseline) and after 28 and 30 days of supplementation. The post supplementation trials involved supplementation with either maltodextrin or sodium bicarbonate in a double-blind, crossover design, creating four study conditions (placebo with maltodextrin; placebo with sodium bicarbonate; beta-alanine with maltodextrin; beta-alanine with sodium bicarbonate). Blood lactate, pH, bicarbonate, and base excess were measured pre-TT, immediately post-TT and at TT+5 min. Performance data were analyzed using magnitude based inferences. Beta-alanine supplementation was very likely to be beneficial to 2,000-m rowing performance (6.4 ± 8.1 s effect compared with placebo), with the effect of sodium bicarbonate having a likely benefit (3.2 ± 8.8 s). There was a small (1.1 ± 5.6 s) but possibly beneficial additional effect when combining chronic beta-alanine supplementation with acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation compared with chronic beta-alanine supplementation alone. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion led to increases in plasma pH, base excess, bicarbonate, and lactate concentrations. Both chronic beta-alanine and acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation alone had positive effects on 2,000-m rowing performance. The addition of acute sodium bicarbonate to chronic beta-alanine supplementation may further enhance rowing performance.

  4. Sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 gene variants increase sodium and bicarbonate transport in human renal proximal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Kemp, Brandon A; Carlson, Julia M; Tran, Hanh T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Langouët-Astrié, Christophe J; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2018-01-01

    Salt sensitivity of blood pressure affects >30% of the hypertensive and >15% of the normotensive population. Variants of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 gene, SLC4A5, are associated with increased blood pressure in several ethnic groups. SLC4A5 variants are also highly associated with salt sensitivity, independent of hypertension. However, little is known about how NBCe2 contributes to salt sensitivity, although NBCe2 regulates renal tubular sodium bicarbonate transport. We hypothesized that SLC4A5 rs10177833 and rs7571842 increase NBCe2 expression and human renal proximal tubule cell (hRPTC) sodium transport and may be a cause of salt sensitivity of blood pressure. To characterize the hRPTC ion transport of wild-type (WT) and homozygous variants (HV) of SLC4A5. The expressions of NBCe2 mRNA and protein were not different between hRPTCs carrying WT or HV SLC4A5 before or after dopaminergic or angiotensin (II and III) stimulation. However, luminal to basolateral sodium transport, NHE3 protein, and Cl-/HCO3- exchanger activity in hRPTCs were higher in HV than WT SLC4A5. Increasing intracellular sodium enhanced the apical location of NBCe2 in HV hRPTCs (4.24±0.35% to 11.06±1.72% (P<0.05, N = 3, 2-way ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test)) as determined by Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy (TIRFM). In hRPTCs isolated from kidney tissue, increasing intracellular sodium enhanced bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery rate and increased NBCe2 mRNA and protein expressions to a greater extent in HV than WT SLC4A5 (+38.00±6.23% vs HV normal salt (P<0.01, N = 4, 2-way ANOVA, Holm-Sidak test)). In hRPTCs isolated from freshly voided urine, bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery was also faster in those from salt-sensitive and carriers of HV SLC4A5 than from salt-resistant and carriers of WT SLC4A5. The faster NBCe2-specific bicarbonate-dependent pH recovery rate in HV SCL4A5 was normalized by SLC4A5- but not SLC4A4-shRNA. The binding of purified hepatocyte

  5. Multimodal approach to control postoperative pathophysiology and rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, H

    1997-01-01

    Major surgery is still associated with undesirable sequelae such as pain, cardiopulmonary, infective and thromboembolic complications, cerebral dysfunction, nausea and gastrointestinal paralysis, fatigue and prolonged convalescence. The key pathogenic factor in postoperative morbidity, excluding...... failures of surgical and anaesthetic technique, is the surgical stress response with subsequent increased demands on organ function. These changes in organ function are thought to be mediated by trauma-induced endocrine metabolic changes and activation of several biological cascade systems (cytokines......, complement, arachidonic acid metabolites, nitric oxide, free oxygen radicals, etc). To understand postoperative morbidity it is therefore necessary to understand the pathophysiological role of the various components of the surgical stress response and to determine if modification of such responses may...

  6. Passivation process of X80 pipeline steel in bicarbonate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jian-Long; Li, Xiao-Gang; Du, Cui-Wei; Pan, Ying; Li, Tao; Liu, Qian

    2011-04-01

    The passivation process of X80 pipeline steel in bicarbonate solutions was investigated using potentiodynamic, dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (DEIS), and Mott-Schottky measurements. The results show that the shape of polarization curves changes with HCO{3/-} concentration. The critical `passive' concentration is 0.009 mol/L HCO{3/-} for X80 pipeline steel in bicarbonate solutions. No anodic current peak exists in HCO3/- solutions when the concentration is lower than 0.009 mol/L, whereas there are one and two anodic current peaks when the HCO3/- concentration ranges from 0.009 to 0.05 mol/L and is higher than 0.1 mol/L, respectively. DEIS measurements show that there exist active dissolution range, transition range, pre-passive range, passive layer formation range, passive range, and trans-passive range for X80 pipeline steel in the 0.1 mol/L HCO{3/-} solutions. The results of DEIS measurements are in complete agreement with the potentiodynamic diagram. An equivalent circuit containing three sub-layers is used to explain the Nyquist plots in the passive range. Analyses are well made for explaining the corresponding fitted capacitance and impedance. The Mott-Schottky plots show that the passive film of X80 pipeline steel is an n-type semiconductor, and capacitance measurements are in good accordance with the results of DEIS experiment.

  7. Vanadium extraction from slimes by the lime-bicarbonate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lishchenko, T.V.; Vdovina, L.V.; Slobodchikova, R.I.

    1978-01-01

    Some main parameters of the lime-bicarbonate method of extracting vanadium from residues obtained in washing waters of mazut boilers on thermal stations have been determined. To study the process of vanadium extraction during caking of the residues with lime and subsequent leaching of water-soluble vanadium, a ''Minsk-22'' computer has been used for computation. Analysis of the equation derived has shown that a change in temperature of vanadium leaching, density of pulp, and a kind of heating of the charge affect the process only slightly. It has also been shown that the calcination temperature is expedient to be kept above 850 deg C and consumption temperature is expedient to be kept above 85O deg C and consumption of lime must not exceed 20% of the residues weight. Bicarbonate consumption exerts a decisive influence on completeness of vanadium extraction and must be increased up to >35%; duration of leaching should be raised up to 30-45 minutes. With increasing calcination temperature the duration of leaching decreases. When temperature and duration of calcination increase, the formation of water-soluble vanadium intensifies. With the aid of optimization program seven variants have been chosen, which ensure vanadium extraction into solution by 95-100%

  8. Flue Gas Desulfurization by Mechanically and Thermally Activated Sodium Bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walawska Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of study on structural parameters (particle size, surface area, pore volume and the sorption ability of mechanically and thermally activated sodium bicarbonate. The sorption ability of the modified sorbent was evaluated by: partial and overall SO2 removal efficiency, conversion rate, normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR. Sodium bicarbonate was mechanically activated by various grinding techniques, using three types of mills: fluid bed opposed jet mill, fine impact mill and electromagnetic mill, differing in grinding technology. Grounded sorbent was thermally activated, what caused a significant development of surface area. During the studies of SO2 sorption, a model gas with a temperature of 300°C, of composition: sulfur dioxide at a concentration of 6292 mg/mn3, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen as a carrier gas, was used. The best development of surface area and the highest SO2 removal efficiency was obtained for the sorbent treated by electromagnetic grinding, with simultaneous high conversion rate.

  9. Epoxidation of Alkenes with Aqueous Hydrogen Peroxide and Quaternary Ammonium Bicarbonate Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Kegnæs, Søren

    2013-01-01

    A range of solid and liquid catalysts containing bicarbonate anions were synthesised and tested for the epoxidation of alkenes with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. The combination of bicarbonate anions and quaternary ammonium cations opens up for new catalytic systems that can help to overcome...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section 862.1160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide...

  11. Is it safe to re-access sodium bicarbonate bottles for use in minor surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornson, Lindsay; Bucevska, Marija; Tilley, Peter; Verchere, Cynthia

    2018-04-06

    Sodium bicarbonate is added to lidocaine to reduce injection pain. In Canada, it is available in vials exceeding the injection volume 100-fold. These are single-use vials that should be disposed of after one access. Some surgeons re-use vials to reduce waste, potentially causing contamination. This study aims to review the safety of sodium bicarbonate and assess alternatives to current practice. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Burkholderia cepacia were used to assess bacterial growth in vials of sodium bicarbonate. Each pathogen was inoculated into a vial for 14 days at room temperature. At several time points, 1 mL of solution was removed and diluted. One hundred microliters were transferred to blood agar plates and incubated at 35 °C. Colony counts were calculated, averaged and plotted onto a logarithmic graph. Colony counts of all strains fell below observational threshold after 7 days in sodium bicarbonate. Although all strains were reduced, bacteria can survive in sodium bicarbonate for several days, during which transmission may occur. Sodium bicarbonate vials should be treated as single-dose, as indicated by the manufacturers. To reduce waste, hospital pharmacies can repackage sodium bicarbonate into smaller vials or pre-alkalize lidocaine with sodium bicarbonate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140 Section 415.140 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS INORGANIC CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate...

  13. Studies on the behavior of plutonium(IV) in alkaline carbonate/bicarbonate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charyulu, M.M.; Satao, K.J.; Sivaramakrishnan, C.K.; Patil, S.K.

    1986-01-01

    Distribution ratios of plutonium(IV) between carbonate/bicarbonate media and strong base anion exchanger Amberlyst A-26 have been measured. Distribution ratio values are much higher in case of bicarbonate medium. The equilibrium was also achieved in a very short period in this medium. These data indicate feasibility of recovery of plutonium from such aqueous media using simple ion exchange method. (author)

  14. In vitro effects of sodium bicarbonate buffer on rumen fermentation, levels of lipopolysaccharide and biogenic amine, and composition of rumen microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shengyong; Huo, Wenjie; Liu, Junhua; Zhang, Ruiyang; Zhu, Weiyun

    2017-03-01

    Diets containing high levels of carbohydrates provoke a rapid decrease of rumen pH and high levels of biogenic amines and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which severely impair the health and performance of ruminants. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium bicarbonate (BC) buffer on rumen fermentation, levels of LPS and biogenic amine, and composition of rumen microbiota using in vitro rumen cultures. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation increased (P < 0.05) the final pH levels and concentrations of total volatile fatty acids and LPS, as well as the proportions of acetate, propionate, isobutyrate, isovalerate and valerate, and it decreased (P < 0.05) the proportion of butyrate and the levels of lactic acid, methylamine, tryptamine, tyramine, histamine and putrescine compared with the control. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed that BC inclusion increased (P < 0.05) the bacterial diversity index compared with the control. Adding BC also decreased (P < 0.05) the relative abundance of Streptococcus and Butyrivibrio and increased (P < 0.05) the proportions of Ruminococcus, Succinivibrio and Prevotella. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation has beneficial effects in the reduction of bioamine levels and the increase in ruminal pH, and in modifying the microbial ecology of the rumen; however, it results in an accumulation of LPS under high-grain diet conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of mortar bars in sulfate solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunther, W., E-mail: Wolfgang.Kunther@empa.ch [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, B. [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Scrivener, K. [EPFL, Laboratory of Construction Materials, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    This work investigates the influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of cementitious material exposed to sulfate ions. Mortars based on a CEM I and on a CEM III/B cement were investigated. Experimental investigations were compared to thermodynamic modeling and phase characterization to understand the differences in deterioration. The presence of bicarbonate ions significantly reduced the expansion of the CEM I mortars. Thermodynamic modeling showed that at high concentrations of bicarbonate ettringite and gypsum become unstable. Microstructural characterization combined with information from thermodynamic modeling suggests that conditions of high supersaturation with respect to ettringite are unlikely in the samples exposed in solutions containing bicarbonate. Consequently, expansive forces are not generated by the crystallization pressure of ettringite. There was little expansion of the CEM III/B sample even in the sodium sulfate solution. In the bicarbonate solution this mortar showed a highly leached zone at the surface in which calcite was observed.

  16. Effect of bicarbonate on biodegradation behaviour of pure magnesium in a simulated body fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zaichun; Song, Guang-Ling; Song, Shizhe

    2014-01-01

    The effect of bicarbonate on biodegradation of pure magnesium in a simulated body fluid is investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that magnesium biodegrades rapidly and non-uniformly during 27 h of immersion in four simulated body fluid solutions containing different concentrations of bicarbonate. The biodegradation rate first decreases and then increases with time. A small amount of bicarbonate in simulated body fluid has an inhibition effect on the Mg dissolution, while an overdose of bicarbonate addition activates the magnesium surface in the simulated body fluid. The interesting phenomena can be interpreted by a surface film model involving precipitation of calcium carbonate and further ionization of bicarbonate in the simulated body fluids, incorporation of calcium, carbonate and phosphate compounds in the surface film, and development of chloride-induced pitting corrosion damage on the magnesium with time

  17. Stimulation of amphibian gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion by sucralfate and aluminium: role of local prostaglandin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, J R; Gibbons, L C; Rees, W D

    1988-01-01

    The present studies were designed to explore the possible mode of protective and ulcer healing actions of sucralfate by examining its effect on gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion by isolated amphibian mucosa. Luminal sucralfate (0.5 g/l) significantly increased bicarbonate secretion by fundic and antral mucosa without influencing transmucosal potential difference. Significant stimulation of duodenal bicarbonate secretion occurred only at 1.0 g/l without change in potential difference. Aluminium, a component of sucralfate, produced similar increases in bicarbonate secretion, while the sucrose and sulphate components were without effect. Pretreatment of mucosae with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin (10 5M) did not abolish the secretory response to sucralfate or aluminium. The results suggest that stimulation of gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion, possibly by the aluminium moiety of sucralfate, may play a role in its protective and ulcer healing actions. PMID:3260886

  18. Influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of mortar bars in sulfate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunther, W.; Lothenbach, B.; Scrivener, K.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of cementitious material exposed to sulfate ions. Mortars based on a CEM I and on a CEM III/B cement were investigated. Experimental investigations were compared to thermodynamic modeling and phase characterization to understand the differences in deterioration. The presence of bicarbonate ions significantly reduced the expansion of the CEM I mortars. Thermodynamic modeling showed that at high concentrations of bicarbonate ettringite and gypsum become unstable. Microstructural characterization combined with information from thermodynamic modeling suggests that conditions of high supersaturation with respect to ettringite are unlikely in the samples exposed in solutions containing bicarbonate. Consequently, expansive forces are not generated by the crystallization pressure of ettringite. There was little expansion of the CEM III/B sample even in the sodium sulfate solution. In the bicarbonate solution this mortar showed a highly leached zone at the surface in which calcite was observed.

  19. The pathophysiology of lifelong premature ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    For many decades it has been thought that lifelong premature ejaculation (PE) is only characterized by persistent early ejaculations. Despite enormous progress of in vivo animal research, and neurobiological, genetic and pharmacological research in men with lifelong PE, our current understanding of the mechanisms behind early ejaculations is far from complete. The new classification of PE into four PE subtypes has shown that the symptomatology of lifelong PE strongly differs from acquired PE, subjective PE and variable PE. The phenotype of lifelong PE and therefore also the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is much more complex. A substantial number of men with lifelong PE not only have PE, but also premature erection and premature penile detumescence as part of an acute hypertonic or hypererotic state when engaged in an erotic situation or when making love. As both erectio praecox, ejaculatio praecox, detumescentia praecox, and the hypererotic state are part of the phenotype lifelong PE, it is argued that lifelong PE is not only a disturbance of the timing of ejaculation but also a disturbance of the timing of erection, detumescence and arousal. Since 1998, the pathophysiology of lifelong PE was thought to be mainly mediated by the central serotonergic system in line with genetic polymorphisms of specific serotonergic genes. However, by accepting that lifelong PE is characterized by the reversible hypertonic state the hypothesis of mainly serotonergic dysfunction is no longer tenable. Instead, it has been postulated that the pathophysiology of lifelong PE is mediated by a very complex interplay of central and peripheral serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocinergic, endocrinological, genetic and probably also epigenetic factors. Progress in research of lifelong PE can only be accomplished when a stopwatch is used to measure the IELT and the cut-off point of 1 minute for the definition of lifelong PE is maintained. Current use of validated questionnaires, neglect of

  20. Diagnosing the pathophysiologic mechanisms of nocturnal polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goessaert, An-Sofie; Krott, Louise; Hoebeke, Piet; Vande Walle, Johan; Everaert, Karel

    2015-02-01

    Diagnosis of nocturnal polyuria (NP) is based on a bladder diary. Addition of a renal function profile (RFP) for analysis of concentrating and solute-conserving capacity allows differentiation of NP pathophysiology and could facilitate individualized treatment. To map circadian rhythms of water and solute diuresis by comparing participants with and without NP. This prospective observational study was carried out in Ghent University Hospital between 2011 and 2013. Participants with and without NP completed a 72-h bladder dairy. RFP, free water clearance (FWC), and creatinine, solute, sodium, and urea clearance were measured for all participants. The study participants were divided into those with (n=77) and those without (n=35) NP. The mean age was 57 yr (SD 16 yr) and 41% of the participants were female. Compared to participants without NP, the NP group exhibited a higher diuresis rate throughout the night (p=0.015); higher FWC (p=0.013) and lower osmolality (p=0.030) at the start of the night; and persistently higher sodium clearance during the night (p<0.001). The pathophysiologic mechanism of NP was identified as water diuresis alone in 22%, sodium diuresis alone in 19%, and a combination of water and sodium diuresis in 47% of the NP group. RFP measurement in first-line NP screening to discriminate between water and solute diuresis as pathophysiologic mechanisms complements the bladder diary and could facilitate optimal individualized treatment of patients with NP. We evaluated eight urine samples collected over 24h to detect the underlying problem in NP. We found that NP can be attributed to water or sodium diuresis or a combination of both. This urinalysis can be used to adapt treatment according to the underlying mechanism in patients with bothersome consequences of NP, such as nocturia and urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Pathophysiology of osteoporosis: new mechanistic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Laura A G; Recker, Robert R

    2012-09-01

    Understanding of the pathophysiology of osteoporosis has evolved to include compromised bone strength and skeletal fragility caused by several factors: (1) defects in microarchitecture of trabeculae, (2) defective intrinsic material properties of bone tissue, (3) defective repair of microdamage from normal daily activities, and (4) excessive bone remodeling rates. These factors occur in the context of age-related bone loss. Clinical studies of estrogen deprivation, antiresorptives, mechanical loading, and disuse have helped further knowledge of the factors affecting bone quality and the mechanisms that underlie them. This progress has led to several new drug targets in the treatment of osteoporosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pathophysiology of the anorexia of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, John E

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia represents a major problem for older persons leading to weight loss, sarcopenia, functional decline, and mortality. There is increasing information on the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to anorexia. Increasing evidence has shown the importance of gastrointestinal hormones (ghrelin, cholecystokinin, and glucagon-like peptide) and adipokines in producing the anorexia of aging. Numerous neurotransmitters have been shown to be involved in this aging anorexia, but evidence in humans is lacking. The early recognition of anorexia of aging is important to allow intervention and prevent functional deterioration in older persons. Screening tests for anorexia have been developed. New approaches to managing anorexia are being tested.

  3. Sepsis: Current Definition, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeb, Abdalsamih M; Hooper, Michael H; Marik, Paul E

    2017-06-01

    Sepsis is a clinical syndrome that results from the dysregulated inflammatory response to infection that leads to organ dysfunction. The resulting losses to society in terms of financial burden, morbidity, and mortality are enormous. We provide a review of sepsis, its underlying pathophysiology, and guidance for diagnosis and management of this common disease. Current established treatments include appropriate antimicrobial agents to target the underlying infection, optimization of intravascular volume to improve stroke volume, vasopressors to counteract vasoplegic shock, and high-quality supportive care. Appropriate implementation of established treatments combined with novel therapeutic approaches promises to continue to decrease the impact of this disease.

  4. 95th Anniversary of Pathophysiology in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovač, Zdenko

    2017-12-01

    University level of Pathophysiology research and teaching in Croatia had started with the third year of Medical School of Zagreb in academic year 1919./20. Ever since, despite historical changes of the main university stake holder, the state of Croatia, Department of Pathophysiology development progressed and has made visible academic achievements, with a broader effect in medical community. The first 95 years of academic tradition and major achievements are shortly described in this paper. Professor Miroslav Mikuličić envisioned Pathophysiology in close relations with Pharmacology and made the pioneering steps of establishing the "double" department at Šalata. His group was academically very pro-active, with strong international scientific participation and recruitment of professionals. The group published the first voluminous textbook of Pharmacology and Pathophysiology, in Croatian. In fifties, professor Pavao Sokolić established clinical pathophysiology within the Hospital Centre at Rebro. Out of "double" department two new departments were founded, the Pathophysiology one was completed with the clinical ward. That institutional move from Šalata hill to the Rebro hill was a necessary gigantic step and a prerequisite for the proper further development. It was in accordance with the concept of the Mikuličić's program of Pathophysiology from 1917. Pavao Sokolić has been remembered for his visions, deep insights into etiopathogenesis, ability to transfer knowledge and friendly relations to students. Sharp intellectual power, emanating charisma, academic erudition and unique clinical competencies made the legendary image of the "Teacher" - as students used to refer to him with admiration. He was second to no one when complex patient issues were to be resolved. Clinical Hospital Centre Zagreb and his Department at Rebro have become a referral point to whom to go to despair. Students recognized in their Teacher the landmark of Croatian medicine, which made a

  5. Lafora disease: epidemiology, pathophysiology and management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Monaghan, Thomas S

    2010-07-01

    Lafora disease is a rare, fatal, autosomal recessive, progressive myoclonic epilepsy. It may also be considered as a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism because of the formation of polyglucosan inclusion bodies in neural and other tissues due to abnormalities of the proteins laforin or malin. The condition is characterized by epilepsy, myoclonus and dementia. Diagnostic findings on MRI and neurophysiological testing are not definitive and biopsy or genetic studies may be required. Therapy in Lafora disease is currently limited to symptomatic management of the epilepsy, myoclonus and intercurrent complications. With a greater understanding of the pathophysiological processes involved, there is justified hope for future therapies.

  6. Pathophysiology of muscle contractures in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, Margie A; Lieber, Richard L

    2015-02-01

    Patients with cerebral palsy present with a variety of adaptations to muscle structure and function. These pathophysiologic symptoms include functional deficits such as decreased force production and range of motion, in addition to changes in muscle structure such as decreased muscle belly size, increased sarcomere length, and altered extracellular matrix structure and composition. On a cellular level, patients with cerebral palsy have fewer muscle stem cells, termed satellite cells, and altered gene expression. Understanding the nature of these changes may present opportunities for the development of new muscle treatment therapies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Discrete Pathophysiology is Uncommon in Patients with Nonspecific Arm Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortlever, Joost T P; Janssen, Stein J; Molleman, Jeroen; Hageman, Michiel G J S; Ring, David

    2016-06-01

    Nonspecific symptoms are common in all areas of medicine. Patients and caregivers can be frustrated when an illness cannot be reduced to a discrete pathophysiological process that corresponds with the symptoms. We therefore asked the following questions: 1) Which demographic factors and psychological comorbidities are associated with change from an initial diagnosis of nonspecific arm pain to eventual identification of discrete pathophysiology that corresponds with symptoms? 2) What is the percentage of patients eventually diagnosed with discrete pathophysiology, what are those pathologies, and do they account for the symptoms? We evaluated 634 patients with an isolated diagnosis of nonspecific upper extremity pain to see if discrete pathophysiology was diagnosed on subsequent visits to the same hand surgeon, a different hand surgeon, or any physician within our health system for the same pain. There were too few patients with discrete pathophysiology at follow-up to address the primary study question. Definite discrete pathophysiology that corresponded with the symptoms was identified in subsequent evaluations by the index surgeon in one patient (0.16% of all patients) and cured with surgery (nodular fasciitis). Subsequent doctors identified possible discrete pathophysiology in one patient and speculative pathophysiology in four patients and the index surgeon identified possible discrete pathophysiology in four patients, but the five discrete diagnoses accounted for only a fraction of the symptoms. Nonspecific diagnoses are not harmful. Prospective randomized research is merited to determine if nonspecific, descriptive diagnoses are better for patients than specific diagnoses that imply pathophysiology in the absence of discrete verifiable pathophysiology.

  8. Anodic behavior of nickel alloys in media containing bicarbonate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadorozne, N.S; Carranza, R. M.; Giordano, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Alloy 22 has been designed to resist corrosion in oxidizing and reducing conditions. Thanks to these properties it is considered a possible candidate for the fabrication of containers of high-level radioactive waste. Since the containers provide services in natural environments characterized by multi-ionic solutions, it is estimated they could suffer three types of deterioration: general corrosion, localized corrosion (specifically crevice corrosion) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC). It has been confirmed that the presence of bicarbonate and chloride ions is required in order to produce cracking. It has also been determined that the susceptibility to SCC could be related to the occurrence of an anodic peak in the polarization curves in these media potentials below trans-passivity. The aim of this work is to study the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in different media containing bicarbonate and chloride ions in various concentrations and temperatures and compare the results with other alloys containing nickel, and relate them to the susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking in a future job. Polarization curves were made on alloy 22 (Ni-Cr-Mo), 600 (Ni- Cr-Fe), 800h (Ni-Fe- Cr) and 201 (Ni commercially pure) in the following environments: 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 , 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 + 1 mol/L NaCl, 1.148 mol/L NaHCO 3 + 0.1 mol/L NaCl. The tests were performed at the following temperatures: 90°C, 75°C, 60°C and 25°C. It was found that alloy 22 has a current peak in the anodic domain at potentials below trans-passivity between 200 and 300 m VECS, when the test temperature was 90°C. The potential, at which this peak occurred, increased with decreasing temperature. Also there was a variation of the peak with the composition of the solution. When bicarbonate ions were added to a solution containing chloride ions, the peak potential shifted to higher current densities, depending on the concentration of added chloride ions. It was found that diminishing the content of

  9. Pathophysiology of white-nose syndrome in bats: a mechanistic model linking wing damage to mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnecke, Lisa; Turner, James M; Bollinger, Trent K; Misra, Vikram; Cryan, Paul M; Blehert, David S; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Willis, Craig K R

    2013-08-23

    White-nose syndrome is devastating North American bat populations but we lack basic information on disease mechanisms. Altered blood physiology owing to epidermal invasion by the fungal pathogen Geomyces destructans (Gd) has been hypothesized as a cause of disrupted torpor patterns of affected hibernating bats, leading to mortality. Here, we present data on blood electrolyte concentration, haematology and acid-base balance of hibernating little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus, following experimental inoculation with Gd. Compared with controls, infected bats showed electrolyte depletion (i.e. lower plasma sodium), changes in haematology (i.e. increased haematocrit and decreased glucose) and disrupted acid-base balance (i.e. lower CO2 partial pressure and bicarbonate). These findings indicate hypotonic dehydration, hypovolaemia and metabolic acidosis. We propose a mechanistic model linking tissue damage to altered homeostasis and morbidity/mortality.

  10. Human Pathophysiological Adaptations to the Space Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian C. Demontis

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Space is an extreme environment for the human body, where during long-term missions microgravity and high radiation levels represent major threats to crew health. Intriguingly, space flight (SF imposes on the body of highly selected, well-trained, and healthy individuals (astronauts and cosmonauts pathophysiological adaptive changes akin to an accelerated aging process and to some diseases. Such effects, becoming manifest over a time span of weeks (i.e., cardiovascular deconditioning to months (i.e., loss of bone density and muscle atrophy of exposure to weightlessness, can be reduced through proper countermeasures during SF and in due time are mostly reversible after landing. Based on these considerations, it is increasingly accepted that SF might provide a mechanistic insight into certain pathophysiological processes, a concept of interest to pre-nosological medicine. In this article, we will review the main stress factors encountered in space and their impact on the human body and will also discuss the possible lessons learned with space exploration in reference to human health on Earth. In fact, this is a productive, cross-fertilized, endeavor in which studies performed on Earth yield countermeasures for protection of space crew health, and space research is translated into health measures for Earth-bound population.

  11. Pathophysiology and management of pediatric ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Mahmoud; Saps, Miguel; Peters, John M

    2003-06-01

    Ascites accumulation is the product of a complex process involving hepatic, renal, systemic, hemodynamic, and neurohormonal factors. The main pathophysiologic theories of ascites formation include the "underfill," "overflow," and peripheral arterial vasodilation hypotheses. These theories are not necessarily mutually exclusive and are linked at some level by a common pathophysiologic thread: The body senses a decreased effective arterial blood volume, leading to stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, arginine-vasopressin feedback loops, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Cornerstones of ascites management include dietary sodium restriction and diuretics. Spironolactone is generally tried initially, with furosemide added if clinical response is suboptimal. More refractory patients require large-volume paracentesis (LVP) accompanied by volume expansion with albumin. Placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt is reserved for individuals with compensated liver function who require very frequent sessions of LVP. Peritoneovenous shunts are not used in contemporary ascites management. Liver transplantation remains the definitive therapy for refractory ascites. Although treatment of ascites fails to improve survival, it benefits quality of life and limits the development of such complications as spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.

  12. [Current concepts in pathophysiology of CRPS I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, F T; Maihöfner, C

    2010-02-01

    Knowledge about the pathophysiology underlying the complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) has increased over the last years. Classically, CRPS has been considered to be mainly driven by sympathetic dysfunction with sympathetically maintained pain being its major pathogenetic mechanism. Currently, the disease is understood as result of a complex interplay between altered somatosensory, motor, autonomic and inflammatory systems. Peripheral and central sensitization is a common feature in CRPS as in other neuropathic pain syndromes. One important mechanism is the sensitization of spinal dorsal horn cells via activation of postsynaptic NMDA-receptors by chronic C-fiber input. Differential activity of endogenous pain modulating systems may play a pivotal role in the development of CRPS, too. Neuronal plasticity of the somatosensory cortex accounts for central sensory signs. Also the motor system is subject to central adaptive changes in patients with CRPS. Calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) and substance P mediate neurogenic inflammation. Additionally other proinflammatory cytokines involved in the inflammatory response in CRPS have been identified. In terms of the sympathetic nervous system, recent evidence rather points to a sensitization of adrenergic receptors than to increased efferent sympathetic activity. Particularly the expression of alpha (1)-adrenoceptors on nociceptive C-fibers may play a major role. These pathophysiological ideas do not exclude each other. In fact they complement one another. The variety of the involved systems may explain the versatile clinical picture of CRPS. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  13. Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of Pneumococcal Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook-Kanamori, Barry B.; Geldhoff, Madelijn; van der Poll, Tom; van de Beek, Diederik

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Pneumococcal meningitis continues to be associated with high rates of mortality and long-term neurological sequelae. The most common route of infection starts by nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae, which must avoid mucosal entrapment and evade the host immune system after local activation. During invasive disease, pneumococcal epithelial adhesion is followed by bloodstream invasion and activation of the complement and coagulation systems. The release of inflammatory mediators facilitates pneumococcal crossing of the blood-brain barrier into the brain, where the bacteria multiply freely and trigger activation of circulating antigen-presenting cells and resident microglial cells. The resulting massive inflammation leads to further neutrophil recruitment and inflammation, resulting in the well-known features of bacterial meningitis, including cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis, cochlear damage, cerebral edema, hydrocephalus, and cerebrovascular complications. Experimental animal models continue to further our understanding of the pathophysiology of pneumococcal meningitis and provide the platform for the development of new adjuvant treatments and antimicrobial therapy. This review discusses the most recent views on the pathophysiology of pneumococcal meningitis, as well as potential targets for (adjunctive) therapy. PMID:21734248

  14. Pathophysiology and Treatment of Alien Hand Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini Sarva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Alien hand syndrome (AHS is a disorder of involuntary, yet purposeful, hand movements that may be accompanied by agnosia, aphasia, weakness, or sensory loss. We herein review the most reported cases, current understanding of the pathophysiology, and treatments.Methods: We performed a PubMed search in July of 2014 using the phrases “alien hand syndrome,” “alien hand syndrome pathophysiology,” “alien hand syndrome treatment,” and “anarchic hand syndrome.” The search yielded 141 papers (reviews, case reports, case series, and clinical studies, of which we reviewed 109. Non‐English reports without English abstracts were excluded.Results: Accumulating evidence indicates that there are three AHS variants: frontal, callosal, and posterior. Patients may demonstrate symptoms of multiple types; there is a lack of correlation between phenomenology and neuroimaging findings. Most pathologic and functional imaging studies suggest network disruption causing loss of inhibition as the likely cause. Successful interventions include botulinum toxin injections, clonazepam, visuospatial coaching techniques, distracting the affected hand, and cognitive behavioral therapy.Discussion: The available literature suggests that overlap between AHS subtypes is common. The evidence for effective treatments remains anecdotal, and, given the rarity of AHS, the possibility of performing randomized, placebo‐controlled trials seems unlikely. As with many other interventions for movement disorders, identifying the specific functional impairments caused by AHS may provide the best guidance towards individualized supportive care.

  15. Pathophysiology of Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Starobova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced neuropathy is a common, dose-dependent adverse effect of several antineoplastics. It can lead to detrimental dose reductions and discontinuation of treatment, and severely affects the quality of life of cancer survivors. Clinically, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy presents as deficits in sensory, motor, and autonomic function which develop in a glove and stocking distribution due to preferential effects on longer axons. The pathophysiological processes are multi-factorial and involve oxidative stress, apoptotic mechanisms, altered calcium homeostasis, axon degeneration and membrane remodeling as well as immune processes and neuroinflammation. This review focusses on the commonly used antineoplastic substances oxaliplatin, cisplatin, vincristine, docetaxel, and paclitaxel which interfere with the cancer cell cycle—leading to cell death and tumor degradation—and cause severe acute and chronic peripheral neuropathies. We discuss drug mechanism of action and pharmacokinetic disposition relevant to the development of peripheral neuropathy, the epidemiology and clinical presentation of chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, emerging insight into genetic susceptibilities as well as current understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment approaches.

  16. Comparison of lactate and bicarbonate buffered haemofiltration fluids: use in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A N; Guy, J M; Kishen, R; Geraghty, I F; Bowles, B J; Vadgama, P

    1997-06-01

    To compare acid-base balance, lactate concentration, and haemodynamic and O2 transport variables during haemofiltration with replacement fluid containing 44.5 mmol/l Na+ lactate or 40 mmol/l Na+ HCO3- and 3 mmol/l lactic acid. A prospective, randomized trial. A multidisciplinary, adult intensive care unit in a university hospital. Forty acidotic patients who required haemofiltration, were dependent on mechanical ventilation, and had PA catheters in situ. During haemofiltration patients received lactate or bicarbonate replacement fluid at a mean rate of 1.7 l/h (SD 0.3). Arterial blood gases, plasma lactate, and haemodynamic and O2 transport variables were measured before and after 12 and 24 h haemofiltration. Ultrafiltrate was collected for lactate estimation. As means (SD). The net gain of lactate was 63 mmol/h (12 mmol) with Na+ lactate and 0 mmol/h (0.3 mmol) with Na+ HCO3-. There was a significant increase in pH and [lactate] in both groups, but [lactate] was higher in patients receiving lactate. Twenty-one patients survived to ICU discharge, these patients were significantly less acidotic after filtration (lactate group: 0 h: pH 7.23 (0.09), [lactate] 2.4 mmol/l (1.7); 12 h: pH 7.34 (0.09), [lactate] 4.7 mmol/l (2.4); 24 h: pH 7.36 (0.07), [lactate] 4.7 mmol (2.7). HCO3 group: 0 h: pH 7.23 (0.09), [lactate] 2.3 (1.3); 12 h: pH 7.32 (0.06), [lactate] 2.9 mmol/l (1.8); 24 h: pH 7.35 (0.08), [lactate] 2.8 mmol/l (2.0). Base deficit: survivors: 0 h: 9 mmol/l (4); 12 h: 2 mmol/l (3). Non-survivors: 0 h: 10 mmol/l (3); 12 h: 6 mmol/l (3)). Haemodynamic and O2 transport variables were not significantly affected by treatment group or outcome. The degree of correction of acidosis during the first 24 h of haemofiltration was determined by patients outcome but was not affected by the substitution of bicarbonate- for lactate-containing replacement fluids.

  17. Bicarbonate modulates oxidative and functional damage in ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queliconi, Bruno B; Marazzi, Thire B M; Vaz, Sandra M; Brookes, Paul S; Nehrke, Keith; Augusto, Ohara; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2013-02-01

    The carbon dioxide/bicarbonate (CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)) pair is the main biological pH buffer. However, its influence on biological processes, and in particular redox processes, is still poorly explored. Here we study the effect of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) on ischemic injury in three distinct models (cardiac HL-1 cells, perfused rat heart, and Caenorhabditis elegans). We found that, although various concentrations of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) do not affect function under basal conditions, ischemia-reperfusion or similar insults in the presence of higher CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) resulted in greater functional loss associated with higher oxidative damage in all models. Because the effect of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) was observed in all models tested, we believe this buffer is an important determinant of oxidative damage after ischemia-reperfusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 2000-m rowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Ruth M; Harris, Roger C; Martin, Dan; Smith, Perry; Macklin, Ben; Elliott-Sale, Kirsty J; Sale, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The ability to buffer H+ could be vital to exercise performance, as high concentrations of H+ contribute to the development of fatigue. The authors examined the effect of sodium bicarbonate (SB) supplementation on 2000-m rowing-ergometer performance. Twenty male rowers (age 23 ± 4 y, height 1.85 ± 0.08 m, mass 82.5 ± 8.9 kg, 2000-m personal-best time 409 ± 16 s) completed two 2000-m rowing-ergometer time trials, separated by 48 h. Participants were supplemented before exercise with 0.3 g/kg body mass of SB or a placebo (maltodextrin; PLA). The trials were conducted using a double-blinded, randomized, counterbalanced crossover study design. Time to complete the 2000-m and time taken for each 500-m split were recorded. Blood lactate, bicarbonate, pH, and base excess were determined preexercise, immediately postexercise, and 5 min postexercise. Performance data were analyzed using paired t tests, as well as magnitude-based inferences; hematological data were analyzed using a repeated-measures ANOVA. Using paired t tests, there was no benefit of SB over PLA (P = .095). However, using magnitude-based inferences there was a likely beneficial effect of SB compared with PLA (PLA 412.0 ± 15.1 s, SB 410.7 ± 14.9 s). Furthermore, SB was 0.5 ± 1.2 s faster than PLA in the third 500 m (P = .035; possibly beneficial) and 1.1 ± 1.7 s faster in the fourth 500 m (P = .004; very likely beneficial). All hematological data were different between SB and PLA and were different from preexercise to postexercise. SB supplementation is likely to be beneficial to the performance of those competing in 2000-m rowing events, particularly in the second half of the event.

  19. Comparison of CO(2) and bicarbonate as inorganic carbon sources for triacylglycerol and starch accumulation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Robert D; Lohman, Egan; Gerlach, Robin; Cooksey, Keith E; Peyton, Brent M

    2013-01-01

    Microalgae are capable of accumulating high levels of lipids and starch as carbon storage compounds. Investigation into the metabolic activities involved in the synthesis of these compounds has escalated since these compounds can be used as precursors for food and fuel. Here, we detail the results of a comprehensive analysis of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using high or low inorganic carbon concentrations and speciation between carbon dioxide and bicarbonate, and the effects these have on inducing lipid and starch accumulation during nitrogen depletion. High concentrations of CO(2) (5%; v/v) produced the highest amount of biofuel precursors, transesterified to fatty acid methyl esters, but exhibited rapid accumulation and degradation characteristics. Low CO(2) (0.04%; v/v) caused carbon limitation and minimized triacylglycerol (TAG) and starch accumulation. High bicarbonate caused a cessation of cell cycling and accumulation of both TAG and starch that was more stable than the other experimental conditions. Starch accumulated prior to TAG and then degraded as maximum TAG was reached. This suggests carbon reallocation from starch-based to TAG-based carbon storage. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effects of some organic materials on bicarbonate extractable phosphate content of soils having different pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutullah Özdemir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of rice husk compost (RC, town waste compost (TW and tobacco waste (TB on bicarbonate extractable phosphate content (P in soils having different pH levels under greenhouse conditions. Soil samples used in this study were taken from surfaces (0-20 cm of agricultural fields around Samsun, Northern Anatolia. The experiment was conducted according to split plot design with four doses of organic matterials (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5, %. After a month of mixing organic matterials into soils, lettuce were grown in the medias. According to the results, RC, TW and TB applications into acidic (Tepecik, neutral (Kampüs and alkaline (Çetinkaya soils increased extractable P content. It was observed that effectiveness of organic matterials changed depend on soil reaction, type and dose of organic matterials. All organic wastes were more effective on increment of bicarbonate extractable phosphate content in neutral soil pH when compared the other soil pH levels.

  1. Efficacy of omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate treatment in gastroesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera-de-la-Tijera, Fátima

    2018-03-14

    Proton pump inhibitors are the most effective medical therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease, but their onset of action may be slow. To assess the available literature regarding the efficacy of omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate in gastroesophageal reflux patients. A systematic review was conducted. A systematic literature search starting from 2000. Reviewed manuscripts concerning the effectiveness of omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate treatment in gastroesophageal reflux disease were reviewed and the data were extracted. Data were subsequently analyzed with descriptive statistics. This review included information of four studies. Two trials compared the efficacy of omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate versus omeprazole. One study compared the efficacy of once-daily morning or nighttime dosing. And another study compared omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate/alginate versus omeprazole. In total, there was no difference between omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate and omeprazole. However, there is a trend towards more sustained response and a greater proportion of patients with sustained total relief by 30 minutes with omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate. Omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate therapy is not more effective than omeprazole in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, data obtained suggest that it can have a more sustained response and sustained total relief.

  2. History of Medical Understanding and Misunderstanding of Acid Base Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Christopher Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-01-01

    To establish how controversies in understanding acid base balance arose, the literature on acid base balance was reviewed from 1909, when Henderson described how the neutral reaction of blood is determined by carbonic and organic acids being in equilibrium with an excess of mineral bases over mineral acids. From 1914 to 1930, Van Slyke and others established our acid base principles. They recognised that carbonic acid converts into bicarbonate all non-volatile mineral bases not bound by mineral acids and determined therefore that bicarbonate represents the alkaline reserve of the body and should be a physiological constant. They showed that standard bicarbonate is a good measure of acidosis caused by increased production or decreased elimination of organic acids. However, they recognised that bicarbonate improved low plasma bicarbonate but not high urine acid excretion in diabetic ketoacidosis, and that increasing pCO2 caused chloride to shift into cells raising plasma titratable alkali. Both indicate that minerals influence pH. In 1945 Darrow showed that hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis in preterm infants fed milk with 5.7 mmol of chloride and 2.0 mmol of sodium per 100 kcal was caused by retention of chloride in excess of sodium. Similar findings were made but not recognised in later studies of metabolic acidosis in preterm infants. Shohl in 1921 and Kildeberg in 1978 presented the theory that carbonic and organic acids are neutralised by mineral base, where mineral base is the excess of mineral cations over anions and organic acid is the difference between mineral base, bicarbonate and protein anion. The degree of metabolic acidosis measured as base excess is determined by deviation in both mineral base and organic acid from normal. PMID:24179938

  3. Nondopaminergic neurotransmission in the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardi, Patrick T; Nespoli, Ester; Rizzo, Francesca; Hengerer, Bastian; Ludolph, Andrea G

    2013-01-01

    A major pathophysiological role for the dopaminergic system in Tourette's syndrome (TS) has been presumed ever since the discovery that dopamine-receptor antagonists can alleviate tics. Especially recent molecular genetic studies, functional imaging studies, and some rare postmortem studies have given more and more hints that other neurotransmitter systems are involved as well. Dysfunction in the dopamine metabolism-in particular during early development-might lead to counter-regulations in the other systems or vice versa. This chapter will give an overview of the studies that prove the involvement of other neurotransmitter systems such as the major monoaminergic neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and histamine; the most important excitatory neurotransmitter, the amino acid glutamate; the major inhibitory neurotransmitter y-aminobutyric acid, as well as acetylcholine, endocannabinoid, corticoid; and others. These studies will hopefully lead to fundamental advances in the psychopharmacological treatment of TS. While tic disorders have been previously treated mainly with dopamine antagonists, some authors already favor alpha-agonists. Clinical trials with glutamate agonists and antagonists and compounds influencing the histaminergic system are currently being conducted. Since the different neurotransmitter systems consist of several receptor subtypes which might mediate different effects on locomotor activity, patients with TS may respond differentially to selective agonists or antagonists. Effects of agonistic or antagonistic compounds on tic symptoms might also be dose dependent. Further studies will lead to a broader spectrum of psychopharmacological treatment options in TS. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pathophysiology of Manganese-Associated Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Brad A.; Aschner, Michael; Guilarte, Tomas R.; Dydak, Ulrike; Criswell, Susan R.; Zheng, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Conference Summary Manganese (Mn) is a well established neurotoxin associated with specific damage to the basal ganglia in humans. The phenotype associated with Mn neurotoxicity was first described in two workers with occupational exposure to Mn oxide.(Couper, 1837) Although the description did not use modern clinical terminology, a parkinsonian illness characterized by slowness of movement (bradykinesia), masked facies, and gait impairment (postural instability) appears to have predominated. Nearly 100 years later an outbreak of an atypical parkinsonian illness in a Chilean Mn mine provided a phenotypic description of a fulminant neurologic disorder with parkinsonism, dystonia, and neuropsychiatric symptoms.(Rodier J, 1955) Exposures associated with this syndrome were massive and an order of magnitude greater than modern exposures.(Rodier J, 1955; Hobson et al., 2011) The clinical syndrome associated with Mn neurotoxicity has been called manganism. Modern exposures to Mn occur primarily through occupations in the steel industry and welding. These exposures are often chronic and varied, occurring over decades in the healthy workforce. Although the severe neurologic disorder described by Rodier and Couper are no longer seen, several reports have suggested a possible increased risk of neurotoxicity in these workers.(Racette et al., 2005b; Bowler et al., 2007; Harris et al., 2011) Based upon limited prior imaging and pathologic investigations into the pathophysiology of neurotoxicity in Mn exposed workers,(Huang et al., 2003) many investigators have concluded that the syndrome spares the dopamine system distinguishing manganism from Parkinson disease (PD), the most common cause of parkinsonism in the general population, and a disease with characteristic degenerative changes in the dopaminergic system.(Jankovic, 2005) The purpose of this symposium was to highlight recent advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of Mn associated neurotoxicity from C. elegans

  5. Characterization of bicarbonate-dependent potassium uptake in cultured corneal endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savion, N.; Farzame, N.; Berlin, H.B.

    1989-01-01

    Bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) cells in culture demonstrated 86Rb+ uptake which was mostly ouabain-sensitive with some (15 to 50%) ouabain-insensitive uptake that was dependent on the presence of bicarbonate in the incubation medium. Bovine smooth muscle (SM) cells demonstrated ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake but the ouabain-insensitive 86Rb+ uptake was not bicarbonate-dependent. Although omission of bicarbonate from the incubation buffer resulted in some reduction in the pH, this change was not responsible for the reduction in the ouabain-insensitive 86Rb+ uptake. Furthermore, the removal of bicarbonate decreased the 86Rb+ influx but not its efflux. This ouabain-insensitive and bicarbonate-dependent 86Rb+ influx in BCE cells proceeded at a linear rate for at least 60 min and increased as a function of bicarbonate concentration such that almost maximal uptake was observed at a concentration of about 10 to 15 mM. Saturation of the bicarbonate-dependent 86Rb+ pump in BCE cells occurred at a concentration of 2 mM Rb+ in the incubation buffer, similar to the previously observed value for the Na+, K+-ATPase. Competition experiments with both unlabeled Rb+ and K+ demonstrated that likewise in the Na+, K+-ATPase the 86Rb+ influx represented physiological influx of K+. Furthermore, the energy requirements of the bicarbonate-dependent 86Rb+ uptake were similar to those of the 86Rb+ uptake via the Na+, K+-ATPase. The results described in this work demonstrated a novel bicarbonate-dependent K+ pump in addition to the Na+, K+-ATPase pump.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Bicarbonate Impact on U(VI) Bioreduction in a Shallow Alluvial Aquifer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.; Berman, Elena S.; Gupta, Manish; Chandler, Darrell P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Giloteaux, L.; Handley, Kim M.; Lovley, Derek R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-02-01

    Field-scale biostimulation and desorption tracer experiments conducted in a uranium (U) contaminated, shallow alluvial aquifer have provided insight into the coupling of microbiology, biogeochemistry, and hydrogeology that control U mobility in the subsurface. Initial experiments successfully tested the concept that Fe-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter sp. could enzymatically reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) during in situ electron donor amendment (Anderson et al. 2003, Williams et al. 2011). In parallel, in situ desorption tracer tests using bicarbonate amendment demonstrated rate-limited U(VI) desorption (Fox et al. 2012). These results and prior laboratory studies underscored the importance of enzymatic U(VI)-reduction and suggested the ability to combine desorption and bioreduction of U(VI). Here we report the results of a new field experiment in which bicarbonate-promoted uranium desorption and acetate amendment were combined and compared to an acetate amendment-only experiment in the same experimental plot. Results confirm that bicarbonate amendment to alluvial aquifer desorbs U(VI) and increases the abundance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato complexes. At the same time, that the rate of acetate-promoted enzymatic U(VI) reduction was greater in the presence of added bicarbonate in spite of the increased dominance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato aqueous complexes. A model-simulated peak rate of U(VI) reduction was ~3.8 times higher during acetate-bicarbonate treatment than under acetate-only conditions. Lack of consistent differences in microbial community structure between acetate-bicarbonate and acetate-only treatments suggest that a significantly higher rate of U(VI) reduction the bicarbonate-impacted sediment may be due to a higher intrinsic rate of microbial reduction induced by elevated concentrations of the bicarbonate oxyanion. The findings indicate that bicarbonate amendment may be useful in improving the engineered bioremediation of uranium in aquifers.

  7. Association of serum bicarbonate levels with mortality in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovesdy, Csaba P.; Anderson, John E.; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2009-01-01

    Background. Metabolic acidosis, usually manifested by low serum bicarbonate level, is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and appears to be associated with higher mortality in dialysis patients. It is not known whether a similar association is present in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD (NDD-CKD). Methods. We used multivariable-adjusted Cox models to examine the association between baseline and time-variable serum bicarbonate (measured as total CO2) with the outcomes of all-cause mortality and the composite of pre-dialysis mortality or end-stage renal disease in 1240 male patients with moderate and advanced NDD-CKD. Results. Serum bicarbonate showed a significant U-shaped association with all-cause mortality, with the highest mortality rate observed in patients with baseline serum bicarbonate levels <22 mmol/L [multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) for patients with serum bicarbonate <22 mmol/L versus ≥22 mmol/L: 1.33 (1.05–1.69), P = 0.02] and the lowest mortality observed in patients with baseline serum bicarbonate of 26–29 mmol/L. The associations between lower serum bicarbonate level and mortality were more accentuated in subgroups of patients with better nutritional status and lower inflammation. Conclusions. Both lower and higher serum bicarbonates are associated with increased all-cause mortality in patients with moderate and advanced NDD-CKD. Clinical trials are needed to determine if therapeutic interventions aimed at optimizing serum bicarbonate can result in improved outcomes in this population. PMID:19015169

  8. Bicarbonate impact on U(VI) bioreduction in a shallow alluvial aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish; Chandler, Darrell P.; Murray, Chris; Peacock, Aaron D.; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Handley, Kim M.; Lovley, Derek R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-02-01

    Field-scale biostimulation and desorption tracer experiments conducted in a uranium (U) contaminated, shallow alluvial aquifer have provided insight into the coupling of microbiology, biogeochemistry, and hydrogeology that control U mobility in the subsurface. Initial experiments successfully tested the concept that Fe-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter sp. could enzymatically reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) during in situ electron donor amendment (Anderson et al., 2003; Williams et al., 2011). In parallel, in situ desorption tracer tests using bicarbonate amendment demonstrated rate-limited U(VI) desorption (Fox et al., 2012). These results and prior laboratory studies underscored the importance of enzymatic U(VI)-reduction and suggested the ability to combine desorption and bioreduction of U(VI). Here we report the results of a new field experiment in which bicarbonate-promoted uranium desorption and acetate amendment were combined and compared to an acetate amendment-only experiment in the same experimental plot. Results confirm that bicarbonate amendment to alluvial aquifer sediments desorbs U(VI) and increases the abundance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato complexes. At the same time, the rate of acetate-promoted enzymatic U(VI) reduction was greater in the presence of added bicarbonate in spite of the increased dominance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato aqueous complexes. A model-simulated peak rate of U(VI) reduction was ∼3.8 times higher during acetate-bicarbonate treatment than under acetate-only conditions. Lack of consistent differences in microbial community structure between acetate-bicarbonate and acetate-only treatments suggest that a significantly higher rate of U(VI) reduction in the bicarbonate-impacted sediment may be due to a higher intrinsic rate of microbial reduction induced by elevated concentrations of the bicarbonate oxyanion. The findings indicate that bicarbonate amendment may be useful in improving the engineered bioremediation of uranium in

  9. Relationship between bicarbonate ion, pH, and /sup 59/Fe uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falade, J A

    1972-01-01

    Iron absorption by barley, pea, and runner bean is stimulated by bicarbonate but inhibited by increasing pH. Bicarbonate stimulates translocation of Fe in barley but inhibits it in pea and bean. Increasing pH stimulates translocation in barley and pea with no effect in bean. The presence of other ions in the external solution appears to inhibit absorption but enhances translocation of Fe in bean and pea. It is concluded that whether or not bicarbonate will induce chlorosis in a plant depends on species and variety.

  10. Reduction of neptunium(V) and uranium(VI) in bicarbonate solutions by iron(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogolev, A.V.; Zakharova, E.V.; Rodygina, N.I.; Fedoseev, A.M.; Shilov, V.P.

    2006-01-01

    Interaction of Np(VI) and Fe(II) compounds in bicarbonate solutions is investigated. Interaction of Np(V) with Fe(II) in the presence of phthalate-ions is studied briefly. Fe(II) compounds reduce Np(V) compounds in saturated with Ar or CO 2 solutions with any bicarbonate-ion concentrations. Chemical reaction kinetics is studied. Reduction of U(VI) by Fe(II) compounds takes place in the case of diluted bicarbonate solutions. UO 2 and FeOOH are products of reaction at raised temperatures [ru

  11. Cardiotoxicity of tricyclic antidepressant treated by 2650 mEq sodium bicarbonate: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Hassan; Zamani, Nasim; Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Shadnia, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Poisoning with tricyclic antidepressants is an important cause of drug-related self-poisoning in the developed world and a very common cause of poisoning and mortality in developing countries. Electrocardiographic manifestations of most tricyclic antidepressant-poisoned patients resolve by the administration of 1-2 mEq/kg of sodium bicarbonate. Some rare cases have been reported who have been resistant to the long-term or high doses of bicarbonate administration. We present a case of acute tricyclic antidepressant toxicity referring with status epilepticus, hypotension, and refractory QRS complex widening that resolved after the intravenous administration of 2650 mEq sodium bicarbonate.

  12. Cardiotoxicity of tricyclic antidepressant treated by 2650 mEq sodium bicarbonate: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Amiri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning with tricyclic antidepressants is an important cause of drug-related self-poisoning in the developed world and a very common cause of poisoning and mortality in developing countries. Electrocardiographic manifestations of most tricyclic antidepressant-poisoned patients resolve by the administration of 1–2 mEq/kg of sodium bicarbonate. Some rare cases have been reported who have been resistant to the long-term or high doses of bicarbonate administration. We present a case of acute tricyclic antidepressant toxicity referring with status epilepticus, hypotension, and refractory QRS complex widening that resolved after the intravenous administration of 2650 mEq sodium bicarbonate.

  13. Contrast medium-induced nephropathy: the pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, P B; Tepel, Martin

    2006-01-01

    A widespread, rather general, definition of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an impairment in renal function occurring within 3 days following the intravascular administration of contrast media (CM) and the absence of an alternative aetiology. In spite of the vast clinical importance of CIN...... haemodynamics, regional hypoxia, auto-, and paracrine factors (adenosine, endothelin, reactive oxygen species) to direct cytotoxic effects. Although these potential mediators of CIN will be discussed separately, several factors may act in concert to perturb kidney function after exposure to contrast media. From...... the current knowledge of the mechanisms causing CIN, it is not possible to recommend a certain class of contrast media, except to avoid large doses of CM of the first generation. From a pathophysiological perspective, volume expansion is effective in avoiding CIN, since water permeability of the collecting...

  14. [Pathophysiology and treatment of orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masamichi; Noma, Noboru

    "Pain" is one of body defense mechanisms and crucial for the life support. However, orofacial pain such as myofascial pain syndrome, burning mouth syndrome and trigeminal neuralgia plays no part in body defense mechanisms and requires therapeutic intervention. Recent studies have indicated that plastic changes in the activities of trigeminal neurons, satellite glial cells in trigeminal ganglion, secondary neurons, microglia and astrocytes in trigeminal spinal subnucleus following orofacial inflammation and trigeminal nerve injury are responsible for orofacial pain mechanisms. Clinically, it is well known that the etiologic differential diagnosis which consists of careful history-taking and physical examination is essential for therapeutic decision in patients with orofacial pain. This report outlines the current knowledge on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment of orofacial pain.

  15. Pathophysiology, Clinical, and Therapeutic Aspects of Narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Guzel Ozdemir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucination, and sleep paralysis. The exact cause remains unknown, but there is significant evidence that hypocretin deficiency plays an integral role. There have been advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of narcolepsy. It has a negative effect on the quality of life and can restrict the patients from certain careers and activities. Diagnosis relies on patient history and objective data gathered from polysomnography and multiple sleep latency testing. Treatment focuses on symptom relief through medication, education, and behavioral modification. Both classic pharmacological treatments as well as newer options have significant problems, especially because of side effects and abuse potential. Some novel modalities are being examined to expand options for treatment. In this review, the pathophysiological, clinical, and pharmacotherapeutic aspects of narcolepsy are discussed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 271-283

  16. Role of leukotrienes in asthma pathophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    2000-01-01

    Inflammation is an essential component of asthma pathophysiology. While beta(2)-agonists are often used for short-term relief of acute bronchospasm, anti-inflammatory agents are required for the long-term management of chronic inflammation in this disease. Corticosteroids have emerged as the first......-line anti-inflammatory therapy for asthma management. However, in some patients, especially children, the high doses of corticosteroids that may be required to control features of hyperresponsiveness, including exercise-induced asthma, raise safety concerns. Thus, there is a need for complementary anti......-inflammatory, steroid-sparing agents in asthma therapy. Several inflammatory mediators have been targeted in an attempt to thwart this inflammatory process, but so far with little success. The cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLT), LTC(4), LTD(4), and LTE(4), have been shown to be essential mediators in asthma, making them...

  17. The role of ADAMs in disease pathophysiology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    The ADAMs are a family of multidomain transmembrane and secreted proteins involved in both proteolysis and cell adhesion. Altered expression of specific ADAMs is implicated in the pathophysiology of several diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer\\'s disease, cardiac hypertrophy, asthma and cancer. Of these different diseases, it is in cancer where most research has been carried out. Multiple ADAMs, including ADAM-9, ADAM-10, ADAM-12, ADAM-15 and ADAM-17, have been shown to play a role in either cancer formation or progression. Consistent with these findings, increased expression of specific ADAMs in several cancer types was found to correlate with features of aggressive disease and poor prognosis. Currently, selective ADAM inhibitors against ADAM-10 and ADAM-17 are undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of cancer. Further work is required in order to establish a causative role for ADAMs in rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer\\'s disease, cardiac hypertrophy and asthma.

  18. BIOKID: Randomized controlled trial comparing bicarbonate and lactate buffer in biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solutions in children [ISRCTN81137991

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misselwitz Joachim

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peritoneal dialysis (PD is the preferred dialysis modality in children. Its major drawback is the limited technique survival due to infections and progressive ultrafiltration failure. Conventional PD solutions exert marked acute and chronic toxicity to local tissues. Prolonged exposure is associated with severe histopathological alterations including vasculopathy, neoangiogenesis, submesothelial fibrosis and a gradual loss of the mesothelial cell layer. Recently, more biocompatible PD solutions containing reduced amounts of toxic glucose degradation products (GDPs and buffered at neutral pH have been introduced into clinical practice. These solutions contain lactate, bicarbonate or a combination of both as buffer substance. Increasing evidence from clinical trials in adults and children suggests that the new PD fluids may allow for better long-term preservation of peritoneal morphology and function. However, the relative importance of the buffer in neutral-pH, low-GDP fluids is still unclear. In vitro, lactate is cytotoxic and vasoactive at the concentrations used in PD fluids. The BIOKID trial is designed to clarify the clinical significance of the buffer choice in biocompatible PD fluids. Methods/design The objective of the study is to test the hypothesis that bicarbonate based PD solutions may allow for a better preservation of peritoneal transport characteristics in children than solutions containing lactate buffer. Secondary objectives are to assess any impact of the buffer system on acid-base status, peritoneal tissue integrity and the incidence and severity of peritonitis. After a run-in period of 2 months during which a targeted cohort of 60 patients is treated with a conventional, lactate buffered, acidic, GDP containing PD fluid, patients will be stratified according to residual renal function and type of phosphate binding medication and randomized to receive either the lactate-containing Balance solution or the

  19. BIOKID: randomized controlled trial comparing bicarbonate and lactate buffer in biocompatible peritoneal dialysis solutions in children [ISRCTN81137991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Barbara; Schmitt, Claus P; Almeida, Margarida; Arbeiter, Klaus; Ardissino, Gianluigi; Bonzel, Klaus E; Edefonti, Alberto; Fischbach, Michel; Haluany, Karin; Misselwitz, Joachim; Kemper, Markus J; Rönnholm, Kai; Wygoda, Simone; Schaefer, Franz

    2004-10-14

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the preferred dialysis modality in children. Its major drawback is the limited technique survival due to infections and progressive ultrafiltration failure. Conventional PD solutions exert marked acute and chronic toxicity to local tissues. Prolonged exposure is associated with severe histopathological alterations including vasculopathy, neoangiogenesis, submesothelial fibrosis and a gradual loss of the mesothelial cell layer. Recently, more biocompatible PD solutions containing reduced amounts of toxic glucose degradation products (GDPs) and buffered at neutral pH have been introduced into clinical practice. These solutions contain lactate, bicarbonate or a combination of both as buffer substance. Increasing evidence from clinical trials in adults and children suggests that the new PD fluids may allow for better long-term preservation of peritoneal morphology and function. However, the relative importance of the buffer in neutral-pH, low-GDP fluids is still unclear. In vitro, lactate is cytotoxic and vasoactive at the concentrations used in PD fluids. The BIOKID trial is designed to clarify the clinical significance of the buffer choice in biocompatible PD fluids. The objective of the study is to test the hypothesis that bicarbonate based PD solutions may allow for a better preservation of peritoneal transport characteristics in children than solutions containing lactate buffer. Secondary objectives are to assess any impact of the buffer system on acid-base status, peritoneal tissue integrity and the incidence and severity of peritonitis. After a run-in period of 2 months during which a targeted cohort of 60 patients is treated with a conventional, lactate buffered, acidic, GDP containing PD fluid, patients will be stratified according to residual renal function and type of phosphate binding medication and randomized to receive either the lactate-containing Balance solution or the bicarbonate-buffered Bicavera solution for a period of

  20. New insights into pathophysiology of vestibular migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Espinosa-Sanchez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vestibular migraine (VM is a common disorder in which genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors probably contribute to its development. The pathophysiology of VM is unknown; nevertheless in the last few years, several studies are contributing to understand the neurophysiological pathways involved in VM. The current hypotheses are mostly based on the knowledge of migraine itself. The evidence of trigeminal innervation of the labyrinth vessels and the localization of vasoactive neuropeptides in the perivascular afferent terminals of these trigeminal fibers support the involvement of the trigemino-vascular system. The neurogenic inflammation triggered by activation of the trigeminal-vestibulocochlear reflex, with the subsequent inner ear plasma protein extravasation and the release of inflammatory mediators, can contribute to a sustained activation and sensitization of the trigeminal primary afferent neurons explaining VM symptoms. The reciprocal connections between brainstem vestibular nuclei and the structures that modulate trigeminal nociceptive inputs (rostral ventromedial medulla, ventrolateral periaqueductal grey, locus coeruleus and nucleus raphe magnus are critical to understand the pathophysiology of VM. Although cortical spreading depression can affect cortical areas involved in processing vestibular information, functional neuroimaging techniques suggest a dysmodulation in the multimodal sensory integration and processing of vestibular and nociceptive information, resulting from a vestibulo-thalamo-cortical dysfunction, as the pathogenic mechanism underlying VM. The elevated prevalence of VM suggests that multiple functional variants may confer a genetic susceptibility leading to a dysregulation of excitatory-inhibitory balance in brain structures involved in the processing of sensory information, vestibular inputs and pain. The interactions among several functional and structural neural networks could explain the pathogenic

  1. Capillary leak syndrome: etiologies, pathophysiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddall, Eric; Khatri, Minesh; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2017-07-01

    In various human diseases, an increase in capillary permeability to proteins leads to the loss of protein-rich fluid from the intravascular to the interstitial space. Although sepsis is the disease most commonly associated with this phenomenon, many other diseases can lead to a "sepsis-like" syndrome with manifestations of diffuse pitting edema, exudative serous cavity effusions, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypotension, and, in some cases, hypovolemic shock with multiple-organ failure. The term capillary leak syndrome has been used to describe this constellation of disease manifestations associated with an increased capillary permeability to proteins. Diseases other than sepsis that can result in capillary leak syndrome include the idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome or Clarkson's disease, engraftment syndrome, differentiation syndrome, the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, viral hemorrhagic fevers, autoimmune diseases, snakebite envenomation, and ricin poisoning. Drugs including some interleukins, some monoclonal antibodies, and gemcitabine can also cause capillary leak syndrome. Acute kidney injury is commonly seen in all of these diseases. In addition to hypotension, cytokines are likely to be important in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury in capillary leak syndrome. Fluid management is a critical part of the treatment of capillary leak syndrome; hypovolemia and hypotension can cause organ injury, whereas capillary leakage of administered fluid can worsen organ edema leading to progressive organ injury. The purpose of this article is to discuss the diseases other than sepsis that produce capillary leak and review their collective pathophysiology and treatment. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Elimination of bicarbonate interference in the binding of U(VI) in mill-waters to freeze-dried Chlorella vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, B.; Henzl, M.T.; Hosea, J.M.; Darnall, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    Freeze-dried preparations of Chlorella vulgaris will accumulate U(Vl) from alkaline, bicarbonate-containing waters collected from uranium mill process streams, provided that the pH is pre-adjusted to between 4.0 and 6.0. Bicarbonate ion complexes the uranyl ion in these waters and seriously interferes with the binding of U(Vl) to the algal cells at pH values above 6.0. No binding of U(Vl) to the algae occurred at the natural pH of 8.0 when Chlorella vulgaris was suspended in untreated mull-waters containing up to 2.5 x 10 -4 M U(Vl). However, when the pH of these waters was lowered from 8.0 to near 5.0, with nitric acid, nearly quantitative binding of U(Vl) to the alga was achieved. Binding is rapid and largely unaffected by ions including Na + , Cl - , NO 3 - , - OAc, and SO 4 2- . Our results indicate that provided steps are taken to eliminate bicarbonate interference, such as adjustment of the pH to near 5.0, dried algal biomass could prove useful for the removal and recovery of U(Vl) from high carbonate-containing waters

  3. Central functions of bicarbonate in S-type anion channel activation and OST1 protein kinase in CO 2 signal transduction in guard cell

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Shaowu; Hu, Honghong; Ries, Amber; Merilo, Ebe; Kollist, Hannes; Schroeder, Julian I

    2011-01-01

    Plants respond to elevated CO(2) via carbonic anhydrases that mediate stomatal closing, but little is known about the early signalling mechanisms following the initial CO(2) response. It remains unclear whether CO(2), HCO(3)(-) or a combination activates downstream signalling. Here, we demonstrate that bicarbonate functions as a small-molecule activator of SLAC1 anion channels in guard cells. Elevated intracellular [HCO(3)(-)](i) with low [CO(2)] and [H(+)] activated S-type anion currents, whereas low [HCO(3)(-)](i) at high [CO(2)] and [H(+)] did not. Bicarbonate enhanced the intracellular Ca(2+) sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation in wild-type and ht1-2 kinase mutant guard cells. ht1-2 mutant guard cells exhibited enhanced bicarbonate sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation. The OST1 protein kinase has been reported not to affect CO(2) signalling. Unexpectedly, OST1 loss-of-function alleles showed strongly impaired CO(2)-induced stomatal closing and HCO(3)(-) activation of anion channels. Moreover, PYR/RCAR abscisic acid (ABA) receptor mutants slowed but did not abolish CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) signalling, redefining the convergence point of CO(2) and ABA signalling. A new working model of the sequence of CO(2) signalling events in gas exchange regulation is presented.

  4. Central functions of bicarbonate in S-type anion channel activation and OST1 protein kinase in CO 2 signal transduction in guard cell

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Shaowu

    2011-03-18

    Plants respond to elevated CO(2) via carbonic anhydrases that mediate stomatal closing, but little is known about the early signalling mechanisms following the initial CO(2) response. It remains unclear whether CO(2), HCO(3)(-) or a combination activates downstream signalling. Here, we demonstrate that bicarbonate functions as a small-molecule activator of SLAC1 anion channels in guard cells. Elevated intracellular [HCO(3)(-)](i) with low [CO(2)] and [H(+)] activated S-type anion currents, whereas low [HCO(3)(-)](i) at high [CO(2)] and [H(+)] did not. Bicarbonate enhanced the intracellular Ca(2+) sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation in wild-type and ht1-2 kinase mutant guard cells. ht1-2 mutant guard cells exhibited enhanced bicarbonate sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation. The OST1 protein kinase has been reported not to affect CO(2) signalling. Unexpectedly, OST1 loss-of-function alleles showed strongly impaired CO(2)-induced stomatal closing and HCO(3)(-) activation of anion channels. Moreover, PYR/RCAR abscisic acid (ABA) receptor mutants slowed but did not abolish CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) signalling, redefining the convergence point of CO(2) and ABA signalling. A new working model of the sequence of CO(2) signalling events in gas exchange regulation is presented.

  5. Using Willie's Acid-Base Box for Blood Gas Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, John R.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a method developed by Dr. William T. Lipscomb for teaching blood gas analysis of acid-base status and provides three examples using Willie's acid-base box. Willie's acid-base box is constructed using three of the parameters of standard arterial blood gas analysis: (1) pH; (2) bicarbonate; and (3) CO[subscript…

  6. Simultaneous Hydrogen Generation and Waste Acid Neutralization in a Reverse Electrodialysis System

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.; Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    power and hydrogen gas using waste heat-derived solutions, but high electrode overpotentials limit system performance. We show here that an ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) RED system can achieve simultaneous waste acid neutralization and in situ hydrogen

  7. Repeated supra-maximal sprint cycling with and without sodium bicarbonate supplementation induces endothelial microparticle release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Richard J; Peart, Daniel J; Madden, Leigh A; Vince, Rebecca V

    2014-01-01

    Under normal homeostatic conditions, the endothelium releases microparticles (MPs), which are known to increase under stressful conditions and in disease states. CD105 (endoglin) and CD106 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1) are expressed on the surface of endothelial cells and increased expression in response to stress may be observed. A randomised-controlled double-blinded study aimed to examine the use of endothelial MPs as a marker for the state of one's endothelium, as well as whether maintaining acid-base homeostasis affects the release of these MPs. This study tested seven healthy male volunteers, who completed a strenuous cycling protocol, with venous blood analysed for CD105+ and CD106+ MPs by flow cytometry at regular intervals. Prior to each trial participants consumed either 0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), or 0.045 g·kg(-1) body mass of sodium chloride (NaCl). A significant rise in endothelial CD105+ MPs and CD106+ MPs (p<0.05) was observed at 90 min post-exercise. A significant trend was shown for these MPs to return to resting levels 180 min post-exercise in both groups. No significance was found between experimental groups, suggesting that maintaining acid-base variables closer to basal levels has little effect upon the endothelial stress response for this particular exercise mode. In conclusion, strenuous exercise is accompanied by MP release and the endothelium is able to rapidly recover in healthy individuals, whilst maintaining acid-base homeostasis does not attenuate the MP release from the endothelium after exercise.

  8. Management of acid-related disorders in patients with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Colin W

    2004-09-06

    Dysphagia affects a large and growing number of individuals in the United States, particularly the elderly and those who are neurologically impaired. Swallowing difficulties may be due to age-related changes in oropharyngeal and esophageal functioning as well as central nervous system diseases such as stroke, Parkinson disease, and dementia. Among institutionalized individuals, dysphagia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. An appreciation of the physiology of swallowing and the pathophysiology of dysphagia is necessary for proper patient management. Careful history, physical examination, and evaluation of radiologic and endoscopic studies should differentiate oropharyngeal and esophageal etiologies of dysphagia and distinguish mechanical (anatomic) disorders from functional (motor) disorders. A significant percentage of patients with dysphagia have concomitant acid-related disorders that are managed best with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. Three of the currently available PPIs are manufactured as capsules containing enteric-coated granules that may be mixed with soft foods or fruit juices before oral administration to those with swallowing difficulties. In addition, omeprazole and lansoprazole may be administered via gastrostomy or nasogastric feeding tubes as suspensions in sodium bicarbonate. Novel dosage formulations of lansoprazole that may be appropriate for patients with dysphagia include the commercially manufactured lansoprazole strawberry-flavored enteric-coated granules for suspension and lansoprazole orally disintegrating tablets.

  9. The sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe2 (slc4a5) expressed in human renal proximal tubules shows increased apical expression under high-salt conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildea, John J; Xu, Peng; Carlson, Julia M; Gaglione, Robert T; Bigler Wang, Dora; Kemp, Brandon A; Reyes, Camellia M; McGrath, Helen E; Carey, Robert M; Jose, Pedro A; Felder, Robin A

    2015-12-01

    The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2) is encoded by SLC4A5, variants of which have been associated with salt sensitivity of blood pressure, which affects 25% of the adult population. NBCe2 is thought to mediate sodium bicarbonate cotransport primarily in the renal collecting duct, but NBCe2 mRNA is also found in the rodent renal proximal tubule (RPT). The protein expression or function of NBCe2 has not been demonstrated in the human RPT. We validated an NBCe2 antibody by shRNA and Western blot analysis, as well as overexpression of an epitope-tagged NBCe2 construct in both RPT cells (RPTCs) and human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells. Using this validated NBCe2 antibody, we found NBCe2 protein expression in the RPT of fresh and frozen human kidney slices, RPTCs isolated from human urine, and isolated RPTC apical membrane. Under basal conditions, NBCe2 was primarily found in the Golgi, while NBCe1 was primarily found at the basolateral membrane. Following an acute short-term increase in intracellular sodium, NBCe2 expression was increased at the apical membrane in cultured slices of human kidney and polarized, immortalized RPTCs. Sodium bicarbonate transport was increased by monensin and overexpression of NBCe2, decreased by NBCe2 shRNA, but not by NBCe1 shRNA, and blocked by 2,2'-(1,2-ethenediyl)bis[5-isothiocyanato-benzenesulfonic acid]. NBCe2 could be important in apical sodium and bicarbonate cotransport under high-salt conditions; the implication of the ex vivo studies to the in vivo situation when salt intake is increased remains unclear. Therefore, future studies will examine the role of NBCe2 in mediating increased renal sodium transport in humans whose blood pressures are elevated by an increase in sodium intake. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. An experimental study on the inhibitory effect of high concentration bicarbonate on the reduction of U(VI) in groundwater by functionalized indigenous microbial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dianxin Li; Nan Hu; Dexin Ding; Shimi Li; Guangyue Li; Yongdong Wang

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic microcosms amended with 30 mM bicarbonate and without bicarbonate were established, respectively, and the reduction of U(VI) in the microcosms by functionalized indigenous microbial communities was investigated. Results of the chemical extraction and XANES analysis showed that the proportions of U(IV) in the microcosms amended with bicarbonate were 10 % lower than without bicarbonate at day 46. The amount of Cellulomonadaceae, Desulfovibrionaceae, Peptococcaceae and Veillonellaceae amended with bicarbonate was lower than without bicarbonate, so the reduction of U(VI) was less. The experimental results show that the high concentration bicarbonate has a significantly inhibitory effect on the reduction of U(VI). (author)

  11. Transforming pathophysiology instruction through narrative pedagogy and Socratic questioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, M M

    2001-01-01

    Pathophysiology, heavily content driven, has typically been taught through the use of traditional behavioral pedagogy and a reliance on the formal lecture. The author describes the limitations of this approach to teaching pathophysiology and describes the use of narrative pedagogy and Socratic questioning as alternative methods of instruction to augment lecture methods. Specific strategies for transforming traditional classroom teaching by using Socratic questions in a pathophysiology course for nurse practitioners are described. Student and faculty reactions to the initial efforts to transform pathophysiology instruction are also described.

  12. The physiological stress response to high-intensity sprint exercise following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peart, Daniel J; Kirk, Richard J; Hillman, Angela R; Madden, Leigh A; Siegler, Jason C; Vince, Rebecca V

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-exercise alkalosis on the physiological stress response to high-intensity exercise. Seven physically active males (age 22 ± 3 years, height 1.82 ± 0.06 m, mass 81.3 ± 8.4 kg and peak power output 300 ± 22 W) performed a repeated sprint cycle exercise following a dose of 0.3 g kg(-1) body mass of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) (BICARB), or a placebo of 0.045 g kg(-1) body mass of sodium chloride (PLAC). Monocyte-expressed heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly attenuated in BICARB compared to PLAC (p = 0.04 and p = 0.039, respectively), however total anti-oxidant capacity, the ratio of oxidised to total glutathione, cortisol, interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 were not significantly induced by the exercise. In conclusion, monocyte-expressed HSP72 is significantly increased following high-intensity anaerobic exercise, and its attenuation following such exercise with the ingestion of NaHCO(3) is unlikely to be due to a decreased oxidative stress.

  13. The Consumption of Bicarbonate-Rich Mineral Water Improves Glycemic Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinnosuke Murakami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hot spring water and natural mineral water have been therapeutically used to prevent or improve various diseases. Specifically, consumption of bicarbonate-rich mineral water (BMW has been reported to prevent or improve type 2 diabetes (T2D in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects behind mineral water consumption remain unclear. To elucidate the molecular level effects of BMW consumption on glycemic control, blood metabolome analysis and fecal microbiome analysis were applied to the BMW consumption test. During the study, 19 healthy volunteers drank 500 mL of commercially available tap water (TW or BMW daily. TW consumption periods and BMW consumption periods lasted for a week each and this cycle was repeated twice. Biochemical tests indicated that serum glycoalbumin levels, one of the indexes of glycemic controls, decreased significantly after BMW consumption. Metabolome analysis of blood samples revealed that 19 metabolites including glycolysis-related metabolites and 3 amino acids were significantly different between TW and BMW consumption periods. Additionally, microbiome analysis demonstrated that composition of lean-inducible bacteria was increased after BMW consumption. Our results suggested that consumption of BMW has the possible potential to prevent and/or improve T2D through the alterations of host metabolism and gut microbiota composition.

  14. Transport and Use of Bicarbonate in Plants: Current Knowledge and Challenges Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Poschenrieder

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bicarbonate plays a fundamental role in the cell pH status in all organisms. In autotrophs, HCO3− may further contribute to carbon concentration mechanisms (CCM. This is especially relevant in the CO2-poor habitats of cyanobacteria, aquatic microalgae, and macrophytes. Photosynthesis of terrestrial plants can also benefit from CCM as evidenced by the evolution of C4 and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM. The presence of HCO3− in all organisms leads to more questions regarding the mechanisms of uptake and membrane transport in these different biological systems. This review aims to provide an overview of the transport and metabolic processes related to HCO3− in microalgae, macroalgae, seagrasses, and terrestrial plants. HCO3− transport in cyanobacteria and human cells is much better documented and is included for comparison. We further comment on the metabolic roles of HCO3− in plants by focusing on the diversity and functions of carbonic anhydrases and PEP carboxylases as well as on the signaling role of CO2/HCO3− in stomatal guard cells. Plant responses to excess soil HCO3− is briefly addressed. In conclusion, there are still considerable gaps in our knowledge of HCO3− uptake and transport in plants that hamper the development of breeding strategies for both more efficient CCM and better HCO3− tolerance in crop plants.

  15. Transport and Use of Bicarbonate in Plants: Current Knowledge and Challenges Ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Fernández, José Antonio; Rubio, Lourdes; Pérez, Laura; Terés, Joana; Barceló, Juan

    2018-05-03

    Bicarbonate plays a fundamental role in the cell pH status in all organisms. In autotrophs, HCO₃ − may further contribute to carbon concentration mechanisms (CCM). This is especially relevant in the CO₂-poor habitats of cyanobacteria, aquatic microalgae, and macrophytes. Photosynthesis of terrestrial plants can also benefit from CCM as evidenced by the evolution of C₄ and Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM). The presence of HCO₃ − in all organisms leads to more questions regarding the mechanisms of uptake and membrane transport in these different biological systems. This review aims to provide an overview of the transport and metabolic processes related to HCO₃ − in microalgae, macroalgae, seagrasses, and terrestrial plants. HCO₃ − transport in cyanobacteria and human cells is much better documented and is included for comparison. We further comment on the metabolic roles of HCO₃ − in plants by focusing on the diversity and functions of carbonic anhydrases and PEP carboxylases as well as on the signaling role of CO₂/HCO₃ − in stomatal guard cells. Plant responses to excess soil HCO₃ − is briefly addressed. In conclusion, there are still considerable gaps in our knowledge of HCO₃ − uptake and transport in plants that hamper the development of breeding strategies for both more efficient CCM and better HCO₃ − tolerance in crop plants.

  16. Enhanced Hydrophilicity and Protein Adsorption of Titanium Surface by Sodium Bicarbonate Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate a novel and convenient method of chemical treatment to modify the hydrophilicity of titanium surfaces. Sand-blasted and acid-etched (SLA titanium surfaces and machined titanium surfaces were treated with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 solution. The wetting behavior of both kinds of surfaces was measured by water contact angle (WCA test. The surface microstructure was assessed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and three-dimensional (3D optical microscopy. The elemental compositions of the surfaces were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The protein adsorption analysis was performed with fibronectin. Results showed that, after 1 M NaHCO3 treatment, the hydrophilicity of both SLA and machined surfaces was enhanced. No significant microstructural change presented on titanium surfaces after NaHCO3 treatment. The deprotonation and ion exchange activities might cause the enhanced hydrophilicity of titanium surfaces. The increased protein adsorption of NaHCO3-treated SLA surfaces might indicate their improved tissue-integration in clinical use.

  17. Sodium Is Not Required for Chloride Efflux via Chloride/Bicarbonate Exchanger from Rat Thymic Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatas Stakišaitis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium-dependent Cl−/HCO3- exchanger acts as a chloride (Cl− efflux in lymphocytes. Its functional characterization had been described when Cl− efflux was measured upon substituting extracellular sodium (Na+ by N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG. For Na+ and Cl− substitution, we have used D-mannitol or NMDG. Thymocytes of male Wistar rats aged 7–9 weeks were used and intracellular Cl− was measured by spectrofluorimetry using MQAE dye in bicarbonate buffers. Chloride efflux was measured in a Cl−-free buffer (Cl− substituted with isethionate acid and in Na+ and Cl−-free buffer with D-mannitol or with NMDG. The data have shown that Cl− efflux is mediated in the absence of Na+ in a solution containing D-mannitol and is inhibited by H2DIDS. Mathematical modelling has shown that Cl− efflux mathematical model parameters (relative membrane permeability, relative rate of exchanger transition, and exchanger efficacy were the same in control and in the medium in which Na+ had been substituted by D-mannitol. The net Cl− efflux was completely blocked in the NMDG buffer. The same blockage of Cl− efflux was caused by H2DIDS. The study results allow concluding that Na+ is not required for Cl− efflux via Cl−/HCO3- exchanger. NMDG in buffers cannot be used for substituting Na+ because NMDG inhibits the exchanger.

  18. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves severe-intensity intermittent exercise under moderate acute hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sanjoy K; Gough, Lewis A; Sparks, S Andy; McNaughton, Lars R

    2018-03-01

    Acute moderate hypoxic exposure can substantially impair exercise performance, which occurs with a concurrent exacerbated rise in hydrogen cation (H + ) production. The purpose of this study was therefore, to alleviate this acidic stress through sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) supplementation and determine the corresponding effects on severe-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Eleven recreationally active individuals participated in this randomised, double-blind, crossover study performed under acute normobaric hypoxic conditions (FiO 2 % = 14.5%). Pre-experimental trials involved the determination of time to attain peak bicarbonate anion concentrations ([HCO 3 - ]) following NaHCO 3 ingestion. The intermittent exercise tests involved repeated 60-s work in their severe-intensity domain and 30-s recovery at 20 W to exhaustion. Participants ingested either 0.3 g kg bm -1 of NaHCO 3 or a matched placebo of 0.21 g kg bm -1 of sodium chloride prior to exercise. Exercise tolerance (+ 110.9 ± 100.6 s; 95% CI 43.3-178 s; g = 1.0) and work performed in the severe-intensity domain (+ 5.8 ± 6.6 kJ; 95% CI 1.3-9.9 kJ; g = 0.8) were enhanced with NaHCO 3 supplementation. Furthermore, a larger post-exercise blood lactate concentration was reported in the experimental group (+ 4 ± 2.4 mmol l -1 ; 95% CI 2.2-5.9; g = 1.8), while blood [HCO 3 - ] and pH remained elevated in the NaHCO 3 condition throughout experimentation. In conclusion, this study reported a positive effect of NaHCO 3 under acute moderate hypoxic conditions during intermittent exercise and therefore, may offer an ergogenic strategy to mitigate hypoxic induced declines in exercise performance.

  19. Pathophysiology and Nonsurgical Treatment of Chronic Subdural Hematoma: From Past to Present to Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holl, Dana C; Volovici, Victor; Dirven, Clemens M F; Peul, Wilco C; van Kooten, Fop; Jellema, Korné; van der Gaag, Niels A; Miah, Ishita P; Kho, Kuan H; den Hertog, Heleen M; Lingsma, Hester F; Dammers, Ruben

    2018-05-14

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the more frequent pathologic entities in daily neurosurgical practice. Historically, CSDH was considered progressive recurrent bleeding with a traumatic cause. However, recent evidence has suggested a complex intertwined pathway of inflammation, angiogenesis, local coagulopathy, recurrent microbleeds, and exudates. The aim of the present review is to collect existing data on pathophysiology of CSDH to direct further research questions aiming to optimize treatment for the individual patient. We performed a thorough literature search in PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google scholar, focusing on any aspect of the pathophysiology and nonsurgical treatment of CSDH. After a (minor) traumatic event, the dural border cell layer tears, which leads to the extravasation of cerebrospinal fluid and blood in the subdural space. A cascade of inflammation, impaired coagulation, fibrinolysis, and angiogenesis is set in motion. The most commonly used treatment is surgical drainage. However, because of the pathophysiologic mechanisms, the mortality and high morbidity associated with surgical drainage, drug therapy (dexamethasone, atorvastatin, tranexamic acid, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) might be a beneficial alternative in many patients with CSDH. Based on pathophysiologic mechanisms, animal experiments, and small patient studies, medical treatment may play a role in the treatment of CSDH. There is a lack of level I evidence in the nonsurgical treatment of CSDH. Therefore, randomized controlled trials, currently lacking, are needed to assess which treatment is most effective in each individual patient. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An update on pancreatic pathophysiology (do we have to rewrite pancreatic pathophysiology?).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Heinz F

    2014-02-01

    This review focuses on seven aspects of physiology and pathophysiology of the exocrine pancreas that have been intensively discussed and studied within the past few years: (1) the role of neurohormonal mechanisms like melatonin, leptin, or ghrelin in the stimulation of pancreatic enzyme secretion; (2) the initiation processes of acute pancreatitis, like fusion of zymogen granules with lysosomes leading to intracellular activation of trypsinogen by the lysosomal enzyme cathepsin B, or autoactivation of trypsinogen; (3) the role of genes in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis; (4) the role of alcohol and constituents of alcoholic beverages in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis; (5) the role of pancreatic hypertension, neuropathy, and central mechanisms for the pathogenesis of pain in chronic pancreatitis; (6) the relation between exocrine pancreatic function and diabetes mellitus; and (7) pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic steatorrhea.

  1. Involvement of the kynurenine pathway in human glioma pathophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Adams

    Full Text Available The kynurenine pathway (KP is the principal route of L-tryptophan (TRP catabolism leading to the production of kynurenine (KYN, the neuroprotectants, kynurenic acid (KYNA and picolinic acid (PIC, the excitotoxin, quinolinic acid (QUIN and the essential pyridine nucleotide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+. The enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2 (IDO-2 and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO-2 initiate the first step of the KP. IDO-1 and TDO-2 induction in tumors are crucial mechanisms implicated to play pivotal roles in suppressing anti-tumor immunity. Here, we report the first comprehensive characterisation of the KP in 1 cultured human glioma cells and 2 plasma from patients with glioblastoma (GBM. Our data revealed that interferon-gamma (IFN-γ stimulation significantly potentiated the expression of the KP enzymes, IDO-1 IDO-2, kynureninase (KYNU, kynurenine hydroxylase (KMO and significantly down-regulated 2-amino-3-carboxymuconate semialdehyde decarboxylase (ACMSD and kynurenine aminotransferase-I (KAT-I expression in cultured human glioma cells. This significantly increased KP activity but significantly lowered the KYNA/KYN neuroprotective ratio in human cultured glioma cells. KP activation (KYN/TRP was significantly higher, whereas the concentrations of the neuroreactive KP metabolites TRP, KYNA, QUIN and PIC and the KYNA/KYN ratio were significantly lower in GBM patient plasma (n = 18 compared to controls. These results provide further evidence for the involvement of the KP in glioma pathophysiology and highlight a potential role of KP products as novel and highly attractive therapeutic targets to evaluate for the treatment of brain tumors, aimed at restoring anti-tumor immunity and reducing the capacity for malignant cells to produce NAD(+, which is necessary for energy production and DNA repair.

  2. pH and salivary sodium bicarbonate in cancer patients: correlation with seric concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Morales, Thais; Navas, Rita; Viera, Ninoska; Alvarez, Carmen Julia; Chaparro, Neira

    2008-07-01

    To determine the correlation between pH and bicarbonate of soda in blood and saliva in child and adolescent patients during the administration of 3 g/m2 of methotrexate. A controlled clinical test was performed on 23 patients diagnosed with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Ages ranged from 4 to 18. The Spearman Correlation Coefficient was used to interpret the data. No significant correlation was found between pH levels and seric and salivary sodium bicarbonate. However, there was a significant correlation between the levels of sodium bicarbonate in the body fluids evaluated (rs 0.2576, p=0.0354). Changes modifying the microenvironment of the oral cavity probably do not allow saliva to be used to determine blood pH and seric bicarbonate.

  3. Controllable synthesis of nickel bicarbonate nanocrystals with high homogeneity for a high-performance supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianmin; Liu, Xin; Wang, Zhuang; Bian, Zhenpan; Jin, Cuihong; Sun, Xiao; Yin, Baipeng; Wu, Tianhui; Wang, Lin; Tang, Shoufeng; Wang, Hongchao; Gao, Faming

    2017-08-01

    The electrochemical performance of supercapacitors might be associated with the homogeneous structure of the electrode materials. However, the relationship between the degree of uniformity for the electrode materials and the electrochemical performance of the supercapacitor is not clear. Herein, we synthesize two types of nickel bicarbonate nanocrystals with different degrees of uniformity to investigate this relationship. As the electroactive material, the nickel bicarbonate nanocrystals with a homogeneous structure could provide a larger space and offer more exposed atoms for the electrochemical reaction than the nanocrystals with a heterogeneous structure. The homogeneous nickel bicarbonate nanocrystals exhibit better electrochemical performance and show excellent specific capacitance (1596 F g-1 at 2 A g-1 and 1260 F g-1 at 30 A g-1), which is approximately twice that of the heterogeneous nickel bicarbonate nanocrystals. The cycling stability for the homogeneity (˜80%) is higher than the inhomogeneity (˜61%) at a high current density of 5 A g-1.

  4. Bicarbonate Elution of Uranium from Amidoxime-Based Polymer Adsorbents for Sequestering Uranium from Seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Horng-Bin [Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 USA; Wai, Chien M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 USA; Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, Washington 98382 USA; Gill, Gary [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim, Washington 98382 USA; Tian, Guoxin [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 USA; Rao, Linfeng [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 USA; Das, Sadananda [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 USA; Mayes, Richard T. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 USA; Janke, Christopher J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 USA

    2017-05-02

    Uranium adsorbed on amidoxime-based polyethylene fibers in simulated seawater can be quantitatively eluted using 3 M KHCO3 at 40°C. Thermodynamic calculations are in agreement with the experimental observation that at high bicarbonate concentrations (3 M) uranyl ions bound to amidoxime molecules are converted to uranyl tris-carbonato complex in the aqueous solution. The elution process is basically the reverse reaction of the uranium adsorption process which occurs at a very low bicarbonate concentration (~10-3 M) in seawater. In real seawater experiments, the bicarbonate elution is followed by a NaOH treatment to remove natural organic matter adsorbed on the polymer adsorbent. Using the sequential bicarbonate and NaOH elution, the adsorbent is reusable after rinsing with deionized water and the recycled adsorbent shows no loss of uranium loading capacity based on real seawater experiments.

  5. Serum Bicarbonate And Survival In Peritoneal Dialysis (Pd: Comparison With Hemodialysis (Hd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Sharma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Correction of metabolic acidosis is one of the goals of effective dialysis. The KDOQI guidelines recommend serum bicarbonate >22 meq/L irrespective of dialysis modality. Since the measured bicarbonate reflects the steady state in PD patients and the lowest inter-dialytic value in HD patients, we compared the survival predictability of serum bicarbonate 10,400 PD and 110,951 HD patients treated in DaVita facilities from 7/2001-6/2006 with follow-up through 6/2007. PD patients were substantially less likely to have lower serum bicarbonate (adjusted odds, 22 meq/L for all end-stage renal disease irrespective of dialysis modality.fx1

  6. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in trained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ermidis, Georgios; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    Background Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test......) prior intake of sodium bicarbonate (0.4 g · kg−1 body weight). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test and venous blood samples were taken frequently. Results Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 14 % higher (P = 0.04) in SBC than in CON (735 ± 61 vs 646 ± 46 m, respectively......-intensity intermittent exercise performance is improved by prior intake of sodium bicarbonate in trained young men, with concomitant elevations in blood alkalosis and peak blood lactate levels, as well as lowered rating of perceived exertion....

  7. Solubility of ammonium metavanadate in ammonium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solutions at 25 deg C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, P.I.; Andreev, V.K.; Slotvinskij-Sidak, N.P.

    1978-01-01

    Solubility at 25 deg C has been studied in the system ammonium metavanadate - sodium bicarbonate - water which is a stable section of the corresponding quaternary mutual system. In the eutonic point the content of ammonium metavanadate is 4.95% and of sodium bicarbonate 12.1%. The crystallization branch of ammonium metavanadate has been studied in the system ammonium metavanadate - ammonium carbonate - water at 25 deg C. Metavanadate solubility attains minimum (0.14%) at ammonium carbonate concentration 2.6%. Three sections have been studied of the quaternary system ammonium - metavanadate - ammonium carbonate - sodium bicarbonate-water at 25 deg C in the crystallization region of ammonium metavanadate at a ratio of sodium bicarbonate to ammonium carbonate 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3. A region of minimum solubility of ammonium metavanadate has been detected (0.1%)

  8. Acetate and bicarbonate assimilation and metabolite formation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: a 13C-NMR study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Singh

    Full Text Available Cellular metabolite analyses by (13C-NMR showed that C. reinhardtii cells assimilate acetate at a faster rate in heterotrophy than in mixotrophy. While heterotrophic cells produced bicarbonate and CO2aq, mixotrophy cells produced bicarbonate alone as predominant metabolite. Experiments with singly (13C-labelled acetate ((13CH(3-COOH or CH(3-(13COOH supported that both the (13C nuclei give rise to bicarbonate and CO2(aq. The observed metabolite(s upon further incubation led to the production of starch and triacylglycerol (TAG in mixotrophy, whereas in heterotrophy the TAG production was minimal with substantial accumulation of glycerol and starch. Prolonged incubation up to eight days, without the addition of fresh acetate, led to an increased TAG production at the expense of bicarbonate, akin to that of nitrogen-starvation. However, such TAG production was substantially high in mixotrophy as compared to that in heterotrophy. Addition of mitochondrial un-coupler blocked the formation of bicarbonate and CO2(aq in heterotrophic cells, even though acetate uptake ensued. Addition of PSII-inhibitor to mixotrophic cells resulted in partial conversion of bicarbonate into CO2(aq, which were found to be in equilibrium. In an independent experiment, we have monitored assimilation of bicarbonate via photoautotrophy and found that the cells indeed produce starch and TAG at a much faster rate as compared to that in mixotrophy and heterotrophy. Further, we noticed that the accumulation of starch is relatively more as compared to TAG. Based on these observations, we suggest that acetate assimilation in C. reinhardtii does not directly lead to TAG formation but via bicarbonate/CO2(aq pathways. Photoautotrophic mode is found to be the best growth condition for the production of starch and TAG and starch in C. reinhardtii.

  9. Generalized model for the radiolysis of groundwaters: bicarbonate chemistry and influences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolosi, S.L.

    1987-01-01

    A groundwater radiolysis model has been developed at Battelle-Columbus which is applicable to groundwaters containing bicarbonate species. The model consists of a chemical mechanism which describes interactions between groundwater species and radiolytic species. Due to the chemical kinetics nature of the model, elementary reactions can be added to extend its range of applicability to other groundwaters. This paper describes the chemical kinetics and influences of bicarbonate species in the model. 23 references, 2 tables

  10. [Dynamics of bioelectric activity of the brain and erythrocyte ultrastructure after intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate to oncologic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davydova, I G; Kassil', V L; Raĭkhlin, N T; Filippova, N A

    1992-04-01

    23 patients with malignant tumors of different location and histogenesis were investigated. There were no metastases in 9 cases. 10 patients had metastases in regional areas and 4--distant. The results were compared with those obtained in 4 patients with nonmalignant diseases. EEG, blood gases, plasma acid--base balance and ultrastructure of erythrocytes were explored before and after intravenous infusion of 4.2% sodium bicarbonate solution. The metabolic alkalosis induced amelioration of EEG, which was changed basically, the condense of pre-membrane layer disappeared or decreased in erythrocytes, and disaggregation of erythrocytes took place in cancer patients vs those with nonmalignant tumors. The results confirm the suggestion of generalized intracellular acidosis in malignant tumor patients. This acidosis can be temporarily avoided or diminished artificially by blood alkalosis.

  11. tlpA gene expression is required for arginine and bicarbonate chemotaxis in Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Oscar A; Núñez-Villena, Felipe; Soto, Sarita E; Ugalde, José Manuel; López-Solís, Remigio; Toledo, Héctor

    2011-01-01

    About half of the human population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium causing gastritis, peptic ulcer and progression to gastric cancer. Chemotaxis and flagellar motility are required for colonization and persistence of H. pylori in the gastric mucus layer. It is not completely clear which chemical gradients are used by H. pylori to maintain its position. TlpA, a chemotaxis receptor for arginine/ bicarbonate, has been identified. This study aimed to find out whether tlpA gene expression is required for the chemotactic response to arginine/bicarbonate. Wild-type motile H. pylori ATCC 700392 and H. pylori ATCC 43504, a strain having an interrupted tlpA gene, were used. Also, a tlpA-knockout mutant of H. pylori 700392 (H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat) was produced by homologous recombination. Expression of tlpA was assessed by a Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Chemotaxis was measured as a Relative Chemotaxis Response (RCR) by a modified capillary assay. H. pylori 700392 presented chemotaxis to arginine and sodium bicarbonate. H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat showed neither tlpA gene expression nor chemotaxis towards arginine and bicarbonate. Besides confirming that TlpA is a chemotactic receptor for arginine/bicarbonate in H. pylori, this study showed that tlpA gene expression is required for arginine/bicarbonate chemotaxis.

  12. Bicarbonate-based cultivation of Dunaliella salina for enhancing carbon utilization efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeong; Heo, Jina; Kim, Hee-Sik; Han, Jong-In

    2017-08-01

    In this study, bicarbonate was proposed as an alternative carbon source to overcome exceedingly low CO 2 fixation efficiency of conventional microalgae cultivation system. 5gL -1 of sodium bicarbonate was found to well support the growth of Dunaliella salina, showing 2.84-fold higher specific growth rate than a bicarbonate-free control. This bicarbonate-fed cultivation also could yield biomass productivity similar to that of CO 2 -based system as long as pH was controlled. While the supplied CO 2 , because of its being a gas, was mostly lost and only 3.59% of it was used for biomass synthesis, bicarbonate was effectively incorporated into the biomass with 91.40% of carbon utilization efficiency. This study showed that the bicarbonate-based microalgae cultivation is indeed possible, and can even become a truly environment-friendly and workable approach, provided that a CO 2 mineralization technology is concomitantly established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Automated spectrophotometric bicarbonate analysis in duodenal juice compared to the back titration method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erchinger, Friedemann; Engjom, Trond; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun Anita; Tjora, Erling; Gilja, Odd H; Dimcevski, Georg

    2016-01-01

    We have recently evaluated a short endoscopic secretin test for exocrine pancreatic function. Bicarbonate concentration in duodenal juice is an important parameter in this test. Measurement of bicarbonate by back titration as the gold standard method is time consuming, expensive and technically difficult, thus a simplified method is warranted. We aimed to evaluate an automated spectrophotometric method in samples spanning the effective range of bicarbonate concentrations in duodenal juice. We also evaluated if freezing of samples before analyses would affect its results. Patients routinely examined with short endoscopic secretin test suspected to have decreased pancreatic function of various reasons were included. Bicarbonate in duodenal juice was quantified by back titration and automatic spectrophotometry. Both fresh and thawed samples were analysed spectrophotometrically. 177 samples from 71 patients were analysed. Correlation coefficient of all measurements was r = 0.98 (p titration gold standard. This is a major simplification of direct pancreas function testing, and allows a wider distribution of bicarbonate testing in duodenal juice. Extreme values for Bicarbonate concentration achieved by the autoanalyser method have to be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. tlpA gene expression is required for arginine and bicarbonate chemotaxis in Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A Cerda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available About half of the human population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium causing gastritis, peptic ulcer and progression to gastric cancer. Chemotaxis and flagellar motility are required for colonization and persistence of H. pylori in the gastric mucus layer. It is not completely clear which chemical gradients are used by H. pylori to maintain its position. TlpA, a chemotaxis receptor for arginine/ bicarbonate, has been identified. This study aimed to find out whether tlpA gene expression is required for the chemotactic response to arginine/bicarbonate. Wild-type motile H. pylori ATCC 700392 and H. pylori ATCC 43504, a strain having an interrupted tlpA gene, were used. Also, a tlpA-knockout mutant of H. pylori 700392 (H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat was produced by homologous recombination. Expression of tlpA was assessed by a Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR assay. Chemotaxis was measured as a Relative Chemotaxis Response (RCR by a modified capillary assay. H. pylori 700392 presented chemotaxis to arginine and sodium bicarbonate. H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat showed neither tlpA gene expression nor chemotaxis towards arginine and bicarbonate. Besides confirming that TlpA is a chemotactic receptor for arginine/bicarbonate in H. pylori, this study showed that tlpA gene expression is required for arginine/bicarbonate chemotaxis.

  15. Pathophysiology and Biomarkers in Acute Ischemic Stroke – A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pathophysiology of ischemic stroke is complex, and majorly involves excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, apoptosis, etc. Several of the biomarkers are related to these pathophysiologic mechanisms and they may have applications in stroke prediction, diagnosis, assessment, ...

  16. Tinnitus: Network pathophysiology-network pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen eElgoyhen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a prevalent disorder. One in 10 adults has clinically significant subjective tinnitus, and for 1 in 100, tinnitus severely affects their quality of life. Despite the significant unmet clinical need for a safe and effective drug targeting tinnitus relief, there is currently not a single FDA-approved drug on the market. The search for drugs that target tinnitus is hampered by the lack of a deep knowledge of the underlying neural substrates of this pathology. Recent studies are increasingly demonstrating that, as described for other central nervous system disorders, tinnitus is a pathology of brain networks. The application of graph theoretical analysis to brain networks has recently provided new information concerning their topology, their robustness and their vulnerability to attacks. Moreover, the philosophy behind drug design and pharmacotherapy in central nervous system pathologies is changing from that of magic bullets that target individual chemoreceptors or disease-causing genes into that of magic shotguns, promiscuous or dirty drugs that target disease-causing networks, also known as network pharmacology. In the present work we provide some insight into how this knowledge could be applied to tinnitus pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy.

  17. Tinnitus: network pathophysiology-network pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgoyhen, Ana B; Langguth, Berthold; Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Tinnitus, the phantom perception of sound, is a prevalent disorder. One in 10 adults has clinically significant subjective tinnitus, and for one in 100, tinnitus severely affects their quality of life. Despite the significant unmet clinical need for a safe and effective drug targeting tinnitus relief, there is currently not a single Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug on the market. The search for drugs that target tinnitus is hampered by the lack of a deep knowledge of the underlying neural substrates of this pathology. Recent studies are increasingly demonstrating that, as described for other central nervous system (CNS) disorders, tinnitus is a pathology of brain networks. The application of graph theoretical analysis to brain networks has recently provided new information concerning their topology, their robustness and their vulnerability to attacks. Moreover, the philosophy behind drug design and pharmacotherapy in CNS pathologies is changing from that of "magic bullets" that target individual chemoreceptors or "disease-causing genes" into that of "magic shotguns," "promiscuous" or "dirty drugs" that target "disease-causing networks," also known as network pharmacology. In the present work we provide some insight into how this knowledge could be applied to tinnitus pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy.

  18. Orthostatic intolerance: potential pathophysiology and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chih-Cherng; Tseng, Ching-Jiunn; Tang, Hung-Shang; Tung, Che-Se

    2004-09-30

    Orthostatic intolerance affects an estimated 1 in 500 persons and causes a wide range of disabilities. After essential hypertension, it is the most frequently encountered dysautonomia, accounting for the majority of patients referred to centers specializing in autonomic disorders. Patients are typically young females with symptoms such as dizziness, visual changes, head and neck discomfort, poor concentration, fatigue, palpitations, tremulousness, anxiety, and, in some cases, syncope. Syncope is the most hazardous symptom of orthostatic intolerance, presumably occurring because of impaired cerebral perfusion and in part to compensatory autonomic mechanisms. The etiology of this syndrome is still unclear but is heterogeneous. Orthostatic intolerance used to be characterized by an overall enhancement of noradrenergic tone at rest in some patients and by a patchy dysautonomia of postganglionic sympathetic fibers with a compensatory cardiac sympathetic activation in others. However, recent advances in molecular genetics are improving our understanding of orthostatic intolerance, such as several genetic diseases (such as Ehler-Danlos syndrome and norepinephrine transporter deficiency) presenting with symptoms typical of orthostatic intolerance. Future work will include investigation of genetic functional mutations underlying interindividual differences in autonomic cardiovascular control, body fluid regulation, and vascular regulation in orthostatic intolerance patients. The goal of this review article is to describe recent advances in understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance and their clinical significance.

  19. [Pathophysiology and new treatment of uveitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Ryoji; Takeda, Atsunobu; Yoshimura, Takeru; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2014-01-01

    Uveitis is narrow-defined inflammation of the uvea, also clinically include all inflammatory conditions in the eye. Uveitis may occur as a consequence of various causes and background, such as autoimmune diseases, infections, and hematopoietic malignancy. We have to treat uveitis not only controlling the inflammation but also maintaining up the visual function of the eye because the most uveitis is chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder. Behçét's disease is a systemic disease and results in loss of vision without adequate treatment. Behçét's disease was a representative of vision loss uveitis because Behçét's patient usually had treatment resistance of conventional treatment, such as colchicine and cyclosporine. However, biological therapy with TNF-α, which started from 2007, has revolutionized the treatment strategy of Behçét's disease. It is not too much to say that Behçét's patient is free from fear of vision loss by the dramatic decrease of ocular attach. Biological therapy is not approved as a treatment of uveitis except Behçét's disease. Some protracted cases of Sarcoidosis and Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease are resistant to corticosteroid therapy and require new treatment. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology of uveitis and report new treatment of Behçét's disease by biological therapy.

  20. Orexinergic system and pathophysiology of epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreulee, N; Alania, M; Vashalomidze, G; Skhirtladze, E; Kapanadze, Ts

    2010-11-01

    Neuropeptids orexins, also known as the hypocretins, are expressed in the lateral hypothalamus. Orexin-containing cells project widely throughout the brains, are crucial for the regulation of wakefulness and dysfunction of this system is associated with pathophysiology of narcolepsy-cataplexy. Orexin neurons play an important role in motivation, feeding and adaptive behaviors. Distribution of orexinergic receptors in the hippocampus tended to the ideas that orexins might be involved in the functions relating to the hippocampus. Effects of neuropeptide orexin-A on epileptiform activity in hippocampal slices were investigated. 500 µm thick hippocampal slices from 8-10 week-old rodents were used. Field excitatory postsynaptic potential (pop-fEPSP) and population spike in CA1 of hippocamopus were registered using standard protocol of in vitro electrophysiological experiments. Initial slope of the fEPSP and amplitude of II pop-spike were measured. Bursting neurons in CA3 were recorded in modified saline. We have found that orexin-A decreases duration/amplitude of multiple discharges of pop-spikes and inhibits spontaneous epileptiform afterdischarges induced by bicuculline methiodide in CA1. Orexin-A also modulates the frequency of discharges of bursting neurons in CA3. Our results suggest possible involvement of orexinergic system in antiepileptic action. Supported by ISTC Grant G-1318.

  1. Metabolic syndrome pathophysiology and clinical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelsman, Yehuda

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a relatively new definition, designed to help the health care practitioner to easily identify people at risk for the development of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. With the obesity epidemic, we are witnessing an epidemic of multiple-risk patients. Insulin resistance is the perceived pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and defines its clinical presentation. Hypertension, dyslipedemia, polycystic ovarian syndrome, fatty liver disease, pre-diabetes, sleep and breathing disorder, certain cancers, and cognitive impairment are many of the presentations of the syndrome; patients with any of these conditions are at a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The metabolic syndrome helps identify people at risk to allow early intervention for prevention. Lifestyle modification is the most important part of the management of people with the syndrome. Lately medications--though none approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)--have been recommended by major medical societies when lifestyle modification is not enough or when it fails.

  2. Hemorrhoids: From basic pathophysiology to clinical management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the pathophysiology, epidemiology, risk factors, classification, clinical evaluation, and current non-operative and operative treatment of hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids are defined as the symptomatic enlargement and distal displacement of the normal anal cushions. The most common symptom of hemorrhoids is rectal bleeding associated with bowel movement. The abnormal dilatation and distortion of the vascular channel, together with destructive changes in the supporting connective tissue within the anal cushion, is a paramount finding of hemorrhoids. It appears that the dysregulation of the vascular tone and vascular hyperplasia might play an important role in hemorrhoidal development, and could be a potential target for medical treatment. In most instances, hemorrhoids are treated conservatively, using many methods such as lifestyle modification, fiber supplement, suppository-delivered anti-inflammatory drugs, and administration of venotonic drugs. Non-operative approaches include sclerotherapy and, preferably, rubber band ligation. An operation is indicated when non-operative approaches have failed or complications have occurred. Several surgical approaches for treating hemorrhoids have been introduced including hemorrhoidectomy and stapled hemorrhoidopexy, but postoperative pain is invariable. Some of the surgical treatments potentially cause appreciable morbidity such as anal stricture and incontinence. The applications and outcomes of each treatment are thoroughly discussed. PMID:22563187

  3. The pathophysiology of trauma-induced coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Daniel; Brohi, Karim

    2012-12-01

    Transfusion paradigms and protocols have evolved at a rapid pace in the last few years to ameliorate the adverse effects of trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC). This has occurred despite fragmented and inadequate knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology that they are supposed to treat. This review will collate and assimilate the most recent data about TIC in order to present our state-of-the-art understanding of this condition. TIC was conventionally construed simply as depletion, dysfunction or dilution of procoagulant factors. However, contemporary understanding recognizes it as an imbalance of the dynamic equilibrium between procoagulant factors, anticoagulant factors, platelets, endothelium and fibrinolysis. The endogenous component of TIC (acute traumatic coagulopathy) is not merely a consumptive coagulopathy, but is characterized by isolated factor V inhibition, dysfibrinogenaemia, systemic anticoagulation, impaired platelet function and hyperfibrinolysis. Acute traumatic coagulopathy then becomes exacerbated by hypothermia, acidosis and resuscitation with hypocoagulable fluids. Further improvement in the outcome from trauma-haemorrhage is possible with more refined and tailored haemostatic resuscitation. Achieving this will depend upon a better understanding of the haemostatic defects that develop after injury.

  4. The pathophysiology of amenorrhea in the adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Neville H; Carlson, Jennifer L

    2008-01-01

    Menstrual irregularity is a common occurrence during adolescence, especially within the first 2-3 years after menarche. Prolonged amenorrhea, however, is not normal and can be associated with significant medical morbidity, which differs depending on whether the adolescent is estrogen-deficient or estrogen-replete. Estrogen-deficient amenorrhea is associated with reduced bone mineral density and increased fracture risk, while estrogen-replete amenorrhea can lead to dysfunctional uterine bleeding in the short term and predispose to endometrial carcinoma in the long term. In both situations, appropriate intervention can reduce morbidity. Old paradigms of whom to evaluate for amenorrhea have been challenged by recent research that provides a better understanding of the normal menstrual cycle and its variability. Hypothalamic amenorrhea is the most prevalent cause of amenorrhea in the adolescent age group, followed by polycystic ovary syndrome. In anorexia nervosa, exercise-induced amenorrhea, and amenorrhea associated with chronic illness, an energy deficit results in suppression of hypothalamic secretion of GnRH, mediated in part by leptin. Administration of recombinant leptin to women with hypothalamic amenorrhea has been shown to restore LH pulsatility and ovulatory menstrual cycles. The use of recombinant leptin may improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of hypothalamic amenorrhea in adolescents and may also have therapeutic possibilities.

  5. Pathophysiology of AAA: heredity vs environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björck, Martin; Wanhainen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) has a complex pathophysiology, in which both environmental and genetic factors play important roles, the most important being smoking. The recently reported falling prevalence rates of AAA in northern Europe and Australia/New Zeeland are largely explained by healthier smoking habits. Dietary factors and obesity, in particular abdominal obesity, are also of importance. A family history of AAA among first-degree relatives is present in approximately 13% of incident cases. The probability that a monozygotic twin of a person with an AAA has the disease is 24%, 71 times higher than that for a monozygotic twin of a person without AAA. Approximately 1000 SNPs in 100 candidate genes have been studied, and three genome-wide association studies were published, identifying different diverse weak associations. An example of interaction between environmental and genetic factors is the effect of cholesterol, where genetic and dietary factors affect levels of both HDL and LDL. True epigenetic studies have not yet been published. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical manifestations and pathophysiology of lissencephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oi, Shizuo; Sasaki, Koji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Ando, Shoko; Tamura, Yasunori; Fukuda, Kuniaki; Furukawa, Seikyo; Matsumoto, Satoshi.

    1985-01-01

    Four cases of lissencephaly were analyzed in light of clinical manifestations, CT findings and the state of hydrocephalus. Lissencephaly had been diagnosed mainly by autopsy until CT scan was introduced in the early 1970's. Since then, diagnosis of lissencephaly early in life is possible. Presently the major interest in this congenital CNS anomaly, which is caused by a neuronal migration disorder in the relatively late stages of fetal development, is to learn the dynamic pathophysiological state and management. The purpose of this paper is to analyze those points of lissencephaly in diagnosis during life and possible treatment in the hydrocephalic state. The common findings in CT in all four cases are as follows: No. 1. smooth cortical surface (agyria--pachygyria), No. 2. wide sylvian fissure (complete or incomplete lack of opercularization, No. 3. ventricular dilatation (remarkable bilateral enlargement of lateral ventricle and third ventricle--colpocephaly), No. 4. wide subdural or subarachnoid space in supratentorial region, No. 5. periventricular low density, No. 6. midline cavum, No. 7. normal CT findings in posterior fossa structure. Three out of four patients demonstrated full or bulged and tense anterior fontanella. Because of this suggestion of increased intracranial pressure and enlarged ventricles with periventricular lucency in CT findings, one patient underwent CT cisternography for dynamic analysis of the CSF circulation and continuous ICP monitoring for dynamic evaluation of the ICP pattern. The results revealed very much delayed CSF circulation and intermittently increased. ICP, with pressure waves appearing in 35.7 % of all recordings. (J.P.N.)

  7. Pathophysiology and Immune Dysfunction in Endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Soo Hyun; Monsanto, Stephany P.; Miller, Caragh; Singh, Sukhbir S.; Thomas, Richard; Tayade, Chandrakant

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent, chronic, proinflammatory disease prevalent in 10% of women of reproductive age worldwide. Characterized by the growth of endometrium-like tissue in aberrant locations outside of the uterus, it is responsible for symptoms including chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and subfertility that degrade quality of life of women significantly. In Canada, direct and indirect economic cost of endometriosis amounts to 1.8 billion dollars, and this is elevated to 20 billion dollars in the United States. Despite decades of research, the etiology and pathophysiology of endometriosis still remain to be elucidated. This review aims to bring together the current understanding regarding the pathogenesis of endometriosis with specific focus on mechanisms behind vascularization of the lesions and the contribution of immune factors in facilitating lesion establishment and development. The role of hormones, immune cells, and cytokine signaling is highlighted, in addition to discussing the current pharmaceutical options available for management of pain symptoms in women with endometriosis. PMID:26247027

  8. Pathophysiology and Immune Dysfunction in Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Hyun Ahn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent, chronic, proinflammatory disease prevalent in 10% of women of reproductive age worldwide. Characterized by the growth of endometrium-like tissue in aberrant locations outside of the uterus, it is responsible for symptoms including chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and subfertility that degrade quality of life of women significantly. In Canada, direct and indirect economic cost of endometriosis amounts to 1.8 billion dollars, and this is elevated to 20 billion dollars in the United States. Despite decades of research, the etiology and pathophysiology of endometriosis still remain to be elucidated. This review aims to bring together the current understanding regarding the pathogenesis of endometriosis with specific focus on mechanisms behind vascularization of the lesions and the contribution of immune factors in facilitating lesion establishment and development. The role of hormones, immune cells, and cytokine signaling is highlighted, in addition to discussing the current pharmaceutical options available for management of pain symptoms in women with endometriosis.

  9. Rifampicin Induces Bicarbonate-Rich Choleresis in Rats: Involvement of Anion Exchanger 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Ren, Xiaofei; Cai, Yi; Chen, Lihong; Zhang, Weiping; Xu, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that rifampicin induced choleresis, the mechanisms of which have not been described. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying in vivo rifampicin-induced choleresis. In one experimental set, rats were treated chronically with rifampicin on days 1, 3 and 7. Serum and biliary parameters were assayed, and mRNA and protein levels, as well as the locations of the hepatic export transporters were analyzed by real-time PCR, western blot and immunofluorescence. Ductular mass was evaluated immunohistochemically. In another experimental set, rats received an acute infusion of rifampicin. The amount of rifampicin in bile was detected using HPLC. Biliary parameters were monitored following intrabiliary retrograde fluxes of the Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange inhibitor 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) or 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB) in the infused rats. Biliary bicarbonate output increased in parallel to the augmented bile flow in response to rifampicin, and this effect was abolished with intrabiliary administration of DIDS, but not NPPB. The biliary secretion of rifampicin with increases in bile flow and biliary rifampicin in response to different infused doses of the antibiotic show no significant correlations. After rifampicin treatment, the expression level of anion exchanger 2 (AE2) increased, while the location of hepatic transporters did not change. However, RIF treatment did not increase ductular mass significantly. These results indicate that the increase in bile flow induced by rifampicin is mainly due to increased HCO3 (-) excretion mediated by increased AE2 protein expression and activity.

  10. Tics and Tourette: a clinical, pathophysiological and etiological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Russell C

    2017-12-01

    Describe developments in the etiological understanding of Tourette syndrome. Tourette syndrome is a complex heterogenous clinical syndrome, which is not a unitary entity. Pathophysiological models describe gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic-associated disinhibition of cortico-basal ganglia motor, sensory and limbic loops. MRI studies support basal ganglia volume loss, with additional white matter and cerebellar changes. Tourette syndrome cause likely involves multiple vulnerability genes and environmental factors. Only recently have some vulnerability gene findings been replicated, including histidine decarboxylase and neurexin 1, yet these rare variants only explain a small proportion of patients. Planned large genetic studies will improve genetic understanding. The role of inflammation as a contributor to disease expression is now supported by large epidemiological studies showing an association with maternal autoimmunity and childhood infection. Investigation of blood cytokines, blood mRNA and brain mRNA expression support the role of a persistent immune activation, and there are similarities with the immune literature of autistic spectrum disorder. Current treatment is symptomatic, although there is a better appreciation of factors that influence treatment response. At present, therapeutics is focused on symptom-based treatments, yet with improved etiological understanding, we will move toward disease-modifying therapies in the future.

  11. CO2 consumption and bicarbonate fluxes by chemical weathering in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Nils; Hartmann, Jens; Lauerwald, Ronny

    2010-05-01

    Cations released by chemical weathering are mainly counterbalanced by atmospheric/soil CO2 dissolved in water. Existing approaches to quantify CO2 consumption by chemical weathering are mostly based on the parameters runoff and lithology. Land cover is not implemented as predictor in existing regional or global scale models for atmospheric/soil CO2 consumption. Here, bicarbonate fluxes in North American rivers are quantified by an empirical forward model using the predictors runoff, lithology and land cover. The model was calibrated on chemical data from 338 river monitoring stations throughout North America. It was extrapolated to the entire North American continent by applying the model equation spatially explicitly to the geodata used for model calibration. Because silicate mineral weathering derived bicarbonate in rivers originates entirely from atmospheric/soil CO2, but carbonate mineral weathering additionally releases lithogenic bicarbonate, those source minerals are distinguished to quantify the CO2 consumption by chemical weathering. Extrapolation of the model results in a total bicarbonate flux of 51 Mt C a-1 in North America; 70% of which originate from atmospheric/soil CO2. On average, chemical weathering consumes 2.64 t atmospheric/soil C km-2 a-1 (~ 30%-40% above published world average values). For a given runoff and land cover, carbonate-rich sedimentary rocks export the most bicarbonate. However, half of this is assumed to be of lithogenic origin. Thus, the most atmospheric/soil CO2 per runoff is modeled to be consumed by basic plutonics. The least bicarbonate is exported and the least CO2 is consumed per runoff by weathering of metamorphic rocks. Of the distinguished different land cover classes of which urban areas export the most bicarbonate for a given lithology and runoff, followed by shrubs, grasslands and managed lands. For a given runoff and lithology, the least bicarbonate is exported from areas with forested land cover. The model shows 1

  12. Bicarbonate supplementation enhanced biofuel production potential as well as nutritional stress mitigation in the microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out the optimum sodium bicarbonate concentration to produce higher biomass with higher lipid and carbohydrate contents in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. The role of bicarbonate supplementation under different nutritional starvation conditions was also evaluated. The results clearly indicate that 0.6 g/L sodium bicarbonate was optimum concentration resulting in 20.91% total lipid and 25.56% carbohydrate along with 23% increase in biomass production compared to normal growth condition. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased the activity of nutrient assimilatory enzymes, biomass, lipid and carbohydrate contents under different nutritional starvation conditions. Nitrogen starvation with bicarbonate supplementation resulted in 54.03% carbohydrate and 34.44% total lipid content in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. These findings show application of bicarbonate grown microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 as a promising feedstock for biodiesel and bioethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ergogenic effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on intermittent exercise performance preceded by intense arm cranking exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marriott, Matthaus; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have been suggested to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise, but it is unclear if these ergogenic substances affect performance under provoked metabolic acidification. To study the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate on intense...... to CAF and PLA, while no difference in heart rate was observed between trials. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate administration improved Yo-Yo IR2 performance and lowered perceived exertion after intense arm cranking exercise, with greater overall effects of sodium bicarbonate intake....... intermittent exercise performance and metabolic markers under exercise-induced acidification, intense arm-cranking exercise was performed prior to intense intermittent running after intake of placebo, caffeine and sodium bicarbonate. METHODS: Male team-sports athletes (n = 12) ingested sodium bicarbonate (Na...

  14. The pathophysiology of restless legs syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Iwanami, Masaoki; Suzuki, Keisuke; Hirata, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder that is frequently associated with periodic leg movements (PLMS). RLS is generally considered to be a central nervous system (CNS)-related disorder although no specific lesion has been found to be associated with the syndrome. Reduced intracortical inhibition has been demonstrated in RLS by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Some MRI studies have revealed the presence of morphologic changes in the somatosensory cortex, motor cortex and thalamic gray matter. The results of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) studies showed that the limbic and opioid systems also play important roles in the pathophysiology of RLS. A functional MRI study revealed abnormal bilateral cerebellar and thalamic activation during the manifestation of sensory symptoms, with additional red nucleus and reticular formation activity during PLMS. PLMS is likely to occur in patients with spinal cord lesions, and some patients with sensory polyneuropathy may exhibit RLS symptoms. RLS symptoms seem to depend on abnormal spinal sensorimotor integration at the spinal cord level and abnormal central somatosensory processing. PLMS appears to depend on increased excitability of the spinal cord and a decreased supraspinal inhibitory mechanism from the A11 diencephalic dopaminergic system. RLS symptoms respond very dramatically to dopaminergic therapy. The results of analysis by PET and SPECT studies of striatal D2 receptor binding in humans are inconclusive. However, studies in animal models suggest that the participation of the A11 dopaminergic system and the D3 receptor in RLS symptoms. The symptoms of RLS are aggravated in those with iron deficiency, and iron treatment ameliorates the symptoms in some patients. Neuroimaging studies, analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid, and studies on postmortem tissue and use of animal models have indicated that low brain iron concentrations and dysfunction of

  15. Altered Mitochondrial Dynamics and TBI Pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Diane Fischer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial function is intimately linked to cellular survival, growth, and death. Mitochondria not only generate ATP from oxidative phosphorylation, but also mediate intracellular calcium buffering, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and apoptosis. Electron leakage from the electron transport chain, especially from damaged or depolarized mitochondria, can generate excess free radicals that damage cellular proteins, DNA, and lipids. Furthermore, mitochondrial damage releases pro-apoptotic factors to initiate cell death. Previous studies have reported that traumatic brain injury (TBI reduces mitochondrial respiration, enhances production of ROS, and triggers apoptotic cell death, suggesting a prominent role of mitochondria in TBI pathophysiology. Mitochondria maintain cellular energy homeostasis and health via balanced processes of fusion and fission, continuously dividing and fusing to form an interconnected network throughout the cell. An imbalance of these processes, particularly an excess of fission, can be detrimental to mitochondrial function, causing decreased respiration, ROS production, and apoptosis. Mitochondrial fission is regulated by the cytosolic GTPase, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1, which translocates to the mitochondrial outer membrane to initiate fission. Aberrant Drp1 activity has been linked to excessive mitochondrial fission and neurodegeneration. Measurement of Drp1 levels in purified hippocampal mitochondria showed an increase in TBI animals as compared to sham controls. Analysis of cryo-electron micrographs of these mitochondria also showed that TBI caused an initial increase in the length of hippocampal mitochondria at 24 hours post-injury, followed by a significant decrease in length at 72 hours. Post-TBI administration of Mdivi-1, a pharmacological inhibitor of Drp1, prevented this decrease in mitochondria length. Mdivi-1 treatment also reduced the loss of newborn neurons in the hippocampus and improved

  16. Pathophysiological characterization of asthma transitions across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Syed Hasan; Raza, Abid; Lau, Laurie; Bawakid, Khalid; Karmaus, Wilfried; Zhang, Hongmei; Ewart, Susan; Patil, Veersh; Roberts, Graham; Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh

    2014-11-29

    Adolescence is a period of change, which coincides with disease remission in a significant proportion of subjects with childhood asthma. There is incomplete understanding of the changing characteristics underlying different adolescent asthma transitions. We undertook pathophysiological characterization of transitional adolescent asthma phenotypes in a longitudinal birth cohort. The Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (N = 1456) was reviewed at 1, 2, 4, 10 and 18-years. Characterization included questionnaires, skin tests, spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, bronchial challenge and (in a subset of 100 at 18-years) induced sputum. Asthma groups were "never asthma" (no asthma since birth), "persistent asthma" (asthma at age 10 and 18), "remission asthma" (asthma at age 10 but not at 18) and "adolescent-onset asthma" (asthma at age 18 but not at age 10). Participants whose asthma remitted during adolescence had lower bronchial reactivity (odds ratio (OR) 0.30; CI 0.10 -0.90; p = 0.03) at age 10 plus greater improvement in lung function (forced expiratory flow 25-75% gain: 1.7 L; 1.0-2.9; p = 0.04) compared to persistent asthma by age 18. Male sex (0.3; 0.1-0.7; p adolescent-onset asthma showed eosinophilic airway inflammation (3.0%, 0.7-6.6), not seen in persistent asthma (1.0%, 0-3.9), while remission group had the lowest sputum eosinophil count (0.3%, 0-1.4) and lowest eosinophils/neutrophils ratio of 0.0 (Interquartile range: 0.1). Asthma remission during adolescence is associated with lower initial BHR and greater gain in small airways function, while adolescent-onset asthma is primarily eosinophilic.

  17. Chagas disease. A new pathophysiological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redruello, M.; Masoli, O.; Hasson, I.; Cragnolino, D.; Traverso, S.; Perez Balino, N.; Sarmiento, R.; Lazzari, J.; Luluaga, E.

    2002-01-01

    Background: There is scarce information on myocardial perfusion abnormalities and on the coronary vasomotor condition in Chagas disease patients. Aims: To assess regional perfusion abnormalities and the coronary vasomotor response of patients in the chronic phase of Chagas disease. Methods: With the use of 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT imaging and cold pressor test and intracoronary acetylcoline (ACH) perfusion, we studied 9 patients aged 42,6±12 years, 4 males, in the chronic stage of Chagas disease (5 with the indeterminate form and 4 with heart lesion) with normal coronary arteries. Vasomotor responses to intracoronary increasing doses of ACH and to a single dose of nitroglycerine (NTG) were assessed with digital quantitative angiography. Regional myocardial perfusion was evaluated at rest and after cold pressor test by a semi quantitative score analysis in an 18-segment model with 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT images. Results were expressed as mean ± 2SD. Differences between continuous variables were measured by two tails Student's t test for paired variables and the significance level was set at 5 %. Results: All patients had regional perfusion defects and abnormal vasomotor response. The diameter of the left anterior descending artery decreased 34% from a basal diameter of 3.66∫0.95 mm down to 2.42±0.74 mm after maximal response to ACH (p<0.002). NTG infusion augmented its diameter to 3.86±0.77 mm (p<0.0002) that is a 60% increase from post ACH diameter. Myocardial perfusion score was 1∫2.66 at rest and 6.22±3.6 after cold pressor test (p<0.0001). Conclusions: This group of patients in the chronic phase of Chagas disease showed an abnormal vasoconstrictive response to intracoronary ACH and cold-induced perfusion defects suggesting that endothelial dysfunction plays a role in the pathophysiology of chronic Chagas heart disease

  18. Epilepsy in autism: A pathophysiological consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoshiko; Nagao, Yuri; Kimura, Kazue; Hachimori, Kei; Segawa, Masaya

    2010-11-01

    Eighty cases of idiopathic autism with epilepsy and 97 cases without epilepsy were studied to evaluate the pathophysiology of epilepsy in autism. The initial visit to this clinic ranged 8months-30years 3months of age, and the current ages are 5years 8months-42years 3months, 60% reaching to over 30years of age. The average follow up duration is 22.2years±9.4years. The ages of onset of epilepsy were from 7months to 30years of age, with the two peaks at 3.2years and 16.7years. EEG central focus appeared earlier than frontal focus. Abnormality of locomotion and atonic NREM were observed more frequently in epileptic group. These suggest the neuronal system related to abnormality of locomotion and atonic NREM, which are the hypofunction of the brainstem monoaminergic system, is the pathomechanism underling the epilepsy in autism. By showing the abnormal sleep-wake rhythm and locomotion being the very initial symptoms in autism, we had shown the hypofunction of the brainstem monoaminergic system is the initial pathomechanism of autism. Thus, epilepsy in autism is not the secondary manifestation, but one of the pathognomonic symptoms of autism. The brainstem monoaminergic system project to the wider cortical area, and the initial monoaminergic hypofunction may lead to the central focus which appears earlier. The failure of the monoaminergic (serotonergic) system causes dysfunction of the pedunculo-pontine nucleus (PPN) and induces dysfunction of the dopamine (DA) system, and with development of the DA receptor supersensitivity consequently disinhibits the thalamo-frontal pathway, which after maturation of this pathway in teens cause the epileptogenesis in the frontal cortex. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pathophysiology of heatstroke in dogs - revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchim, Yaron; Horowitz, Michal; Aroch, Itamar

    2017-01-01

    Heatstroke results from a failure to dissipate accumulated heat during exposure to hot environments, or during strenuous physical exercise under heat stress. It is characterized by core body temperatures > 41°C, with central nervous system dysfunction. Functional morphology and thermoregulatory effectors differences between dogs and humans may require special heatstroke protective adaptations in dogs, however, the risk factors for developing heatstroke are similar in both. In dogs, these include hot, especially highly humid environments, excessive physical activity, obesity, large (>15 kg) body weight, being of certain breed (e.g., Labrador retrievers and brachycephalic breeds), upper airway obstruction and prolonged seizures. Lack of acclimation to heat and physical fitness decreases the survival of heat stroked dogs. At the systemic level, blood pooling within the large internal organs (e.g., spleen, liver) is a major contributor to the development of shock and consequent intestinal ischemia, hypoxia and endothelial hyperpermeability, commonly occurring in heatstroke patients. Evoked serious complications include rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome and ultimately, sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The most common clinical signs in dogs include acute collapse, tachypnea, spontaneous bleeding, shock signs and mental abnormalities, including depression, disorientation or delirium, seizures, stupor and coma. In such dogs, presence of peripheral blood nucleated red blood cells uniquely occurs, and is a highly sensitive diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. Despite early, appropriate body cooling, and intensive supportive treatment, with no available specific treatment to ameliorate the severe inflammatory and hemostatic derangements, the mortality rate is around 50%, similar to that of human heatstroke victims. This review discusses the pathophysiology of canine heatstroke from a veterinarian's point of view

  20. Faecal soiling: pathophysiology of postdefaecatory incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciani, F

    2013-08-01

    Passive postdefaecatory incontinence is poorly understood and yet is an important clinical problem. The aim of this study was to characterize the pathophysiology of postdefaecatory incontinence in patients affected by faecal soiling. Seventy-two patients (30 women, age range 49-79 years; 42 men, age range, 53-75 years) affected by faecal passive incontinence with faecal soiling were included in the study. Two patient groups were identified: Group 1 comprised 42 patients with postdefaecatory incontinence and Group 2 had 30 patients without incontinence after bowel movements. After a preliminary clinical evaluation, including the Faecal Incontinence Severity Index (FISI) score and the obstructed defaecation syndrome (ODS) score, all patients of Groups 1 and 2 were studied by means of endoanal ultrasound and anorectal manometry. The results were compared with those from 20 healthy control subjects. A significantly higher ODS score was found in Group 1 (P IAS) in Group 2 (P IAS atrophy and the FISI score (ρs 0.78; P < 0.03). Anal resting pressure (Pmax and Pm ) was significantly lower in Group 2 (P < 0.04). The straining test was considered positive in 30 (71.4%) patients in Group 1, significantly greater than in Group 2 (P < 0.01). A significantly higher conscious rectal sensitivity threshold (CRST) was found in Group 1 patients (P < 0.01). The ODS score, a positive straining test and high CRST values suggest that postdefaecatory incontinence is secondary to impaired defaecation. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  1. Acute sodium bicarbonate loading has negligible effects on resting and exercise blood pressure but causes gastrointestinal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Laura E; Kelly, Patrick V; Eliot, Kathrin A; Weiss, Edward P

    2013-06-01

    Oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate loading) has acute ergogenic effects on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Because sodium bicarbonate is 27% sodium, ergogenic doses (ie, 300 mg∙kg⁻¹) result in sodium intakes well above the Dietary Reference Intakes upper limit of 2300 mg/day. Therefore, it is conceivable that bicarbonate loading could have hypertensive effects. Therefore, we performed a double-blind crossover trial to evaluate the hypothesis that bicarbonate loading increases resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). A secondary hypothesis was that bicarbonate loading causes gastrointestinal distress. Eleven endurance-trained men and women (exercise frequency, 4.6 ± 0.4 sessions/wk; duration, 65 ± 6 min/session) underwent testing on two occasions in random sequence: once after bicarbonate loading (300 mg∙kg⁻¹) and once after placebo ingestion. BP and heart rate were measured before bicarbonate or placebo consumption, 30 minutes after consumption, during 20 min of steady state submaximal cycling exercise, and during recovery. Bicarbonate loading did not affect systolic BP during rest, exercise, or recovery (P = .38 for main treatment effect). However, it resulted in modestly higher diastolic BP (main treatment effect, +3.3 ± 1.1 mmHg, P = .01) and higher heart rate (main treatment effect, +10.1 ± 2.4 beats per minute, P = .002). Global ratings of gastrointestinal distress severity (0-10 scale) were greater after bicarbonate ingestion (5.1 ± 0.5 vs 0.5 ± 0.2, P bicarbonate loading. In conclusion, although a single, ergogenic dose of sodium bicarbonate does not appear to have acute, clinically important effects on resting or exercise BP, it does cause substantial gastrointestinal distress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of bicarbonate on iron-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Hirofumi; Berlett, Barbara S.; Chock, P. Boon; Stadtman, Earl R.

    2005-07-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may play an important role in atherosclerosis. We studied the effects of bicarbonate/CO2 and phosphate buffer systems on metal ion-catalyzed oxidation of LDL to malondialdehyde (MDA) and to protein carbonyl and MetO derivatives. Our results revealed that LDL oxidation in mixtures containing free iron or heme derivatives was much greater in bicarbonate/CO2 compared with phosphate buffer. However, when copper was substituted for iron in these mixtures, the rate of LDL oxidation in both buffers was similar. Iron-catalyzed oxidation of LDL was highly sensitive to inhibition by phosphate. Presence of 0.3-0.5 mM phosphate, characteristic of human serum, led to 30-40% inhibition of LDL oxidation in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer. Iron-catalyzed oxidation of LDL to MDA in phosphate buffer was inhibited by increasing concentrations of albumin (10-200 μM), whereas MDA formation in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer was stimulated by 10-50 μM albumin but inhibited by higher concentrations. However, albumin stimulated the oxidation of LDL proteins to carbonyl derivatives at all concentrations examined in both buffers. Conversion of LDL to MDA in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer was greatly stimulated by ADP, ATP, and EDTA but only when EDTA was added at a concentration equal to that of iron. At higher than stoichiometric concentrations, EDTA prevented oxidation of LDL. Results of these studies suggest that interactions between bicarbonate and iron or heme derivatives leads to complexes with redox potentials that favor the generation of reactive oxygen species and/or to the generation of highly reactive CO2 anion or bicarbonate radical that facilitates LDL oxidation. Freely available online through the PNAS open access option.Abbreviations: LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MDA, malondialdehyde; MetO, methionine sulfoxide.

  3. Studies on bicarbonate transporters and carbonic anhydrase in porcine non-pigmented ciliary epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidullah, Mohammad; C-H, To; Pelis, Ryan M.; Delamere, Nicholas A

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Bicarbonate transport plays a role in aqueous humor (AH) secretion. Here, we examined bicarbonate transport mechanisms and carbonic anhydrase (CA) in porcine non-pigmented ciliary epithelium (NPE). Methods Cytoplasmic pH (pHi) was measured in cultured porcine NPE loaded with BCECF. Anion exchanger (AE), sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) and CA were examined by RT-PCR and immunolocalization. AH secretion was measured in the intact porcine eye using a fluorescein dilution technique. Results Anion exchanger AE2, CAII and CAIV were abundant in the NPE layer. In cultured NPE superfused with a CO2/HCO3− free HEPES buffer, exposure to a CO2/HCO3−-containing buffer caused a rapid acidification followed by a gradual pHi increase. Subsequent removal of CO2/HCO3− with HEPES buffer caused rapid alkalinization followed by gradual pHi decrease. The rate of gradual alkalinization after addition of HCO3−/CO2 was inhibited by sodium-free conditions, DIDS, CA inhibitors acetazolamide and methazolamide but not by Na-H exchange inhibitor dimethylamiloride or low chloride buffer. The phase of gradual acidification after removal of HCO3−/CO2 was inhibited by DIDS, acetazolamide, methazolamide and by low chloride buffer. DIDS reduced baseline pHi. In the intact eye, DIDS and acetazolamide reduced AH secretion by 25% and 44% respectively. Conclusion The results suggest the NPE uses a Na+-HCO3− cotransporter to import bicarbonate and a Cl−/HCO3− exchanger to export bicarbonate. CA influences the rate of bicarbonate transport. AE2, CAII and CAIV are enriched in the NPE layer of the ciliary body and their coordinated function may contribute to AH secretion by effecting bicarbonate transport into the eye. PMID:19011010

  4. Effects of potential and concentration of bicarbonate solution on stress corrosion cracking of annealed carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruna, Takumi; Zhu, Liehong; Murakami, Makoto; Shibata, Toshio

    2000-01-01

    Effects of potential and concentration of bicarbonate on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of annealed SM 400 B carbon steel has been investigated in bicarbonate solutions at 343 K. The surface of annealed specimen had decarburized layer of about 0. 5 mm thickness. A potentiostatic slow strain rate testing apparatus equipped with a charge coupled device camera system was employed to evaluate SCC susceptibility from the viewpoint of the crack behavior. In a constant bicarbonate concentration of 1 M, cracks were observed in the potential range from -800 to 600 mV Ag/ A gCl . and especially, the initiation and the propagation of the cracks were accelerated at -600 mV. At a constant potential of -600 mV, cracks were observed in the concentration range from 0.001 to 1 M, and the initiation and the propagation of the cracks were suppressed as the concentration decreased. Polarization curves for the decarburized surface were measured with two different scan rates. High SCC susceptibility may be expected in the potential range where the difference between the two current densities is large. It was found in this system that the potential with the maximum difference in the current density was -600 mV for 1 M bicarbonate solution, and the potential increased with a decrease in the concentration of bicarbonate. This means that an applied potential of -600 mV provides the highest SCC susceptibility for 1 M bicarbonate solution, and that the SCC susceptibility decreases as the concentration decreases. These findings support the dependence of the actual SCC behavior on the potential and the concentration of bicarbonate. (author)

  5. Effects of combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated sprint performance in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, James J; McDermott, Ann Y; McGaughey, Karen J; Olmstead, Jennifer D; Hagobian, Todd A

    2013-01-01

    Creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation independently increase exercise performance, but it remains unclear whether combining these 2 supplements is more beneficial on exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of combining creatine monohydrate and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on exercise performance. Thirteen healthy, trained men (21.1 ± 0.6 years, 23.5 ± 0.5 kg·m(-2), 66.7 ± 5.7 ml·(kg·m)(-1) completed 3 conditions in a double-blinded, crossover fashion: (a) Placebo (Pl; 20 g maltodextrin + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), (b) Creatine (Cr; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), and (c) Creatine plus sodium bicarbonate (Cr + Sb; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) sodium bicarbonate). Each condition consisted of supplementation for 2 days followed by a 3-week washout. Peak power, mean power, relative peak power, and bicarbonate concentrations were assessed during six 10-second repeated Wingate sprint tests on a cycle ergometer with a 60-second rest period between each sprint. Compared with Pl, relative peak power was significantly higher in Cr (4%) and Cr + Sb (7%). Relative peak power was significantly lower in sprints 4-6, compared with that in sprint 1, in both Pl and Cr. However, in Cr + Sb, sprint 6 was the only sprint significantly lower compared with sprint 1. Pre-Wingate bicarbonate concentrations were significantly higher in Cr + Sb (10%), compared with in Pl and Cr, and mean concentrations remained higher after sprint 6, although not significantly. Combining creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation increased peak and mean power and had the greatest attenuation of decline in relative peak power over the 6 repeated sprints. These data suggest that combining these 2 supplements may be advantageous for athletes participating in high-intensity, intermittent exercise.

  6. High rates of intestinal bicarbonate secretion in seawater tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Jarabo, I; Gregório, S F; Gaetano, P; Trischitta, F; Fuentes, J

    2017-05-01

    Osmoregulation in fish is a complex process that requires the orchestrated cooperation of many tissues. In fish facing hyperosmotic environments, the intestinal absorption of some monovalent ions and the secretion of bicarbonate are key processes to favor water absorption. In the present study, we showed that bicarbonate levels in the intestinal fluid are several fold higher in seawater than in freshwater acclimated tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). In addition, we analyzed gene expression of the main molecular mechanisms involved in HCO 3 - movements i.e. slc26a6, slc26a3, slc4a4 and v-type H-ATPase sub C in the intestine of tilapia acclimated to both seawater and freshwater. Our results show an anterior/posterior functional regionalization of the intestine in tilapia in terms of expression patterns, which is affected by environmental salinity mostly in the anterior and mid intestine. Analysis of bicarbonate secretion using pH-Stat in tissues mounted in Ussing chambers reveals high rates of bicarbonate secretion in tilapia acclimated to seawater from anterior intestine to rectum ranging between ~900 and ~1700nmolHCO 3 - cm -2 h -1 . However, a relationship between the expression of slc26a6, slc26a3, slc4a4 and the rate of bicarbonate secretion seems to be compromised in the rectum. In this region, the low expression of the bicarbonate transporters could not explain the high bicarbonate secretion rates here described. However, we postulate that the elevated v-type H-ATPase mRNA expression in the rectum could be involved in this process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary sodium bicarbonate, cool temperatures, and feed withdrawal: impact on arterial and venous blood-gas values in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideman, R F; Hooge, D M; Cummings, K R

    2003-04-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) has been used successfully in mammals and birds to alleviate pulmonary hypertension. Experiment 1 was designed to provide measurements of arterial and venous blood-gas values from unanesthetized male broilers subjected to a cool temperature (16 degrees C) challenge and fed either a control diet or the same diet alkalinized by dilution with 1% NaHCO3. The incidences of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS, ascites) for broilers fed the control or bicarbonate diets were 15.5 and 10.5%, respectively (P = 0.36, NS). Non-ascitic broilers fed the control diet were heavier than those fed the bicarbonate diet on d 49 (2,671 vs. 2,484 g, respectively); however, other comparisons failed to reveal diet-related differences in heart weight, pulse oximetry values, electrocardiogram amplitudes, or blood-gas values (P > 0.05). When the data were resorted into categories based on right:total ventricular weight ratios (RV:TV) indicative of normal (RV:TV or = 0.28) pulmonary arterial pressures, broilers with elevated RV:TV ratios had poorly oxygenated arterial blood that was more acidic, had high partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2), and had higher HCO3 concentrations when compared with broilers with normal RV:TV ratios. Experiment 2 was conducted to determine if metabolic variations associated with differences in feed intake or environmental temperature potentially could mask an impact of diet composition on blood-gas values. Male broilers maintained at thermoneutral temperature (24 degrees C) either received feed ad libitum or had the feed withdrawn > or = 12 h prior to blood sampling. Broilers fed ad libitum had lower venous saturation of hemoglobin with O2, higher venous PCO2, and higher arterial HCO3 concentrations than broilers subjected to feed withdrawal. Broilers in experiment 2 fed ad libitum and exposed to cool temperatures (16 degrees C) had lower arterial partial pressure of O2 and higher venous PCO2 than broilers fed ad libitum and maintained at 24

  8. 14C fixation by leaves and leaf cell protoplasts of the submerged aquatic angiosperm Potamogeton lucens: Carbon dioxide or bicarbonate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staal, M.; Elzenga, J.T.M.; Prins, H.B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Protoplasts were isolated from leaves of the aquatic angiosperm Potamogeton lucens L. The leaves utilize bicarbonate as a carbon source for photosynthesis, and show polarity; that is acidification of the periplasmic space of the lower, and alkalinization of the space near the upper leaf side. At present there are two models under consideration for this photosynthetic bicarbonate utilization process: conversion of bicarbonate into free carbon dioxide as a result of acidification and, second, a bicarbonate-proton symport across the plasma membrane. Carbon fixation of protoplasts was studied at different pH values and compared with that in leaf strips. Using the isotopic disequilibrium technique, it was established that carbon dioxide and not bicarbonate was the form in which DIC actually crossed the plasma membrane. It is concluded that there is probably no true bicarbonate transport system at the plasma membrane of these cells and that bicarbonate utilization in this species apparently rests on the conversion of bicarbonate into carbon dioxide. Experiments with acetazolamide, an inhibitor of periplasmic carbonic anhydrase, and direct measurements of carbonic anhydrase activity in intact leaves indicate that in this species the role of this enzyme for periplasmic conversion of bicarbonate into carbon dioxide is insignificant

  9. Pathophysiology of Pulmonary Hypertension in Chronic Parenchymal Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Inderjit; Ma, Kevin Cong; Berlin, David Adam

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension commonly complicates chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease. The association of chronic lung disease and pulmonary hypertension portends a worse prognosis. The pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension differs in the presence or absence of lung disease. We describe the physiological determinants of the normal pulmonary circulation to better understand the pathophysiological factors implicated in chronic parenchymal lung disease-associated pulmonary hypertension. This review will focus on the pathophysiology of 3 forms of chronic lung disease-associated pulmonary hypertension: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pathophysiology of gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a role for mucosa integrity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, R

    2013-10-01

    Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is very prevalent and has a high burden on health security system costs. Nevertheless, pathophysiology is complex and not well-understood. Several mechanisms have been proposed: decreased salivation, impaired esophageal clearance, decreased lower esophageal sphincter pressure resting tone, presence of hiatal hernia, increased number of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs), increased acid, and pepsin secretion, pyloric incompetence provoking duodeno-gastro-esophageal reflux of bile acids and trypsin. Independent of the relevance of each mechanism, the ultimate phenomenon is that mucosal epithelium is exposed for a longer time to agents as acid and pepsin or is in contact to luminal agents not commonly present in gastric refluxate as trypsin or bile acids. This leads to a visible damage of the epithelium (erosive esophagitis -EE) or impairing mucosal integrity without any sign of macroscopic alteration as occurs in non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). Luminal factors are not the only responsible for such impairment; more recent data indicate that endogenous factors may also play a role. This review will update the most recent findings on the putative pathophysiological mechanisms and specially will focus on the role of esophageal mucosal integrity in GERD. Methodologies used for the evaluation of mucosal integrity, its relevance in EE and NERD, its involvement in symptoms perception and the effect of luminal and endogenous factors will be discussed. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Differential Responses of Two Lactuca sativa Varieties to Bicarbonate-Induced Iron Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Chebbi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron chlorosis induced by bicarbonate is very common in calcareous soils, where bicarbonate (HCO3- ions are present at high concentrations. In this study, morpho-physiological and biochemical responses of two Lactuca sativa varieties (Romaine and Vista to bicarbonate induced iron deficiency were investigated. The culture was conducted on nutrient solution containing 5 µM Fe and 10 mM NaHCO3, in a growth chamber with controlled conditions. After 14 days of bicarbonate treatment, the two varieties seedling showed a slight yellowing of young leaves associated with a significant decline of plant biomass, leaf number and area. Furthermore, the concentrations of the nutrient elements (potassium, magnesium, iron and calcium in leaves and roots of two lettuce varieties were modified. In roots of bicarbonate treated plants, the Fe-chelate reductase activity was increased as compared to control in both varieties. PEPC activity was enhanced only in Vista variety. Moreover, Fe deficiency induced a small change in the photosynthetic parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence, especially in Romaine variety. These changes are accompanied by decreases in ribulose 1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco activity. These findings indicated that Vista variety could survive at low iron supply.

  12. Effect of application approaches of ammonium bicarbonate on yield of spring wheat and nitrogen balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xianfang; Pan Jiarong; Zheng Xingyun

    1995-01-01

    The results from 15 N-tracing experiment showed that at the same rate of nitrogen application, the nitrogen utilization ammonium bicarbonate was 33.50%, 32.30% and 23.19% respectively and the nitrogen loss rate of ammonium bicarbonate was 22.12%, 26.93% and 45.32% respectively for fertilizer mixed thoroughly with soil before sowing, buried into soil and spread on the surface of soil at both joining stage (1/2N) and booting stage (1/2N) of spring wheat. The nitrogen utilization of ammonium bicarbonate for top-application at both joining (1/2N) and booting stage (1/2N) was significantly lower but nitrogen loss rate was significantly higher than that of either thorough incorporation with soil or deep application at joining and booting stages. Between the latter treatments there was no significantly difference observed. There was no significant difference in biomass and grain yield of spring wheat between the former treatment and either of the latter treatments, indicating that buried into soil or mixed with soil thoroughly as a basal fertilizer was an available approach to increase the nitrogen availability of ammonium bicarbonate and crop yield. It was also shown that no significant difference in biomass and grain yield of spring wheat between deep application of ammonium bicarbonate and top-application of urea at the same rate of N application

  13. Corrosion behavior of carbon steel for overpack in groundwater containing bicarbonate ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Toshiyasu; Dong, Junpha

    2009-01-01

    Carbon steel is considered in Japan the candidate material for overpacks in high-level radioactive waste disposal. Effects of bicarbonate solutions on the corrosion behavior and corrosion products of carbon steel were investigated by electrochemical measurements, FT-IR and XRD analyses. The anodic polarization measurements showed that bicarbonate ions (HCO 3 - ) accelerated the anodic dissolution and the outer layer film formation of carbon steel in the case of high concentrations, on the other hand, it inhibited these processes in the case of low concentrations. The FT-IR and XRD analyses of the anodized film showed that siderite (FeCO 3 ) was formed in 0.5 to 1.0 mol/L bicarbonate solution, and Fe 2 (OH) 2 CO 3 in 0.1 to 0.2 mol/L bicarbonate solution, while Fe 6 (OH) 12 CO 3 was formed in 0.02 to 0.05 mol/L bicarbonate solutions. The stability of these corrosion products was able to be explained by using the actual potential-pH diagrams for the Fe-H 2 O-CO 2 system. (author)

  14. A case of anaphylactoid reaction to acetate in acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaki, Taro; Suzuki, Yumiko; Naito, Yoshitaka; Shiooka, Tempei; Isozaki, Taisuke

    2015-05-01

    A 35-year-old man with end-stage kidney disease due to chronic glomerulonephritis was admitted to our hospital to start maintenance hemodialysis (HD). One hour after starting the first session of HD, he experienced general pruritus, urticaria, and dyspnea. Signs and symptoms were resolved by discontinuing HD and administrating an antihistamine drug; HD-associated anaphylactoid reactions were therefore suspected. Over the next few HD sessions, we changed the dialysis membrane, anticoagulant, HD circuit and needle, in that order, but general pruritus and urticaria again appeared within 3 h after starting each session of HD. Finally, when we changed the dialysate from acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate to acetate-free bicarbonate dialysate, urticaria was clearly less than that seen in previous HD sessions, and subsided after discontinuation of HD. Subsequently, 20 mg of oral prednisolone (PSL) was administered 1 h before starting HD, and the patient did not experience general pruritus, urticaria, or dyspnea after starting the session. When administered acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate after oral PSL pretreatment, the patient again experienced general pruritus, urticaria and dyspnea. Few reports have been published on the occurrence of anaphylactoid reactions during HD using acetate dialysate. We report a rare case of anaphylactoid reactions with acetate in acetate-containing bicarbonate dialysate that were reduced with the use of acetate-free bicarbonate dialysate and oral PSL pretreatment.

  15. Physical disruption of oral biofilms by sodium bicarbonate: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratten, J; Wiecek, J; Mordan, N; Lomax, A; Patel, N; Spratt, D; Middleton, A M

    2016-08-01

    Sodium bicarbonate has been shown clinically to be efficacious at removing dental plaque; however, its effect of mechanism against biofilms has not been evaluated in vitro. Here, we used a well-established in vitro plaque biofilm model to investigate the disruption of dental plaque biofilms. Biofilms were grown in a constant depth film fermentor for up to 14 days. The fermentor was inoculated with pooled human saliva and growth maintained with artificial saliva. After various time points, replicate biofilms were removed and subjected to treatment at varying concentrations of sodium bicarbonate. Disruption of the plaque was assessed by viable counts and microscopy. The viable count results showed that younger biofilms were less susceptible to the action of sodium bicarbonate; however, biofilms of 7 days and older were increasingly susceptible to the material with the oldest biofilms being the most susceptible. Sixty-seven percentage of sodium bicarbonate slurry was able to reduce the number of organisms present by approx. 3 log10 . These quantitative data were corroborated qualitatively with both confocal and electron microscopy, which both showed substantial qualitative removal of mature biofilms. The results from this study have shown that sodium bicarbonate is able to disrupt mature dental plaque grown in vitro and that its reported efficacy in maintaining oral hygiene may be related to this key factor. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Role of Sodium Bicarbonate in the Management of Some Toxic Ingestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aibek E. Mirrakhimov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse reactions to commonly prescribed medications and to substances of abuse may result in severe toxicity associated with increased morbidity and mortality. According to the Center for Disease Control, in 2013, at least 2113 human fatalities attributed to poisonings occurred in the United States of America. In this article, we review the data regarding the impact of systemic sodium bicarbonate administration in the management of certain poisonings including sodium channel blocker toxicities, salicylate overdose, and ingestion of some toxic alcohols and in various pharmacological toxicities. Based on the available literature and empiric experience, the administration of sodium bicarbonate appears to be beneficial in the management of a patient with the above-mentioned toxidromes. However, most of the available evidence originates from case reports, case series, and expert consensus recommendations. The potential mechanisms of sodium bicarbonate include high sodium load and the development of metabolic alkalosis with resultant decreased tissue penetration of the toxic substance with subsequent increased urinary excretion. While receiving sodium bicarbonate, patients must be monitored for the development of associated side effects including electrolyte abnormalities, the progression of metabolic alkalosis, volume overload, worsening respiratory status, and/or worsening metabolic acidosis. Patients with oliguric/anuric renal failure and advanced decompensated heart failure should not receive sodium bicarbonate.

  17. [Correlation between the use of sodium bicarbonate and intraventricular hemorrhage in preterms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pasquel, María José; Iglesias-Leboreiro, José; Bernardez-Zapata, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Being born preterm implies comorbidities, among them the risk of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). The use of sodium bicarbonate has been linked to the presence of IVH. The main purpose of this study was to determine if the infusion of sodium bicarbonate during the first 24 hours increases the risk of IVH in preterm infants. Our study is a cohort; we analyzed the files of 160 patients and divided them into two groups: one in which sodium bicarbonate was not used and another in which it was; this latter group was subdivided into two considering if the use was therapeutic of prophylactic. In our total group of patients 10 % presented IVH; had a mean weight of 1500 g and 31 weeks of gestational age. The incidence of IVH was identical between both groups, although patients in which bicarbonate was used were more premature, unstable, and in worse clinical conditions. Our data indicate the need of large scale studies to determine if the clinical benefits of the use of sodium bicarbonate outweigh the risk of IVH.

  18. [Involvement of carbonate/bicarbonate ions in the superoxide-generating reaction of adrenaline autoxidation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirota, T V

    2015-01-01

    An important role of carbonate/bicarbonate ions has been recognized in the superoxide generating reaction of adrenaline autooxidation in an alkaline buffer (a model of quinoid adrenaline oxidation in the body). It is suggested that these ions are directly involved not only in formation of superoxide anion radical (О(2)(-)) but also other radicals derived from the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer. Using various buffers it was shown that the rate of accumulation of adrenochrome, the end product of adrenaline oxidation, and the rate of О(2)(-)· formation depend on concentration of carbonate/bicarbonate ions in the buffer and that these ions significantly accelerate adrenaline autooxidation thus demonstrating prooxidant properties. The detectable amount of diformazan, the product of nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction, was significantly higher than the amount of adrenochrome formed; taking into consideration the literature data on О(2)(-)· detection by NBT it is suggested that adrenaline autooxidation is accompanied by one-electron reduction not only of oxygen dissolved in the buffer and responsible for superoxide formation but possible carbon dioxide also dissolved in the buffer as well as carbonate/bicarbonate buffer components leading to formation of corresponding radicals. The plots of the dependence of the inhibition of adrenochrome and diformazan formation on the superoxide dismutase concentration have shown that not only superoxide radicals are formed during adrenaline autooxidation. Since carbonate/bicarbonate ions are known to be universally present in the living nature, their involvement in free radical processes proceeding in the organism is discussed.

  19. Effect of sodium bicarbonate against Candida albicans in denture stomatitis: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsolmoulouk Najafi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium bicarbonate against candida albicans, the main infectious factor of denture stomatitis, and to compare it with other common anti-candida medications. Materials and Methods: Three concentrations of Candida albicans (105, 106, 107 CFU/mL were prepared. Experimental substances were 5% sodium bicarbonate, nystatin, chlorhexidine, and sterile saline (as control. Each of them was added separately to the same amounts of Candida albicans of different concentrations, and sampled at the intervals of 1, 2, 3 and 4 min. Then, the samples were cultured and incubated. The number of formed colonies was counted for each plate. The data were analyzed, using ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: Sodium bicarbonate showed a noticeable anti-candida effect on the concentrations of 105 and 106 CFU/mL, with almost similar anti-candida effect as nystatin and chlorehexidine(P=0.29, P=0.32. Nystatin was the most effective medication on the concentration of 107 CFU/mL of candida (P=0.03, P=0.01. Sodium bicarbonate and chlorhexidine were less effective in this concentration with no statistically significant difference (P=1.00. Conclusion: Sodium bicarbonate showed a significant anti-candida effect at low and medium concentrations of Candida albicans, but nystatin was more effective in the higher concentrations.

  20. Association between sodium bicarbonate consumption and human health: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadolah Fakhri

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sodium bicarbonate or baking soda is a chemical compound dissolved in water which is widely used as an additive in foods and mineral water and as a medicine. In Iran, due to the introduction of harmful effects of this compound, using it in baking is prohibited. Therefore, we tried to search and evaluate all health effects of using this compound with a systematic review. In this study, all available evidences on the beneficial and harmful effects of sodium bicarbonate were searched. The method was based on systematic study of reputable databases including Embase, Ovid, Scopus, Pubmed and ISI Web of science. Invalid studies were found that shows the relationship of harmful effects of sodium bicarbonate on general health. In addition to that, the studies showed therapeutic aspects and useful effects of this material. Some studies showed the harmful effects of therapeutic using of sodium bicarbonate with high dose that randomly happened. Reviewing of credible studies showed that not only using sodium bicarbonate is not harmful for human health, but also using it as a drug can be useful in treatment and relief of some diseases

  1. The Role of Sodium Bicarbonate in the Management of Some Toxic Ingestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirrakhimov, Aibek E; Ayach, Taha; Barbaryan, Aram; Talari, Goutham; Chadha, Romil; Gray, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Adverse reactions to commonly prescribed medications and to substances of abuse may result in severe toxicity associated with increased morbidity and mortality. According to the Center for Disease Control, in 2013, at least 2113 human fatalities attributed to poisonings occurred in the United States of America. In this article, we review the data regarding the impact of systemic sodium bicarbonate administration in the management of certain poisonings including sodium channel blocker toxicities, salicylate overdose, and ingestion of some toxic alcohols and in various pharmacological toxicities. Based on the available literature and empiric experience, the administration of sodium bicarbonate appears to be beneficial in the management of a patient with the above-mentioned toxidromes. However, most of the available evidence originates from case reports, case series, and expert consensus recommendations. The potential mechanisms of sodium bicarbonate include high sodium load and the development of metabolic alkalosis with resultant decreased tissue penetration of the toxic substance with subsequent increased urinary excretion. While receiving sodium bicarbonate, patients must be monitored for the development of associated side effects including electrolyte abnormalities, the progression of metabolic alkalosis, volume overload, worsening respiratory status, and/or worsening metabolic acidosis. Patients with oliguric/anuric renal failure and advanced decompensated heart failure should not receive sodium bicarbonate.

  2. The ethanol-induced stimulation of rat duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in vivo is critically dependent on luminal Cl-.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sommansson

    Full Text Available Alcohol may induce metabolic and functional changes in gastrointestinal epithelial cells, contributing to impaired mucosal barrier function. Duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DBS is a primary epithelial defense against gastric acid and also has an important function in maintaining the homeostasis of the juxtamucosal microenvironment. The aim in this study was to investigate the effects of the luminal perfusion of moderate concentrations of ethanol in vivo on epithelial DBS, fluid secretion and paracellular permeability. Under thiobarbiturate anesthesia, a ∼30-mm segment of the proximal duodenum with an intact blood supply was perfused in situ in rats. The effects on DBS, duodenal transepithelial net fluid flux and the blood-to-lumen clearance of 51Cr-EDTA were investigated. Perfusing the duodenum with isotonic solutions of 10% or 15% ethanol-by-volume for 30 min increased DBS in a concentration-dependent manner, while the net fluid flux did not change. Pre-treatment with the CFTR inhibitor CFTRinh172 (i.p. or i.v. did not change the secretory response to ethanol, while removing Cl- from the luminal perfusate abolished the ethanol-induced increase in DBS. The administration of hexamethonium (i.v. but not capsazepine significantly reduced the basal net fluid flux and the ethanol-induced increase in DBS. Perfusing the duodenum with a combination of 1.0 mM HCl and 15% ethanol induced significantly greater increases in DBS than 15% ethanol or 1.0 mM HCl alone but did not influence fluid flux. Our data demonstrate that ethanol induces increases in DBS through a mechanism that is critically dependent on luminal Cl- and partly dependent on enteric neural pathways involving nicotinic receptors. Ethanol and HCl appears to stimulate DBS via the activation of different bicarbonate transporting mechanisms.

  3. Electrospun gelatin/sodium bicarbonate and poly(lactide-co-ε-caprolactone)/sodium bicarbonate nanofibers as drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Qingqing; Williams, Gareth R; Wu, Huanling; Liu, Kailin; Li, Heyu; Zhu, Li-Min

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we report electrospun nanofibers made of model hydrophobic (poly(lactide-co-ε-caprolactone); PLCL) and hydrophilic (gelatin) polymers. We explored the effect on drug release of the incorporation of sodium bicarbonate (SB) into these fibers, using the potent antibacterial agent ciprofloxacin as a model drug. The fibers prepared are smooth and have relatively uniform diameters lying between ca. 600 and 850nm. The presence of ciprofloxacin in the fibers was confirmed using IR spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction showed the drug to be incorporated into the fibers in the amorphous form. In vitro drug release studies revealed that, as expected, more rapid drug release was seen with gelatin fibers than those made of PLCL, and a greater final release percentage was obtained. The inclusion of SB in the gelatin fibers imparts them with pH sensitivity: gelatin/SB fibers showed faster release at pH5 than pH7.4, while fibers without SB gave the same release profiles at both pHs. The PLCL fibers have no pH sensitivity, even when SB was included, as a result of their hydrophobic structure precluding the ingress of solvent. In vitro cell culture studies showed that all the fibers are able to promote cell proliferation. The ciprofloxacin loaded fibers are effective in inhibiting Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus growth in antibacterial tests. Thus, the gelatin-based fibers can be used as pH-responsive drug delivery systems, with potential applications for instance in the treatment of tumor resection sites. Should these become infected, the pH would drop, resulting in ciprofloxacin being released and the infection halted. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of sodium bicarbonate upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Vivian Barbosa; Baxmann, Alessandra Calábria; Tiselius, Hans-Göran; Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral sodium bicarbonate (NaBic) supplementation upon urinary citrate excretion in calcium stone formers (CSFs). Sixteen adult calcium stone formers with hypocitraturia were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, crossover protocol using 60 mEq/day of NaBic during 3 days compared to the same period and doses of potassium citrate (KCit) supplementation. Blood and 24-hour urine samples were collected at baseline and during the third day of each alkali salt. NaBic, similarly to KCit supplementation, led to an equivalent and significant increase in urinary citrate and pH. Compared to baseline, NaBic led to a significant increase in sodium excretion without concomitant increases in urinary calcium excretion, whereas KCit induced a significant increase in potassium excretion coupled with a significant reduction in urinary calcium. Although NaBic and KCit both reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation (CaOxSS) significantly vs baseline, KCit reduced calcium oxalate supersaturation significantly further vs NaBic. Both KCit and NaBic significantly reduced urinary phosphate and increased calcium phosphate supersaturation (CaPSS) compared to baseline. Finally, a significantly higher sodium urate supersaturation (NaUrSS) was observed after the use of the 2 drugs. This short-term study suggests that NaBic represents an effective alternative for the treatment of hypocitraturic calcium oxalate stone formers who cannot tolerate or afford the cost of KCit. In view of the increased sodium urate supersaturation, patients with pure uric acid stones and high urate excretion may be less suited for treatment with NaBic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of lactate supplementation and sodium bicarbonate on 40-km cycling time trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northgraves, Matthew J; Peart, Daniel J; Jordan, Christian A; Vince, Rebecca V

    2014-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements to improve sporting performance and increase training adaptations is commonplace among athletes and is an expanding market in terms of product choice and availability. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 ergogenic aids with extracellular blood buffering potential, namely sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and a lactate supplement, during a 40-km cycling time trial. Seven recreationally active men (age, 22.3 ± 3.3 years; height, 182.5 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 79.2 ± 6.3 kg) completed five 40-km cycling time trials, including a familiarization trial in a randomized, blind, double placebo-controlled design. Subjects ingested (a) 300 mg·kg-1 body mass NaHCO3 (BICARB), (b) 45 mg·kg-1 body mass sodium chloride (PL-BICARB) as the placebo for the NaHCO3 trial, (c) 1115 mg lactate (LACTATE), or (d) plain flour as the placebo for the lactate trial (PL-LACTATE) 60 minutes before exercise. There was no significant difference in performance between the 4 conditions (p > 0.05). Although NaHCO3 ingestion induced significant changes in all the acid-base variables (all p 0.05). Subjects in the LACTATE condition did have a significantly higher heart rate (p 0.05) than the other 3 conditions. Neither NaHCO3 nor lactate supplementation seem to improve 40-km cycling time trial performance. However, the potential benefits following LACTATE regarding perceived exertion require further research.

  6. [Protective effect of sodium bicarbonate on radiological contrast medium-induced nephropathy in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattimo, Maria deFátima Fernandes; dos Santos, Juliana Guareschi

    2013-06-01

    Radiological iodinated contrasts (IC) agents cause acute kidney injury (AKI). To evaluate the renoprotective effect of sodium bicarbonate (Bic) on renal function (creatinine clearance [Clcr], Jaffé, and Clcr mLmin -1 x100 g-1) and the oxidative profile (peroxide excretion, urinary peroxides, urinary malondialdehyde, FOX-2 expression, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance [TBARS; nmol/mg Cr]) in rats treated with an IC agent. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g were treated once daily for 5 days with one of the following treatments: saline (0.9%, 3 mL.kg-1xday-1 intraperitoneally [i.p.]), IC agent (sodium and meglumine ioxitalamate, 3 mL/kg, i.p.), Bic + Saline (3-mL/kg Bic, i.p., 1 h before and after saline treatment), and Bic + IC (3-ml/kg Bic, i.p., 1 h before and after the IC treatment). The IC agent induced AKI, and the antioxidant renoprotective effect of Bic was confirmed (Clcr/TBARS/urinary peroxide: saline group, 0.59+/- 0.03/0.11 +/-0.02/1.29+/- 0.24; Bic+Saline group, 0.58 +/-0.03/0.13+/- 0.02/1.32+/- 0.64; IC group, 0.22 +/- 0.02/0.19 +/- 0.02/4.77 +/- 0.24; Bic +Clgroup, 0.51+/- 0.04/0.13+/- 0.3/1.80+/- 0.04; p<0.05). The protective effect of Bic in the IC-induced AKI was confirmed; hence, Bic administration may be considered as a therapeutic option for patients undergoing IC-enhanced radiography.

  7. Pathophysiological basis of pharmacotherapy in the hepatorenal syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens H

    2005-01-01

    Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a functional and reversible impairment of renal function in patients with severe cirrhosis. Major pathophysiological elements include liver dysfunction, a circulatory derangement with central hypovolaemia and neurohumoral activation of potent vasoactive systems leading...

  8. Pathophysiology of shunt dysfunction in shunt treated hydrocephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blegvad, C.; Skjolding, A D; Broholm, H

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that shunt dysfunction in the ventricular catheter and the shunt valve is caused by different cellular responses. We also hypothesized that the cellular responses depend on different pathophysiological mechanisms....

  9. Visceral hypersensitivity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome:pathophysiological mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerckhoffs, A.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disease characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort associated with a disordered defecation. No unique pathophysiological mechanism has been identified. It is most likely a multifactorial disease involving alterations in intestinal microbiota

  10. The role of bicarbonate in platelet additive solution for apheresis platelet concentrates stored with low residual plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwanski, Katherine; Min, Kyungyoon

    2013-03-01

    Complex platelet additive solutions (PASs) are required to store platelet (PLT) concentrates with plasma levels below 30%. Previously, apheresis PLTs stored with 5% plasma in acetate- and bicarbonate-containing PAS maintained stable pH and bicarbonate levels during 7-day storage. Due to this observation, the necessity of added bicarbonate in PAS was investigated and whether the concurrent increase in PAS pH after bicarbonate addition had any effect on PLT storage. Apheresis PLTs were stored in 5% plasma-95% high- or low-pH PAS, with or without bicarbonate (n=10 per arm). Bicarbonate PAS PLTs were paired and nonbicarbonate PAS PLTs were paired (split from same double-dose collection). PLTs were evaluated for in vitro variables on Days 1 and 7 and up to Day 14 if the Day 7 pH was higher than 6.2. PLT pH was maintained above 7.3 to Day 14 in bicarbonate PAS PLTs while pH failures below 6.2 were observed in 4 of 10 and 2 of 10 units on Day 7 in low- and high-pH nonbicarbonate PAS arms, respectively. Day 7 in vitro variables in nonbicarbonate PAS PLTs with pH values of higher than 6.2 were comparable to Day 7 variables in bicarbonate PAS PLTs. The pH of bicarbonate PAS did have a small effect on pH and bicarbonate levels in PLT units, but did not have an effect on functional variables and metabolism. Bicarbonate was not required to maintain in vitro PLT function in 5% plasma-95% PAS, but was required as a pH buffer and increased PAS pH did not significantly contribute to this effect. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  11. Association between mortality and replacement solution bicarbonate concentration in continuous renal replacement therapy: A propensity-matched cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianoush Kashani

    Full Text Available Given the known deleterious effects seen with bicarbonate supplementation for acidemia, we hypothesized that utilizing high bicarbonate concentration replacement solution in continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH would be independently associated with higher mortality.In a propensity score-matched historical cohort study conducted at a single tertiary care center from December 9, 2006, through December 31, 2009, a total of 287consecutive adult critically ill patients with Stage III acute kidney injury (AKI requiring CVVH were enrolled. We excluded patients on maintenance dialysis, those who received other modalities of continuous renal replacement therapies, and patients that received a mixed of 22 and 32 mEq/L bicarbonate solution pre- and post-filter. The primary outcome was in-hospital and 90-day mortality rates.Among enrollees, 68 were used 32 mEq/L bicarbonate solution, and 219 received 22mEq/L bicarbonate solution for CVVH. Patients on 32 mEq/L bicarbonate solution were more often non-surgical, had lower pH and bicarbonate level but had higher blood potassium and phosphorus levels in comparison with those on 22 mEq/L bicarbonate solution. After adjustment for the baseline characteristics, the use of 32 bicarbonate solution was significantly associated with increased in-hospital (HR = 1.94; 95% CI 1.02-3.79 and 90-day mortality (HR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.03-2.14. There was a significant increase in the hospital (p = .03 and 90-day (p = .04 mortality between the 22 vs. 32 mEq/L bicarbonate solution groups following propensity matching.Our data showed there is a strong association between using high bicarbonate solution and mortality independent of severity of illness and comorbid conditions. These findings need to be evaluated further in prospective studies.

  12. Pathophysiology of acute small bowel disease with CT correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwani, N.; Tappouni, R.; Tice, J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review the pathophysiology of acute small bowel diseases, and to correlate the mechanisms of disease with computed tomography (CT) findings. Disease entities will be classified into the following: immune mediated and infectious causes, vascular causes, mechanical causes, trauma, and others. Having an understanding of acute small bowel pathophysiology is a useful teaching tool, and can lead to imaging clues to the most likely diagnosis of acute small bowel disorders.

  13. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves hypertrophy-type resistance exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Benjamin M; Webster, Michael J; Boyd, Joseph C; Hudson, Geoffrey M; Scheett, Timothy P

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) administration on lower-body, hypertrophy-type resistance exercise (HRE). Using a double-blind randomized counterbalanced design, 12 resistance-trained male participants (mean ± SD; age = 20.3 ± 2 years, mass = 88.3 ± 13.2 kg, height = 1.80 ± 0.07 m) ingested 0.3 g kg(-1) of NaHCO(3) or placebo 60 min before initiation of an HRE regimen. The protocol employed multiple exercises: squat, leg press, and knee extension, utilizing four sets each, with 10-12 repetition-maximum loads and short rest periods between sets. Exercise performance was determined by total repetitions generated during each exercise, total accumulated repetitions, and a performance test involving a fifth set of knee extensions to failure. Arterialized capillary blood was collected via fingertip puncture at four time points and analyzed for pH, [HCO(3)(-)], base excess (BE), and lactate [Lac(-)]. NaHCO(3) supplementation induced a significant alkaline state (pH: NaHCO(3): 7.49 ± 0.02, placebo: 7.42 ± 0.02, P < 0.05; [HCO(3)(-)]: NaHCO(3): 31.50 ± 2.59, placebo: 25.38 ± 1.78 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05; BE: NaHCO(3): 7.92 ± 2.57, placebo: 1.08 ± 2.11 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05). NaHCO(3) administration resulted in significantly more total repetitions than placebo (NaHCO(3): 139.8 ± 13.2, placebo: 134.4 ± 13.5), as well as significantly greater blood [Lac(-)] after the exercise protocol (NaHCO(3): 17.92 ± 2.08, placebo: 15.55 ± 2.50 mM, P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate ergogenic efficacy for NaHCO(3) during HRE and warrant further investigation into chronic training applications.

  14. Ménage-à-trois: The ratio of bicarbonate to CO2 and the pH regulate the capacity of neutrophils to form NETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Maueröder

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we identified and characterized the potential of a high ratio of bicarbonate to CO2 and a moderately alkaline pH to render neutrophils prone to undergo neutrophil extracellular trap (NET formation. Both experimental settings increased the rate of spontaneous NET release and potentiated the NET-inducing capacity of phorbol esters (PMA, ionomycin, monosodium urate and LPS. In contrast, an acidic environment impaired neutrophil extracellular trap formation both spontaneous and induced. Our findings indicate that intracellular alkalinization of neutrophils in response to an alkaline environment leads to an increase of intracellular calcium and neutrophil activation. We further found that the anion channel blocker DIDS strongly reduced NET formation induced by bicarbonate. This finding suggests that the effects observed are due to a molecular program that renders neutrophils susceptible to neutrophil extracellular trap formation. Inflammatory foci are characterized by an acidic environment. Our data indicates that NET formation is favored by the higher pH at the border regions of inflamed areas. Moreover our findings highlight the necessity for strict pH control during assays of neutrophil extracellular trap formation.

  15. [Effect of IV hydration with sodium bicarbonate on high-dose methotrexate disposition kinetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, N; Goto, M; Konishi, H; Yamashina, H

    1984-04-01

    Following two-compartment kinetic analysis, the effect of loading of transfusion with sodium bicarbonate on methotrexate disposition was investigated in 13 cases with malignant tumor, being treated with high-dose methotrexate. The mean values of total body clearance, when administered at doses 50 mg and 100 mg per kg body weight, were 0.369 and 0.402 (l/h) per kg, respectively. No significant relationship was observed between alpha value and total amount of transfusion, of urine or dosage of sodium bicarbonate. The other kinetic parameters on elimination, beta value, K10 and total body clearance, did not also correlate with those values described above. These results suggest that the elimination profile of methotrexate show linear kinetics, and that massive administration of transfusion with sodium bicarbonate be not necessary if pH value of urine exceeds 7.0.

  16. Decreased cerebral blood flow after administration of sodium bicarbonate in the distressed newborn infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Fris-Hansen, B

    1978-01-01

    In the course of our studies on cerebral blood flow in newborn infants, we have observed a striking depressing effect of sodium bicarbonate infusion on cerebral blood flow which in some cases may severely aggravate cerebral ischemia. We measured cerebral blood flow before and after the treatment...... with 1 to 8 meqs of sodium bicarbonate in seven distressed newborn infants. The 133 Xe clearance technique was used. The results showed in six of the seven cases a decrease in cerebral blood flow, which in most cases was reduced to 14 to 22 ml/100 g/min, which is about half the value prior...... to the bicarbonate infusion. In one case an extreme reduction occurred: cerebral blood flow was reduced to 3 ml/100 g/min, well below the level compatible with tissue survival. The results are discussed with regard to the optimal treatment of the acidotic newborn....

  17. Electrochemical and spectroscopic studies of uranium(IV), -(V), and -(VI) in carbonate-bicarbonate buffers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, D.W.; Sullivan, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Recently a need for more detailed knowledge of the chemistry of actinide ions in basic media has arisen in connection with deducing their chemistry in the environment. In this work the results of polarographic, cyclic voltammetric, and spectroscopic studies of U(IV), -(V), and -(VI) in carbonate and bicarbonate media are reported. Polarographic studies were in excellent agreement with those reported previously. Cyclic voltammetric scans confirmed the irreversible reduction to U(V) in both solutions, but disproportionation of the U(V) was observed only in the bicarbonate solutions. The oxidation of U(V) in carbonate was followed spectroscopically for the first time. Reduction in bicarbonate produced U(IV), the spectrum of which is now reported and the oxidation of which was also followed spectroscopically for the first time

  18. Effect of sodium bicarbonate pretreatment on barium coating of mucosa during double contrast barium meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Toetterman, S.; Kaila, R.; Pietilae, J.; Linden, H.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1983-01-01

    The radiographic pattern of the areae gastricae is produced by barium lying in the intersecting furrows of the gastric mucosal surface. However, if the mucus layer on the gastric mucosa is thick, it interferes with the barium coating of the areae gastricae during double contrast barium meal. As sodium bicarbonate decreases the viscosity of mucus and thus may make the gastric mucus layer thinner, it was evaluated as a pretreatment agent in a routine double contrast upper-gastrointestinal study to improve the visualization of the areae gastricae. In a single blind study, 53 of 106 patients took sodium bicarbonate water mixtures at bedtime the day before and on the morning of the examination. According to the results of the present study mucolysis induced by the used doses of sodium bicarbonate does not significantly affect micromucosal visualization during double-contrast barium meal. (orig.) [de

  19. Effect of sodium bicarbonate pretreatment on barium coating of mucosa during double contrast barium meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnunen, J.; Toetterman, S.; Kaila, R.; Pietilae, J.; Linden, H.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1983-08-01

    The radiographic pattern of the areae gastricae is produced by barium lying in the intersecting furrows of the gastric mucosal surface. However, if the mucus layer on the gastric mucosa is thick, it interferes with the barium coating of the areae gastricae during double contrast barium meal. As sodium bicarbonate decreases the viscosity of mucus and thus may make the gastric mucus layer thinner, it was evaluated as a pretreatment agent in a routine double contrast upper-gastrointestinal study to improve the visualization of the areae gastricae. In a single blind study, 53 of 106 patients took sodium bicarbonate water mixtures at bedtime the day before and on the morning of the examination. According to the results of the present study mucolysis induced by the used doses of sodium bicarbonate does not significantly affect micromucosal visualization during double-contrast barium meal.

  20. Pompe disease: from pathophysiology to therapy and back again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-A eLim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pompe disease is a lysosomal storage disorder in which acid alpha-glucosidase is deficient or absent. Deficiency of this lysosomal enzyme results in progressive expansion of glycogen-filled lysosomes in multiple tissues, with cardiac and skeletal muscle being the most severely affected. The clinical spectrum ranges from fatal hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and skeletal muscle myopathy in infants to relatively attenuated forms, which manifest as a progressive myopathy without cardiac involvement. The currently available enzyme replacement therapy proved to be successful in reversing cardiac but not skeletal muscle abnormalities. Although the overall understanding of the disease has progressed, the pathophysiology of muscle damage remains poorly understood. Lysosomal enlargement/rupture has long been considered a mechanism of relentless muscle damage in Pompe disease. In past years, it became clear that this simple view of the pathology is inadequate; the pathological cascade involves dysfunctional autophagy, a major lysosome-dependent intracellular degradative pathway. The autophagic process in Pompe skeletal muscle is affected at the termination stage - impaired autophagosomal-lysosomal fusion. Yet another abnormality in the diseased muscle is the accelerated production of large, unrelated to ageing, lipofuscin deposits - a marker of cellular oxidative damage and a sign of mitochondrial dysfunction. The massive autophagic buildup and lipofuscin inclusions appear to cause a greater effect on muscle architecture than the enlarged lysosomes outside the autophagic regions. Furthermore, the dysfunctional autophagy affects the trafficking of the replacement enzyme and interferes with its delivery to the lysosomes. Several new therapeutic approaches have been tested in Pompe mouse models: substrate reduction therapy, lysosomal exocytosis following the overexpression of transcription factor EB and a closely related but distinct factor E3, and genetic

  1. The Reproducibility of 4-km Time Trial (TT) Performance Following Individualised Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation: a Randomised Controlled Trial in Trained Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Lewis Anthony; Deb, Sanjoy Kumar; Sparks, Andy; McNaughton, Lars Robert

    2017-09-21

    Individual time to peak blood bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) has demonstrated good to excellent reproducibility following ingestion of both 0.2 g kg -1 body mass (BM) and 0.3 g kg -1 BM sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ), but the consistency of the time trial (TT) performance response using such an individualised NaHCO 3 ingestion strategy remains unknown. This study therefore evaluated the reproducibility of 4-km TT performance following NaHCO 3 ingestion individualised to time to peak blood bicarbonate. Eleven trained male cyclists completed five randomised treatments with prior ingestion of 0.2 g kg -1 (SBC2) or 0.3 g kg -1 BM (SBC3) NaHCO 3 , on two separate occasions each, or a control trial entailing no supplementation. Participants completed a 4-km cycling TT on a Velotron ergometer where time to complete, power and speed were measured, whilst acid-base blood parameters were also recorded (pH and blood bicarbonate concentration HCO 3 - ) and lactate [La - ]. Alkalosis was achieved prior to exercise in both SBC2 and SBC3, as pH and HCO 3 - were greater compared to baseline (p  0.05). The reproducibility of the mean absolute change from baseline to peak in HCO 3 - was good in SBC2 (r = 0.68) and excellent in SBC3 (r = 0.78). The performance responses following both SBC2 and SBC3 displayed excellent reproducibility (r range = 0.97 to 0.99). Results demonstrate excellent reproducibility of exercise performance following individualised NaHCO 3 ingestion, which is due to the high reproducibility of blood acid-base variables with repeat administration of NaHCO 3 . Using a time to peak HCO 3 - strategy seems to cause no dose-dependent effects on performance for exercise of this duration and intensity; therefore, athletes may consider smaller doses of NaHCO 3 to mitigate gastrointestinal (GI) discomfort.

  2. Oral Bicarbonate Slows Decline of Residual Renal Function in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Yang; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Rui; Wu, Feng; Tao, Xin-Chao; Li, Chun-Jun; Zhang, Ping; Yu, Pei

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis is a common consequence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) which may result in a substantial adverse outcome. The effect of oral bicarbonate on the preservation of residual renal function (RRF) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients has been rarely reported. We randomly assigned 40 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients to the oral bicarbonate group or placebo group at a 1: 1 ratio. All enrollments were followed for a duration of 104 weeks. We took residual creatinine clearance (CCr), a measure of residual renal function (RRF), as the primary outcome. Residual CCr was calculated as the average of urea and creatinine clearance from a 24-hour urine collection. Thirteen patients in the placebo group and 15 patients in the treatment group completed the 104 weeks of follow-up with a comparable dropout rate (placebo group: 35% vs treatment group: 25%). Compared with the placebo group, serum bicarbonate in treatment group was significantly increased at each time point, and oral bicarbonate resulted in a slower declining rate of residual CCr (F=5.113, p=0.031). Baseline residual CCr at enrollment also had a significant effect on residual CCr (F=168.779, Pcalculate a comorbidity score had no significant effect on residual CCr loss (F=0.168, P=0.685). Oral bicarbonate may have a RRF preserving effect in CAPD patients, and a normal to high level of serum bicarbonate (≥24mmol/L) may be appropriate for RRF preservation. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Effect of N-protecting compound ammonium bicarbonate and its mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhifen; Zeng Hanting; Huang Min; Tu Shuxin; Wen Xianfang

    2004-01-01

    A kind of N-protecting compound ammonium bicarbonate fertilizer was created. Compared with common ammonium bicarbonate, the fertilizer can raise nitrogen use efficiency by 5.2%-15% and reduce ammonia loss due to volatilization by 5%-12%. Yields of rice and cotton were raised by 5%-10% and 6%-20%, respectively. And it also has the following characteristics, such as hard lump not be formed, easy to use, less bad smell caused by ammonia, reducing of production cost, etc. Demonstration of applying this fertilizer to cotton and rice in more than 13.3 hm 2 showed good effect on increasing crop yield

  4. Equilibration of metabolic CO2 with preformed CO2 and bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hems, R.; Saez, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    Entry of metabolic 14 CO 2 into urea is shown to occur more readily than it equilibrates with the general pool of cellular plus extracellular bicarbonate plus CO 2 . Since the sites of CO 2 production (pyruvate dehydrogenase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase) and of fixation (carbamoylphosphate synthetase) are intramitochondrial, it is likely that the fixation of CO 2 is also more rapid than its equilibration with the cytoplasmic pool of bicarbonate plus CO 2 . This observation may point to a more general problem concerning the interpretation of isotope data, with compartmentation or proximity of sites of production and utilisation of metabolites may result in the isotope following a preferred pathway. (Auth.)

  5. Caffeine, but not bicarbonate, improves 6 min maximal performance in elite rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Petersen, Mads H; Friis, Signe N

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the ergogenic effects in a 6 min maximal performance test (PT) on 12 elite rowers: 6 open-weight (mean ± SD; 25 ± 1 years, and 92 ± 3 kg) and 6 light-weight (25 ± 3 years, and 73 ± 6 kg), following supplementation with caffeine (CAF), sodium bicarbonate (SB), and the combination.......05) than in open-weight rowers (0.3% ± 0.8%; P > 0.05). No difference between interventions was observed for readiness and stomach comfort before PT and perceived exertion during PT. This study demonstrates that caffeine ingestion does improve performance in elite rowing. In contrast sodium bicarbonate...

  6. The Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in the Treatment of Acidosis in Sepsis: A Literature Update on a Long Term Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Velissaris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sepsis and its consequences such as metabolic acidosis are resulting in increased mortality. Although correction of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate seems a reasonable approach, there is ongoing debate regarding the role of bicarbonates as a therapeutic option. Methods. We conducted a PubMed literature search in order to identify published literature related to the effects of sodium bicarbonate treatment on metabolic acidosis due to sepsis. The search included all articles published in English in the last 35 years. Results. There is ongoing debate regarding the use of bicarbonates for the treatment of acidosis in sepsis, but there is a trend towards not using bicarbonate in sepsis patients with arterial blood gas pH>7.15. Conclusions. Routine use of bicarbonate for treatment of severe acidemia and lactic acidosis due to sepsis is subject of controversy, and current opinion does not favor routine use of bicarbonates. However, available evidence is inconclusive, and more studies are required to determine the potential benefit, if any, of bicarbonate therapy in the sepsis patient with acidosis.

  7. Bicarbonate therapy for prevention of chronic kidney disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łoniewski, Igor; Wesson, Donald E

    2014-03-01

    Kidney injury in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is likely multifactorial, but recent data support that a component is mediated by mechanisms used by the kidney to increase acidification in response to an acid challenge to systemic acid-base status. If so, systemic alkalization might attenuate this acid-induced component of kidney injury. An acid challenge to systemic acid-base status increases nephron acidification through increased production of endothelin, aldosterone, and angiotensin II, each of which can contribute to kidney inflammation and fibrosis that characterizes CKD. Systemic alkalization that ameliorates an acid challenge might attenuate the contributions of angiotensin II, endothelin, and aldosterone to kidney injury. Some small clinical studies support the efficacy of alkalization in attenuating kidney injury and slowing glomerular filtration rate decline in CKD. This review focuses on the potential that orally administered NaHCO₃ prevents CKD progression and additionally addresses its mechanism of action, side effects, possible complications, dosage, interaction, galenic form description, and contraindications. Current National Kidney Foundation guidelines recommend oral alkali, including NaHCO₃(-), in CKD patients with serum HCO₃(-) <22 mmol/l. Although oral alkali can be provided by other medications and by base-inducing dietary constituents, oral NaHCO₃ will be the focus of this review because of its relative safety and apparent efficacy, and its comparatively low cost.

  8. Bioactive lipids in kidney physiology and pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sałata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipids not only have structural functions, but also play an important role as signaling and regulatory molecules and participate in many cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. Bioactive lipids act both as extracellular mediators, which are associated with receptors on the surface of cells, and intracellular mediators triggering different signal pathways. They are present and active in physiological conditions, and are also involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation, asthma, cancer, diabetes, and hypertension. Bioactive lipids such as derivatives of arachidonic acid and sphingolipids have an important role in renal development, physiology and in many renal diseases. Some of them are potential indicators of kidney damage degree and/or function of the transplanted kidneys.

  9. [Gut microbiota: Description, role and pathophysiologic implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, C; Quévrain, E

    2016-06-01

    The human gut contains 10(14) bacteria and many other micro-organisms such as Archaea, viruses and fungi. Studying the gut microbiota showed how this entity participates to gut physiology and beyond this to human health, as a real "hidden organ". In this review, we aimed to bring information about gut microbiota, its structure, its roles and its implication in human pathology. After bacterial colonization in infant, intestinal microbial composition is unique for each individual although more than 95% can be assigned to four major phyla. The use of culture independent methods and more recently the development of high throughput sequencing allowed to depict precisely gut microbiota structure and diversity as well as its alteration in diseases. Gut microbiota is implicated in the maturation of the host immune system and in many fundamental metabolic pathways including sugars and proteins fermentation and metabolism of bile acids and xenobiotics. Imbalance of gut microbial populations or dysbiosis has important functional consequences and is implicated in many digestive diseases (inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer, etc.) but also in obesity and autism. These observations have led to a surge of studies exploring therapeutics which aims to restore gut microbiota equilibrium such as probiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation. But recent research also investigates biological activity of microbial products which could lead to interesting therapeutics leads. Copyright © 2015 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Diet, evolution and aging--the pathophysiologic effects of the post-agricultural inversion of the potassium-to-sodium and base-to-chloride ratios in the human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassetto, L; Morris, R C; Sellmeyer, D E; Todd, K; Sebastian, A

    2001-10-01

    , reduced bone resorption rates, improved nitrogen balance, and mitigated the normally occurring age-related decline in growth hormone secretion--all without restricting dietary NaCl. Moreover, we found that co-administration of an alkalinizing salt of potassium (potassium citrate) with NaCl prevented NaCl from increasing urinary calcium excretion and bone resorption, as occurred with NaCl administration alone. Earlier studies estimated dietary acid load from the amount of animal protein in the diet, inasmuch as protein metabolism yields sulfuric acid as an end-product. In cross-cultural epidemiologic studies, Abelow found that hip fracture incidence in older women correlated with animal protein intake, and they suggested a causal relation to the acid load from protein. Those studies did not consider the effect of potential sources of base in the diet. We considered that estimating the net acid load of the diet (i. e., acid minus base) would require considering also the intake of plant foods, many of which are rich sources of K-base, or more precisely base precursors, substances like organic anions that the body metabolizes to bicarbonate. In following up the findings of Abelow et al., we found that plant food intake tended to be protective against hip fracture, and that hip fracture incidence among countries correlated inversely with the ratio of plant-to-animal food intake. These findings were confirmed in a more homogeneous population of white elderly women residents of the U.S. These findings support affirmative answers to the questions we asked above. Can we provide dietary guidelines for controlling dietary net acid loads to minimize or eliminate diet-induced and age-amplified chronic low-grade metabolic acidosis and its pathophysiological sequelae. We discuss the use of algorithms to predict the diet net acid and provide nutritionists and clinicians with relatively simple and reliable methods for determining and controlling the net acid load of the diet. A more

  11. Evaluation of Serum for Pathophysiological Effects of Prolonged Low Salinity Water Exposure in Displaced Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Y. Ewing

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a retrospective study of serum biochemistry and hematologic findings from displaced, out-of-habitat bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus exposed to various low salinity environments in waters along the southern United States including southeastern Atlantic and northern Gulf of Mexico. Serum sodium, chloride, and calculated osmolality were significantly lower and below reference ranges in displaced animals compared to free-ranging case control animals. This suggests clinical hyponatremia, hypochloremia, and hypo-osmolality due to an uptake of low saline water from the environment. In addition, significant differences were found in other serum chemistry variables, although none were outside of normal reference ranges for non-controlled free-ranging animals. Multiple linear regressions demonstrated the degree of salinity had a greater pathophysiologic response than the duration of fresh water exposure. The Na/Cl ratio and bicarbonate were the only variables that were significantly modulated by exposure duration. These findings suggest that the degree of salinity is a critical factor when assessing and managing care for dolphins chronically exposed to low salinity water. Results from this study indicate that changes in various biochemical parameters can be used to determine fresh water exposure and aid in determining the treatment for animals recovered from low salinity waters.

  12. Chronic inflammation in the pancreas and salivary glands--lessons from similarities and differences in pathophysiology and treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakonczay, Zoltán; Vág, János; Földes, Anna; Nagy, Krisztina; Nagy, Ákos; Hegyi, Péter; Varga, Gábor

    2014-01-01

    The pancreas and salivary glands have similar anatomical structures and physiological functions producing bicarbonate-rich fluid containing digestive enzymes and other components to be delivered into the gut. Despite these similarities, the two organs are also different in numerous respects, especially regarding the inflammatory diseases affecting them. This article will summarize the pathophysiology and current and potential pharmacological treatments of chronic inflammatory diseases such as chronic pancreatitis, autoimmune pancreatitis, Sjögren's syndrome and irradiation-induced salivary gland atrophy. Despite the differences, in both organs the inflammatory process is accompanied by epithelial tissue destruction and fibrosis. Both in pancreatic and in salivary research, an important task is to stop or even reverse this process. The utilization of stem/progenitor cell populations previously identified in these organs and the application of mesenchymal stem cells are very promising for such regenerative purposes. In addition, gene therapy and tissue engineering research progressively advance and have already yielded clinically beneficial preliminary results for salivary gland diseases. For the hard-to-access, hard-to-regenerate pancreas these developments may also offer new solutions, especially since salivary and pancreatic progenitors are very similar in characteristics and may be mutually useful to regenerate the respective other organ as well. These novel developments could be of great significance and may bring new hope for patients since currently used therapeutic protocols in salivary and in pancreatic chronic inflammatory diseases offer primarily symptomatic treatments and limited beneficial outcome.

  13. Quantified pH imaging with hyperpolarized (13) C-bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, David Johannes; Janich, Martin A; Köllisch, Ulrich; Schulte, Rolf F; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan H; Frank, Annette; Haase, Axel; Schwaiger, Markus; Menzel, Marion I

    2015-06-01

    Because pH plays a crucial role in several diseases, it is desirable to measure pH in vivo noninvasively and in a spatially localized manner. Spatial maps of pH were quantified in vitro, with a focus on method-based errors, and applied in vivo. In vitro and in vivo (13) C mapping were performed for various flip angles for bicarbonate (BiC) and CO2 with spectral-spatial excitation and spiral readout in healthy Lewis rats in five slices. Acute subcutaneous sterile inflammation was induced with Concanavalin A in the right leg of Buffalo rats. pH and proton images were measured 2 h after induction. After optimizing the signal to noise ratio of the hyperpolarized (13) C-bicarbonate, error estimation of the spectral-spatial excited spectrum reveals that the method covers the biologically relevant pH range of 6 to 8 with low pH error (< 0.2). Quantification of pH maps shows negligible impact of the residual bicarbonate signal. pH maps reflect the induction of acute metabolic alkalosis. Inflamed, infected regions exhibit lower pH. Hyperpolarized (13) C-bicarbonate pH mapping was shown to be sensitive in the biologically relevant pH range. The mapping of pH was applied to healthy in vivo organs and interpreted within inflammation and acute metabolic alkalosis models. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification by microwave reactor with ammonium bicarbonate and zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Zaishan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)], E-mail: weizaishan98@163.com; Lin Zhehang; Niu Hejingying; He Haiming; Ji Yongfeng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Microwave reactor with ammonium bicarbonate (NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}) and zeolite was set up to study the simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas. The results showed that the microwave reactor filled with NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} and zeolite could reduce SO{sub 2} to sulfur with the best desulfurization efficiency of 99.1% and reduce NO{sub x} to nitrogen with the best NO{sub x} purifying efficiency of 86.5%. Microwave desulfurization and denitrification effect of the experiment using ammonium bicarbonate and zeolite together is much higher than that using ammonium bicarbonate or zeolite only. NO{sub x} concentration has little effect on denitrification but has no influence on desulfurization, SO{sub 2} concentration has no effect on denitrification. The optimal microwave power and empty bed residence time (EBRT) on simultaneous desulfurization and dentrification are 211-280 W and 0.315 s, respectively. The mechanism for microwave reduced desulfurization and denitrification can be described as the microwave-induced catalytic reduction reaction between SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and ammonium bicarbonate with zeolite being the catalyst and microwave absorbent.

  15. Regulation of photosynthetic electron flow in isolated chloroplasts by bicarbonate, formate and herbicides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.F.H.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis describes some efforts that were made to gain a better understanding of the processes involved in the regulation of photosynthetic electron flow by bicarbonate, formate and herbicides in chloroplasts. In the past decade a large amount of research has been devoted to get insight into the

  16. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1177 Section 180.1177 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.117...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1244 - Ammonium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1244 Section 180.1244 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1244...

  18. Decreased cerebral blood flow after administration of sodium bicarbonate in the distressed newborn infant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Fris-Hansen, B

    1978-01-01

    with 1 to 8 meqs of sodium bicarbonate in seven distressed newborn infants. The 133 Xe clearance technique was used. The results showed in six of the seven cases a decrease in cerebral blood flow, which in most cases was reduced to 14 to 22 ml/100 g/min, which is about half the value prior...

  19. Goblet Cell Hyperplasia Requires High Bicarbonate Transport To Support Mucin Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrieri, Giulia; Scudieri, Paolo; Caci, Emanuela; Schiavon, Marco; Tomati, Valeria; Sirci, Francesco; Napolitano, Francesco; Carrella, Diego; Gianotti, Ambra; Musante, Ilaria; Favia, Maria; Casavola, Valeria; Guerra, Lorenzo; Rea, Federico; Ravazzolo, Roberto; Di Bernardo, Diego; Galietta, Luis J V

    2016-10-27

    Goblet cell hyperplasia, a feature of asthma and other respiratory diseases, is driven by the Th-2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. In human bronchial epithelial cells, we find that IL-4 induces the expression of many genes coding for ion channels and transporters, including TMEM16A, SLC26A4, SLC12A2, and ATP12A. At the functional level, we find that IL-4 enhances calcium- and cAMP-activated chloride/bicarbonate secretion, resulting in high bicarbonate concentration and alkaline pH in the fluid covering the apical surface of epithelia. Importantly, mucin release, elicited by purinergic stimulation, requires the presence of bicarbonate in the basolateral solution and is defective in cells derived from cystic fibrosis patients. In conclusion, our results suggest that Th-2 cytokines induce a profound change in expression and function in multiple ion channels and transporters that results in enhanced bicarbonate transport ability. This change is required as an important mechanism to favor release and clearance of mucus.

  20. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification by microwave reactor with ammonium bicarbonate and zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zaishan; Lin Zhehang; Niu Hejingying; He Haiming; Ji Yongfeng

    2009-01-01

    Microwave reactor with ammonium bicarbonate (NH 4 HCO 3 ) and zeolite was set up to study the simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from flue gas. The results showed that the microwave reactor filled with NH 4 HCO 3 and zeolite could reduce SO 2 to sulfur with the best desulfurization efficiency of 99.1% and reduce NO x to nitrogen with the best NO x purifying efficiency of 86.5%. Microwave desulfurization and denitrification effect of the experiment using ammonium bicarbonate and zeolite together is much higher than that using ammonium bicarbonate or zeolite only. NO x concentration has little effect on denitrification but has no influence on desulfurization, SO 2 concentration has no effect on denitrification. The optimal microwave power and empty bed residence time (EBRT) on simultaneous desulfurization and dentrification are 211-280 W and 0.315 s, respectively. The mechanism for microwave reduced desulfurization and denitrification can be described as the microwave-induced catalytic reduction reaction between SO 2 , NO x and ammonium bicarbonate with zeolite being the catalyst and microwave absorbent

  1. Solubility of hydrogen in aqueous solutions of sodium and potassium bicarbonate from 293 to 333 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, D.C.; Engel, D.C.; Versteeg, Geert; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study is presented of the hydrogen solubility in aqueous salt solutions containing sodium and potassium bicarbonate from 293 to 333 K. For this purpose, gas consumption measurements have been performed by determining the ultimate pressure decrease in an intensively stirred, high

  2. High temperature attack of ores by a liquor containing essentially a soluble bicarbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurel, Pierre; Nicolas, Francois; Bosca, Bernard.

    1978-01-01

    New process for high temperature oxidizing digestion of ores containing at least one metal in the uranium, vanadium and molybdenum group, by an aqueous liquor containing sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in the presence of free oxygen insufflated into the reaction medium [fr

  3. Crack Cocaine-Induced Cardiac Conduction Abnormalities Are Reversed by Sodium Bicarbonate Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Miranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a dramatic case of a 19-year-old man with crack cocaine overdose with important clinical complications as cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation and epileptics status. During this intoxication, electrocardiographic abnormalities similar to those found in tricyclic antidepressant poisoning were observed, and they were reversed by intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion.

  4. Sodium bicarbonate as prevention of metabolic acidosis in sheep submitted to experimental ruminal acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane M. Laskoski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the preventive effect of sodium bicarbonate on systemic acidosis due to ruminal acidosis, which was induced by ingestion of concentrate after prolonged fasting. Fourteen sheep were divided into three experimental groups: control group (Cg, with four sheep, submitted to fasting without development of ruminal acidosis; no-treated group (NTg, with five sheep with rumen acidosis without preventive treatment; and treated group (Tg, with five sheep with rumen acidosis and preventively treated with sodium bicarbonate. Assessments of ruminal pH and arterial hemogasometry were performed for 48 hours after ingestion of the concentrate. There was a reduction in the ruminal pH in all groups, whereas the Cg showed a reduction only after 24 hours. A reduction in the arterial pH, bicarbonate and base excess in all groups was also noted, indicating systemic metabolic acidosis, but the NTg presented the greatest alteration. It is concluded that sodium bicarbonate prevents systemic metabolic acidosis, reducing its severity in sheep subjected to ruminal acidosis.

  5. Sodium bicarbonate-gelled chitosan beads as mechanically stable carriers for the covalent immobilization of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Marwa I

    2018-03-01

    The poor mechanical stability of chitosan has long impeded its industrial utilization as an immobilization carrier. In this study, the mechanical properties of chitosan beads were greatly improved through utilizing the slow rate of the sodium bicarbonate-induced chitosan gelation and combining it with the chemical cross-linking action of glutaraldehyde (GA). The GA-treated sodium bicarbonate-gelled chitosan beads exhibited much better mechanical properties and up to 2.45-fold higher observed activity of the immobilized enzyme (β-D-galactosidase (β-gal)) when compared to the GA-treated sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP)-gelled chitosan beads. The differences between the sodium bicarbonate-gelled and the TPP-gelled chitosan beads were proven visually and also via scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. Moreover, the optimum pH, the optimum temperature, the apparent K m , and the apparent V max of the β-gals immobilized onto the two aforementioned types of chitosan beads were determined and compared. A reusability study was also performed. This study proved the superiority of the sodium bicarbonate-gelled chitosan beads as they retained 72.22 ± 4.57% of their initial observed activity during the 13 th reusability cycle whereas the TPP-gelled beads lost their activity during the first four reusability cycles, owing to their fragmentation. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 34:347-361, 2018. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Solubility of Hydrogen in Aqueous Solutions of Sodium and Potassium Bicarbonate from 293 to 333 K

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Dico C.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Swaaij, Wim P.M. van

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study is presented of the hydrogen solubility in aqueous salt solutions containing sodium and potassium bicarbonate from 293 to 333 K. For this purpose, gas consumption measurements have been performed by determining the ultimate pressure decrease in an intensively stirred, high

  7. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1176 Section 180.1176 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176...

  8. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on Candida albicans adherence to thermally activated acrylic resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Augusto Cervantes Garcia de Sousa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 5% sodium bicarbonate on the adherence of Candida albicans to thermally activated acrylic resin. Fifty 4 mm² specimens of acrylic resin were obtained using a metallic matrix. The specimens received chemical polishing, were sterilized and then immersed in Sabouraud broth, inoculated with Candida albicans standardized suspension. After 24 hours of incubation at 37ºC, the specimens were divided into four groups according to the substance used for disinfection (5% sodium bicarbonate, 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine, vinegar and Corega Tabs. A control group was included, in which distilled water was used. The adhered microorganisms were dispersed, diluted and plated onto culture media to determine the number of colony-forming units (cfu/mL. The results were analyzed through the Mann-Whitney statistical test at the 5% level of significance. Only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine and 5% sodium bicarbonate presented a statistically significant difference (p = 0.0010 and p = 0.0156, respectively compared to the control group, decreasing the number of cfu/mL. However, when the different disinfecting solutions were compared with each other, only 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine presented a statistically significant difference in the reduction of cfu/mL. It was concluded that although 0.12% digluconate chlorhexidine was more effective in the reduction of Candida albicans adherence values to thermally activated acrylic resin, 5% sodium bicarbonate also proved to be a viable alternative.

  9. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Ming-Hsiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3 could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilled performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. Nine male college tennis players were recruited for this randomized cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The participants consumed NaHCO3 (0.3 g. kg-1 or NaCl (0.209 g. kg-1 before the trial. An additional supplementation of 0.1 g. kg-1 NaHCO3 or 0.07 g. kg-1 NaCl was ingested after the third game in the simulated match. The Loughborough Tennis Skill Test was performed before and after the simulated match. Post-match [HCO3-] and base excess were significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial than those in the placebo trial. Blood [lactate] was significantly increased in the placebo (pre: 1.22 ± 0.54; post: 2.17 ± 1.46 mM and bicarbonate (pre: 1.23 ± 0.41; post: 3.21 ± 1.89 mM trials. The match-induced change in blood [lactate] was significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial. Blood pH remained unchanged in the placebo trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.32; post: 7.37 ± 0.14 but was significantly increased in the bicarbonate trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.26; post: 7.45 ± 0.63, indicating a more alkaline environment. The service and forehand ground stroke consistency scores were declined significantly after the simulated match in the placebo trial, while they were maintained in the bicarbonate trial. The match-induced declines in the consistency scores were significantly larger in the placebo trial than those in the bicarbonate trial. This study suggested that NaHCO3 supplementation could prevent the decline in skilled tennis performance after a simulated match.

  10. Impact of Sodium Bicarbonate-Buffered Lidocaine on Patient Pain During Image-Guided Breast Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, Alison; Baker, Jay A; Shelby, Rebecca A; Soo, Mary Scott C

    2017-09-01

    This randomized, double-blind controlled study evaluated the effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate-buffered lidocaine on reducing pain during imaging-guided breast biopsies. This prospective, HIPAA-compliant study randomly assigned 85 women undergoing ultrasound- or stereotactic-guided core-needle breast biopsies to receive intradermally and intraparenchymally either 1% lidocaine buffered with sodium bicarbonate (9:1 ratio) (bicarbonate study group) or 1% lidocaine alone (control group). Pain was evaluated using a 0-to-10 Likert pain scale during both intradermal and intraparenchymal anesthesia injections and during tissue sampling. Prebiopsy breast pain, anxiety, medical history, demographics, biopsy type, radiologist level of training, breast density, and lesion histology were recorded. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and analysis of covariance. Unadjusted mean pain scores were 1.47 and 2.07 (study and control groups, respectively; P = .15) during intradermal injections, and 1.84 and 2.98 (study and control groups, respectively; P = .03) during intraparenchymal injections. Tissue sampling mean pain scores were .81 and 1.71 (study and control groups, respectively; P = .07). Moderator analyses found (1) among patients with preprocedural pain, those in the bicarbonate group experienced less intradermal injection pain (0.85 ± 1.23) than patients in the control group (2.50 ± 2.09); (2) among patients with fatty or scattered fibroglandular tissue, those in the bicarbonate group (1.35 ± 1.95) experienced less intraparenchymal injection pain than the control group (3.52 ± 3.13); and (3) during ultrasound-guided biopsies, patients in the bicarbonate group experienced less tissue-sampling pain (0.23 ± 0.63) than the control group (1.79 ± 3.05). Overall, buffering lidocaine with sodium bicarbonate significantly reduced pain during intraparenchymal injections, and additional pain reduction was found in certain patient subgroups during intradermal

  11. EFFECTS OF SODIUM BICARBONATE INGESTION ON SWIM PERFORMANCE IN YOUTH ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Langfort

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg·kg-1 b.w. on swim performance in competitive, (training experience of 6.6 ± 0.6 years youth, (15.1 ± 0.6 years male swimmers. The subjects completed a test trial, in a double blind fashion, on separate days, consisting of 4 x 50m front crawl swims with a 1st minute passive rest interval twice, on two occasions: after ingestion of bicarbonate or placebo, 72 hours apart, at the same time of the day. Blood samples were drawn from the finger tip three times during each trial; upon arrival to the laboratory, 60 min after ingestion of placebo or the sodium bicarbonate solution and after the 4 x 50m test, during the 1st min of recovery. Plasma lactate concentration, blood pH, standard bicarbonate and base excess were evaluated. The total time of the 4 x 50 m test trial improved from 1.54.28 to 1.52.85s, while statistically significant changes in swimming speed were recorded only during the first 50m sprint (1.92 vs. 1.97 m·s-1, p < 0.05. Resting blood concentration of HCO-3 increased following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate from 25.13 to 28.49 mM (p < 0.05. Sodium bicarbonate intake had a statistically significant effect on resting blood pH (7.33 vs. 7.41, p < .05 as well as on post exercise plasma lactate concentration (11.27 vs. 13.06 mM, p < 0.05. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate in youth athletes is an effective buffer during high intensity interval swimming and suggest that such a procedure can be used in youth athletes to increase training intensity as well as swimming performance in competition at distances from 50 to 200 m

  12. Uso de bicarbonato de sódio na acidose metabólica do paciente gravemente enfermo Sodium bicarbonate in the critically lll patient with metabolic acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Novis Rocha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A acidose lática é um distúrbio do equilíbrio ácido-base muito frequente em pacientes internados em unidades de terapia intensiva e está associado a um mau prognóstico. Embora exista um acúmulo substancial de evidências de que níveis críticos de acidemia provocam inúmeros efeitos adversos sobre o funcionamento celular, a utilização de bicarbonato de sódio para o tratamento da acidose lática em pacientes gravemente enfermos permanece alvo de controvérsias. Neste artigo, pretendemos: 1 analisar as principais diferenças entre as acidoses hiperclorêmicas e as acidoses orgânicas, com ânion gap (AG elevado, visando embasar a discussão sobre os fundamentos da terapia com bicarbonato de sódio nas acidoses metabólicas; 2 avaliar os riscos associados à persistência de níveis críticos de acidemia, contrastando-os com os riscos do uso de bicarbonato de sódio; 3 analisar criticamente as evidências da literatura sobre o uso de bicarbonato de sódio no tratamento da acidose lática do paciente crítico, com ênfase em ensaios clínicos randomizados em seres humanos; 4 fornecer um fundamento para a utilização judiciosa de bicarbonato de sódio nesta situação.Lactic acidosis is an acid-base imbalance frequently found in critically ill patients. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite the substantial body of evidence that critical levels of acidemia have several adverse effects on cell function, the use of sodium bicarbonate to treat lactic acidosis in critically ill patients remains highly controversial. This article aimed at: 1 analyzing the main differences between hyperchloremic and organic acidoses, with high anion gap; 2 comparing the risks associated with critical levels of acidemia with those associated with the use of sodium bicarbonate; 3 critically analyzing the literature evidence about the use of sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of lactic acidosis in critically ill patients, with an emphasis on randomized

  13. Pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and esophageal adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Leo; Long, Elizabeth; Beales, Ian LP

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades there has been a dramatic rise in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) in the developed world. Over approximately the same period there has also been an increase in the prevalence of obesity. Obesity, especially visceral obesity, is an important independent risk factor for the development of gastro-esophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus and EAC. Although the simplest explanation is that this mediated by the mechanical effects of abdominal obesity promoting gastro-esophageal reflux, the epidemiological data suggest that the EAC-promoting effects are independent of reflux. Several, not mutually exclusive, mechanisms have been implicated, which may have different effects at various points along the reflux-Barrett’s-cancer pathway. These mechanisms include a reduction in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection enhancing gastric acidity and possibly appetite by increasing gastric ghrelin secretion, induction of both low-grade systemic inflammation by factors secreted by adipose tissue and the metabolic syndrome with insulin-resistance. Obesity is associated with enhanced secretion of leptin and decreased secretion of adiponectin from adipose tissue and both increased leptin and decreased adiponectin have been shown to be independent risk factors for progression to EAC. Leptin and adiponectin have a set of mutually antagonistic actions on Barrett’s cells which appear to influence the progression of malignant behaviour. At present no drugs are of proven benefit to prevent obesity associated EAC. Roux-en-Y reconstruction is the preferred bariatric surgical option for weight loss in patients with reflux. Statins and aspirin may have chemopreventative effects and are indicated for their circulatory benefits. PMID:25400997

  14. Velopharyngeal sphincter pathophysiologic aspects in the in cleft palat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collares, Marcus Vinicius Martins

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleft lip and palate are common congenital abnormalities with typical functional disorders on speech, deglutition and middle ear function. Objective: This article reviews functional labiopalatine disorders through a pathophysiological view. Method: We performed a literature search on line, as well as books and periodicals related to velopharyngeal sphincter. Our sources were LILACS, MEDLINE and SciELO databases, and we applied to the research Keywords of interest on the velopharyngeal pathophysiology, for articles published between 1965 and 2007. Conclusion: Velopharyngeal sphincter plays a central role in speech, swallowing and middle ear physiology in patients with labiopalatine cleft. At the end of our bibliographic review, pursuant to the velopharyngeal physiology in individuals with this disorder in the functional speech, deglutition and otologic function, we observed that although there is a great number of published data discussing this issue, further studies are necessary to completely understand the pathophysiology, due to the fact they have been exploited superficially.

  15. A Unified Pathophysiological Construct of Diabetes and its Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stanley S; Epstein, Solomon; Corkey, Barbara E; Grant, Struan F A; Gavin Iii, James R; Aguilar, Richard B; Herman, Mary E

    2017-09-01

    Advances in understanding diabetes mellitus (DM) through basic and clinical research have helped clarify and reunify a disease state fragmented into numerous etiologies and subtypes. It is now understood that a common pathophysiology drives the diabetic state throughout its natural history and across its varied clinical presentations, a pathophysiology involving metabolic insults, oxidative damage, and vicious cycles that aggravate and intensify organ dysfunction and damage. This new understanding of the disease requires that we revisit existing diagnostics and treatment approaches, which were built upon outmoded assumptions. 'The Common Pathophysiologic Origins of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications Construct' is presented as a more accurate, foundational, and translatable construct of DM that helps make sense of the hitherto ambiguous findings of long-term outcome studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. EFFECT OF MONENSIN, SODIUM BICARBONATE AND VITAMIN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monensin has been extensively used as a feed additive in the ... acid levels to increase in relation to the other rumen volatile ... the fine milling of feed results in a reduction of saliva ... supplied 13,8%crude protein, 12,6%crude fibre, 0,76%.

  17. Regulation of anterior chamber drainage by bicarbonate-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase in the ciliary body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong S; Tresguerres, Martin; Hess, Kenneth; Marmorstein, Lihua Y; Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen; Marmorstein, Alan D

    2011-12-02

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness affecting as many as 2.2 million Americans. All current glaucoma treatment strategies aim to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP). IOP results from the resistance to drainage of aqueous humor (AH) produced by the ciliary body in a process requiring bicarbonate. Once secreted into the anterior chamber, AH drains from the eye via two pathways: uveoscleral and pressure-dependent or conventional outflow (C(t)). Modulation of "inflow" and "outflow" pathways is thought to occur via distinct, local mechanisms. Mice deficient in the bicarbonate channel bestrophin-2 (Best2), however, exhibit a lower IOP despite an increase in AH production. Best2 is expressed uniquely in nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells providing evidence for a bicarbonate-dependent communicative pathway linking inflow and outflow. Here, we show that bicarbonate-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is highly expressed in the ciliary body in NPE cells, but appears to be absent from drainage tissues. Pharmacologic inhibition of sAC in mice causes a significant increase in IOP due to a decrease in C(t) with no effect on inflow. In mice deficient in sAC IOP is elevated, and C(t) is decreased relative to wild-type mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of sAC did not alter IOP or C(t) in sAC-deficient mice. Based on these data we propose that the ciliary body can regulate C(t) and that sAC serves as a critical sensor of bicarbonate in the ciliary body regulating the secretion of substances into the AH that govern outflow facility independent of pressure.

  18. Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy by use of bicarbonate solution: preliminary results and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ricardo Gonçalves da; Silva, Nelson Gonçalves da; Lucchesi, Fabiano; Burdmann, Emmanuel A

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy has increased simultaneously with the increase in contrast medium use in diagnostic and interventional procedures. The incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy in the general population is low, but increases exponentially in patients with risk factors, such as diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Several strategies have been used in order to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy. The most efficient strategies are saline hydration (0.9% or 0.45%), use of low-or iso-osmolality contrast medium, and sodium bicarbonate infusion. The aim of this study was to review the pertinent literature and to assess the efficacy of hydration with 1.3% sodium bicarbonate compared with hydration with 0.9% saline solution in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy in high-risk patients. A systematic search of the literature was conducted in PubMed by using the following keywords: bicarbonate, nephropathy, contrast medium, and acute kidney failure. In addition, 27 patients with diabetes and/or chronic kidney disease, diagnosed with some kind of cancer were randomized for study. None of the patients developed contrast-induced nephropathy characterized as a 0.5 mg/ dL-increase and/or a relative 25%-increase in baseline creatinine. The literature review strongly suggested that sodium bicarbonate is effective in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. Regarding the randomized study, saline solution and bicarbonate solution had similar efficacy in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. However, the small number of patients does not allow definite conclusions.

  19. Sodium bicarbonate administration during ongoing resuscitation is associated with increased return of spontaneous circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joonghee; Kim, Kyuseok; Park, Jongdae; Jo, You Hwan; Lee, Jae Hyuk; Hwang, Ji Eun; Ha, Chulmin; Ko, Young-Sang; Jung, Euigi

    2016-02-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is frequently used for patients unresponsive to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Its use may be associated with longer resuscitation duration as well as more severe metabolic acidosis. We applied a new analytical method based on a matched case-control study design to control for the potential confounders. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients resuscitated in an emergency department for at least 20 minutes, unless there was any return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) within the time frame, were analyzed. Patients without ROSC for 20 minutes of CPR were matched to those with ROSC based on initial bicarbonate level categorized using cutoff points of 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mEq/L, and their observation durations were trimmed to match their pairs. The association between sodium bicarbonate and ROSC was examined using conditional logistic regression analysis. Two matched groups, one with ROSC and the other without (both n = 258), were generated. Sodium bicarbonate administration and its total cumulative dose were significantly associated with an increased ROSC, with odds ratios for ROSC of 1.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-3.16; P = .022) and 1.18 (per 20 mEq; 95% CI, 1.04-1.33; P = .008), respectively. The positive associations remained unchanged after multivariable adjustment, with odds ratios for ROSC of 2.49 (95% CI, 1.33-4.65; P = .004) and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.11-1.47; P = .001), respectively. Sodium bicarbonate administration during CPR in emergency department was associated with increased ROSC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of Bicarbonate, Sulfate, and Electron Donors on Biological reduction of Uranium and Microbial Community Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Wensui [ORNL; Zhou, Jizhong [ORNL; Wu, Weimin [ORNL; Yan, Tingfen [ORNL; Criddle, Craig [ORNL; Jardine, Philip M [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    A microcosm study was performed to investigate the effect of ethanol and acetate on uranium(VI) biological reduction and microbial community changes under various geochemical conditions. Each microcosm contained an uranium-contaminated sediment (up to 2.8 g U/kg) suspended in buffer with bicarbonate at concentrations of either 1 mM or 40 mM and sulfate at either 1.1 or 3.2 mM. Ethanol or acetate was used as an electron donor. Results indicate that ethanol yielded in significantly higher U(VI) reduction rates than acetate. A low bicarbonate concentration (1 mM) was favored for U(VI) bioreduction to occur in sediments, but high concentrations of bicarbonate (40 mM) and sulfate (3.2 mM) decreased the reduction rates of U(VI). Microbial communities were dominated by species from the Geothrix genus and Proteobacteria phylum in all microcosms. However, species in the Geobacteraceae family capable of reducing U(VI) were significantly enriched by ethanol and acetate in low bicarbonate buffer. Ethanol increased the population of unclassified Desulfuromonales, while acetate increased the population of Desulfovibrio. Additionally, species in the Geobacteraceae family were not enriched in high bicarbonate buffer, but the Geothrix and the unclassified Betaproteobacteria species were enriched. This study concludes that ethanol could be a better electron donor than acetate for reducing U(VI) under given experimental conditions, and electron donor and geoundwater geochemistry alter microbial communities responsible for U(VI) reduction.

  1. Influence of bicarbonate, sulfate, and electron donors on biological reduction of uranium and microbial community composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Wensui [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Wu Wei-Min; Criddle, C.S. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Yan Tingfen [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Jardine, P.M.; Gu Baohua [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Zhou Jizhong [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States). Dept. of Botany and Microbiology

    2007-12-15

    A microcosm study was performed to investigate the effect of ethanol and acetate on uranium(VI) biological reduction and microbial community changes under various geochemical conditions. Each microcosm contained an uranium-contaminated sediment (up to 2.8 g U/kg) suspended in buffer with bicarbonate at concentrations of either 1 or 40 mM and sulfate at either 1.1 or 3.2 mM. Ethanol or acetate was used as an electron donor. Results indicate that ethanol yielded in significantly higher U(VI) reduction rates than acetate. A low bicarbonate concentration (1 mM) was favored for U(VI) bioreduction to occur in sediments, but high concentrations of bicarbonate (40 mM) and sulfate (3.2 mM) decreased the reduction rates of U(VI). Microbial communities were dominated by species from the Geothrix genus and Proteobacteria phylum in all microcosms. However, species in the Geobacteraceae family capable of reducing U(VI) were significantly enriched by ethanol and acetate in low-bicarbonate buffer. Ethanol increased the population of unclassified Desulfuromonales, while acetate increased the population of Desulfovibrio. Additionally, species in the Geobacteraceae family were not enriched in high-bicarbonate buffer, but the Geothrix and the unclassified Betaproteobacteria species were enriched. This study concludes that ethanol could be a better electron donor than acetate for reducing U(VI) under given experimental conditions, and electron donor and groundwater geochemistry alter microbial communities responsible for U(VI) reduction. (orig.)

  2. A low serum bicarbonate concentration as a risk factor for mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Ik Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Metabolic acidosis is common in patients with chronic kidney disease and is associated with increased mortality in hemodialysis patients. However, this relationship has not yet been determined in peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. METHODS: This prospective observational study included a total of 441 incident patients who started PD between January 2000 and December 2005. Using time-averaged serum bicarbonate (TA-Bic levels, we aimed to investigate whether a low serum bicarbonate concentration can predict mortality in these patients. RESULTS: Among the baseline parameters, serum bicarbonate level was positively associated with hemoglobin level and residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR, while it was negatively associated with albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP levels, peritoneal Kt/V urea, and normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR in a multivariable linear regression analysis. During a median follow-up of 34.8 months, 149 deaths were recorded. After adjustment for age, diabetes, coronary artery disease, serum albumin, ferritin, CRP, residual GFR, peritoneal Kt/V urea, nPCR, and percentage of lean body mass, TA-Bic level was associated with a significantly decreased risk of mortality (HR per 1 mEq/L increase, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.91; p < 0.001. In addition, compared to patients with a TA-Bic level of 24-26 mEq/L, those with a TA-Bic level < 22 and between 22-24 mEq/L conferred a 13.10- and 2.13-fold increased risk of death, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that a low serum bicarbonate concentration is an independent risk factor for mortality in PD patients. This relationship between low bicarbonate levels and adverse outcome could be related to enhanced inflammation and a more rapid loss of RRF associated with metabolic acidosis. Large randomized clinical trials to correct acidosis are warranted to confirm our findings.

  3. Reduced time for urinary alkalinization before high-dose methotrexate with preadmission oral bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintzel, Polly E; Campbell, Alan D; Yost, Kathleen J; Brinker, Brett T; Arradaza, Nicole V; Frobish, Daniel; Wehr, Alison M; O'Rourke, Timothy J

    2012-06-01

    Hydration and urinary alkalinization are essential for reducing renal dysfunction with high dose methotrexate (HDMTX). This report presents an analysis of institutional methods used to achieve adequate urinary alkalinization and output for patients receiving single agent HDMTX. Renal and metabolic parameters of tolerance were examined. Medical records of adult patients receiving HDMTX during the calendar years of 2008-2009 were retrospectively reviewed to determine the time to achieve urine pH > 7. Number of hospital days, bicarbonate dose, ordered hydration rate, urine output, and urine pH were assessed. A survival analysis model was run for time to urine pH > 7 using preadmission oral bicarbonate as a predictor variable and including a frailty term. Observational statistics were performed for other parameters. The analysis included 79 encounters for ten patients. Urine pH > 7 was achieved more rapidly in patients receiving preadmission oral bicarbonate (P = 0.012). The number of patients receiving HDMTX on the same day as admission was greater for those receiving preadmission oral bicarbonate (47%) in comparison to those who did not (2%), and they spent less time in the hospital. A standard regimen for hydration and urinary alkalinization based on this project is reported. The nature and frequency of adverse events were as expected for this treatment. At our institution, the time to achieve urinary alkalinization was reduced for patients receiving preadmission oral bicarbonate which facilitated chemotherapy infusion on the same day as admission and decreased the number of calendar days that patients stayed in the hospital.

  4. Sodium bicarbonate infusion in patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation: a single center randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Laurence; Broad, Jeremy; Pillai, Param; Chen, Guangjun; Nguyen, Micheline; Eastwood, Glenn M; Scurrah, Nick; Nikfarjam, Mehrdad; Story, David; McNicol, Larry; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2016-05-01

    Liver transplantation-associated acute kidney injury (AKI) carries significant morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that sodium bicarbonate would reduce the incidence and/or severity of liver transplantation-associated AKI. In this double-blinded pilot RCT, adult patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation were randomized to an infusion of either 8.4% sodium bicarbonate (0.5 mEq/kg/h for the first hour; 0.15 mEq/kg/h until completion of surgery); (n = 30) or 0.9% sodium chloride (n = 30). AKI within the first 48 h post-operatively. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups with regard to baseline characteristics, model for end-stage liver disease and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II scores, and pre-transplantation renal function. Intra-operative factors were similar for duration of surgery, blood product requirements, crystalloid and colloid volumes infused and requirements for vasoactive therapy. Eleven patients (37%) in the bicarbonate group and 10 patients (33%) in the sodium chloride group developed a post-operative AKI (p = 0.79). Bicarbonate infusion attenuated the degree of immediate post-operative metabolic acidosis; however, this effect dissipated by 48 h. There were no significant differences in ventilation hours, ICU or hospital length of stay, or mortality. The intra-operative infusion of sodium bicarbonate did not decrease the incidence of AKI in patients following orthotopic liver transplantation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration prevents contrast-induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamhane Umesh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrast-induced nephropathy is the leading cause of in-hospital acute renal failure. This side effect of contrast agents leads to increased morbidity, mortality, and health costs. Ensuring adequate hydration prior to contrast exposure is highly effective at preventing this complication, although the optimal hydration strategy to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy still remains an unresolved issue. Former meta-analyses and several recent studies have shown conflicting results regarding the protective effect of sodium bicarbonate. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of normal saline versus sodium bicarbonate for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy. Methods The study searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts database, ISI Web of Science (until 15 December 2008, and conference proceedings for randomized controlled trials that compared normal saline with sodium bicarbonate-based hydration regimen regarding contrast-induced nephropathy. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary odds ratios. Results A total of 17 trials including 2,633 subjects were pooled. Pre-procedural hydration with sodium bicarbonate was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of contrast-induced nephropathy (odds ratios 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.34–0.80, P = 0.003. Number needed to treat to prevent one case of contrast-induced nephropathy was 16 (95% confidence interval 10–34. No significant differences in the rates of post-procedure hemodialysis (P = 0.20 or death (P = 0.53 was observed. Conclusion Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration was found to be superior to normal saline in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in this updated meta-analysis.

  6. A randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of a 67% sodium bicarbonate toothpaste on gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, A; Patel, S; Wang, N; Kakar, K; Kakar, A; Bosma, M L

    2017-11-01

    In previous studies, toothpastes with high levels of sodium bicarbonate (>50%) have reduced gingival inflammation and oral malodour. This study compared the effects of brushing for 6 weeks with 67% (test group) or 0% (control group) sodium bicarbonate toothpaste on gingival health. This was a single-centre, single examiner-blind, randomized, controlled, two-treatment, parallel-group study. Eligible subjects (≥18 years) had ≥20 gradable teeth, mild-to-moderate gingivitis, a positive response to bleeding on brushing and ≥20 bleeding sites. The primary objective was to compare the number of bleeding sites following twice-daily use of 67% sodium bicarbonate toothpaste or 0% sodium bicarbonate toothpaste after 6 weeks. Secondary endpoints included Modified Gingival Index (MGI), Bleeding Index (BI) and volatile sulphur compounds (VSC), assessed after 6 weeks. Safety was assessed by treatment-emergent oral soft tissue abnormalities and adverse events. Of 148 patients randomized (74 to each treatment), 66 (89.2%) completed the study in the test group, compared with 69 (93.2%) in the control group. Compared with the control group, the test group had a significant reduction in the number of bleeding sites at Week 6 (absolute difference - 11.0 [-14.0, -8.0], P < 0.0001; relative difference - 25.4%), together with significant reductions in MGI and BI (both P < 0.0001). Although the median reductions from baseline for VSC were numerically greater in the test group, the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.9701). This 67% sodium bicarbonate toothpaste provided statistically significant improvements in gingival health and bleeding after 6 weeks of use. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Dental Hygiene Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Bicarbonate-regulated adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a sensor that regulates pH-dependent V-ATPase recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor-Soler, Nuria; Beaulieu, Valerie; Litvin, Tatiana N; Da Silva, Nicolas; Chen, Yanqiu; Brown, Dennis; Buck, Jochen; Levin, Lonny R; Breton, Sylvie

    2003-12-05

    Modulation of environmental pH is critical for the function of many biological systems. However, the molecular identity of the pH sensor and its interaction with downstream effector proteins remain poorly understood. Using the male reproductive tract as a model system in which luminal acidification is critical for sperm maturation and storage, we now report a novel pathway for pH regulation linking the bicarbonate activated soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) to the vacuolar H+ATPase (V-ATPase). Clear cells of the epididymis and vas deferens contain abundant V-ATPase in their apical pole and are responsible for acidifying the lumen. Proton secretion is regulated via active recycling of V-ATPase. Here we demonstrate that this recycling is regulated by luminal pH and bicarbonate. sAC is highly expressed in clear cells, and apical membrane accumulation of V-ATPase is triggered by a sAC-dependent rise in cAMP in response to alkaline luminal pH. As sAC is expressed in other acid/base transporting epithelia, including kidney and choroid plexus, this cAMP-dependent signal transduction pathway may be a widespread mechanism that allows cells to sense and modulate extracellular pH.

  8. Increased lipids production of Nannochloropsis oculata and Chlorella vulgaris for biodiesel synthesis through the optimization of growth medium composition arrangement by using bicarbonate addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianursanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloropsis oculata are a highly potential microalgae to be used in pilot-scale of biodiesel synthesis. The essential content from these microalgae is the fatty acid of lipid which is the main target for the feed and biodiesel industries. One of the key factor in improving lipid microalgae are the arrangemment of nutrients in the growth medium. Research on the regulation of nutrients using bicarbonate (HCO3- as an additional inorganic carbon source has been done by many studies, but the yield of lipids obtained has not been much. The aim of the study was to improve the lipid yield of Chlorella vulgaris and Nannochloropsis oculata. Variation of [HCO3-] which added to Walne medium were 25 ppm and 75 ppm, while the Walne medium without the addition of bicarbonate acts as control. The results showed that [HCO3-] 75 ppm could increase Chlorella vulgaris biomass by 0.9162 g/l with 17.0% wt, while Nannochloropsis oculata produced the greatest lipid content in [HCO3-] 25 ppm of 20.3% wt and the largest biomass on [HCO3-] 75 ppm of 1.7233 g/l.

  9. Effect of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate as inorganic carbon sources on growth and adaptation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafari, Shahin; Hasan, Masitah; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2009-01-01

    Acclimation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria using inorganic carbon source (CO 2 and bicarbonate) and hydrogen gas as electron donor was performed in this study. In this regard, activated sludge was used as the seed source and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technique was applied for accomplishing the acclimatization. Three distinct strategies in feeding of carbon sources were applied: (I) continuous sparging of CO 2 , (II) bicarbonate plus continuous sparging of CO 2 , and (III) only bicarbonate. The pH-reducing nature of CO 2 showed an unfavorable impact on denitrification rate; however bicarbonate resulted in a buffered environment in the mixed liquor and provided a suitable mean to maintain the pH in the desirable range of 7-8.2. As a result, bicarbonate as the only carbon source showed a faster adaptation, while carbon dioxide as the only carbon source as well as a complementary carbon source added to bicarbonate resulted in longer acclimation period. Adapted hydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria, using bicarbonate and hydrogen gas in the aforementioned pH range, caused denitrification at a rate of 13.33 mg NO 3 - -N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 20 and 30 mg NO 3 - -N/L and 9.09 mg NO 3 - -N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 50 mg NO 3 - -N/L

  10. Effect of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate as inorganic carbon sources on growth and adaptation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafari, Shahin; Hasan, Masitah [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)], E-mail: mk_aroua@um.edu.my

    2009-03-15

    Acclimation of autohydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria using inorganic carbon source (CO{sub 2} and bicarbonate) and hydrogen gas as electron donor was performed in this study. In this regard, activated sludge was used as the seed source and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) technique was applied for accomplishing the acclimatization. Three distinct strategies in feeding of carbon sources were applied: (I) continuous sparging of CO{sub 2}, (II) bicarbonate plus continuous sparging of CO{sub 2}, and (III) only bicarbonate. The pH-reducing nature of CO{sub 2} showed an unfavorable impact on denitrification rate; however bicarbonate resulted in a buffered environment in the mixed liquor and provided a suitable mean to maintain the pH in the desirable range of 7-8.2. As a result, bicarbonate as the only carbon source showed a faster adaptation, while carbon dioxide as the only carbon source as well as a complementary carbon source added to bicarbonate resulted in longer acclimation period. Adapted hydrogenotrophic denitrifying bacteria, using bicarbonate and hydrogen gas in the aforementioned pH range, caused denitrification at a rate of 13.33 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 20 and 30 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N/L and 9.09 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N/g MLVSS/h for degrading 50 mg NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N/L.

  11. Pathophysiology of esophageal impairment due to button battery ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völker, Johannes; Völker, Christine; Schendzielorz, Philipp; Schraven, Sebastian P; Radeloff, Andreas; Mlynski, Robert; Hagen, Rudolf; Rak, Kristen

    2017-09-01

    The increased use of button batteries with high energy densities in devices of daily life presents a high risk of injury, especially for toddlers and young children. If an accidental ingestion of a button battery occurs, this foreign body can become caught in the constrictions of the esophagus and cause serious damage to the adjacent tissue layers. The consequences can be ulcerations, perforations with fistula formation and damage to the surrounding anatomical structures. In order to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiology after ingestion, we carried out systematic studies on fresh preparations of porcine esophagi. The lithium button battery type CR2032, used most frequently in daily life, was exposed in preparations of porcine esophagi and incubated under the addition of artificial saliva at 37 °C. A total of eight esophagi were analysed by different methods. Measurements of the pH value around the battery electrodes and histological studies of the tissue damage were carried out after 0.5-24 h exposure time. In addition, macroscopic time-lapse images were recorded. Measurements of the battery voltage and the course of the electric current supplemented the experiments. The investigations showed that the batteries caused an electrolysis reaction in the moist environment. The positive electrode formed an acidic and the negative electrode a basic medium. Consequently, a coagulation necrosis at the positive pole, and a deep colliquation necrosis at the minus pole occurred. After an exposure time of 12 h, tissue damage caused by the lye corrosion was observed on the side of the negative electrode up to the lamina muscularis. The corrosion progressed up to the final exposure time of 24 h, but the batteries still had sufficient residual voltage, such that further advancing damage would be expected. Button battery ingestion in humans poses an acute life-threatening danger and immediate endoscopic removal of the foreign body is essential. After only 2

  12. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and Beta-alanine on repeated sprints during intermittent exercise performed in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Bryan; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C; Sunderland, Caroline

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the separate and combined effects of sodium bicarbonate and beta-alanine supplementation on repeated sprints during simulated match play performed in hypoxia. Study A: 20 recreationally active participants performed two trials following acute supplementation with either sodium bicarbonate (0.3 g·kg-1BM) or placebo (maltodextrin). Study B: 16 recreationally active participants were supplemented with either a placebo or beta-alanine for 5 weeks (6.4 g·day-1 for 4 weeks, 3.2 g·day-1 for 1 week), and performed one trial before supplementation (with maltodextrin) and two following supplementation (with sodium bicarbonate and maltodextrin). Trials consisted of 3 sets of 5 × 6 s repeated sprints performed during a football specific intermittent treadmill protocol performed in hypoxia (15.5% O2). Mean (MPO) and peak (PPO) power output were recorded as the performance measures. Study A: Overall MPO was lower with sodium bicarbonate than placebo (p = .02, 539.4 ± 84.5 vs. 554.0 ± 84.6 W), although there was no effect across sets (all p > .05). Study B: There was no effect of beta-alanine, or cosupplementation with sodium bicarbonate, on either parameter, although there was a trend toward higher MPO with sodium bicarbonate (p = .07). The effect of sodium bicarbonate on repeated sprints was equivocal, although there was no effect of beta-alanine or cosupplementation with sodium bicarbonate. Individual variation may have contributed to differences in results with sodium bicarbonate, although the lack of an effect with beta-alanine suggests this type of exercise may not be influenced by increased buffering capacity.

  13. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol on calcium and phosphorus balances in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, A.; McIntosh, J.; Campbell, D.

    1984-01-01

    Metabolic balance studies were undertaken to determine whether sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) supplements (4.5 mmol/day) altered 7-day cumulative calcium (Ca) phosphorus (P) balances in growing rats consuming either a basal diet providing 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P, or this diet plus 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [40 ng 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 /day]. Feeding bicarbonate lowered urinary Ca but raised fecal Ca so that Ca balance became less positive. However, 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 increased net absorption of Ca and P to the same degree when given to control rats and rats consuming bicarbonate. Nevertheless, bicarbonate-fed rats had lower net Ca absorption than controls, even when treated with high doses of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 . Changes in net Ca absorption induced by bicarbonate may occur at a point in the gut distal to the duodenum since duodenal 45 Ca absorption was decreased by bicarbonate feeding. The present results show that bicarbonate consumption depressed net Ca absorption in the rat. The effect appears to be independent of changes in 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 metabolism because it is manifest in animals receiving high doses of 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 , which stimulate alimentary Ca absorption maximally, and because bicarbonate-fed rats are able to respond normally to exogenous 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 by increasing their net absorption of Ca and P. In view of this demonstration that NaHCO 3 supplements elevate fecal Ca loss in the rat, it is suggested that studies should be undertaken to determine whether bicarbonate exerts similar adverse effects on Ca balance in humans

  14. Administration of platelet concentrates suspended in bicarbonated Ringer's solution in children who had platelet transfusion reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, J; Yanagisawa, R; Ono, T; Tatsuzawa, Y; Tokutake, Y; Kubota, N; Hidaka, E; Sakashita, K; Kojima, S; Shimodaira, S; Nakamura, T

    2018-02-01

    Adverse reactions to platelet transfusions are a problem. Children with primary haematological and malignant diseases may experience allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs) to platelet concentrates (PCs), which can be prevented by giving washed PCs. A new platelet additive solution, using bicarbonated Ringer's solution and acid-citrate-dextrose formula A (BRS-A), may be better for platelet washing and storage, but clinical data are scarce. A retrospective cohort study for consecutive cases was performed between 2013 and 2017. For 24 months, we transfused washed PCs containing BRS-A to children with primary haematological and malignant diseases and previous adverse reactions. Patients transfused with conventional PCs (containing residual plasma) were assigned as controls, and results were compared in terms of frequency of ATRs, corrected count increment (CCI) and occurrence of bleeding. We also studied children transfused with PCs washed by a different system as historical controls. Thirty-two patients received 377 conventional PC transfusions. ATRs occurred in 12 (37·5%) patients from transfused with 18 (4·8%) bags. Thirteen patients, who experienced reactions to regular PCs in plasma, then received 119 transfusion bags of washed PCs containing BRS-A, and none had ATRs to washed PCs containing BRS-A. Before study period, six patients transfused 137 classical washed PCs with different platelet additive solution, under same indication, ATRs occurred in one (16·7%) patient from transfused with one (0·7%) bags. CCIs (24 h) in were lower with classical washed PCs (1·26 ± 0·54) compared to regular PCs in plasma (2·07 ± 0·76) (P < 0·001), but there was no difference between washed PCs containing BRS-A (2·14 ± 0·77) and regular PCs (2·21 ± 0·79) (P = 0·769), and we saw no post-transfusion bleeding. Washed PCs containing BRS-A appear to prevent ATRs without loss of transfusion efficacy in children with primary haematological and malignant

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Fluoridated Mouthwash and Sodium Bicarbonate in Management of Dentin Hypersensitivity: An In Vitro SEM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikame, Vasundhara; Doshi, Yogesh; Horowitz, Robert A; Kevadia-Shah, Vidhi; Shah, Mona

    2018-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (ie, baking soda) can be used as an adjunct to surgical periodontal therapy to reduce dentin hypersensitivity (DH). Sodium bicarbonate mouthwash has numerous appealing attributes, including high availability, low cost, low abrasivity, water solubility, buffering capability, and, in high concentrations, antimicrobial properties. It is also safe to use. The primary underlying cause of DH is open dentinal tubules from loss of either cementum or enamel. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate, through scanning electron microscopic examination, the effect of sodium bicarbonate on dentinal tubule occlusion and compare it with that of fluoridated mouthwash.

  16. Thermodynamics of proton dissociation from aqueous bicarbonate: apparent molar volumes and apparent molar heat capacities of potassium carbonate and potassium bicarbonate at T=(278.15 to 393.15) K and at the pressure 0.35 MPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorenson, E.C.; Woolley, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    We have determined the apparent molar volumes V phi and apparent molar heat capacities C p,phi of aqueous potassium carbonate and potassium bicarbonate solutions in the ranges (0.014≤m/(mol · kg -1 )≤0.51) and (278.15≤T/K≤393.15) at the pressure p=0.35 MPa. Corrections for speciation due to hydrolysis and disproportionation in solution were applied using Young's rule, and semi-empirical equations representing (V phi ,m,T) and (C p,phi ,m,T) for the species {2K + , CO 3 2- (aq)} and {K + , HCO 3 - (aq)} were fitted to the experimental results. We have used these equations to estimate the change in volume Δ r V m , change in heat capacity Δ r C p,m , enthalpy change Δ r H m , entropy change Δ r S m , and equilibrium molality quotient pQ for the second proton dissociation reaction from aqueous carbonic acid

  17. Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension – Pathophysiology Based on Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubisavljević Srdjan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition, idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH is a pathological state characterized by an increase in intracranial pressure; however, there are no obvious intracranial pathological processes. The pathophysiology of this disorder is not clear, although there are many reports related to it.

  18. Pathophysiology of diurnal drooling in Parkinson’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenie van den Engel-Hoek; Johanna Kalf; Bastiaan Bloem; George Borm; Machiel Zwarts; Bert de Swart; Marten Munneke

    2011-01-01

    Drooling is an incapacitating feature of Parkinson's disease. Better pathophysiological insights are needed to improve treatment. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the cause of drooling is multifactorial. We examined 15 patients with Parkinson's disease with distinct diurnal saliva loss

  19. New insights into the pathophysiology of postoperative cognitive dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Lene; Rasmussen, Lars Simon; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    There is evidence that postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a significant problem after major surgery, but the pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated. The interpretation of available studies is difficult due to differences in neuropsychological test batteries as well as the lack...

  20. Parkinson's disease : The syndrome, the pathogenesis and pathophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Anna L.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterised by a slowly expanding degeneration of neurons particularly in the mesencephalon. The causes are unknown although risk factors in the genetic and toxic domain are being discovered. An important pathophysiological feature in PD is the loss of part of the

  1. Pathophysiology and Contributing Factors in Postprostatectomy Incontinence: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.; Farag, F.; Bauer, R.M.M.J.; Sandhu, J.; Ridder, D. de; Stenzl, A.

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: The incidence and awareness of postprostatectomy incontinence (PPI) has increased during the past few years, probably because of an increase in prostate cancer surgery. Many theories have been postulated to explain the pathophysiology of PPI. OBJECTIVE: The current review scrutinizes

  2. Pathophysiology of acute mountain sickness and high altitude pulmonary oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sutton, J R; Lassen, N

    1979-01-01

    We review the evidence that acute mountain sickness (AMS) and high altitude pulmonary oedema (HAPO) occur together more often than is realized. We hypothesize that AMS and HAPO have a common pathophysiological basis: both are due to increased pressure and flow in the microcirculation, causing...

  3. Elucidation of pathophysiology and treatment of neuropathic pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vranken, Jan H.

    2012-01-01

    Neuropathic pain, pain arising as a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system, is relatively common, occurring in about 1% of the population. Studies in animal models describe a number of peripheral and central pathophysiological processes after nerve injury that

  4. An update on oxidative stress-mediated organ pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Kahkashan; Sinha, Krishnendu; Sil, Parames C

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants and drugs can result in pathophysiological situations in the body. Research in this area is essential as the knowledge on cellular survival and death would help in designing effective therapeutic strategies that are needed for the maintenance of the normal physiological functions of the body. In this regard, naturally occurring bio-molecules can be considered as potential therapeutic targets as they are normally available in commonly consumed foodstuffs and are thought to have minimum side effects. This review article describes the detailed mechanisms of oxidative stress-mediated organ pathophysiology and the ultimate fate of the cells either to survive or to undergo necrotic or apoptotic death. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of a number of naturally occurring bioactive molecules in oxidative stress-mediated organ pathophysiology have also been included in the review. The review provides useful information about the recent progress in understanding the mechanism(s) of various types of organ pathophysiology, the complex cross-talk between these pathways, as well as their modulation in stressed conditions. Additionally, it suggests possible therapeutic applications of a number of naturally occurring bioactive molecules in conditions involving oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pathophysiological and pharmacotherapeutic aspects of serotonin and serotonergic drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, P. A.; Blauw, G. J.; van Brummelen, P.

    1990-01-01

    A survey shall be given on the physiological, pathophysiological and pharmacotherapeutic backgrounds of the biogenic amine 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin; 5HT), to be preceded by a few historical remarks. 5HT is biosynthesized from L-tryptophan via hydroxylation and subsequent decarboxylation. 5HT

  6. Unravelling narcolepsy : from pathophysiology to measuring treatment effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, van der A.

    2017-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a disorder of the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, with as its major features excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucinations, sleep paralysis and disturbed nocturnal sleep. The first part of this thesis concernes an overview of the pathophysiology,

  7. Effects of Triphasic Exercise on Blood Rheology and Pathophysiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to study the relevance of physiology and pathophysiology in blood rheology as effects of triphasic exercise. Regular exercise which has been established as life prolonging has led to decrease in both peripheral vascular and coronary morbidity that has been associated with certain improvements in ...

  8. Chemical and biological relationships relevant to the effect of acid rainfall on the soil-plant system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin Nyborg

    1976-01-01

    This paper deals with problems of measuring acidity in rainfall and the interpretation of these measurements in terms of effects on the soil-plant system. Theoretical relationships of the carbon-dioxide-bicarbonate equalibria and its effect on rainfall acidity measurements are given. The relationship of a cation-anion balance model of acidity in rainfall to plant...

  9. Prevention of contrast induced nephropathy with sodium bicarbonate (the PROMEC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fredy Nieto-Ríos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Contrast-induced nephropathy is a common complication of radiographic procedures. Different measures have been used to avoid this damage, but the evidence is controversial. New investigations are required to clarify it. We investigated the efficacy and safety of sodium bicarbonate solution compared with sodium chloride solution to prevent contrast induced nephropathy in patients with or at risk of renal dysfunction. Methods: A prospective, single-center, randomized clinical trial conducted from May 1, 2007 to February 8, 2008. Inpatients in a tertiary center, scheduled to undergo a procedure with the nonionic radiographic contrast agent iohexol. There were 220 patients with serum creatinine levels of at least 1.2 mg/dL (106.1 µmol/L and/or type 2 diabetics, who were randomized to receive an infusion of sodium chloride (n = 113 or sodium bicarbonate (n = 107 before and after contrast dye administration. The intervention were "A" group received 1 ml/kg/hour of normal saline solution, starting 12 hours before and continuing 12 hours after iohexol contrast. "B" group received 3 ml/kg of sodium bicarbonate solution (150 mEq/L one hour prior to procedure and then drip rate was decreased to 1 ml/kg/hour until 6 hours post procedure. Our main outcome measure was change in serum creatinine. Results: The mean creatinine value after the procedure was 1.26 mg/dL in the saline group and 1.22 mg/dL in the bicarbonate group (mean difference: 0.036; CI 95%: -0.16 to 0.23, p = 0.865. The diagnosis of contrast-induced nephropathy, defined by increase in serum creatinine on 25% or more within 2 days after administration of radiographic contrast, was done in twelve patients (12% in the bicarbonate group and eighth patients (7.1% in the saline group (RR: 1.68, CI 95%: 0.72 to 3.94. Conclusion: Our investigation showed that there were no differences between normal saline solution (extended infusion vs. bicarbonate solution for nephroprotection.

  10. Dose-Response of Sodium Bicarbonate Ingestion Highlights Individuality in Time Course of Blood Analyte Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rebecca Louise; Stellingwerff, Trent; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Saunders, Bryan; Cooper, Simon; Sale, Craig

    2016-10-01

    To defend against hydrogen cation accumulation and muscle fatigue during exercise, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) ingestion is commonplace. The individualized dose-response relationship between NaHCO 3 ingestion and blood biochemistry is unclear. The present study investigated the bicarbonate, pH, base excess and sodium responses to NaHCO 3 ingestion. Sixteen healthy males (23 ± 2 years; 78.6 ± 15.1 kg) attended three randomized order-balanced, nonblinded sessions, ingesting a single dose of either 0.1, 0.2 or 0.3 g·kg -1 BM of NaHCO 3 (Intralabs, UK). Fingertip capillary blood was obtained at baseline and every 10 min for 1 hr, then every 15 min for a further 2 hr. There was a significant main effect of both time and condition for all assessed blood analytes (p ≤ .001). Blood analyte responses were significantly lower following 0.1 g·kg -1 BM compared with 0.2 g·kg -1 BM; bicarbonate concentrations and base excess were highest following ingestion of 0.3 g·kg -1 BM (p ≤ .01). Bicarbonate concentrations and pH significantly increased from baseline following all doses; the higher the dose the greater the increase. Large interindividual variability was shown in the magnitude of the increase in bicarbonate concentrations following each dose (+2.0-5; +5.1-8.1; and +6.0-12.3 mmol·L -1 for 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 g·kg -1 BM) and in the range of time to peak concentrations (30-150; 40-165; and 75-180 min for 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 g·kg -1 BM). The variability in bicarbonate responses was not affected by normalization to body mass. These results challenge current practices relating to NaHCO 3 supplementation and clearly show the need for athletes to individualize their ingestion protocol and trial varying dosages before competition.

  11. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on the prevention of contrast induced nephropathy in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isono, Tsuyoshi; Kamihata, Hiroshi; Seno, Takeshi; Manabe, Kenichi; Moriguchi, Akira; Yurugi, Takatomi; Iwasaka, Toshiji; Motohiro, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) remains a common complication of coronary angiography (CAG) and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although a previous study reported pretreatment with sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride for prophylaxis of CIN, this has not been a universal finding and the long-term effects of sodium bicarbonate on CIN have not been studied before. We performed a prospective, single-center, randomized trial to investigate whether CIN can be avoided by sodium bicarbonate in patients with chronic renal failure. Eighty patients with chronic renal failure (defined as serum creatinine concentration (SCr), >1.1 mg per deciliter), who were undergoing CAG, were enrolled in this study. We assigned them to either sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate (Group B: n=35) or sodium chloride alone (Group C: n=45). In all patients, an infusion of sodium chloride of 1 ml/kg per hour was given between 12 hours before and after the procedure. In Group B, sodium bicarbonate infusion of 1 ml/kg per hour continued from 3 hours before procedure to 6 hours after procedure, changing from sodium chloride at 1 ml/kg per hour. SCr was measured at baseline, day 1, day 2 and 1 month after the procedure. CIN was defined as a 25% increase in SCr from baseline value, or an absolute increase of at least 0.5 mg/dl, which appears within 2 days after CAG. No differences in age, sex and contrast volume were observed between the two groups. SCr at baseline was not significantly different in the two groups (Group B: 1.41±0.32 versus Group C: 1.50±0.38 mg/dl). SCr at day 2 was significantly lower in Group B than Group C (1.44±0.38 versus 1.60±0.5 mg/dl, p<0.05) and 1 month (1.28±0.27 versus 1.49±0.55 mg/dl, p<0.05). CIN occurred in 9 patients (20%) in Group C but in only 2 (6%) in Group B (p=0.03). Sodium chloride plus sodium bicarbonate is more effective than sodium chloride alone for prophylaxis of CIN and can help retain long

  12. Once-daily omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate heals severe refractory reflux esophagitis with morning or nighttime dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orbelo, Diana M; Enders, Felicity T; Romero, Yvonne; Francis, Dawn L; Achem, Sami R; Dabade, Tushar S; Crowell, Michael D; Geno, Debra M; DeJesus, Ramona S; Namasivayam, Vikneswaran; Adamson, Steven C; Arora, Amindra S; Majka, Andrew J; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Murray, Joseph A; Lohse, Matthew; Diehl, Nancy N; Fredericksen, Mary; Jung, Kee Wook; Houston, Margaret S; O'Neil, Angela E; Katzka, David A

    2015-01-01

    Morning dose or twice-daily proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use is often prescribed to heal severe reflux esophagitis. Compare the effect of single dose morning (control arm) versus nighttime (experimental arm) omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate (Zegerid(®)) (IR-OME) on esophagitis and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. Adult outpatients with Los Angeles grade C or D esophagitis were allocated to open-label 40 mg IR-OME once a day for 8 weeks in a prospective, randomized, parallel design, single center study. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and validated self-report symptom questionnaires were completed at baseline and follow-up. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were performed. Ninety-two of 128 (72 %) eligible subjects participated [64 (70 %) male, mean age 58 (range 19-86), median BMI 29 (range 21-51), 58 C:34 D]. Overall, 81 (88 %) subjects healed [n = 70 (76 %)] or improved [n = 11 (12 %)] erosions. There was no significant difference (morning vs. night) in mucosal healing [81 vs. 71 %, (p = 0.44)] or symptom resolution [heartburn (77 vs. 65 %, p = 0.12), acid regurgitation (82 vs. 73 %, p = 0.28)]. Prevalence of newly identified Barrett's esophagus was 14 % with half diagnosed only after treatment. Once-daily IR-OME (taken morning or night) effectively heals severe reflux esophagitis and improves GERD symptoms. Results support the clinical practice recommendation to repeat EGD after 8 weeks PPI therapy in severe esophagitis patients to assure healing and exclude Barrett's esophagus.

  13. Multi-tissue computational modeling analyzes pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in MKR mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    Full Text Available Computational models using metabolic reconstructions for in silico simulation of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM can provide a better understanding of disease pathophysiology and avoid high experimentation costs. There is a limited amount of computational work, using metabolic reconstructions, performed in this field for the better understanding of T2DM. In this study, a new algorithm for generating tissue-specific metabolic models is presented, along with the resulting multi-confidence level (MCL multi-tissue model. The effect of T2DM on liver, muscle, and fat in MKR mice was first studied by microarray analysis and subsequently the changes in gene expression of frank T2DM MKR mice versus healthy mice were applied to the multi-tissue model to test the effect. Using the first multi-tissue genome-scale model of all metabolic pathways in T2DM, we found out that branched-chain amino acids' degradation and fatty acids oxidation pathway is downregulated in T2DM MKR mice. Microarray data showed low expression of genes in MKR mice versus healthy mice in the degradation of branched-chain amino acids and fatty-acid oxidation pathways. In addition, the flux balance analysis using the MCL multi-tissue model showed that the degradation pathways of branched-chain amino acid and fatty acid oxidation were significantly downregulated in MKR mice versus healthy mice. Validation of the model was performed using data derived from the literature regarding T2DM. Microarray data was used in conjunction with the model to predict fluxes of various other metabolic pathways in the T2DM mouse model and alterations in a number of pathways were detected. The Type 2 Diabetes MCL multi-tissue model may explain the high level of branched-chain amino acids and free fatty acids in plasma of Type 2 Diabetic subjects from a metabolic fluxes perspective.

  14. Effect of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and somatostatin on secretion of epidermal growth factor and bicarbonate from Brunner's glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    The effect of VIP and somatostatin on secretion of epidermal growth factor and bicarbonate from Brunner's glands was investigated in the rat. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide infused in doses of 10 and 100 ng/kg/h significantly increased epidermal growth factor and bicarbonate output......, but the concentrations did not change. Somatostatin infused at doses of 1, 10, 100 and 1000 ng/kg/h against a background of VIP 100 ng/kg/h inhibited in dose-dependent fashion the stimulated epidermal growth factor and bicarbonate outputs from rat Brunner's gland pouches. Also basal secretion was inhibited...... growth factor and bicarbonate from Brunner's glands, an effect which is inhibited by somatostatin. A possible role for somatostatin in the control of Brunner's gland secretion is suggested....

  15. Acid-Base Disorders--A Computer Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maude, David L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes and lists a program for Apple Pascal Version 1.1 which investigates the behavior of the bicarbonate-carbon dioxide buffer system in acid-base disorders. Designed specifically for the preclinical medical student, the program has proven easy to use and enables students to use blood gas parameters to arrive at diagnoses. (DH)

  16. A study on the localized corrosion of cobalt in bicarbonate solutions containing halide ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallant, Danick [Departement de Biologie, Chimie et Sciences de la Sante, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, Allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Que., G5L 3A1 (Canada); Departement de Chimie, Universite Laval, Quebec, Que., G1K 7P4 (Canada); Simard, Stephan [Departement de Biologie, Chimie et Sciences de la Sante, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300, Allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Que., G5L 3A1 (Canada)]. E-mail: stephan_simard@uqar.qc.ca

    2005-07-01

    The localized attack of cobalt in bicarbonate aqueous solutions containing halide ions was investigated using electrochemical techniques, scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible and Raman spectroscopies. Rotating disc and rotating ring-disc electrodes were used to determine the effect of bicarbonate concentration, solution pH, nature and concentration of the halide ions, convection and potential sweep rate on the corrosion processes. These parameters were found to play a key role on the localized attack induced by halide ions by influencing the production of a Co(HCO{sub 3}){sub 2} precipitate on the pit surface. Potentiostatically generated cobalt oxide films (CoO and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) were found to be efficient to reduce pitting corrosion of cobalt.

  17. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draganic, Z.D.; Negron-Mendoza, A.; Vujosevic, S.I.; Navarro-Gonzales, R.; Albarran-Sanchez, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm -3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of 60 Co gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts of formaldehyde and an unidentified polymer. A large initial yield of formate in the γ-radiolysis, G(HCOO - ) = 2.2, is due to the reaction COO - + HCO 3 - ↔ HCOO - +CO 3 - . The efficiency of organic synthesis within the large dose range studied is low and is explained by efficient pathways leading to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO - + CO 3 - is particularly significant. (author)

  18. Highly efficient hydrogen storage system based on ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over palladium nanocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ji; Yang, Lisha; Lu, Mi; Lin, Hongfei

    2015-03-01

    A highly efficient, reversible hydrogen storage-evolution process has been developed based on the ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over the same carbon-supported palladium nanocatalyst. This heterogeneously catalyzed hydrogen storage system is comparable to the counterpart homogeneous systems and has shown fast reaction kinetics of both the hydrogenation of ammonium bicarbonate and the dehydrogenation of ammonium formate under mild operating conditions. By adjusting temperature and pressure, the extent of hydrogen storage and evolution can be well controlled in the same catalytic system. Moreover, the hydrogen storage system based on aqueous-phase ammonium formate is advantageous owing to its high volumetric energy density. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Transformation of Sodium Bicarbonate and CO2 into Sodium Formate over NiPd Nanoparticle Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengnan eWang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs. Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability.

  20. Propafenone Overdose-induced Arrhythmia and Subsequent Correction After Administration of Sodium Bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bruss, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: 71-year old woman presented to the emergency department with near-syncope, chest pain, and shortness of breath. She has a history of hypertension, congestive heart failure and an “irregular heartbeat.” She cannot remember what medications she takes. She recently saw her cardiologist and had some of her medications adjusted, but she can’t remember what specific changes were made. An electrocardiogram was performed, one ampule of sodium bicarbonate was administered and a repeat ECG obtained; patient felt improvement of her symptoms after administration of sodium bicarbonate. Significant findings: The first ECG in this case showed sinus tachycardia with a widened QRS (black arrow, a rightward axis, prolonged corrected QT interval (QTc, and terminal R wave in AVR (white arrow. There are several potential causes for these ECG findings, but put together with the patient’s history, we were suspicious of sodium channel blockers being the most likely cause. The second ECG, after sodium bicarbonate was administered, demonstrated a normal QRS (black arrow and no rightward axis deviation, reduction of the QTC and resolution of the terminal R wave (white arrow. We later learned that the patient’s cardiologist recently increased her propafenone dose. Discussion: Propafenone is a class 1C anti-arrhythmic that slows influx of sodium ions into the cells. It slows the rate of increase of the action potential thereby prolonging conduction and refractoriness in all areas of the myocardium.1 The mortality from acute Class 1C toxicity has been reported as high as 22.5%.1 The degree of propafenone toxicity is directly correlated to the QRS interval,1 so monitoring said interval is very helpful in determining resolution of the drug’s cardiotoxic effects. The electrocardiac effect of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs is a well-known and often tested finding. These effects include prolongation of the QRS and QTc, right axis deviation

  1. Transformation of Sodium Bicarbonate and CO2 into Sodium Formate over NiPd Nanoparticle Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

    2013-09-01

    The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability.

  2. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of ammonium bicarbonate over a large dose range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draganic, Z.D.; Negrón-Mendoza, A.; Sehested, K.

    1991-01-01

    Oxygen-free aqueous solutions of 0.05 mol dm-3 ammonium and sodium bicarbonate were studied after receiving various doses of Co-60 gammas (0.01-400 kGy) or 0.5-20 Gy pulses of 10 Mev electrons. Formate and oxalate were found to be the main radiolytic products, in addition to trace amounts...... to the reformation of bicarbonate, where the reaction COO- + CO3- is particularly significant. Computer fitting of the data obtained gives k(COO- + HCO3-) = (2 +/- 0.4) x 10(3) dm3 mol-1 s-1, k(COO- + CO3-) = (5 +/- 1) x 10(7) dm3 mol-1 s-1, k(NH2 + HCO3-)

  3. Role of brain orexin in the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Toshikatsu; Nozu, Tsukasa

    2011-04-01

    Orexins are neuropeptides that are localized in neurons within the lateral hypothalamic area and regulate feeding behavior. The lateral hypothalamic area plays an important role in not only feeding but the central regulation of other functions including gut physiology. Accumulating evidence have shown that orexins acts in the brain to regulate a wide variety of body functions including gastrointestinal functions. The purpose of this review is to summarize relevant findings on brain orexins and a digestive system, and discuss the pathophysiological roles of the peptides with special reference to functional gastrointestinal disorders. Exogenously administered orexin or endogenously released orexin in the brain potently stimulates gastric acid secretion in pylorus-ligated conscious rats. The vagal cholinergic pathway is involved in the orexin-induced stimulation of acid secretion, suggesting that orexin-containing neurons in lateral hypothalamic area activates neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus in medulla oblongata, followed by increasing vagal outflow, thereby stimulating gastric acid secretion. In addition, brain orexin stimulates gastric motility, pancreatic secretion and induce gastroprotective action. On the other hand, brain orexin is involved in a number of physiological functions other than gut physiology, such as control of sleep/awake cycle and anti-depressive action in addition to increase in appetite. From these evidence, we would like to make a hypothesis that decreased orexin signaling in the brain may play a role in the pathophysiology in a part of patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders who are frequently accompanied with appetite loss, sleep disturbance, depressive state and the inhibition of gut function. © 2011 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Esophageal baseline impedance levels in patients with pathophysiological characteristics of functional heartburn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinucci, I; de Bortoli, N; Savarino, E; Piaggi, P; Bellini, M; Antonelli, A; Savarino, V; Frazzoni, M; Marchi, S

    2014-04-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that low esophageal basal impedance may reflect impaired mucosal integrity and increased acid sensitivity. We aimed to compare baseline impedance levels in patients with heartburn and pathophysiological characteristics related to functional heartburn (FH) divided into two groups on the basis of symptom relief after proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Patients with heartburn and negative endoscopy were treated with esomeprazole or pantoprazole 40 mg daily for 8 weeks. According to MII-pH (off therapy) analysis, patients with normal acid exposure time (AET), normal reflux number, and lack of association between symptoms and refluxes were selected; of whom 30 patients with a symptom relief higher than 50% after PPIs composed Group A, and 30 patients, matched for sex and age, without symptom relief composed Group B. A group of 20 healthy volunteers (HVs) was enrolled. For each patient and HV, we evaluated the baseline impedance levels at channel 3, during the overnight rest, at three different times. Group A (vs Group B) showed an increase in the following parameters: mean AET (1.4 ± 0.8% vs 0.5 ± 0.6%), mean reflux number (30.4 ± 8.7 vs 24 ± 6.9), proximal reflux number (11.1 ± 5.2 vs 8.2 ± 3.6), acid reflux number (17.9 ± 6.1 vs 10.7 ± 6.9). Baseline impedance levels were lower in Group A than in Group B and in HVs (p heartburn and normal AET could achieve a better understanding of pathophysiology in reflux disease patients, and could improve the distinction between FH and hypersensitive esophagus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The clearance of uranium after deposition of the nitrate and bicarbonate in different regions of the rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellender, M.

    1987-01-01

    This study investigated the tissue distribution and excretion of uranium after its deposition as either the nitrate or bicarbonate in the three regions of the respiratory system of the rat. Results confirm the recommendations of ICRP that uranyl nitrate and bicarbonate should be treated as class D compounds; but imply that some of the parameters used in the ICRP lung model are not applicable to soluble uranium compounds. (author)

  6. Effect of oral sodium bicarbonate on fibroblast growth factor-23 in patients with chronic kidney disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Melamed, Michal L; Hostetter, Thomas H; Bauer, Carolyn; Raff, Amanda C; Almudevar, Anthony L; Lalonde, Amy; Messing, Susan; Abramowitz, Matthew K

    2016-08-05

    The regulation of fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23) secretion in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is incompletely understood. An in vitro study showed that metabolic acidosis increased FGF23 in mouse bone. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of oral sodium bicarbonate on circulating FGF23 levels in patients with CKD. This was a single-blind pilot study. Twenty adults with estimated glomerular filtration rate between 15-45 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and serum bicarbonate between 20-24 mEq/L were treated with placebo for 2 weeks, followed by increasing doses of oral sodium bicarbonate (0.3, 0.6 and 1.0 mEq/kg/day) in 2 week intervals for a total of 6 weeks. C-terminal FGF23 levels were measured at the initial visit, after 2 weeks of placebo and after 6 weeks of bicarbonate therapy. Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test was used to compare FGF23 before and after sodium bicarbonate. After 6 weeks of oral sodium bicarbonate, the median FGF23 increased significantly from 150.9 RU/mL (IQR 107.7-267.43) to 191.4 RU/mL (IQR 132.6-316.9) (p = 0.048) and this persisted after excluding participants who received activated vitamin D. FGF23 increased after short-term oral sodium bicarbonate therapy in patients with CKD and mild metabolic acidosis. It is unclear whether this was due to the alkalinizing effect of sodium bicarbonate or other factors. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT00888290 ) on April 23, 2009.

  7. Reliable gastric tonometry after coronary artery surgery : need for acid secretion suppression despite transient failure of acid secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bams, JL; Kolkman, JJ; Roukens, MP; Douma, DPN; Loef, BG; Meuwissen, SGM; Groeneveld, ABJ

    1998-01-01

    Objective:To study the need for suppression of gastric acid secretion for reliable intragastric partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) tonometry by evaluating the effect of an oral dose of: sodium bicarbonate before and after administration of the H-2-blocker ranitidine to mimic CO2 generation

  8. Reliable gastric tonometry after coronary artery surgery : need for acid secretion suppression despite transient failure of acid secretion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bams, JL; Kolkman, JJ; Roukens, MP; Douma, DPN; Loef, BG; Meuwissen, SGM; Groeneveld, ABJ

    Objective:To study the need for suppression of gastric acid secretion for reliable intragastric partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) tonometry by evaluating the effect of an oral dose of: sodium bicarbonate before and after administration of the H-2-blocker ranitidine to mimic CO2 generation

  9. Bicarbonate-responsive “soluble” adenylyl cyclase defines a nuclear cAMP microdomain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippin, Jonathan H.; Farrell, Jeanne; Huron, David; Kamenetsky, Margarita; Hess, Kenneth C.; Fischman, Donald A.; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    Bicarbonate-responsive “soluble” adenylyl cyclase resides, in part, inside the mammalian cell nucleus where it stimulates the activity of nuclear protein kinase A to phosphorylate the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). The existence of this complete and functional, nuclear-localized cAMP pathway establishes that cAMP signals in intracellular microdomains and identifies an alternate pathway leading to CREB activation. PMID:14769862

  10. Influence of sodium bicarbonate on performance and hydration in lightweight rowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupcis, Peter D; Slater, Gary J; Pruscino, Cathryn L; Kemp, Justin G

    2012-03-01

    The effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on prerace hydration status and on 2000 m ergometer performance in elite lightweight rowers was examined using a randomized, cross-over, double-blinded design. To simulate body mass (BM) management strategies common to lightweight rowing, oarsmen reduced BM by approx. 4% in the 24 h preceding the trials, and, in the 2 h before performance, undertook nutritional recovery consisting of mean 43.2 kJ/kg, 2.2 g of CHO per kilogram, 31.8 mg of Na+ per kilogram, 24.3 mL of H2O per kilogram, and NaHCO3 (0.3 g of NaHCO3 per kilogram BM) or placebo (PL; 0.15 g of corn flour per kilogram BM) at 70 to 90 min before racing. At 25 min before performance, NaHCO3 had increased blood pH (7.48 ± 0.02 vs PL: 7.41 ± 0.03, P = .005) and bicarbonate concentrations (29.1 ± 1.8 vs PL: 23.9 ± 1.6 mmol/L, P < .001), whereas BM, urine specific gravity, and plasma volume changes were similar between trials. Rowing ergometer times were similar between trials (NaHCO3: 397.8 ± 12.6; PL: 398.6 ± 13.8 s, P = .417), whereas posttest bicarbonate (11.6 ± 2.3 vs 9.4 ± 1.8 mmol/L, P = .003) and lactate concentration increases (13.4 ± 1.7 vs 11.9 ± 1.9 mmol/L, P = .001) were greater with NaHCO3. Sodium bicarbonate did not further enhance rehydration or performance in lightweight rowers when undertaking recommended post-weigh-in nutritional recovery strategies.

  11. Sodium bicarbonate and high-intensity-cycling capacity: variability in responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Bryan; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C; Sunderland, Caroline

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether gastrointestinal (GI) distress affects the ergogenicity of sodium bicarbonate and whether the degree of alkalemia or other metabolic responses is different between individuals who improve exercise capacity and those who do not. Twenty-one men completed 2 cycling-capacity tests at 110% of maximum power output. Participants were supplemented with 0.3 g/kg body mass of either placebo (maltodextrin) or sodium bicarbonate (SB). Blood pH, bicarbonate, base excess, and lactate were determined at baseline, preexercise, immediately postexercise, and 5 min postexercise. SB supplementation did not significantly increase total work done (TWD; P = .16, 46.8 ± 9.1 vs 45.6 ± 8.4 kJ, d = 0.14), although magnitude-based inferences suggested a 63% likelihood of a positive effect. When data were analyzed without 4 participants who experienced GI discomfort, TWD (P = .01) was significantly improved with SB. Immediately postexercise blood lactate was higher in SB for the individuals who improved but not for those who did not. There were also differences in the preexercise-to-postexercise change in blood pH, bicarbonate, and base excess between individuals who improved and those who did not. SB improved high-intensity-cycling capacity but only with the exclusion of participants experiencing GI discomfort. Differences in blood responses suggest that SB may not be beneficial to all individuals. Magnitude-based inferences suggested that the exercise effects are unlikely to be negative; therefore, individuals should determine whether they respond well to SB supplementation before competition.

  12. Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.

    2013-09-17

    Many salinity gradient energy technologies such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) rely on highly selective anion transport through polymeric anion exchange membranes. While there is considerable interest in using thermolytic solutions such as ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) in RED processes for closed-loop conversion of heat energy to electricity, little is known about membrane performance in this electrolyte. The resistances of two commercially available cation exchange membranes in AmB were lower than their resistances in NaCl. However, the resistances of commercially available anion exchange membranes (AEMs) were much larger in AmB than in NaCl, which would adversely affect energy recovery. The properties of a series of quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(phenylene oxide) and Radel-based AEMs were therefore examined to understand the reasons for increased resistance in AmB to overcome this performance penalty due to the lower mobility of bicarbonate, 4.59 × 10-4 cm2/(V s), compared to chloride, 7.90 × 10-4 cm2/(V s) (the dilute aqueous solution mobility ratio of HCO3 - to Cl- is 0.58). Most membrane resistances were generally consistent with the dilute solution mobilities of the anions. For a few key samples, however, increased water uptake in AmB solution reduced the ionic resistance of the polymer compared to its resistance in NaCl solution. This increased water uptake was attributed to the greater hydration of the bicarbonate ion compared to the chloride ion. The increased resistance due to the use of bicarbonate as opposed to chloride ions in AEMs can therefore be mitigated by designing polymers that swell more in AmB compared to NaCl solutions, enabling more efficient energy recovery using AmB thermolytic solutions in RED. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Quantified pH imaging with hyperpolarized 13C‐bicarbonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, David Johannes; Janich, Martin A.; Köllisch, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    for various flip angles for bicarbonate (BiC) and CO2 with spectral‐spatial excitation and spiral readout in healthy Lewis rats in five slices. Acute subcutaneous sterile inflammation was induced with Concanavalin A in the right leg of Buffalo rats. pH and proton images were measured 2 h after induction...... and interpreted within inflammation and acute metabolic alkalosis models. Magn Reson Med 73:2274–2282, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....

  14. Effects of Cheap Antidotes; Sodium Bicarbonate and Magnesium Sulfate in Organophosphorous Poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balali-Mood, M.; Afshari, R.

    2007-01-01

    Organophosphorous (OP) compounds have been used as pesticides and chemical warfare nerve agents. Despite administration of well known antidotes (atropine and oximes), morbidity and mortality of OP poisoning were still high. Besides, oximes are very expensive and not available in most developing countries. It was thus aimed to study the effects of cheap available antidotes; sodium bicarbonate and magnesium sulfate in OP poisoning. In addition to the standard antidotal treatment, out of 117 patients (63M, 47F) aged 25.2 ± 9.5 years with moderate to severe acute OP pesticide poisoning 59 were given sodium bicarbonate 5 mEq/kg in 60 min. followed by 5-6 mEq/kg/day to obtain arterial blood pH of 7.45 to 7.55. Arterial blood pH increased significantly (p less than 0.01) to 7.48 ± 0.05 compared to the controls (7.32 ± 0.06). Morbidity based on hospitalization days reduced significantly (p less than 0.05) from 5.62 ± 3.4 in the controls to 3.1 ± 2.6 days in the sodium bicarbonate group. Total atropine dose was also significantly (p less than 0.05) lower in the test group. Mortality was lower, but not significantly due to the low numbers (5 and 2 of the controls and test group, respectively). Sodium bicarbonate appeared to be effective and could be added to the treatment regime of OP poisoning. Magnesium sulfate was administered four gram intravenously only for the first 24 hr of hospitalization day for the patients with moderate to severe OP poisoning in a pilot study. The results were promising and thus further investigations are continued.(author)

  15. Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy

    KAUST Repository

    Geise, Geoffrey M.; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Many salinity gradient energy technologies such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) rely on highly selective anion transport through polymeric anion exchange membranes. While there is considerable interest in using thermolytic solutions such as ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) in RED processes for closed-loop conversion of heat energy to electricity, little is known about membrane performance in this electrolyte. The resistances of two commercially available cation exchange membranes in AmB were lower than their resistances in NaCl. However, the resistances of commercially available anion exchange membranes (AEMs) were much larger in AmB than in NaCl, which would adversely affect energy recovery. The properties of a series of quaternary ammonium-functionalized poly(phenylene oxide) and Radel-based AEMs were therefore examined to understand the reasons for increased resistance in AmB to overcome this performance penalty due to the lower mobility of bicarbonate, 4.59 × 10-4 cm2/(V s), compared to chloride, 7.90 × 10-4 cm2/(V s) (the dilute aqueous solution mobility ratio of HCO3 - to Cl- is 0.58). Most membrane resistances were generally consistent with the dilute solution mobilities of the anions. For a few key samples, however, increased water uptake in AmB solution reduced the ionic resistance of the polymer compared to its resistance in NaCl solution. This increased water uptake was attributed to the greater hydration of the bicarbonate ion compared to the chloride ion. The increased resistance due to the use of bicarbonate as opposed to chloride ions in AEMs can therefore be mitigated by designing polymers that swell more in AmB compared to NaCl solutions, enabling more efficient energy recovery using AmB thermolytic solutions in RED. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  16. Metabolic Communication between Astrocytes and Neurons via Bicarbonate-Responsive Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hyun B.; Gordon, Grant R.J.; Zhou, Ning; Tai, Chao; Rungta, Ravi L.; Martinez, Jennifer; Milner, Teresa A.; Ryu, Jae K.; McLarnon, James G.; Tresguerres, Martin; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen; MacVicar, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes are proposed to participate in brain energy metabolism by supplying substrates to neurons from their glycogen stores and from glycolysis. However, the molecules involved in metabolic sensing and the molecular pathways responsible for metabolic coupling between different cell types in the brain are not fully understood. Here we show that a recently cloned bicarbonate (HCO3−) sensor, soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC), is highly expressed in astrocytes and becomes activated in response t...

  17. X-ray diffraction studies on merohedrally twinned Δ1-62NtNBCe1-A crystals of the sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Harindarpal S; Dutcher, Lauren; Boron, Walter F; Patel, Samir; Guay-Woodford, Lisa M

    2013-07-01

    NBCe1-A membrane-embedded macromolecules that cotransport sodium and bicarbonate ions across the bilayer serve to maintain acid-base homeostasis throughout the body. Defects result in a number of renal and eye disorders, including type-II renal tubular acidosis and cataracts. Here, crystals of a human truncated mutant of the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of NBCe1 (Δ1-62NtNBCe1-A) are reported that diffract X-rays to 2.4 Å resolution. The crystal symmetry of Δ1-62NtNBCe1-A is of space group P31 with pseudo-P3121 symmetry and it has a hemihedral twin fraction of 33.0%. The crystals may provide insight into the pathogenic processes observed in a subset of patients with truncating and point mutations in the gene encoding NBCe1.

  18. Specific and efficient targeting of cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters to the inner envelope membrane of chloroplasts in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu eUehara

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Installation of cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters to the inner envelope membrane (IEM of chloroplasts in C3 plants has been thought to improve photosynthetic performance. However, the method to deliver cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters to the chloroplast IEM remains to be established. In this study, we provide evidence that the cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporters, BicA and SbtA, can be specifically installed into the chloroplast IEM using the chloroplast IEM targeting signal in conjunction with the transit peptide. We fused the transit peptide and the mature portion of Cor413im1, whose targeting mechanism to the IEM has been characterized in detail, to either BicA or SbtA isolated from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Among the seven chimeric constructs tested, we confirmed that four chimeric bicarbonate transporters, designated as BicAI, BicAII, SbtAII, and SbtAIII, were expressed in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, these chimeric transporters were specifically targeted to the chloroplast IEM. They were also resistant to alkaline extraction but can be solubilized by Triton X-100, indicating that they are integral membrane proteins in the chloroplast IEM. One of the transporters, BicA, could reside in the chloroplast IEM even after removal of the IEM targeting signal. Taken together, our results indicate that the addition of IEM targeting signal, as well as the transit peptide, to bicarbonate transporters allows us to efficiently target nuclear-encoded chimeric bicarbonate transporters to the chloroplast IEM.

  19. Oral sodium bicarbonate on the nutritional status of patients on chronic dialysis program: A randomized placebo controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Enríquez-Zarama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of oral sodium bicarbonate in improving the nutritional status of patients with chronic renal failure on chronic dialysis therapy (hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Design: Randomized double blind placebo clinical trial. Setting: RTS Renal Units of Popayan, Colombia. Patients and Methods: 162 patients on chronic dialysis (hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis were randomized to either placebo or bicarbonate. Patients received oral sodium bicarbonate, 1.0 g three times daily or placebo. Both groups received treatment for a 4-month period. Results: The study groups were comparable at the beginning of the study (study baseline and no significant differences were observed in any baseline parameters. At 4 months, the levels of albumin and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA improved with bicarbonate (p = 0.000, the malnutrition inflammation score and the score of malnutrition in dialysis with bicarbonate decreased significantly (p = 0.000. The PCR remained unchanged in both groups (p = 0,306. An increase of 20% or more from baseline serum albumin was observed in 6 (7.41% patients who received bicarbonate and 1 (1.23% of those receiving placebo (p = 0.02. At baseline albumin levels

  20. Comparison of the Kinetic Rate Law Parameters for the Dissolution of Natural and Synthetic Autunite in the Presence of Aqueous Bicarbonate Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Idarraga, Melina; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-08-02

    Bicarbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, bicarbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous bicarbonate concentration to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and a temperature range of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH. Increasing aqueous bicarbonate concentrations afforded comparable increases in the rate of release of uranium. Most notably under low pH conditions the aqueous bicarbonate resulted in up to 370 fold increases in the rate of uranium release in relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of aqueous bicarbonate on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release.