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Sample records for pathogens dynamics mutation

  1. 'SEEDY' (Simulation of Evolutionary and Epidemiological Dynamics: An R Package to Follow Accumulation of Within-Host Mutation in Pathogens.

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    Colin J Worby

    Full Text Available Genome sequencing is an increasingly common component of infectious disease outbreak investigations. However, the relationship between pathogen transmission and observed genetic data is complex, and dependent on several uncertain factors. As such, simulation of pathogen dynamics is an important tool for interpreting observed genomic data in an infectious disease outbreak setting, in order to test hypotheses and to explore the range of outcomes consistent with a given set of parameters. We introduce 'seedy', an R package for the simulation of evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics (http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/seedy/. Our software implements stochastic models for the accumulation of mutations within hosts, as well as individual-level disease transmission. By allowing variables such as the transmission bottleneck size, within-host effective population size and population mixing rates to be specified by the user, our package offers a flexible framework to investigate evolutionary dynamics during disease outbreaks. Furthermore, our software provides theoretical pairwise genetic distance distributions to provide a likelihood of person-to-person transmission based on genomic observations, and using this framework, implements transmission route assessment for genomic data collected during an outbreak. Our open source software provides an accessible platform for users to explore pathogen evolution and outbreak dynamics via simulation, and offers tools to assess observed genomic data in this context.

  2. Minisequencing mitochondrial DNA pathogenic mutations

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    Carracedo Ángel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are a number of well-known mutations responsible of common mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA diseases. In order to overcome technical problems related to the analysis of complete mtDNA genomes, a variety of different techniques have been proposed that allow the screening of coding region pathogenic mutations. Methods We here propose a minisequencing assay for the analysis of mtDNA mutations. In a single reaction, we interrogate a total of 25 pathogenic mutations distributed all around the whole mtDNA genome in a sample of patients suspected for mtDNA disease. Results We have detected 11 causal homoplasmic mutations in patients suspected for Leber disease, which were further confirmed by standard automatic sequencing. Mutations m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C occur at higher frequency than expected by change in the Galician (northwest Spain patients carrying haplogroup J lineages (Fisher's Exact test, P-value Conclusion We here developed a minisequencing genotyping method for the screening of the most common pathogenic mtDNA mutations which is simple, fast, and low-cost. The technique is robust and reproducible and can easily be implemented in standard clinical laboratories.

  3. HNPCC: Six new pathogenic mutations

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    Epplen Joerg T

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC is an autosomal dominant disease with a high risk for colorectal and endometrial cancer caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch-repair genes (MMR. HNPCC accounts for approximately 2 to 5% of all colorectal cancers. Here we present 6 novel mutations in the DNA mismatch-repair genes MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6. Methods Patients with clinical diagnosis of HNPCC were counselled. Tumor specimen were analysed for microsatellite instability and immunohistochemistry for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 protein was performed. If one of these proteins was not detectable in the tumor mutation analysis of the corresponding gene was carried out. Results We identified 6 frameshift mutations (2 in MLH1, 3 in MSH2, 1 in MSH6 resulting in a premature stop: two mutations in MLH1 (c.2198_2199insAACA [p.N733fsX745], c.2076_2077delTG [p.G693fsX702], three mutations in MSH2 (c.810_811delGT [p.C271fsX282], c.763_766delAGTGinsTT [p.F255fsX282], c.873_876delGACT [p.L292fsX298] and one mutation in MSH6 (c.1421_1422dupTG [p.C475fsX480]. All six tumors tested for microsatellite instability showed high levels of microsatellite instability (MSI-H. Conclusions HNPCC in families with MSH6 germline mutations may show an age of onset that is comparable to this of patients with MLH1 and MSH2 mutations.

  4. Characterization of pathogenic germline mutations in human Protein Kinases

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    Orengo Christine A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein Kinases are a superfamily of proteins involved in crucial cellular processes such as cell cycle regulation and signal transduction. Accordingly, they play an important role in cancer biology. To contribute to the study of the relation between kinases and disease we compared pathogenic mutations to neutral mutations as an extension to our previous analysis of cancer somatic mutations. First, we analyzed native and mutant proteins in terms of amino acid composition. Secondly, mutations were characterized according to their potential structural effects and finally, we assessed the location of the different classes of polymorphisms with respect to kinase-relevant positions in terms of subfamily specificity, conservation, accessibility and functional sites. Results Pathogenic Protein Kinase mutations perturb essential aspects of protein function, including disruption of substrate binding and/or effector recognition at family-specific positions. Interestingly these mutations in Protein Kinases display a tendency to avoid structurally relevant positions, what represents a significant difference with respect to the average distribution of pathogenic mutations in other protein families. Conclusions Disease-associated mutations display sound differences with respect to neutral mutations: several amino acids are specific of each mutation type, different structural properties characterize each class and the distribution of pathogenic mutations within the consensus structure of the Protein Kinase domain is substantially different to that for non-pathogenic mutations. This preferential distribution confirms previous observations about the functional and structural distribution of the controversial cancer driver and passenger somatic mutations and their use as a proxy for the study of the involvement of somatic mutations in cancer development.

  5. Experimental evolution and the dynamics of genomic mutation rate modifiers.

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    Raynes, Y; Sniegowski, P D

    2014-11-01

    Because genes that affect mutation rates are themselves subject to mutation, mutation rates can be influenced by natural selection and other evolutionary forces. The population genetics of mutation rate modifier alleles has been a subject of theoretical interest for many decades. Here, we review experimental contributions to our understanding of mutation rate modifier dynamics. Numerous evolution experiments have shown that mutator alleles (modifiers that elevate the genomic mutation rate) can readily rise to high frequencies via genetic hitchhiking in non-recombining microbial populations. Whereas these results certainly provide an explanatory framework for observations of sporadically high mutation rates in pathogenic microbes and in cancer lineages, it is nonetheless true that most natural populations have very low mutation rates. This raises the interesting question of how mutator hitchhiking is suppressed or its phenotypic effect reversed in natural populations. Very little experimental work has addressed this question; with this in mind, we identify some promising areas for future experimental investigation.

  6. Effects of the Pathogenic Mutation A117V and the Protective Mutation H111S on the Folding and Aggregation of PrP106-126: Insights from Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

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    Lulu Ning

    Full Text Available The fragment 106-126 of prion protein exhibits similar properties to full-length prion. Experiments have shown that the A117V mutation enhances the aggregation of PrP106-126, while the H111S mutation abolishes the assembly. However, the mechanism of the change in the aggregation behavior of PrP106-126 upon the two mutations is not fully understood. In this study, replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the conformational ensemble of the WT PrP106-126 and its two mutants A117V and H111S. The obtained results indicate that the three species are all intrinsically disordered but they have distinct morphological differences. The A117V mutant has a higher propensity to form β-hairpin structures than the WT, while the H111S mutant has a higher population of helical structures. Furthermore, the A117V mutation increases the hydrophobic solvent accessible surface areas of PrP106-126 and the H111S mutation reduces the exposure of hydrophobic residues. It can be concluded that the difference in populations of β-hairpin structures and the change of hydrophobic solvent accessible areas may induce the different aggregation behaviors of the A117V and the H111S mutated PrP106-126. Understanding why the two mutations have contrary effects on the aggregation of PrP106-126 is very meaningful for further elucidation of the mechanism underlying aggregation and design of inhibitor against aggregation process.

  7. Promotion and inhibition of mutation in pathogens

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    Maurice Samuel Devaraj

    2014-03-01

    Findings from this research may be used to prevent development of drug resistance, whether epigenetic or arising due to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA modification, in several pathogens, especially Mycobacterium tuberculosis through the co-administration of adenosine along with antibiotic treatment.

  8. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer : Identification of mutation carriers and assessing pathogenicity of mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, RC; Sijmons, RH; Berends, MJW; Ou, J; Hofstra, RNW; Kleibeuker, JH

    2004-01-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also referred to as Lynch syndrome, is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by susceptibility to colorectal cancer and extracolonic malignancies, in particular endometrial cancer. HNPCC is caused by pathogenic mutations

  9. [Suspected pathogenic mutation identified in two cases with oculocutaneous albinism].

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    He, Jiangmei; Zheng, Meiling; Zhang, Guilin; Hua, Ailing

    2015-08-01

    To detect potential mutations in genes related with non-syndromic oculocutaneous albinism I-IV and ocular albinism type I in two couples who had given births to children with albinism. All exons of the non-syndromic albinism related genes TYR, OCA2, TYRP-1, MITF, SLC45A2 and GPR143 were subjected to deep sequencing. The results were verified with Sanger sequencing. For the two female carriers, the coding region of the TYR gene was found to harbor a frameshift mutation c.925_926insC, which was also suspected to have been pathogenic. In one of the male partners, a nonsense mutations c.832C>T was found, which was also known to be pathogenic. Another male partner was found to harbor a TYR gene mutation c.346C>T, which was also known to be a pathogenic nonsense mutation. The coding region of the TYR gene c.925_926insC (p.Thr309ThrfsX9) probably underlies the OCA1 disease phenotype.

  10. Investigating Ebola virus pathogenicity using molecular dynamics.

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    Pappalardo, Morena; Collu, Francesca; Macpherson, James; Michaelis, Martin; Fraternali, Franca; Wass, Mark N

    2017-08-11

    Ebolaviruses have been known to cause deadly disease in humans for 40 years and have recently been demonstrated in West Africa to be able to cause large outbreaks. Four Ebolavirus species cause severe disease associated with high mortality in humans. Reston viruses are the only Ebolaviruses that do not cause disease in humans. Conserved amino acid changes in the Reston virus protein VP24 compared to VP24 of other Ebolaviruses have been suggested to alter VP24 binding to host cell karyopherins resulting in impaired inhibition of interferon signalling, which may explain the difference in human pathogenicity. Here we used protein structural analysis and molecular dynamics to further elucidate the interaction between VP24 and KPNA5. As a control experiment, we compared the interaction of wild-type and R137A-mutant (known to affect KPNA5 binding) Ebola virus VP24 with KPNA5. Results confirmed that the R137A mutation weakens direct VP24-KPNA5 binding and enables water molecules to penetrate at the interface. Similarly, Reston virus VP24 displayed a weaker interaction with KPNA5 than Ebola virus VP24, which is likely to reduce the ability of Reston virus VP24 to prevent host cell interferon signalling. Our results provide novel molecular detail on the interaction of Reston virus VP24 and Ebola virus VP24 with human KPNA5. The results indicate a weaker interaction of Reston virus VP24 with KPNA5 than Ebola virus VP24, which is probably associated with a decreased ability to interfere with the host cell interferon response. Hence, our study provides further evidence that VP24 is a key player in determining Ebolavirus pathogenicity.

  11. Selection-Mutation Dynamics of Signaling Games

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    Josef Hofbauer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the structure of the rest points of signaling games and their dynamic behavior under selection-mutation dynamics by taking the case of three signals as our canonical example. Many rest points of the replicator dynamics of signaling games are not isolated and, therefore, not robust under perturbations. However, some of them attract open sets of initial conditions. We prove the existence of certain rest points of the selection-mutation dynamics close to Nash equilibria of the signaling game and show that all but the perturbed rest points close to strict Nash equilibria are dynamically unstable. This is an important result for the evolution of signaling behavior, since it shows that the second-order forces that are governed by mutation can increase the chances of successful signaling.

  12. Distinct Mechanisms of Pathogenic DJ-1 Mutations in Mitochondrial Quality Control

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    Daniela Strobbe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The deglycase and chaperone protein DJ-1 is pivotal for cellular oxidative stress responses and mitochondrial quality control. Mutations in PARK7, encoding DJ-1, are associated with early-onset familial Parkinson’s disease and lead to pathological oxidative stress and/or disrupted protein degradation by the proteasome. The aim of this study was to gain insights into the pathogenic mechanisms of selected DJ-1 missense mutations, by characterizing protein–protein interactions, core parameters of mitochondrial function, quality control regulation via autophagy, and cellular death following dopamine accumulation. We report that the DJ-1M26I mutant influences DJ-1 interactions with SUMO-1, in turn enhancing removal of mitochondria and conferring increased cellular susceptibility to dopamine toxicity. By contrast, the DJ-1D149A mutant does not influence mitophagy, but instead impairs Ca2+ dynamics and free radical homeostasis by disrupting DJ-1 interactions with a mitochondrial accessory protein known as DJ-1-binding protein (DJBP/EFCAB6. Thus, individual DJ-1 mutations have different effects on mitochondrial function and quality control, implying mutation-specific pathomechanisms converging on impaired mitochondrial homeostasis.

  13. The Geogenomic Mutational Atlas of Pathogens (GoMAP web system.

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    David P Sargeant

    Full Text Available We present a new approach for pathogen surveillance we call Geogenomics. Geogenomics examines the geographic distribution of the genomes of pathogens, with a particular emphasis on those mutations that give rise to drug resistance. We engineered a new web system called Geogenomic Mutational Atlas of Pathogens (GoMAP that enables investigation of the global distribution of individual drug resistance mutations. As a test case we examined mutations associated with HIV resistance to FDA-approved antiretroviral drugs. GoMAP-HIV makes use of existing public drug resistance and HIV protein sequence data to examine the distribution of 872 drug resistance mutations in ∼ 502,000 sequences for many countries in the world. We also implemented a broadened classification scheme for HIV drug resistance mutations. Several patterns for geographic distributions of resistance mutations were identified by visual mining using this web tool. GoMAP-HIV is an open access web application available at http://www.bio-toolkit.com/GoMap/project/

  14. E-cadherin destabilization accounts for the pathogenicity of missense mutations in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer.

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    Joana Simões-Correia

    Full Text Available E-cadherin is critical for the maintenance of tissue architecture due to its role in cell-cell adhesion. E-cadherin mutations are the genetic cause of Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (HDGC and missense mutations represent a clinical burden, due to the uncertainty of their pathogenic role. In vitro and in vivo, most mutations lead to loss-of-function, although the causal factor is unknown for the majority. We hypothesized that destabilization could account for the pathogenicity of E-cadherin missense mutations in HDGC, and tested our hypothesis using in silico and in vitro tools. FoldX algorithm was used to calculate the impact of each mutation in E-cadherin native-state stability, and the analysis was complemented with evolutionary conservation, by SIFT. Interestingly, HDGC patients harbouring germline E-cadherin destabilizing mutants present a younger age at diagnosis or death, suggesting that the loss of native-state stability of E-cadherin accounts for the disease phenotype. To elucidate the biological relevance of E-cadherin destabilization in HDGC, we investigated a group of newly identified HDGC-associated mutations (E185V, S232C and L583R, of which L583R is predicted to be destabilizing. We show that this mutation is not functional in vitro, exhibits shorter half-life and is unable to mature, due to premature proteasome-dependent degradation, a phenotype reverted by stabilization with the artificial mutation L583I (structurally tolerated. Herein we report E-cadherin structural models suitable to predict the impact of the majority of cancer-associated missense mutations and we show that E-cadherin destabilization leads to loss-of-function in vitro and increased pathogenicity in vivo.

  15. Mutational screening of the USH2A gene in Spanish USH patients reveals 23 novel pathogenic mutations

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    Diaz-Llopis Manuel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Usher Syndrome type II (USH2 is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by moderate to severe hearing impairment and retinitis pigmentosa (RP. Among the three genes implicated, mutations in the USH2A gene account for 74-90% of the USH2 cases. Methods To identify the genetic cause of the disease and determine the frequency of USH2A mutations in a cohort of 88 unrelated USH Spanish patients, we carried out a mutation screening of the 72 coding exons of this gene by direct sequencing. Moreover, we performed functional minigene studies for those changes that were predicted to affect splicing. Results As a result, a total of 144 DNA sequence variants were identified. Based upon previous studies, allele frequencies, segregation analysis, bioinformatics' predictions and in vitro experiments, 37 variants (23 of them novel were classified as pathogenic mutations. Conclusions This report provide a wide spectrum of USH2A mutations and clinical features, including atypical Usher syndrome phenotypes resembling Usher syndrome type I. Considering only the patients clearly diagnosed with Usher syndrome type II, and results obtained in this and previous studies, we can state that mutations in USH2A are responsible for 76.1% of USH2 disease in patients of Spanish origin.

  16. DNA mutations mediate microevolution between host-adapted forms of the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans.

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    Denise A Magditch

    Full Text Available The disease cryptococcosis, caused by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans, is acquired directly from environmental exposure rather than transmitted person-to-person. One explanation for the pathogenicity of this species is that interactions with environmental predators select for virulence. However, co-incubation of C. neoformans with amoeba can cause a "switch" from the normal yeast morphology to a pseudohyphal form, enabling fungi to survive exposure to amoeba, yet conversely reducing virulence in mammalian models of cryptococcosis. Like other human pathogenic fungi, C. neoformans is capable of microevolutionary changes that influence the biology of the organism and outcome of the host-pathogen interaction. A yeast-pseudohyphal phenotypic switch also happens under in vitro conditions. Here, we demonstrate that this morphological switch, rather than being under epigenetic control, is controlled by DNA mutation since all pseudohyphal strains bear mutations within genes encoding components of the RAM pathway. High rates of isolation of pseudohyphal strains can be explained by the physical size of RAM pathway genes and a hypermutator phenotype of the strain used in phenotypic switching studies. Reversion to wild type yeast morphology in vitro or within a mammalian host can occur through different mechanisms, with one being counter-acting mutations. Infection of mice with RAM mutants reveals several outcomes: clearance of the infection, asymptomatic maintenance of the strains, or reversion to wild type forms and progression of disease. These findings demonstrate a key role of mutation events in microevolution to modulate the ability of a fungal pathogen to cause disease.

  17. Somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in cancer escape purifying selection and high pathogenicity mutations lead to the oncocytic phenotype: pathogenicity analysis of reported somatic mtDNA mutations in tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro; Máximo, Valdemar; Samuels, David C

    2012-01-01

    The presence of somatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in cancer cells has been interpreted in controversial ways, ranging from random neutral accumulation of mutations, to positive selection for high pathogenicity, or conversely to purifying selection against high pathogenicity variants as occurs at the population level. Here we evaluated the predicted pathogenicity of somatic mtDNA mutations described in cancer and compare these to the distribution of variations observed in the global human population and all possible protein variations that could occur in human mtDNA. We focus on oncocytic tumors, which are clearly associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The protein variant pathogenicity was predicted using two computational methods, MutPred and SNPs&GO. The pathogenicity score of the somatic mtDNA variants were significantly higher in oncocytic tumors compared to non-oncocytic tumors. Variations in subunits of Complex I of the electron transfer chain were significantly more common in tumors with the oncocytic phenotype, while variations in Complex V subunits were significantly more common in non-oncocytic tumors. Our results show that the somatic mtDNA mutations reported over all tumors are indistinguishable from a random selection from the set of all possible amino acid variations, and have therefore escaped the effects of purifying selection that act strongly at the population level. We show that the pathogenicity of somatic mtDNA mutations is a determining factor for the oncocytic phenotype. The opposite associations of the Complex I and Complex V variants with the oncocytic and non-oncocytic tumors implies that low mitochondrial membrane potential may play an important role in determining the oncocytic phenotype

  18. Molecular Dynamics and Bioactivity of a Novel Mutated Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Parathyroid hormone, Mutation prediction, Molecular dynamics, RANKL/OPG, UAMS-32P cell. Tropical .... PTH1R were used as MD simulation starting points. A full-atom ... Values of RMSD, Rg, and potential energy evaluation ...

  19. High frequency of potentially pathogenic SORL1 mutations in autosomal dominant early-onset Alzheimer disease.

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    Pottier, C; Hannequin, D; Coutant, S; Rovelet-Lecrux, A; Wallon, D; Rousseau, S; Legallic, S; Paquet, C; Bombois, S; Pariente, J; Thomas-Anterion, C; Michon, A; Croisile, B; Etcharry-Bouyx, F; Berr, C; Dartigues, J-F; Amouyel, P; Dauchel, H; Boutoleau-Bretonnière, C; Thauvin, C; Frebourg, T; Lambert, J-C; Campion, D

    2012-09-01

    Performing exome sequencing in 14 autosomal dominant early-onset Alzheimer disease (ADEOAD) index cases without mutation on known genes (amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin1 (PSEN1) and presenilin2 (PSEN2)), we found that in five patients, the SORL1 gene harbored unknown nonsense (n=1) or missense (n=4) mutations. These mutations were not retrieved in 1500 controls of same ethnic origin. In a replication sample, including 15 ADEOAD cases, 2 unknown non-synonymous mutations (1 missense, 1 nonsense) were retrieved, thus yielding to a total of 7/29 unknown mutations in the combined sample. Using in silico predictions, we conclude that these seven private mutations are likely to have a pathogenic effect. SORL1 encodes the Sortilin-related receptor LR11/SorLA, a protein involved in the control of amyloid beta peptide production. Our results suggest that besides the involvement of the APP and PSEN genes, further genetic heterogeneity, involving another gene of the same pathway is present in ADEOAD.

  20. Mutation dynamics and fitness effects followed in single cells.

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    Robert, Lydia; Ollion, Jean; Robert, Jerome; Song, Xiaohu; Matic, Ivan; Elez, Marina

    2018-03-16

    Mutations have been investigated for more than a century but remain difficult to observe directly in single cells, which limits the characterization of their dynamics and fitness effects. By combining microfluidics, time-lapse imaging, and a fluorescent tag of the mismatch repair system in Escherichia coli , we visualized the emergence of mutations in single cells, revealing Poissonian dynamics. Concomitantly, we tracked the growth and life span of single cells, accumulating ~20,000 mutations genome-wide over hundreds of generations. This analysis revealed that 1% of mutations were lethal; nonlethal mutations displayed a heavy-tailed distribution of fitness effects and were dominated by quasi-neutral mutations with an average cost of 0.3%. Our approach has enabled the investigation of single-cell individuality in mutation rate, mutation fitness costs, and mutation interactions. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  1. Spinal muscular atrophy pathogenic mutations impair the axonogenic properties of axonal-survival of motor neuron.

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    Locatelli, Denise; d'Errico, Paolo; Capra, Silvia; Finardi, Adele; Colciaghi, Francesca; Setola, Veronica; Terao, Mineko; Garattini, Enrico; Battaglia, Giorgio

    2012-05-01

    The axonal survival of motor neuron (a-SMN) protein is a truncated isoform of SMN1, the spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) disease gene. a-SMN is selectively localized in axons and endowed with remarkable axonogenic properties. At present, the role of a-SMN in SMA is unknown. As a first step to verify a link between a-SMN and SMA, we investigated by means of over-expression experiments in neuroblastoma-spinal cord hybrid cell line (NSC34) whether SMA pathogenic mutations located in the N-terminal part of the protein affected a-SMN function. We demonstrated here that either SMN1 missense mutations or small intragenic re-arrangements located in the Tudor domain consistently altered the a-SMN capability of inducing axonal elongation in vitro. Mutated human a-SMN proteins determined in almost all NSC34 motor neurons the growth of short axons with prominent morphologic abnormalities. Our data indicate that the Tudor domain is critical in dictating a-SMN function possibly because it is an association domain for proteins involved in axon growth. They also indicate that Tudor domain mutations are functionally relevant not only for FL-SMN but also for a-SMN, raising the possibility that also a-SMN loss of function may contribute to the pathogenic steps leading to SMA. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry © 2012 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  2. Environmental Persistence Influences Infection Dynamics for a Butterfly Pathogen.

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    Dara A Satterfield

    Full Text Available Many pathogens, including those infecting insects, are transmitted via dormant stages shed into the environment, where they must persist until encountering a susceptible host. Understanding how abiotic conditions influence environmental persistence and how these factors influence pathogen spread are crucial for predicting patterns of infection risk. Here, we explored the consequences of environmental transmission for infection dynamics of a debilitating protozoan parasite (Ophryocystis elektroscirrha that infects monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus. We first conducted an experiment to observe the persistence of protozoan spores exposed to natural conditions. Experimental results showed that, contrary to our expectations, pathogen doses maintained high infectivity even after 16 days in the environment, although pathogens did yield infections with lower parasite loads after environmental exposure. Because pathogen longevity exceeded the time span of our experiment, we developed a mechanistic model to better explore environmental persistence for this host-pathogen system. Model analysis showed that, in general, longer spore persistence led to higher infection prevalence and slightly smaller monarch population sizes. The model indicated that typical parasite doses shed onto milkweed plants must remain viable for a minimum of 3 weeks for prevalence to increase during the summer-breeding season, and for 11 weeks or longer to match levels of infection commonly reported from the wild, assuming moderate values for parasite shedding rate. Our findings showed that transmission stages of this butterfly pathogen are long-lived and indicated that this is a necessary condition for the protozoan to persist in local monarch populations. This study provides a modeling framework for future work examining the dynamics of an ecologically important pathogen in an iconic insect.

  3. Dynamic intervention: pathogen disarmament of mitochondrial-based immune surveillance.

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    Holland, Robin L; Blanke, Steven R

    2014-11-12

    In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Suzuki et al. (2014) describe a Vibrio cholerae Type-III-secreted effector that targets mitochondrial dynamics to dampen host innate immune signaling. This suggests that mammalian hosts possess surveillance mechanisms to monitor pathogen-mediated alterations in the integrity of normal cellular processes and organelles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The m.3291T>C mt-tRNALeu(UUR) mutation is definitely pathogenic and causes multisystem mitochondrial disease

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    Yarham, John W.; Blakely, Emma L.; Alston, Charlotte L.; Roberts, Mark E.; Ealing, John; Pal, Piyali; Turnbull, Douglass M.; McFarland, Robert; Taylor, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial tRNA point mutations are important causes of human disease, and have been associated with a diverse range of clinical phenotypes. Definitively proving the pathogenicity of any given mt-tRNA mutation requires combined molecular, genetic and functional studies. Subsequent evaluation of the mutation using a pathogenicity scoring system is often very helpful in concluding whether or not the mutation is causing disease. Despite several independent reports linking the m.3291T>C mutation to disease in humans, albeit in association with several different phenotypes, its pathogenicity remains controversial. A lack of conclusive functional evidence and an over-emphasis on the poor evolutionary conservation of the affected nucleotide have contributed to this controversy. Here we describe an adult patient who presented with deafness and lipomas and evidence of mitochondrial abnormalities in his muscle biopsy, who harbours the m.3291T > C mutation, providing conclusive evidence of pathogenicity through analysis of mutation segregation with cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency in single muscle fibres, underlining the importance of performing functional studies when assessing pathogenicity. PMID:23273904

  5. Pathogenic mutations in TULP1 responsible for retinitis pigmentosa identified in consanguineous familial cases

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    Ullah, Inayat; Kabir, Firoz; Iqbal, Muhammad; Gottsch, Clare Brooks S.; Naeem, Muhammad Asif; Assir, Muhammad Zaman; Khan, Shaheen N.; Akram, Javed; Riazuddin, Sheikh; Ayyagari, Radha; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify pathogenic mutations responsible for autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) in consanguineous familial cases. Methods Seven large familial cases with multiple individuals diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa were included in the study. Affected individuals in these families underwent ophthalmic examinations to document the symptoms and confirm the initial diagnosis. Blood samples were collected from all participating members, and genomic DNA was extracted. An exclusion analysis with microsatellite markers spanning the TULP1 locus on chromosome 6p was performed, and two-point logarithm of odds (LOD) scores were calculated. All coding exons along with the exon–intron boundaries of TULP1 were sequenced bidirectionally. We constructed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) haplotype for the four familial cases harboring the K489R allele and estimated the likelihood of a founder effect. Results The ophthalmic examinations of the affected individuals in these familial cases were suggestive of RP. Exclusion analyses confirmed linkage to chromosome 6p harboring TULP1 with positive two-point LOD scores. Subsequent Sanger sequencing identified the single base pair substitution in exon14, c.1466A>G (p.K489R), in four families. Additionally, we identified a two-base deletion in exon 4, c.286_287delGA (p.E96Gfs77*); a homozygous splice site variant in intron 14, c.1495+4A>C; and a novel missense variation in exon 15, c.1561C>T (p.P521S). All mutations segregated with the disease phenotype in the respective families and were absent in ethnically matched control chromosomes. Haplotype analysis suggested (p<10−6) that affected individuals inherited the causal mutation from a common ancestor. Conclusions Pathogenic mutations in TULP1 are responsible for the RP phenotype in seven familial cases with a common ancestral mutation responsible for the disease phenotype in four of the seven families. PMID:27440997

  6. Effects of Sublethal Fungicides on Mutation Rates and Genomic Variation in Fungal Plant Pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

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    Amaradasa, B Sajeewa; Everhart, Sydney E

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen exposure to sublethal doses of fungicides may result in mutations that may represent an important and largely overlooked mechanism of introducing new genetic variation into strictly clonal populations, including acquisition of fungicide resistance. We tested this hypothesis using the clonal plant pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Nine susceptible isolates were exposed independently to five commercial fungicides with different modes of action: boscalid (respiration inhibitor), iprodione (unclear mode of action), thiophanate methyl (inhibition of microtubulin synthesis) and azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin (quinone outside inhibitors). Mycelium of each isolate was inoculated onto a fungicide gradient and sub-cultured from the 50-100% inhibition zone for 12 generations and experiment repeated. Mutational changes were assessed for all isolates at six neutral microsatellite (SSR) loci and for a subset of isolates using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). SSR analysis showed 12 of 85 fungicide-exposed isolates had a total of 127 stepwise mutations with 42 insertions and 85 deletions. Most stepwise deletions were in iprodione- and azoxystrobin-exposed isolates (n = 40/85 each). Estimated mutation rates were 1.7 to 60-fold higher for mutated loci compared to that expected under neutral conditions. AFLP genotyping of 33 isolates (16 non-exposed control and 17 fungicide exposed) generated 602 polymorphic alleles. Cluster analysis with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) identified fungicide-exposed isolates as a distinct group from non-exposed control isolates (PhiPT = 0.15, P = 0.001). Dendrograms based on neighbor-joining also supported allelic variation associated with fungicide-exposure. Fungicide sensitivity of isolates measured throughout both experiments did not show consistent trends. For example, eight isolates exposed to boscalid had higher EC50 values at the end of the experiment, and

  7. Effects of Sublethal Fungicides on Mutation Rates and Genomic Variation in Fungal Plant Pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sajeewa Amaradasa

    Full Text Available Pathogen exposure to sublethal doses of fungicides may result in mutations that may represent an important and largely overlooked mechanism of introducing new genetic variation into strictly clonal populations, including acquisition of fungicide resistance. We tested this hypothesis using the clonal plant pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Nine susceptible isolates were exposed independently to five commercial fungicides with different modes of action: boscalid (respiration inhibitor, iprodione (unclear mode of action, thiophanate methyl (inhibition of microtubulin synthesis and azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin (quinone outside inhibitors. Mycelium of each isolate was inoculated onto a fungicide gradient and sub-cultured from the 50-100% inhibition zone for 12 generations and experiment repeated. Mutational changes were assessed for all isolates at six neutral microsatellite (SSR loci and for a subset of isolates using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs. SSR analysis showed 12 of 85 fungicide-exposed isolates had a total of 127 stepwise mutations with 42 insertions and 85 deletions. Most stepwise deletions were in iprodione- and azoxystrobin-exposed isolates (n = 40/85 each. Estimated mutation rates were 1.7 to 60-fold higher for mutated loci compared to that expected under neutral conditions. AFLP genotyping of 33 isolates (16 non-exposed control and 17 fungicide exposed generated 602 polymorphic alleles. Cluster analysis with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC identified fungicide-exposed isolates as a distinct group from non-exposed control isolates (PhiPT = 0.15, P = 0.001. Dendrograms based on neighbor-joining also supported allelic variation associated with fungicide-exposure. Fungicide sensitivity of isolates measured throughout both experiments did not show consistent trends. For example, eight isolates exposed to boscalid had higher EC50 values at the end of the

  8. Effects of Sublethal Fungicides on Mutation Rates and Genomic Variation in Fungal Plant Pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaradasa, B. Sajeewa

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen exposure to sublethal doses of fungicides may result in mutations that may represent an important and largely overlooked mechanism of introducing new genetic variation into strictly clonal populations, including acquisition of fungicide resistance. We tested this hypothesis using the clonal plant pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Nine susceptible isolates were exposed independently to five commercial fungicides with different modes of action: boscalid (respiration inhibitor), iprodione (unclear mode of action), thiophanate methyl (inhibition of microtubulin synthesis) and azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin (quinone outside inhibitors). Mycelium of each isolate was inoculated onto a fungicide gradient and sub-cultured from the 50–100% inhibition zone for 12 generations and experiment repeated. Mutational changes were assessed for all isolates at six neutral microsatellite (SSR) loci and for a subset of isolates using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). SSR analysis showed 12 of 85 fungicide-exposed isolates had a total of 127 stepwise mutations with 42 insertions and 85 deletions. Most stepwise deletions were in iprodione- and azoxystrobin-exposed isolates (n = 40/85 each). Estimated mutation rates were 1.7 to 60-fold higher for mutated loci compared to that expected under neutral conditions. AFLP genotyping of 33 isolates (16 non-exposed control and 17 fungicide exposed) generated 602 polymorphic alleles. Cluster analysis with principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) identified fungicide-exposed isolates as a distinct group from non-exposed control isolates (PhiPT = 0.15, P = 0.001). Dendrograms based on neighbor-joining also supported allelic variation associated with fungicide-exposure. Fungicide sensitivity of isolates measured throughout both experiments did not show consistent trends. For example, eight isolates exposed to boscalid had higher EC50 values at the end of the experiment

  9. Tyr120Asp mutation alters domain flexibility and dynamics of MeCP2 DNA binding domain leading to impaired DNA interaction: Atomistic characterization of a Rett syndrome causing mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Annessa, Ilda; Gandaglia, Anna; Brivio, Elena; Stefanelli, Gilda; Frasca, Angelisa; Landsberger, Nicoletta; Di Marino, Daniele

    2018-05-01

    Mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene represent the main origin of Rett syndrome, causing a profound intellectual disability in females. MeCP2 is an epigenetic transcriptional regulator containing two main functional domains: a methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) and a transcription repression domain (TRD). Over 600 pathogenic mutations were reported to affect the whole protein; almost half of missense mutations affect the MBD. Understanding the impact of these mutations on the MBD structure and interaction with DNA will foster the comprehension of their pathogenicity and possibly genotype/phenotype correlation studies. Herein, we use molecular dynamics simulations to obtain a detailed view of the dynamics of WT and mutated MBD in the presence and absence of DNA. The pathogenic mutation Y120D is used as paradigm for our studies. Further, since the Y120 residue was previously found to be a phosphorylation site, we characterize the dynamic profile of the MBD also in the presence of Y120 phosphorylation (pY120). We found that addition of a phosphate group to Y120 or mutation in aspartic acid affect domain mobility that samples an alternative conformational space with respect to the WT, leading to impaired ability to interact with DNA. Experimental assays showing a significant reduction in the binding affinity between the mutated MBD and the DNA confirmed our predictions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pathogenic Parkinson's disease mutations across the functional domains of LRRK2 alter the autophagic/lysosomal response to starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Claudia; Mamais, Adamantios; Dihanich, Sybille; McGoldrick, Phillip; Devine, Michael J; Zerle, Julia; Kara, Eleanna; Taanman, Jan-Willem; Healy, Daniel G; Marti-Masso, Jose-Felix; Schapira, Anthony H; Plun-Favreau, Helene; Tooze, Sharon; Hardy, John; Bandopadhyay, Rina; Lewis, Patrick A

    2013-11-29

    LRRK2 is one of the most important genetic contributors to Parkinson's disease (PD). Point mutations in this gene cause an autosomal dominant form of PD, but to date no cellular phenotype has been consistently linked with mutations in each of the functional domains (ROC, COR and Kinase) of the protein product of this gene. In this study, primary fibroblasts from individuals carrying pathogenic mutations in the three central domains of LRRK2 were assessed for alterations in the autophagy/lysosomal pathway using a combination of biochemical and cellular approaches. Mutations in all three domains resulted in alterations in markers for autophagy/lysosomal function compared to wild type cells. These data highlight the autophagy and lysosomal pathways as read outs for pathogenic LRRK2 function and as a marker for disease, and provide insight into the mechanisms linking LRRK2 function and mutations. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Population carrier rates of pathogenic ARSA gene mutations: is metachromatic leukodystrophy underdiagnosed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ługowska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD is a severe neurometabolic disease caused mainly by deficiency of arylsulfatase A encoded by the ARSA gene. Based on epidemiological surveys the incidence of MLD per 100,000 live births varied from 0.6 to 2.5. Our purpose was to estimate the birth prevalence of MLD in Poland by determining population frequency of the common pathogenic ARSA gene mutations and to compare this estimate with epidemiological data. METHODOLOGY: We studied two independently ascertained cohorts from the Polish background population (N∼3000 each and determined carrier rates of common ARSA gene mutations: c.459+1G>A, p.P426L, p.I179S (cohort 1 and c.459+1G>A, p.I179S (cohort 2. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Taking into account ARSA gene mutation distribution among 60 Polish patients, the expected MLD birth prevalence in the general population (assuming no selection against homozygous fetuses was estimated as 4.0/100,000 and 4.1/100,000, respectively for the 1(st and the 2(nd cohort with a pooled estimate of 4.1/100,000 (CI: 1.8-9.4 which was higher than the estimate of 0.38 per 100,000 live births based on diagnosed cases. The p.I179S mutation was relatively more prevalent among controls than patients (OR = 3.6, P = 0.0082, for a comparison of p.I179S frequency relative to c.459+1G>A between controls vs. patients. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The observed discrepancy between the measured incidence of metachromatic leukodystrophy and the predicted carriage rates suggests that MLD is substantially underdiagnosed in the Polish population. The underdiagnosis rate may be particularly high among patients with p.I179S mutation whose disease is characterized mainly by psychotic symptoms.

  12. Changes in Population Dynamics in Mutualistic versus Pathogenic Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn J. Roossinck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although generally regarded as pathogens, viruses can also be mutualists. A number of examples of extreme mutualism (i.e., symbiogenesis have been well studied. Other examples of mutualism are less common, but this is likely because viruses have rarely been thought of as having any beneficial effects on their hosts. The effect of mutualism on the population dynamics of viruses is a topic that has not been addressed experimentally. However, the potential for understanding mutualism and how a virus might become a mutualist may be elucidated by understanding these dynamics.

  13. Real-world clinical applicability of pathogenicity predictors assessed on SERPINA1 mutations in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacopuzzi, Edoardo; Laffranchi, Mattia; Berardelli, Romina; Ravasio, Viola; Ferrarotti, Ilaria; Gooptu, Bibek; Borsani, Giuseppe; Fra, Annamaria

    2018-06-07

    The growth of publicly available data informing upon genetic variations, mechanisms of disease and disease sub-phenotypes offers great potential for personalised medicine. Computational approaches are likely required to assess large numbers of novel genetic variants. However, the integration of genetic, structural and pathophysiological data still represents a challenge for computational predictions and their clinical use. We addressed these issues for alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, a disease mediated by mutations in the SERPINA1 gene encoding alpha-1-antitrypsin. We compiled a comprehensive database of SERPINA1 coding mutations and assigned them apparent pathological relevance based upon available data. 'Benign' and 'Pathogenic' mutations were used to assess performance of 31 pathogenicity predictors. Well-performing algorithms clustered the subset of variants known to be severely pathogenic with high scores. Eight new mutations identified in the ExAC database and achieving high scores were selected for characterisation in cell models and showed secretory deficiency and polymer formation, supporting the predictive power of our computational approach. The behaviour of the pathogenic new variants and consistent outliers were rationalised by considering the protein structural context and residue conservation. These findings highlight the potential of computational methods to provide meaningful predictions of the pathogenic significance of novel mutations and identify areas for further investigation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Recently Identified Mutations in the Ebola Virus-Makona Genome Do Not Alter Pathogenicity in Animal Models

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    Andrea Marzi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Ebola virus (EBOV, isolate Makona, the causative agent of the West African EBOV epidemic, has been the subject of numerous investigations to determine the genetic diversity and its potential implication for virus biology, pathogenicity, and transmissibility. Despite various mutations that have emerged over time through multiple human-to-human transmission chains, their biological relevance remains questionable. Recently, mutations in the glycoprotein GP and polymerase L, which emerged and stabilized early during the outbreak, have been associated with improved viral fitness in cell culture. Here, we infected mice and rhesus macaques with EBOV-Makona isolates carrying or lacking those mutations. Surprisingly, all isolates behaved very similarly independent of the genotype, causing severe or lethal disease in mice and macaques, respectively. Likewise, we could not detect any evidence for differences in virus shedding. Thus, no specific biological phenotype could be associated with these EBOV-Makona mutations in two animal models. : Marzi et al. demonstrate that recently identified mutations in the EBOV-Makona genome, which appeared during the West African epidemic, do not significantly alter pathogenicity in IFNAR−/− mice and rhesus macaques. Other factors may have been more important for increased case numbers, case fatalities, and human-to-human transmission during this unprecedented epidemic. Keywords: Ebola virus, Ebola Makona, glycoprotein GP, polymerase L, GP mutation A82V, L mutation D759G, West African epidemic, pathogenicity

  15. A Phenotype-Driven Approach to Generate Mouse Models with Pathogenic mtDNA Mutations Causing Mitochondrial Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna H.K. Kauppila

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mutations of mtDNA are an important cause of human disease, but few animal models exist. Because mammalian mitochondria cannot be transfected, the development of mice with pathogenic mtDNA mutations has been challenging, and the main strategy has therefore been to introduce mutations found in cell lines into mouse embryos. Here, we describe a phenotype-driven strategy that is based on detecting clonal expansion of pathogenic mtDNA mutations in colonic crypts of founder mice derived from heterozygous mtDNA mutator mice. As proof of concept, we report the generation of a mouse line transmitting a heteroplasmic pathogenic mutation in the alanine tRNA gene of mtDNA displaying typical characteristics of classic mitochondrial disease. In summary, we describe a straightforward and technically simple strategy based on mouse breeding and histology to generate animal models of mtDNA-mutation disease, which will be of great importance for studies of disease pathophysiology and preclinical treatment trials.

  16. How mutation alters the evolutionary dynamics of cooperation on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Genki; Satotani, Yoshiki; Sayama, Hiroki

    2018-05-01

    Cooperation is ubiquitous at every level of living organisms. It is known that spatial (network) structure is a viable mechanism for cooperation to evolve. A recently proposed numerical metric, average gradient of selection (AGoS), a useful tool for interpreting and visualizing evolutionary dynamics on networks, allows simulation results to be visualized on a one-dimensional phase space. However, stochastic mutation of strategies was not considered in the analysis of AGoS. Here we extend AGoS so that it can analyze the evolution of cooperation where mutation may alter strategies of individuals on networks. We show that our extended AGoS correctly visualizes the final states of cooperation with mutation in the individual-based simulations. Our analyses revealed that mutation always has a negative effect on the evolution of cooperation regardless of the payoff functions, fraction of cooperators, and network structures. Moreover, we found that scale-free networks are the most vulnerable to mutation and thus the dynamics of cooperation are altered from bistability to coexistence on those networks, undergoing an imperfect pitchfork bifurcation.

  17. Genome-Wide Mutation Rate Response to pH Change in the Coral Reef Pathogen Vibrio shilonii AK1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Chloe; Long, Hongan; Patterson, Caitlyn E; Te, Ronald; Lynch, Michael

    2017-08-22

    Recent application of mutation accumulation techniques combined with whole-genome sequencing (MA/WGS) has greatly promoted studies of spontaneous mutation. However, such explorations have rarely been conducted on marine organisms, and it is unclear how marine habitats have influenced genome stability. This report resolves the mutation rate and spectrum of the coral reef pathogen Vibrio shilonii , which causes coral bleaching and endangers the biodiversity maintained by coral reefs. We found that its mutation rate and spectrum are highly similar to those of other studied bacteria from various habitats, despite the saline environment. The mutational properties of this marine bacterium are thus controlled by other general evolutionary forces such as natural selection and genetic drift. We also found that as pH drops, the mutation rate decreases and the mutation spectrum is biased in the direction of generating G/C nucleotides. This implies that evolutionary features of this organism and perhaps other marine microbes might be altered by the increasingly acidic ocean water caused by excess CO 2 emission. Nonetheless, further exploration is needed as the pH range tested in this study was rather narrow and many other possible mutation determinants, such as carbonate increase, are associated with ocean acidification. IMPORTANCE This study explored the pH dependence of a bacterial genome-wide mutation rate. We discovered that the genome-wide rates of appearance of most mutation types decrease linearly and that the mutation spectrum is biased in generating more G/C nucleotides with pH drop in the coral reef pathogen V. shilonii . Copyright © 2017 Strauss et al.

  18. Molecular dynamics characterization of five pathogenic factor X mutants associated with decreased catalytic activity

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel-Azeim, Safwat

    2014-11-11

    Factor X (FX) is one of the major players in the blood coagulation cascade. Upon activation to FXa, it converts prothrombin to thrombin, which in turn converts fibrinogen into fibrin (blood clots). FXa deficiency causes hemostasis defects, such as intracranial bleeding, hemathrosis, and gastrointestinal blood loss. Herein, we have analyzed a pool of pathogenic mutations, located in the FXa catalytic domain and directly associated with defects in enzyme catalytic activity. Using chymotrypsinogen numbering, they correspond to D102N, T135M, V160A, G184S, and G197D. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed for 1.68 μs on the wild-type and mutated forms of FXa. Overall, our analysis shows that four of the five mutants considered, D102N, T135M, V160A, and G184S, have rigidities higher than those of the wild type, in terms of both overall protein motion and, specifically, subpocket S4 flexibility, while S1 is rather insensitive to the mutation. This acquired rigidity can clearly impact the substrate recognition of the mutants.

  19. Molecular dynamics characterization of five pathogenic factor X mutants associated with decreased catalytic activity

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel-Azeim, Safwat; Oliva, Romina M.; Chermak, Edrisse; De Cristofaro, Raimondo; Cavallo, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Factor X (FX) is one of the major players in the blood coagulation cascade. Upon activation to FXa, it converts prothrombin to thrombin, which in turn converts fibrinogen into fibrin (blood clots). FXa deficiency causes hemostasis defects, such as intracranial bleeding, hemathrosis, and gastrointestinal blood loss. Herein, we have analyzed a pool of pathogenic mutations, located in the FXa catalytic domain and directly associated with defects in enzyme catalytic activity. Using chymotrypsinogen numbering, they correspond to D102N, T135M, V160A, G184S, and G197D. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed for 1.68 μs on the wild-type and mutated forms of FXa. Overall, our analysis shows that four of the five mutants considered, D102N, T135M, V160A, and G184S, have rigidities higher than those of the wild type, in terms of both overall protein motion and, specifically, subpocket S4 flexibility, while S1 is rather insensitive to the mutation. This acquired rigidity can clearly impact the substrate recognition of the mutants.

  20. Prognostic impact of BRCA1 pathogenic and BRCA1/BRCA2 unclassified variant mutations in patients with ovarian carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majdak, EJ; Debniak, J; Milczek, T; Cornelisse, CJ; Devilee, P; Emerich, J; Jassem, J; De Bock, GH

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The clinical relevance of BRCA1/2 alterations in ovarian carcinoma patients is debatable. Our aim was to determine factors influencing the risk of recurrence and death in ovarian carcinoma patients with BRCA pathogenic and unclassified variant mutations. METHODS. A consecutive series of

  1. High Yield of Pathogenic Germline Mutations Causative or Likely Causative of the Cancer Phenotype in Selected Children with Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diets, Illja J.; Waanders, Esme; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J.; van Bladel, Diede A. G.; Kamping, Eveline J.; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M.; Hopman, Saskia; Olderode-Berends, Maran J.; Gerkes, Erica H.; Koolen, David A.; Marcelis, Carlo; Santen, Gijs W.; van Belzen, Martine J.; Mordaunt, Dylan; McGregor, Lesley; Thompson, Elizabeth; Kattamis, Antonis; Pastorczak, Agata; Mlynarski, Wojciech; Ilencikova, Denisa; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke; Gardeitchik, Thatjana; de Bont, Eveline S.; Loeffen, Jan; Wagner, Anja; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Kuiper, Roland P.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Jongmans, Marjolijn C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: In many children with cancer and characteristics suggestive of a genetic predisposition syndrome, the genetic cause is still unknown. We studied the yield of pathogenic mutations by applying whole-exome sequencing on a selected cohort of children with cancer. Experimental Design: To

  2. High Yield of Pathogenic Germline Mutations Causative or Likely Causative of the Cancer Phenotype in Selected Children with Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diets, I.J.; Waanders, E.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Bladel, D.A.G. van; Kamping, E.J.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Hopman, S.; Olderode-Berends, M.J.; Gerkes, E.H.; Koolen, D.A.; Marcelis, C.L.; Santen, G.W.E.; Belzen, M.J. van; Mordaunt, D.; McGregor, L.; Thompson, E.; Kattamis, A.; Pastorczak, A.; Mlynarski, W.; Ilencikova, D.; Vulto-van Silfhout, A.T.; Gardeitchik, T.; Bont, E.S. de; Loeffen, J.; Wagner, A.; Mensenkamp, A.R.; Kuiper, R.P.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Jongmans, M.C.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: In many children with cancer and characteristics suggestive of a genetic predisposition syndrome, the genetic cause is still unknown. We studied the yield of pathogenic mutations by applying whole-exome sequencing on a selected cohort of children with cancer.Experimental Design: To identify

  3. Instability of buried hydration sites increases protein subdomains fluctuations in the human prion protein by the pathogenic mutation T188R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomobe, Katsufumi; Yamamoto, Eiji; Akimoto, Takuma; Yasui, Masato; Yasuoka, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    The conformational change from the cellular prion protein (PrPc) to scrapie prion protein (PrPsc) is a key process in prion diseases. The prion protein has buried water molecules which significantly contribute to the stability of the protein; however, there has been no report investigating the influence on the buried hydration sites by a pathogenic mutation not adjacent to the buried hydration sites. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of wild type (WT) PrPc and pathogenic point mutant T188R to investigate conformational changes and the buried hydration sites. In WT-PrPc, four buried hydration sites are identified by residence time and rotational relaxation analysis. However, there are no stable buried hydration sites in one of T188R simulations, which indicates that T188R sometimes makes the buried hydration sites fragile. We also find that fluctuations of subdomains S1-H1-S2 and H1-H2 increase in T188R when the buried hydration sites become unstable. Since the side chain of arginine which is replaced from threonine in T188R is larger than of threonine, the side chain cannot be embedded in the protein, which is one of the causes of the instability of subdomains. These results show correlations between the buried hydration sites and the mutation which is far from them, and provide a possible explanation for the instability by mutation.

  4. Instability of buried hydration sites increases protein subdomains fluctuations in the human prion protein by the pathogenic mutation T188R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsufumi Tomobe

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The conformational change from the cellular prion protein (PrPc to scrapie prion protein (PrPsc is a key process in prion diseases. The prion protein has buried water molecules which significantly contribute to the stability of the protein; however, there has been no report investigating the influence on the buried hydration sites by a pathogenic mutation not adjacent to the buried hydration sites. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of wild type (WT PrPc and pathogenic point mutant T188R to investigate conformational changes and the buried hydration sites. In WT-PrPc, four buried hydration sites are identified by residence time and rotational relaxation analysis. However, there are no stable buried hydration sites in one of T188R simulations, which indicates that T188R sometimes makes the buried hydration sites fragile. We also find that fluctuations of subdomains S1-H1-S2 and H1-H2 increase in T188R when the buried hydration sites become unstable. Since the side chain of arginine which is replaced from threonine in T188R is larger than of threonine, the side chain cannot be embedded in the protein, which is one of the causes of the instability of subdomains. These results show correlations between the buried hydration sites and the mutation which is far from them, and provide a possible explanation for the instability by mutation.

  5. Almost 2% of Spanish breast cancer families are associated to germline pathogenic mutations in the ATM gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavera-Tapia, A; Pérez-Cabornero, L; Macías, J A; Ceballos, M I; Roncador, G; de la Hoya, M; Barroso, A; Felipe-Ponce, V; Serrano-Blanch, R; Hinojo, C; Miramar-Gallart, M D; Urioste, M; Caldés, T; Santillan-Garzón, S; Benitez, J; Osorio, A

    2017-02-01

    There is still a considerable percentage of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) cases not explained by BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. In this report, next-generation sequencing (NGS) techniques were applied to identify novel variants and/or genes involved in HBOC susceptibility. Using whole exome sequencing, we identified a novel germline mutation in the moderate-risk gene ATM (c.5441delT; p.Leu1814Trpfs*14) in a family negative for mutations in BRCA1/2 (BRCAX). A case-control association study was performed to establish its prevalence in Spanish population, in a series of 1477 BRCAX families and 589 controls further screened, and NGS panels were used for ATM mutational screening in a cohort of 392 HBOC Spanish BRCAX families and 350 patients affected with diseases not related to breast cancer. Although the interrogated mutation was not prevalent in case-control association study, a comprehensive mutational analysis of the ATM gene revealed 1.78% prevalence of mutations in the ATM gene in HBOC and 1.94% in breast cancer-only BRCAX families in Spanish population, where data about ATM mutations were very limited. ATM mutation prevalence in Spanish population highlights the importance of considering ATM pathogenic variants linked to breast cancer susceptibility.

  6. Occurrence of weak mutators among avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates causing salpingitis and peritonitis in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires dos Santos, Teresa M S; Bisgaard, Magne; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    A collection of 46 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates was examined for the presence of mutators by determining the rate of mutation to rifampicin resistance. The collection included 34 E. coli isolates obtained in pure culture from chronic lesions of salpingitis and peritonitis in 34...... broiler breeders, of which 12 were associated with the development of secondary septicemia. Twelve additional isolates were obtained from a clonal outbreak (ST95) of E. coli peritonitis syndrome (EPS), the lesions of which changed gradually over time into a subacute/chronic form. The hypothesis...

  7. Phosphorylation and proteome dynamics in pathogen-resistant tomato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Stulemeijer, I.J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial plant pathogens impose a continuous threat on global food production. Similar to disease resistance in mammals, an innate immune system allows plants to recognise pathogens and swiftly activate defence. For the work described in this thesis, the interaction between tomato and the extracellular fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum serves as a model system to study host resistance and susceptibility in plant-pathogen interactions. Resistance to C. fulvum in tomato plants follows the ge...

  8. Identification of two novel pathogenic compound heterozygous MYO7A mutations in Usher syndrome by whole exome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ying; Li, Xiaoge; Yang, Dong; Xu, Yi; Guo, Ying; Li, Xin

    2018-01-01

    The current study aims to identify the pathogenic sites in a core pedigree of Usher syndrome (USH). A core pedigree of USH was analyzed by whole exome sequencing (WES). Mutations were verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and Sanger sequencing. Two pathogenic variations (c.849+2T>C and c.5994G>A) in MYO7A were successfully identified and individually separated from parents. One variant (c.849+2T>C) was nonsense mutation, causing the protein terminated in advance, and the other one (c.5994G>A) located near the boundary of exon could cause aberrant splicing. This study provides a meaningful exploration for identification of clinical core genetic pedigrees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Pathoadaptation of a Human Pathogen Through Non-Coding Intergenic Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khademi, Seyed Mohammad Hossein

    in CF adaptation of P. aeruginosa and their expressions are altered by the mutation. It was established that mutations upstream ampR increased tolerance of P. aeruginosa to some β-lactam antibiotics. Mutations in promoter of phuR, encoding receptor of pseudomonas heme uptake system, conferred growth...... advantage in the presence of hemoglobin demonstrating that P. aeruginosa has adapted towards utilization of iron from hemoglobin. Further investigation of phuR promoter mutation revealed pleiotropic effects on expression of many other genes. The pleiotropic effect by this mutation was contingent...

  10. Changes in the dynamics of the cardiac troponin C molecule explain the effects of Ca2+-sensitizing mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Charles M; Rayani, Kaveh; Singh, Gurpreet; Lotfalisalmasi, Bairam; Tieleman, D Peter; Tibbits, Glen F

    2017-07-14

    Cardiac troponin C (cTnC) is the regulatory protein that initiates cardiac contraction in response to Ca 2+ TnC binding Ca 2+ initiates a cascade of protein-protein interactions that begins with the opening of the N-terminal domain of cTnC, followed by cTnC binding the troponin I switch peptide (TnI SW ). We have evaluated, through isothermal titration calorimetry and molecular-dynamics simulation, the effect of several clinically relevant mutations (A8V, L29Q, A31S, L48Q, Q50R, and C84Y) on the Ca 2+ affinity, structural dynamics, and calculated interaction strengths between cTnC and each of Ca 2+ and TnI SW Surprisingly the Ca 2+ affinity measured by isothermal titration calorimetry was only significantly affected by half of these mutations including L48Q, which had a 10-fold higher affinity than WT, and the Q50R and C84Y mutants, each of which had affinities 3-fold higher than wild type. This suggests that Ca 2+ affinity of the N-terminal domain of cTnC in isolation is insufficient to explain the pathogenicity of these mutations. Molecular-dynamics simulation was used to evaluate the effects of these mutations on Ca 2+ binding, structural dynamics, and TnI interaction independently. Many of the mutations had a pronounced effect on the balance between the open and closed conformations of the TnC molecule, which provides an indirect mechanism for their pathogenic properties. Our data demonstrate that the structural dynamics of the cTnC molecule are key in determining myofilament Ca 2+ sensitivity. Our data further suggest that modulation of the structural dynamics is the underlying molecular mechanism for many disease mutations that are far from the regulatory Ca 2+ -binding site of cTnC. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Phosphorylation and proteome dynamics in pathogen-resistant tomato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulemeijer, I.J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial plant pathogens impose a continuous threat on global food production. Similar to disease resistance in mammals, an innate immune system allows plants to recognise pathogens and swiftly activate defence. For the work described in this thesis, the interaction between tomato and the

  12. Frequency of Somatic TP53 Mutations in Combination with Known Pathogenic Mutations in Colon Adenocarcinoma, Non–Small Cell Lung Carcinoma, and Gliomas as Identified by Next-Generation Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shajani-Yi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The tumor suppressor gene TP53 is the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer. It encodes p53, a DNA-binding transcription factor that regulates multiple genes involved in DNA repair, metabolism, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence. TP53 is associated with human cancer by mutations that lead to a loss of wild-type p53 function as well as mutations that confer alternate oncogenic functions that enable them to promote invasion, metastasis, proliferation, and cell survival. Identifying the discrete TP53 mutations in tumor cells may help direct therapies that are more effective. In this study, we identified the frequency of individual TP53 mutations in patients with colon adenocarcinoma (48%, non–small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC (36%, and glioma/glioblastoma (28% at our institution using next-generation sequencing. We also identified the occurrence of somatic mutations in numerous actionable genes including BRAF, EGFR, KRAS, IDH1, and PIK3CA that occurred concurrently with these TP53 mutations. Of the 480 tumors examined that contained one or more mutations in the TP53 gene, 219 were colon adenocarcinomas, 215 were NSCLCs, and 46 were gliomas/glioblastomas. Among the patients positive for TP53 mutations diagnosed with colon adenocarcinoma, 50% also showed at least one mutation in pathogenic genes of which 14% were BRAF, 33% were KRAS, and 3% were NRAS. Forty-seven percent of NSCLC patients harboring TP53 mutations also had a mutation in at least one actionable pathogenic variant with the following frequencies: BRAF: 4%, EGFR: 10%, KRAS: 28%, and PIK3CA: 4%. Fifty-two percent of patients diagnosed with glioma/glioblastoma with a positive TP53 mutation had at least one concurrent mutation in a known pathogenic gene of which 9% were CDKN2A, 41% were IDH1, and 11% were PIK3CA.

  13. [Identification of novel pathogenic gene mutations in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia by whole-exome resequencing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Norio

    2015-12-01

    A new class of gene mutations, identified in the pathogenesis of adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML), includes DNMT3A, IDH1/2, TET2 and EZH2. However, these mutations are rare in pediatric AML cases, indicating that pathogeneses differ between adult and pediatric forms of AML. Meanwhile, the recent development of massively parallel sequencing technologies has provided a new opportunity to discover genetic changes across entire genomes or proteincoding sequences. In order to reveal a complete registry of gene mutations, we performed whole exome resequencing of paired tumor-normal specimens from 19 pediatric AML cases using Illumina HiSeq 2000. In total, 80 somatic mutations or 4.2 mutations per sample were identified. Many of the recurrent mutations identified in this study involved previously reported targets in AML, such as FLT3, CEBPA, KIT, CBL, NRAS, WT1 and EZH2. On the other hand, several genes were newly identified in the current study, including BCORL1 and major cohesin components such as SMC3 and RAD21. Whole exome resequencing revealed a complex array of gene mutations in pediatric AML genomes. Our results indicate that a subset of pediatric AML represents a discrete entity that could be discriminated from its adult counterpart, in terms of the spectrum of gene mutations.

  14. Capturing the dynamics of pathogens with many strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kucharski, Adam; Andreasen, Viggo; Gog, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens that consist of multiple antigenic variants are a serious public health concern. These infections, which include dengue virus, influenza and malaria, generate substantial morbidity and mortality. However, there are considerable theoretical challenges involved in modelling such infection...

  15. Identification of a pathogenic FTO mutation by next-generation sequencing in a newborn with growth retardation and developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Hussein; Zhang, Dong; McMurray, Fiona; Yu, Andrea; Luco, Stephanie M; Vanstone, Jason; Jarinova, Olga; Carson, Nancy; Wickens, James; Shishodia, Shifali; Choi, Hwanho; McDonough, Michael A; Schofield, Christopher J; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Dyment, David A; Armour, Christine M

    2016-03-01

    A homozygous loss-of-function mutation p.(Arg316Gln) in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene, which encodes for an iron and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenase, was previously identified in a large family in which nine affected individuals present with a lethal syndrome characterised by growth retardation and multiple malformations. To date, no other pathogenic mutation in FTO has been identified as a cause of multiple congenital malformations. We investigated a 21-month-old girl who presented distinctive facial features, failure to thrive, global developmental delay, left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy, reduced vision and bilateral hearing loss. We performed targeted next-generation sequencing of 4813 clinically relevant genes in the patient and her parents. We identified a novel FTO homozygous missense mutation (c.956C>T; p.(Ser319Phe)) in the affected individual. This mutation affects a highly conserved residue located in the same functional domain as the previously characterised mutation p.(Arg316Gln). Biochemical studies reveal that p.(Ser319Phe) FTO has reduced 2-oxoglutarate turnover and N-methyl-nucleoside demethylase activity. Our findings are consistent with previous reports that homozygous mutations in FTO can lead to rare growth retardation and developmental delay syndrome, and further support the proposal that FTO plays an important role in early development of human central nervous and cardiovascular systems. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Primary diagnosis of Wolfram syndrome in an adult patient--case report and description of a novel pathogenic mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschbisch, Anne; Volbers, Bastian; Struffert, Tobias; Hoyer, Juliane; Schwab, Stefan; Bardutzky, Juergen

    2011-01-15

    Wolfram syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative disorder presenting with the main clinical symptoms of childhood-onset diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, diabetes insipidus and deafness (DIDMOAD). Later stages of the disease are dominated by neurological complications and death occurs early in life with a median life expectancy of 30 years. Here we present a 44 year old patient who presented to our hospital with central respiratory failure, cognitive impairment, ataxia and parkinsonism and was first diagnosed with Wolfram syndrome. DNA sequence analysis revealed a novel pathogenic mutation within the WFS1 gene. Advanced clinical and imaging studies performed in this patient highlight the neurodegenerative process in Wolfram syndrome and expand our knowledge on the mutational spectrum of the disease. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel pathogenic MYH3 mutation in a child with Sheldon-Hall syndrome and vertebral fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Marcello; Accogli, Andrea; De Grandis, Elisa; Allegri, Anna; Bagowski, Christoph P; Shoukier, Moneef; Maghnie, Mohamad; Capra, Valeria

    2018-03-01

    Sheldon-Hall syndrome (SHS) is the most common of the distal arthrogryposes (DAs), a group of disorders characterized by congenital non-progressive contractures. Patients with SHS present with contractures of the limbs and a distinctive triangular facies with prominent nasolabial folds. Calcaneovalgus deformity is frequent, as well as camptodactyly and ulnar deviation. Causative mutations in at least four different genes have been reported (MYH3, TNNI2, TPM2, and TNNT3). MYH3 plays a pivotal role in fetal muscle development and mutations in this gene are associated with Freeman-Sheldon syndrome, distal arthrogryposis 8 (DA8), and autosomal dominant spondylocarpotarsal synostosis. The last two disorders are characterized by skeletal abnormalities, in particular bony fusions. The observation that MYH3 may be mutated in these syndromes has suggested the involvement of this gene in bone development. We report the case of a boy with a novel pathogenic MYH3 mutation, presenting with the classical clinical features of SHS in association with unilateral carpal bone fusion and multiple vertebral fusions. This distinctive phenotype has never been reported in the literature so far and expands the phenotypic spectrum of SHS, endorsing the clinical variability of patients with MYH3-related disorders. Our findings also support a role for MYH3 in both muscle and bone development, suggesting a phenotypic continuum in MYH3-related disorders. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Spectrum of pathogenic mutations and associated polymorphisms in a cohort of 44 unrelated patients with long QT syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millat, G; Chevalier, P; Restier-Miron, L; Da Costa, A; Bouvagnet, P; Kugener, B; Fayol, L; Gonzàlez Armengod, C; Oddou, B; Chanavat, V; Froidefond, E; Perraudin, R; Rousson, R; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, C

    2006-09-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a rare and clinically heterogeneous inherited disorder characterized by a long QT interval on the electrocardiogram, increased risk of syncope and sudden death caused by arrhythmias. This syndrome is mostly caused by mutations in genes encoding various cardiac ion channels. The clinical heterogeneity is usually attributed to variable penetrance. One of the reasons for this variability in expression could be the coexistence of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on LQTS-causing genes and/or unknown genes. Some synonymous and nonsynonymous exonic SNPs identified in LQTS-causing genes may have an effect on the cardiac repolarization process and modulate the clinical expression of a latent LQTS pathogenic mutation. We report the molecular pattern of 44 unrelated patients with LQTS using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the KCNQ1, KCNH2, SCN5A, KCNE1 and KCNE2 genes. Forty-five disease-causing mutations (including 24 novel ones) were identified in this cohort. Most of our patients (84%) showed complex molecular pattern with one mutation (and even two for four patients) associated with several SNPs located in several LQTS genes.

  19. Identification and verification of a pathogenic MLH1 mutation c.1145dupA in a Lynch syndrome family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Feifei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome (LS, an autosomal-dominant disorder with an increased risk of predominantly colorectal and endometrial cancers, is caused by germ-line mutations in mismatch repair genes. The identification of germ-line mutations that predispose to cancer is important to further our understanding of tumorigenesis, guide patient management and inform the best practice for healthcare. A 45-year-old woman with atypical endometrial hyperplasia who suffered colon cancer at the age of 30 years underwent hysterectomy and genetic counseling. Pedigree analysis revealed her family fulfilling the Amsterdam I criteria. Next-generation sequencing was offered to the patient. A mutation in the MLH1 gene, c.1145dupA, was identified and verified by Sanger sequencing. In addition, her nine family members were tested for the mutation. Two were affected (colon cancer at the age of 43 years and 45 years and one healthy relative carried the same mutation in the MLH1 gene. The mutation resulted in a frame-shift (p.Met383Aspfs*12 located in exon12, as well as a polypeptide truncation of 393 amino acids by the formation of a premature stop codon. An immunohistochemistry analysis of endometrial hyperplasia tissues revealed defects in MLH1 and PMS2 protein expression in the patient. Based on the 2015 American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG guideline, we report this MLH1 c.1145dupA variation to be a pathogenic mutation that contributes to a strongly increased cancer risk in this LS family. Proper screening suggestions were offered to the three affected patients and the healthy carrier. To the best of our knowledge, this germ-line mutation of MLH1 was previously submitted to the Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD database, but no comprehensive evidence or supporting observations were reported previously in the literature. The present report found a single nucleotide insertion in exon12 of the MLH1 gene, which can be considered causative of Lynch phenotype

  20. Modeling evolutionary dynamics of epigenetic mutations in hierarchically organized tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sottoriva

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC concept is a highly debated topic in cancer research. While experimental evidence in favor of the cancer stem cell theory is apparently abundant, the results are often criticized as being difficult to interpret. An important reason for this is that most experimental data that support this model rely on transplantation studies. In this study we use a novel cellular Potts model to elucidate the dynamics of established malignancies that are driven by a small subset of CSCs. Our results demonstrate that epigenetic mutations that occur during mitosis display highly altered dynamics in CSC-driven malignancies compared to a classical, non-hierarchical model of growth. In particular, the heterogeneity observed in CSC-driven tumors is considerably higher. We speculate that this feature could be used in combination with epigenetic (methylation sequencing studies of human malignancies to prove or refute the CSC hypothesis in established tumors without the need for transplantation. Moreover our tumor growth simulations indicate that CSC-driven tumors display evolutionary features that can be considered beneficial during tumor progression. Besides an increased heterogeneity they also exhibit properties that allow the escape of clones from local fitness peaks. This leads to more aggressive phenotypes in the long run and makes the neoplasm more adaptable to stringent selective forces such as cancer treatment. Indeed when therapy is applied the clone landscape of the regrown tumor is more aggressive with respect to the primary tumor, whereas the classical model demonstrated similar patterns before and after therapy. Understanding these often counter-intuitive fundamental properties of (non-hierarchically organized malignancies is a crucial step in validating the CSC concept as well as providing insight into the therapeutical consequences of this model.

  1. Subcellular compartmentation, interdependency and dynamics of the cyclic AMP-dependent PKA subunits during pathogenic differentiation in rice blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Poonguzhali; Tham, Hong Fai; Ramanujam, Ravikrishna; Naqvi, Naweed I

    2017-08-01

    The cAMP-dependent PKA signalling plays a central role in growth, asexual development and pathogenesis in fungal pathogens. Here, we functionally characterised RPKA, the regulatory subunit of cAMP/PKA and studied the dynamics and organisation of the PKA subunits in the rice blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae. The RPKA subunit was essential for proper vegetative growth, asexual sporulation and surface hydrophobicity in M. oryzae. A spontaneous suppressor mutation, SMR19, that restored growth and conidiation in the RPKA deletion mutant was isolated and characterised. SMR19 enhanced conidiation and appressorium formation but failed to suppress the pathogenesis defects in rpkAΔ. The PKA activity was undetectable in the mycelial extracts of SMR19, which showed a single mutation (val242leu) in the highly conserved active site of the catalytic subunit (CPKA) of cAMP/PKA. The two subunits of cAMP/PKA showed different subcellular localisation patterns with RpkA being predominantly nucleocytoplasmic in conidia, while CpkA was largely cytosolic and/or vesicular. The CpkA anchored RpkA in cytoplasmic vesicles, and localisation of PKA in the cytoplasm was governed by CpkA in a cAMP-dependant or independent manner. We show that there exists a tight regulation of PKA subunits at the level of transcription, and the cAMP signalling is differentially compartmentalised in a stage-specific manner in rice blast. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. DPAGT1-CDG: Functional analysis of disease-causing pathogenic mutations and role of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Yuste-Checa

    Full Text Available Pathogenic mutations in DPAGT1 are manifested as two possible phenotypes: congenital disorder of glycosylation DPAGT1-CDG (also known as CDG-Ij, and limb-girdle congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS with tubular aggregates. UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-dolichyl-phosphate N-acetylglucosamine phosphotransferase (GPT, the protein encoded by DPAGT1, is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER-resident protein involved in an initial step in the N-glycosylation pathway. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of six variants in DPAGT1 detected in patients with DPAGT1-CDG, and the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress, as part of the search for therapeutic strategies to use against DPAGT1-CDG. The effect of the six mutations, i.e., c.358C>A (p.Leu120Met, c.791T>G (p.Val264Gly, c.901C>T (p.Arg301Cys, c.902G>A (p.Arg301His, c.1154T>G (p.Leu385Arg, and of the novel mutation c.329T>C (p.Phe110Ser, were examined via the analysis of DPAGT1 transcriptional profiles and GTP levels in patient-derived fibroblasts. In addition, the transient expression of different mutations was analysed in COS-7 cells. The results obtained, together with those of bioinformatic studies, revealed these mutations to affect the splicing process, the stability of GTP, or the ability of this protein to correctly localise in the ER membrane. The unfolded protein response (UPR; the response to ER stress was found not to be active in patient-derived fibroblasts, unlike that seen in cells from patients with PMM2-CDG or DPM1-CDG. Even so, the fibroblasts of patients with DPAGT1-CDG seemed to be more sensitive to the stressor tunicamycin. The present work improves our knowledge of DPAGT1-CDG and provides bases for developing tailored splicing and folding therapies.

  3. Rhizoctonia disease of tulip : characterization and dynamics of the pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, J.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Rhizoctonia disease causes severe losses during the production cycle of tulip. The complex nature of the disease requires a precise characterization of the causal pathogens. Typical bare patches are caused by R. solani AG 2-t. Bulb rot symptoms are, apart from AG 2-t isolates, caused by R.

  4. Functional consequences and rescue potential of pathogenic missense mutations in tripeptidyl peptidase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walus, Mariusz; Kida, Elizabeth; Golabek, Adam A

    2010-06-01

    There are 35 missense mutations among 68 different mutations in the TPP1 gene, which encodes tripeptidyl peptidase I (TPPI), a lysosomal aminopeptidase associated with classic late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN2 disease). To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying TPPI deficiency in patients carrying missense mutations and to test the amenability of mutant proteins to chemical chaperones and permissive temperature treatment, we introduced individually 14 disease-associated missense mutations into human TPP1 cDNA and analyzed the cell biology of these TPPI variants expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Most TPPI variants displayed obstructed transport to the lysosomes, prolonged half-life of the proenzyme, and residual or no enzymatic activity, indicating folding abnormalities. Protein misfolding was produced by mutations located in both the prosegment (p.Gly77Arg) and throughout the length of the mature enzyme. However, the routes of removal of misfolded proteins by the cells varied, ranging from their efficient degradation by the ubiquitin/proteasome system to abundant secretion. Two TPPI variants demonstrated enhanced processing in response to folding improvement treatment, and the activity of one of them, p.Arg447His, showed a fivefold increase under permissive temperature conditions, which suggests that folding improvement strategies may ameliorate the function of some misfolding TPPI mutant proteins.

  5. UMD-USHbases: a comprehensive set of databases to record and analyse pathogenic mutations and unclassified variants in seven Usher syndrome causing genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baux, David; Faugère, Valérie; Larrieu, Lise; Le Guédard-Méreuze, Sandie; Hamroun, Dalil; Béroud, Christophe; Malcolm, Sue; Claustres, Mireille; Roux, Anne-Françoise

    2008-08-01

    Using the Universal Mutation Database (UMD) software, we have constructed "UMD-USHbases", a set of relational databases of nucleotide variations for seven genes involved in Usher syndrome (MYO7A, CDH23, PCDH15, USH1C, USH1G, USH3A and USH2A). Mutations in the Usher syndrome type I causing genes are also recorded in non-syndromic hearing loss cases and mutations in USH2A in non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa. Usher syndrome provides a particular challenge for molecular diagnostics because of the clinical and molecular heterogeneity. As many mutations are missense changes, and all the genes also contain apparently non-pathogenic polymorphisms, well-curated databases are crucial for accurate interpretation of pathogenicity. Tools are provided to assess the pathogenicity of mutations, including conservation of amino acids and analysis of splice-sites. Reference amino acid alignments are provided. Apparently non-pathogenic variants in patients with Usher syndrome, at both the nucleotide and amino acid level, are included. The UMD-USHbases currently contain more than 2,830 entries including disease causing mutations, unclassified variants or non-pathogenic polymorphisms identified in over 938 patients. In addition to data collected from 89 publications, 15 novel mutations identified in our laboratory are recorded in MYO7A (6), CDH23 (8), or PCDH15 (1) genes. Information is given on the relative involvement of the seven genes, the number and distribution of variants in each gene. UMD-USHbases give access to a software package that provides specific routines and optimized multicriteria research and sorting tools. These databases should assist clinicians and geneticists seeking information about mutations responsible for Usher syndrome.

  6. Insight on Mutation-Induced Resistance from Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the Native and Mutated CSF-1R and KIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Da Silva Figueiredo Celestino Gomes

    Full Text Available The receptors tyrosine kinases (RTKs for the colony stimulating factor-1, CSF-1R, and for the stem cell factor, SCFR or KIT, are important mediators of signal transduction. The abnormal function of these receptors, promoted by gain-of-function mutations, leads to their constitutive activation, associated with cancer or other proliferative diseases. A secondary effect of the mutations is the alteration of receptors' sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, compromising effectiveness of these molecules in clinical treatment. In particular, the mutation V560G in KIT increases its sensitivity to Imatinib, while the D816V in KIT, and D802V in CSF-1R, triggers resistance to the drug. We analyzed the Imatinib binding affinity to the native and mutated KIT (mutations V560G, S628N and D816V and CSF-1R (mutation D802V by using molecular dynamics simulations and energy calculations of Imatinib•target complexes. Further, we evaluated the sensitivity of the studied KIT receptors to Imatinib by measuring the inhibition of KIT phosphorylation. Our study showed that (i the binding free energy of Imatinib to the targets is highly correlated with their experimentally measured sensitivity; (ii the electrostatic interactions are a decisive factor affecting the binding energy; (iii the most deleterious impact to the Imatinib sensitivity is promoted by D802V (CSF-1R and D816V (KIT mutations; (iv the role of the juxtamembrane region, JMR, in the imatinib binding is accessory. These findings contribute to a better description of the mutation-induced effects alternating the targets sensitivity to Imatinib.

  7. Vps33b pathogenic mutations preferentially affect VIPAS39/SPE-39-positive endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornieri, Karine; Zlatic, Stephanie A; Mullin, Ariana P; Werner, Erica; Harrison, Robert; L'hernault, Steven W; Faundez, Victor

    2013-12-20

    Mutations in Vps33 isoforms cause pigment dilution in mice (Vps33a, buff) and Drosophila (car) and the neurogenic arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction and cholestasis syndrome in humans (ARC1, VPS33B). The later disease is also caused by mutations in VIPAS39, (Vps33b interacting protein, apical-basolateral polarity regulator, SPE-39 homolog; ARC2), a protein that interacts with the HOmotypic fusion and Protein Sorting (HOPS) complex, a tether necessary for endosome-lysosome traffic. These syndromes offer insight into fundamental endosome traffic processes unique to metazoans. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these mutant phenotypes remain poorly understood. Here we investigate interactions of wild-type and disease-causing mutations in VIPAS39/SPE-39 and Vps33b by yeast two hybrid, immunoprecipitation and quantitative fluorescent microscopy. We find that although few mutations prevent interaction between VIPAS39/SPE-39 and Vps33b, some mutants fragment VIPAS39/SPE-39-positive endosomes, but all mutants alter the subcellular localization of Vps33b to VIPAS39/SPE-39-positive endosomes. Our data suggest that the ARC syndrome may result through impaired VIPAS39/SPE-39 and Vps33b-dependent endosomal maturation or fusion.

  8. A Natural Mutation Involving both Pathogenicity and Perithecium Formation in the Fusarium graminearum Species Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhisha Suga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (Fg complex or FGSC are the primary pathogens causing Fusarium head blight in wheat and barley worldwide. A natural pathogenicity mutant (strain 0225022 was found in a sample of the Fg complex collected in Japan. The mutant strain did not induce symptoms in wheat spikes beyond the point of inoculation, and did not form perithecia. No segregation of phenotypic deficiencies occurred in the progenies of a cross between the mutant and a fully pathogenic wild-type strain, which suggested that a single genetic locus controlled both traits. The locus was mapped to chromosome 2 by using sequence-tagged markers; and a deletion of ∼3 kb was detected in the mapped region of the mutant strain. The wild-type strain contains the FGSG_02810 gene, encoding a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor protein, in this region. The contribution of FGSG_02810 to pathogenicity and perithecium formation was confirmed by complementation in the mutant strain using gene transfer, and by gene disruption in the wild-type strain.

  9. Genes, communities & invasive species: understanding the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of host-pathogen interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, J J; Thrall, P H; Ericson, L

    2013-08-01

    Reciprocal interactions between hosts and pathogens drive ecological, epidemiological and co-evolutionary trajectories, resulting in complex patterns of diversity at population, species and community levels. Recent results confirm the importance of negative frequency-dependent rather than 'arms-race' processes in the evolution of individual host-pathogen associations. At the community level, complex relationships between species abundance and diversity dampen or alter pathogen impacts. Invasive pathogens challenge these controls reflecting the earliest stages of evolutionary associations (akin to arms-race) where disease effects may be so great that they overwhelm the host's and community's ability to respond. Viewing these different stabilization/destabilization phases as a continuum provides a valuable perspective to assessment of the role of genetics and ecology in the dynamics of both natural and invasive host-pathogen associations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bistable dynamics of an insect–pathogen model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    acterize diseases that spread through environmental propagules or through random contact ... This fact motivated us to investigate the effects of cost of disease resistance .... Therefore, the model may have complex dynamic behaviour depen-.

  11. Seven challenges in modeling pathogen dynamics within-host and across scales

    OpenAIRE

    Julia R. Gog; Lorenzo Pellis; James L.N. Wood; Angela R. McLean; Nimalan Arinaminpathy; James O. Lloyd-Smith

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 The Authors. The population dynamics of infectious disease is a mature field in terms of theory and to some extent, application. However for microparasites, the theory and application of models of the dynamics within a single infected host is still an open field. Further, connecting across the scales - from cellular to host level, to population level - has potential to vastly improve our understanding of pathogen dynamics and evolution. Here, we highlight seven challenges in the follow...

  12. Ecological and evolutionary dynamics of a model facultative pathogen: Agrobacterium and crown gall disease of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Ian S; Fuqua, Clay; Platt, Thomas G

    2018-01-01

    Many important pathogens maintain significant populations in highly disparate disease and non-disease environments. The consequences of this environmental heterogeneity in shaping the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of these facultative pathogens are incompletely understood. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the causative agent for crown gall disease of plants has proven a productive model for many aspects of interactions between pathogens and their hosts and with other microbes. In this review, we highlight how this past work provides valuable context for the use of this system to examine how heterogeneity and transitions between disease and non-disease environments influence the ecology and evolution of facultative pathogens. We focus on several features common among facultative pathogens, such as the physiological remodelling required to colonize hosts from environmental reservoirs and the consequences of competition with host and non-host associated microbiota. In addition, we discuss how the life history of facultative pathogens likely often results in ecological tradeoffs associated with performance in disease and non-disease environments. These pathogens may therefore have different competitive dynamics in disease and non-disease environments and are subject to shifting selective pressures that can result in pathoadaptation or the within-host spread of avirulent phenotypes. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Random Evolutionary Dynamics Driven by Fitness and House-of-Cards Mutations: Sampling Formulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huillet, Thierry E.

    2017-07-01

    We first revisit the multi-allelic mutation-fitness balance problem, especially when mutations obey a house of cards condition, where the discrete-time deterministic evolutionary dynamics of the allelic frequencies derives from a Shahshahani potential. We then consider multi-allelic Wright-Fisher stochastic models whose deviation to neutrality is from the Shahshahani mutation/selection potential. We next focus on the weak selection, weak mutation cases and, making use of a Gamma calculus, we compute the normalizing partition functions of the invariant probability densities appearing in their Wright-Fisher diffusive approximations. Using these results, generalized Ewens sampling formulae (ESF) from the equilibrium distributions are derived. We start treating the ESF in the mixed mutation/selection potential case and then we restrict ourselves to the ESF in the simpler house-of-cards mutations only situation. We also address some issues concerning sampling problems from infinitely-many alleles weak limits.

  14. Replication and adaptive mutations of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in tracheal organ cultures of different avian species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Petersen

    Full Text Available Transmission of avian influenza viruses (AIV between different avian species may require genome mutations that allow efficient virus replication in a new species and could increase virulence. To study the role of domestic poultry in the evolution of AIV we compared replication of low pathogenic (LP AIV of subtypes H9N2, H7N7 and H6N8 in tracheal organ cultures (TOC and primary embryo fibroblast cultures of chicken, turkey, Pekin duck and homing pigeon. Virus strain-dependent and avian species-related differences between LPAIV were observed in growth kinetics and induction of ciliostasis in TOC. In particular, our data demonstrate high susceptibility to LPAIV of turkey TOC contrasted with low susceptibility of homing pigeon TOC. Serial virus passages in the cells of heterologous host species resulted in adaptive mutations in the AIV genome, especially in the receptor-binding site and protease cleavage site of the hemagglutinin. Our data highlight differences in susceptibility of different birds to AIV viruses and emphasizes potential role of poultry in the emergence of new virus variants.

  15. Pathogenic mutation in the ALS/FTD gene, CCNF, causes elevated Lys48-linked ubiquitylation and defective autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Albert; Rayner, Stephanie L; Gwee, Serene S L; De Luca, Alana; Shahheydari, Hamideh; Sundaramoorthy, Vinod; Ragagnin, Audrey; Morsch, Marco; Radford, Rowan; Galper, Jasmin; Freckleton, Sarah; Shi, Bingyang; Walker, Adam K; Don, Emily K; Cole, Nicholas J; Yang, Shu; Williams, Kelly L; Yerbury, Justin J; Blair, Ian P; Atkin, Julie D; Molloy, Mark P; Chung, Roger S

    2018-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are fatal neurodegenerative disorders that have common molecular and pathogenic characteristics, such as aberrant accumulation and ubiquitylation of TDP-43; however, the mechanisms that drive this process remain poorly understood. We have recently identified CCNF mutations in familial and sporadic ALS and FTD patients. CCNF encodes cyclin F, a component of an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (SCF cyclin F ) complex that is responsible for ubiquitylating proteins for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. In this study, we examined the ALS/FTD-causing p.Ser621Gly (p.S621G) mutation in cyclin F and its effect upon downstream Lys48-specific ubiquitylation in transfected Neuro-2A and SH-SY5Y cells. Expression of mutant cyclin F S621G caused increased Lys48-specific ubiquitylation of proteins in neuronal cells compared to cyclin F WT . Proteomic analysis of immunoprecipitated Lys48-ubiquitylated proteins from mutant cyclin F S621G -expressing cells identified proteins that clustered within the autophagy pathway, including sequestosome-1 (p62/SQSTM1), heat shock proteins, and chaperonin complex components. Examination of autophagy markers p62, LC3, and lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 (Lamp2) in cells expressing mutant cyclin F S621G revealed defects in the autophagy pathway specifically resulting in impairment in autophagosomal-lysosome fusion. This finding highlights a potential mechanism by which cyclin F interacts with p62, the receptor responsible for transporting ubiquitylated substrates for autophagic degradation. These findings demonstrate that ALS/FTD-causing mutant cyclin F S621G disrupts Lys48-specific ubiquitylation, leading to accumulation of substrates and defects in the autophagic machinery. This study also demonstrates that a single missense mutation in cyclin F causes hyper-ubiquitylation of proteins that can indirectly impair the autophagy degradation pathway, which is

  16. Lineage dynamics and mutation-selection balance in non-adapting asexual populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pénisson, Sophie; Sniegowski, Paul D.; Colato, Alexandre; Gerrish, Philip J.

    2013-02-01

    In classical population genetics, mutation-selection balance refers to the equilibrium frequency of a deleterious allele established and maintained under two opposing forces: recurrent mutation, which tends to increase the frequency of the allele; and selection, which tends to decrease its frequency. In a haploid population, if μ denotes the per capita rate of production of the deleterious allele by mutation and s denotes the selective disadvantage of carrying the allele, then the classical mutation-selection balance frequency of the allele is approximated by μ/s. This calculation assumes that lineages carrying the mutant allele in question—the ‘focal allele’—do not accumulate deleterious mutations linked to the focal allele. In principle, indirect selection against the focal allele caused by such additional mutations can decrease the frequency of the focal allele below the classical mutation-selection balance. This effect of indirect selection will be strongest in an asexual population, in which the entire genome is in linkage. Here, we use an approach based on a multitype branching process to investigate this effect, analyzing lineage dynamics under mutation, direct selection, and indirect selection in a non-adapting asexual population. We find that the equilibrium balance between recurrent mutation to the focal allele and the forces of direct and indirect selection against the focal allele is closely approximated by γμ/(s + U) (s = 0 if the focal allele is neutral), where γ ≈ eθθ-(ω+θ)(ω + θ)(Γ(ω + θ) - Γ(ω + θ,θ)), \\theta =U/\\tilde {s}, and \\omega =s/\\tilde {s}; U denotes the genomic deleterious mutation rate and \\tilde {s} denotes the geometric mean selective disadvantage of deleterious mutations elsewhere on the genome. This mutation-selection balance for asexual populations can remain surprisingly invariant over wide ranges of the mutation rate.

  17. In Vivo Modeling of the Pathogenic Effect of Copper Transporter Mutations That Cause Menkes and Wilson Diseases, Motor Neuropathy, and Susceptibility to Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Stephen W; Wang, Jianbin; Burke, Richard

    2017-03-10

    Copper is an essential biometal, and several inherited diseases are directly associated with a disruption to normal copper homeostasis. The best characterized are the copper deficiency and toxicity disorders Menkes and Wilson diseases caused by mutations in the p-type Cu-ATPase genes ATP7A and ATP7B , respectively. Missense mutations in the C-terminal portion of ATP7A have also been shown to cause distal motor neuropathy, whereas polymorphisms in ATP7B are associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. We have generated a single, in vivo model for studying multiple pathogenic mutations in ATP7 proteins using Drosophila melanogaster , which has a single orthologue of ATP7A and ATP7B. Four pathogenic ATP7A mutations and two ATP7B mutations were introduced into a genomic ATP7 rescue construct containing an in-frame C-terminal GFP tag. Analysis of the wild type ATP7-GFP transgene confirmed that ATP7 is expressed at the basolateral membrane of larval midgut copper cells and that the transgene can rescue a normally early lethal ATP7 deletion allele to adulthood. Analysis of the gATP7-GFP transgenes containing pathogenic mutations showed that the function of ATP7 was affected, to varying degrees, by all six of the mutations investigated in this study. Of particular interest, the ATP7B K832R Alzheimer's disease susceptibility allele was found, for the first time, to be a loss of function allele. This in vivo system allows us to assess the severity of individual ATP7A / B mutations in an invariant genetic background and has the potential to be used to screen for therapeutic compounds able to restore function to faulty copper transport proteins. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Pathogen dynamics during invasion and establishment of white-nose syndrome explain mechanisms of host persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Winifred F; Cheng, Tina L; Langwig, Kate E; Hoyt, Joseph R; Janicki, Amanda F; Parise, Katy L; Foster, Jeffrey T; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2017-03-01

    Disease dynamics during pathogen invasion and establishment determine the impacts of disease on host populations and determine the mechanisms of host persistence. Temporal progression of prevalence and infection intensity illustrate whether tolerance, resistance, reduced transmission, or demographic compensation allow initially declining populations to persist. We measured infection dynamics of the fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans that causes white-nose syndrome in bats by estimating pathogen prevalence and load in seven bat species at 167 hibernacula over a decade as the pathogen invaded, became established, and some host populations stabilized. Fungal loads increased rapidly and prevalence rose to nearly 100% at most sites within 2 yr of invasion in six of seven species. Prevalence and loads did not decline over time despite huge reductions in colony sizes, likely due to an extensive environmental reservoir. However, there was substantial variation in fungal load among sites with persisting colonies, suggesting that both tolerance and resistance developed at different sites in the same species. In contrast, one species disappeared from hibernacula within 3 yr of pathogen invasion. Variable host responses to pathogen invasion require different management strategies to prevent disease-induced extinction and to facilitate evolution of tolerance or resistance in persisting populations. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Effects of mutation and some environmental factors on the physiology and pathogenicity of selected bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decicco, B. T.

    1974-01-01

    Studies with mutants of Staphylococcus aureus lacking some virulence factors suggest that the presence of deoxyribonuclease correlates with mouse pathogenicity of S. aureus, while the ability to ferment mannitol or the possession of coagulases are not required for virulence. Autotrophy investigations on mycobacteria demonstrate a complete correlation between the ability to grow with hydrogen and the species of scotochromogenic mycobacterium tested. All tested strains of M. gordonae, a saprophyte, could grow autotrophically while none of the tested strains of M. scrofulaceum, a clinically important species, possessed this ability. A series of heat tolerant mutants of Pseudomonas fluorescences were obtained which can grow at temperatures up to 54 C, in contrast to a maximum growth temperature of 37 C for the wild type.

  20. Meta-analysis diagnostic accuracy of SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools: a case of UTG1A1 gene mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galehdari, Hamid; Saki, Najmaldin; Mohammadi-Asl, Javad; Rahim, Fakher

    2013-01-01

    Crigler-Najjar syndrome (CNS) type I and type II are usually inherited as autosomal recessive conditions that result from mutations in the UGT1A1 gene. The main objective of the present review is to summarize results of all available evidence on the accuracy of SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools compared to published clinical result for the prediction of in nsSNPs that leads to disease using prediction performance method. A comprehensive search was performed to find all mutations related to CNS. Database searches included dbSNP, SNPdbe, HGMD, Swissvar, ensemble, and OMIM. All the mutation related to CNS was extracted. The pathogenicity prediction was done using SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools include SIFT, PHD-SNP, PolyPhen2, fathmm, Provean, and Mutpred. Overall, 59 different SNPs related to missense mutations in the UGT1A1 gene, were reviewed. Comparing the diagnostic OR, PolyPhen2 and Mutpred have the highest detection 4.983 (95% CI: 1.24 - 20.02) in both, following by SIFT (diagnostic OR: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.07 - 9.83). The highest MCC of SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools, was belong to SIFT (34.19%) followed by Provean, PolyPhen2, and Mutpred (29.99%, 29.89%, and 29.89%, respectively). Hence the highest SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools ACC, was fit to SIFT (62.71%) followed by PolyPhen2, and Mutpred (61.02%, in both). Our results suggest that some of the well-established SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools can appropriately reflect the role of a disease-associated SNP in both local and global structures.

  1. Seeking new mutation clues from Bacillus licheniformis amylase by molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao

    2009-07-01

    Amylase is one of the most important industrial enzymes in the world. Researchers have been searching for a highly thermal stable mutant for many years, but most focus on point mutations of one or few nitrogenous bases. According to this molecular dynamic simulation of amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (BLA), the deletion of some nitrogenous bases would be more efficacious than point mutations. The simulation reveals strong fluctuation of the BLA structure at optimum temperature. The fluctuation of the outer domains of BLA is stronger than that of the core domain. Molecular simulation provides a clue to design thermal stable amylases through deletion mutations in the outer domain.

  2. Dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes and presence of putative pathogens during ambient temperature anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, J A; Diniz, C G; Silva, V L; Otenio, M H; Bonnafous, A; Arcuri, P B; Godon, J-J

    2014-12-01

    This study was focused on evaluating the persistency of antimicrobial resistance (AR) genes and putative pathogenic bacteria in an anaerobic digesters operating at mesophilic ambient temperature, in two different year seasons: summer and winter. Abundance and dynamic of AR genes encoding resistance to macrolides (ermB), aminoglycosides (aphA2) and beta-lactams (blaTEM -1 ) and persistency of potentially pathogenic bacteria in pilot-scale anaerobic digesters were investigated. AR genes were determined in the influent and effluent in both conditions. Overall, after 60 days, reduction was observed for all evaluated genes. However, during the summer, anaerobic digestion was more related to the gene reduction as compared to winter. Persistency of potentially pathogenic bacteria was also evaluated by metagenomic analyses compared to an in-house created database. Clostridium, Acinetobacter and Stenotrophomonas were the most identified. Overall, considering the mesophilic ambient temperature during anaerobic digestion (summer and winter), a decrease in pathogenic bacteria detection through metagenomic analysis and AR genes is reported. Although the mesophilic anaerobic digestion has been efficient, the results may suggest medically important bacteria and AR genes persistency during the process. This is the first report to show AR gene dynamics and persistency of potentially pathogenic bacteria through metagenomic approach in cattle manure ambient temperature anaerobic digestion. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. A stochastic agent-based model of pathogen propagation in dynamic multi-relational social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Bilal; Dombrowski, Kirk; Saad, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We describe a general framework for modeling and stochastic simulation of epidemics in realistic dynamic social networks, which incorporates heterogeneity in the types of individuals, types of interconnecting risk-bearing relationships, and types of pathogens transmitted across them. Dynamism is supported through arrival and departure processes, continuous restructuring of risk relationships, and changes to pathogen infectiousness, as mandated by natural history; dynamism is regulated through constraints on the local agency of individual nodes and their risk behaviors, while simulation trajectories are validated using system-wide metrics. To illustrate its utility, we present a case study that applies the proposed framework towards a simulation of HIV in artificial networks of intravenous drug users (IDUs) modeled using data collected in the Social Factors for HIV Risk survey. PMID:25859056

  4. D701N mutation in the PB2 protein contributes to the pathogenicity of H5N1 avian influenza viruses but not transmissibility in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peirong eJiao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV of clade 2.3.2 has been circulating in waterfowl in Southern China since 2003. Our previous studies showed that certain H5N1 HPAIV isolates within clade 2.3.2 from Southern China had high pathogenicity in different birds. Guinea pigs have been successfully used as models to evaluate the transmissibility of AIVs and other species of influenza viruses in mammalian hosts. However, few studies have reported pathogenicity and transmissibility of H5N1 HPAIVs of this clade in guinea pigs. In this study, we selected an H5N1 HPAIV isolate, A/duck/Guangdong/357/2008, to investigate the pathogenicity and transmissibility of the virus in guinea pigs. The virus had high pathogenicity in mice; additionally, it only replicated in some tissues of the guinea pigs without production of clinical signs, but was transmissible among guinea pigs. Interestingly, virus isolates from co-caged guinea pigs had the D701N mutation in the PB2 protein. These mutant viruses showed higher pathogenicity in mice and higher replication capability in guinea pigs but did not demonstrate enhanced the transmissibility among guinea pigs. These findings indicate the transmission of the H5N1 virus between mammals could induce virus mutations, and the mutant viruses might have higher pathogenicity in mammals without higher transmissibility. Therefore, the continued evaluation of the pathogenicity and transmissibility of avian influenza virus (AIVs in mammals is critical to the understanding of the evolutionary characteristics of AIVs and the emergence of potential pandemic strains.

  5. Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-associated missense mutation in HSPD1 blunts mitochondrial dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yuki [Department of Pharmacology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Eguchi, Takahiro [The Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Minato, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Kawahara, Kazuko [Department of Pharmacology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Hasegawa, Nanami [Department of Pharmacology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, Minato, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Nakamura, Kazuaki [Department of Pharmacology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Funakoshi-Tago, Megumi [Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, Minato, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Tanoue, Akito [Department of Pharmacology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Tamura, Hiroomi [Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, Minato, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Yamauchi, Junji, E-mail: yamauchi-j@ncchd.go.jp [Department of Pharmacology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Setagaya, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan)

    2015-07-03

    Myelin-forming glial cells undergo dynamic morphological changes in order to produce mature myelin sheaths with multiple layers. In the central nervous system (CNS), oligodendrocytes differentiate to insulate neuronal axons with myelin sheaths. Myelin sheaths play a key role in homeostasis of the nervous system, but their related disorders lead not only to dismyelination and repeated demyelination but also to severe neuropathies. Hereditary hypomyelinating leukodystrophies (HLDs) are a group of such diseases affecting oligodendrocytes and are often caused by missense mutations of the respective responsible genes. Despite increasing identification of gene mutations through advanced nucleotide sequencing technology, studies on the relationships between gene mutations and their effects on cellular and subcellular aberrance have not followed at the same rapid pace. In this study, we report that an HLD4-associated (Asp-29-to-Gly) mutant of mitochondrial heat shock 60-kDa protein 1 (HSPD1) causes short-length morphologies and increases the numbers of mitochondria due to their aberrant fission and fusion cycles. In experiments using a fluorescent dye probe, this mutation decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential. Also, mitochondria accumulate in perinuclear regions. HLD4-associated HSPD1 mutant blunts mitochondrial dynamics, probably resulting in oligodendrocyte malfunction. This study constitutes a first finding concerning the relationship between disease-associated HSPD1 mutation and mitochondrial dynamics, which may be similar to the relationship between another disease-associated HSPD1 mutation (MitCHAP-60 disease) and aberrant mitochondrial dynamics. - Highlights: • The HLD4 mutant of HSPD1 decreases mitochondrial fission frequency. • The HLD4 mutant decreases mitochondrial fusion frequency. • Mitochondria harboring the HLD4 mutant exhibit slow motility. • The HLD4 mutant of HSPD1 decreases mitochondrial membrane potential. • HLD4-related diseases may

  6. Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-associated missense mutation in HSPD1 blunts mitochondrial dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Eguchi, Takahiro; Kawahara, Kazuko; Hasegawa, Nanami; Nakamura, Kazuaki; Funakoshi-Tago, Megumi; Tanoue, Akito; Tamura, Hiroomi; Yamauchi, Junji

    2015-01-01

    Myelin-forming glial cells undergo dynamic morphological changes in order to produce mature myelin sheaths with multiple layers. In the central nervous system (CNS), oligodendrocytes differentiate to insulate neuronal axons with myelin sheaths. Myelin sheaths play a key role in homeostasis of the nervous system, but their related disorders lead not only to dismyelination and repeated demyelination but also to severe neuropathies. Hereditary hypomyelinating leukodystrophies (HLDs) are a group of such diseases affecting oligodendrocytes and are often caused by missense mutations of the respective responsible genes. Despite increasing identification of gene mutations through advanced nucleotide sequencing technology, studies on the relationships between gene mutations and their effects on cellular and subcellular aberrance have not followed at the same rapid pace. In this study, we report that an HLD4-associated (Asp-29-to-Gly) mutant of mitochondrial heat shock 60-kDa protein 1 (HSPD1) causes short-length morphologies and increases the numbers of mitochondria due to their aberrant fission and fusion cycles. In experiments using a fluorescent dye probe, this mutation decreases the mitochondrial membrane potential. Also, mitochondria accumulate in perinuclear regions. HLD4-associated HSPD1 mutant blunts mitochondrial dynamics, probably resulting in oligodendrocyte malfunction. This study constitutes a first finding concerning the relationship between disease-associated HSPD1 mutation and mitochondrial dynamics, which may be similar to the relationship between another disease-associated HSPD1 mutation (MitCHAP-60 disease) and aberrant mitochondrial dynamics. - Highlights: • The HLD4 mutant of HSPD1 decreases mitochondrial fission frequency. • The HLD4 mutant decreases mitochondrial fusion frequency. • Mitochondria harboring the HLD4 mutant exhibit slow motility. • The HLD4 mutant of HSPD1 decreases mitochondrial membrane potential. • HLD4-related diseases may

  7. Dynamic Evolution of Pathogenicity Revealed by Sequencing and Comparative Genomics of 19 Pseudomonas syringae Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, Artur; Chang, Jeff H.; Mukhtar, M. Shahid; Cherkis, Karen; Roach, Jeff; Grant, Sarah R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Dangl, Jeffery L.

    2011-01-01

    Closely related pathogens may differ dramatically in host range, but the molecular, genetic, and evolutionary basis for these differences remains unclear. In many Gram- negative bacteria, including the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae, type III effectors (TTEs) are essential for pathogenicity, instrumental in structuring host range, and exhibit wide diversity between strains. To capture the dynamic nature of virulence gene repertoires across P. syringae, we screened 11 diverse strains for novel TTE families and coupled this nearly saturating screen with the sequencing and assembly of 14 phylogenetically diverse isolates from a broad collection of diseased host plants. TTE repertoires vary dramatically in size and content across all P. syringae clades; surprisingly few TTEs are conserved and present in all strains. Those that are likely provide basal requirements for pathogenicity. We demonstrate that functional divergence within one conserved locus, hopM1, leads to dramatic differences in pathogenicity, and we demonstrate that phylogenetics-informed mutagenesis can be used to identify functionally critical residues of TTEs. The dynamism of the TTE repertoire is mirrored by diversity in pathways affecting the synthesis of secreted phytotoxins, highlighting the likely role of both types of virulence factors in determination of host range. We used these 14 draft genome sequences, plus five additional genome sequences previously reported, to identify the core genome for P. syringae and we compared this core to that of two closely related non-pathogenic pseudomonad species. These data revealed the recent acquisition of a 1 Mb megaplasmid by a sub-clade of cucumber pathogens. This megaplasmid encodes a type IV secretion system and a diverse set of unknown proteins, which dramatically increases both the genomic content of these strains and the pan-genome of the species. PMID:21799664

  8. Confirmation of the pathogenicity of a mutation p.G337C in the COL1A2 gene associated with osteogenesis imperfecta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Mingrui; Shi, Ranran; Zhao, Xuli; Fu, Zhijian; Bai, Zhijing; Sun, Tao; Zhao, Xuejun; Wang, Wenbo; Xu, Chao; Yan, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Mutation analysis as the gold standard is particularly important in diagnosis of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and it may be preventable upon early diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to analyze the clinical and genetic materials of an OI pedigree as well as to confirm the deleterious property of the mutation. A pedigree with OI was identified. All family members received careful clinical examinations and blood was drawn for genetic analyses. Genes implicated in OI were screened for mutation. The function and structure of the mutant protein were predicted using bioinformatics analysis. The proband, a 9-month fetus, showed abnormal sonographic images. Disproportionately short and triangular face with blue sclera was noticed at birth. She can barely walk and suffered multiple fractures till 2-year old. Her mother appeared small stature, frequent fractures, blue sclera, and deformity of extremities. A heterozygous missense mutation c.1009G>T (p.G337C) in the COL1A2 gene was identified in her mother and her. Bioinformatics analysis showed p.G337 was well-conserved among multiple species and the mutation probably changed the structure and damaged the function of collagen. We suggest that the mutation p.G337C in the COL1A2 gene is pathogenic for OI by affecting the protein structure and the function of collagen. PMID:28953610

  9. Fabry Disease: prevalence of affected males and heterozygotes with pathogenic GLA mutations identified by screening renal, cardiac and stroke clinics, 1995-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doheny, Dana; Srinivasan, Ram; Pagant, Silvere; Chen, Brenden; Yasuda, Makiko; Desnick, Robert J

    2018-04-01

    Fabry Disease (FD), an X linked lysosomal storage disease due to pathogenic α-galactosidase A ( GLA ) mutations, results in two major subtypes, the early-onset Type 1 'Classic' and the Type 2 'Later-Onset' phenotypes. To identify previously unrecognised patients, investigators screened cardiac, renal and stroke clinics by enzyme assays. However, some screening studies did not perform confirmatory GLA mutation analyses, and many included recently recognised 'benign/likely-benign' variants, thereby inflating prevalence estimates. Online databases were searched for all FD screening studies in high-risk clinics (1995-2017). Studies reporting GLA mutations were re-analysed for pathogenic mutations, sex and phenotype. Phenotype-specific and sex-specific prevalence rates were determined. Of 67 studies, 63 that screened 51363patients (33943M and 17420F) and provided GLA mutations were reanalysed for disease-causing mutations. Of reported GLA mutations, benign variants occurred in 47.9% of males and 74.1% of females. The following were the revised prevalence estimates: among 36820 (23954M and 12866F) haemodialysis screenees, 0.21% males and 0.15% females; among 3074 (2031M and 1043F) renal transplant screenees, 0.25% males and no females; among 5491 (4054M and 1437F) cardiac screenees, 0.94% males and 0.90% females; and among 5978 (3904M and 2074F) stroke screenees, 0.13% males and 0.14% females. Among male and female screenees with pathogenic mutations, the type 1 Classic phenotype was predominant (~60%), except more male cardiac patients (75%) had type 2 Later-Onset phenotype. Compared with previous findings, reanalysis of 63 studies increased the screenee numbers (~3.4-fold), eliminated 20 benign/likely benign variants, and provided more accurate sex-specific and phenotype-specific prevalence estimates, ranging from ~0.13% of stroke to ~0.9% of cardiac male or female screenees. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  10. Dynamics of ASXL1 mutation and other associated genetic alterations during disease progression in patients with primary myelodysplastic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T-C; Hou, H-A; Chou, W-C; Tang, J-L; Kuo, Y-Y; Chen, C-Y; Tseng, M-H; Huang, C-F; Lai, Y-J; Chiang, Y-C; Lee, F-Y; Liu, M-C; Liu, C-W; Liu, C-Y; Yao, M; Huang, S-Y; Ko, B-S; Hsu, S-C; Wu, S-J; Tsay, W; Chen, Y-C; Tien, H-F

    2014-01-01

    Recently, mutations of the additional sex comb-like 1 (ASXL1) gene were identified in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), but the interaction of this mutation with other genetic alterations and its dynamic changes during disease progression remain to be determined. In this study, ASXL1 mutations were identified in 106 (22.7%) of the 466 patients with primary MDS based on the French-American-British (FAB) classification and 62 (17.1%) of the 362 patients based on the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. ASXL1 mutation was closely associated with trisomy 8 and mutations of RUNX1, EZH2, IDH, NRAS, JAK2, SETBP1 and SRSF2, but was negatively associated with SF3B1 mutation. Most ASXL1-mutated patients (85%) had concurrent other gene mutations at diagnosis. ASXL1 mutation was an independent poor prognostic factor for survival. Sequential studies showed that the original ASXL1 mutation remained unchanged at disease progression in all 32 ASXL1-mutated patients but were frequently accompanied with acquisition of mutations of other genes, including RUNX1, NRAS, KRAS, SF3B1, SETBP1 and chromosomal evolution. On the other side, among the 80 ASXL1-wild patients, only one acquired ASXL1 mutation at leukemia transformation. In conclusion, ASXL1 mutations in association with other genetic alterations may have a role in the development of MDS but contribute little to disease progression

  11. Screening of mutations affecting protein stability and dynamics of FGFR1—A simulation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. George Priya Doss

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Single amino acid substitutions in Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 (FGFR1 destabilize protein and have been implicated in several genetic disorders like various forms of cancer, Kallamann syndrome, Pfeiffer syndrome, Jackson Weiss syndrome, etc. In order to gain functional insight into mutation caused by amino acid substitution to protein function and expression, special emphasis was laid on molecular dynamics simulation techniques in combination with in silico tools such as SIFT, PolyPhen 2.0, I-Mutant 3.0 and SNAP. It has been estimated that 68% nsSNPs were predicted to be deleterious by I-Mutant, slightly higher than SIFT (37%, PolyPhen 2.0 (61% and SNAP (58%. From the observed results, P722S mutation was found to be most deleterious by comparing results of all in silico tools. By molecular dynamics approach, we have shown that P722S mutation leads to increase in flexibility, and deviated more from the native structure which was supported by the decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds. In addition, biophysical analysis revealed a clear insight of stability loss due to P722S mutation in FGFR1 protein. Majority of mutations predicted by these in silico tools were in good concordance with the experimental results.

  12. On the dynamics of neutral mutations in a mathematical model for a homogeneous stem cell population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, Arne; Lenaerts, Tom; Pacheco, Jorge M; Dingli, David

    2013-02-01

    The theory of the clonal origin of cancer states that a tumour arises from one cell that acquires mutation(s) leading to the malignant phenotype. It is the current belief that many of these mutations give a fitness advantage to the mutant population allowing it to expand, eventually leading to disease. However, mutations that lead to such a clonal expansion need not give a fitness advantage and may in fact be neutral--or almost neutral--with respect to fitness. Such mutant clones can be eliminated or expand stochastically, leading to a malignant phenotype (disease). Mutations in haematopoietic stem cells give rise to diseases such as chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria (PNH). Although neutral drift often leads to clonal extinction, disease is still possible, and in this case, it has important implications both for the incidence of disease and for therapy, as it may be more difficult to eliminate neutral mutations with therapy. We illustrate the consequences of such dynamics, using CML and PNH as examples. These considerations have implications for many other tumours as well.

  13. Death and population dynamics affect mutation rate estimates and evolvability under stress in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenoy, Antoine; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2018-05-01

    The stress-induced mutagenesis hypothesis postulates that in response to stress, bacteria increase their genome-wide mutation rate, in turn increasing the chances that a descendant is able to better withstand the stress. This has implications for antibiotic treatment: exposure to subinhibitory doses of antibiotics has been reported to increase bacterial mutation rates and thus probably the rate at which resistance mutations appear and lead to treatment failure. More generally, the hypothesis posits that stress increases evolvability (the ability of a population to generate adaptive genetic diversity) and thus accelerates evolution. Measuring mutation rates under stress, however, is problematic, because existing methods assume there is no death. Yet subinhibitory stress levels may induce a substantial death rate. Death events need to be compensated by extra replication to reach a given population size, thus providing more opportunities to acquire mutations. We show that ignoring death leads to a systematic overestimation of mutation rates under stress. We developed a system based on plasmid segregation that allows us to measure death and division rates simultaneously in bacterial populations. Using this system, we found that a substantial death rate occurs at the tested subinhibitory concentrations previously reported to increase mutation rate. Taking this death rate into account lowers and sometimes removes the signal for stress-induced mutagenesis. Moreover, even when antibiotics increase mutation rate, we show that subinhibitory treatments do not increase genetic diversity and evolvability, again because of effects of the antibiotics on population dynamics. We conclude that antibiotic-induced mutagenesis is overestimated because of death and that understanding evolvability under stress requires accounting for the effects of stress on population dynamics as much as on mutation rate. Our goal here is dual: we show that population dynamics and, in particular, the

  14. Dynamic Harmony Search with Polynomial Mutation Algorithm for Valve-Point Economic Load Dispatch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karthikeyan

    2015-01-01

    mutation (DHSPM algorithm to solve ORPD problem. In DHSPM algorithm the key parameters of HS algorithm like harmony memory considering rate (HMCR and pitch adjusting rate (PAR are changed dynamically and there is no need to predefine these parameters. Additionally polynomial mutation is inserted in the updating step of HS algorithm to favor exploration and exploitation of the search space. The DHSPM algorithm is tested with three power system cases consisting of 3, 13, and 40 thermal units. The computational results show that the DHSPM algorithm is more effective in finding better solutions than other computational intelligence based methods.

  15. Approaches to understanding the impact of life-history features on plant-pathogen co-evolutionary dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy J. Burdon; Peter H. Thrall; Adnane Nemri

    2012-01-01

    Natural plant-pathogen associations are complex interactions in which the interplay of environment, host, and pathogen factors results in spatially heterogeneous ecological and epidemiological dynamics. The evolutionary patterns that result from the interaction of these factors are still relatively poorly understood. Recently, integration of the appropriate spatial and...

  16. Long-term social dynamics drive loss of function in pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum Andersen, Sandra; Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Molin, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments show that social interactions between bacterial cells can drive evolutionary change at the population level, but significant challenges limit attempts to assess the relevance of these findings to natural populations, where selection pressures are unknown. We have increasingly...... sophisticated methods for monitoring phenotypic and genotypic dynamics in bacteria causing infectious disease, but in contrast, we lack evidence-based adaptive explanations for those changes. Evolutionary change during infection is often interpreted as host adaptation, but this assumption neglects to consider...... social dynamics shown to drive evolutionary change in vitro. We provide evidence to show that long-term behavioral dynamics observed in a pathogen are driven by selection to outcompete neighboring conspecific cells through social interactions. We find that Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria, causing lung...

  17. Pathogenic LRRK2 mutations, through increased kinase activity, produce enlarged lysosomes with reduced degradative capacity and increase ATP13A2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Anastasia G; Aghamohammadzadeh, Soheil; Samaroo, Harry; Chen, Yi; Mou, Kewa; Needle, Elie; Hirst, Warren D

    2015-11-01

    Lysosomal dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Several genes linked to genetic forms of PD, including leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2), functionally converge on the lysosomal system. While mutations in LRRK2 are commonly associated with autosomal-dominant PD, the physiological and pathological functions of this kinase remain poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that LRRK2 regulates lysosome size, number and function in astrocytes, which endogenously express high levels of LRRK2. Expression of LRRK2 G2019S, the most common pathological mutation, produces enlarged lysosomes and diminishes the lysosomal capacity of these cells. Enlarged lysosomes appears to be a common phenotype associated with pathogenic LRRK2 mutations, as we also observed this effect in cells expressing other LRRK2 mutations; R1441C or Y1699C. The lysosomal defects associated with these mutations are dependent on both the catalytic activity of the kinase and autophosphorylation of LRRK2 at serine 1292. Further, we demonstrate that blocking LRRK2's kinase activity, with the potent and selective inhibitor PF-06447475, rescues the observed defects in lysosomal morphology and function. The present study also establishes that G2019S mutation leads to a reduction in lysosomal pH and increased expression of the lysosomal ATPase ATP13A2, a gene linked to a parkinsonian syndrome (Kufor-Rakeb syndrome), in brain samples from mouse and human LRRK2 G2019S carriers. Together, these results demonstrate that PD-associated LRRK2 mutations perturb lysosome function in a kinase-dependent manner, highlighting the therapeutic promise of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors in the treatment of PD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Inferring epidemiological dynamics of infectious diseases using Tajima's D statistic on nucleotide sequences of pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiyeon; Omori, Ryosuke; Ito, Kimihito

    2017-12-01

    The estimation of the basic reproduction number is essential to understand epidemic dynamics, and time series data of infected individuals are usually used for the estimation. However, such data are not always available. Methods to estimate the basic reproduction number using genealogy constructed from nucleotide sequences of pathogens have been proposed so far. Here, we propose a new method to estimate epidemiological parameters of outbreaks using the time series change of Tajima's D statistic on the nucleotide sequences of pathogens. To relate the time evolution of Tajima's D to the number of infected individuals, we constructed a parsimonious mathematical model describing both the transmission process of pathogens among hosts and the evolutionary process of the pathogens. As a case study we applied this method to the field data of nucleotide sequences of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 viruses collected in Argentina. The Tajima's D-based method estimated basic reproduction number to be 1.55 with 95% highest posterior density (HPD) between 1.31 and 2.05, and the date of epidemic peak to be 10th July with 95% HPD between 22nd June and 9th August. The estimated basic reproduction number was consistent with estimation by birth-death skyline plot and estimation using the time series of the number of infected individuals. These results suggested that Tajima's D statistic on nucleotide sequences of pathogens could be useful to estimate epidemiological parameters of outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A molecular dynamics investigation on the crizotinib resistance mechanism of C1156Y mutation in ALK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Hui-Yong; Ji, Feng-Qin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The study revealed the detailed resistance mechanism of the non-active mutation C1156Y in ALK. ► C1156Y leads to crizotinib displacement and conformational changes in the binding cavity. ► The conformations cause a decline in the vdW and electrostatic energy between crizotinib and ALK. -- Abstract: Crizotinib is an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor that has recently been approved in the US for the treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Despite its outstanding safety and efficacy, several resistant mutations against crizotinib have been detected in the treatment of NSCLC. However, in contrast to the widely accepted mechanism of steric hindrance by mutations at the active site, the mechanism by which the C1156Y non-active site mutation confers resistance against crizotinib remains unclear. In the present study, the resistance mechanism of C1156Y in ALK was investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The results suggest that despite the non-active site mutation, C1156Y causes the dislocation of crizotinib as well as the indirect conformational changes in the binding cavity, which results in a marked decrease in the van der Waals and electrostatic interactions between crizotinib and ALK. The obtained results provide a detailed explanation of the resistance caused by C1156Y and may give a vital clue for the design of drugs to combat crizotinib resistance.

  20. A molecular dynamics investigation on the crizotinib resistance mechanism of C1156Y mutation in ALK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Hui-Yong [Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Ji, Feng-Qin, E-mail: fengqinji@mail.hzau.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Center for Bioinformatics, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study revealed the detailed resistance mechanism of the non-active mutation C1156Y in ALK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C1156Y leads to crizotinib displacement and conformational changes in the binding cavity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The conformations cause a decline in the vdW and electrostatic energy between crizotinib and ALK. -- Abstract: Crizotinib is an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor that has recently been approved in the US for the treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Despite its outstanding safety and efficacy, several resistant mutations against crizotinib have been detected in the treatment of NSCLC. However, in contrast to the widely accepted mechanism of steric hindrance by mutations at the active site, the mechanism by which the C1156Y non-active site mutation confers resistance against crizotinib remains unclear. In the present study, the resistance mechanism of C1156Y in ALK was investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The results suggest that despite the non-active site mutation, C1156Y causes the dislocation of crizotinib as well as the indirect conformational changes in the binding cavity, which results in a marked decrease in the van der Waals and electrostatic interactions between crizotinib and ALK. The obtained results provide a detailed explanation of the resistance caused by C1156Y and may give a vital clue for the design of drugs to combat crizotinib resistance.

  1. HIV-1 Nef mutations abrogating downregulation of CD4 affect other Nef functions and show reduced pathogenicity in transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, Zaher; Priceputu, Elena; Hu, Chunyan; Vincent, Patrick; Jolicoeur, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Nef Wt Tg mice. Our data suggest that the RD35/36AA and D174K mutations affect other Nef functions, namely those involved in the development of lung and kidney diseases, in addition to their known role in CD4 downregulation. Similarly, in HIV-1-infected individuals, loss of CD4 downregulation by Nef alleles may reflect their lower intrinsic pathogenicity, independently of their effects on virus replication

  2. The effect of point mutations on structure and mechanical properties of collagen-like fibril: A molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlowe, Ashley E.; Singh, Abhishek; Yingling, Yaroslava G.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding sequence dependent mechanical and structural properties of collagen fibrils is important for the development of artificial biomaterials for medical and nanotechnological applications. Moreover, point mutations are behind many collagen associated diseases, including Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI). We conducted a combination of classical and steered atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to examine the effect of point mutations on structure and mechanical properties of short collagen fibrils which include mutations of glycine to alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, and serine or mutations of hydroxyproline to arginine, asparagine, glutamine, and lysine. We found that all mutations disrupt structure and reduce strength of the collagen fibrils, which may affect the hierarchical packing of the fibrils. The glycine mutations were more detrimental to mechanical strength of the fibrils (WT > Ala > Ser > Cys > Asp) than that of hydroxyproline (WT > Arg > Gln > Asn > Lys). The clinical outcome for glycine mutations agrees well with the trend in reduction of fibril's tensile strength predicted by our simulations. Overall, our results suggest that the reduction in mechanical properties of collagen fibrils may be used to predict the clinical outcome of mutations. Highlights: ► All mutations disrupt structure and bonding pattern and reduce strength of the collagen fibrils. ► Gly based mutations are worst to mechanical integrity of fibrils than that of Hyp. ► Lys and Arg mutations most dramatically destabilize collagen fibril properties. ► Clinical outcome of mutations may be related to the reduced mechanical properties of fibrils.

  3. The effect of point mutations on structure and mechanical properties of collagen-like fibril: A molecular dynamics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlowe, Ashley E.; Singh, Abhishek; Yingling, Yaroslava G., E-mail: yara_yingling@ncsu.edu

    2012-12-01

    Understanding sequence dependent mechanical and structural properties of collagen fibrils is important for the development of artificial biomaterials for medical and nanotechnological applications. Moreover, point mutations are behind many collagen associated diseases, including Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI). We conducted a combination of classical and steered atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to examine the effect of point mutations on structure and mechanical properties of short collagen fibrils which include mutations of glycine to alanine, aspartic acid, cysteine, and serine or mutations of hydroxyproline to arginine, asparagine, glutamine, and lysine. We found that all mutations disrupt structure and reduce strength of the collagen fibrils, which may affect the hierarchical packing of the fibrils. The glycine mutations were more detrimental to mechanical strength of the fibrils (WT > Ala > Ser > Cys > Asp) than that of hydroxyproline (WT > Arg > Gln > Asn > Lys). The clinical outcome for glycine mutations agrees well with the trend in reduction of fibril's tensile strength predicted by our simulations. Overall, our results suggest that the reduction in mechanical properties of collagen fibrils may be used to predict the clinical outcome of mutations. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All mutations disrupt structure and bonding pattern and reduce strength of the collagen fibrils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Gly based mutations are worst to mechanical integrity of fibrils than that of Hyp. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lys and Arg mutations most dramatically destabilize collagen fibril properties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Clinical outcome of mutations may be related to the reduced mechanical properties of fibrils.

  4. Model-based evaluation of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza dynamics in wild birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Hénaux

    Full Text Available There is growing interest in avian influenza (AI epidemiology to predict disease risk in wild and domestic birds, and prevent transmission to humans. However, understanding the epidemic dynamics of highly pathogenic (HPAI viruses remains challenging because they have rarely been detected in wild birds. We used modeling to integrate available scientific information from laboratory and field studies, evaluate AI dynamics in individual hosts and waterfowl populations, and identify key areas for future research. We developed a Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR model and used published laboratory challenge studies to estimate epidemiological parameters (rate of infection, latency period, recovery and mortality rates, considering the importance of age classes, and virus pathogenicity. Infectious contact leads to infection and virus shedding within 1-2 days, followed by relatively slower period for recovery or mortality. We found a shorter infectious period for HPAI than low pathogenic (LP AI, which may explain that HPAI has been much harder to detect than LPAI during surveillance programs. Our model predicted a rapid LPAI epidemic curve, with a median duration of infection of 50-60 days and no fatalities. In contrast, HPAI dynamics had lower prevalence and higher mortality, especially in young birds. Based on field data from LPAI studies, our model suggests to increase surveillance for HPAI in post-breeding areas, because the presence of immunologically naïve young birds is predicted to cause higher HPAI prevalence and bird losses during this season. Our results indicate a better understanding of the transmission, infection, and immunity-related processes is required to refine predictions of AI risk and spread, improve surveillance for HPAI in wild birds, and develop disease control strategies to reduce potential transmission to domestic birds and/or humans.

  5. Model-based evaluation of highly and low pathogenic avian influenza dynamics in wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénaux, Viviane; Samuel, Michael D.; Bunck, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in avian influenza (AI) epidemiology to predict disease risk in wild and domestic birds, and prevent transmission to humans. However, understanding the epidemic dynamics of highly pathogenic (HPAI) viruses remains challenging because they have rarely been detected in wild birds. We used modeling to integrate available scientific information from laboratory and field studies, evaluate AI dynamics in individual hosts and waterfowl populations, and identify key areas for future research. We developed a Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model and used published laboratory challenge studies to estimate epidemiological parameters (rate of infection, latency period, recovery and mortality rates), considering the importance of age classes, and virus pathogenicity. Infectious contact leads to infection and virus shedding within 1–2 days, followed by relatively slower period for recovery or mortality. We found a shorter infectious period for HPAI than low pathogenic (LP) AI, which may explain that HPAI has been much harder to detect than LPAI during surveillance programs. Our model predicted a rapid LPAI epidemic curve, with a median duration of infection of 50–60 days and no fatalities. In contrast, HPAI dynamics had lower prevalence and higher mortality, especially in young birds. Based on field data from LPAI studies, our model suggests to increase surveillance for HPAI in post-breeding areas, because the presence of immunologically naïve young birds is predicted to cause higher HPAI prevalence and bird losses during this season. Our results indicate a better understanding of the transmission, infection, and immunity-related processes is required to refine predictions of AI risk and spread, improve surveillance for HPAI in wild birds, and develop disease control strategies to reduce potential transmission to domestic birds and/or humans.

  6. Bacteriophage Resistance Mechanisms in the Fish Pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum: Linking Genomic Mutations to Changes in Bacterial Virulence Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Daniel; Christiansen, Rói Hammershaimb; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2015-01-01

    -resistant strains had all obtained unique insertions and/or deletions and point mutations distributed among intergenic and genic regions. Mutations in genes related to cell surface properties, gliding motility, and biosynthesis of lipopolysaccharides and cell wall were found. The observed links between phage...

  7. Host and pathogen ecology drive the seasonal dynamics of a fungal disease, white-nose syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langwig, Kate E; Frick, Winifred F; Reynolds, Rick; Parise, Katy L; Drees, Kevin P; Hoyt, Joseph R; Cheng, Tina L; Kunz, Thomas H; Foster, Jeffrey T; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2015-01-22

    Seasonal patterns in pathogen transmission can influence the impact of disease on populations and the speed of spatial spread. Increases in host contact rates or births drive seasonal epidemics in some systems, but other factors may occasionally override these influences. White-nose syndrome, caused by the emerging fungal pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, is spreading across North America and threatens several bat species with extinction. We examined patterns and drivers of seasonal transmission of P. destructans by measuring infection prevalence and pathogen loads in six bat species at 30 sites across the eastern United States. Bats became transiently infected in autumn, and transmission spiked in early winter when bats began hibernating. Nearly all bats in six species became infected by late winter when infection intensity peaked. In summer, despite high contact rates and a birth pulse, most bats cleared infections and prevalence dropped to zero. These data suggest the dominant driver of seasonal transmission dynamics was a change in host physiology, specifically hibernation. Our study is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to describe the seasonality of transmission in this emerging wildlife disease. The timing of infection and fungal growth resulted in maximal population impacts, but only moderate rates of spatial spread. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  8. Ross, macdonald, and a theory for the dynamics and control of mosquito-transmitted pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David L; Battle, Katherine E; Hay, Simon I; Barker, Christopher M; Scott, Thomas W; McKenzie, F Ellis

    2012-01-01

    Ronald Ross and George Macdonald are credited with developing a mathematical model of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission. A systematic historical review suggests that several mathematicians and scientists contributed to development of the Ross-Macdonald model over a period of 70 years. Ross developed two different mathematical models, Macdonald a third, and various "Ross-Macdonald" mathematical models exist. Ross-Macdonald models are best defined by a consensus set of assumptions. The mathematical model is just one part of a theory for the dynamics and control of mosquito-transmitted pathogens that also includes epidemiological and entomological concepts and metrics for measuring transmission. All the basic elements of the theory had fallen into place by the end of the Global Malaria Eradication Programme (GMEP, 1955-1969) with the concept of vectorial capacity, methods for measuring key components of transmission by mosquitoes, and a quantitative theory of vector control. The Ross-Macdonald theory has since played a central role in development of research on mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and the development of strategies for mosquito-borne disease prevention.

  9. Fine-Scale Recombination Maps of Fungal Plant Pathogens Reveal Dynamic Recombination Landscapes and Intragenic Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukenbrock, Eva H; Dutheil, Julien Y

    2018-03-01

    Meiotic recombination is an important driver of evolution. Variability in the intensity of recombination across chromosomes can affect sequence composition, nucleotide variation, and rates of adaptation. In many organisms, recombination events are concentrated within short segments termed recombination hotspots. The variation in recombination rate and positions of recombination hotspot can be studied using population genomics data and statistical methods. In this study, we conducted population genomics analyses to address the evolution of recombination in two closely related fungal plant pathogens: the prominent wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici and a sister species infecting wild grasses Z. ardabiliae We specifically addressed whether recombination landscapes, including hotspot positions, are conserved in the two recently diverged species and if recombination contributes to rapid evolution of pathogenicity traits. We conducted a detailed simulation analysis to assess the performance of methods of recombination rate estimation based on patterns of linkage disequilibrium, in particular in the context of high nucleotide diversity. Our analyses reveal overall high recombination rates, a lack of suppressed recombination in centromeres, and significantly lower recombination rates on chromosomes that are known to be accessory. The comparison of the recombination landscapes of the two species reveals a strong correlation of recombination rate at the megabase scale, but little correlation at smaller scales. The recombination landscapes in both pathogen species are dominated by frequent recombination hotspots across the genome including coding regions, suggesting a strong impact of recombination on gene evolution. A significant but small fraction of these hotspots colocalize between the two species, suggesting that hotspot dynamics contribute to the overall pattern of fast evolving recombination in these species. Copyright © 2018 Stukenbrock and Dutheil.

  10. Biallelic Mutations in TBCD, Encoding the Tubulin Folding Cofactor D, Perturb Microtubule Dynamics and Cause Early-Onset Encephalopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flex, Elisabetta; Niceta, Marcello; Cecchetti, Serena; Thiffault, Isabelle; Au, Margaret G.; Capuano, Alessandro; Piermarini, Emanuela; Ivanova, Anna A.; Francis, Joshua W.; Chillemi, Giovanni; Chandramouli, Balasubramanian; Carpentieri, Giovanna; Haaxma, Charlotte A.; Ciolfi, Andrea; Pizzi, Simone; Douglas, Ganka V.; Levine, Kara; Sferra, Antonella; Dentici, Maria Lisa; Pfundt, Rolph R.; Le Pichon, Jean-Baptiste; Farrow, Emily; Baas, Frank; Piemonte, Fiorella; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Graham, John M.; Saunders, Carol J.; Bertini, Enrico; Kahn, Richard A.; Koolen, David A.; Tartaglia, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal elements coordinating and supporting a variety of neuronal processes, including cell division, migration, polarity, intracellular trafficking, and signal transduction. Mutations in genes encoding tubulins and microtubule-associated proteins are known to cause

  11. Pathogen dynamics in a partial migrant : Interactions between mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) and avian influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.G.B. van

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic pathogens may pose a serious threat for humans, requiring a better understanding of the ecology and transmission of these pathogens in their natural (wildlife) hosts. The zoonotic pathogen studied in this thesis is low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV). This pathogen circulates

  12. Modelling the dynamics of an experimental host-pathogen microcosm within a hierarchical Bayesian framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lunn

    Full Text Available The advantages of Bayesian statistical approaches, such as flexibility and the ability to acknowledge uncertainty in all parameters, have made them the prevailing method for analysing the spread of infectious diseases in human or animal populations. We introduce a Bayesian approach to experimental host-pathogen systems that shares these attractive features. Since uncertainty in all parameters is acknowledged, existing information can be accounted for through prior distributions, rather than through fixing some parameter values. The non-linear dynamics, multi-factorial design, multiple measurements of responses over time and sampling error that are typical features of experimental host-pathogen systems can also be naturally incorporated. We analyse the dynamics of the free-living protozoan Paramecium caudatum and its specialist bacterial parasite Holospora undulata. Our analysis provides strong evidence for a saturable infection function, and we were able to reproduce the two waves of infection apparent in the data by separating the initial inoculum from the parasites released after the first cycle of infection. In addition, the parameter estimates from the hierarchical model can be combined to infer variations in the parasite's basic reproductive ratio across experimental groups, enabling us to make predictions about the effect of resources and host genotype on the ability of the parasite to spread. Even though the high level of variability between replicates limited the resolution of the results, this Bayesian framework has strong potential to be used more widely in experimental ecology.

  13. Host-pathogen metapopulation dynamics suggest high elevation refugia for boreal toads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Brittany A.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Muths, Erin L.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P

    2018-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are an increasingly common threat to wildlife. Chytridiomycosis, caused by the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is an emerging infectious disease that has been linked to amphibian declines around the world. Few studies exist that explore amphibian-Bd dynamics at the landscape scale, limiting our ability to identify which factors are associated with variation in population susceptibility and to develop effective in situdisease management. Declines of boreal toads (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) in the Southern Rocky Mountains are largely attributed to chytridiomycosis but variation exists in local extinction of boreal toads across this metapopulation. Using a large-scale historic dataset, we explored several potential factors influencing disease dynamics in the boreal toad-Bd system: geographic isolation of populations, amphibian community richness, elevational differences, and habitat permanence. We found evidence that boreal toad extinction risk was lowest at high elevations where temperatures may be sub-optimal for Bd growth and where small boreal toad populations may be below the threshold needed for efficient pathogen transmission. In addition, boreal toads were more likely to recolonize high elevation sites after local extinction, again suggesting that high elevations may provide refuge from disease for boreal toads. We illustrate a modeling framework that will be useful to natural resource managers striving to make decisions in amphibian-Bdsystems. Our data suggest that in the southern Rocky Mountains high elevation sites should be prioritized for conservation initiatives like reintroductions.

  14. Effect of neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant mutations on pathogenicity of clade 2.2 A/Turkey/15/06 (H5N1 influenza virus in ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A Ilyushina

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition of neuraminidase (NA inhibitor resistance by H5N1 influenza viruses has serious clinical implications, as this class of drugs can be an essential component of pandemic control measures. The continuous evolution of the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses results in the emergence of natural NA gene variations whose impact on viral fitness and NA inhibitor susceptibility are poorly defined. We generated seven genetically stable recombinant clade 2.2 A/Turkey/15/06-like (H5N1 influenza viruses carrying NA mutations located either in the framework residues (E119A, H274Y, N294S or in close proximity to the NA enzyme active site (V116A, I117V, K150N, Y252H. NA enzyme inhibition assays showed that NA mutations at positions 116, 117, 274, and 294 reduced susceptibility to oseltamivir carboxylate (IC(50s increased 5- to 940-fold. Importantly, the E119A NA mutation (previously reported to confer resistance in the N2 NA subtype was stable in the clade 2.2 H5N1 virus background and induced cross-resistance to oseltamivir carboxylate and zanamivir. We demonstrated that Y252H NA mutation contributed for decreased susceptibility of clade 2.2 H5N1 viruses to oseltamivir carboxylate as compared to clade 1 viruses. The enzyme kinetic parameters (V(max, K(m and K(i of the avian-like N1 NA glycoproteins were highly consistent with their IC(50 values. None of the recombinant H5N1 viruses had attenuated virulence in ferrets inoculated with 10(6 EID(50 dose. Most infected ferrets showed mild clinical disease signs that differed in duration. However, H5N1 viruses carrying the E119A or the N294S NA mutation were lethal to 1 of 3 inoculated animals and were associated with significantly higher virus titers (P<0.01 and inflammation in the lungs compared to the wild-type virus. Our results suggest that highly pathogenic H5N1 variants carrying mutations within the NA active site that decrease susceptibility to NA inhibitors may possess increased

  15. Triplet-Based Codon Organization Optimizes the Impact of Synonymous Mutation on Nucleic Acid Molecular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Gregory A; Coppola, Erin E; Mortensen, Jamie S; Ekeren, Patrick X; Viola, Cosmo; Goldblatt, Dallan; Hudson, André O

    2018-02-01

    Since the elucidation of the genetic code almost 50 years ago, many nonrandom aspects of its codon organization remain only partly resolved. Here, we investigate the recent hypothesis of 'dual-use' codons which proposes that in addition to allowing adjustment of codon optimization to tRNA abundance, the degeneracy in the triplet-based genetic code also multiplexes information regarding DNA's helical shape and protein-binding dynamics while avoiding interference with other protein-level characteristics determined by amino acid properties. How such structural optimization of the code within eukaryotic chromatin could have arisen from an RNA world is a mystery, but would imply some preadaptation in an RNA context. We analyzed synonymous (protein-silent) and nonsynonymous (protein-altering) mutational impacts on molecular dynamics in 13823 identically degenerate alternative codon reorganizations, defined by codon transitions in 7680 GPU-accelerated molecular dynamic simulations of implicitly and explicitly solvated double-stranded aRNA and bDNA structures. When compared to all possible alternative codon assignments, the standard genetic code minimized the impact of synonymous mutations on the random atomic fluctuations and correlations of carbon backbone vector trajectories while facilitating the specific movements that contribute to DNA polymer flexibility. This trend was notably stronger in the context of RNA supporting the idea that dual-use codon optimization and informational multiplexing in DNA resulted from the preadaptation of the RNA duplex to resist changes to thermostability. The nonrandom and divergent molecular dynamics of synonymous mutations also imply that the triplet-based code may have resulted from adaptive functional expansion enabling a primordial doublet code to multiplex gene regulatory information via the shape and charge of the minor groove.

  16. Using the genome aggregation database, computational pathogenicity prediction tools, and patch clamp heterologous expression studies to demote previously published long QT syndrome type 1 mutations from pathogenic to benign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Daniel J; Lentino, Anne R; Kapplinger, Jamie D; Ye, Dan; Zhou, Wei; Tester, David J; Ackerman, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Mutations in the KCNQ1-encoded Kv7.1 potassium channel cause long QT syndrome (LQTS) type 1 (LQT1). It has been suggested that ∼10%-20% of rare LQTS case-derived variants in the literature may have been published erroneously as LQT1-causative mutations and may be "false positives." The purpose of this study was to determine which previously published KCNQ1 case variants are likely false positives. A list of all published, case-derived KCNQ1 missense variants (MVs) was compiled. The occurrence of each MV within the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) was assessed. Eight in silico tools were used to predict each variant's pathogenicity. Case-derived variants that were either (1) too frequently found in gnomAD or (2) absent in gnomAD but predicted to be pathogenic by ≤2 tools were considered potential false positives. Three of these variants were characterized functionally using whole-cell patch clamp technique. Overall, there were 244 KCNQ1 case-derived MVs. Of these, 29 (12%) were seen in ≥10 individuals in gnomAD and are demotable. However, 157 of 244 MVs (64%) were absent in gnomAD. Of these, 7 (4%) were predicted to be pathogenic by ≤2 tools, 3 of which we characterized functionally. There was no significant difference in current density between heterozygous KCNQ1-F127L, -P477L, or -L619M variant-containing channels compared to KCNQ1-WT. This study offers preliminary evidence for the demotion of 32 (13%) previously published LQT1 MVs. Of these, 29 were demoted because of their frequent sighting in gnomAD. Additionally, in silico analysis and in vitro functional studies have facilitated the demotion of 3 ultra-rare MVs (F127L, P477L, L619M). Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Defective i6A37 modification of mitochondrial and cytosolic tRNAs results from pathogenic mutations in TRIT1 and its substrate tRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Yarham

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the genetic basis for mitochondrial diseases is technically challenging given the size of the mitochondrial proteome and the heterogeneity of disease presentations. Using next-generation exome sequencing, we identified in a patient with severe combined mitochondrial respiratory chain defects and corresponding perturbation in mitochondrial protein synthesis, a homozygous p.Arg323Gln mutation in TRIT1. This gene encodes human tRNA isopentenyltransferase, which is responsible for i6A37 modification of the anticodon loops of a small subset of cytosolic and mitochondrial tRNAs. Deficiency of i6A37 was previously shown in yeast to decrease translational efficiency and fidelity in a codon-specific manner. Modelling of the p.Arg323Gln mutation on the co-crystal structure of the homologous yeast isopentenyltransferase bound to a substrate tRNA, indicates that it is one of a series of adjacent basic side chains that interact with the tRNA backbone of the anticodon stem, somewhat removed from the catalytic center. We show that patient cells bearing the p.Arg323Gln TRIT1 mutation are severely deficient in i6A37 in both cytosolic and mitochondrial tRNAs. Complete complementation of the i6A37 deficiency of both cytosolic and mitochondrial tRNAs was achieved by transduction of patient fibroblasts with wild-type TRIT1. Moreover, we show that a previously-reported pathogenic m.7480A>G mt-tRNASer(UCN mutation in the anticodon loop sequence A36A37A38 recognised by TRIT1 causes a loss of i6A37 modification. These data demonstrate that deficiencies of i6A37 tRNA modification should be considered a potential mechanism of human disease caused by both nuclear gene and mitochondrial DNA mutations while providing insight into the structure and function of TRIT1 in the modification of cytosolic and mitochondrial tRNAs.

  18. Mutations in the Schmallenberg Virus Gc Glycoprotein Facilitate Cellular Protein Synthesis Shutoff and Restore Pathogenicity of NSs Deletion Mutants in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Mariana; Pinto, Rute Maria; Caporale, Marco; Piras, Ilaria M; Taggart, Aislynn; Seehusen, Frauke; Hahn, Kerstin; Janowicz, Anna; de Souza, William Marciel; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Shi, Xiaohong; Palmarini, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    Serial passage of viruses in cell culture has been traditionally used to attenuate virulence and identify determinants of viral pathogenesis. In a previous study, we found that a strain of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) serially passaged in tissue culture (termed SBVp32) unexpectedly displayed increased pathogenicity in suckling mice compared to wild-type SBV. In this study, we mapped the determinants of SBVp32 virulence to the viral genome M segment. SBVp32 virulence is associated with the capacity of this virus to reach high titers in the brains of experimentally infected suckling mice. We also found that the Gc glycoprotein, encoded by the M segment of SBVp32, facilitates host cell protein shutoff in vitro Interestingly, while the M segment of SBVp32 is a virulence factor, we found that the S segment of the same virus confers by itself an attenuated phenotype to wild-type SBV, as it has lost the ability to block the innate immune system of the host. Single mutations present in the Gc glycoprotein of SBVp32 are sufficient to compensate for both the attenuated phenotype of the SBVp32 S segment and the attenuated phenotype of NSs deletion mutants. Our data also indicate that the SBVp32 M segment does not act as an interferon (IFN) antagonist. Therefore, SBV mutants can retain pathogenicity even when they are unable to fully control the production of IFN by infected cells. Overall, this study suggests that the viral glycoprotein of orthobunyaviruses can compensate, at least in part, for the function of NSs. In addition, we also provide evidence that the induction of total cellular protein shutoff by SBV is determined by multiple viral proteins, while the ability to control the production of IFN maps to the NSs protein. The identification of viral determinants of pathogenesis is key to the development of prophylactic and intervention measures. In this study, we found that the bunyavirus Gc glycoprotein is a virulence factor. Importantly, we show that mutations in the Gc

  19. Application of Dynamic Mutated Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm to Design Water Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Mohammadi- Aghdam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the application of a new version of the heuristic particle swarm optimization (PSO method for designing water distribution networks (WDNs. The optimization problem of looped water distribution networks is recognized as an NP-hard combinatorial problem which cannot be easily solved using traditional mathematical optimization techniques. In this paper, the concept of dynamic swarm size is considered in an attempt to increase the convergence speed of the original PSO algorithm. In this strategy, the size of the swarm is dynamically changed according to the iteration number of the algorithm. Furthermore, a novel mutation approach is introduced to increase the diversification property of the PSO and to help the algorithm to avoid trapping in local optima. The new version of the PSO algorithm is called dynamic mutated particle swarm optimization (DMPSO. The proposed DMPSO is then applied to solve WDN design problems. Finally, two illustrative examples are used for comparison to verify the efficiency of the proposed DMPSO as compared to other intelligent algorithms.

  20. Recasting the theory of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission dynamics and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David L.; Perkins, T. Alex; Reiner, Robert C.; Barker, Christopher M.; Niu, Tianchan; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Ellis, Alicia M.; George, Dylan B.; Le Menach, Arnaud; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Bisanzio, Donal; Buckee, Caroline; Chiyaka, Christinah; Cummings, Derek A. T.; Garcia, Andres J.; Gatton, Michelle L.; Gething, Peter W.; Hartley, David M.; Johnston, Geoffrey; Klein, Eili Y.; Michael, Edwin; Lloyd, Alun L.; Pigott, David M.; Reisen, William K.; Ruktanonchai, Nick; Singh, Brajendra K.; Stoller, Jeremy; Tatem, Andrew J.; Kitron, Uriel; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Cohen, Justin M.; Hay, Simon I.; Scott, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases pose some of the greatest challenges in public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Efforts to control these diseases have been underpinned by a theoretical framework developed for malaria by Ross and Macdonald, including models, metrics for measuring transmission, and theory of control that identifies key vulnerabilities in the transmission cycle. That framework, especially Macdonald's formula for R0 and its entomological derivative, vectorial capacity, are now used to study dynamics and design interventions for many mosquito-borne diseases. A systematic review of 388 models published between 1970 and 2010 found that the vast majority adopted the Ross–Macdonald assumption of homogeneous transmission in a well-mixed population. Studies comparing models and data question these assumptions and point to the capacity to model heterogeneous, focal transmission as the most important but relatively unexplored component in current theory. Fine-scale heterogeneity causes transmission dynamics to be nonlinear, and poses problems for modeling, epidemiology and measurement. Novel mathematical approaches show how heterogeneity arises from the biology and the landscape on which the processes of mosquito biting and pathogen transmission unfold. Emerging theory focuses attention on the ecological and social context for mosquito blood feeding, the movement of both hosts and mosquitoes, and the relevant spatial scales for measuring transmission and for modeling dynamics and control. PMID:24591453

  1. Recasting the theory of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission dynamics and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David L; Perkins, T Alex; Reiner, Robert C; Barker, Christopher M; Niu, Tianchan; Chaves, Luis Fernando; Ellis, Alicia M; George, Dylan B; Le Menach, Arnaud; Pulliam, Juliet R C; Bisanzio, Donal; Buckee, Caroline; Chiyaka, Christinah; Cummings, Derek A T; Garcia, Andres J; Gatton, Michelle L; Gething, Peter W; Hartley, David M; Johnston, Geoffrey; Klein, Eili Y; Michael, Edwin; Lloyd, Alun L; Pigott, David M; Reisen, William K; Ruktanonchai, Nick; Singh, Brajendra K; Stoller, Jeremy; Tatem, Andrew J; Kitron, Uriel; Godfray, H Charles J; Cohen, Justin M; Hay, Simon I; Scott, Thomas W

    2014-04-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases pose some of the greatest challenges in public health, especially in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Efforts to control these diseases have been underpinned by a theoretical framework developed for malaria by Ross and Macdonald, including models, metrics for measuring transmission, and theory of control that identifies key vulnerabilities in the transmission cycle. That framework, especially Macdonald's formula for R0 and its entomological derivative, vectorial capacity, are now used to study dynamics and design interventions for many mosquito-borne diseases. A systematic review of 388 models published between 1970 and 2010 found that the vast majority adopted the Ross-Macdonald assumption of homogeneous transmission in a well-mixed population. Studies comparing models and data question these assumptions and point to the capacity to model heterogeneous, focal transmission as the most important but relatively unexplored component in current theory. Fine-scale heterogeneity causes transmission dynamics to be nonlinear, and poses problems for modeling, epidemiology and measurement. Novel mathematical approaches show how heterogeneity arises from the biology and the landscape on which the processes of mosquito biting and pathogen transmission unfold. Emerging theory focuses attention on the ecological and social context for mosquito blood feeding, the movement of both hosts and mosquitoes, and the relevant spatial scales for measuring transmission and for modeling dynamics and control.

  2. The granuloma in tuberculosis: Dynamics of a host-pathogen collusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eEhlers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A granuloma is defined as an inflammatory mononuclear cell infiltrate that, while capable of limiting growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, also provides a survival niche from which the bacteria may disseminate. The tuberculosis lesion is highly dynamic and shaped by both, immune response elements and the pathogen. In the granuloma, M. tuberculosis switches to a non-replicating but energy-generating life style whose detailed molecular characterization can identify novel targets for chemotherapy. To secure transmission to a new host, M. tuberculosis has evolved to drive T cell immunity to the point that necrotizing granulomas leak into bronchial cavities to facilitate expectoration of bacilli. From an evolutionary perspective it is therefore questionable whether vaccination and immunity enhancing strategies that merely mimic the natural immune response directed against M. tuberculosis infection can overcome pulmonary tuberculosis in the adult population. Juxtaposition of molecular pathology and immunology with microbial physiology and the use of novel imaging approaches afford an integrative view of the granuloma’s contribution to the life cycle of M. tuberculosis. This review revisits the different input of innate and adaptive immunity in granuloma biogenesis, with a focus on the co-evolutionary forces that redirect immune responses also to the benefit of the pathogen, i.e. its survival, propagation and transmission.

  3. Modified meta-heuristics using random mutation for truss topology optimization with static and dynamic constraints

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    Vimal J. Savsani

    2017-04-01

    The static and dynamic responses to the TTO problems are challenging due to its search space, which is implicit, non-convex, non-linear, and often leading to divergence. Modified meta-heuristics are effective optimization methods to handle such problems in actual fact. In this paper, modified versions of Teaching–Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO, Heat Transfer Search (HTS, Water Wave Optimization (WWO, and Passing Vehicle Search (PVS are proposed by integrating the random mutation-based search technique with them. This paper compares the performance of four modified and four basic meta-heuristics to solve discrete TTO problems.

  4. Capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis and clone sequencing in detection of dynamic mutations of spinocerebellar ataxia

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    Yuan-yuan CHEN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To estimate the accuracy and stability of capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis and clone sequencing in detecting dynamic mutations of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA. Methods Capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis and clone sequencing were used in detecting trinucleotide repeated sequence of 14 SCA patients (3 cases of SCA2, 2 cases of SCA7, 7 cases of SCA8 and 2 cases of SCA17. Results Capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis of 3 SCA2 cases showed the expanded cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG repeats were 31, 30 and 32, and the copy numbers of 3 clone sequencing for 3 colonies in each case were 37/40/40, 37/38/39 and 38/39/40 respectively. Capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis of 2 SCA7 cases showed the expanded CAG repeats were 57 and 34, and the copy numbers of repeats were 69, 74, 75 in 3 colonies of one case, and was 45 in the other case. For the 7 SCA8 cases with the expanded cytosine-thymine-adenine (CTA/cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG repeats of 99, 111, 104, 92, 89, 104 and 75, the results of clone sequencing were 97, 116, 104, 90, 90, 102 and 76 respectively. For 2 SCA17 cases with the short/expanded CAG repeats of 37/50 and 36/45, the results of clone sequencing were 51/50/52 and 45/44 for 3 and 2 colonies. Conclusions Although the higher mobility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR products containing dynamic mutation in the capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis might cause the deviation for analysis of copy numbers, the deviation was predictable and the results were repeatable. The clone sequencing results showed obvious instability, especially for SCA2 and SCA7 genes, which might owing to their simple CAG repeats. Consequently, clone sequencing is not suited for detection of dynamic mutation, not to mention the quantitative criteria of dynamic mutation sequencing. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2018.03.008

  5. Mechanisms of mtDNA segregation and mitochondrial signalling in cells with the pathogenic A3243G mutation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir Tafrechi, Roshan Sakineh

    2008-01-01

    Using newly developed single cell A3243G mutation load assays a novel mechanism of mtDNA segregation was identified in which the multi-copy mtDNA nucleoid takes a central position. Furthermore, likely due to low level changes in gene expression, no genes or gene sets could be identified with gene

  6. Structural, Dynamical, and Energetical Consequences of Rett Syndrome Mutation R133C in MeCP2

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    Tugba G. Kucukkal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rett Syndrome (RTT is a progressive neurodevelopmental disease affecting females. RTT is caused by mutations in the MECP2 gene and various amino acid substitutions have been identified clinically in different domains of the multifunctional MeCP2 protein encoded by this gene. The R133C variant in the methylated-CpG-binding domain (MBD of MeCP2 is the second most common disease-causing mutation in the MBD. Comparative molecular dynamics simulations of R133C mutant and wild-type MBD have been performed to understand the impact of the mutation on structure, dynamics, and interactions of the protein and subsequently understand the disease mechanism. Two salt bridges within the protein and two critical hydrogen bonds between the protein and DNA are lost upon the R133C mutation. The mutation was found to weaken the interaction with DNA and also cause loss of helicity within the 141-144 region. The structural, dynamical, and energetical consequences of R133C mutation were investigated in detail at the atomic resolution. Several important implications of this have been shown regarding protein stability and hydration dynamics as well as its interaction with DNA. The results are in agreement with previous experimental studies and further provide atomic level understanding of the molecular origin of RTT associated with R133C variant.

  7. Lack of evidence for the pathogenic role of iron and HFE gene mutations in Brazilian patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

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    M.M. Deguti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis of the role of iron overload associated with HFE gene mutations in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH has been raised in recent years. In the present study, biochemical and histopathological evidence of iron overload and HFE mutations was investigated in NASH patients. Thirty-two NASH patients, 19 females (59%, average 49.2 years, 72% Caucasians, 12% Mulattoes and 12% Asians, were submitted to serum aminotransferase and iron profile determinations. Liver biopsies were analyzed for necroinflammatory activity, architectural damage and iron deposition. In 31 of the patients, C282Y and H63D mutations were tested by PCR-RFLP. Alanine aminotransferase levels were increased in 30 patients, 2.42 ± 1.12 times the upper normal limit on average. Serum iron concentration, transferrin saturation and ferritin averages were 99.4 ± 31.3 g/dl, 33.1 ± 12.7% and 219.8 ± 163.8 µg/dl, respectively, corresponding to normal values in 93.5, 68.7 and 78.1% of the patients. Hepatic siderosis was observed in three patients and was not associated with architectural damage (P = 0.53 or with necroinflammatory activity (P = 0.27. The allelic frequencies (N = 31 found were 1.6 and 14.1% for C282Y and H63D, respectively, which were compatible with those described for the local population. In conclusion, no evidence of an association of hepatic iron overload and HFE mutations with NASH was found. Brazilian NASH patients comprise a heterogeneous group with many associated conditions such as hyperinsulinism, environmental hepatotoxin exposure and drugs, but not hepatic iron overload, and their disease susceptibility could be related to genetic and environmental features other than HFE mutations.

  8. A pathogenic S250F missense mutation results in a mouse model of mild aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Charlotte; Shohat, Meytal; Kim, Jeong-Ki; Nakanishi, Koki; Homma, Shunichi; Mosharov, Eugene V; Monani, Umrao R

    2017-11-15

    Homozygous mutations in the aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) gene result in a severe depletion of its namesake protein, triggering a debilitating and often fatal form of infantile Parkinsonism known as AADC deficiency. AADC deficient patients fail to produce normal levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, and suffer a multi-systemic disorder characterized by movement abnormalities, developmental delay and autonomic dysfunction; an absolute loss of dopamine is generally considered incompatible with life. There is no optimal treatment for AADC deficiency and few truly good models in which to investigate disease mechanisms or develop and refine therapeutic strategies. In this study, we introduced a relatively frequently reported but mildly pathogenic S250F missense mutation into the murine Aadc gene. We show that mutants homozygous for the mutation are viable and express a stable but minimally active form of the AADC protein. Although the low enzymatic activity of the protein resulted in only modestly reduced concentrations of brain dopamine, serotonin levels were markedly diminished, and this perturbed behavior as well as autonomic function in mutant mice. Still, we found no evidence of morphologic abnormalities of the dopaminergic cells in mutant brains. The striatum as well as substantia nigra appeared normal and no loss of dopamine expressing cells in the latter was detected. We conclude that even minute levels of active AADC are sufficient to allow for substantial amounts of dopamine to be produced in model mice harboring the S250F mutation. Such mutants represent a novel, mild model of human AADC deficiency. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Pathogenic mutations of the human mitochondrial citrate carrier SLC25A1 lead to impaired citrate export required for lipid, dolichol, ubiquinone and sterol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majd, Homa; King, Martin S; Smith, Anthony C; Kunji, Edmund R S

    2018-01-01

    Missense mutations of the human mitochondrial citrate carrier, encoded by the SLC25A1 gene, lead to an autosomal recessive neurometabolic disorder characterised by neonatal-onset encephalopathy with severe muscular weakness, intractable seizures, respiratory distress, and lack of psychomotor development, often resulting in early death. Here, we have measured the effect of all twelve known pathogenic mutations on the transport activity. The results show that nine mutations abolish transport of citrate completely, whereas the other three reduce the transport rate by >70%, indicating that impaired citrate transport is the most likely primary cause of the disease. Some mutations may be detrimental to the structure of the carrier, whereas others may impair key functional elements, such as the substrate binding site and the salt bridge network on the matrix side of the carrier. To understand the consequences of impaired citrate transport on metabolism, the substrate specificity was also determined, showing that the human citrate carrier predominantly transports citrate, isocitrate, cis-aconitate, phosphoenolpyruvate and malate. Although D-2- and L-2 hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a metabolic hallmark of the disease, it is unlikely that the citrate carrier plays a significant role in the removal of hydroxyglutarate from the cytosol for oxidation to oxoglutarate in the mitochondrial matrix. In contrast, computer simulations of central metabolism predict that the export of citrate from the mitochondrion cannot be fully compensated by other pathways, restricting the cytosolic production of acetyl-CoA that is required for the synthesis of lipids, sterols, dolichols and ubiquinone, which in turn explains the severe disease phenotypes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. ALS-associated mutation SOD1G93A leads to abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in osteocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Yi, Jianxun; Li, Xuejun; Xiao, Yajuan; Dhakal, Kamal; Zhou, Jingsong

    2018-01-01

    While the death of motor neuron is a pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), defects in other cell types or organs may also actively contribute to ALS disease progression. ALS patients experience progressive skeletal muscle wasting that may not only exacerbate neuronal degeneration, but likely has a significant impact on bone function. In our previous published study, we have discovered severe bone loss in an ALS mouse model with overexpression of ALS-associated mutation SOD1 G93A (G93A). Here we further provide a mechanistic understanding of the bone loss in ALS animal and cellular models. Combining mitochondrial fluorescent indicators and confocal live cell imaging, we discovered abnormalities in mitochondrial network and dynamics in primary osteocytes derived from the same ALS mouse model G93A. Those mitochondrial defects occur in ALS mice after the onset of neuromuscular symptoms, indicating that mitochondria in bone cells respond to muscle atrophy during ALS disease progression. To examine whether ALS mutation has a direct contribution to mitochondrial dysfunction independent of muscle atrophy, we evaluated mitochondrial morphology and motility in cultured osteocytes (MLO-Y4) with overexpression of mitochondrial targeted SOD1 G93A . Compared with osteocytes overexpressing the wild type SOD1 as a control, the SOD1 G93A osteocytes showed similar defects in mitochondrial network and dynamic as that of the primary osteocytes derived from the ALS mouse model. In addition, we further discovered that overexpression of SOD1 G93A enhanced the expression level of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a key protein promoting mitochondrial fission activity, and reduced the expression level of optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1), a key protein related to mitochondrial fusion. A specific mitochondrial fission inhibitor (Mdivi-1) partially reversed the effect of SOD1 G93A on mitochondrial network and dynamics, indicating that SOD1 G93A likely promotes

  11. G1738R is a BRCA1 founder mutation in Greek breast/ovarian cancer patients: evaluation of its pathogenicity and inferences on its genealogical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Theodore; Pertesi, Maroulio; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Armaou, Sofia; Kamakari, Smaragda; Nasioulas, George; Athanasiou, Athanassios; Dobrovic, Alex; Young, Mary-Anne; Goldgar, David; Fountzilas, George; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis

    2008-07-01

    We have performed screening in 287 breast/ovarian cancer families in Greece which has revealed that approximately 12% (8/65) of all index patients-carriers of a deleterious mutation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, contain the base substitution G to A at position 5331 of BRCA1 gene. This generates the amino acid change G1738R for which based on a combination of genetic, in silico and histopathological analysis there are strong suggestions that it is a causative mutation. In this paper, we present further evidence suggesting the pathogenicity of this variant. Forty breast/ovarian cancer patients were reported in 11 Greek families: the above eight living in Greece, two living in Australia and one in USA, all containing G1738R. Twenty of these patients were screened and were all found to be carriers of the same base substitution. In addition, we have detected the same base change in five breast/ovarian cancer patients after screening 475 unselected patient samples with no apparent family history. The mean age of onset for all the above patients was 39.4 and 53.6 years for breast and ovarian cancer cases, respectively. A multi-factorial likelihood model for classification of unclassified variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 developed previously was applied on G1738R and the odds of it being a deleterious mutation was estimated to be 11470:1. In order to explain the prevalence of this mutation mainly in the Greek population, its genealogical history was examined. DNA samples were collected from 11 carrier families living in Greece, Australia and USA. Screening of eight intragenic SNPs, three intragenic and seven extragenic microsatellite markers and comparison with control individuals, suggested a common origin for the mutation while the time to its most recent common ancestor was estimated to be 11 generations (about 275 years assuming a generational interval of 25 years) with a 1-lod support interval of 4-24 generations (100-600 years). Considering the large degree of genetic

  12. Environmental controls, oceanography and population dynamics of pathogens and harmful algal blooms: connecting sources to human exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minnett Peter

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coupled physical-biological models are capable of linking the complex interactions between environmental factors and physical hydrodynamics to simulate the growth, toxicity and transport of infectious pathogens and harmful algal blooms (HABs. Such simulations can be used to assess and predict the impact of pathogens and HABs on human health. Given the widespread and increasing reliance of coastal communities on aquatic systems for drinking water, seafood and recreation, such predictions are critical for making informed resource management decisions. Here we identify three challenges to making this connection between pathogens/HABs and human health: predicting concentrations and toxicity; identifying the spatial and temporal scales of population and ecosystem interactions; and applying the understanding of population dynamics of pathogens/HABs to management strategies. We elaborate on the need to meet each of these challenges, describe how modeling approaches can be used and discuss strategies for moving forward in addressing these challenges.

  13. Real-time imaging of hydrogen peroxide dynamics in vegetative and pathogenic hyphae of Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentges, Michael; Bormann, Jörg

    2015-10-08

    Balanced dynamics of reactive oxygen species in the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum play key roles for development and infection. To monitor those dynamics, ratiometric analysis using the novel hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensitive fluorescent indicator protein HyPer-2 was established for the first time in phytopathogenic fungi. H2O2 changes the excitation spectrum of HyPer-2 with an excitation maximum at 405 nm for the reduced and 488 nm for the oxidized state, facilitating ratiometric readouts with maximum emission at 516 nm. HyPer-2 analyses were performed using a microtiter fluorometer and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Addition of external H2O2 to mycelia caused a steep and transient increase in fluorescence excited at 488 nm. This can be reversed by the addition of the reducing agent dithiothreitol. HyPer-2 in F. graminearum is highly sensitive and specific to H2O2 even in tiny amounts. Hyperosmotic treatment elicited a transient internal H2O2 burst. Hence, HyPer-2 is suitable to monitor the intracellular redox balance. Using CLSM, developmental processes like nuclear division, tip growth, septation, and infection structure development were analyzed. The latter two processes imply marked accumulations of intracellular H2O2. Taken together, HyPer-2 is a valuable and reliable tool for the analysis of environmental conditions, cellular development, and pathogenicity.

  14. Hotspot mutations in KIT receptor differentially modulate its allosterically coupled conformational dynamics: impact on activation and drug sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaure Chauvot de Beauchêne

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Receptor tyrosine kinase KIT controls many signal transduction pathways and represents a typical allosterically regulated protein. The mutation-induced deregulation of KIT activity impairs cellular physiological functions and causes serious human diseases. The impact of hotspots mutations (D816H/Y/N/V and V560G/D localized in crucial regulatory segments, the juxtamembrane region (JMR and the activation (A- loop, on KIT internal dynamics was systematically studied by molecular dynamics simulations. The mutational outcomes predicted in silico were correlated with in vitro and in vivo activation rates and drug sensitivities of KIT mutants. The allosteric regulation of KIT in the native and mutated forms is described in terms of communication between the two remote segments, JMR and A-loop. A strong correlation between the communication profile and the structural and dynamical features of KIT in the native and mutated forms was established. Our results provide new insight on the determinants of receptor KIT constitutive activation by mutations and resistance of KIT mutants to inhibitors. Depiction of an intra-molecular component of the communication network constitutes a first step towards an integrated description of vast communication pathways established by KIT in physiopathological contexts.

  15. The Dynamic Genome and Transcriptome of the Human Fungal Pathogen Blastomyces and Close Relative Emmonsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Muñoz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Three closely related thermally dimorphic pathogens are causal agents of major fungal diseases affecting humans in the Americas: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. Here we report the genome sequence and analysis of four strains of the etiological agent of blastomycosis, Blastomyces, and two species of the related genus Emmonsia, typically pathogens of small mammals. Compared to related species, Blastomyces genomes are highly expanded, with long, often sharply demarcated tracts of low GC-content sequence. These GC-poor isochore-like regions are enriched for gypsy elements, are variable in total size between isolates, and are least expanded in the avirulent B. dermatitidis strain ER-3 as compared with the virulent B. gilchristii strain SLH14081. The lack of similar regions in related species suggests these isochore-like regions originated recently in the ancestor of the Blastomyces lineage. While gene content is highly conserved between Blastomyces and related fungi, we identified changes in copy number of genes potentially involved in host interaction, including proteases and characterized antigens. In addition, we studied gene expression changes of B. dermatitidis during the interaction of the infectious yeast form with macrophages and in a mouse model. Both experiments highlight a strong antioxidant defense response in Blastomyces, and upregulation of dioxygenases in vivo suggests that dioxide produced by antioxidants may be further utilized for amino acid metabolism. We identify a number of functional categories upregulated exclusively in vivo, such as secreted proteins, zinc acquisition proteins, and cysteine and tryptophan metabolism, which may include critical virulence factors missed before in in vitro studies. Across the dimorphic fungi, loss of certain zinc acquisition genes and differences in amino acid metabolism suggest unique adaptations of Blastomyces to its host environment. These results reveal the dynamics

  16. The Dynamic Genome and Transcriptome of the Human Fungal Pathogen Blastomyces and Close Relative Emmonsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, José F; Gauthier, Gregory M; Desjardins, Christopher A; Gallo, Juan E; Holder, Jason; Sullivan, Thomas D; Marty, Amber J; Carmen, John C; Chen, Zehua; Ding, Li; Gujja, Sharvari; Magrini, Vincent; Misas, Elizabeth; Mitreva, Makedonka; Priest, Margaret; Saif, Sakina; Whiston, Emily A; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Goldman, William E; Mardis, Elaine R; Taylor, John W; McEwen, Juan G; Clay, Oliver K; Klein, Bruce S; Cuomo, Christina A

    2015-10-01

    Three closely related thermally dimorphic pathogens are causal agents of major fungal diseases affecting humans in the Americas: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. Here we report the genome sequence and analysis of four strains of the etiological agent of blastomycosis, Blastomyces, and two species of the related genus Emmonsia, typically pathogens of small mammals. Compared to related species, Blastomyces genomes are highly expanded, with long, often sharply demarcated tracts of low GC-content sequence. These GC-poor isochore-like regions are enriched for gypsy elements, are variable in total size between isolates, and are least expanded in the avirulent B. dermatitidis strain ER-3 as compared with the virulent B. gilchristii strain SLH14081. The lack of similar regions in related species suggests these isochore-like regions originated recently in the ancestor of the Blastomyces lineage. While gene content is highly conserved between Blastomyces and related fungi, we identified changes in copy number of genes potentially involved in host interaction, including proteases and characterized antigens. In addition, we studied gene expression changes of B. dermatitidis during the interaction of the infectious yeast form with macrophages and in a mouse model. Both experiments highlight a strong antioxidant defense response in Blastomyces, and upregulation of dioxygenases in vivo suggests that dioxide produced by antioxidants may be further utilized for amino acid metabolism. We identify a number of functional categories upregulated exclusively in vivo, such as secreted proteins, zinc acquisition proteins, and cysteine and tryptophan metabolism, which may include critical virulence factors missed before in in vitro studies. Across the dimorphic fungi, loss of certain zinc acquisition genes and differences in amino acid metabolism suggest unique adaptations of Blastomyces to its host environment. These results reveal the dynamics of genome evolution

  17. Genotype, phenotype and in silico pathogenicity analysis of HEXB mutations: Panel based sequencing for differential diagnosis of gangliosidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdieh, Nejat; Mikaeeli, Sahar; Tavasoli, Ali Reza; Rezaei, Zahra; Maleki, Majid; Rabbani, Bahareh

    2018-04-01

    Gangliosidosis is an inherited metabolic disorder causing neurodegeneration and motor regression. Preventive diagnosis is the first choice for the affected families due to lack of straightforward therapy. Genetic studies could confirm the diagnosis and help families for carrier screening and prenatal diagnosis. An update of HEXB gene variants concerning genotype, phenotype and in silico analysis are presented. Panel based next generation sequencing and direct sequencing of four cases were performed to confirm the clinical diagnosis and for reproductive planning. Bioinformatic analyses of the HEXB mutation database were also performed. Direct sequencing of HEXA and HEXB genes showed recurrent homozygous variants at c.509G>A (p.Arg170Gln) and c.850C>T (p.Arg284Ter), respectively. A novel variant at c.416T>A (p.Leu139Gln) was identified in the GLB1 gene. Panel based next generation sequencing was performed for an undiagnosed patient which showed a novel mutation at c.1602C>A (p.Cys534Ter) of HEXB gene. Bioinformatic analysis of the HEXB mutation database showed 97% consistency of in silico genotype analysis with the phenotype. Bioinformatic analysis of the novel variants predicted to be disease causing. In silico structural and functional analysis of the novel variants showed structural effect of HEXB and functional effect of GLB1 variants which would provide fast analysis of novel variants. Panel based studies could be performed for overlapping symptomatic patients. Consequently, genetic testing would help affected families for patients' management, carrier detection, and family planning's. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant mutations on pathogenicity of clade 2.2 A/Turkey/15/06 (H5N1) influenza virus in ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyushina, Natalia A; Seiler, Jon P; Rehg, Jerold E; Webster, Robert G; Govorkova, Elena A

    2010-05-27

    The acquisition of neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor resistance by H5N1 influenza viruses has serious clinical implications, as this class of drugs can be an essential component of pandemic control measures. The continuous evolution of the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses results in the emergence of natural NA gene variations whose impact on viral fitness and NA inhibitor susceptibility are poorly defined. We generated seven genetically stable recombinant clade 2.2 A/Turkey/15/06-like (H5N1) influenza viruses carrying NA mutations located either in the framework residues (E119A, H274Y, N294S) or in close proximity to the NA enzyme active site (V116A, I117V, K150N, Y252H). NA enzyme inhibition assays showed that NA mutations at positions 116, 117, 274, and 294 reduced susceptibility to oseltamivir carboxylate (IC(50)s increased 5- to 940-fold). Importantly, the E119A NA mutation (previously reported to confer resistance in the N2 NA subtype) was stable in the clade 2.2 H5N1 virus background and induced cross-resistance to oseltamivir carboxylate and zanamivir. We demonstrated that Y252H NA mutation contributed for decreased susceptibility of clade 2.2 H5N1 viruses to oseltamivir carboxylate as compared to clade 1 viruses. The enzyme kinetic parameters (V(max), K(m) and K(i)) of the avian-like N1 NA glycoproteins were highly consistent with their IC(50) values. None of the recombinant H5N1 viruses had attenuated virulence in ferrets inoculated with 10(6) EID(50) dose. Most infected ferrets showed mild clinical disease signs that differed in duration. However, H5N1 viruses carrying the E119A or the N294S NA mutation were lethal to 1 of 3 inoculated animals and were associated with significantly higher virus titers (Pinfluenza drugs that target different virus/host factors and can limit the emergence of resistance.

  19. Technical Evaluation: Identification of Pathogenic Mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 in Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease by Next-Generation Sequencing and Use of a Comprehensive New Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Moritoshi; Higashihara, Eiji; Kawano, Haruna; Higashiyama, Ryo; Koga, Daisuke; Fukui, Takafumi; Gondo, Nobuhisa; Oka, Takehiko; Kawahara, Kozo; Rigo, Krisztina; Hague, Tim; Katsuragi, Kiyonori; Sudo, Kimiyoshi; Takeshi, Masahiko; Horie, Shigeo; Nutahara, Kikuo

    2016-01-01

    Genetic testing of PKD1 and PKD2 is expected to play an increasingly important role in determining allelic influences in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in the near future. However, to date, genetic testing is not commonly employed because it is expensive, complicated because of genetic heterogeneity, and does not easily identify pathogenic variants. In this study, we developed a genetic testing system based on next-generation sequencing (NGS), long-range polymerase chain reaction, and a new software package. The new software package integrated seven databases and provided access to five cloud-based computing systems. The database integrated 241 polymorphic nonpathogenic variants detected in 140 healthy Japanese volunteers aged >35 years, who were confirmed by ultrasonography as having no cysts in either kidney. Using this system, we identified 60 novel and 30 known pathogenic mutations in 101 Japanese patients with ADPKD, with an overall detection rate of 89.1% (90/101) [95% confidence interval (CI), 83.0%-95.2%]. The sensitivity of the system increased to 93.1% (94/101) (95% CI, 88.1%-98.0%) when combined with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis, making it sufficient for use in a clinical setting. In 82 (87.2%) of the patients, pathogenic mutations were detected in PKD1 (95% CI, 79.0%-92.5%), whereas in 12 (12.8%) patients pathogenic mutations were detected in PKD2 (95% CI, 7.5%-21.0%); this is consistent with previously reported findings. In addition, we were able to reconfirm our pathogenic mutation identification results using Sanger sequencing. In conclusion, we developed a high-sensitivity NGS-based system and successfully employed it to identify pathogenic mutations in PKD1 and PKD2 in Japanese patients with ADPKD.

  20. Prophage-mediated dynamics of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' populations, the destructive bacterial pathogens of citrus huanglongbing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Zhou

    Full Text Available Prophages are highly dynamic components in the bacterial genome and play an important role in intraspecies variations. There are at least two prophages in the chromosomes of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las Floridian isolates. Las is both unculturable and the most prevalent species of Liberibacter pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB, a worldwide destructive disease of citrus. In this study, seven new prophage variants resulting from two hyper-variable regions were identified by screening clone libraries of infected citrus, periwinkle and psyllids. Among them, Types A and B share highly conserved sequences and localize within the two prophages, FP1 and FP2, respectively. Although Types B and C were abundant in all three libraries, Type A was much more abundant in the libraries from the Las-infected psyllids than from the Las-infected plants, and Type D was only identified in libraries from the infected host plants but not from the infected psyllids. Sequence analysis of these variants revealed that the variations may result from recombination and rearrangement events. Conventional PCR results using type-specific molecular markers indicated that A, B, C and D are the four most abundant types in Las-infected citrus and periwinkle. However, only three types, A, B and C are abundant in Las-infected psyllids. Typing results for Las-infected citrus field samples indicated that mixed populations of Las bacteria present in Floridian isolates, but only the Type D population was correlated with the blotchy mottle symptom. Extended cloning and sequencing of the Type D region revealed a third prophage/phage in the Las genome, which may derive from the recombination of FP1 and FP2. Dramatic variations in these prophage regions were also found among the global Las isolates. These results are the first to demonstrate the prophage/phage-mediated dynamics of Las populations in plant and insect hosts, and their correlation with insect transmission and

  1. Prophage-mediated dynamics of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' populations, the destructive bacterial pathogens of citrus huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijuan; Powell, Charles A; Li, Wenbin; Irey, Mike; Duan, Yongping

    2013-01-01

    Prophages are highly dynamic components in the bacterial genome and play an important role in intraspecies variations. There are at least two prophages in the chromosomes of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las) Floridian isolates. Las is both unculturable and the most prevalent species of Liberibacter pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB), a worldwide destructive disease of citrus. In this study, seven new prophage variants resulting from two hyper-variable regions were identified by screening clone libraries of infected citrus, periwinkle and psyllids. Among them, Types A and B share highly conserved sequences and localize within the two prophages, FP1 and FP2, respectively. Although Types B and C were abundant in all three libraries, Type A was much more abundant in the libraries from the Las-infected psyllids than from the Las-infected plants, and Type D was only identified in libraries from the infected host plants but not from the infected psyllids. Sequence analysis of these variants revealed that the variations may result from recombination and rearrangement events. Conventional PCR results using type-specific molecular markers indicated that A, B, C and D are the four most abundant types in Las-infected citrus and periwinkle. However, only three types, A, B and C are abundant in Las-infected psyllids. Typing results for Las-infected citrus field samples indicated that mixed populations of Las bacteria present in Floridian isolates, but only the Type D population was correlated with the blotchy mottle symptom. Extended cloning and sequencing of the Type D region revealed a third prophage/phage in the Las genome, which may derive from the recombination of FP1 and FP2. Dramatic variations in these prophage regions were also found among the global Las isolates. These results are the first to demonstrate the prophage/phage-mediated dynamics of Las populations in plant and insect hosts, and their correlation with insect transmission and disease development.

  2. Deciphering KRAS and NRAS mutated clone dynamics in MLL-AF4 paediatric leukaemia by ultra deep sequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentin, Luca; Bresolin, Silvia; Giarin, Emanuela; Bardini, Michela; Serafin, Valentina; Accordi, Benedetta; Fais, Franco; Tenca, Claudya; De Lorenzo, Paola; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Kronnie, Geertruy Te; Basso, Giuseppe

    2016-10-04

    To induce and sustain the leukaemogenic process, MLL-AF4+ leukaemia seems to require very few genetic alterations in addition to the fusion gene itself. Studies of infant and paediatric patients with MLL-AF4+ B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (BCP-ALL) have reported mutations in KRAS and NRAS with incidences ranging from 25 to 50%. Whereas previous studies employed Sanger sequencing, here we used next generation amplicon deep sequencing for in depth evaluation of RAS mutations in 36 paediatric patients at diagnosis of MLL-AF4+ leukaemia. RAS mutations including those in small sub-clones were detected in 63.9% of patients. Furthermore, the mutational analysis of 17 paired samples at diagnosis and relapse revealed complex RAS clone dynamics and showed that the mutated clones present at relapse were almost all originated from clones that were already detectable at diagnosis and survived to the initial therapy. Finally, we showed that mutated patients were indeed characterized by a RAS related signature at both transcriptional and protein levels and that the targeting of the RAS pathway could be of beneficial for treatment of MLL-AF4+ BCP-ALL clones carrying somatic RAS mutations.

  3. Transmission dynamics of Bacillus thuringiensis infecting Plodia interpunctella: a test of the mass action assumption with an insect pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, R J; Begon, M; Thompson, D J

    1996-01-22

    Central to theoretical studies of host-pathogen population dynamics is a term describing transmission of the pathogen. This usually assumes that transmission is proportional to the density of infectious hosts or particles and of susceptible individuals. We tested this assumption with the bacterial pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis infecting larvae of Plodia interpunctella, the Indian meal moth. Transmission was found to increase in a more than linear way with host density in fourth and fifth instar P. interpunctella, and to decrease with the density of infectious cadavers in the case of fifth instar larvae. Food availability was shown to play an important part in this process. Therefore, on a number of counts, the usual assumption was found not to apply in our experimental system.

  4. Use of an Optical Trap for Study of Host-Pathogen Interactions for Dynamic Live Cell Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Jenny M.; Castro, Carlos E.; Heath, Robert J. W.; Mansour, Michael K.; Cardenas, Michael L.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Lang, Matthew J.; Vyas, Jatin M.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic live cell imaging allows direct visualization of real-time interactions between cells of the immune system1, 2; however, the lack of spatial and temporal control between the phagocytic cell and microbe has rendered focused observations into the initial interactions of host response to pathogens difficult. Historically, intercellular contact events such as phagocytosis3 have been imaged by mixing two cell types, and then continuously scanning the field-of-view to find serendipitous int...

  5. Identification of Deleterious Mutations in Myostatin Gene of Rohu Carp (Labeo rohita Using Modeling and Molecular Dynamic Simulation Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Dashrath Rasal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The myostatin (MSTN is a known negative growth regulator of skeletal muscle. The mutated myostatin showed a double-muscular phenotype having a positive significance for the farmed animals. Consequently, adequate information is not available in the teleosts, including farmed rohu carp, Labeo rohita. In the absence of experimental evidence, computational algorithms were utilized in predicting the impact of point mutation of rohu myostatin, especially its structural and functional relationships. The four mutations were generated at different positions (p.D76A, p.Q204P, p.C312Y, and p.D313A of MSTN protein of rohu. The impacts of each mutant were analyzed using SIFT, I-Mutant 2.0, PANTHER, and PROVEAN, wherein two substitutions (p.D76A and p.Q204P were predicted as deleterious. The comparative structural analysis of each mutant protein with the native was explored using 3D modeling as well as molecular-dynamic simulation techniques. The simulation showed altered dynamic behaviors concerning RMSD and RMSF, for either p.D76A or p.Q204P substitution, when compared with the native counterpart. Interestingly, incorporated two mutations imposed a significant negative impact on protein structure and stability. The present study provided the first-hand information in identifying possible amino acids, where mutations could be incorporated into MSTN gene of rohu carp including other carps for undertaking further in vivo studies.

  6. Structure-Activity Relationship in TLR4 Mutations: Atomistic Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Residue Interaction Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Muhammad Ayaz; Choi, Sangdun

    2017-03-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a vital innate immune receptor present on cell surfaces, initiates a signaling cascade during danger and bacterial intrusion. TLR4 needs to form a stable hexamer complex, which is necessary to dimerize the cytoplasmic domain. However, D299G and T399I polymorphism may abrogate the stability of the complex, leading to compromised TLR4 signaling. Crystallography provides valuable insights into the structural aspects of the TLR4 ectodomain; however, the dynamic behavior of polymorphic TLR4 is still unclear. Here, we employed molecular dynamics simulations (MDS), as well as principal component and residue network analyses, to decipher the structural aspects and signaling propagation associated with mutations in TLR4. The mutated complexes were less cohesive, displayed local and global variation in the secondary structure, and anomalous decay in rotational correlation function. Principal component analysis indicated that the mutated complexes also exhibited distinct low-frequency motions, which may be correlated to the differential behaviors of these TLR4 variants. Moreover, residue interaction networks (RIN) revealed that the mutated TLR4/myeloid differentiation factor (MD) 2 complex may perpetuate abnormal signaling pathways. Cumulatively, the MDS and RIN analyses elucidated the mutant-specific conformational alterations, which may help in deciphering the mechanism of loss-of-function mutations.

  7. The dynamics of hepcidin-ferroportin internalization and consequences of a novel ferroportin disease mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Daniel F; McDonald, Cameron J; Ostini, Lesa; Iser, David; Tuckfield, Annabel; Subramaniam, V Nathan

    2017-10-01

    The hepcidin-ferroportin axis underlies the pathophysiology of many iron-associated disorders and is a key target for the development of therapeutics for treating iron-associated disorders. The aims of this study were to investigate the dynamics of hepcidin-mediated ferroportin internalization and the consequences of a novel disease-causing mutation on ferroportin function. Specific reagents for ferroportin are limited; we developed and characterized antibodies against the largest extracellular loop of ferroportin and developed a novel cell-based assay for studying hepcidin-ferroportin function. We show that hepcidin-mediated ferroportin internalization is a rapid process and could be induced using low concentrations of hepcidin. Targeted next-generation sequencing utilizing an iron metabolism gene panel developed in our group identified a novel ferroportin p.D84E variant in a patient with iron overload. Wild-type and mutant ferroportin constructs were generated, transfected into HEK293 cells and analysed using an all-in-one flow-cytometry-based assay to study the effects on hepcidin-mediated internalization and iron transport. Consistent with the classical phenotype of ferroportin disease, the p.D84E mutation results in an inability to transport iron and hepcidin insensitivity. These results validate a recently proposed 3D-structural model of ferroportin and highlight the significance of this variant in the structure and function of ferroportin. Our novel ferroportin antibody and assay will be valuable tools for investigating the regulation of hepcidin/ferroportin function and the development of novel approaches for the therapeutic modulation of iron homeostasis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. An application of the Caputo-Fabrizio operator to replicator-mutator dynamics: Bifurcation, chaotic limit cycles and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doungmo Goufo, Emile Franc

    2018-02-01

    The physical behaviors of replicator-mutator processes found in theoretical biophysics, physical chemistry, biochemistry and population biology remain complex with unlimited expressibility. People languages, for instance, have impressively and unpredictably changed over the time in human history. This is mainly due to the collection of small changes and collaboration with other languages. In this paper, the Caputo-Fabrizio operator is applied to a replicator-mutator dynamic taking place in midsts with movement. The model is fully analyzed and solved numerically via the Crank-Nicolson scheme. Stability and convergence results are provided. A concrete application to replicator-mutator dynamics for a population with three strategies is performed with numerical simulations provided for some fixed values of the physical position of the population symbolized by r and the grid points. Physically, it happens that limit cycles appear, not only in function of the mutation parameter μ but also in function of the values given to r . The amplitudes of limit cycles also appear to be proportional to r but the stability of the system remains unaffected. However, those limit cycles instead of disappearing as expected, are immediately followed by chaotic and unpredictable behaviors certainly due to the non-singular kernel used in the model and suitable to non-linear dynamics. Hence, the appearance and disappearance of limit cycles might be controlled by the position variable r which can also apprehend chaos.

  9. Nonlinear dynamics of the rock-paper-scissors game with mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toupo, Danielle F P; Strogatz, Steven H

    2015-05-01

    We analyze the replicator-mutator equations for the rock-paper-scissors game. Various graph-theoretic patterns of mutation are considered, ranging from a single unidirectional mutation pathway between two of the species, to global bidirectional mutation among all the species. Our main result is that the coexistence state, in which all three species exist in equilibrium, can be destabilized by arbitrarily small mutation rates. After it loses stability, the coexistence state gives birth to a stable limit cycle solution created in a supercritical Hopf bifurcation. This attracting periodic solution exists for all the mutation patterns considered, and persists arbitrarily close to the limit of zero mutation rate and a zero-sum game.

  10. Dynamic of Mutational Events in Variable Number Tandem Repeats of Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Bustamante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available VNTRs regions have been successfully used for bacterial subtyping; however, the hypervariability in VNTR loci is problematic when trying to predict the relationships among isolates. Since few studies have examined the mutation rate of these markers, our aim was to estimate mutation rates of VNTRs specific for verotoxigenic E. coli O157:H7. The knowledge of VNTR mutational rates and the factors affecting them would make MLVA more effective for epidemiological or microbial forensic investigations. For this purpose, we analyzed nine loci performing parallel, serial passage experiments (PSPEs on 9 O157:H7 strains. The combined 9 PSPE population rates for the 8 mutating loci ranged from 4.4 × 10−05 to 1.8 × 10−03 mutations/generation, and the combined 8-loci mutation rate was of 2.5 × 10−03 mutations/generation. Mutations involved complete repeat units, with only one point mutation detected. A similar proportion between single and multiple repeat changes was detected. Of the 56 repeat mutations, 59% were insertions and 41% were deletions, and 72% of the mutation events corresponded to O157-10 locus. For alleles with up to 13 UR, a constant and low mutation rate was observed; meanwhile longer alleles were associated with higher and variable mutation rates. Our results are useful to interpret data from microevolution and population epidemiology studies and particularly point out that the inclusion or not of O157-10 locus or, alternatively, a differential weighting data according to the mutation rates of loci must be evaluated in relation with the objectives of the proposed study.

  11. The Dynamic Genome and Transcriptome of the Human Fungal Pathogen Blastomyces and Close Relative Emmonsia

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz, José F.; Gauthier, Gregory M.; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Gallo, Juan E.; Holder, Jason; Sullivan, Thomas D.; Marty, Amber J.; Carmen, John C.; Chen, Zehua; Ding, Li; Gujja, Sharvari; Magrini, Vincent; Misas, Elizabeth; Mitreva, Makedonka; Priest, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Three closely related thermally dimorphic pathogens are causal agents of major fungal diseases affecting humans in the Americas: blastomycosis, histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis. Here we report the genome sequence and analysis of four strains of the etiological agent of blastomycosis, Blastomyces, and two species of the related genus Emmonsia, typically pathogens of small mammals. Compared to related species, Blastomyces genomes are highly expanded, with long, often sharply demarcated...

  12. Evolutionary dynamics of interactions between plants and their enemies: comparison of herbivorous insects and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wininger, Kerry; Rank, Nathan

    2017-11-01

    Plants colonized land over 400 million years ago. Shortly thereafter, organisms began to consume terrestrial plant tissue as a nutritional resource. Most plant enemies are plant pathogens or herbivores, and they impose natural selection for plants to evolve defenses. These traits generate selection pressures on enemies. Coevolution between terrestrial plants and their enemies is an important element of the evolutionary history of both groups. However, coevolutionary studies of plant-pathogen interactions have tended to focus on different research topics than plant-herbivore interactions. Specifically, studies of plant-pathogen interactions often adopt a "gene-for-gene" conceptual framework. In contrast, studies of plants and herbivores often investigate escalation or elaboration of plant defense and herbivore adaptations to overcome it. The main exceptions to the general pattern are studies that focus on small, sessile herbivores that share many features with plant pathogens, studies that incorporate both herbivores and pathogens into a single investigation, and studies that test aspects of Thompson's geographic mosaic theory for coevolution. We discuss the implications of these findings for future research. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Dynamics and profiles of a diffusive host-pathogen system with distinct dispersal rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yixiang; Zou, Xingfu

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate a diffusive host-pathogen model with heterogeneous parameters and distinct dispersal rates for the susceptible and infected hosts. We first prove that the solution of the model exists globally and the model system possesses a global attractor. We then identify the basic reproduction number R0 for the model and prove its threshold role: if R0 ≤ 1, the disease free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable; if R0 > 1, the solution of the model is uniformly persistent and there exists a positive (pathogen persistent) steady state. Finally, we study the asymptotic profiles of the positive steady state as the dispersal rate of the susceptible or infected hosts approaches zero. Our result suggests that the infected hosts concentrate at certain points which can be characterized as the pathogen's most favoured sites when the mobility of the infected host is limited.

  14. Theobroma cacao L. pathogenesis-related gene tandem array members show diverse expression dynamics in response to pathogen colonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fister, Andrew S; Mejia, Luis C; Zhang, Yufan; Herre, Edward Allen; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2016-05-17

    The pathogenesis-related (PR) group of proteins are operationally defined as polypeptides that increase in concentration in plant tissues upon contact with a pathogen. To date, 17 classes of highly divergent proteins have been described that act through multiple mechanisms of pathogen resistance. Characterizing these families in cacao, an economically important tree crop, and comparing the families to those in other species, is an important step in understanding cacao's immune response. Using publically available resources, all members of the 17 recognized pathogenesis-related gene families in the genome of Theobroma cacao were identified and annotated resulting in a set of ~350 members in both published cacao genomes. Approximately 50 % of these genes are organized in tandem arrays scattered throughout the genome. This feature was observed in five additional plant taxa (three dicots and two monocots), suggesting that tandem duplication has played an important role in the evolution of the PR genes in higher plants. Expression profiling captured the dynamics and complexity of PR genes expression at basal levels and after induction by two cacao pathogens (the oomycete, Phytophthora palmivora, and the fungus, Colletotrichum theobromicola), identifying specific genes within families that are more responsive to pathogen challenge. Subsequent qRT-PCR validated the induction of several PR-1, PR-3, PR-4, and PR-10 family members, with greater than 1000 fold induction detected for specific genes. We describe candidate genes that are likely to be involved in cacao's defense against Phytophthora and Colletotrichum infection and could be potentially useful for marker-assisted selection for breeding of disease resistant cacao varieties. The data presented here, along with existing cacao-omics resources, will enable targeted functional genetic screening of defense genes likely to play critical functions in cacao's defense against its pathogens.

  15. Modelling the host-pathogen interactions of macrophages and Candida albicans using Game Theory and dynamic optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dühring, Sybille; Ewald, Jan; Germerodt, Sebastian; Kaleta, Christoph; Dandekar, Thomas; Schuster, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    The release of fungal cells following macrophage phagocytosis, called non-lytic expulsion, is reported for several fungal pathogens. On one hand, non-lytic expulsion may benefit the fungus in escaping the microbicidal environment of the phagosome. On the other hand, the macrophage could profit in terms of avoiding its own lysis and being able to undergo proliferation. To analyse the causes of non-lytic expulsion and the relevance of macrophage proliferation in the macrophage- Candida albicans interaction, we employ Evolutionary Game Theory and dynamic optimization in a sequential manner. We establish a game-theoretical model describing the different strategies of the two players after phagocytosis. Depending on the parameter values, we find four different Nash equilibria and determine the influence of the systems state of the host upon the game. As our Nash equilibria are a direct consequence of the model parameterization, we can depict several biological scenarios. A parameter region, where the host response is robust against the fungal infection, is determined. We further apply dynamic optimization to analyse whether macrophage mitosis is relevant in the host-pathogen interaction of macrophages and C. albicans For this, we study the population dynamics of the macrophage- C. albicans interactions and the corresponding optimal controls for the macrophages, indicating the best macrophage strategy of switching from proliferation to attacking fungal cells. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Modify the Histone to Win the Battle: Chromatin Dynamics in Plant–Pathogen Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Ramirez Prado, Juan Sebastian

    2018-03-19

    Relying on an immune system comes with a high energetic cost for plants. Defense responses in these organisms are therefore highly regulated and fine-tuned, permitting them to respond pertinently to the attack of a microbial pathogen. In recent years, the importance of the physical modification of chromatin, a highly organized structure composed of genomic DNA and its interacting proteins, has become evident in the research field of plant-pathogen interactions. Several processes, including DNA methylation, changes in histone density and variants, and various histone modifications, have been described as regulators of various developmental and defense responses. Herein, we review the state of the art in the epigenomic aspects of plant immunity, focusing on chromatin modifications, chromatin modifiers, and their physiological consequences. In addition, we explore the exciting field of understanding how plant pathogens have adapted to manipulate the plant epigenomic regulation in order to weaken their immune system and thrive in their host, as well as how histone modifications in eukaryotic pathogens are involved in the regulation of their virulence.

  17. Modify the Histone to Win the Battle: Chromatin Dynamics in Plant–Pathogen Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Ramirez Prado, Juan Sebastian; Piquerez, Sophie J. M.; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Hirt, Heribert; Raynaud, Cé cile; Benhamed, Moussa

    2018-01-01

    Relying on an immune system comes with a high energetic cost for plants. Defense responses in these organisms are therefore highly regulated and fine-tuned, permitting them to respond pertinently to the attack of a microbial pathogen. In recent years, the importance of the physical modification of chromatin, a highly organized structure composed of genomic DNA and its interacting proteins, has become evident in the research field of plant-pathogen interactions. Several processes, including DNA methylation, changes in histone density and variants, and various histone modifications, have been described as regulators of various developmental and defense responses. Herein, we review the state of the art in the epigenomic aspects of plant immunity, focusing on chromatin modifications, chromatin modifiers, and their physiological consequences. In addition, we explore the exciting field of understanding how plant pathogens have adapted to manipulate the plant epigenomic regulation in order to weaken their immune system and thrive in their host, as well as how histone modifications in eukaryotic pathogens are involved in the regulation of their virulence.

  18. A Mathematical Model for Pathogen Cross-Contamination Dynamics during the Postharvest Processing of Leafy Greens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Amir; Oryang, David; Chen, Yuhuan; Pouillot, Regis; Van Doren, Jane

    2018-01-08

    We developed a probabilistic mathematical model for the postharvest processing of leafy greens focusing on Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of fresh-cut romaine lettuce as the case study. Our model can (i) support the investigation of cross-contamination scenarios, and (ii) evaluate and compare different risk mitigation options. We used an agent-based modeling framework to predict the pathogen prevalence and levels in bags of fresh-cut lettuce and quantify spread of E. coli O157:H7 from contaminated lettuce to surface areas of processing equipment. Using an unbalanced factorial design, we were able to propagate combinations of random values assigned to model inputs through different processing steps and ranked statistically significant inputs with respect to their impacts on selected model outputs. Results indicated that whether contamination originated on incoming lettuce heads or on the surface areas of processing equipment, pathogen prevalence among bags of fresh-cut lettuce and batches was most significantly impacted by the level of free chlorine in the flume tank and frequency of replacing the wash water inside the tank. Pathogen levels in bags of fresh-cut lettuce were most significantly influenced by the initial levels of contamination on incoming lettuce heads or surface areas of processing equipment. The influence of surface contamination on pathogen prevalence or levels in fresh-cut bags depended on the location of that surface relative to the flume tank. This study demonstrates that developing a flexible yet mathematically rigorous modeling tool, a "virtual laboratory," can provide valuable insights into the effectiveness of individual and combined risk mitigation options. © 2018 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  19. Frequency of the allelic variant c.1150T > C in exon 10 of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 gene is not increased in patients with pathogenic mutations and related chondrodysplasia phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatiane Yoshie Kanazawa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in the FGFR3 gene cause the phenotypic spectrum of FGFR3 chondrodysplasias ranging from lethal forms to the milder phenotype seen in hypochondroplasia (Hch. The p.N540K mutation in the FGFR3 gene occurs in ~70% of individuals with Hch, and nearly 30% of individuals with the Hch phenotype have no mutations in the FGFR3, which suggests genetic heterogeneity. The identification of a severe case of Hch associated with the typical mutation c.1620C > A and the occurrence of a c.1150T > C change that resulted in a p.F384L in exon 10, together with the suspicion that this second change could be a modulator of the phenotype, prompted us to investigate this hypothesis in a cohort of patients. An analysis of 48 patients with FGFR3 chondrodysplasia phenotypes and 330 healthy (control individuals revealed no significant difference in the frequency of the C allele at the c.1150 position (p = 0.34. One patient carrying the combination `pathogenic mutation plus the allelic variant c.1150T > C' had a typical achondroplasia (Ach phenotype. In addition, three other patients with atypical phenotypes showed no association with the allelic variant. Together, these results do not support the hypothesis of a modulatory role for the c.1150T > C change in the FGFR3 gene.

  20. Biallelic Mutations in TBCD, Encoding the Tubulin Folding Cofactor D, Perturb Microtubule Dynamics and Cause Early-Onset Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flex, Elisabetta; Niceta, Marcello; Cecchetti, Serena; Thiffault, Isabelle; Au, Margaret G; Capuano, Alessandro; Piermarini, Emanuela; Ivanova, Anna A; Francis, Joshua W; Chillemi, Giovanni; Chandramouli, Balasubramanian; Carpentieri, Giovanna; Haaxma, Charlotte A; Ciolfi, Andrea; Pizzi, Simone; Douglas, Ganka V; Levine, Kara; Sferra, Antonella; Dentici, Maria Lisa; Pfundt, Rolph R; Le Pichon, Jean-Baptiste; Farrow, Emily; Baas, Frank; Piemonte, Fiorella; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Graham, John M; Saunders, Carol J; Bertini, Enrico; Kahn, Richard A; Koolen, David A; Tartaglia, Marco

    2016-10-06

    Microtubules are dynamic cytoskeletal elements coordinating and supporting a variety of neuronal processes, including cell division, migration, polarity, intracellular trafficking, and signal transduction. Mutations in genes encoding tubulins and microtubule-associated proteins are known to cause neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Growing evidence suggests that altered microtubule dynamics may also underlie or contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegeneration. We report that biallelic mutations in TBCD, encoding one of the five co-chaperones required for assembly and disassembly of the αβ-tubulin heterodimer, the structural unit of microtubules, cause a disease with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative features characterized by early-onset cortical atrophy, secondary hypomyelination, microcephaly, thin corpus callosum, developmental delay, intellectual disability, seizures, optic atrophy, and spastic quadriplegia. Molecular dynamics simulations predicted long-range and/or local structural perturbations associated with the disease-causing mutations. Biochemical analyses documented variably reduced levels of TBCD, indicating relative instability of mutant proteins, and defective β-tubulin binding in a subset of the tested mutants. Reduced or defective TBCD function resulted in decreased soluble α/β-tubulin levels and accelerated microtubule polymerization in fibroblasts from affected subjects, demonstrating an overall shift toward a more rapidly growing and stable microtubule population. These cells displayed an aberrant mitotic spindle with disorganized, tangle-shaped microtubules and reduced aster formation, which however did not alter appreciably the rate of cell proliferation. Our findings establish that defective TBCD function underlies a recognizable encephalopathy and drives accelerated microtubule polymerization and enhanced microtubule stability, underscoring an additional cause of altered microtubule dynamics with

  1. Dynamic in vivo mutations within the ica operon during persistence of Staphylococcus aureus in the airways of cystic fibrosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Schwartbeck

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is associated with chronic bacterial airway infections leading to lung insufficiency and decreased life expectancy. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent pathogens isolated from the airways of CF patients. Mucoid colony morphology has been described for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the most common pathogen in CF, but not for S. aureus. From the airways of 8 of 313 CF patients (2.5% mucoid S. aureus isolates (n = 115 were cultured with a mean persistence of 29 months (range 1 month, 126 months. In contrast to non-mucoid S. aureus, mucoid isolates were strong biofilm formers. The upstream region of the ica operon, which encodes the proteins responsible for the synthesis of the polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA, of mucoid isolates was sequenced. Spa-types of mucoid and non-mucoid strains were identical, but differed between patients. Mucoid isolates carried a 5 bp deletion in the intergenic region between icaR and icaA. During long-term persistence, from two patients subsequent non-mucoid isolates (n = 12 with 5 bp deletions were cultured, which did not produce biofilm. Sequencing of the entire ica operon identified compensatory mutations in various ica-genes including icaA (n = 7, icaD (n = 3 and icaC (n = 2. Six sequential isolates of each of these two patients with non-mucoid and mucoid phenotypes were subjected to whole genome sequencing revealing a very close relationship of the individual patient's isolates. Transformation of strains with vectors expressing the respective wild-type genes restored mucoidy. In contrast to the non-mucoid phenotype, mucoid strains were protected against neutrophilic killing and survived better under starvation conditions. In conclusion, the special conditions present in CF airways seem to facilitate ongoing mutations in the ica operon during S. aureus persistence.

  2. Use of an optical trap for study of host-pathogen interactions for dynamic live cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Jenny M; Castro, Carlos E; Heath, Robert J W; Mansour, Michael K; Cardenas, Michael L; Xavier, Ramnik J; Lang, Matthew J; Vyas, Jatin M

    2011-07-28

    Dynamic live cell imaging allows direct visualization of real-time interactions between cells of the immune system(1, 2); however, the lack of spatial and temporal control between the phagocytic cell and microbe has rendered focused observations into the initial interactions of host response to pathogens difficult. Historically, intercellular contact events such as phagocytosis(3) have been imaged by mixing two cell types, and then continuously scanning the field-of-view to find serendipitous intercellular contacts at the appropriate stage of interaction. The stochastic nature of these events renders this process tedious, and it is difficult to observe early or fleeting events in cell-cell contact by this approach. This method requires finding cell pairs that are on the verge of contact, and observing them until they consummate their contact, or do not. To address these limitations, we use optical trapping as a non-invasive, non-destructive, but fast and effective method to position cells in culture. Optical traps, or optical tweezers, are increasingly utilized in biological research to capture and physically manipulate cells and other micron-sized particles in three dimensions(4). Radiation pressure was first observed and applied to optical tweezer systems in 1970(5, 6), and was first used to control biological specimens in 1987(7). Since then, optical tweezers have matured into a technology to probe a variety of biological phenomena(8-13). We describe a method(14) that advances live cell imaging by integrating an optical trap with spinning disk confocal microscopy with temperature and humidity control to provide exquisite spatial and temporal control of pathogenic organisms in a physiological environment to facilitate interactions with host cells, as determined by the operator. Live, pathogenic organisms like Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus, which can cause potentially lethal, invasive infections in immunocompromised individuals(15, 16) (e.g. AIDS

  3. Molecular dynamic simulation reveals damaging impact of RAC1 F28L mutation in the switch I region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambuj Kumar

    Full Text Available Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (RAC1 is a plasma membrane-associated small GTPase which cycles between the active GTP-bound and inactive GDP-bound states. There is wide range of evidences indicating its active participation in inducing cancer-associated phenotypes. RAC1 F28L mutation (RAC(F28L is a fast recycling mutation which has been implicated in several cancer associated cases. In this work we have performed molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation (~0.3 μs to investigate the conformational changes occurring in the mutant protein. The RMSD, RMSF and NHbonds results strongly suggested that the loss of native conformation in the Switch I region in RAC1 mutant protein could be the reason behind its oncogenic transformation. The overall results suggested that the mutant protein attained compact conformation as compared to the native. The major impact of mutation was observed in the Switch I region which might be the crucial reason behind the loss of interaction between the guanine ring and F28 residue.

  4. Data of the molecular dynamics simulations of mutations in the human connexin46 docking interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Schadzek

    2016-06-01

    The data described here are related to the research article entitled “The cataract related mutation N188T in human connexin46 (hCx46 revealed a critical role for residue N188 in the docking process of gap junction channels” (Schadzek et al., 2015 [1].

  5. Host-pathogen evolutionary signatures reveal dynamics and future invasions of vampire bat rabies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Streicker, D. G.; Winternitz, Jamie Caroline; Satterfield, D. A.; Condori-Condori, R. E.; Broos, A.; Tello, C.; Recuenco, S.; Velasco-Villa, A.; Altizer, S.; Valderrama, W.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 39 (2016), s. 10926-10931 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Desmodus * zoonotic disease * forecasting * sex bias * spatial dynamics Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 9.661, year: 2016

  6. Understanding the lid movements of LolA in Escherichia coli using molecular dynamics simulation and in silico point mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murahari, Priyadarshini; Anishetty, Sharmila; Pennathur, Gautam

    2013-12-01

    The Lol system in Escherichia coli is involved in localization of lipoproteins and hence is essential for growth of the organism. LolA is a periplasmic chaperone that binds to outer-membrane specific lipoproteins and transports them from inner membrane to outer membrane through LolB. The hydrophobic lipid-binding cavity of LolA consists of α-helices which act as a lid in regulating the transfer of lipoproteins from LolA to LolB. The current study aims to investigate the structural changes observed in LolA during the transition from open to closed conformation in the absence of lipoprotein. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were carried out for two LolA crystal structures; LolA(R43L), and in silico mutated MsL43R for a simulation time of 50 ns in water environment. We have performed an in silico point mutation of leucine to arginine in MsL43R to evaluate the importance of arginine to induce structural changes and impact the stability of protein structure. A complete dynamic analysis of open to closed conformation reveals the existence of two distinct levels; closing of lid and closing of entrance of hydrophobic cavity. Our analysis reveals that the structural flexibility of LolA is an important factor for its role as a periplasmic chaperone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Common pathogenic effects of missense mutations in the P-type ATPase ATP13A2 (PARK9) associated with early-onset parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhajska, Agata; Musso, Alessandra; Trancikova, Alzbeta; Stafa, Klodjan; Moser, Roger; Sonnay, Sarah; Glauser, Liliane; Moore, Darren J

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the ATP13A2 gene (PARK9) cause autosomal recessive, juvenile-onset Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (KRS), a neurodegenerative disease characterized by parkinsonism. KRS mutations produce truncated forms of ATP13A2 with impaired protein stability resulting in a loss-of-function. Recently, homozygous and heterozygous missense mutations in ATP13A2 have been identified in subjects with early-onset parkinsonism. The mechanism(s) by which missense mutations potentially cause parkinsonism are not understood at present. Here, we demonstrate that homozygous F182L, G504R and G877R missense mutations commonly impair the protein stability of ATP13A2 leading to its enhanced degradation by the proteasome. ATP13A2 normally localizes to endosomal and lysosomal membranes in neurons and the F182L and G504R mutations disrupt this vesicular localization and promote the mislocalization of ATP13A2 to the endoplasmic reticulum. Heterozygous T12M, G533R and A746T mutations do not obviously alter protein stability or subcellular localization but instead impair the ATPase activity of microsomal ATP13A2 whereas homozygous missense mutations disrupt the microsomal localization of ATP13A2. The overexpression of ATP13A2 missense mutants in SH-SY5Y neural cells does not compromise cellular viability suggesting that these mutant proteins lack intrinsic toxicity. However, the overexpression of wild-type ATP13A2 may impair neuronal integrity as it causes a trend of reduced neurite outgrowth of primary cortical neurons, whereas the majority of disease-associated missense mutations lack this ability. Finally, ATP13A2 overexpression sensitizes cortical neurons to neurite shortening induced by exposure to cadmium or nickel ions, supporting a functional interaction between ATP13A2 and heavy metals in post-mitotic neurons, whereas missense mutations influence this sensitizing effect. Collectively, our study provides support for common loss-of-function effects of homozygous and heterozygous missense

  8. Co-infection dynamics of a major food-borne zoonotic pathogen in chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skanseng, Beate; Trosvik, Pal; Zimonja, Monika

    2007-01-01

    , with an important reservoir in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of chickens, was used as a model. We investigated the co-colonisation dynamics of seven C. jejuni strains in a chicken GI infection trial. The seven strains were isolated from an epidemiological study showing multiple strain infections at the farm level....... We analysed time-series data, following the Campylobacter colonisation, as well as the dominant background flora of chickens. Data were collected from the infection at day 16 until the last sampling point at day 36. Chickens with two different background floras were studied, mature ( treated...... with Broilact, which is a product consisting of bacteria from the intestinal flora of healthy hens) and spontaneous. The two treatments resulted in completely different background floras, yet similar Campylobacter colonisation patterns were detected in both groups. This suggests that it is the chicken host...

  9. Identification of a novel PMS2 alteration c.505C>G (R169G) in trans with a PMS2 pathogenic mutation in a patient with constitutional mismatch repair deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, Maureen E; Borras, Ester; Taggart, Melissa W; Cuddy, Amanda; Bannon, Sarah A; You, Y Nancy; Lynch, Patrick M; Ramirez, Pedro T; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A; Vilar, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome (CMMRD) is a rare autosomal recessive predisposition to colorectal polyposis and other malignancies, often childhood-onset, that is caused by biallelic inheritance of mutations in the same mismatch repair gene. Here, we describe a patient with a clinical diagnosis of CMMRD based on colorectal polyposis and young-onset endometrial cancer who was identified to have two alterations in trans in PMS2: one known pathogenic mutation (c.1831insA; p.Ile611Asnfs*2) and one novel variant of uncertain significance (c.505C>G; p.Arg169Glu), a missense alteration. We describe the clinical and molecular features in the patient harboring this novel alteration c.505C>G, who meets clinical criteria for CMMRD and exhibits molecular evidence supporting a diagnosis of CMMRD. Although experimental validation is needed to confirm its pathogenicity, PMS2 c.505C>G likely has functional consequences that contributes to our patient's phenotype based on the patient's clinical presentation, tumor studies, and bioinformatics analysis.

  10. Insights into the binding specificity of wild type and mutated wheat germ agglutinin towards Neu5Acα(2-3)Gal: a study by in silico mutations and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuraman, Ponnusamy; Murugan, Veeramani; Selvin, Jeyasigamani F A; Gromiha, M Michael; Fukui, Kazuhiko; Veluraja, Kasinadar

    2014-08-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is a plant lectin, which specifically recognizes the sugars NeuNAc and GlcNAc. Mutated WGA with enhanced binding specificity can be used as biomarkers for cancer. In silico mutations are performed at the active site of WGA to enhance the binding specificity towards sialylglycans, and molecular dynamics simulations of 20 ns are carried out for wild type and mutated WGAs (WGA1, WGA2, and WGA3) in complex with sialylgalactose to examine the change in binding specificity. MD simulations reveal the change in binding specificity of wild type and mutated WGAs towards sialylgalactose and bound conformational flexibility of sialylgalactose. The mutated polar amino acid residues Asn114 (S114N), Lys118 (G118K), and Arg118 (G118R) make direct and water mediated hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions with sialylgalactose. An analysis of possible hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, total pair wise interaction energy between active site residues and sialylgalactose and MM-PBSA free energy calculation reveals the plausible binding modes and the role of water in stabilizing different binding modes. An interesting observation is that the binding specificity of mutated WGAs (cyborg lectin) towards sialylgalactose is found to be higher in double point mutation (WGA3). One of the substituted residues Arg118 plays a crucial role in sugar binding. Based on the interactions and energy calculations, it is concluded that the order of binding specificity of WGAs towards sialylgalactose is WGA3 > WGA1 > WGA2 > WGA. On comparing with the wild type, double point mutated WGA (WGA3) exhibits increased specificity towards sialylgalactose, and thus, it can be effectively used in targeted drug delivery and as biological cell marker in cancer therapeutics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. DMPD: Pathogen-induced apoptosis of macrophages: a common end for different pathogenicstrategies. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11207583 Pathogen-induced apoptosis of macrophages: a common end for different path...ml) Show Pathogen-induced apoptosis of macrophages: a common end for different pathogenicstrategies. PubmedI...D 11207583 Title Pathogen-induced apoptosis of macrophages: a common end for diff

  12. DMPD: Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll-likereceptors. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17275324 Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll... Show Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface Toll-likereceptors. PubmedID 172...75324 Title Innate immune sensing of pathogens and danger signals by cell surface

  13. Rac1 dynamics in the human opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Vauchelles

    Full Text Available The small Rho G-protein Rac1 is highly conserved from fungi to humans, with approximately 65% overall sequence identity in Candida albicans. As observed with human Rac1, we show that C. albicans Rac1 can accumulate in the nucleus, and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP together with fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP studies indicate that this Rho G-protein undergoes nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling. Analyses of different chimeras revealed that nuclear accumulation of C. albicans Rac1 requires the NLS-motifs at its carboxyl-terminus, which are blocked by prenylation of the adjacent cysteine residue. Furthermore, we show that C. albicans Rac1 dynamics, both at the plasma membrane and in the nucleus, are dependent on its activation state and in particular that the inactive form accumulates faster in the nucleus. Heterologous expression of human Rac1 in C. albicans also results in nuclear accumulation, yet accumulation is more rapid than that of C. albicans Rac1. Taken together our results indicate that Rac1 nuclear accumulation is an inherent property of this G-protein and suggest that the requirements for its nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling are conserved from fungi to humans.

  14. PointFinder: a novel web tool for WGS-based detection of antimicrobial resistance associated with chromosomal point mutations in bacterial pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zankari, Ea; Allesøe, Rosa Lundbye; Joensen, Katrine Grimstrup

    2017-01-01

    enterica, Escherichia coli and Campylobacter jejuni. The web-server ResFinder-2.1 was used to identify acquired antimicrobial resistance genes and two methods, the novel PointFinder (using BLAST) and an in-house method (mapping of raw WGS reads), were used to identify chromosomal point mutations. Results...... or when mapping the reads. Conclusions PointFinder proved, with high concordance between phenotypic and predicted antimicrobial susceptibility, to be a user-friendly web tool for detection of chromosomal point mutations associated with antimicrobial resistance....

  15. Clinical, in silico, and experimental evidence for pathogenicity of two novel splice site mutations in the SH3TC2 gene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laššuthová, P.; Gregor, Martin; Sarnová, Lenka; Machalová, Eliška; Sedláček, Radislav; Seeman, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 26, 3-4 (2012), s. 413-420 ISSN 0167-7063 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/10/2044 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : exon trapping * peripheral neuropathy * SH3TC2 gene * splice site mutation Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.159, year: 2012

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of site point mutations in the TPR domain of cyclophilin 40 identify conformational states with distinct dynamic and enzymatic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Mert; Blackburn, Elizabeth A.; Ning, Jia; Narayan, Vikram; Ball, Kathryn L.; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D.; Erman, Burak

    2018-04-01

    Cyclophilin 40 (Cyp40) is a member of the immunophilin family that acts as a peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase enzyme and binds to the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90). Its structure comprises an N-terminal cyclophilin domain and a C-terminal tetratricopeptide (TPR) domain. Cyp40 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and certain T-cell lymphomas. The groove for Hsp90 binding on the TPR domain includes residues Lys227 and Lys308, referred to as the carboxylate clamp, and is essential for Cyp40-Hsp90 binding. In this study, the effect of two mutations, K227A and K308A, and their combinative mutant was investigated by performing a total of 5.76 μs of all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit solvent. All simulations, except the K308A mutant, were found to adopt two distinct (extended or compact) conformers defined by different cyclophilin-TPR interdomain distances. The K308A mutant was only observed in the extended form which is observed in the Cyp40 X-ray structure. The wild-type, K227A, and combined mutant also showed bimodal distributions. The experimental melting temperature, Tm, values of the mutants correlate with the degree of compactness with the K308A extended mutant having a marginally lower melting temperature. Another novel measure of compactness determined from the MD data, the "coordination shell volume," also shows a direct correlation with Tm. In addition, the MD simulations show an allosteric effect with the mutations in the remote TPR domain having a pronounced effect on the molecular motions of the enzymatic cyclophilin domain which helps rationalise the experimentally observed increase in enzyme activity measured for all three mutations.

  17. In silico characterization of a novel pathogenic deletion mutation identified in XPA gene in a Pakistani family with severe xeroderma pigmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nafees; Sieber, Christian M K; Latif, Amir; Malik, Salman Akbar; Hameed, Abdul

    2013-09-24

    Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) is a rare skin disorder characterized by skin hypersensitivity to sunlight and abnormal pigmentation. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic cause of a severe XP phenotype in a consanguineous Pakistani family and in silico characterization of any identified disease-associated mutation. The XP complementation group was assigned by genotyping of family for known XP loci. Genotyping data mapped the family to complementation group A locus, involving XPA gene. Mutation analysis of the candidate XP gene by DNA sequencing revealed a novel deletion mutation (c.654del A) in exon 5 of XPA gene. The c.654del A, causes frameshift, which pre-maturely terminates protein and result into a truncated product of 222 amino acid (aa) residues instead of 273 (p.Lys218AsnfsX5). In silico tools were applied to study the likelihood of changes in structural motifs and thus interaction of mutated protein with binding partners. In silico analysis of mutant protein sequence, predicted to affect the aa residue which attains coiled coil structure. The coiled coil structure has an important role in key cellular interactions, especially with DNA damage-binding protein 2 (DDB2), which has important role in DDB-mediated nucleotide excision repair (NER) system. Our findings support the fact of genetic and clinical heterogeneity in XP. The study also predicts the critical role of DDB2 binding region of XPA protein in NER pathway and opens an avenue for further research to study the functional role of the mutated protein domain.

  18. Insulin gene mutations resulting in early-onset diabetes: marked differences in clinical presentation, metabolic status, and pathogenic effect through endoplasmic reticulum retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meur, Gargi; Simon, Albane; Harun, Nasret

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Heterozygous mutations in the human preproinsulin (INS) gene are a cause of nonsyndromic neonatal or early-infancy diabetes. Here, we sought to identify INS mutations associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) or nonautoimmune diabetes in mid-adult life, and to explore...... the molecular mechanisms involved. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The INS gene was sequenced in 16 French probands with unexplained MODY, 95 patients with nonautoimmune early-onset diabetes (diagnosed at ... with early-onset diabetes whose clinical presentation is compatible with MODY. These led to the production of (pre)proinsulin molecules with markedly different trafficking properties and effects on ER stress, demonstrating a range of molecular defects in the beta-cell....

  19. Structural Studies of a Rationally Selected Multi-Drug Resistant HIV-1 Protease Reveal Synergistic Effect of Distal Mutations on Flap Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agniswamy, Johnson; Louis, John M.; Roche, Julien; Harrison, Robert W.; Weber, Irene T. (GSU); (NIH); (Iowa State)

    2016-12-16

    We report structural analysis of HIV protease variant PRS17 which was rationally selected by machine learning to represent wide classes of highly drug-resistant variants. Crystal structures were solved of PRS17 in the inhibitor-free form and in complex with antiviral inhibitor, darunavir. Despite its 17 mutations, PRS17 has only one mutation (V82S) in the inhibitor/substrate binding cavity, yet exhibits high resistance to all clinical inhibitors. PRS17 has none of the major mutations (I47V, I50V, I54ML, L76V and I84V) associated with darunavir resistance, but has 10,000-fold weaker binding affinity relative to the wild type PR. Comparable binding affinity of 8000-fold weaker than PR is seen for drug resistant mutant PR20, which bears 3 mutations associated with major resistance to darunavir (I47V, I54L and I84V). Inhibitor-free PRS17 shows an open flap conformation with a curled tip correlating with G48V flap mutation. NMR studies on inactive PRS17 D25N unambiguously confirm that the flaps adopt mainly an open conformation in solution very similar to that in the inhibitor-free crystal structure. In PRS17, the hinge loop cluster of mutations, E35D, M36I and S37D, contributes to the altered flap dynamics by a mechanism similar to that of PR20. An additional K20R mutation anchors an altered conformation of the hinge loop. Flap mutations M46L and G48V in PRS17/DRV complex alter the Phe53 conformation by steric hindrance between the side chains. Unlike the L10F mutation in PR20, L10I in PRS17 does not break the inter-subunit ion pair or diminish the dimer stability, consistent with a very low dimer dissociation constant comparable to that of wild type PR. Distal mutations A71V, L90M and I93L propagate alterations to the catalytic site of PRS17. PRS17 exhibits a molecular mechanism whereby mutations act synergistically to alter the flap dynamics resulting in significantly weaker binding yet maintaining active site contacts with darunavir.

  20. Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT) deficiency: two pathogenic mutations, V133E and C456F, in Japanese siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, X Q; Fukao, T; Watanabe, H; Shintaku, H; Hirayama, K; Kassovska-Bratinova, S; Kondo, N; Mitchell, G A

    1998-01-01

    Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid CoA transferase (SCOT; EC 2.8.3.5; locus symbol OXCT) is the key enzyme of ketone body utilization. Hereditary SCOT deficiency (MIM 245050) causes episodes of severe ketoacidosis. We developed a transient expression system for mutant SCOT cDNAs, using immortalized SCOT-deficient fibroblasts. This paper describes and characterizes three missense mutations in two SCOT-deficient siblings from Japan. They are genetic compounds who inherited the mutation C456F (c1367 G-->T) from their mother. Their paternal allele contains two mutations in cis, T58M (c173 C-->T) and V133E (c398T-->A). Expression of SCOT cDNAs containing either V133E or C456F produces no detectable SCOT activity, whereas T58M is functionally neutral. T58M is a rare sequence variant not detected in 100 control Japanese alleles. In fibroblasts from the proband (GS02), in whom immunoblot demonstrated no detectable SCOT peptide, we measured an apparent residual SCOT activity of 20-35%. We hypothesize that the high residual SCOT activity in homogenates may be an artifact caused by use of the substrate, acetoacetyl-CoA by other enzymes. Expression of mutant SCOT cDNAs more accurately reflects the residual activity of SCOT than do currently available assays in cell or tissue homogenates.

  1. A mathematical modelling framework for linked within-host and between-host dynamics for infections with free-living pathogens in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garira, Winston; Mathebula, Dephney; Netshikweta, Rendani

    2014-10-01

    In this study we develop a mathematical modelling framework for linking the within-host and between-host dynamics of infections with free-living pathogens in the environment. The resulting linked models are sometimes called immuno-epidemiological models. However, there is still no generalised framework for linking the within-host and between-host dynamics of infectious diseases. Furthermore, for infections with free-living pathogens in the environment, there is an additional stumbling block in that there is a gap in knowledge on how environmental factors (through water, air, soil, food, fomites, etc.) alter many aspects of such infections including susceptibility to infective dose, persistence of infection, pathogen shedding and severity of the disease. In this work, we link the two subsystems (within-host and between-host models) by identifying the within-host and between-host variables and parameters associated with the environmental dynamics of the pathogen and then design a feedback of the variables and parameters across the within-host and between-host models using human schistosomiasis as a case study. We study the mathematical properties of the linked model and show that the model is epidemiologically well-posed. Using results from the analysis of the endemic equilibrium expression, the disease reproductive number R0, and numerical simulations of the full model, we adequately account for the reciprocal influence of the linked within-host and between-host models. In particular, we illustrate that for human schistosomiasis, the outcome of infection at the individual level determines if, when and how much the individual host will further transmit the infectious agent into the environment, eventually affecting the spread of the infection in the host population. We expect the conceptual modelling framework developed here to be applicable to many infectious disease with free-living pathogens in the environment beyond the specific disease system of human

  2. Host plant development, water level and water parameters shape Phragmites australis-associated oomycete communities and determine reed pathogen dynamics in a large lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wielgoss, Anna; Nechwatal, Jan; Bogs, Carolin; Mendgen, Kurt

    2009-08-01

    In a 3-year-study, we analysed the population dynamics of the reed pathogen Pythium phragmitis and other reed-associated oomycetes colonizing fresh and dried reed leaves in the littoral zone of a large lake. Oomycete communities derived from internal transcribed spacer clone libraries were clearly differentiated according to substrate and seasonal influences. In fresh leaves, diverse communities consisting of P. phragmitis and other reed-associated pathogens were generally dominant. Pythium phragmitis populations peaked in spring with the emergence of young reed shoots, and in autumn after extreme flooding events. In summer it decreased with falling water levels, changing water chemistry and rising temperatures. Another Pythium species was also highly abundant in fresh leaves throughout the year and might represent a new, as-yet uncultured reed pathogen. In dried leaves, reed pathogens were rarely detected, whereas saprophytic species occurred abundantly during all seasons. Saprophyte communities were less diverse, less temperature sensitive and independent of reed development. In general, our results provide evidence for the occurrence of highly specialized sets of reed-associated oomycetes in a natural reed ecosystem. Quantitative analyses (clone abundances and quantitative real-time PCR) revealed that the reed pathogen P. phragmitis is particularly affected by changing water levels, water chemistry and the stage of reed development.

  3. Trafficking Dynamics of PCSK9-Induced LDLR Degradation: Focus on Human PCSK9 Mutations and C-Terminal Domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Poirier

    Full Text Available PCSK9 is a secreted ligand and negative post-translational regulator of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR in hepatocytes. Gain-of-function (GOF or loss-of-function (LOF mutations in PCSK9 are directly correlated with high or low plasma LDL-cholesterol levels, respectively. Therefore, PCSK9 is a prevailing lipid-lowering target to prevent coronary heart diseases and stroke. Herein, we fused monomeric fluorescent proteins to PCSK9 and LDLR to visualize their intra- and extracellular trafficking dynamics by live confocal microscopy. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP showed that PCSK9 LOF R46L mutant and GOF mutations S127R and D129G, but not the LDLR high-affinity mutant D374Y, significantly accelerate PCSK9 exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Quantitative analysis of inverse FRAP revealed that only R46L presented a much slower trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN to the plasma membrane and a lower mobile fraction likely suggesting accumulation or delayed exit at the TGN as an underlying mechanism. While not primarily involved in LDLR binding, PCSK9 C-terminal domain (CTD was found to be essential to induce LDLR degradation both upon its overexpression in cells or via the extracellular pathway. Our data revealed that PCSK9 CTD is required for the localization of PCSK9 at the TGN and increases its LDLR-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, intracellular lysosomal targeting of PCSK9-ΔCTD was able to rescue its capacity to induce LDLR degradation emphasizing a role of the CTD in the sorting of PCSK9-LDLR complex towards late endocytic compartments. Finally, we validated our dual fluorescence system as a cell based-assay by preventing PCSK9 internalization using a PCSK9-LDLR blocking antibody, which may be expended to identify protein, peptide or small molecule inhibitors of PCSK9.

  4. Investigating the structural impacts of I64T and P311S mutations in APE1-DNA complex: a molecular dynamics approach.

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    C George Priya Doss

    Full Text Available Elucidating the molecular dynamic behavior of Protein-DNA complex upon mutation is crucial in current genomics. Molecular dynamics approach reveals the changes on incorporation of variants that dictate the structure and function of Protein-DNA complexes. Deleterious mutations in APE1 protein modify the physicochemical property of amino acids that affect the protein stability and dynamic behavior. Further, these mutations disrupt the binding sites and prohibit the protein to form complexes with its interacting DNA.In this study, we developed a rapid and cost-effective method to analyze variants in APE1 gene that are associated with disease susceptibility and evaluated their impacts on APE1-DNA complex dynamic behavior. Initially, two different in silico approaches were used to identify deleterious variants in APE1 gene. Deleterious scores that overlap in these approaches were taken in concern and based on it, two nsSNPs with IDs rs61730854 (I64T and rs1803120 (P311S were taken further for structural analysis.Different parameters such as RMSD, RMSF, salt bridge, H-bonds and SASA applied in Molecular dynamic study reveals that predicted deleterious variants I64T and P311S alters the structure as well as affect the stability of APE1-DNA interacting functions. This study addresses such new methods for validating functional polymorphisms of human APE1 which is critically involved in causing deficit in repair capacity, which in turn leads to genetic instability and carcinogenesis.

  5. Effect of Neuraminidase Inhibitor–Resistant Mutations on Pathogenicity of Clade 2.2 A/Turkey/15/06 (H5N1) Influenza Virus in Ferrets

    OpenAIRE

    Ilyushina, Natalia A.; Seiler, Jon P.; Rehg, Jerold E.; Webster, Robert G.; Govorkova, Elena A.

    2010-01-01

    The acquisition of neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor resistance by H5N1 influenza viruses has serious clinical implications, as this class of drugs can be an essential component of pandemic control measures. The continuous evolution of the highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses results in the emergence of natural NA gene variations whose impact on viral fitness and NA inhibitor susceptibility are poorly defined. We generated seven genetically stable recombinant clade 2.2 A/Turkey/15/06-like (H5N...

  6. The role of compensatory mutations in the emergence of drug resistance.

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    Andreas Handel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Pathogens that evolve resistance to drugs usually have reduced fitness. However, mutations that largely compensate for this reduction in fitness often arise. We investigate how these compensatory mutations affect population-wide resistance emergence as a function of drug treatment. Using a model of gonorrhea transmission dynamics, we obtain generally applicable, qualitative results that show how compensatory mutations lead to more likely and faster resistance emergence. We further show that resistance emergence depends on the level of drug use in a strongly nonlinear fashion. We also discuss what data need to be obtained to allow future quantitative predictions of resistance emergence.

  7. Environmental parameters influence on the dynamics of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus densities in Crassostrea virginica harvested from Mexico’s Gulf coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Hernández, Karla M.; Pardío-Sedas, Violeta T.; Lizárraga-Partida, Leonardo; Williams, José de J.; Martínez-Herrera, David; Flores-Primo, Argel; Uscanga-Serrano, Roxana; Rendón-Castro, Karla

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • V. parahaemolyticus densities in oysters were isolated in spring and winter seasons. • Pathogenic genes abundances varied with environmental parameters seasonal changes. • Water temperature modulated V. parahaemolyticus abundance during reduced salinities. • V. parahaemolyticus with potentially pathogenic genes raises important health issues. - Abstract: The influence of environmental parameters on the total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus seasonal densities in American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) was evaluated for 1 year. Harvesting site A yielded the highest mean densities of V. parahaemolyticus tlh+, tdh+/trh−, tdh−/trh+ and tdh+/trh+ during spring season at 2.57, 1.74, 0.36, and −0.40 log 10 MPN/g, respectively, and tdh+/orf8+ during winter season (0.90 log 10 MPN/g). V. parahaemolyticus tlh+ densities were associated to salinity (R 2 = 0.372, P < 0.022), tdh+/trh+ to turbidity (R 2 = 0.597, P < 0.035), and orf8+ to temperature, salinity, and pH (R 2 = 0.964, P < 0.001). The exposure to salinity and temperature conditions during winter and spring seasons regulated the dynamics of V. parahaemolyticus harboring potentially pathogenic genotypes within the oyster. The adaptive response of V. parahaemolyticus to seasonal environmental changes may lead to an increase in survival and virulence, threatening the seafood safety and increasing the risk of illness

  8. Scaling up complexity in host-pathogens interaction models. Comment on "Coupled disease-behavior dynamics on complex networks: A review" by Z. Wang et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Maíra

    2015-12-01

    Caused by micro-organisms that are pathogenic to the host, infectious diseases have caused debilitation and premature death to large portions of the human population, leading to serious social-economic concerns. The persistence and increase in the occurrence of infectious diseases as well the emergence or resurgence of vector-borne diseases are closely related with demographic factors such as the uncontrolled urbanization and remarkable population growth, political, social and economical changes, deforestation, development of resistance to insecticides and drugs and increased human travel. In recent years, mathematical modeling became an important tool for the understanding of infectious disease epidemiology and dynamics, addressing ideas about the components of host-pathogen interactions. Acting as a possible tool to understand, predict the spread of infectious diseases these models are also used to evaluate the introduction of intervention strategies like vector control and vaccination. Many scientific papers have been published recently on these topics, and most of the models developed try to incorporate factors focusing on several different aspects of the disease (and eventually biological aspects of the vector), which can imply rich dynamic behavior even in the most basic dynamical models. As one example to be cited, there is a minimalistic dengue model that has shown rich dynamic structures, with bifurcations (Hopf, pitchfork, torus and tangent bifurcations) up to chaotic attractors in unexpected parameter regions [1,2], which was able to describe the large fluctuations observed in empirical outbreak data [3,4].

  9. Timing of pathogen adaptation to a multicomponent treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Bourget

    Full Text Available The sustainable use of multicomponent treatments such as combination therapies, combination vaccines/chemicals, and plants carrying multigenic resistance requires an understanding of how their population-wide deployment affects the speed of the pathogen adaptation. Here, we develop a stochastic model describing the emergence of a mutant pathogen and its dynamics in a heterogeneous host population split into various types by the management strategy. Based on a multi-type Markov birth and death process, the model can be used to provide a basic understanding of how the life-cycle parameters of the pathogen population, and the controllable parameters of a management strategy affect the speed at which a pathogen adapts to a multicomponent treatment. Our results reveal the importance of coupling stochastic mutation and migration processes, and illustrate how their stochasticity can alter our view of the principles of managing pathogen adaptive dynamics at the population level. In particular, we identify the growth and migration rates that allow pathogens to adapt to a multicomponent treatment even if it is deployed on only small proportions of the host. In contrast to the accepted view, our model suggests that treatment durability should not systematically be identified with mutation cost. We show also that associating a multicomponent treatment with defeated monocomponent treatments can be more durable than associating it with intermediate treatments including only some of the components. We conclude that the explicit modelling of stochastic processes underlying evolutionary dynamics could help to elucidate the principles of the sustainable use of multicomponent treatments in population-wide management strategies intended to impede the evolution of harmful populations.

  10. Mutations in Human Tubulin Proximal to the Kinesin-Binding Site Alter Dynamic Instability at Microtubule Plus- and Minus-Ends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ti, Shih-Chieh; Pamula, Melissa C.; Howes, Stuart C.; Duellberg, Christian; Cade, Nicholas I.; Kleiner, Ralph E.; Forth, Scott; Surrey, Thomas; Nogales, Eva; Kapoor, Tarun M.

    2016-04-01

    The assembly of microtubule-based cellular structures depends on regulated tubulin polymerization and directional transport. In this research, we have purified and characterized tubulin heterodimers that have human β-tubulin isotype III (TUBB3), as well as heterodimers with one of two β-tubulin mutations (D417H or R262H). Both point mutations are proximal to the kinesin-binding site and have been linked to an ocular motility disorder in humans. Compared to wild-type, microtubules with these mutations have decreased catastrophe frequencies and increased average lifetimes of plus- and minus-end-stabilizing caps. Importantly, the D417H mutation does not alter microtubule lattice structure or Mal3 binding to growing filaments. Instead, this mutation reduces the affinity of tubulin for TOG domains and colchicine, suggesting that the distribution of tubulin heterodimer conformations is changed. Together, our findings reveal how residues on the surface of microtubules, distal from the GTP-hydrolysis site and inter-subunit contacts, can alter polymerization dynamics at the plus- and minus-ends of microtubules.

  11. Structural and dynamic characterization of the C313Y mutation in Myostatin dimeric protein, responsible for the double muscle phenotype in Piedmontese cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia eBongiorno

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the molecular effects of the C313Y mutation, responsible for the double muscle phenotype in Piedmontese cattle, can help understanding the actual mechanism of phenotype determination and paves the route for a better modulation of the positive effects of this economic important phenotype in the beef industry, while minimizing the negative side effects, now inevitably intersected.The structure and dynamic behaviour of the active dimeric form of Myostatin in cattle was analyzed by means of three state-of-the-art Molecular Dynamics simulations, 200-ns long, of wild-type and C313Y mutants. Our results highlight a role for the conserved Arg333 in establishing a network of short and long range interactions between the two monomers in the wild-type protein that is destroyed upon the C313Y mutation even in a single monomer. Furthermore, the native protein shows an asymmetry in residue fluctuation that is absent in the double monomer mutant. Time window analysis on further 200-ns of simulation demonstrates that this is a characteristic behaviour of the protein, likely depended from the long range communications between monomers. The same behaviour, in fact, has already been observed in other mutated dimers. Finally, the mutation does not produce alterations in the secondary structure elements that compose the characteristic TGF-β cystine-knot motif.

  12. NATURAL MUTATION IN THE GENE OF RESPONSE REGULATOR BgrR RESULTING IN REPRESSION OF Bac PROTEIN SYNTHESIS, A PATHOGENICITY FACTOR OF STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Rozhdestvenskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Streptococcus agalactiae can cause variety of diseases of newborns and adults. For successful colonization of different human tissues and organs as well as for suppression of the host immune system S. agalactiae expresses numerous virulence factors. For coordinated expression of the virulence genes S. agalactiae employs regulatory molecules including regulatory proteins of two-component systems. Results of the present study demonstrated that in S. agalactiae strain A49V the natural mutation in the brgR gene encoding for BgrR regulatory protein, which is component of regulatory system BgrRS, resulted in the repression of Bac protein synthesis, a virulence factor of S. agalactiae. A single nucleotide deletion in the bgrR gene has caused a shift of the reading frame and the changes in the primary, secondary and tertiary structures of the BgrR protein. The loss of functional activity of BgrR protein in A49V strain and repression of Bac protein synthesis have increased virulence of the strain in experimental animal streptococcal infection.

  13. Molecular dynamics of mesophilic-like mutants of a cold-adapted enzyme: insights into distal effects induced by the mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Papaleo

    Full Text Available Networks and clusters of intramolecular interactions, as well as their "communication" across the three-dimensional architecture have a prominent role in determining protein stability and function. Special attention has been dedicated to their role in thermal adaptation. In the present contribution, seven previously experimentally characterized mutants of a cold-adapted α-amylase, featuring mesophilic-like behavior, have been investigated by multiple molecular dynamics simulations, essential dynamics and analyses of correlated motions and electrostatic interactions. Our data elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the ability of single and multiple mutations to globally modulate dynamic properties of the cold-adapted α-amylase, including both local and complex unpredictable distal effects. Our investigation also shows, in agreement with the experimental data, that the conversion of the cold-adapted enzyme in a warm-adapted variant cannot be completely achieved by the introduction of few mutations, also providing the rationale behind these effects. Moreover, pivotal residues, which are likely to mediate the effects induced by the mutations, have been identified from our analyses, as well as a group of suitable candidates for protein engineering. In fact, a subset of residues here identified (as an isoleucine, or networks of mesophilic-like salt bridges in the proximity of the catalytic site should be considered, in experimental studies, to get a more efficient modification of the features of the cold-adapted enzyme.

  14. Stress and sexual reproduction affect the dynamics of the wheat pathogen effector AvrStb6 and strobilurin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kema, Gerrit H.J.; Mirzadi Gohari, Amir; Aouini, Lamia; Gibriel, Hesham A.Y.; Ware, Sarah B.; Den Bosch, van Frank; Manning-Smith, Robbie; Alonso-Chavez, Vasthi; Helps, Joe; M’Barek, Ben Sarrah; Mehrabi, Rahim; Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Zamani, Elham; Schouten, Henk J.; Lee, van der Theo A.J.; Waalwijk, Cees; Waard, de Maarten A.; Wit, de Pierre J.G.M.; Verstappen, Els C.P.; Thomma, Bart P.H.J.; Meijer, Harold J.G.; Seidl, Michael F.

    2018-01-01

    Host resistance and fungicide treatments are cornerstones of plant-disease control. Here, we show that these treatments allow sex and modulate parenthood in the fungal wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. We demonstrate that the Z. tritici–wheat interaction complies with the gene-for-gene model by

  15. Gene expression profiling during asexual development of the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans reveals a highly dynamic transcriptome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judelson, H.S.; Ah-Fong, A.M.V.; Aux, G.; Avrova, A.O.; Bruce, C.; Cakir, C.; Cunha, da L.; Grenville-Briggs, L.; Latijnhouwers, M.; Ligterink, W.; Meijer, H.J.G.; Roberts, S.; Thurber, C.S.; Whisson, S.C.; Birch, P.R.J.; Govers, F.; Kamoun, S.; West, van P.; Windass, J.

    2008-01-01

    Much of the pathogenic success of Phytophthora infestans, the potato and tomato late blight agent, relies on its ability to generate from mycelia large amounts of sporangia, which release zoospores that encyst and form infection structures. To better understand these stages, Affymetrix GeneChips

  16. Resequencing of the Phytophthora ramorum genome to characterize genetic variation and population dynamics of the invasive pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Yuzon; David M. Rizzo; Mathu Malar C; Sucheta Tripathy; Takao Kasuga

    2017-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum has spread and diversified throughout California’s northwestern coast since its introduction in the 1990s. Tracking the spread of P. ramorum and the functional response of the pathogen to the environment is of particular interest to managing the epidemic. Using genetic tools such as microsatellite...

  17. A coarse-grained elastic network atom contact model and its use in the simulation of protein dynamics and the prediction of the effect of mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Frappier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal mode analysis (NMA methods are widely used to study dynamic aspects of protein structures. Two critical components of NMA methods are coarse-graining in the level of simplification used to represent protein structures and the choice of potential energy functional form. There is a trade-off between speed and accuracy in different choices. In one extreme one finds accurate but slow molecular-dynamics based methods with all-atom representations and detailed atom potentials. On the other extreme, fast elastic network model (ENM methods with Cα-only representations and simplified potentials that based on geometry alone, thus oblivious to protein sequence. Here we present ENCoM, an Elastic Network Contact Model that employs a potential energy function that includes a pairwise atom-type non-bonded interaction term and thus makes it possible to consider the effect of the specific nature of amino-acids on dynamics within the context of NMA. ENCoM is as fast as existing ENM methods and outperforms such methods in the generation of conformational ensembles. Here we introduce a new application for NMA methods with the use of ENCoM in the prediction of the effect of mutations on protein stability. While existing methods are based on machine learning or enthalpic considerations, the use of ENCoM, based on vibrational normal modes, is based on entropic considerations. This represents a novel area of application for NMA methods and a novel approach for the prediction of the effect of mutations. We compare ENCoM to a large number of methods in terms of accuracy and self-consistency. We show that the accuracy of ENCoM is comparable to that of the best existing methods. We show that existing methods are biased towards the prediction of destabilizing mutations and that ENCoM is less biased at predicting stabilizing mutations.

  18. Use of wavelet-packet transforms to develop an engineering model for multifractal characterization of mutation dynamics in pathological and nonpathological gene sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David Lee

    1999-12-01

    This study uses dynamical analysis to examine in a quantitative fashion the information coding mechanism in DNA sequences. This exceeds the simple dichotomy of either modeling the mechanism by comparing DNA sequence walks as Fractal Brownian Motion (fbm) processes. The 2-D mappings of the DNA sequences for this research are from Iterated Function System (IFS) (Also known as the ``Chaos Game Representation'' (CGR)) mappings of the DNA sequences. This technique converts a 1-D sequence into a 2-D representation that preserves subsequence structure and provides a visual representation. The second step of this analysis involves the application of Wavelet Packet Transforms, a recently developed technique from the field of signal processing. A multi-fractal model is built by using wavelet transforms to estimate the Hurst exponent, H. The Hurst exponent is a non-parametric measurement of the dynamism of a system. This procedure is used to evaluate gene- coding events in the DNA sequence of cystic fibrosis mutations. The H exponent is calculated for various mutation sites in this gene. The results of this study indicate the presence of anti-persistent, random walks and persistent ``sub-periods'' in the sequence. This indicates the hypothesis of a multi-fractal model of DNA information encoding warrants further consideration. This work examines the model's behavior in both pathological (mutations) and non-pathological (healthy) base pair sequences of the cystic fibrosis gene. These mutations both natural and synthetic were introduced by computer manipulation of the original base pair text files. The results show that disease severity and system ``information dynamics'' correlate. These results have implications for genetic engineering as well as in mathematical biology. They suggest that there is scope for more multi-fractal models to be developed.

  19. Evolution of microbial pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Morschhäuser, J; Köhler, G; Ziebuhr, W; Blum-Oehler, G; Dobrindt, U; Hacker, J

    2000-01-01

    Various genetic mechanisms including point mutations, genetic rearrangements and lateral gene transfer processes contribute to the evolution of microbes. Long-term processes leading to the development of new species or subspecies are termed macroevolution, and short-term developments, which occur during days or weeks, are considered as microevolution. Both processes, macro- and microevolution need horizontal gene transfer, which is particularly important for the development of pathogenic micr...

  20. Mutational Analysis on Membrane Associated Transporter Protein (MATP) and Their Structural Consequences in Oculocutaeous Albinism Type 4 (OCA4)-A Molecular Dynamics Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Balu; Purohit, Rituraj

    2016-11-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism type IV (OCA4) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder which is characterized by reduced biosynthesis of melanin pigmentation in skin, hair, and eyes and caused by the genetic mutations in the membrane-associated transporter protein (MATP) encoded by SLC45A2 gene. The MATP protein consists of 530 amino acids which contains 12 putative transmembrane domains and plays an important role in pigmentation and probably functions as a membrane transporter in melanosomes. We scrutinized the most OCA4 disease-associated mutation and their structural consequences on SLC45A2 gene. To understand the atomic arrangement in 3D space, the native and mutant structures were modeled. Further the structural behavior of native and mutant MATP protein was investigated by molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) approach in explicit lipid and water background. We found Y317C as the most deleterious and disease-associated SNP on SLC45A2 gene. In MDS, mutations in MATP protein showed loss of stability and became more flexible, which alter its structural conformation and function. This phenomenon has indicated a significant role in inducing OCA4. Our study explored the understanding of molecular mechanism of MATP protein upon mutation at atomic level and further helps in the field of pharmacogenomics to develop a personalized medicine for OCA4 disorder. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2608-2619, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Mutation-based structural modification and dynamics study of amyloid beta peptide (1–42: An in-silico-based analysis to cognize the mechanism of aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritam Kumar Panda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease is the prevalent cause of premature senility, a progressive mental disorder due to degeneration in brain and deposition of amyloid β peptide (1–42, a misfolded protein in the form of aggregation that prevails for a prolonged time and obstructs every aspect of life. One of the primary hallmarks of the neuropathological disease is the accretion of amyloid β peptide in the brain that leads to Alzheimer's disease, but the mechanism is still a mystery. Several investigations have shown that mutations at specific positions have a significant impact in stability of the peptide as predicted from aggregation profiles. Here in our study, we have analyzed the mutations by substituting residues at position A22G, E22G, E22K, E22Q, D23N, L34V and molecular dynamics have been performed to check the deviation in stability and conformation of the peptide. The results validated that the mutations at specific positions lead to instability and the proline substitution at E22P and L34P stalled the aggregation of the peptide. Keywords: Amyloid β peptide, Alzheimer's disease, Aggregation, Mutational analysis, NAMD, UCSF Chimera, Discovery Studio Visualizer

  2. Insights into the folding and unfolding processes of wild-type and mutated SH3 domain by molecular dynamics and replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ting Chu

    Full Text Available Src-homology regions 3 (SH3 domain is essential for the down-regulation of tyrosine kinase activity. Mutation A39V/N53P/V55L of SH3 is found to be relative to the urgent misfolding diseases. To gain insight, the human and gallus SH3 domains (PDB ID: 1NYG and 2LP5, including 58 amino acids in each protein, were selected for MD simulations (Amber11, ff99SB force field and cluster analysis to investigate the influence of mutations on the spatial structure of the SH3 domain. It is found that the large conformational change of mutations mainly exists in three areas in the vicinity of protein core: RT loop, N-src loop, distal β-hairpin to 310 helix. The C-terminus of the mutated gallus SH3 is disordered after simulation, which represents the intermediate state of aggregation. The disappeared strong Hbond net in the mutated human and gallus systems will make these mutated proteins looser than the wild-type proteins. Additionally, by performing the REMD simulations on the gallus SH3 domain, the mutated domain is found to have an obvious effect on the unfolding process. These studies will be helpful for further aggregation mechanisms investigations on SH3 family.

  3. Bacterial community dynamics in a cooling tower with emphasis on pathogenic bacteria and Legionella species using universal and genus-specific deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rui P A; Peplies, Jörg; Höfle, Manfred G; Brettar, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Cooling towers are the major source of outbreaks of legionellosis in Europe and worldwide. These outbreaks are mostly associated with Legionella species, primarily L. pneumophila, and its surveillance in cooling tower environments is of high relevance to public health. In this study, a combined NGS-based approach was used to study the whole bacterial community, specific waterborne and water-based bacterial pathogens, especially Legionella species, targeting the 16S rRNA gene. This approach was applied to water from a cooling tower obtained by monthly sampling during two years. The studied cooling tower was an open circuit cooling tower with lamellar cooling situated in Braunschweig, Germany. A highly diverse bacterial community was observed with 808 genera including 25 potentially pathogenic taxa using universal 16S rRNA primers. Sphingomonas and Legionella were the most abundant pathogenic genera. By applying genus-specific primers for Legionella, a diverse community with 85 phylotypes, and a representative core community with substantial temporal heterogeneity was observed. A high percentage of sequences (65%) could not be affiliated to an acknowledged species. L. pneumophila was part of the core community and the most abundant Legionella species reinforcing the importance of cooling towers as its environmental reservoir. Major temperature shifts (>10 °C) were the key environmental factor triggering the reduction or dominance of the Legionella species in the Legionella community dynamics. In addition, interventions by chlorine dioxide had a strong impact on the Legionella community composition but not on the whole bacterial community. Overall, the presented results demonstrated the value of a combined NGS approach for the molecular monitoring and surveillance of health related pathogens in man-made freshwater systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular dynamics simulation analysis of the effect of T790M mutation on epidermal growth factor receptor protein architecture in non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiao-Nu; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer etiology and its treatment failure are due to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations at amino acid position 790. The mutational change from threonine to methionine at position 790 (T790M) is responsible for tyrosine kinase inhibition failure. Using molecular dynamic simulation, the present study investigated the architectural changes occurring at the atomic scale. The 50-nsec runs using a GROMOS force field for wild-type and mutant EGFR's kinase domains were investigated for contrasting variations using Gromacs inbuilt tools. The adenosine triphosphate binding domain and the active site of EGFR were studied extensively in order to understand the structural changes. All the parameters investigated in the present study revealed considerable changes in the studied structures, and the knowledge gained from this may be used to develop novel kinase inhibitors that will be effective irrespective of the structural alterations in kinase domain.

  5. H9N2 influenza A virus isolated from a Greater White-fronted wild goose (Anser albifrons) in Alaska has a mutation in the PB2 gene, which is associated with pathogenicity in human pandemic 2009 H1N1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Andrew; Ip, Hon S.

    2016-01-01

    We report here the genomic sequence of an H9N2 influenza A virus [A/greater white-fronted goose/Alaska/81081/2008 (H9N2)]. This virus shares ≥99.8% identity with a previously reported virus. Both strains contain a G590S mutation in the polymerase basic 2 (PB2) gene, which is a pathogenicity marker in the pandemic 2009 H1N1 virus when combined with R591.

  6. Persistence and drug tolerance in pathogenic yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen, Rasmus Kenneth; Regenberg, Birgitte; Folkesson, Sven Anders

    2017-01-01

    In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding of how fungal pathogens can persist antifungal treatment without heritable resistance mutations by forming tolerant persister cells. Fungal infections tolerant to antifungal treatment have become a major medical problem. One mechanism...

  7. Gene expression profiling during asexual development of the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans reveals a highly dynamic transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judelson, Howard S; Ah-Fong, Audrey M V; Aux, George; Avrova, Anna O; Bruce, Catherine; Cakir, Cahid; da Cunha, Luis; Grenville-Briggs, Laura; Latijnhouwers, Maita; Ligterink, Wilco; Meijer, Harold J G; Roberts, Samuel; Thurber, Carrie S; Whisson, Stephen C; Birch, Paul R J; Govers, Francine; Kamoun, Sophien; van West, Pieter; Windass, John

    2008-04-01

    Much of the pathogenic success of Phytophthora infestans, the potato and tomato late blight agent, relies on its ability to generate from mycelia large amounts of sporangia, which release zoospores that encyst and form infection structures. To better understand these stages, Affymetrix GeneChips based on 15,650 unigenes were designed and used to profile the life cycle. Approximately half of P. infestans genes were found to exhibit significant differential expression between developmental transitions, with approximately (1)/(10) being stage-specific and most changes occurring during zoosporogenesis. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assays confirmed the robustness of the array results and showed that similar patterns of differential expression were obtained regardless of whether hyphae were from laboratory media or infected tomato. Differentially expressed genes encode potential cellular regulators, especially protein kinases; metabolic enzymes such as those involved in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, or the biosynthesis of amino acids or lipids; regulators of DNA synthesis; structural proteins, including predicted flagellar proteins; and pathogenicity factors, including cell-wall-degrading enzymes, RXLR effector proteins, and enzymes protecting against plant defense responses. Curiously, some stage-specific transcripts do not appear to encode functional proteins. These findings reveal many new aspects of oomycete biology, as well as potential targets for crop protection chemicals.

  8. EBV-Negative Monomorphic B-Cell Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder with Marked Morphologic Pleomorphism and Pathogenic Mutations in ASXL1, BCOR, CDKN2A, NF1, and TP53.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Agata M

    2017-01-01

    Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a diverse group of lymphoid or plasmacytic proliferations frequently driven by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV-negative PTLDs appear to represent a distinct entity. This report describes an unusual case of a 33-year-old woman that developed a monomorphic EBV-negative PTLD consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) 13 years after heart-lung transplant. Histological examination revealed marked pleomorphism of the malignant cells including nodular areas reminiscent of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) with abundant large, bizarre Hodgkin-like cells. By immunostaining, the malignant cells were immunoreactive for CD45, CD20, CD79a, PAX5, BCL6, MUM1, and p53 and negative for CD15, CD30, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), and EBV-encoded RNA (EBER). Flow cytometry demonstrated lambda light chain restricted CD5 and CD10 negative B-cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies (FISH) were negative for cMYC , BCL2, and BCL6 rearrangements but showed deletion of TP53 and monosomy of chromosome 17. Next-generation sequencing studies (NGS) revealed numerous genetic alterations including 6 pathogenic mutations in ASXL1, BCOR, CDKN2A, NF1, and TP53 (x2) genes and 30 variants of unknown significance (VOUS) in ABL1, ASXL1, ATM, BCOR, BCORL1, BRNIP3, CDH2, CDKN2A, DNMT3A, ETV6, EZH2, FBXW7, KIT, NF1, RUNX1, SETPB1, SF1, SMC1A, STAG2, TET2, TP53, and U2AF2.

  9. EBV-Negative Monomorphic B-Cell Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder with Marked Morphologic Pleomorphism and Pathogenic Mutations in ASXL1, BCOR, CDKN2A, NF1, and TP53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata M. Bogusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs are a diverse group of lymphoid or plasmacytic proliferations frequently driven by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV. EBV-negative PTLDs appear to represent a distinct entity. This report describes an unusual case of a 33-year-old woman that developed a monomorphic EBV-negative PTLD consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL 13 years after heart-lung transplant. Histological examination revealed marked pleomorphism of the malignant cells including nodular areas reminiscent of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL with abundant large, bizarre Hodgkin-like cells. By immunostaining, the malignant cells were immunoreactive for CD45, CD20, CD79a, PAX5, BCL6, MUM1, and p53 and negative for CD15, CD30, latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1, and EBV-encoded RNA (EBER. Flow cytometry demonstrated lambda light chain restricted CD5 and CD10 negative B-cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies (FISH were negative for cMYC, BCL2, and BCL6 rearrangements but showed deletion of TP53 and monosomy of chromosome 17. Next-generation sequencing studies (NGS revealed numerous genetic alterations including 6 pathogenic mutations in ASXL1, BCOR, CDKN2A, NF1, and TP53(x2 genes and 30 variants of unknown significance (VOUS in ABL1, ASXL1, ATM, BCOR, BCORL1, BRNIP3, CDH2, CDKN2A, DNMT3A, ETV6, EZH2, FBXW7, KIT, NF1, RUNX1, SETPB1, SF1, SMC1A, STAG2, TET2, TP53, and U2AF2.

  10. The importance of proper bioinformatics analysis and clinical interpretation of tumor genomic profiling: a case study of undifferentiated sarcoma and a constitutional pathogenic BRCA2 mutation and an MLH1 variant of uncertain significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Elizabeth; Chao, Elizabeth C; Yeager, Nicholas D

    2015-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology is increasingly utilized to identify therapeutic targets for patients with malignancy. This technology also has the capability to reveal the presence of constitutional genetic alterations, which may have significant implications for patients and their family members. Here we present the case of a 23 year old Caucasian patient with recurrent undifferentiated sarcoma who had NGS-based tumor analysis using an assay which simultaneously analyzed the entire coding sequence of 236 cancer-related genes (3769 exons) plus 47 introns from 19 genes often rearranged or altered in cancer. Pathogenic alterations were reported in tumor as the predicted protein alterations, BRCA2 "R645fs*15″ and MLH1 "E694*". Because constitutional BRCA2 and MLH1 gene mutations are associated with Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (HBOCS) and Lynch syndrome respectively, sequence analysis of DNA isolated from peripheral blood was performed. The presence of the alterations, BRCA2 c.1929delG and MLH1 c.2080G>T, corresponding to the previously reported predicted protein alterations, were confirmed by Sanger sequencing in the constitutional DNA. An additional DNA finding was reported in this analysis, MLH1 c.2081A>C at the neighboring nucleotide. Further evaluation of the family revealed that all alterations were paternally inherited and the two MLH1 substitutions were in cis, more appropriately referred to as MLH1 c.2080_2081delGAinsTC, which is classified as a variant of uncertain significance. This case illustrates important considerations related to appropriate interpretation of NGS tumor results and follow-up of patients with potentially deleterious constitutional alterations.

  11. Dynamics of Mutator and Antibiotic-Resistant Populations in a Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macià, María D.; Pérez, José L.; Molin, Søren

    2011-01-01

    tagged PAO1 and PAOMS (mutator [mutS] derivative) strains. Two-day-old biofilms were treated with ciprofloxacin (CIP) for 4 days (t4) at 2 µg/ml, which correlated with the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and provided an AUC/MIC ratio of 384 that should predict therapeutic success. Biofilms were...

  12. Agent-based dynamic knowledge representation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence activation in the stressed gut: Towards characterizing host-pathogen interactions in gut-derived sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, John B; Alverdy, John C; Zaborina, Olga; An, Gary

    2011-09-19

    There is a growing realization that alterations in host-pathogen interactions (HPI) can generate disease phenotypes without pathogen invasion. The gut represents a prime region where such HPI can arise and manifest. Under normal conditions intestinal microbial communities maintain a stable, mutually beneficial ecosystem. However, host stress can lead to changes in environmental conditions that shift the nature of the host-microbe dialogue, resulting in escalation of virulence expression, immune activation and ultimately systemic disease. Effective modulation of these dynamics requires the ability to characterize the complexity of the HPI, and dynamic computational modeling can aid in this task. Agent-based modeling is a computational method that is suited to representing spatially diverse, dynamical systems. We propose that dynamic knowledge representation of gut HPI with agent-based modeling will aid in the investigation of the pathogenesis of gut-derived sepsis. An agent-based model (ABM) of virulence regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa was developed by translating bacterial and host cell sense-and-response mechanisms into behavioral rules for computational agents and integrated into a virtual environment representing the host-microbe interface in the gut. The resulting gut milieu ABM (GMABM) was used to: 1) investigate a potential clinically relevant laboratory experimental condition not yet developed--i.e. non-lethal transient segmental intestinal ischemia, 2) examine the sufficiency of existing hypotheses to explain experimental data--i.e. lethality in a model of major surgical insult and stress, and 3) produce behavior to potentially guide future experimental design--i.e. suggested sample points for a potential laboratory model of non-lethal transient intestinal ischemia. Furthermore, hypotheses were generated to explain certain discrepancies between the behaviors of the GMABM and biological experiments, and new investigatory avenues proposed to test those

  13. Agent-based dynamic knowledge representation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence activation in the stressed gut: Towards characterizing host-pathogen interactions in gut-derived sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaborina Olga

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing realization that alterations in host-pathogen interactions (HPI can generate disease phenotypes without pathogen invasion. The gut represents a prime region where such HPI can arise and manifest. Under normal conditions intestinal microbial communities maintain a stable, mutually beneficial ecosystem. However, host stress can lead to changes in environmental conditions that shift the nature of the host-microbe dialogue, resulting in escalation of virulence expression, immune activation and ultimately systemic disease. Effective modulation of these dynamics requires the ability to characterize the complexity of the HPI, and dynamic computational modeling can aid in this task. Agent-based modeling is a computational method that is suited to representing spatially diverse, dynamical systems. We propose that dynamic knowledge representation of gut HPI with agent-based modeling will aid in the investigation of the pathogenesis of gut-derived sepsis. Methodology/Principal Findings An agent-based model (ABM of virulence regulation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa was developed by translating bacterial and host cell sense-and-response mechanisms into behavioral rules for computational agents and integrated into a virtual environment representing the host-microbe interface in the gut. The resulting gut milieu ABM (GMABM was used to: 1 investigate a potential clinically relevant laboratory experimental condition not yet developed - i.e. non-lethal transient segmental intestinal ischemia, 2 examine the sufficiency of existing hypotheses to explain experimental data - i.e. lethality in a model of major surgical insult and stress, and 3 produce behavior to potentially guide future experimental design - i.e. suggested sample points for a potential laboratory model of non-lethal transient intestinal ischemia. Furthermore, hypotheses were generated to explain certain discrepancies between the behaviors of the GMABM and biological

  14. Environmental parameters influence on the dynamics of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus densities in Crassostrea virginica harvested from Mexico's Gulf coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hernández, Karla M; Pardío-Sedas, Violeta T; Lizárraga-Partida, Leonardo; Williams, José de J; Martínez-Herrera, David; Flores-Primo, Argel; Uscanga-Serrano, Roxana; Rendón-Castro, Karla

    2015-02-15

    The influence of environmental parameters on the total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus seasonal densities in American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) was evaluated for 1 year. Harvesting site A yielded the highest mean densities of V. parahaemolyticus tlh+, tdh+/trh-, tdh-/trh+ and tdh+/trh+ during spring season at 2.57, 1.74, 0.36, and -0.40 log10 MPN/g, respectively, and tdh+/orf8+ during winter season (0.90 log10 MPN/g). V. parahaemolyticus tlh+ densities were associated to salinity (R(2)=0.372, Pturbidity (R(2)=0.597, P<0.035), and orf8+ to temperature, salinity, and pH (R(2)=0.964, P<0.001). The exposure to salinity and temperature conditions during winter and spring seasons regulated the dynamics of V. parahaemolyticus harboring potentially pathogenic genotypes within the oyster. The adaptive response of V. parahaemolyticus to seasonal environmental changes may lead to an increase in survival and virulence, threatening the seafood safety and increasing the risk of illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mutation D816V alters the internal structure and dynamics of c-KIT receptor cytoplasmic region: implications for dimerization and activation mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Laine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The type III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK KIT plays a crucial role in the transmission of cellular signals through phosphorylation events that are associated with a switching of the protein conformation between inactive and active states. D816V KIT mutation is associated with various pathologies including mastocytosis and cancers. D816V-mutated KIT is constitutively active, and resistant to treatment with the anti-cancer drug Imatinib. To elucidate the activating molecular mechanism of this mutation, we applied a multi-approach procedure combining molecular dynamics (MD simulations, normal modes analysis (NMA and binding site prediction. Multiple 50-ns MD simulations of wild-type KIT and its mutant D816V were recorded using the inactive auto-inhibited structure of the protein, characteristic of type III RTKs. Computed free energy differences enabled us to quantify the impact of D816V on protein stability in the inactive state. We evidenced a local structural alteration of the activation loop (A-loop upon mutation, and a long-range structural re-organization of the juxta-membrane region (JMR followed by a weakening of the interaction network with the kinase domain. A thorough normal mode analysis of several MD conformations led to a plausible molecular rationale to propose that JMR is able to depart its auto-inhibitory position more easily in the mutant than in wild-type KIT and is thus able to promote kinase mutant dimerization without the need for extra-cellular ligand binding. Pocket detection at the surface of NMA-displaced conformations finally revealed that detachment of JMR from the kinase domain in the mutant was sufficient to open an access to the catalytic and substrate binding sites.

  16. Frequency-Dependent Disease Transmission and the Dynamics of the Silene-Ustilago Host-Pathogen System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thrall, P.H.; Biere, A.; Uyenoyama, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    Models incorporating density-dependent disease transmission functions generally provide a good fit for airborne and directly transmitted bacterial or viral diseases. However, the transmission dynamics of sexually transmitted and vector-borne diseases are likely to be frequency- rather than density-

  17. Evolutionary biology of bacterial and fungal pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baquero, F

    2008-01-01

    ... and Evolutionary Dynamics of Pathogens * 21 Keith A. Crandall and Marcos Pérez-Losada II. Evolutionary Genetics of Microbial Pathogens 4. Environmental and Social Influences on Infectious Disea...

  18. Piecewise linear approximations to model the dynamics of adaptation to osmotic stress by food-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métris, Aline; George, Susie M; Ropers, Delphine

    2017-01-02

    Addition of salt to food is one of the most ancient and most common methods of food preservation. However, little is known of how bacterial cells adapt to such conditions. We propose to use piecewise linear approximations to model the regulatory adaptation of Escherichiacoli to osmotic stress. We apply the method to eight selected genes representing the functions known to be at play during osmotic adaptation. The network is centred on the general stress response factor, sigma S, and also includes a module representing the catabolic repressor CRP-cAMP. Glutamate, potassium and supercoiling are combined to represent the intracellular regulatory signal during osmotic stress induced by salt. The output is a module where growth is represented by the concentration of stable RNAs and the transcription of the osmotic gene osmY. The time course of gene expression of transport of osmoprotectant represented by the symporter proP and of the osmY is successfully reproduced by the network. The behaviour of the rpoS mutant predicted by the model is in agreement with experimental data. We discuss the application of the model to food-borne pathogens such as Salmonella; although the genes considered have orthologs, it seems that supercoiling is not regulated in the same way. The model is limited to a few selected genes, but the regulatory interactions are numerous and span different time scales. In addition, they seem to be condition specific: the links that are important during the transition from exponential to stationary phase are not all needed during osmotic stress. This model is one of the first steps towards modelling adaptation to stress in food safety and has scope to be extended to other genes and pathways, other stresses relevant to the food industry, and food-borne pathogens. The method offers a good compromise between systems of ordinary differential equations, which would be unmanageable because of the size of the system and for which insufficient data are available

  19. Detection of First-Line Drug Resistance Mutations and Drug-Protein Interaction Dynamics from Tuberculosis Patients in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachappa, Somanna Ajjamada; Neelambike, Sumana M; Amruthavalli, Chokkanna; Ramachandra, Nallur B

    2018-05-01

    Diagnosis of drug-resistant tuberculosis predominantly relies on culture-based drug susceptibility testing, which take weeks to produce a result and a more time-efficient alternative method is multiplex allele-specific PCR (MAS-PCR). Also, understanding the role of mutations in causing resistance helps better drug designing. To evaluate the ability of MAS-PCR in the detection of drug resistance and to understand the mechanism of interaction of drugs with mutant proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Detection of drug-resistant mutations using MAS-PCR and validation through DNA sequencing. MAS-PCR targeted five loci on three genes, katG 315 and inhA -15 for the drug isoniazid (INH), and rpoB 516, 526, and 531 for rifampicin (RIF). Furthermore, the sequence data were analyzed to study the effect on interaction of the anti-TB drug molecule with the target protein using in silico docking. We identified drug-resistant mutations in 8 out of 114 isolates with 2 of them as multidrug-resistant TB using MAS-PCR. DNA sequencing confirmed only six of these, recording a sensitivity of 85.7% and specificity of 99.3% for MAS-PCR. Molecular docking showed estimated free energy of binding (ΔG) being higher for RIF binding with RpoB S531L mutant. Codon 315 in KatG does not directly interact with INH but blocks the drug access to active site. We propose DNA sequencing-based drug resistance detection for TB, which is more accurate than MAS-PCR. Understanding the action of resistant mutations in disrupting the normal drug-protein interaction aids in designing effective drug alternatives.

  20. Timing and severity of immunizing diseases in rabbits is controlled by seasonal matching of host and pathogen dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Konstans; Brook, Barry W.; Lacy, Robert C.; Mutze, Greg J.; Peacock, David E.; Sinclair, Ron G.; Schwensow, Nina; Cassey, Phillip; O'Hara, Robert B.; Fordham, Damien A.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases can exert a strong influence on the dynamics of host populations, but it remains unclear why such disease-mediated control only occurs under particular environmental conditions. We used 16 years of detailed field data on invasive European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Australia, linked to individual-based stochastic models and Bayesian approximations, to test whether (i) mortality associated with rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is driven primarily by seasonal matche...

  1. The potential spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus via dynamic contacts between poultry premises in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kao Rowland R

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI viruses have had devastating effects on poultry industries worldwide, and there is concern about the potential for HPAI outbreaks in the poultry industry in Great Britain (GB. Critical to the potential for HPAI to spread between poultry premises are the connections made between farms by movements related to human activity. Movement records of catching teams and slaughterhouse vehicles were obtained from a large catching company, and these data were used in a simulation model of HPAI spread between farms serviced by the catching company, and surrounding (geographic areas. The spread of HPAI through real-time movements was modelled, with the addition of spread via company personnel and local transmission. Results The model predicted that although large outbreaks are rare, they may occur, with long distances between infected premises. Final outbreak size was most sensitive to the probability of spread via slaughterhouse-linked movements whereas the probability of onward spread beyond an index premises was most sensitive to the frequency of company personnel movements. Conclusions Results obtained from this study show that, whilst there is the possibility that HPAI virus will jump from one cluster of farms to another, movements made by catching teams connected fewer poultry premises in an outbreak situation than slaughterhouses and company personnel. The potential connection of a large number of infected farms, however, highlights the importance of retaining up-to-date data on poultry premises so that control measures can be effectively prioritised in an outbreak situation.

  2. Timing and severity of immunizing diseases in rabbits is controlled by seasonal matching of host and pathogen dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Konstans; Brook, Barry W; Lacy, Robert C; Mutze, Greg J; Peacock, David E; Sinclair, Ron G; Schwensow, Nina; Cassey, Phillip; O'Hara, Robert B; Fordham, Damien A

    2015-02-06

    Infectious diseases can exert a strong influence on the dynamics of host populations, but it remains unclear why such disease-mediated control only occurs under particular environmental conditions. We used 16 years of detailed field data on invasive European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Australia, linked to individual-based stochastic models and Bayesian approximations, to test whether (i) mortality associated with rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is driven primarily by seasonal matches/mismatches between demographic rates and epidemiological dynamics and (ii) delayed infection (arising from insusceptibility and maternal antibodies in juveniles) are important factors in determining disease severity and local population persistence of rabbits. We found that both the timing of reproduction and exposure to viruses drove recurrent seasonal epidemics of RHD. Protection conferred by insusceptibility and maternal antibodies controlled seasonal disease outbreaks by delaying infection; this could have also allowed escape from disease. The persistence of local populations was a stochastic outcome of recovery rates from both RHD and myxomatosis. If susceptibility to RHD is delayed, myxomatosis will have a pronounced effect on population extirpation when the two viruses coexist. This has important implications for wildlife management, because it is likely that such seasonal interplay and disease dynamics has a strong effect on long-term population viability for many species. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  3. Highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, D E; Suarez, D L

    2000-08-01

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza (AI) (HPAI) is an extremely contagious, multi-organ systemic disease of poultry leading to high mortality, and caused by some H5 and H7 subtypes of type A influenza virus, family Orthomyxoviridae. However, most AI virus strains are mildly pathogenic (MP) and produce either subclinical infections or respiratory and/or reproductive diseases in a variety of domestic and wild bird species. Highly pathogenic avian influenza is a List A disease of the Office International des Epizooties, while MPAI is neither a List A nor List B disease. Eighteen outbreaks of HPAI have been documented since the identification of AI virus as the cause of fowl plague in 1955. Mildly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are maintained in wild aquatic bird reservoirs, occasionally crossing over to domestic poultry and causing outbreaks of mild disease. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses do not have a recognised wild bird reservoir, but can occasionally be isolated from wild birds during outbreaks in domestic poultry. Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have been documented to arise from MPAI viruses through mutations in the haemagglutinin surface protein. Prevention of exposure to the virus and eradication are the accepted methods for dealing with HPAI. Control programmes, which imply allowing a low incidence of infection, are not an acceptable method for managing HPAI, but have been used during some outbreaks of MPAI. The components of a strategy to deal with MPAI or HPAI include surveillance and diagnosis, biosecurity, education, quarantine and depopulation. Vaccination has been used in some control and eradication programmes for AI.

  4. Impact of the implementation of rest days in live bird markets on the dynamics of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournié, G; Guitian, F J; Mangtani, P; Ghani, A C

    2011-08-07

    Live bird markets (LBMs) act as a network 'hub' and potential reservoir of infection for domestic poultry. They may therefore be responsible for sustaining H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus circulation within the poultry sector, and thus a suitable target for implementing control strategies. We developed a stochastic transmission model to understand how market functioning impacts on the transmission dynamics. We then investigated the potential for rest days-periods during which markets are emptied and disinfected-to modulate the dynamics of H5N1 HPAI within the poultry sector using a stochastic meta-population model. Our results suggest that under plausible parameter scenarios, HPAI H5N1 could be sustained silently within LBMs with the time spent by poultry in markets and the frequency of introduction of new susceptible birds' dominant factors determining sustained silent spread. Compared with interventions applied in farms (i.e. stamping out, vaccination), our model shows that frequent rest days are an effective means to reduce HPAI transmission. Furthermore, our model predicts that full market closure would be only slightly more effective than rest days to reduce transmission. Strategies applied within markets could thus help to control transmission of the disease.

  5. Localization and dynamics of Wolbachia infection in Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri, the insect vector of the causal pathogens of Huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Su-Li; Li, Yi-Han; Ou, Da; Guo, Yan-Jun; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Stansly, Philip A; Qiu, Bao-Li

    2018-03-23

    Wolbachia is a group of intracellular bacteria that infect a wide range of arthropods including the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. This insect is the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the causal pathogen of Huanglongbing or citrus greening disease. Here, we investigated the localization pattern and infection dynamics of Wolbachia in different developmental stages of ACP. Results revealed that all developmental stages of ACP including egg, 1st-5th instar nymphs, and adults of both gender were infected with Wolbachia. FISH visualization of an ACP egg showed that Wolbachia moved from the egg stalk of newly laid eggs to a randomly distributed pattern throughout the egg prior to hatching. The infection rate varied between nymphal instars. The titers of Wolbachia in fourth and fifth instar nymphs were significantly higher than those in the first and second instar nymphs. Wolbachia were scattered in all nymphal stages, but with highest intensity in the U-shaped bacteriome located in the abdomen of the nymph. Wolbachia was confined to two symmetrical organizations in the abdomen of newly emerged female and male adults. The potential mechanisms of Wolbachia infection dynamics are discussed. © 2018 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Two desmin gene mutations associated with myofibrillar myopathies in Polish families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Piotr Fichna

    Full Text Available Desmin is a muscle-specific intermediate filament protein which forms a network connecting the sarcomere, T tubules, sarcolemma, nuclear membrane, mitochondria and other organelles. Mutations in the gene coding for desmin (DES cause skeletal myopathies often combined with cardiomyopathy, or isolated cardiomyopathies. The molecular pathomechanisms of the disease remain ambiguous. Here, we describe and comprehensively characterize two DES mutations found in Polish patients with a clinical diagnosis of desminopathy. The study group comprised 16 individuals representing three families. Two mutations were identified: a novel missense mutation (Q348P and a small deletion of nine nucleotides (A357_E359del, previously described by us in the Polish population. A common ancestry of all the families bearing the A357_E359del mutation was confirmed. Both mutations were predicted to be pathogenic using a bioinformatics approach, including molecular dynamics simulations which helped to rationalize abnormal behavior at molecular level. To test the impact of the mutations on DES expression and the intracellular distribution of desmin muscle biopsies were investigated. Elevated desmin levels as well as its atypical localization in muscle fibers were observed. Additional staining for M-cadherin, α-actinin, and myosin heavy chains confirmed severe disruption of myofibrill organization. The abnormalities were more prominent in the Q348P muscle, where both small atrophic fibers as well large fibers with centrally localized nuclei were observed. We propose that the mutations affect desmin structure and cause its aberrant folding and subsequent aggregation, triggering disruption of myofibrils organization.

  7. Two Desmin Gene Mutations Associated with Myofibrillar Myopathies in Polish Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdynski, Mariusz; Sikorska, Agata; Filipek, Slawomir; Redowicz, Maria Jolanta; Kaminska, Anna; Zekanowski, Cezary

    2014-01-01

    Desmin is a muscle-specific intermediate filament protein which forms a network connecting the sarcomere, T tubules, sarcolemma, nuclear membrane, mitochondria and other organelles. Mutations in the gene coding for desmin (DES) cause skeletal myopathies often combined with cardiomyopathy, or isolated cardiomyopathies. The molecular pathomechanisms of the disease remain ambiguous. Here, we describe and comprehensively characterize two DES mutations found in Polish patients with a clinical diagnosis of desminopathy. The study group comprised 16 individuals representing three families. Two mutations were identified: a novel missense mutation (Q348P) and a small deletion of nine nucleotides (A357_E359del), previously described by us in the Polish population. A common ancestry of all the families bearing the A357_E359del mutation was confirmed. Both mutations were predicted to be pathogenic using a bioinformatics approach, including molecular dynamics simulations which helped to rationalize abnormal behavior at molecular level. To test the impact of the mutations on DES expression and the intracellular distribution of desmin muscle biopsies were investigated. Elevated desmin levels as well as its atypical localization in muscle fibers were observed. Additional staining for M-cadherin, α-actinin, and myosin heavy chains confirmed severe disruption of myofibrill organization. The abnormalities were more prominent in the Q348P muscle, where both small atrophic fibers as well large fibers with centrally localized nuclei were observed. We propose that the mutations affect desmin structure and cause its aberrant folding and subsequent aggregation, triggering disruption of myofibrils organization. PMID:25541946

  8. Dynamics of extended-spectrum cephalosporin resistance in pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from diseased pigs in Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanbakhsh, Seyedehameneh; Smith, Matthew G; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid-Reza; Letellier, Ann; Abraham, Sam; Trott, Darren J; Fairbrother, John Morris

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution with time of ceftiofur-resistant Escherichia coli clinical isolates from pigs in Québec, Canada, between 1997 and 2012 with respect to pathotypes, clones and antimicrobial resistance. Eighty-five ceftiofur-resistant E. coli isolates were obtained from the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) Reference Laboratory for Escherichia coli. The most prevalent pathovirotypes were enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC):F4 (40%), extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) (16.5%) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC):F18 (8.2%). Susceptibility testing to 15 antimicrobial agents revealed a high prevalence of resistance to 13 antimicrobials, with all isolates being multidrug-resistant. blaCMY-2 (96.5%) was the most frequently detected β-lactamase gene, followed by blaTEM (49.4%) and blaCTX-M (3.5%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) applied to 45 representative E. coli isolates revealed that resistance to ceftiofur is spread both horizontally and clonally. In addition, the emergence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates carrying blaCTX-M was observed in 2011 and 2012 in distinct clones. The most predominant plasmid incompatibility (Inc) groups were IncFIB, IncI1, IncA/C and IncFIC. Resistance to gentamicin, kanamycin and chloramphenicol as well as the frequency of blaTEM and IncA/C significantly decreased over the study period, whereas the frequency of IncI1 and multidrug resistance to seven antimicrobial categories significantly increased. These findings reveal that extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant porcine E. coli isolates in Québec belong to several different clones with diverse antimicrobial resistance patterns and plasmids. Furthermore, blaCMY-2 was the major β-lactamase gene in these isolates. From 2011, we report the emergence of blaCTX-M in distinct clones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  9. A mutational analysis and molecular dynamics simulation of quinolone resistance proteins QnrA1 and QnrC from Proteus mirabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xinyu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first report on the transferable, plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance determinant qnrA1 was in 1998. Since then, qnr alleles have been discovered worldwide in clinical strains of Gram-negative bacilli. Qnr proteins confer quinolone resistance, and belong to the pentapeptide repeat protein (PRP family. Several PRP crystal structures have been solved, but little is known about the functional significance of their structural arrangement. Results We conducted random and site-directed mutagenesis on qnrA1 and on qnrC, a newly identified quinolone-resistance gene from Proteus mirabilis. Many of the Qnr mutants lost their quinolone resistance function. The highly conserved hydrophobic Leu or Phe residues at the center of the pentapeptide repeats are known as i sites, and loss-of-function mutations included replacement of the i site hydrophobic residues with charged residues, replacing the i-2 site, N-terminal to the i residues, with bulky side-chain residues, introducing Pro into the β-helix coil, deletion of the N- and C-termini, and excision of a central coil. Molecular dynamics simulations and homology modeling demonstrated that QnrC overall adopts a stable β-helix fold and shares more similarities with MfpA than with other PRP structures. Based on homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulation, the dysfunctional point mutations introduced structural deformations into the quadrilateral β-helix structure of PRPs. Of the pentapeptides of QnrC, two-thirds adopted a type II β-turn, while the rest adopted type IV turns. A gap exists between coil 2 and coil 3 in the QnrC model structure, introducing a structural flexibility that is similar to that seen in MfpA. Conclusion The hydrophobic core and the β-helix backbone conformation are important for maintaining the quinolone resistance property of Qnr proteins. QnrC may share structural similarity with MfpA.

  10. Pathogen intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eSteinert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different species inhabit different sensory worlds and thus have evolved diverse means of processing information, learning and memory. In the escalated arms race with host defense, each pathogenic bacterium not only has evolved its individual cellular sensing and behaviour, but also collective sensing, interbacterial communication, distributed information processing, joint decision making, dissociative behaviour, and the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity necessary for epidemiologic success. Moreover, pathogenic populations take advantage of dormancy strategies and rapid evolutionary speed, which allow them to save co-generated intelligent traits in a collective genomic memory. This review discusses how these mechanisms add further levels of complexity to bacterial pathogenicity and transmission, and how mining for these mechanisms could help to develop new anti-infective strategies.

  11. Thermophilic Alkaline Fermentation Followed by Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion for Efficient Hydrogen and Methane Production from Waste-Activated Sludge: Dynamics of Bacterial Pathogens as Revealed by the Combination of Metagenomic and Quantitative PCR Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jingjing; Jing, Yuhang; Rao, Yue; Zhang, Shicheng; Luo, Gang

    2018-03-15

    Thermophilic alkaline fermentation followed by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (TM) for hydrogen and methane production from waste-activated sludge (WAS) was investigated. The TM process was also compared to a process with mesophilic alkaline fermentation followed by a mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MM) and one-stage mesophilic anaerobic digestion (M) process. The results showed that both hydrogen yield (74.5 ml H 2 /g volatile solids [VS]) and methane yield (150.7 ml CH 4 /g VS) in the TM process were higher than those (6.7 ml H 2 /g VS and 127.8 ml CH 4 /g VS, respectively) in the MM process. The lowest methane yield (101.2 ml CH 4 /g VS) was obtained with the M process. Taxonomic results obtained from metagenomic analysis showed that different microbial community compositions were established in the hydrogen reactors of the TM and MM processes, which also significantly changed the microbial community compositions in the following methane reactors compared to that with the M process. The dynamics of bacterial pathogens were also evaluated. For the TM process, the reduced diversity and total abundance of bacterial pathogens in WAS were observed in the hydrogen reactor and were further reduced in the methane reactor, as revealed by metagenomic analysis. The results also showed not all bacterial pathogens were reduced in the reactors. For example, Collinsella aerofaciens was enriched in the hydrogen reactor, which was also confirmed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. The study further showed that qPCR was more sensitive for detecting bacterial pathogens than metagenomic analysis. Although there were some differences in the relative abundances of bacterial pathogens calculated by metagenomic and qPCR approaches, both approaches demonstrated that the TM process was more efficient for the removal of bacterial pathogens than the MM and M processes. IMPORTANCE This study developed an efficient process for bioenergy (H 2 and CH 4 ) production from WAS and elucidates the

  12. A constitutively activating mutation alters the dynamics and energetics of a key conformational change in a ligand-free G protein-coupled receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Hisao; Farrens, David L

    2013-09-27

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) undergo dynamic transitions between active and inactive conformations. Usually, these conversions are triggered when the receptor detects an external signal, but some so-called constitutively activating mutations, or CAMs, induce a GPCR to bind and activate G proteins in the absence of external stimulation, in ways still not fully understood. Here, we investigated how a CAM alters the structure of a GPCR and the dynamics involved as the receptor transitions between different conformations. Our approach used site-directed fluorescence labeling (SDFL) spectroscopy to compare opsin, the ligand-free form of the GPCR rhodopsin, with opsin containing the CAM M257Y, focusing specifically on key movements that occur in the sixth transmembrane helix (TM6) during GPCR activation. The site-directed fluorescence labeling data indicate opsin is constrained to an inactive conformation both in detergent micelles and lipid membranes, but when it contains the M257Y CAM, opsin is more dynamic and can interact with a G protein mimetic. Further study of these receptors using tryptophan-induced quenching (TrIQ) methods indicates that in detergent, the CAM significantly increases the population of receptors in the active state, but not in lipids. Subsequent Arrhenius analysis of the TrIQ data suggests that, both in detergent and lipids, the CAM lowers the energy barrier for TM6 movement, a key transition required for conversion between the inactive and active conformations. Together, these data suggest that the lowered energy barrier is a primary effect of the CAM on the receptor dynamics and energetics.

  13. Kin Selection - Mutation Balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyken, J. David Van; Linksvayer, Timothy Arnold; Wade, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    selection-mutation balance, which provides an evolutionary null hypothesis for the statics and dynamics of cheating. When social interactions have linear fitness effects and Hamilton´s rule is satisfied, selection is never strong enough to eliminate recurrent cheater mutants from a population, but cheater...

  14. Research on Volatile Organic Compounds From Bacillus subtilis CF-3: Biocontrol Effects on Fruit Fungal Pathogens and Dynamic Changes During Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Gao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic changes of the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs produced by Bacillus subtilis CF-3 and their biocontrol effects on common fungal pathogens were researched in this study. The results showed that the VOCs in 24-h fermentation liquid (24hFL of B. subtilis CF-3 inhibited mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Penicillium expansum, Monilinia fructicola, and Alternaria alternata, with a mean inhibition rate of 59.97%. The inhibitory effect on M. fructicola and C. gloeosporioides was the highest; they were therefore selected as target fungal pathogens for further experiments. Based on headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS, 74 potential VOCs were identified during the fermentation: 15 alcohols, 18 ketones, 4 pyrazines, 4 esters, 10 acids, 5 phenols, 3 hydrocarbons, 3 amines, 2 aldehydes, 5 ethers, and 5 other components. At different fermentation times, the type and content of VOCs were different. Most of the potential VOCs (62 VOCs were identified in the 48hFL. The inhibition rates of all VOCs reached their peaks (73.46% on M. fructicola and 63.63% on C. gloeosporioides in the 24hFL. Among the identified VOCs, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, 1-octanol, and benzothiazole showed significant positive correlations with the rates of M. fructicola and C. gloeosporioides inhibition. Benzoic acid and benzaldehyde showed a significant positive correlation with the rates of M. fructicola inhibition, and anisole and 3-methylbutanal showed a significant positive correlation with the rates of C. gloeosporioides inhibition. In vitro, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol showed a strong inhibitory effect on both M. fructicola and C. gloeosporioides. In vivo, benzothiazole showed the strongest inhibitory effect on the mycelial extensions of both M. fructicola and C. gloeosporioides, which also led to an increased rate of healthy fruit. The results of the present study

  15. Complex long-distance effects of mutations that confer linezolid resistance in the large ribosomal subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulle, Simone; Saini, Jagmohan S.; Homeyer, Nadine; Gohlke, Holger

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens will make current antibiotics ineffective. For linezolid, a member of the novel oxazolidinone class of antibiotics, 10 nucleotide mutations in the ribosome have been described conferring resistance. Hypotheses for how these mutations affect antibiotics binding have been derived based on comparative crystallographic studies. However, a detailed description at the atomistic level of how remote mutations exert long-distance effects has remained elusive. Here, we show that the G2032A-C2499A double mutation, located > 10 Å away from the antibiotic, confers linezolid resistance by a complex set of effects that percolate to the binding site. By molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations, we identify U2504 and C2452 as spearheads among binding site nucleotides that exert the most immediate effect on linezolid binding. Structural reorganizations within the ribosomal subunit due to the mutations are likely associated with mutually compensating changes in the effective energy. Furthermore, we suggest two main routes of information transfer from the mutation sites to U2504 and C2452. Between these, we observe cross-talk, which suggests that synergistic effects observed for the two mutations arise in an indirect manner. These results should be relevant for the development of oxazolidinone derivatives that are active against linezolid-resistant strains. PMID:26202966

  16. Early progressive encephalopathy in boys and MECP2 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankirawatana, P; Leonard, H; Ellaway, C; Scurlock, J; Mansour, A; Makris, C M; Dure, L S; Friez, M; Lane, J; Kiraly-Borri, C; Fabian, V; Davis, M; Jackson, J; Christodoulou, J; Kaufmann, W E; Ravine, D; Percy, A K

    2006-07-11

    MECP2 mutations mainly occur in females with Rett syndrome. Mutations have been described in 11 boys with progressive encephalopathy: seven of nine with affected sisters and two de novo. The authors report four de novo occurrences: three pathogenic and one potentially pathogenic. Common features include failure to thrive, respiratory insufficiency, microcephaly, and abnormal motor control. MECP2 mutations should be assessed in boys with progressive encephalopathy and one or more of respiratory insufficiency, abnormal movements or tone, and intractable seizures.

  17. Insight into the substrate specificity change caused by the Y227H mutation of α-glucosidase III from the European honeybee (Apis mellifera through molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratchaya Pramoj Na Ayutthaya

    Full Text Available Honey from the European honeybee, Apis mellifera, is produced by α-glucosidases (HBGases and is widely used in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Categorized by their substrate specificities, HBGases have three isoforms: HBGase I, II and III. Previous experimental investigations showed that wild-type HBGase III from Apis mellifera (WT preferred sucrose to maltose as a substrate, while the Y227H mutant (MT preferred maltose to sucrose. This mutant can potentially be used for malt hydrolysis because it can efficiently hydrolyze maltose. In this work, to elucidate important factors contributing to substrate specificity of this enzyme and gain insight into how the Y227H mutation causes substrate specificity change, WT and MT homology models were constructed, and sucrose/maltose was docked into active sites of the WT and MT. AMBER14 was employed to perform three independent molecular dynamics runs for these four complexes. Based on the relative binding free energies calculated by the MM-GBSA method, sucrose is better than maltose for WT binding, while maltose is better than sucrose for MT binding. These rankings support the experimentally observed substrate specificity that WT preferred sucrose to maltose as a substrate, while MT preferred maltose to sucrose, suggesting the importance of binding affinity for substrate specificity. We also found that the Y227H mutation caused changes in the proximities between the atoms necessary for sucrose/maltose hydrolysis that may affect enzyme efficiency in the hydrolysis of sucrose/maltose. Moreover, the per-residue binding free energy decomposition results show that Y227/H227 may be a key residue for preference binding of sucrose/maltose in the WT/MT active site. Our study provides important and novel insight into the binding of sucrose/maltose in the active site of Apis mellifera HBGase III and into how the Y227H mutation leads to the substrate specificity change at the molecular level. This

  18. Mutations causative of familial hypercholesterolaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Watts, Gerald F; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    causing mutations in 98 098 participants from the general population, the Copenhagen General Population Study. METHODS AND RESULTS: We genotyped for LDLR[W23X;W66G;W556S] and APOB[R3500Q] accounting for 38.7% of pathogenic FH mutations in Copenhagen. Clinical FH assessment excluded mutation information......-cholesterol concentration to discriminate between mutation carriers and non-carriers was 4.4 mmol/L. CONCLUSION: Familial hypercholesterolaemia-causing mutations are estimated to occur in 1:217 in the general population and are best identified by a definite or probable phenotypic diagnosis of FH based on the DLCN criteria....... The prevalence of the four FH mutations was 0.18% (1:565), suggesting a total prevalence of FH mutations of 0.46% (1:217). Using the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network (DLCN) criteria, odds ratios for an FH mutation were 439 (95% CI: 170-1 138) for definite FH, 90 (53-152) for probable FH, and 18 (13-25) for possible FH...

  19. Accelerating dynamic genetic conservation efforts: Use of FT-IR spectroscopy for the rapid identification of trees resistant to destructive pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Villari; R.A. Sniezko; L.E. Rodriguez-Saona; P. Bonello

    2017-01-01

    A strong focus on tree germplasm that can resist threats such as non-native insects and pathogens, or a changing climate, is fundamental for successful genetic conservation efforts. However, the unavailability of tools for rapid screening of tree germplasm for resistance to critical pathogens and insect pests is becoming an increasingly serious bottleneck. Here we...

  20. DMPD: Toll-like receptors and the host defense against microbial pathogens: bringingspecificity to the innate-immune system. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 15075354 Toll-like receptors and the host defense against microbial pathogens: brin...oc Biol. 2004 May;75(5):749-55. Epub 2004 Jan 14. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Toll-like receptors and the host defense again...immune system. PubmedID 15075354 Title Toll-like receptors and the host defense against microbial pathogens:

  1. Genetic characterization of low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated on the Izumi plain in Japan: possible association of dynamic movements of wild birds with AIV evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hiroko; Okuya, Kosuke; Kawabata, Toshiko; Matsuu, Aya; Takase, Kozo; Kuwahara, Masakazu; Toda, Shigehisa; Ozawa, Makoto

    2018-04-01

    The Izumi plain in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, is an overwintering site of endangered cranes (hooded cranes and white-naped cranes) and of many other migratory birds (including wild ducks) that are considered carriers of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). To assess the risks of a highly pathogenic avian influenza outbreak in the crane populations, we tested various environmental samples for AIVs in this area. In the 2014-2015 winter season, we isolated one AIV of the H6N2 subtype from the cranes' roost water and two AIVs of the H11N9 subtype from a crane fecal sample and a cloacal swab of a dead spot-billed duck. Genetic analysis of these AIV isolates indicated that our H6N2 isolate is genetically close to AIVs isolated from wild birds in Southeast Asian countries, except that the PB1 and NS genes belong to the North American virus lineage. All genes of the two H11N9 isolates are related to AIVs belonging to the Eurasian virus lineage. Notably, in our phylogenetic trees, H11 HA and N9 NA genes showing high sequence similarity to the corresponding genes of isolates from wild birds in South Africa and Spain, respectively, did not cluster in the major groups with recent wild-bird isolates from East Asia. These results suggest that AIVs with viral gene segments derived from various locations and bird species have been brought to the Izumi plain. These findings imply a possible association of dynamic movements of wild birds with AIV evolution.

  2. The E2.65A mutation disrupts dynamic binding poses of SB269652 at the dopamine D2 and D3 receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Verma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The dopamine D2 and D3 receptors (D2R and D3R are important targets for antipsychotics and for the treatment of drug abuse. SB269652, a bitopic ligand that simultaneously binds both the orthosteric binding site (OBS and a secondary binding pocket (SBP in both D2R and D3R, was found to be a negative allosteric modulator. Previous studies identified Glu2.65 in the SBP to be a key determinant of both the affinity of SB269652 and the magnitude of its cooperativity with orthosteric ligands, as the E2.65A mutation decreased both of these parameters. However, the proposed hydrogen bond (H-bond between Glu2.65 and the indole moiety of SB269652 is not a strong interaction, and a structure activity relationship study of SB269652 indicates that this H-bond may not be the only element that determines its allosteric properties. To understand the structural basis of the observed phenotype of E2.65A, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations with a cumulative length of ~77 μs of D2R and D3R wild-type and their E2.65A mutants bound to SB269652. In combination with Markov state model analysis and by characterizing the equilibria of ligand binding modes in different conditions, we found that in both D2R and D3R, whereas the tetrahydroisoquinoline moiety of SB269652 is stably bound in the OBS, the indole-2-carboxamide moiety is dynamic and only intermittently forms H-bonds with Glu2.65. Our results also indicate that the E2.65A mutation significantly affects the overall shape and size of the SBP, as well as the conformation of the N terminus. Thus, our findings suggest that the key role of Glu2.65 in mediating the allosteric properties of SB269652 extends beyond a direct interaction with SB269652, and provide structural insights for rational design of SB269652 derivatives that may retain its allosteric properties.

  3. A mutation at IVS1 + 5 of the von Hippel-Lindau gene resulting in intron retention in transcripts is not pathogenic in a patient with a tongue cancer?: case report

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    Asakawa Takeshi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL is a dominantly inherited familial cancer syndrome predisposing the patient to a variety of malignant and benign neoplasms, most frequently hemangioblastoma, renal cell carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, and pancreatic tumors. VHL is caused by mutations of the VHL tumor suppressor gene on the short arm of chromosome 3, and clinical manifestations develop if both alleles are inactivated according to the two-hit hypothesis. VHL mutations are more frequent in the coding region and occur occasionally in the splicing region of the gene. Previously, we reported that the loss of heterozygosity (LOH of the VHL gene is common in squamous cell carcinoma tissues of the tongue. Case Presentation We describe a case of squamous cell carcinoma in the tongue caused by a point mutation in the splicing region of the VHL gene and discuss its association with VHL disease. Sequence analysis of DNA extracted from the tumor and peripheral blood of the patient with squamous cell carcinoma revealed a heterozygous germline mutation (c. 340 + 5 G > C in the splice donor sequence in intron 1 of the VHL gene. RT-PCR analysis of the exon1/intron1 junction in RNA from tumor tissue detected an unspliced transcript. Analysis of LOH using a marker with a heterozygous mutation of nucleotides (G or C revealed a deletion of the mutant C allele in the carcinoma tissues. Conclusions The fifth nucleotide G of the splice donor site of the VHL gene is important for the efficiency of splicing at that site. The development of tongue cancer in this patient was not associated with VHL disease because the mutation occurred in only a single allele of the VHL gene and that allele was deleted in tumor cells.

  4. Distinct 3D Architecture and Dynamics of the Human HtrA2(Omi Protease and Its Mutated Variants.

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    Artur Gieldon

    Full Text Available HtrA2(Omi protease controls protein quality in mitochondria and plays a major role in apoptosis. Its HtrA2S306A mutant (with the catalytic serine routinely disabled for an X-ray study to avoid self-degradation is a homotrimer whose subunits contain the serine protease domain (PD and the regulatory PDZ domain. In the inactive state, a tight interdomain interface limits penetration of both PDZ-activating ligands and PD substrates into their respective target sites. We successfully crystalized HtrA2V226K/S306A, whose active counterpart HtrA2V226K has had higher proteolytic activity, suggesting higher propensity to opening the PD-PDZ interface than that of the wild type HtrA2. Yet, the crystal structure revealed the HtrA2V226K/S306A architecture typical of the inactive protein. To get a consistent interpretation of crystallographic data in the light of kinetic results, we employed molecular dynamics (MD. V325D inactivating mutant was used as a reference. Our simulations demonstrated that upon binding of a specific peptide ligand NH2-GWTMFWV-COOH, the PDZ domains open more dynamically in the wild type protease compared to the V226K mutant, whereas the movement is not observed in the V325D mutant. The movement relies on a PDZ vs. PD rotation which opens the PD-PDZ interface in a lid-like (budding flower-like in trimer fashion. The noncovalent hinges A and B are provided by two clusters of interfacing residues, harboring V325D and V226K in the C- and N-terminal PD barrels, respectively. The opening of the subunit interfaces progresses in a sequential manner during the 50 ns MD simulation. In the systems without the ligand only minor PDZ shifts relative to PD are observed, but the interface does not open. Further activation-associated events, e.g. PDZ-L3 positional swap seen in any active HtrA protein (vs. HtrA2, were not observed. In summary, this study provides hints on the mechanism of activation of wtHtrA2, the dynamics of the inactive HtrA2V325D

  5. Mutation directional selection sheds light on prion pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Liang; Ji, Hong-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Most pathogenic mutations possess strong directional selection, i.e., enhancing hydrophobicity or decreasing negative and increasing positive charge. → Mutation-induced changes may strengthen the interactions between PrP and facilitating factors. → The findings also have significant implications for exploring potential regions involved in the conformational transition from PrP C to PrP Sc . -- Abstract: As mutations in the PRNP gene account for human hereditary prion diseases (PrDs), it is crucial to elucidating how these mutations affect the central pathogenic conformational transition of normal cellular prion protein (PrP C ) to abnormal scrapie isoform (PrP Sc ). Many studies proposed that these pathogenic mutations may make PrP more susceptible to conformational change through altering its structure stability. By evaluating the most recent observations regarding pathogenic mutations, it was found that the pathogenic mutations do not exert a uniform effect on the thermodynamic stability of the human PrP's structure. Through analyzing the reported PrDs-related mutations, we found that 25 out of 27 mutations possess strong directional selection, i.e., enhancing hydrophobicity or decreasing negative and increasing positive charge. Based on the triggering role reported by previous studies of facilitating factors in PrP C conversion, e.g., lipid and polyanion, we proposed that the mutation-induced changes may strengthen the interaction between PrP and facilitating factors, which will accelerate PrP conversion and cause PrDs.

  6. Dynamic fluorescence studies of beta-glycosidase mutants from Sulfolobus solfataricus: effects of single mutations on protein thermostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismuto, Ettore; Febbraio, Ferdinando; Limongelli, Simona; Briante, Raffaella; Nucci, Roberto

    2003-04-01

    Multiple sequence alignment on 73 proteins belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 1 reveals the occurrence of a segment (83-124) in the enzyme sequences from hyperthermophilic archaea bacteria, which is absent in all the mesophilic members of the family. The alignment of the known three-dimensional structures of hyperthermophilic glycosidases with the known ones from mesophilic organisms shows a similar spatial organizations of beta-glycosidases except for this sequence segment whose structure is located on the external surface of each of four identical subunits, where it overlaps two alpha-helices. Site-directed mutagenesis substituting N97 or S101 with a cysteine residue in the sequence of beta-glycosidase from hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus caused some changes in the structural and dynamic properties as observed by circular dichroism in far- and near-UV light, as well as by frequency domain fluorometry, with a simultaneous loss of thermostability. The results led us to hypothesize an important role of the sequence segment present only in hyperthermophilic beta-glycosidases, in the thermal adaptation of archaea beta-glycosidases. The thermostabilization mechanism could occur as a consequence of numerous favorable ionic interactions of the 83-124 sequence with the other part of protein matrix that becomes more rigid and less accessible to the insult of thermal-activated solvent molecules. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Foodborne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bintsis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne pathogens are causing a great number of diseases with significant effects on human health and economy. The characteristics of the most common pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens, Cronobacter sakazakii, Esherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococccus aureus, Vibrio spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica, viruses (Hepatitis A and Noroviruses and parasites (Cyclospora cayetanensis, Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spiralis, together with some important outbreaks, are reviewed. Food safety management systems based on to classical hazard-based approach has been proved to be inefficient, and risk-based food safety approach is now suggested from leading researchers and organizations. In this context, a food safety management system should be designed in a way to estimate the risks to human health from food consumption and to identify, select and implement mitigation strategies in order to control and reduce these risks. In addition, the application of suitable food safety education programs for all involved people in the production and consumption of foods is suggested.

  8. Mutations that affect meiosis in male mice influence the dynamics of the mid-preleptotene and bouquet stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebe, B.; Petukhova, G.; Barchi, M.; Bellani, M.; Braselmann, H.; Nakano, T.; Pandita, T.K.; Jasin, M.; Fornace, A.; Meistrich, M.L.; Baarends, W.M.; Schimenti, J.; Lange, T. de; Keeney, S.; Camerini-Otero, R.D.; Scherthan, H.

    2006-01-01

    Meiosis pairs and segregates homologous chromosomes and thereby forms haploid germ cells to compensate the genome doubling at fertilization. Homologue pairing in many eukaryotic species depends on formation of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) during early prophase I when telomeres begin to cluster at the nuclear periphery (bouquet stage). By fluorescence in situ hybridization criteria, we observe that mid-preleptotene and bouquet stage frequencies are altered in male mice deficient for proteins required for recombination, ubiquitin conjugation and telomere length control. The generally low frequencies of mid-preleptotene spermatocytes were significantly increased in male mice lacking recombination proteins SPO11, MEI1, MLH1, KU80, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme HR6B, and in mice with only one copy of the telomere length regulator Terf1. The bouquet stage was significantly enriched in Atm -/- , Spo11 -/- , Mei1 m1Jcs/m1Jcs , Mlh1 -/- , Terf1 +/- and Hr6b -/- spermatogenesis, but not in mice lacking recombination proteins DMC1 and HOP2, the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair factor KU80 and the ATM downstream effector GADD45a. Mice defective in spermiogenesis (Tnp1 -/- , Gmcl1 -/- , Asm -/- ) showed wild-type mid-preleptotene and bouquet frequencies. A low frequency of bouquet spermatocytes in Spo11 -/- Atm -/- spermatogenesis suggests that DSBs contribute to the Atm -/- -correlated bouquet stage exit defect. Insignificant changes of bouquet frequencies in mice with defects in early stages of DSB repair (Dmc1 -/- , Hop2 -/- ) suggest that there is an ATM-specific influence on bouquet stage duration. Altogether, it appears that several pathways influence telomere dynamics in mammalian meiosis

  9. Evolution and adaptation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms driven by mismatch repair system-deficient mutators.

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    Adela M Luján

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causing chronic airway infections, especially in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. The majority of the CF patients acquire P. aeruginosa during early childhood, and most of them develop chronic infections resulting in severe lung disease, which are rarely eradicated despite intensive antibiotic therapy. Current knowledge indicates that three major adaptive strategies, biofilm development, phenotypic diversification, and mutator phenotypes [driven by a defective mismatch repair system (MRS], play important roles in P. aeruginosa chronic infections, but the relationship between these strategies is still poorly understood. We have used the flow-cell biofilm model system to investigate the impact of the mutS associated mutator phenotype on development, dynamics, diversification and adaptation of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Through competition experiments we demonstrate for the first time that P. aeruginosa MRS-deficient mutators had enhanced adaptability over wild-type strains when grown in structured biofilms but not as planktonic cells. This advantage was associated with enhanced micro-colony development and increased rates of phenotypic diversification, evidenced by biofilm architecture features and by a wider range and proportion of morphotypic colony variants, respectively. Additionally, morphotypic variants generated in mutator biofilms showed increased competitiveness, providing further evidence for mutator-driven adaptive evolution in the biofilm mode of growth. This work helps to understand the basis for the specific high proportion and role of mutators in chronic infections, where P. aeruginosa develops in biofilm communities.

  10. Dynamics of fecal indicator bacteria, bacterial pathogen genes, and organic wastewater contaminants in the Little Calumet River: Portage Burns Waterway, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Duris, Joseph W.

    2013-01-01

    Little information exists on the co-occurrence of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), bacterial pathogens, and organic wastewater-associated chemicals (OWCs) within Great Lakes tributaries. Fifteen watershed sites and one beach site adjacent to the Little Calumet River–Portage Burns Waterway (LCRPBW) on Lake Michigan were tested on four dates for pH, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, chloride, color, ammonia- and nitrate-nitrogen, soluble phosphorus, sulfate, turbidity, and atrazine; for concentrations of FIB; and for genes indicating the presence of human-pathogenic enterococci (ENT) and of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (EC) from various animal sources. Nineteen samples were also tested for 60 OWCs. Half of the watershed samples met EC recreational water quality standards; none met ENT standards. Human-wastewater-associated OWC detections were correlated with human-influence indicators such as population/km2, chloride concentrations, and the presence of WWTP effluents, but EC and ENT concentrations were not. Bacterial pathogen genes indicated rural human and several potential animal sources. OWCs of human or ecosystem health concern (musk fragrances AHTN and HHCB, alkylphenols, carbamazepine) and 3 bacterial pathogen genes were detected at the mouth of the LCRPBW, but no such OWCs and only 1 pathogen gene were detected at the beach. The LCRPBW has significant potential to deliver FIB, potential bacterial pathogens, and OWCs of human or ecosystem health concern to the nearshore of Lake Michigan, under conditions enhancing nearshore transport of the river plume. Nearshore mixing of lake and river water, and the lack of relationship between OWCs and FIB or pathogen genes, pose numerous challenges for watershed and nearshore assessment and remediation.

  11. Analysis of MYO7A in a Moroccan family with Usher syndrome type 1B: novel loss-of-function mutation and non-pathogenicity of p.Y1719C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulouiz, Redouane; Li, Yun; Abidi, Omar; Bolz, Hanno; Chafik, Abdelaziz; Kubisch, Christian; Roub, Hassan; Wollnik, Bernd; Barakat, Abdelhamid

    2007-10-02

    Mutations in the MYO7A gene are responsible for Usher syndrome type 1B (USH1B), the most common USH1 subtype, which accounts for the largest proportion of USH1 cases in most populations. Molecular genetic diagnosis in Usher syndrome is well established and identification of the underlying mutations in Usher patients is important for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling. We analyzed a large consanguineous USH1 family from Morocco and linked the disease in this family to the MYO7A/USH1B locus. We identified the frequently described missense change p.Y1719C. In addition, we found the homozygous c.1687G>A mutation in the last nucleotide of exon 14, which is predicted to result in aberrant splicing and may lead to loss of MYO7A transcript. We further showed that p.Y1719C is not disease-causing but does represent a frequent polymorphism in the Moroccan population, with an estimated carrier frequency of 0.07. This finding has an important impact for molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling in USH1B families.

  12. Transient virulence of emerging pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolker, Benjamin M; Nanda, Arjun; Shah, Dharmini

    2010-05-06

    Should emerging pathogens be unusually virulent? If so, why? Existing theories of virulence evolution based on a tradeoff between high transmission rates and long infectious periods imply that epidemic growth conditions will select for higher virulence, possibly leading to a transient peak in virulence near the beginning of an epidemic. This transient selection could lead to high virulence in emerging pathogens. Using a simple model of the epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of emerging pathogens, along with rough estimates of parameters for pathogens such as severe acute respiratory syndrome, West Nile virus and myxomatosis, we estimated the potential magnitude and timing of such transient virulence peaks. Pathogens that are moderately evolvable, highly transmissible, and highly virulent at equilibrium could briefly double their virulence during an epidemic; thus, epidemic-phase selection could contribute significantly to the virulence of emerging pathogens. In order to further assess the potential significance of this mechanism, we bring together data from the literature for the shapes of tradeoff curves for several pathogens (myxomatosis, HIV, and a parasite of Daphnia) and the level of genetic variation for virulence for one (myxomatosis). We discuss the need for better data on tradeoff curves and genetic variance in order to evaluate the plausibility of various scenarios of virulence evolution.

  13. Germline pathogenic variants in PALB2 and other cancer-predisposing genes in families with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer without CDH1 mutation: a whole-exome sequencing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewings, Eleanor; Larionov, Alexey; Redman, James; Goldgraben, Mae A; Scarth, James; Richardson, Susan; Brewer, Carole; Davidson, Rosemarie; Ellis, Ian; Evans, D Gareth; Halliday, Dorothy; Izatt, Louise; Marks, Peter; McConnell, Vivienne; Verbist, Louis; Mayes, Rebecca; Clark, Graeme R; Hadfield, James; Chin, Suet-Feung; Teixeira, Manuel R; Giger, Olivier T; Hardwick, Richard; di Pietro, Massimiliano; O'Donovan, Maria; Pharoah, Paul; Caldas, Carlos; Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; Tischkowitz, Marc

    2018-04-26

    Germline pathogenic variants in the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) are strongly associated with the development of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer. There is a paucity of data to guide risk assessment and management of families with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer that do not carry a CDH1 pathogenic variant, making it difficult to make informed decisions about surveillance and risk-reducing surgery. We aimed to identify new candidate genes associated with predisposition to hereditary diffuse gastric cancer in affected families without pathogenic CDH1 variants. We did whole-exome sequencing on DNA extracted from the blood of 39 individuals (28 individuals diagnosed with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer and 11 unaffected first-degree relatives) in 22 families without pathogenic CDH1 variants. Genes with loss-of-function variants were prioritised using gene-interaction analysis to identify clusters of genes that could be involved in predisposition to hereditary diffuse gastric cancer. Protein-affecting germline variants were identified in probands from six families with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer; variants were found in genes known to predispose to cancer and in lesser-studied DNA repair genes. A frameshift deletion in PALB2 was found in one member of a family with a history of gastric and breast cancer. Two different MSH2 variants were identified in two unrelated affected individuals, including one frameshift insertion and one previously described start-codon loss. One family had a unique combination of variants in the DNA repair genes ATR and NBN. Two variants in the DNA repair gene RECQL5 were identified in two unrelated families: one missense variant and a splice-acceptor variant. The results of this study suggest a role for the known cancer predisposition gene PALB2 in families with hereditary diffuse gastric cancer and no detected pathogenic CDH1 variants. We also identified new candidate genes associated with disease risk in these families. UK Medical

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation reveals insights into the mechanism of unfolding by the A130T/V mutations within the MID1 zinc-binding Bbox1 domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjie Zhao

    Full Text Available The zinc-binding Bbox1 domain in protein MID1, a member of the TRIM family of proteins, facilitates the ubiquitination of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A and alpha4, a protein regulator of PP2A. The natural mutation of residue A130 to a valine or threonine disrupts substrate recognition and catalysis. While NMR data revealed the A130T mutant Bbox1 domain failed to coordinate both structurally essential zinc ions and resulted in an unfolded structure, the unfolding mechanism is unknown. Principle component analysis revealed that residue A130 served as a hinge point between the structured β-strand-turn-β-strand (β-turn-β and the lasso-like loop sub-structures that constitute loop1 of the ββα-RING fold that the Bbox1 domain adopts. Backbone RMSD data indicate significant flexibility and departure from the native structure within the first 5 ns of the molecular dynamics (MD simulation for the A130V mutant (>6 Å and after 30 ns for A130T mutant (>6 Å. Overall RMSF values were higher for the mutant structures and showed increased flexibility around residues 125 and 155, regions with zinc-coordinating residues. Simulated pKa values of the sulfhydryl group of C142 located near A130 suggested an increased in value to ~9.0, paralleling the increase in the apparent dielectric constants for the small cavity near residue A130. Protonation of the sulfhydryl group would disrupt zinc-coordination, directly contributing to unfolding of the Bbox1. Together, the increased motion of residues of loop 1, which contains four of the six zinc-binding cysteine residues, and the increased pKa of C142 could destabilize the structure of the zinc-coordinating residues and contribute to the unfolding.

  15. Insight into the intermolecular recognition mechanism between Keap1 and IKKβ combining homology modelling, protein-protein docking, molecular dynamics simulations and virtual alanine mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yu Jiang

    Full Text Available Degradation of certain proteins through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway is a common strategy taken by the key modulators responsible for stress responses. Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1(Keap1, a substrate adaptor component of the Cullin3 (Cul3-based ubiquitin E3 ligase complex, mediates the ubiquitination of two key modulators, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and IκB kinase β (IKKβ, which are involved in the redox control of gene transcription. However, compared to the Keap1-Nrf2 protein-protein interaction (PPI, the intermolecular recognition mechanism of Keap1 and IKKβ has been poorly investigated. In order to explore the binding pattern between Keap1 and IKKβ, the PPI model of Keap1 and IKKβ was investigated. The structure of human IKKβ was constructed by means of the homology modeling method and using reported crystal structure of Xenopus laevis IKKβ as the template. A protein-protein docking method was applied to develop the Keap1-IKKβ complex model. After the refinement and visual analysis of docked proteins, the chosen pose was further optimized through molecular dynamics simulations. The resulting structure was utilized to conduct the virtual alanine mutation for the exploration of hot-spots significant for the intermolecular interaction. Overall, our results provided structural insights into the PPI model of Keap1-IKKβ and suggest that the substrate specificity of Keap1 depend on the interaction with the key tyrosines, namely Tyr525, Tyr574 and Tyr334. The study presented in the current project may be useful to design molecules that selectively modulate Keap1. The selective recognition mechanism of Keap1 with IKKβ or Nrf2 will be helpful to further know the crosstalk between NF-κB and Nrf2 signaling.

  16. Exploring the selectivity of auto-inducer complex with LuxR using molecular docking, mutational studies and molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanikandan, Sundaraj; Srinivasan, Pappu

    2017-03-01

    Bacteria communicate with one another using extracellular signaling molecules called auto-inducers (AHLs), a process termed as quorum sensing. The quorum sensing process allows bacteria to regulate various physiological activities. In this regard, quorum sensing master regulator LuxR from Vibrio harveyi represents an attractive therapeutic target for the development of novel anti-quorum sensing agents. Eventhough the binding of AHL complex with LuxR is evidenced in earlier reports, but their mode of binding is not clearly determined. Therefore, in the present work, molecular docking, in silico mutational studies, molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations were performed to understand the selectivity of AHL into the binding site of LuxR. The results revealed that Asn133 and Gln137 residues play a crucial role in recognizing AHL more effectively into the binding site of LuxR with good binding free energy. In addition to that, the carbonyl group presents in the lactone ring and amide group of AHL plays a vital role in the formation of hydrogen bond interactions with the protein. Further, structure based virtual screening was performed using ChemBridge database to screen potent lead molecules against LuxR. 4-benzyl-2-pyrrolidinone and N-[2(1-cyclohexen-1-yl) enthyl]-N'(2-ethoxyphenyl) were selected based on dock score, binding affinity and mode of interactions with the receptor. Furthermore, binding free energy, density functional theory and ADME prediction were performed to rank the lead molecules. Thus, the identified lead molecules can be used for the development of anti-quorum sensing drugs.

  17. Proton magnetic resonance study of the influence of chemical modification, mutation, quaternary state, and ligation state on dynamic stability of the heme pocket in hemoglobin as reflected in the exchange of the proximal histidyl ring labile proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.H.; La Mar, G.N.; Nagai, K.

    1989-01-01

    Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has been utilized to investigate the rates of exchange with deuterium of the proximal histidyl ring protons in a series of chemically modified and mutated forms of Hb A. Differences in rates of exchange are related to differences in the stability of the deformed or partially unfolded intermediates from which exchange with bulk solvent takes place. Each modified/mutated Hb exhibited kinetic subunit heterogeneity in the reduced ferrous state, with the alpha subunit exhibiting faster exchange than the beta subunit. Modification or mutation resulted in significant increases in the His F8 ring NH exchange rates primarily for the affected subunit and only if the modification/mutation occurs at the allosterically important alpha 1 beta 2 subunit interface. Moreover, this enhancement in exchange rate is observed primarily in that quaternary state of the modified/mutated Hb in which the modified/substituted residue makes the intersubunit contact. This confirms the importance of allosteric constraints in determining the dynamic properties of the heme pocket. Using modified or mutated Hbs that can switch between the alternate quaternary states within a given ligation state or ligate within a given quaternary state, we show that the major portion of the enhanced exchange rate in R-state oxy Hb relative to T-state deoxy Hb originates from the quaternary switch rather than from ligation. However, solely ligation effects are not negligible. The exchange rates of the His F8 ring labile protons increase dramatically upon oxidizing the iron to the ferric state, and both the subunit kinetic heterogeneity and the allosteric sensitivity to the quaternary state are essentially abolished

  18. Genomic and evolutionary comparisons of diazotrophic and pathogenic bacteria of the order Rhizobiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasconcelos Ana

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species belonging to the Rhizobiales are intriguing and extensively researched for including both bacteria with the ability to fix nitrogen when in symbiosis with leguminous plants and pathogenic bacteria to animals and plants. Similarities between the strategies adopted by pathogenic and symbiotic Rhizobiales have been described, as well as high variability related to events of horizontal gene transfer. Although it is well known that chromosomal rearrangements, mutations and horizontal gene transfer influence the dynamics of bacterial genomes, in Rhizobiales, the scenario that determine pathogenic or symbiotic lifestyle are not clear and there are very few studies of comparative genomic between these classes of prokaryotic microorganisms trying to delineate the evolutionary characterization of symbiosis and pathogenesis. Results Non-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria and bacteria involved in bioremediation closer to symbionts and pathogens in study may assist in the origin and ancestry genes and the gene flow occurring in Rhizobiales. The genomic comparisons of 19 species of Rhizobiales, including nitrogen-fixing, bioremediators and pathogens resulted in 33 common clusters to biological nitrogen fixation and pathogenesis, 15 clusters exclusive to all nitrogen-fixing bacteria and bacteria involved in bioremediation, 13 clusters found in only some nitrogen-fixing and bioremediation bacteria, 01 cluster exclusive to some symbionts, and 01 cluster found only in some pathogens analyzed. In BBH performed to all strains studied, 77 common genes were obtained, 17 of which were related to biological nitrogen fixation and pathogenesis. Phylogenetic reconstructions for Fix, Nif, Nod, Vir, and Trb showed possible horizontal gene transfer events, grouping species of different phenotypes. Conclusions The presence of symbiotic and virulence genes in both pathogens and symbionts does not seem to be the only determinant factor for lifestyle

  19. Genomic and evolutionary comparisons of diazotrophic and pathogenic bacteria of the order Rhizobiales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fabíola M; Souza, Rangel C; Barcellos, Fernando G; Hungria, Mariangela; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R

    2010-02-08

    Species belonging to the Rhizobiales are intriguing and extensively researched for including both bacteria with the ability to fix nitrogen when in symbiosis with leguminous plants and pathogenic bacteria to animals and plants. Similarities between the strategies adopted by pathogenic and symbiotic Rhizobiales have been described, as well as high variability related to events of horizontal gene transfer. Although it is well known that chromosomal rearrangements, mutations and horizontal gene transfer influence the dynamics of bacterial genomes, in Rhizobiales, the scenario that determine pathogenic or symbiotic lifestyle are not clear and there are very few studies of comparative genomic between these classes of prokaryotic microorganisms trying to delineate the evolutionary characterization of symbiosis and pathogenesis. Non-symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria and bacteria involved in bioremediation closer to symbionts and pathogens in study may assist in the origin and ancestry genes and the gene flow occurring in Rhizobiales. The genomic comparisons of 19 species of Rhizobiales, including nitrogen-fixing, bioremediators and pathogens resulted in 33 common clusters to biological nitrogen fixation and pathogenesis, 15 clusters exclusive to all nitrogen-fixing bacteria and bacteria involved in bioremediation, 13 clusters found in only some nitrogen-fixing and bioremediation bacteria, 01 cluster exclusive to some symbionts, and 01 cluster found only in some pathogens analyzed. In BBH performed to all strains studied, 77 common genes were obtained, 17 of which were related to biological nitrogen fixation and pathogenesis. Phylogenetic reconstructions for Fix, Nif, Nod, Vir, and Trb showed possible horizontal gene transfer events, grouping species of different phenotypes. The presence of symbiotic and virulence genes in both pathogens and symbionts does not seem to be the only determinant factor for lifestyle evolution in these microorganisms, although they may act in

  20. D19S Mutation of the Cationic, Cysteine-Rich Protein PAF: Novel Insights into Its Structural Dynamics, Thermal Unfolding and Antifungal Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Sonderegger

    Full Text Available The cysteine-rich, cationic, antifungal protein PAF is abundantly secreted into the culture supernatant of the filamentous Ascomycete Penicillium chrysogenum. The five β-strands of PAF form a compact β-barrel that is stabilized by three disulphide bonds. The folding of PAF allows the formation of four surface-exposed loops and distinct charged motifs on the protein surface that might regulate the interaction of PAF with the sensitive target fungus. The growth inhibitory activity of this highly stable protein against opportunistic fungal pathogens provides great potential in antifungal drug research. To understand its mode of action, we started to investigate the surface-exposed loops of PAF and replaced one aspartic acid at position 19 in loop 2 that is potentially involved in PAF active or binding site, with a serine (Asp19 to Ser19. We analysed the overall effects, such as unfolding, electrostatic changes, sporadic conformers and antifungal activity when substituting this specific amino acid to the fairly indifferent amino acid serine. Structural analyses revealed that the overall 3D solution structure is virtually identical with that of PAF. However, PAFD19S showed slightly increased dynamics and significant differences in the surface charge distribution. Thermal unfolding identified PAFD19S to be rather a two-state folder in contrast to the three-state folder PAF. Functional comparison of PAFD19S and PAF revealed that the exchange at residue 19 caused a dramatic loss of antifungal activity: the binding and internalization of PAFD19S by target cells was reduced and the protein failed to trigger an intracellular Ca2+ response, all of which are closely linked to the antifungal toxicity of PAF. We conclude that the negatively charged residue Asp19 in loop 2 is essential for full function of the cationic protein PAF.

  1. Germline APC mutations in hepatoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Adeline; Sisson, Rebecca; Gupta, Anita; Tiao, Greg; Geller, James I

    2018-04-01

    Conflicting reports on the frequency of germline adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene mutations in patients with hepatoblastoma (HB) have called into question the clinical value of APC mutation testing on apparently sporadic HB. An Institutional Review Board approved retrospective review of clinical data collected from patients with HB who received APC testing at our institution was conducted. All HB patients seen at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center were eligible for testing. Potential genotype/phenotype correlations were assessed. As of July 2015, 29 patients with HB had received constitutional APC testing. Four (14%) were found to have APC pathogenic truncations of the APC protein and in addition two (7%) had APC missense variants of unknown clinical significance. Two patients (7%) had family histories indicative of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). Response to chemotherapy tracked differently in APC pathogenic cases, with a slower imaging response despite an equivalent or slightly faster α-fetoprotein (AFP) response. The prevalence of pathogenic APC variants in apparently sporadic HB may be higher than previously detected. Differences in time to imaging response, despite similar AFP response, may impact surgical planning. All patients with HB warrant germline APC mutation testing for underlying FAP. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Transcriptional Dynamics Driving MAMP-Triggered Immunity and Pathogen Effector-Mediated Immunosuppression in Arabidopsis Leaves Following Infection with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Laura A; Polanski, Krzysztof; de Torres-Zabala, Marta; Jayaraman, Siddharth; Bowden, Laura; Moore, Jonathan; Penfold, Christopher A; Jenkins, Dafyd J; Hill, Claire; Baxter, Laura; Kulasekaran, Satish; Truman, William; Littlejohn, George; Prusinska, Justyna; Mead, Andrew; Steinbrenner, Jens; Hickman, Richard; Rand, David; Wild, David L; Ott, Sascha; Buchanan-Wollaston, Vicky; Smirnoff, Nick; Beynon, Jim; Denby, Katherine; Grant, Murray

    2015-11-01

    Transcriptional reprogramming is integral to effective plant defense. Pathogen effectors act transcriptionally and posttranscriptionally to suppress defense responses. A major challenge to understanding disease and defense responses is discriminating between transcriptional reprogramming associated with microbial-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered immunity (MTI) and that orchestrated by effectors. A high-resolution time course of genome-wide expression changes following challenge with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 and the nonpathogenic mutant strain DC3000hrpA- allowed us to establish causal links between the activities of pathogen effectors and suppression of MTI and infer with high confidence a range of processes specifically targeted by effectors. Analysis of this information-rich data set with a range of computational tools provided insights into the earliest transcriptional events triggered by effector delivery, regulatory mechanisms recruited, and biological processes targeted. We show that the majority of genes contributing to disease or defense are induced within 6 h postinfection, significantly before pathogen multiplication. Suppression of chloroplast-associated genes is a rapid MAMP-triggered defense response, and suppression of genes involved in chromatin assembly and induction of ubiquitin-related genes coincide with pathogen-induced abscisic acid accumulation. Specific combinations of promoter motifs are engaged in fine-tuning the MTI response and active transcriptional suppression at specific promoter configurations by P. syringae. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  3. Dynamics of Colonization and Expression of Pathogenicity Related Genes in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri during Chickpea Vascular Wilt Disease Progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medha L Upasani

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri (Foc is a constant threat to chickpea productivity in several parts of the world. Understanding the molecular basis of chickpea-Foc interaction is necessary to improve chickpea resistance to Foc and thereby the productivity of chickpea. We transformed Foc race 2 using green fluorescent protein (GFP gene and used it to characterize pathogen progression and colonization in wilt-susceptible (JG62 and wilt-resistant (Digvijay chickpea cultivars using confocal microscopy. We also employed quantitative PCR (qPCR to estimate the pathogen load and progression across various tissues of both the chickpea cultivars during the course of the disease. Additionally, the expression of several candidate pathogen virulence genes was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR, which showed their characteristic expression in wilt-susceptible and resistant chickpea cultivars. Our results suggest that the pathogen colonizes the susceptible cultivar defeating its defense; however, albeit its entry in the resistant plant, further proliferation is severely restricted providing an evidence of efficient defense mechanism in the resistant chickpea cultivar.

  4. Ecological niche of plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread. 

  5. Ecological niche of plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important for the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread.

  6. Rare beneficial mutations can halt Muller's ratchet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balick, Daniel; Goyal, Sidhartha; Jerison, Elizabeth; Neher, Richard; Shraiman, Boris; Desai, Michael

    2012-02-01

    In viral, bacterial, and other asexual populations, the vast majority of non-neutral mutations are deleterious. This motivates the application of models without beneficial mutations. Here we show that the presence of surprisingly few compensatory mutations halts fitness decay in these models. Production of deleterious mutations is balanced by purifying selection, stabilizing the fitness distribution. However, stochastic vanishing of fitness classes can lead to slow fitness decay (i.e. Muller's ratchet). For weakly deleterious mutations, production overwhelms purification, rapidly decreasing population fitness. We show that when beneficial mutations are introduced, a stable steady state emerges in the form of a dynamic mutation-selection balance. We argue this state is generic for all mutation rates and population sizes, and is reached as an end state as genomes become saturated by either beneficial or deleterious mutations. Assuming all mutations have the same magnitude selective effect, we calculate the fraction of beneficial mutations necessary to maintain the dynamic balance. This may explain the unexpected maintenance of asexual genomes, as in mitochondria, in the presence of selection. This will affect in the statistics of genetic diversity in these populations.

  7. 78 FR 35155 - Establishing a List of Qualifying Pathogens Under the Food and Drug Administration Safety and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... is thought to be a chromosomally encoded mutation in the target enzyme, although alternative... of qualifying pathogens. E. Candida Species Candida species are fungi (specifically, yeast) that are...

  8. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  9. Seasonal dynamics of freshwater pathogens as measured by microarray at Lake Sapanca, a drinking water source in the north-eastern part of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçaalan, Reyhan; Albay, Meric; Koker, Latife; Baudart, Julia; Guillebault, Delphine; Fischer, Sabine; Weigel, Wilfried; Medlin, Linda K

    2017-12-22

    Monitoring drinking water quality is an important public health issue. Two objectives from the 4 years, six nations, EU Project μAqua were to develop hierarchically specific probes to detect and quantify pathogens in drinking water using a PCR-free microarray platform and to design a standardised water sampling program from different sources in Europe to obtain sufficient material for downstream analysis. Our phylochip contains barcodes (probes) that specifically identify freshwater pathogens that are human health risks in a taxonomic hierarchical fashion such that if species is present, the entire taxonomic hierarchy (genus, family, order, phylum, kingdom) leading to it must also be present, which avoids false positives. Molecular tools are more rapid, accurate and reliable than traditional methods, which means faster mitigation strategies with less harm to humans and the community. We present microarray results for the presence of freshwater pathogens from a Turkish lake used drinking water and inferred cyanobacterial cell equivalents from samples concentrated from 40 into 1 L in 45 min using hollow fibre filters. In two companion studies from the same samples, cyanobacterial toxins were analysed using chemical methods and those dates with highest toxin values also had highest cell equivalents as inferred from this microarray study.

  10. Clinical implications of somatic mutations in aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndrome in genomic age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P; Balasubramanian, Suresh K

    2017-12-08

    Recent technological advances in genomics have led to the discovery of new somatic mutations and have brought deeper insights into clonal diversity. This discovery has changed not only the understanding of disease mechanisms but also the diagnostics and clinical management of bone marrow failure. The clinical applications of genomics include enhancement of current prognostic schemas, prediction of sensitivity or refractoriness to treatments, and conceptualization and selective application of targeted therapies. However, beyond these traditional clinical aspects, complex hierarchical clonal architecture has been uncovered and linked to the current concepts of leukemogenesis and stem cell biology. Detection of clonal mutations, otherwise typical of myelodysplastic syndrome, in the course of aplastic anemia (AA) and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria has led to new pathogenic concepts in these conditions and created a new link between AA and its clonal complications, such as post-AA and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Distinctions among founder vs subclonal mutations, types of clonal evolution (linear or branching), and biological features of individual mutations (sweeping, persistent, or vanishing) will allow for better predictions of the biologic impact they impart in individual cases. As clonal markers, mutations can be used for monitoring clonal dynamics of the stem cell compartment during physiologic aging, disease processes, and leukemic evolution. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  11. Major contribution from recurrent alterations and MSH6 mutations in the Danish Lynch syndrome population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilbert, Mef; Wikman, Friedrik P; Hansen, Thomas V O

    2009-01-01

    mutations in 164 families are considered pathogenic and an additional 50 variants from 76 families are considered to represent variants of unknown pathogenicity. The different MMR genes contribute to 40% (MSH2), 29% (MLH1), and 22% (MSH6) of the mutations and the Danish population thus shows a considerably...... higher frequency of MSH6 mutations than previously described. Although 69/88 (78%) pathogenic mutations were present in a single family, previously recognized recurrent/founder mutations were causative in 75/137 (55%) MLH1/MSH2 mutant families. In addition, the Danish MLH1 founder mutation c.1667......+2_1667_+8TAAATCAdelinsATTT was identified in 14/58 (24%) MLH1 mutant families. The Danish Lynch syndrome population thus demonstrates that MSH6 mutations and recurrent/founder mutations have a larger contribution than previously recognized, which implies that the MSH6 gene should be included in routine diagnostics...

  12. The effect of male mating competitiveness, developmental rate, and viability of larvae and pupae in D. melanogaster heterozygous for the temperature-sensitive lethal mutation 1(2)M167(DTS) on the dynamics of the mutation elimination from the population

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulikov, A. M.; Marec, František; Mitrofanov, V. G.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 5 (2005), s. 495-500 ISSN 1022-7954 Grant - others:Russian Foundation for Basic Research(RU) 02-04-50021; Program of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences "Dynamics of Gene Pools in Plants, Animals, and Humans"(RU) 10002-251/P-24/154-150/2004-04-111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : mutation elimination Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.240, year: 2005

  13. Cost Analysis of Various Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Surveillance Systems in the Dutch Egg Layer Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, N.; Gonzales, J.L.; Elbers, A.R.; Velthuis, A.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background As low pathogenic avian influenza viruses can mutate into high pathogenic viruses the Dutch poultry sector implemented a surveillance system for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) based on blood samples. It has been suggested that egg yolk samples could be sampled instead of blood

  14. Mucosal immunity to pathogenic intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lopez, Araceli; Behnsen, Judith; Nuccio, Sean-Paul; Raffatellu, Manuela

    2016-03-01

    The intestinal mucosa is a particularly dynamic environment in which the host constantly interacts with trillions of commensal microorganisms, known as the microbiota, and periodically interacts with pathogens of diverse nature. In this Review, we discuss how mucosal immunity is controlled in response to enteric bacterial pathogens, with a focus on the species that cause morbidity and mortality in humans. We explain how the microbiota can shape the immune response to pathogenic bacteria, and we detail innate and adaptive immune mechanisms that drive protective immunity against these pathogens. The vast diversity of the microbiota, pathogens and immune responses encountered in the intestines precludes discussion of all of the relevant players in this Review. Instead, we aim to provide a representative overview of how the intestinal immune system responds to pathogenic bacteria.

  15. Inferring epidemiologic dynamics from viral evolution: 2014–2015 Eurasian/North American highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses exceed transmission threshold, R0 = 1, in wild birds and poultry in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grear, Daniel R.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Dusek, Robert; Ip, Hon S.

    2018-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is a multihost pathogen with lineages that pose health risks for domestic birds, wild birds, and humans. One mechanism of intercontinental HPAIV spread is through wild bird reservoirs, and wild birds were the likely sources of a Eurasian (EA) lineage HPAIV into North America in 2014. The introduction resulted in several reassortment events with North American (NA) lineage low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses and the reassortant EA/NA H5N2 went on to cause one of the largest HPAIV poultry outbreaks in North America. We evaluated three hypotheses about novel HPAIV introduced into wild and domestic bird hosts: (i) transmission of novel HPAIVs in wild birds was restricted by mechanisms associated with highly pathogenic phenotypes; (ii) the HPAIV poultry outbreak was not self-sustaining and required viral input from wild birds; and (iii) reassortment of the EA H5N8 generated reassortant EA/NA AIVs with a fitness advantage over fully Eurasian lineages in North American wild birds. We used a time-rooted phylodynamic model that explicitly incorporated viral population dynamics with evolutionary dynamics to estimate the basic reproductive number (R0) and viral migration among host types in domestic and wild birds, as well as between the EA H5N8 and EA/NA H5N2 in wild birds. We did not find evidence to support hypothesis (i) or (ii) as our estimates of the transmission parameters suggested that the HPAIV outbreak met or exceeded the threshold for persistence in wild birds (R0 > 1) and poultry (R0 ≈ 1) with minimal estimated transmission among host types. There was also no evidence to support hypothesis (iii) because R0 values were similar among EA H5N8 and EA/NA H5N2 in wild birds. Our results suggest that this novel HPAIV and reassortments did not encounter any transmission barriers sufficient to prevent persistence when introduced to wild or domestic birds.

  16. Genetic screening of a pedigree with osteogenesis imperfecta type Ⅰand identification of a novel mutation in COL1A2 pathogenic gene%成骨不全Ⅰ型家系的基因检测和COL1A2基因新突变的致病性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣; 郭源平; 潘敬新; 郭奕斌

    2015-01-01

    To uncover the molecular pathogenic mechanism of congenital osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I, all the 103 exons of the COL1A1 (Collagen, type Ⅰ, alpha 1) and COL1A2 (Collagen, type Ⅰ, alpha 2) genes in a child with OI type Ⅰ were screened using PCR-DNA direct sequencing. The results showed no pathological mutation in COL1A1 gene, but a novel mutation c.946G>T/p.G316C in the exon 19 of COL1A2 gene, which was inherited from her father. This mutation was not found in her mother and other six phenotypically normal relatives. By denaturing high perfor-mance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) screening, the abnormal double-peak was visualized in PCR products of exon 19 of COL1A2 gene in the proband and her father, while the normal single-peak was shown in those of her mother and all the healthy controls. Using allele specific amplification (ASA) screening, a specific band of 391 bp in COL1A2 exon 19 was amplified only in the proband and her father, but not in other samples. The amino acid encoded by the mutation site is evolutionarily highly conserved, and this mutation was a“damaging”or“probably damaging”factor to OI type Ⅰ, based on the predicting results using SIFT and Polyphen-2 softwares. In conclusion, the novel c.946G>T/p.G316C mutation in COL1A2 gene is a pathogenic mutation that could result in OI type Ⅰ. If the couple wants to get pregnant again, it is necessary to screen the mutation site in COL1A2 gene through the prenatal genetic diagnosis in the first trimester or through preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in the progestation.%为了揭示成骨不全(Osteogenesis imperfecta, OI)Ⅰ型家系的分子遗传学发生机制,文章采用PCR-DNA直接测序法,对患儿 COL1A1和 COL1A2基因共103个外显子(E)进行突变检测。结果显示:患儿 COL1A1基因未发现任何病理性突变,而在 COL1A2基因 E19内发现一新的杂合错义突变(p.G316C),该突变来自其父,而其母正常,其他表型正常的6位

  17. Inactivation dynamics of 222 nm krypton-chlorine excilamp irradiation on Gram-positive and Gram-negative foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun-Won; Kim, Sang-Soon; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2018-07-01

    The object of this study was to elucidate the bactericidal mechanism of a 222 nm Krypton Chlorine (KrCl) excilamp compared with that of a 254 nm Low Pressure mercury (LP Hg) lamp. The KrCl excilamp had higher bactericidal capacity against Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and L. monocytogenes) and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria (S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7) than did the LP Hg lamp when cell suspensions in PBS were irradiated with each type of UV lamp. It was found out that the KrCl excilamp induced cell membrane damage as a form of depolarization. From the study of respiratory chain dehydrogenase activity and the lipid peroxidation assay, it was revealed that cell membrane damage was attributed to inactivation of enzymes related to generation of membrane potential and occurrence of lipid peroxidation. Direct absorption of UV radiation which led to photoreaction through formation of an excited state was one of the causes inducing cell damage. Additionally, generation of ROS and thus occurrence of secondary damage can be another cause. The LP Hg lamp only induced damage to DNA but not to other components such as lipids or proteins. This difference was derived from differences of UV radiation absorption by cellular materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantifying the Determinants of Evolutionary Dynamics Leading to Drug Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Chevereau

    Full Text Available The emergence of drug resistant pathogens is a serious public health problem. It is a long-standing goal to predict rates of resistance evolution and design optimal treatment strategies accordingly. To this end, it is crucial to reveal the underlying causes of drug-specific differences in the evolutionary dynamics leading to resistance. However, it remains largely unknown why the rates of resistance evolution via spontaneous mutations and the diversity of mutational paths vary substantially between drugs. Here we comprehensively quantify the distribution of fitness effects (DFE of mutations, a key determinant of evolutionary dynamics, in the presence of eight antibiotics representing the main modes of action. Using precise high-throughput fitness measurements for genome-wide Escherichia coli gene deletion strains, we find that the width of the DFE varies dramatically between antibiotics and, contrary to conventional wisdom, for some drugs the DFE width is lower than in the absence of stress. We show that this previously underappreciated divergence in DFE width among antibiotics is largely caused by their distinct drug-specific dose-response characteristics. Unlike the DFE, the magnitude of the changes in tolerated drug concentration resulting from genome-wide mutations is similar for most drugs but exceptionally small for the antibiotic nitrofurantoin, i.e., mutations generally have considerably smaller resistance effects for nitrofurantoin than for other drugs. A population genetics model predicts that resistance evolution for drugs with this property is severely limited and confined to reproducible mutational paths. We tested this prediction in laboratory evolution experiments using the "morbidostat", a device for evolving bacteria in well-controlled drug environments. Nitrofurantoin resistance indeed evolved extremely slowly via reproducible mutations-an almost paradoxical behavior since this drug causes DNA damage and increases the mutation

  19. Mutated hilltop inflation revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Barun Kumar

    2018-05-01

    In this work we re-investigate pros and cons of mutated hilltop inflation. Applying Hamilton-Jacobi formalism we solve inflationary dynamics and find that inflation goes on along the {W}_{-1} branch of the Lambert function. Depending on the model parameter mutated hilltop model renders two types of inflationary solutions: one corresponds to small inflaton excursion during observable inflation and the other describes large field inflation. The inflationary observables from curvature perturbation are in tune with the current data for a wide range of the model parameter. The small field branch predicts negligible amount of tensor to scalar ratio r˜ O(10^{-4}), while the large field sector is capable of generating high amplitude for tensor perturbations, r˜ O(10^{-1}). Also, the spectral index is almost independent of the model parameter along with a very small negative amount of scalar running. Finally we find that the mutated hilltop inflation closely resembles the α -attractor class of inflationary models in the limit of α φ ≫ 1.

  20. Mutation directional selection sheds light on prion pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Liang [Shandong Provincial Research Center for Bioinformatic Engineering and Technique, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Ji, Hong-Fang, E-mail: jhf@sdut.edu.cn [Shandong Provincial Research Center for Bioinformatic Engineering and Technique, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China)

    2011-07-01

    Highlights: {yields} Most pathogenic mutations possess strong directional selection, i.e., enhancing hydrophobicity or decreasing negative and increasing positive charge. {yields} Mutation-induced changes may strengthen the interactions between PrP and facilitating factors. {yields} The findings also have significant implications for exploring potential regions involved in the conformational transition from PrP{sup C} to PrP{sup Sc}. -- Abstract: As mutations in the PRNP gene account for human hereditary prion diseases (PrDs), it is crucial to elucidating how these mutations affect the central pathogenic conformational transition of normal cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}) to abnormal scrapie isoform (PrP{sup Sc}). Many studies proposed that these pathogenic mutations may make PrP more susceptible to conformational change through altering its structure stability. By evaluating the most recent observations regarding pathogenic mutations, it was found that the pathogenic mutations do not exert a uniform effect on the thermodynamic stability of the human PrP's structure. Through analyzing the reported PrDs-related mutations, we found that 25 out of 27 mutations possess strong directional selection, i.e., enhancing hydrophobicity or decreasing negative and increasing positive charge. Based on the triggering role reported by previous studies of facilitating factors in PrP{sup C} conversion, e.g., lipid and polyanion, we proposed that the mutation-induced changes may strengthen the interaction between PrP and facilitating factors, which will accelerate PrP conversion and cause PrDs.

  1. Infection Density Dynamics of the Citrus Greening Bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” in Field Populations of the Psyllid Diaphorina citri and Its Relevance to the Efficiency of Pathogen Transmission to Citrus Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukuda-Hosokawa, Rie; Sadoyama, Yasutsune; Kishaba, Misaki; Kuriwada, Takashi; Anbutsu, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing, or citrus greening, is a devastating disease of citrus plants recently spreading worldwide, which is caused by an uncultivable bacterial pathogen, “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus,” and vectored by a phloem-sucking insect, Diaphorina citri. We investigated the infection density dynamics of “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” in field populations of D. citri with experiments using field-collected insects to address how “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” infection density in the vector insect is relevant to pathogen transmission to citrus plants. Of 500 insects continuously collected from “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus”-infected citrus trees with pathological symptoms in the spring and autumn of 2009, 497 (99.4%) were “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” positive. The infections were systemic across head-thorax and abdomen, ranging from 103 to 107 bacteria per insect. In spring, the infection densities were low in March, at ∼103 bacteria per insect, increasing up to 106 to 107 bacteria per insect in April and May, and decreasing to 105 to 106 bacteria per insect in late May, whereas the infection densities were constantly ∼106 to 107 bacteria per insect in autumn. Statistical analysis suggested that several factors, such as insect sex, host trees, and collection dates, may be correlated with “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” infection densities in field D. citri populations. Inoculation experiments with citrus seedlings using field-collected “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus”-infected insects suggested that (i) “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus”-transmitting insects tend to exhibit higher infection densities than do nontransmitting insects, (ii) a threshold level (∼106 bacteria per insect) of “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” density in D. citri is required for successful transmission to citrus plants, and (iii) D. citri attaining the threshold infection level transmits “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” to citrus plants in a stochastic manner. These

  2. Revertant mutation releases confined lethal mutation, opening Pandora's box: a novel genetic pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Ogawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When two mutations, one dominant pathogenic and the other "confining" nonsense, coexist in the same allele, theoretically, reversion of the latter may elicit a disease, like the opening of Pandora's box. However, cases of this hypothetical pathogenic mechanism have never been reported. We describe a lethal form of keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID syndrome caused by the reversion of the GJB2 nonsense mutation p.Tyr136X that would otherwise have confined the effect of another dominant lethal mutation, p.Gly45Glu, in the same allele. The patient's mother had the identical misssense mutation which was confined by the nonsense mutation. The biological relationship between the parents and the child was confirmed by genotyping of 15 short tandem repeat loci. Haplotype analysis using 40 SNPs spanning the >39 kbp region surrounding the GJB2 gene and an extended SNP microarray analysis spanning 83,483 SNPs throughout chromosome 13 in the family showed that an allelic recombination event involving the maternal allele carrying the mutations generated the pathogenic allele unique to the patient, although the possibility of coincidental accumulation of spontaneous point mutations cannot be completely excluded. Previous reports and our mutation screening support that p.Gly45Glu is in complete linkage disequilibrium with p.Tyr136X in the Japanese population. Estimated from statisitics in the literature, there may be approximately 11,000 p.Gly45Glu carriers in the Japanese population who have this second-site confining mutation, which acts as natural genetic protection from the lethal disease. The reversion-triggered onset of the disesase shown in this study is a previously unreported genetic pathogenesis based on Mendelian inheritance.

  3. Screening of 99 Danish patients with congenital heart disease for GATA4 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Litu; Tümer, Zeynep; Jacobsen, Joes Ramsøe

    2006-01-01

    stenosis. We have screened 99 unrelated Danish patients with different CHD phenotypes to evaluate the prevalence of GATA4 mutations in CHD. No pathogenic mutations were found among the patients, suggesting that GATA4 mutations are relatively rare among CHD patients. Thus, the diagnostic importance of GATA4...

  4. Alzheimer's Disease Phenotypes and Genotypes Associated with Mutations in Presenilin 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayadev, Suman; Leverenz, James B.; Steinbart, Ellen; Stahl, Justin; Klunk, William; Yu, Cheng-En; Bird, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in presenilin 2 are rare causes of early onset familial Alzheimer's disease. Eighteen presenilin 2 mutations have been reported, although not all have been confirmed pathogenic. Much remains to be learned about the range of phenotypes associated with these mutations. We have analysed our unique collection of 146 affected cases in 11…

  5. Transposable elements as stress adaptive capacitors induce genomic instability in fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Chadha

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in fungal pathogenesis is to elucidate the evolutionary forces responsible for genomic rearrangements leading to races with fitter genotypes. Understanding the adaptive evolutionary mechanisms requires identification of genomic components and environmental factors reshaping the genome of fungal pathogens to adapt. Herein, Magnaporthe oryzae, a model fungal plant pathogen is used to demonstrate the impact of environmental cues on transposable elements (TE based genome dynamics. For heat shock and copper stress exposed samples, eight TEs belonging to class I and II family were employed to obtain DNA profiles. Stress induced mutant bands showed a positive correlation with dose/duration of stress and provided evidences of TEs role in stress adaptiveness. Further, we demonstrate that genome dynamics differ for the type/family of TEs upon stress exposition and previous reports of stress induced MAGGY transposition has underestimated the role of TEs in M. oryzae. Here, we identified Pyret, MAGGY, Pot3, MINE, Mg-SINE, Grasshopper and MGLR3 as contributors of high genomic instability in M. oryzae in respective order. Sequencing of mutated bands led to the identification of LTR-retrotransposon sequences within regulatory regions of psuedogenes. DNA transposon Pot3 was identified in the coding regions of chromatin remodelling protein containing tyrosinase copper-binding and PWWP domains. LTR-retrotransposons Pyret and MAGGY are identified as key components responsible for the high genomic instability and perhaps these TEs are utilized by M. oryzae for its acclimatization to adverse environmental conditions. Our results demonstrate how common field stresses change genome dynamics of pathogen and provide perspective to explore the role of TEs in genome adaptability, signalling network and its impact on the virulence of fungal pathogens.

  6. Mandibulofacial Dysostosis with Microcephaly: Mutation and Database Update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Pernille Axel

    2016-01-01

    , we review the molecular basis of MFDM in the 69 individuals described to date, and report mutations in 38 new individuals, bringing the total number of reported individuals to 107 individuals from 94 kindreds. Pathogenic EFTUD2 variants comprise 76 distinct mutations and 7 microdeletions. Among point...... mutations, missense substitutions are infrequent (14/76; 18%) relative to stopgain (29/76; 38%), and splicing (33/76; 43%) mutations. Where known, mutation origin was de novo in 48/64 individuals (75%), dominantly-inherited in 12/64 (19%), and due to proven germline mosaicism in 4/64 (6%). Highly penetrant......-reported anomalies, include vestibular and ossicular malformations, reduced mouth opening, atrophy of cerebral white matter, structural brain malformations, and epibulbar dermoid. All reported EFTUD2 mutations can be found in the EFTUD2 mutation database (http://databases.lovd.nl/shared/genes/EFTUD2). This article...

  7. AMPK in Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Mesquita, Inês Morais; Moreira, Diana; Marques, Belém Sampaio; Laforge, Mireille; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Ludovico, Paula; Estaquier, Jérôme; Silvestre, Ricardo Jorge Leal

    2016-01-01

    During host–pathogen interactions, a complex web of events is crucial for the outcome of infection. Pathogen recognition triggers powerful cellular signaling events that is translated into the induction and maintenance of innate and adaptive host immunity against infection. In opposition, pathogens employ active mechanisms to manipulate host cell regulatory pathways toward their proliferation and survival. Among these, subversion of host cell energy metabolism by pathogens is currently recogn...

  8. The mutational spectrum of Lynch syndrome in cyprus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Loizidou

    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome is the most common form of hereditary colorectal cancer and is caused by germline mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Mutation carriers have an increased lifetime risk of developing colorectal cancer as well as other extracolonic tumours. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the frequency and distribution of mutations in the MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 genes within a cohort of Cypriot families that fulfilled the revised Bethesda guidelines. The study cohort included 77 patients who fulfilled at least one of the revised Bethesda guidelines. Mutational analysis revealed the presence of 4 pathogenic mutations, 3 in the MLH1 gene and 1 in the MSH2 gene, in 5 unrelated individuals. It is noted that out of the 4 pathogenic mutations detected, one is novel (c.1610delG in exon 14 of the MLH1 and has been detected for the first time in the Cypriot population. Overall, the pathogenic mutation detection rate in our patient cohort was 7%. This percentage is relatively low but could be explained by the fact that the sole criterion for genetic screening was compliance to the revised Bethesda guidelines. Larger numbers of Lynch syndrome families and screening of the two additional predisposition genes, PMS2 and EPCAM, are needed in order to decipher the full spectrum of mutations associated with Lynch syndrome predisposition in Cyprus.

  9. Exact Solution of Mutator Model with Linear Fitness and Finite Genome Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saakian, David B.

    2017-08-01

    We considered the infinite population version of the mutator phenomenon in evolutionary dynamics, looking at the uni-directional mutations in the mutator-specific genes and linear selection. We solved exactly the model for the finite genome length case, looking at the quasispecies version of the phenomenon. We calculated the mutator probability both in the statics and dynamics. The exact solution is important for us because the mutator probability depends on the genome length in a highly non-trivial way.

  10. Evolutionary dynamics of bacteria in a human host environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Lei; Jelsbak, Lars; Marvig, Rasmus Lykke

    2011-01-01

    Laboratory evolution experiments have led to important findings relating organism adaptation and genomic evolution. However, continuous monitoring of long-term evolution has been lacking for natural systems, limiting our understanding of these processes in situ. Here we characterize the evolution...... long-term in vitro evolution experiments. The evolved phenotype of the infecting bacteria further suggests that the opportunistic pathogen has transitioned to become a primary pathogen for cystic fibrosis patients.......Laboratory evolution experiments have led to important findings relating organism adaptation and genomic evolution. However, continuous monitoring of long-term evolution has been lacking for natural systems, limiting our understanding of these processes in situ. Here we characterize...... the evolutionary dynamics of a lineage of a clinically important opportunistic bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as it adapts to the airways of several individual cystic fibrosis patients over 200,000 bacterial generations, and provide estimates of mutation rates of bacteria in a natural environment...

  11. A gene transfer agent and a dynamic repertoire of secretion systems hold the keys to the explosive radiation of the emerging pathogen Bartonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Guy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gene transfer agents (GTAs randomly transfer short fragments of a bacterial genome. A novel putative GTA was recently discovered in the mouse-infecting bacterium Bartonella grahamii. Although GTAs are widespread in phylogenetically diverse bacteria, their role in evolution is largely unknown. Here, we present a comparative analysis of 16 Bartonella genomes ranging from 1.4 to 2.6 Mb in size, including six novel genomes from Bartonella isolated from a cow, two moose, two dogs, and a kangaroo. A phylogenetic tree inferred from 428 orthologous core genes indicates that the deadly human pathogen B. bacilliformis is related to the ruminant-adapted clade, rather than being the earliest diverging species in the genus as previously thought. A gene flux analysis identified 12 genes for a GTA and a phage-derived origin of replication as the most conserved innovations. These are located in a region of a few hundred kb that also contains 8 insertions of gene clusters for type III, IV, and V secretion systems, and genes for putatively secreted molecules such as cholera-like toxins. The phylogenies indicate a recent transfer of seven genes in the virB gene cluster for a type IV secretion system from a cat-adapted B. henselae to a dog-adapted B. vinsonii strain. We show that the B. henselae GTA is functional and can transfer genes in vitro. We suggest that the maintenance of the GTA is driven by selection to increase the likelihood of horizontal gene transfer and argue that this process is beneficial at the population level, by facilitating adaptive evolution of the host-adaptation systems and thereby expansion of the host range size. The process counters gene loss and forces all cells to contribute to the production of the GTA and the secreted molecules. The results advance our understanding of the role that GTAs play for the evolution of bacterial genomes.

  12. A quantitative quasispecies theory-based model of virus escape mutation under immune selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyung-June; Reifman, Jaques

    2012-08-07

    Viral infections involve a complex interplay of the immune response and escape mutation of the virus quasispecies inside a single host. Although fundamental aspects of such a balance of mutation and selection pressure have been established by the quasispecies theory decades ago, its implications have largely remained qualitative. Here, we present a quantitative approach to model the virus evolution under cytotoxic T-lymphocyte immune response. The virus quasispecies dynamics are explicitly represented by mutations in the combined sequence space of a set of epitopes within the viral genome. We stochastically simulated the growth of a viral population originating from a single wild-type founder virus and its recognition and clearance by the immune response, as well as the expansion of its genetic diversity. Applied to the immune escape of a simian immunodeficiency virus epitope, model predictions were quantitatively comparable to the experimental data. Within the model parameter space, we found two qualitatively different regimes of infectious disease pathogenesis, each representing alternative fates of the immune response: It can clear the infection in finite time or eventually be overwhelmed by viral growth and escape mutation. The latter regime exhibits the characteristic disease progression pattern of human immunodeficiency virus, while the former is bounded by maximum mutation rates that can be suppressed by the immune response. Our results demonstrate that, by explicitly representing epitope mutations and thus providing a genotype-phenotype map, the quasispecies theory can form the basis of a detailed sequence-specific model of real-world viral pathogens evolving under immune selection.

  13. Origin, functional role, and clinical impact of Fanconi anemia FANCA mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Castella, Maria; Pujol, Roser; Callén, Elsa; Trujillo, Juan P.; Casado, José A.; Gille, Hans; Lach, Francis P.; Auerbach, Arleen D.; Schindler, Detlev; Benítez, Javier; Porto, Beatriz; Ferro, Teresa; Muñoz, Arturo; Sevilla, Julián; Madero, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Fanconi anemia is characterized by congenital abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and cancer predisposition. To investigate the origin, functional role, and clinical impact of FANCA mutations, we determined a FANCA mutational spectrum with 130 pathogenic alleles. Some of these mutations were further characterized for their distribution in populations, mode of emergence, or functional consequences at cellular and clinical level. The world most frequent FANCA mutation is not the result of a mut...

  14. Recurrent occurrences of CDKL5 mutations in patients with epileptic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshiyuki; Shimojima, Keiko; Kimura, Nobusuke; Mogami, Yukiko; Usui, Daisuke; Takayama, Rumiko; Ikeda, Hiroko; Imai, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    The cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5) is recognized as one of the genes responsible for epileptic encephalopathy. We identified CDKL5 mutations in five Japanese patients (one male and four female) with epileptic encephalopathy. Although all mutations were of de novo origin, they were located in the same positions as previously reported pathogenic mutations. These recurrent occurrences of de novo mutations in the same loci may indicate hot spots of nucleotide alteration.

  15. Adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michod, Richard E; Bernstein, Harris; Nedelcu, Aurora M

    2008-05-01

    Explaining the adaptive value of sex is one of the great outstanding problems in biology. The challenge comes from the difficulty in identifying the benefits provided by sex, which must outweigh the substantial costs of sex. Here, we consider the adaptive value of sex in viruses, bacteria and fungi, and particularly the information available on the adaptive role of sex in pathogenic microorganisms. Our general theme is that the varied aspects of sex in pathogens illustrate the varied issues surrounding the evolution of sex generally. These include, the benefits of sex (in the short- and long-term), as well as the costs of sex (both to the host and to the pathogen). For the benefits of sex (that is, its adaptive value), we consider three hypotheses: (i) sex provides for effective and efficient recombinational repair of DNA damages, (ii) sex provides DNA for food, and (iii) sex produces variation and reduces genetic associations among alleles under selection. Although the evolution of sex in microbial pathogens illustrates these general issues, our paper is not a general review of theories for the evolution of sex in all organisms. Rather, we focus on the adaptive value of sex in microbial pathogens and conclude that in terms of short-term benefits, the DNA repair hypothesis has the most support and is the most generally applicable hypothesis in this group. In particular, recombinational repair of DNA damages may substantially benefit pathogens when challenged by the oxidative defenses of the host. However, in the long-term, sex may help get rid of mutations, increase the rate of adaptation of the population, and, in pathogens, may infrequently create new infective strains. An additional general issue about sex illustrated by pathogens is that some of the most interesting consequences of sex are not necessarily the reasons for which sex evolved. For example, antibiotic resistance may be transferred by bacterial sex, but this transfer is probably not the reason sex

  16. Effects of mutations on the molecular dynamics of oxygen escape from the dimeric hemoglobin of Scapharca inaequivalvis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/52d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Trujillo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Like many hemoglobins, the structure of the dimeric hemoglobin from the clam Scapharca inaequivalvis is a “closed bottle” since there is no direct tunnel from the oxygen binding site on the heme to the solvent.  The proximal histidine faces the dimer interface, which consists of the E and F helicies.  This is significantly different from tetrameric vertebrate hemoglobins and brings the heme groups near the subunit interface. The subunit interface is also characterized by an immobile, hydrogen-bonded network of water molecules.  Although there is data which is consistent with the histidine gate pathway for ligand escape, these aspects of the structure would seem to make that pathway less likely. Locally enhanced sampling molecular dynamics are used here to suggest alternative pathways in the wild-type and six mutant proteins. In most cases the point mutations change the selection of exit routes observed in the simulations. Exit via the histidine gate is rarely seem although oxygen molecules do occasionally cross over the interface from one subunit to the other. The results suggest that changes in flexibility and, in some cases, creation of new cavities can explain the effects of the mutations on ligand exit paths.

  17. Infection Density Dynamics of the Citrus Greening Bacterium "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" in Field Populations of the Psyllid Diaphorina citri and Its Relevance to the Efficiency of Pathogen Transmission to Citrus Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukuda-Hosokawa, Rie; Sadoyama, Yasutsune; Kishaba, Misaki; Kuriwada, Takashi; Anbutsu, Hisashi; Fukatsu, Takema

    2015-06-01

    Huanglongbing, or citrus greening, is a devastating disease of citrus plants recently spreading worldwide, which is caused by an uncultivable bacterial pathogen, "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus," and vectored by a phloem-sucking insect, Diaphorina citri. We investigated the infection density dynamics of "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" in field populations of D. citri with experiments using field-collected insects to address how "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" infection density in the vector insect is relevant to pathogen transmission to citrus plants. Of 500 insects continuously collected from "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-infected citrus trees with pathological symptoms in the spring and autumn of 2009, 497 (99.4%) were "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" positive. The infections were systemic across head-thorax and abdomen, ranging from 10(3) to 10(7) bacteria per insect. In spring, the infection densities were low in March, at ∼ 10(3) bacteria per insect, increasing up to 10(6) to 10(7) bacteria per insect in April and May, and decreasing to 10(5) to 10(6) bacteria per insect in late May, whereas the infection densities were constantly ∼ 10(6) to 10(7) bacteria per insect in autumn. Statistical analysis suggested that several factors, such as insect sex, host trees, and collection dates, may be correlated with "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" infection densities in field D. citri populations. Inoculation experiments with citrus seedlings using field-collected "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-infected insects suggested that (i) "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus"-transmitting insects tend to exhibit higher infection densities than do nontransmitting insects, (ii) a threshold level (∼ 10(6) bacteria per insect) of "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" density in D. citri is required for successful transmission to citrus plants, and (iii) D. citri attaining the threshold infection level transmits "Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus" to citrus plants in a stochastic manner. These findings provide

  18. Quorum Sensing: A Transcriptional Regulatory System Involved in the Pathogenicity of Burkholderia mallei

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ulrich, Ricky L; DeShazer, David; Hines, Harry B; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A

    2004-01-01

    .... To determine if QS is involved in the virulence of B. mallei, we generated mutations in each putative luxIR homologue and tested the pathogenicities of the derivative strains in aerosol BALB/c mouse and intraperitoneal hamster models...

  19. Quorum Sensing: A transcriptional Regulatory System Involved in the Pathogenicity of Burkholderia mallei

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ulrich, Ricky

    2004-01-01

    .... To determine if QS is involved in the virulence of B. mallei, we generated mutations in each putative luxIR homologue and tested the pathogenicities of the derivative strains in aerosol BALB/c mouse and intraperitoneal hamster models...

  20. Genetic changes that accompanied shifts of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses toward higher pathogenicity in poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwhab, El-Sayed M; Veits, Jutta; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2013-01-01

    Avian influenza viruses (AIV) of H5 and H7 subtypes exhibit two different pathotypes in poultry: infection with low pathogenic (LP) strains results in minimal, if any, health disturbances, whereas highly pathogenic (HP) strains cause severe morbidity and mortality. LPAIV of H5 and H7 subtypes can spontaneously mutate into HPAIV. Ten outbreaks caused by HPAIV are known to have been preceded by circulation of a predecessor LPAIV in poultry. Three of them were caused by H5N2 subtype and seven involved H7 subtype in combination with N1, N3, or N7. Here, we review those outbreaks and summarize the genetic changes which resulted in the transformation of LPAIV to HPAIV under natural conditions. Mutations that were found directly in those outbreaks are more likely to be linked to virulence, pathogenesis, and early adaptation of AIV. PMID:23863606

  1. Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Lawrence E

    2001-01-01

    Beginning text presents complete theoretical treatment of mechanical model systems and deals with technological applications. Topics include introduction to calculus of vectors, particle motion, dynamics of particle systems and plane rigid bodies, technical applications in plane motions, theory of mechanical vibrations, and more. Exercises and answers appear in each chapter.

  2. Germline cytotoxic lymphocytes defective mutations in Chinese patients with lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Fang; Wang, Mangju; Teng, Wen; Lin, Yuehui; Han, Xiangping; Jin, Fangyuan; Xu, Yuanli; Cao, Panxiang; Fang, Jiancheng; Zhu, Ping; Tong, Chunrong; Liu, Hongxing

    2017-11-01

    Certain patients with lymphoma may harbor mutations in perforin 1 (PRF1), unc-13 homolog D (UNC13D), syntaxin 11 (STX11), STXBP2 (syntaxin binding protein 2) or SH2 domain containing 1A (SH2D1A), which causes functional defects of cytotoxic lymphocytes. Data regarding the association between genetic defects and the development of lymphoma in Chinese patients are limited to date. In the present study, 90 patients with lymphoma were analyzed for UNC13D, PRF1, STXBP2, STX11, SH2D1A and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis. Mutations were observed in 24 (26.67%) patients; 16 patients exhibited mutations in UNC13D, 7 exhibited PRF1 mutations, and 1 exhibited monoallelic mutation in STX11. UNC13D c.2588G>A/p.G863D mutation was detected in 9 patients (10.00%) and in 4/210 controls (1.90%). This mutation was predicted to be pathogenic and it predominantly existed in the Chinese population. These findings suggest that impaired cytotoxic machinery may represent a predisposing factor for the development of lymphoma. Furthermore, these data describe a distinct mutation spectrum in Chinese patients with lymphoma, whereby UNC13D is the most frequently mutated gene. In addition, these findings suggest UNC13D c.2588G>A mutation is a founder mutation in Chinese patients.

  3. Pathogenicity of Human ST23 Streptococcus agalactiae to Fish and Genomic Comparison of Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae, or Group B Streptococcus (GBS, is a major pathogen causing neonatal sepsis and meningitis, bovine mastitis, and fish meningoencephalitis. CC23, including its namesake ST23, is not only the predominant GBS strain derived from human and cattle, but also can infect a variety of homeothermic and poikilothermic species. However, it has never been characterized in fish. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of ST23 GBS to fish and explore the mechanisms causing the difference in the pathogenicity of ST23 GBS based on the genome analysis. Infection of tilapia with 10 human-derived ST23 GBS isolates caused tissue damage and the distribution of pathogens within tissues. The mortality rate of infection was ranged from 76 to 100%, and it was shown that the mortality rate caused by only three human isolates had statistically significant difference compared with fish-derived ST7 strain (P < 0.05, whereas the mortality caused by other seven human isolates did not show significant difference compared with fish-derived ST7 strain. The genome comparison and prophage analysis showed that the major genome difference between virulent and non-virulent ST23 GBS was attributed to the different prophage sequences. The prophage in the P1 region contained about 43% GC and encoded 28–39 proteins, which can mediate the acquisition of YafQ/DinJ structure for GBS by phage recombination. YafQ/DinJ belongs to one of the bacterial toxin–antitoxin (TA systems and allows cells to cope with stress. The ST23 GBS strains carrying this prophage were not pathogenic to tilapia, but the strains without the prophage or carrying the pophage that had gene mutation or deletion, especially the deletion of YafQ/DinJ structure, were highly pathogenic to tilapia. In conclusion, human ST23 GBS is highly pathogenic to fish, which may be related to the phage recombination.

  4. Distinguishing pathogenic mutations from background genetic noise in cardiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghouse, J; Skov, M W; Bigseth, R S

    2018-01-01

    , continuous efforts through data sharing, international collaborative efforts to develop disease-gene-specific guidelines, and computational analyses using large data, will indubitably assist in better variant interpretation and classification. This article discusses the current, and quickly changing, state...

  5. Genotype-specific pathogenic effects in human dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Ilse A E; Schuldt, Maike; Harakalova, Magdalena; Vink, Aryan; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Pinto, Jose R; Krüger, Martina; Kuster, Diederik W D; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2017-07-15

    Mutations in genes encoding cardiac troponin I (TNNI3) and cardiac troponin T (TNNT2) caused altered troponin protein stoichiometry in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. TNNI3 p.98trunc resulted in haploinsufficiency, increased Ca 2+ -sensitivity and reduced length-dependent activation. TNNT2 p.K217del caused increased passive tension. A mutation in the gene encoding Lamin A/C (LMNA p.R331Q ) led to reduced maximal force development through secondary disease remodelling in patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy. Our study shows that different gene mutations induce dilated cardiomyopathy via diverse cellular pathways. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) can be caused by mutations in sarcomeric and non-sarcomeric genes. In this study we defined the pathogenic effects of three DCM-causing mutations: the sarcomeric mutations in genes encoding cardiac troponin I (TNNI3 p.98truncation ) and cardiac troponin T (TNNT2 p.K217deletion ; also known as the p.K210del) and the non-sarcomeric gene mutation encoding lamin A/C (LMNA p.R331Q ). We assessed sarcomeric protein expression and phosphorylation and contractile behaviour in single membrane-permeabilized cardiomyocytes in human left ventricular heart tissue. Exchange with recombinant troponin complex was used to establish the direct pathogenic effects of the mutations in TNNI3 and TNNT2. The TNNI3 p.98trunc and TNNT2 p.K217del mutation showed reduced expression of troponin I to 39% and 51%, troponin T to 64% and 53%, and troponin C to 73% and 97% of controls, respectively, and altered stoichiometry between the three cardiac troponin subunits. The TNNI3 p.98trunc showed pure haploinsufficiency, increased Ca 2+ -sensitivity and impaired length-dependent activation. The TNNT2 p.K217del mutation showed a significant increase in passive tension that was not due to changes in titin isoform composition or phosphorylation. Exchange with wild-type troponin complex corrected troponin protein levels to 83% of controls in the TNNI3

  6. Genotype‐specific pathogenic effects in human dilated cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Maike; Harakalova, Magdalena; Vink, Aryan; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Pinto, Jose R.; Krüger, Martina; Kuster, Diederik W. D.; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2017-01-01

    Key points Mutations in genes encoding cardiac troponin I (TNNI3) and cardiac troponin T (TNNT2) caused altered troponin protein stoichiometry in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. TNNI3p.98trunc resulted in haploinsufficiency, increased Ca2+‐sensitivity and reduced length‐dependent activation. TNNT2p.K217del caused increased passive tension.A mutation in the gene encoding Lamin A/C (LMNA p.R331Q) led to reduced maximal force development through secondary disease remodelling in patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy.Our study shows that different gene mutations induce dilated cardiomyopathy via diverse cellular pathways. Abstract Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) can be caused by mutations in sarcomeric and non‐sarcomeric genes. In this study we defined the pathogenic effects of three DCM‐causing mutations: the sarcomeric mutations in genes encoding cardiac troponin I (TNNI3p.98truncation) and cardiac troponin T (TNNT2p.K217deletion; also known as the p.K210del) and the non‐sarcomeric gene mutation encoding lamin A/C (LMNAp.R331Q). We assessed sarcomeric protein expression and phosphorylation and contractile behaviour in single membrane‐permeabilized cardiomyocytes in human left ventricular heart tissue. Exchange with recombinant troponin complex was used to establish the direct pathogenic effects of the mutations in TNNI3 and TNNT2. The TNNI3p.98trunc and TNNT2p.K217del mutation showed reduced expression of troponin I to 39% and 51%, troponin T to 64% and 53%, and troponin C to 73% and 97% of controls, respectively, and altered stoichiometry between the three cardiac troponin subunits. The TNNI3p.98trunc showed pure haploinsufficiency, increased Ca2+‐sensitivity and impaired length‐dependent activation. The TNNT2p.K217del mutation showed a significant increase in passive tension that was not due to changes in titin isoform composition or phosphorylation. Exchange with wild‐type troponin complex corrected troponin protein levels to 83% of

  7. Time-Resolved Tracking of Mutations Reveals Diverse Allele Dynamics during Escherichia coli Antimicrobial Adaptive Evolution to Single Drugs and Drug Pairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hickman, Rachel A.; Munck, Christian; Sommer, Morten Otto Alexander

    2017-01-01

    + CHL and CHL + CIP). We find that lineages evolved to antibiotic combinations exhibit different resistance allele dynamics compared with those of single-drug evolved lineages, especially for a drug pair with reciprocal collateral sensitivity. During adaptation, we observed interfering, superimposing...

  8. MAPPIN: a method for annotating, predicting pathogenicity and mode of inheritance for nonsynonymous variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosalia, Nehal; Economides, Aris N; Dewey, Frederick E; Balasubramanian, Suganthi

    2017-10-13

    Nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants (nsSNVs) constitute about 50% of known disease-causing mutations and understanding their functional impact is an area of active research. Existing algorithms predict pathogenicity of nsSNVs; however, they are unable to differentiate heterozygous, dominant disease-causing variants from heterozygous carrier variants that lead to disease only in the homozygous state. Here, we present MAPPIN (Method for Annotating, Predicting Pathogenicity, and mode of Inheritance for Nonsynonymous variants), a prediction method which utilizes a random forest algorithm to distinguish between nsSNVs with dominant, recessive, and benign effects. We apply MAPPIN to a set of Mendelian disease-causing mutations and accurately predict pathogenicity for all mutations. Furthermore, MAPPIN predicts mode of inheritance correctly for 70.3% of nsSNVs. MAPPIN also correctly predicts pathogenicity for 87.3% of mutations from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study with a 78.5% accuracy for mode of inheritance. When tested on a larger collection of mutations from the Human Gene Mutation Database, MAPPIN is able to significantly discriminate between mutations in known dominant and recessive genes. Finally, we demonstrate that MAPPIN outperforms CADD and Eigen in predicting disease inheritance modes for all validation datasets. To our knowledge, MAPPIN is the first nsSNV pathogenicity prediction algorithm that provides mode of inheritance predictions, adding another layer of information for variant prioritization. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Screening for duplications, deletions and a common intronic mutation detects 35% of second mutations in patients with USH2A monoallelic mutations on Sanger sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele-Stallard, Heather B; Le Quesne Stabej, Polona; Lenassi, Eva; Luxon, Linda M; Claustres, Mireille; Roux, Anne-Francoise; Webster, Andrew R; Bitner-Glindzicz, Maria

    2013-08-08

    Usher Syndrome is the leading cause of inherited deaf-blindness. It is divided into three subtypes, of which the most common is Usher type 2, and the USH2A gene accounts for 75-80% of cases. Despite recent sequencing strategies, in our cohort a significant proportion of individuals with Usher type 2 have just one heterozygous disease-causing mutation in USH2A, or no convincing disease-causing mutations across nine Usher genes. The purpose of this study was to improve the molecular diagnosis in these families by screening USH2A for duplications, heterozygous deletions and a common pathogenic deep intronic variant USH2A: c.7595-2144A>G. Forty-nine Usher type 2 or atypical Usher families who had missing mutations (mono-allelic USH2A or no mutations following Sanger sequencing of nine Usher genes) were screened for duplications/deletions using the USH2A SALSA MLPA reagent kit (MRC-Holland). Identification of USH2A: c.7595-2144A>G was achieved by Sanger sequencing. Mutations were confirmed by a combination of reverse transcription PCR using RNA extracted from nasal epithelial cells or fibroblasts, and by array comparative genomic hybridisation with sequencing across the genomic breakpoints. Eight mutations were identified in 23 Usher type 2 families (35%) with one previously identified heterozygous disease-causing mutation in USH2A. These consisted of five heterozygous deletions, one duplication, and two heterozygous instances of the pathogenic variant USH2A: c.7595-2144A>G. No variants were found in the 15 Usher type 2 families with no previously identified disease-causing mutations. In 11 atypical families, none of whom had any previously identified convincing disease-causing mutations, the mutation USH2A: c.7595-2144A>G was identified in a heterozygous state in one family. All five deletions and the heterozygous duplication we report here are novel. This is the first time that a duplication in USH2A has been reported as a cause of Usher syndrome. We found that 8 of

  10. Comparison of temporal and spatial dynamics of seasonal H3N2, pandemic H1N1 and highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus infections in ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M A van den Brand

    Full Text Available Humans may be infected by different influenza A viruses--seasonal, pandemic, and zoonotic--which differ in presentation from mild upper respiratory tract disease to severe and sometimes fatal pneumonia with extra-respiratory spread. Differences in spatial and temporal dynamics of these infections are poorly understood. Therefore, we inoculated ferrets with seasonal H3N2, pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1, and highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza virus and performed detailed virological and pathological analyses at time points from 0.5 to 14 days post inoculation (dpi, as well as describing clinical signs and hematological parameters. H3N2 infection was restricted to the nose and peaked at 1 dpi. pH1N1 infection also peaked at 1 dpi, but occurred at similar levels throughout the respiratory tract. H5N1 infection occurred predominantly in the alveoli, where it peaked for a longer period, from 1 to 3 dpi. The associated lesions followed the same spatial distribution as virus infection, but their severity peaked between 1 and 6 days later. Neutrophil and monocyte counts in peripheral blood correlated with inflammatory cell influx in the alveoli. Of the different parameters used to measure lower respiratory tract disease, relative lung weight and affected lung tissue allowed the best quantitative distinction between the virus groups. There was extra-respiratory spread to more tissues--including the central nervous system--for H5N1 infection than for pH1N1 infection, and to none for H3N2 infection. This study shows that seasonal, pandemic, and zoonotic influenza viruses differ strongly in the spatial and temporal dynamics of infection in the respiratory tract and extra-respiratory tissues of ferrets.

  11. [FANCA gene mutation analysis in Fanconi anemia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Peng, Guang-Jie; Zhang, Kejian; Hu, Qun; Zhang, Liu-Qing; Liu, Ai-Guo

    2005-10-01

    To screen the FANCA gene mutation and explore the FANCA protein function in Fanconi anemia (FA) patients. FANCA protein expression and its interaction with FANCF were analyzed using Western blot and immunoprecipitation in 3 cases of FA-A. Genomic DNA was used for MLPA analysis followed by sequencing. FANCA protein was undetectable and FANCA and FANCF protein interaction was impaired in these 3 cases of FA-A. Each case of FA-A contained biallelic pathogenic mutations in FANCA gene. No functional FANCA protein was found in these 3 cases of FA-A, and intragenic deletion, frame shift and splice site mutation were the major pathogenic mutations found in FANCA gene.

  12. Health risks for ataxia-telangiectasia mutated heterozygotes : a systematic review, meta-analysis and evidence-based guideline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, N J H; Roeleveld, N; Weemaes, C M R; Jongmans, M C J; Janssens, G O; Taylor, A M R; Hoogerbrugge, N; Willemsen, Michel A A P

    Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with immunodeficiency and an increased risk of developing cancer, caused by mutations in the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene. Logically, blood relatives may also carry a pathogenic ATM mutation. Female carriers

  13. The directed mutation controversy and neo-Darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, R E; Mittler, J E

    1993-01-08

    According to neo-Darwinian theory, random mutation produces genetic differences among organisms whereas natural selection tends to increase the frequency of advantageous alleles. However, several recent papers claim that certain mutations in bacteria and yeast occur at much higher rates specifically when the mutant phenotypes are advantageous. Various molecular models have been proposed that might explain these directed mutations, but the models have not been confirmed. Critics contend that studies purporting to demonstrate directed mutation lack certain controls and fail to account adequately for population dynamics. Further experiments that address these criticisms do not support the existence of directed mutations.

  14. Pathogenic mechanisms of pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Murli; Verma, Alok Kumar; Venkateshaiah, Sathisha Upparahalli; Sanders, Nathan L; Mishra, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatitis is inflammation of pancreas and caused by a number of factors including pancreatic duct obstruction, alcoholism, and mutation in the cationic trypsinogen gene. Pancreatitis is represented as acute pancreatitis with acute inflammatory responses and; chronic pancreatitis characterized by marked stroma formation with a high number of infiltrating granulocytes (such as neutrophils, eosinophils), monocytes, macrophages and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). These inflammatory cells are known to play a central role in initiating and promoting inflammation including pancreatic fibrosis, i.e., a major risk factor for pancreatic cancer. A number of inflammatory cytokines are known to involve in promoting pancreatic pathogenesis that lead pancreatic fibrosis. Pancreatic fibrosis is a dynamic phenomenon that requires an intricate network of several autocrine and paracrine signaling pathways. In this review, we have provided the details of various cytokines and molecular mechanistic pathways (i.e., Transforming growth factor-β/SMAD, mitogen-activated protein kinases, Rho kinase, Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators, and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase) that have a critical role in the activation of PSCs to promote chronic pancreatitis and trigger the phenomenon of pancreatic fibrogenesis. In this review of literature, we discuss the involvement of several pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as in interleukin (IL)-1, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 IL-10, IL-18, IL-33 and tumor necrosis factor-α, in the pathogenesis of disease. Our review also highlights the significance of several experimental animal models that have an important role in dissecting the mechanistic pathways operating in the development of chronic pancreatitis, including pancreatic fibrosis. Additionally, we provided several intermediary molecules that are involved in major signaling pathways that might provide target molecules for future therapeutic treatment strategies for

  15. AMPK in Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Inês; Moreira, Diana; Sampaio-Marques, Belém; Laforge, Mireille; Cordeiro-da-Silva, Anabela; Ludovico, Paula; Estaquier, Jérôme; Silvestre, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    During host-pathogen interactions, a complex web of events is crucial for the outcome of infection. Pathogen recognition triggers powerful cellular signaling events that is translated into the induction and maintenance of innate and adaptive host immunity against infection. In opposition, pathogens employ active mechanisms to manipulate host cell regulatory pathways toward their proliferation and survival. Among these, subversion of host cell energy metabolism by pathogens is currently recognized to play an important role in microbial growth and persistence. Extensive studies have documented the role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling, a central cellular hub involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, in host-pathogen interactions. Here, we highlight the most recent advances detailing how pathogens hijack cellular metabolism by suppressing or increasing the activity of the host energy sensor AMPK. We also address the role of lower eukaryote AMPK orthologues in the adaptive process to the host microenvironment and their contribution for pathogen survival, differentiation, and growth. Finally, we review the effects of pharmacological or genetic AMPK modulation on pathogen growth and persistence.

  16. Potatoes, pathogens and pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazebnik, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    Currently, fungicides are necessary to protect potato crops against late blight, Phytophthora infestans, one of the world’s most damaging crop pathogens. The introgression of plant resistance genes from wild potato species targeted specifically to the late blight pathogen into

  17. Food-borne pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemand, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Salmonella scare reinforced the importance of never taking chances when it comes to controlling pathogens. The issue has been resolved by radurisation. The article deals with the various pathogens that can effect food and argues the case for radurisation in dealing with them. It also looks at some of the other food products that can be treated using this process

  18. Emergence and Adaptation of a Novel Highly Pathogenic H7N9 Influenza Virus in Birds and Humans from a 2013 Human-Infecting Low-Pathogenic Ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wenbao; Jia, Weixin; Liu, Di; Li, Jing; Bi, Yuhai; Xie, Shumin; Li, Bo; Hu, Tao; Du, Yingying; Xing, Li; Zhang, Jiahao; Zhang, Fuchun; Wei, Xiaoman; Eden, John-Sebastian; Li, Huanan; Tian, Huaiyu; Li, Wei; Su, Guanming; Lao, Guangjie; Xu, Chenggang; Xu, Bing; Liu, Wenjun; Zhang, Guihong; Ren, Tao; Holmes, Edward C; Cui, Jie; Shi, Weifeng; Gao, George F; Liao, Ming

    2018-01-15

    the molecular features and compared the relative characteristics of one H7N9 LPAIV and two H7N9 HPAIVs isolated from chickens and two human-origin H7N9 HPAIVs in chicken and mouse models. We found that all HPAIVs both are highly pathogenic and have valid transmissibility in chickens. Strikingly, the human-origin viruses were more highly pathogenic than the avian-origin viruses in mice, and dynamic mutations were confirmed by NGS and Sanger sequencing. Our findings offer important insight into the origin, adaptation, pathogenicity, and transmissibility of these viruses to both poultry and mammals. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Pathogen inactivation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J P R; Transue, S; Snyder, E L

    2006-01-01

    The desire to rid the blood supply of pathogens of all types has led to the development of many technologies aimed at the same goal--eradication of the pathogen(s) without harming the blood cells or generating toxic chemical agents. This is a very ambitious goal, and one that has yet to be achieved. One approach is to shun the 'one size fits all' concept and to target pathogen-reduction agents at the Individual component types. This permits the development of technologies that might be compatible with, for example, plasma products but that would be cytocidal and thus incompatible with platelet concentrates or red blood cell units. The technologies to be discussed include solvent detergent and methylene blue treatments--designed to inactivate plasma components and derivatives; psoralens (S-59--amotosalen) designed to pathogen-reduce units of platelets; and two products aimed at red blood cells, S-303 (a Frale--frangible anchor-linker effector compound) and Inactine (a binary ethyleneimine). A final pathogen-reduction material that might actually allow one material to inactivate all three blood components--riboflavin (vitamin B2)--is also under development. The sites of action of the amotosalen (S-59), the S-303 Frale, Inactine, and riboflavin are all localized in the nucleic acid part of the pathogen. Solvent detergent materials act by dissolving the plasma envelope, thus compromising the integrity of the pathogen membrane and rendering it non-infectious. By disrupting the pathogen's ability to replicate or survive, its infectivity is removed. The degree to which bacteria and viruses are affected by a particular pathogen-reducing technology relates to its Gram-positive or Gram-negative status, to the sporulation characteristics for bacteria, and the presence of lipid or protein envelopes for viruses. Concerns related to photoproducts and other breakdown products of these technologies remain, and the toxicology of pathogen-reduction treatments is a major ongoing area

  20. Processes for managing pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfree, Alan; Farrell, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Wastewater contains human, animal, and plant pathogens capable of causing viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections. There are several routes whereby sewage pathogens may affect human health, including direct contact, contamination of food crops, zoonoses, and vectors. The range and numbers of pathogens in municipal wastewater vary with the level of endemic disease in the community, discharges from commercial activities, and seasonal factors. Regulations to control pathogen risk in the United States and Europe arising from land application of biosolids are based on the concept of multiple barriers to the prevention of transmission. The barriers are (i) treatment to reduce pathogen content and vector attraction, (ii) restrictions on crops grown on land to which biosolids have been applied, and (iii) minimum intervals following application and grazing or harvesting. Wastewater treatment reduces number of pathogens in the wastewater by concentrating them with the solids in the sludge. Although some treatment processes are designed specifically to inactivate pathogens, many are not, and the actual mechanisms of microbial inactivation are not fully understood for all processes. Vector attraction is reduced by stabilization (reduction of readily biodegradable material) and/or incorporation immediately following application. Concerns about health risks have renewed interest in the effects of treatment (on pathogens) and advanced treatment methods, and work performed in the United States suggests that Class A pathogen reduction can be achieved less expensively than previously thought. Effective pathogen risk management requires control to the complete chain of sludge treatment, biosolids handling and application, and post-application activities. This may be achieved by adherence to quality management systems based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) principles.

  1. Surveillance for early detection of low pathogenicity avian influenza in poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) virus is widespread and has led to outbreaks in domestic birds in many countries. Although infection does not pose a serious concern for animal heath, LPAI virus subtypes H5 and H7 can mutate into the highly pathogenic form (HPAI), which can

  2. Surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza in layer chickens: risk factors, transmission and early detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales Rojas, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIv) of H5 and H7 subtypes are able to mutate to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIv), which are lethal for most poultry species, can cause large epidemics and are a serious threat to public health. Thus, circulation of these LPAIv in poultry is

  3. Targeted next-generation sequencing extends the phenotypic and mutational spectrums for EYS mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Shun; Tian, Yuanyuan; Chen, Xue; Zhao, Chen

    2016-01-01

    We aim to determine genetic lesions with a phenotypic correlation in four Chinese families with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Medical histories were carefully reviewed. All patients received comprehensive ophthalmic evaluations. The next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach targeting a panel of 205 retinal disease-relevant genes and 15 candidate genes was selectively performed on probands from the four recruited families for mutation detection. Online predictive software and crystal structure modeling were also applied to test the potential pathogenic effects of identified mutations. Of the four families, two were diagnosed with RP sino pigmento (RPSP). Patients with RPSP claimed to have earlier RP age of onset but slower disease progression. Five mutations in the eyes shut homolog (EYS) gene, involving two novel (c.7228+1G>A and c.9248G>A) and three recurrent mutations (c.4957dupA, c.6416G>A and c.6557G>A), were found as RP causative in the four families. The missense variant c.5093T>C was determined to be a variant of unknown significance (VUS) due to the variant's colocalization in the same allele with the reported pathogenic mutation c.6416G>A. The two novel variants were further confirmed absent in 100 unrelated healthy controls. Online predictive software indicated potential pathogenicity of the three missense mutations. Further, crystal structural modeling suggested generation of two abnormal hydrogen bonds by the missense mutation p.G2186E (c.6557G>A) and elongation of its neighboring β-sheet induced by p.G3083D (c.9248G>A), which could alter the tertiary structure of the eys protein and thus interrupt its physicochemical properties. Taken together, with the targeted NGS approach, we reveal novel EYS mutations and prove the efficiency of targeted NGS in the genetic diagnoses of RP. We also first report the correlation between EYS mutations and RPSP. The genotypic-phenotypic relationship in all Chinese patients carrying mutations in the EYS

  4. Spatial self-organization in a multi-strain host–pathogen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Quan-Xing; Van de Koppel, Johan; Wang, Rong-Hua; Jin, Zhen; Alonso, David

    2010-01-01

    We develop stochastic spatial epidemic models with the competition of two pathogenic strains. The dynamics resulting from different approaches are examined using both non-spatial and spatially explicit models. Our results show that pair approximation, well-mixed ordinary differential equations (ODEs), Gillespie-algorithm-based simulations and spatially explicit models give similar qualitative results. In particular, the temporal evolution of the spatial model can be successfully approximated by pair equations. Simulation results obtained from the spatially explicit model show that, first, mutation plays a major role in multi-strain coexistence, second, mild virulence remarkably decreases the coexistence domain of the parameter space and, third, large-scale self-organized spatial patterns emerge for a wide range of transmission and virulence parameter values, where spatial self-organized clusters reveal a power law behavior within the coexistence domain

  5. The first USH2A mutation analysis of Japanese autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa patients: a totally different mutation profile with the lack of frequent mutations found in Caucasian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Hosono, Katsuhiro; Suto, Kimiko; Ishigami, Chie; Arai, Yuuki; Hikoya, Akiko; Hirami, Yasuhiko; Ohtsubo, Masafumi; Ueno, Shinji; Terasaki, Hiroko; Sato, Miho; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Endo, Shiori; Mizuta, Kunihiro; Mineta, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Mineo; Takahashi, Masayo; Minoshima, Shinsei; Hotta, Yoshihiro

    2014-09-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a highly heterogeneous genetic disease. The USH2A gene, which accounts for approximately 74-90% of Usher syndrome type 2 (USH2) cases, is also one of the major autosomal recessive RP (arRP) causative genes among Caucasian populations. To identify disease-causing USH2A gene mutations in Japanese RP patients, all 73 exons were screened for mutations by direct sequencing. In total, 100 unrelated Japanese RP patients with no systemic manifestations were identified, excluding families with obvious autosomal dominant inheritance. Of these 100 patients, 82 were included in this present study after 18 RP patients with very likely pathogenic EYS (eyes shut homolog) mutations were excluded. The mutation analysis of the USH2A revealed five very likely pathogenic mutations in four patients. A patient had only one very likely pathogenic mutation and the others had two of them. Caucasian frequent mutations p.C759F in arRP and p.E767fs in USH2 were not found. All the four patients exhibited typical clinical features of RP. The observed prevalence of USH2A gene mutations was approximately 4% among Japanese arRP patients, and the profile of the USH2A gene mutations differed largely between Japanese patients and previously reported Caucasian populations.

  6. A comprehensive characterization of mitochondrial DNA mutations in glioblastoma multiforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidone, Michele; Clima, Rosanna; Santorsola, Mariangela; Calabrese, Claudia; Girolimetti, Giulia; Kurelac, Ivana; Amato, Laura Benedetta; Iommarini, Luisa; Trevisan, Elisa; Leone, Marco; Soffietti, Riccardo; Morra, Isabella; Faccani, Giuliano; Attimonelli, Marcella; Porcelli, Anna Maria; Gasparre, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant brain cancer in adults, with a poor prognosis, whose molecular stratification still represents a challenge in pathology and clinics. On the other hand, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations have been found in most tumors as modifiers of the bioenergetics state, albeit in GBM a characterization of the mtDNA status is lacking to date. Here, a characterization of the burden of mtDNA mutations in GBM samples was performed. First, investigation of tumor-specific vs. non tumor-specific mutations was carried out with the MToolBox bioinformatics pipeline by analyzing 45 matched tumor/blood samples, from whole genome or whole exome sequencing datasets obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) consortium. Additionally, the entire mtDNA sequence was obtained in a dataset of 104 fresh-frozen GBM samples. Mitochondrial mutations with potential pathogenic interest were prioritized based on heteroplasmic fraction, nucleotide variability, and in silico prediction of pathogenicity. A preliminary biochemical analysis of the activity of mitochondrial respiratory complexes was also performed on fresh-frozen GBM samples. Although a high number of mutations was detected, we report that the large majority of them does not pass the prioritization filters. Therefore, a relatively limited burden of pathogenic mutations is indeed carried by GBM, which did not appear to determine a general impairment of the respiratory chain. This article is part of a Directed Issue entitled: Energy Metabolism Disorders and Therapies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Novel Method to Screen for Dominant Negative ATM Mutations in Familial Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khanna, Kum K; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Grimmond, Sean

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this proposal is to identify families carrying potentially pathogenic A TM mutations by assaying for ATM kinase activity in cell lines derived from individuals with multiple cases of breast...

  8. Senior-Loken syndrome: A novel NPHP5 gene mutation in a family from Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makia J Marafie

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Identification of this pathogenic mutation helped in confirmation of the clinical diagnosis and in providing a proper pre-marital genetic counselling and testing for a couple embarking on marriage from this highly consanguineous high-risk family.

  9. Focal palmoplantar keratoderma caused by an autosomal dominant inherited mutation in the desmoglein 1 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milingou, M; Wood, P; Masouye, [No Value; McLean, WH; Borradori, L

    2006-01-01

    Background: Palmoplantar keratodermas (PPK) encompass a large genetically heterogeneous group of diseases associated with hyperkeratosis of the soles and/or palms that occur either isolated or in association with other cutaneous and extracutaneous manifestations. Pathogenic mutations in the

  10. The effect of population density on the elimination dynamics of a recessive lethal mutation l(2)M167(DTS) from experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulikov, A. M.; Marec, František; Mitrofanov, V. G.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2005), s. 249-255 ISSN 1022-7954 Grant - others:Russian Foundation for Basic Research(RU) 02-04-50021; Program of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences "Dynamics of Gene Pools in Plants, Animals, and Humans"(RU) 10002-251/P-24/154-150/2004-04 -111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Drosophila melanogaster Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.240, year: 2005

  11. Glucokinase gene mutations (MODY 2) in Asian Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthimathi, Sekar; Jahnavi, Suresh; Balamurugan, Kandasamy; Ranjani, Harish; Sonya, Jagadesan; Goswami, Soumik; Chowdhury, Subhankar; Mohan, Viswanathan; Radha, Venkatesan

    2014-03-01

    Heterozygous inactivating mutations in the glucokinase (GCK) gene cause a hyperglycemic condition termed maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) 2 or GCK-MODY. This is characterized by mild, stable, usually asymptomatic, fasting hyperglycemia that rarely requires pharmacological intervention. The aim of the present study was to screen for GCK gene mutations in Asian Indian subjects with mild hyperglycemia. Of the 1,517 children and adolescents of the population-based ORANGE study in Chennai, India, 49 were found to have hyperglycemia. These children along with the six patients referred to our center with mild hyperglycemia were screened for MODY 2 mutations. The GCK gene was bidirectionally sequenced using BigDye(®) Terminator v3.1 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) chemistry. In silico predictions of the pathogenicity were carried out using the online tools SIFT, Polyphen-2, and I-Mutant 2.0 software programs. Direct sequencing of the GCK gene in the patients referred to our Centre revealed one novel mutation, Thr206Ala (c.616A>G), in exon 6 and one previously described mutation, Met251Thr (c.752T>C), in exon 7. In silico analysis predicted the novel mutation to be pathogenic. The highly conserved nature and critical location of the residue Thr206 along with the clinical course suggests that the Thr206Ala is a MODY 2 mutation. However, we did not find any MODY 2 mutations in the 49 children selected from the population-based study. Hence prevalence of GCK mutations in Chennai is MODY 2 mutations from India and confirms the importance of considering GCK gene mutation screening in patients with mild early-onset hyperglycemia who are negative for β-cell antibodies.

  12. Induced mutations for crop improvement- the generation next

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, C.R.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments to use induced mutations for the improvement of crop plants were initiated in the country in mid nineteen fifties. After forty five years and reasonably good success stories, it is no longer an attractive subject for bright young graduate students. The areas of intellectually satisfying, contemporary, plant genetics based on induced mutations that can also bring social and commercial benefits are identified. These are: nodulation mutants in legumes, altering fatty acid composition in oil crops, modification of root characters, altering host-pathogen interactions, flowering time, day length insensitivity and some changes in modulation pattern involve mutations

  13. Phosphomimetic mutation of cysteine string protein-α increases the rate of regulated exocytosis by modulating fusion pore dynamics in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Chiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cysteine string protein-α (CSPα is a chaperone to ensure protein folding. Loss of CSPα function associates with many neurological diseases. However, its function in modulating regulated exocytosis remains elusive. Although cspα-knockouts exhibit impaired synaptic transmission, overexpression of CSPα in neuroendocrine cells inhibits secretion. These seemingly conflicting results lead to a hypothesis that CSPα may undergo a modification that switches its function in regulating neurotransmitter and hormone secretion. Previous studies implied that CSPα undergoes phosphorylation at Ser10 that may influence exocytosis by altering fusion pore dynamics. However, direct evidence is missing up to date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using amperometry, we investigated how phosphorylation at Ser10 of CSPα (CSPα-Ser10 modulates regulated exocytosis and if this modulation involves regulating a specific kinetic step of fusion pore dynamics. The real-time exocytosis of single vesicles was detected in PC12 cells overexpressing control vector, wild-type CSPα (WT, the CSPα phosphodeficient mutant (S10A, or the CSPα phosphomimetic mutants (S10D and S10E. The shapes of amperometric signals were used to distinguish the full-fusion events (i.e., prespike feet followed by spikes and the kiss-and-run events (i.e., square-shaped flickers. We found that the secretion rate was significantly increased in cells overexpressing S10D or S10E compared to WT or S10A. Further analysis showed that overexpression of S10D or S10E prolonged fusion pore lifetime compared to WT or S10A. The fraction of kiss-and-run events was significantly lower but the frequency of full-fusion events was higher in cells overexpressing S10D or S10E compared to WT or S10A. Advanced kinetic analysis suggests that overexpression of S10D or S10E may stabilize open fusion pores mainly by inhibiting them from closing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: CSPα may modulate fusion pore dynamics

  14. Structural Effects of Some Relevant Missense Mutations on the MECP2-DNA Binding: A MD Study Analyzed by Rescore+, a Versatile Rescoring Tool of the VEGA ZZ Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedretti, Alessandro; Granito, Cinzia; Mazzolari, Angelica; Vistoli, Giulio

    2016-09-01

    DNA methylation plays key roles in mammalian cells and is modulated by a set of proteins which recognize symmetrically methylated nucleotides. Among them, the protein MECP2 shows multifunctional roles repressing and/or activating genes by binding to both methylated and unmethylated regions of the genome. The interest for this protein markedly increased from the observation that its mutations are the primary cause of Rett syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder which causes mental retardation in young females. Thus, the present study is aimed to investigate the effects of some of these known pathogenic missense mutations (i.e. R106Q, R106W, R111G, R133C and R133H) on the MECP2 folding and DNA binding by molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of the simulated mutations are also parameterized by using a here proposed new tool, named Rescore+, implemented in the VEGA ZZ suite of programs, which calculates a set of scoring functions on all frames of a trajectory or on all complexes contained in a database thus allowing an easy rescoring of results coming from MD or docking simulations. The obtained results revealed that the reported loss of the MECP2 function induced by the simulated mutations can be ascribed to both stabilizing and destabilizing effect on DNA binding. The study confirms that MD simulations are particularly useful to rationalize and predict the mutation effects offering insightful information for diagnostics and drug design. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Biochemical and computational analyses of two phenotypically related GALT mutations (S222N and S135L that lead to atypical galactosemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Cocanougher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Galactosemia is a metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the GALT gene [1,2]. We encountered a patient heterozygous for a known pathogenic H132Q mutation and a novel S222N variant of unknown significance [3]. Reminiscent of patients with the S135L mutation, our patient had loss of GALT enzyme activity in erythrocytes but a very mild clinical phenotype [3–8]. We performed splicing experiments and computational structural analyses to investigate the role of the novel S222N variant. Alamut software data predicted loss of splicing enhancers for the S222N and S135L mutations [9,10]. A cDNA library was generated from our patient׳s RNA to investigate for splicing errors, but no change in transcript length was seen [3]. In silico structural analysis was performed to investigate enzyme stability and attempt to understand the mechanism of the atypical galactosemia phenotype. Stability results are publicly available in the GALT Protein Database 2.0 [11–14]. Animations were created to give the reader a dynamic view of the enzyme structure and mutation locations. Protein database files and python scripts are included for further investigation.

  16. Deletion mutations of bacteriophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryo, Yeikou

    1975-01-01

    Resolution of mutation mechanism with structural changes of DNA was discussed through the studies using bacteriophage lambda. One of deletion mutations inductions of phage lambda is the irradiation of ultraviolet ray. It is not clear if the inductions are caused by errors in reparation of ultraviolet-induced damage or by the activation of int gene. Because the effective site of int gene lies within the regions unnecessary for existing, it is considered that int gene is connected to deletion mutations induction. A certain system using prophage complementarity enables to detect deletion mutations at essential hereditary sites and to solve the relations of deletion mutations with other recombination system, DNA reproduction and repairment system. Duplication and multiplication of hereditary elements were discussed. If lambda deletion mutations of the system, which can control recombination, reproduction and repairment of added DNA, are constructed, mutations mechanism with great changes of DNA structure can be solved by phage lambda. (Ichikawa, K.)

  17. Extracts against Various Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Chauhan

    2013-07-01

    The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens.

  18. Evolution of microbial pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DiRita, Victor J; Seifert, H. Steven

    2006-01-01

    ... A. Hogan vvi ■ CONTENTS 8. Evolution of Pathogens in Soil Rachel Muir and Man-Wah Tan / 131 9. Experimental Models of Symbiotic Host-Microbial Relationships: Understanding the Underpinnings of ...

  19. Indicators for waterborne pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Indicators for Waterborne Pathogens, National Research Council

    2004-01-01

    ... not practical or feasible to monitor for the complete spectrum of microorganisms that may occur in water, and many known pathogens are difficult to detect directly and reliably in water samples.Â...

  20. Host–Pathogen Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.A.; Schokker, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    The outcome of an infection is determined by numerous interactions between hosts and pathogens occurring at many different biological levels, ranging from molecule to population. To develop new control strategies for infectious diseases in livestock species, appropriate methodologies are needed

  1. DNA mutation motifs in the genes associated with inherited diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Růžička

    Full Text Available Mutations in human genes can be responsible for inherited genetic disorders and cancer. Mutations can arise due to environmental factors or spontaneously. It has been shown that certain DNA sequences are more prone to mutate. These sites are termed hotspots and exhibit a higher mutation frequency than expected by chance. In contrast, DNA sequences with lower mutation frequencies than expected by chance are termed coldspots. Mutation hotspots are usually derived from a mutation spectrum, which reflects particular population where an effect of a common ancestor plays a role. To detect coldspots/hotspots unaffected by population bias, we analysed the presence of germline mutations obtained from HGMD database in the 5-nucleotide segments repeatedly occurring in genes associated with common inherited disorders, in particular, the PAH, LDLR, CFTR, F8, and F9 genes. Statistically significant sequences (mutational motifs rarely associated with mutations (coldspots and frequently associated with mutations (hotspots exhibited characteristic sequence patterns, e.g. coldspots contained purine tract while hotspots showed alternating purine-pyrimidine bases, often with the presence of CpG dinucleotide. Using molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations, we analysed the global bending properties of two selected coldspots and two hotspots with a G/T mismatch. We observed that the coldspots were inherently more flexible than the hotspots. We assume that this property might be critical for effective mismatch repair as DNA with a mutation recognized by MutSα protein is noticeably bent.

  2. Spectrum of rhodopsin mutations in Korean patients with retinitis pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Joong; Kim, Cinoo; Bok, Jeong; Kim, Kyung-Seon; Lee, Eun-Ju; Park, Sung Pyo; Chung, Hum; Han, Bok-Ghee; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Kimm, Kuchan; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine the spectrum and frequency of rhodopsin gene (RHO) mutations in Korean patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and to characterize genotype–phenotype correlations in patients with mutations. Methods The RHO mutations were screened by direct sequencing, and mutation prevalence was measured in patients and controls. The impact of missense mutations to RP was predicted by segregation analysis, peptide sequence alignment, and in silico analysis. The severity of disease in patients with the missense mutations was compared by visual acuity, electroretinography, optical coherence tomography, and kinetic visual field testing. Results Five heterozygous mutations were identified in six of 302 probands with RP, including a novel mutation (c.893C>A, p.A298D) and four known mutations (c.50C>T, p.T17M; c.533A>G, p.Y178C; c.888G>T, p.K296N; and c.1040C>T, p.P347L). The allele frequency of missense mutations was measured in 114 ethnically matched controls. p.A298D, newly identified in a sporadic patient, had never been found in controls and was predicted to be pathogenic. Among the patients with the missense mutations, we observed the most severe phenotype in patients with p.P347L, less severe phenotypes in patients with p.Y178C or p.A298D, and a relatively moderate phenotype in a patient with p.T17M. Conclusions The results reveal the spectrum of RHO mutations in Korean RP patients and clinical features that vary according to mutations. Our findings will be useful for understanding these genetic spectra and the genotype–phenotype correlations and will therefore help with predicting disease prognosis and facilitating the development of gene therapy. PMID:21677794

  3. Clinical phenotype of 5 females with a CDKL5 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalpers, Xenia L; Spruijt, Liesbeth; Yntema, Helger G; Verrips, Aad

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the X-linked cyclin dependent kinase like 5 (CDKL5) gene have been reported in approximately 80 patients since the first description in 2003. The clinical presentation partly corresponds with Rett syndrome, considering clinical features as intellectual disability, hypotonia, and poor visual, language, and motor development. However, these patients do not meet the consensus criteria for Rett syndrome since they lack the clear period of regression. Furthermore, in contrast to Rett syndrome, patients with CDKL5 mutations, have seizures or infantile spasms starting in the first weeks of life. We present clinical phenotype of 5 girls having a mutation in the CDKL5 gene. All mutations are novel and are pathogenic since they either lead to a frameshift in the reading frame or affect a consensus splice site. Four of the mutations are detected de novo in the affected girl.

  4. Mutated genes as research tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Green plants are the ultimate source of all resources required for man's life, his food, his clothes, and almost all his energy requirements. Primitive prehistoric man could live from the abundance of nature surrounding him. Man today, dominating nature in terms of numbers and exploiting its limited resources, cannot exist without employing his intelligence to direct natural evolution. Plant sciences, therefore, are not a matter of curiosity but an essential requirement. From such considerations, the IAEA and FAO jointly organized a symposium to assess the value of mutation research for various kinds of plant science, which directly or indirectly might contribute to sustaining and improving crop production. The benefit through developing better cultivars that plant breeders can derive from using the additional genetic resources resulting from mutation induction has been assessed before at other FAO/IAEA meetings (Rome 1964, Pullman 1969, Ban 1974, Ibadan 1978) and is also monitored in the Mutation Breeding Newsletter, published by IAEA twice a year. Several hundred plant cultivars which carry economically important characters because their genes have been altered by ionizing radiation or other mutagens, are grown by farmers and horticulturists in many parts of the world. But the benefit derived from such mutant varieties is without any doubt surpassed by the contribution which mutation research has made towards the advancement of genetics. For this reason, a major part of the papers and discussions at the symposium dealt with the role induced-mutation research played in providing insight into gene action and gene interaction, the organization of genes in plant chromosomes in view of homology and homoeology, the evolutionary role of gene duplication and polyploidy, the relevance of gene blocks, the possibilities for chromosome engineering, the functioning of cytroplasmic inheritance and the genetic dynamics of populations. In discussing the evolutionary role of

  5. Usher syndrome in Denmark: mutation spectrum and some clinical observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dad, Shzeena; Rendtorff, Nanna Dahl; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; Grønskov, Karen; Karstensen, Helena Gásdal; Brox, Vigdis; Nilssen, Øivind; Roux, Anne-Françoise; Rosenberg, Thomas; Jensen, Hanne; Møller, Lisbeth Birk

    2016-09-01

    Usher syndrome (USH) is a genetically heterogeneous deafness-blindness syndrome, divided into three clinical subtypes: USH1, USH2 and USH3. Mutations in 21 out of 26 investigated Danish unrelated individuals with USH were identified, using a combination of molecular diagnostic methods. Before Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) became available mutations in nine individuals (1 USH1, 7 USH2, 1 USH3) were identified by Sanger sequencing of USH1C , USH2A or CLRN1 or by Arrayed Primer EXtension (APEX) method. Mutations in 12 individuals (7 USH1, 5 USH2) were found by targeted NGS of ten known USH genes. Five novel pathogenic variants were identified. We combined our data with previously published, and obtained an overview of the USH mutation spectrum in Denmark, including 100 unrelated individuals; 32 with USH1, 67 with USH2, and 1 with USH3. Macular edema was observed in 44 of 117 individuals. Olfactory function was tested in 12 individuals and found to be within normal range in all. Mutations that lead to USH1 were predominantly identified in MYO7A (75%), whereas all mutations in USH2 cases were identified in USH2A . The MYO7A mutation c.93C>A, p.(Cys31*) accounted for 33% of all USH1 mutations and the USH2A c.2299delG, p.(Glu767Serfs*21) variant accounted for 45% of all USH2 mutations in the Danish cohort.

  6. Probing the effect of the non-active-site mutation Y229W in New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 by site-directed mutagenesis, kinetic studies, and molecular dynamics simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Chen

    Full Text Available New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 has attracted extensive attention for its high catalytic activities of hydrolyzing almost all β-lactam antibiotics. NDM-1 shows relatively higher similarity to subclass B1 metallo-β-lactamases (MβLs, but its residue at position 229 is identical to that of B2/B3 MβLs, which is a Tyr instead of a B1-MβL-conserved Trp. To elucidate the possible role of Y229 in the bioactivity of NDM-1, we performed mutagenesis study and molecular dynamics (MD simulations. Although residue Y229 is spatially distant from the active site and not contacting directly with the substrate or zinc ions, the Y229W mutant was found to have higher kcat and Km values than those of wild-type NDM-1, resulting in 1 ∼ 7 fold increases in k(cat /K(m values against tested antibiotics. In addition, our MD simulations illustrated the enhanced flexibility of Loop 2 upon Y229W mutation, which could increase the kinetics of both substrate entrance (kon and product egress (koff. The enhanced flexibility of Loop 2 might allow the enzyme to adjust the geometry of its active site to accommodate substrates with different structures, broadening its substrate spectrum. This study indicated the possible role of the residue at position 229 in the evolution of NDM-1.

  7. Whole-genome sequencing in autism identifies hot spots for de novo germline mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelson, Jacob J.; Shi, Yujian; Gujral, Madhusudan

    2012-01-01

    De novo mutation plays an important role in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Notably, pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) are characterized by high mutation rates. We hypothesize that hypermutability is a property of ASD genes and may also include nucleotide-substitution hot spots. We...

  8. Novel ELN mutation in a family with supravalvular aortic stenosis and intracranial aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsig, Anne Marie; Urban, Zsolt; Hucthagowder, Vishwanathan

    2017-01-01

    Pathogenic germline mutations in ELN can be detected in patients with supravalvular aortic stenosis. The mutation might occur de novo or be inherited following an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. In this report we describe a three-generation family suffering from supravalvular aortic st...... in the phenotype within a single SVAS family....

  9. A novel missense mutation of ADAR1 gene in a Chinese family ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study was mainlyto explore the pathogenic mutation of ADAR1 gene and provide genetics counselling and prenatal diagnostic testing for childbearing individuals.Mutational analysis of ADAR1 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and electrophoretic separation of PCR products by 1.5% agarose ...

  10. Ion Channel Genes and Epilepsy: Functional Alteration, Pathogenic Potential, and Mechanism of Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Feng; Yan, Li-Min; Su, Tao; He, Na; Lin, Zhi-Jian; Wang, Jie; Shi, Yi-Wu; Yi, Yong-Hong; Liao, Wei-Ping

    2017-08-01

    Ion channels are crucial in the generation and modulation of excitability in the nervous system and have been implicated in human epilepsy. Forty-one epilepsy-associated ion channel genes and their mutations are systematically reviewed. In this paper, we analyzed the genotypes, functional alterations (funotypes), and phenotypes of these mutations. Eleven genes featured loss-of-function mutations and six had gain-of-function mutations. Nine genes displayed diversified funotypes, among which a distinct funotype-phenotype correlation was found in SCN1A. These data suggest that the funotype is an essential consideration in evaluating the pathogenicity of mutations and a distinct funotype or funotype-phenotype correlation helps to define the pathogenic potential of a gene.

  11. Mutants in the host-pathogen system barley-powdery mildew

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, J.H.

    1989-10-01

    Mutation induction was used to analyse the host/pathogen interaction of barley and Erysiphe graminis. By irradiation or chemical mutagens, a number of similar mutations were induced in the ml-o gene (locus) of barley. The mutants had non-specific and durable resistance, which is rather uncommon. Studies revealed, that in spite of their similarity (the same mutated locus, monogenic recessive inheritance), the mutants were not identical and represent unique sources of disease resistant germ plasm. To study more fundamentally the interference of induced mutations in host/pathogen interactions, barley carrying the dominant resistance gene M1-a 12 was irradiated to mutate this gene. Instead of the expected ''monogenic recessive susceptibility'', several different mutational events inside and outside the locus were found to modify the resistance towards a more or less susceptible reaction. A third interesting approach was to induce mutations in the pathogen and thus create new virulence genes. The result, that no true mutation towards virulence was obtained in extremely large populations, deserves attention and further study to be sure about its implication. 13 refs

  12. Potentially pathogenic, pathogenic, and allergenic moulds in the urban soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Dragutin A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of soil mould populations that can compromise the human immune system was evaluated in experimental plots located at different distances (100, 300, 500, 700 and 900 m from the main source of pollution - the Podgorica Aluminum Plant. Soil samples were collected in July and October 2008 from three different plot zones at a depth of 0-10 cm. The count of potentially pathogenic, keratinolytic and allergenic (melaninogenic moulds was assessed, which can significantly contribute to both diagnosis and prophylaxis. The count of medically important moulds was higher in the urban soil than in the unpolluted (control soil. Their count decreased with increasing distance from the main pollution source (PAP. Their abundance in the soil was considerably higher in autumn than in spring.

  13. Effects of Lys to Glu mutations in GsMTx4 on membrane binding, peptide orientation, and self-association propensity, as analyzed by molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishizawa, Kazuhisa; Nishizawa, Manami; Gnanasambandam, Radhakrishnan; Sachs, Frederick; Sukharev, Sergei I; Suchyna, Thomas M

    2015-11-01

    GsMTx4, a gating modifier peptide acting on cationic mechanosensitive channels, has a positive charge (+5e) due to six Lys residues. The peptide does not have a stereospecific binding site on the channel but acts from the boundary lipids within a Debye length of the pore probably by changing local stress. To gain insight into how these Lys residues interact with membranes, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of Lys to Glu mutants in parallel with our experimental work. In silico, K15E had higher affinity for 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine bilayers than wild-type (WT) peptide or any other mutant tested, and showed deeper penetration than WT, a finding consistent with the experimental data. Experimentally, the inhibitory activities of K15E and K25E were most compromised, whereas K8E and K28E inhibitory activities remained similar to WT peptide. Binding of WT in an interfacial mode did not influence membrane thickness. With interfacial binding, the direction of the dipole moments of K15E and K25E was predicted to differ from WT, whereas those of K8E and K28E oriented similarly to that of WT. These results support a model in which binding of GsMTx4 to the membrane acts like an immersible wedge that serves as a membrane expansion buffer reducing local stress and thus inhibiting channel activity. In simulations, membrane-bound WT attracted other WT peptides to form aggregates. This may account for the positive cooperativity observed in the ion channel experiments. The Lys residues seem to fine-tune the depth of membrane binding, the tilt angle, and the dipole moments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Better plants through mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This is a public relations film describing problems associated with the genetic improvement of crop plants through induced mutations. Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic variation in plants. Mutation induction is now established as a practical tool in plant breeding. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division and the IAEA's laboratory at Seibersdorf have supported research and practical implementation of mutation breeding of both seed propagated and vegetatively propagated plants. Plant biotechnology based on in vitro culture and recombinant DNA technology will make a further significant contribution to plant breeding

  15. Parametric Method Performance for Dynamic 3'-Deoxy-3'-18F-Fluorothymidine PET/CT in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Mutated Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Patients Before and During Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Gerbrand Maria; Frings, Virginie; Heijtel, Dennis; Smit, E F; Hoekstra, Otto S; Boellaard, Ronald

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to validate several parametric methods for quantification of 3'-deoxy-3'- 18 F-fluorothymidine ( 18 F-FLT) PET in advanced-stage non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients with an activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutation who were treated with gefitinib or erlotinib. Furthermore, we evaluated the impact of noise on accuracy and precision of the parametric analyses of dynamic 18 F-FLT PET/CT to assess the robustness of these methods. Methods : Ten NSCLC patients underwent dynamic 18 F-FLT PET/CT at baseline and 7 and 28 d after the start of treatment. Parametric images were generated using plasma input Logan graphic analysis and 2 basis functions-based methods: a 2-tissue-compartment basis function model (BFM) and spectral analysis (SA). Whole-tumor-averaged parametric pharmacokinetic parameters were compared with those obtained by nonlinear regression of the tumor time-activity curve using a reversible 2-tissue-compartment model with blood volume fraction. In addition, 2 statistically equivalent datasets were generated by countwise splitting the original list-mode data, each containing 50% of the total counts. Both new datasets were reconstructed, and parametric pharmacokinetic parameters were compared between the 2 replicates and the original data. Results: After the settings of each parametric method were optimized, distribution volumes (V T ) obtained with Logan graphic analysis, BFM, and SA all correlated well with those derived using nonlinear regression at baseline and during therapy ( R 2 ≥ 0.94; intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.97). SA-based V T images were most robust to increased noise on a voxel-level (repeatability coefficient, 16% vs. >26%). Yet BFM generated the most accurate K 1 values ( R 2 = 0.94; intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.96). Parametric K 1 data showed a larger variability in general; however, no differences were found in robustness between methods (repeatability coefficient, 80

  16. Viral pathogen discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Charles Y

    2015-01-01

    Viral pathogen discovery is of critical importance to clinical microbiology, infectious diseases, and public health. Genomic approaches for pathogen discovery, including consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), microarrays, and unbiased next-generation sequencing (NGS), have the capacity to comprehensively identify novel microbes present in clinical samples. Although numerous challenges remain to be addressed, including the bioinformatics analysis and interpretation of large datasets, these technologies have been successful in rapidly identifying emerging outbreak threats, screening vaccines and other biological products for microbial contamination, and discovering novel viruses associated with both acute and chronic illnesses. Downstream studies such as genome assembly, epidemiologic screening, and a culture system or animal model of infection are necessary to establish an association of a candidate pathogen with disease. PMID:23725672

  17. MSH6 and PMS2 mutation positive Australian Lynch syndrome families: novel mutations, cancer risk and age of diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talseth-Palmer, Bente A; McPhillips, Mary; Groombridge, Claire; Spigelman, Allan; Scott, Rodney J

    2010-05-21

    Approximately 10% of Lynch syndrome families have a mutation in MSH6 and fewer families have a mutation in PMS2. It is assumed that the cancer incidence is the same in families with mutations in MSH6 as in families with mutations in MLH1/MSH2 but that the disease tends to occur later in life, little is known about families with PMS2 mutations. This study reports on our findings on mutation type, cancer risk and age of diagnosis in MSH6 and PMS2 families. A total of 78 participants (from 29 families) with a mutation in MSH6 and 7 participants (from 6 families) with a mutation in PMS2 were included in the current study. A database of de-identified patient information was analysed to extract all relevant information such as mutation type, cancer incidence, age of diagnosis and cancer type in this Lynch syndrome cohort. Cumulative lifetime risk was calculated utilising Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. MSH6 and PMS2 mutations represent 10.3% and 1.9%, respectively, of the pathogenic mutations in our Australian Lynch syndrome families. We identified 26 different MSH6 and 4 different PMS2 mutations in the 35 families studied. We report 15 novel MSH6 and 1 novel PMS2 mutations. The estimated cumulative risk of CRC at age 70 years was 61% (similar in males and females) and 65% for endometrial cancer in MSH6 mutation carriers. The risk of developing CRC is different between males and females at age 50 years, which is 34% for males and 21% for females. Novel MSH6 and PMS2 mutations are being reported and submitted to the current databases for identified Lynch syndrome mutations. Our data provides additional information to add to the genotype-phenotype spectrum for both MSH6 and PMS2 mutations.

  18. MSH6 and PMS2 mutation positive Australian Lynch syndrome families: novel mutations, cancer risk and age of diagnosis of colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talseth-Palmer Bente A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 10% of Lynch syndrome families have a mutation in MSH6 and fewer families have a mutation in PMS2. It is assumed that the cancer incidence is the same in families with mutations in MSH6 as in families with mutations in MLH1/MSH2 but that the disease tends to occur later in life, little is known about families with PMS2 mutations. This study reports on our findings on mutation type, cancer risk and age of diagnosis in MSH6 and PMS2 families. Methods A total of 78 participants (from 29 families with a mutation in MSH6 and 7 participants (from 6 families with a mutation in PMS2 were included in the current study. A database of de-identified patient information was analysed to extract all relevant information such as mutation type, cancer incidence, age of diagnosis and cancer type in this Lynch syndrome cohort. Cumulative lifetime risk was calculated utilising Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Results MSH6 and PMS2 mutations represent 10.3% and 1.9%, respectively, of the pathogenic mutations in our Australian Lynch syndrome families. We identified 26 different MSH6 and 4 different PMS2 mutations in the 35 families studied. We report 15 novel MSH6 and 1 novel PMS2 mutations. The estimated cumulative risk of CRC at age 70 years was 61% (similar in males and females and 65% for endometrial cancer in MSH6 mutation carriers. The risk of developing CRC is different between males and females at age 50 years, which is 34% for males and 21% for females. Conclusion Novel MSH6 and PMS2 mutations are being reported and submitted to the current databases for identified Lynch syndrome mutations. Our data provides additional information to add to the genotype-phenotype spectrum for both MSH6 and PMS2 mutations.

  19. Two novel mutations in the EYS gene are possible major causes of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in the Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Hosono

    Full Text Available Retinitis pigmentosa (RP is a highly heterogeneous genetic disease including autosomal recessive (ar, autosomal dominant (ad, and X-linked inheritance. Recently, arRP has been associated with mutations in EYS (Eyes shut homolog, which is a major causative gene for this disease. This study was conducted to determine the spectrum and frequency of EYS mutations in 100 Japanese arRP patients. To determine the prevalence of EYS mutations, all EYS exons were screened for mutations by polymerase chain reaction amplification, and sequence analysis was performed. We detected 67 sequence alterations in EYS, of which 21 were novel. Of these, 7 were very likely pathogenic mutations, 6 were possible pathogenic mutations, and 54 were predicted non-pathogenic sequence alterations. The minimum observed prevalence of distinct EYS mutations in our study was 18% (18/100, comprising 9 patients with 2 very likely pathogenic mutations and the remaining 9 with only one such mutation. Among these mutations, 2 novel truncating mutations, c.4957_4958insA (p.S1653KfsX2 and c.8868C>A (p.Y2956X, were identified in 16 patients and accounted for 57.1% (20/35 alleles of the mutated alleles. Although these 2 truncating mutations were not detected in Japanese patients with adRP or Leber's congenital amaurosis, we detected them in Korean arRP patients. Similar to Japanese arRP results, the c.4957_4958insA mutation was more frequently detected than the c.8868C>A mutation. The 18% estimated prevalence of very likely pathogenic mutations in our study suggests a major involvement of EYS in the pathogenesis of arRP in the Japanese population. Mutation spectrum of EYS in 100 Japanese patients, including 13 distinct very likely and possible pathogenic mutations, was largely different from the previously reported spectrum in patients from non-Asian populations. Screening for c.4957_4958insA and c.8868C>A mutations in the EYS gene may therefore be very effective for the genetic testing

  20. PIML: the Pathogen Information Markup Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongqun; Vines, Richard R; Wattam, Alice R; Abramochkin, Georgiy V; Dickerman, Allan W; Eckart, J Dana; Sobral, Bruno W S

    2005-01-01

    A vast amount of information about human, animal and plant pathogens has been acquired, stored and displayed in varied formats through different resources, both electronically and otherwise. However, there is no community standard format for organizing this information or agreement on machine-readable format(s) for data exchange, thereby hampering interoperation efforts across information systems harboring such infectious disease data. The Pathogen Information Markup Language (PIML) is a free, open, XML-based format for representing pathogen information. XSLT-based visual presentations of valid PIML documents were developed and can be accessed through the PathInfo website or as part of the interoperable web services federation known as ToolBus/PathPort. Currently, detailed PIML documents are available for 21 pathogens deemed of high priority with regard to public health and national biological defense. A dynamic query system allows simple queries as well as comparisons among these pathogens. Continuing efforts are being taken to include other groups' supporting PIML and to develop more PIML documents. All the PIML-related information is accessible from http://www.vbi.vt.edu/pathport/pathinfo/

  1. The neglected intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Fajardo

    Full Text Available Bacteria with intrinsic resistance to antibiotics are a worrisome health problem. It is widely believed that intrinsic antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens is mainly the consequence of cellular impermeability and activity of efflux pumps. However, the analysis of transposon-tagged Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants presented in this article shows that this phenotype emerges from the action of numerous proteins from all functional categories. Mutations in some genes make P. aeruginosa more susceptible to antibiotics and thereby represent new targets. Mutations in other genes make P. aeruginosa more resistant and therefore define novel mechanisms for mutation-driven acquisition of antibiotic resistance, opening a new research field based in the prediction of resistance before it emerges in clinical environments. Antibiotics are not just weapons against bacterial competitors, but also natural signalling molecules. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes are not merely protective shields and offer a more comprehensive view of the role of antibiotic resistance genes in the clinic and in nature.

  2. Two mutations in the same low-density lipoprotein receptor allele act in synergy to reduce receptor function in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H K; Jensen, T G; Faergeman, O

    1997-01-01

    Mutations in genes are not necessarily pathogenic. Expression of mutant genes in cells can therefore be required to demonstrate that mutations in fact disturb protein function. This applies especially to missense mutations, which cause an amino acid to be replaced by another amino acid. In the pr...

  3. Calcineurin orchestrates dimorphic transitions, antifungal drug responses and host-pathogen interactions of the pathogenic mucoralean fungus Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Chan; Li, Alicia; Calo, Silvia; Inoue, Makoto; Tonthat, Nam K; Bain, Judith M; Louw, Johanna; Shinohara, Mari L; Erwig, Lars P; Schumacher, Maria A; Ko, Dennis C; Heitman, Joseph

    2015-09-01

    Calcineurin plays essential roles in virulence and growth of pathogenic fungi and is a target of the natural products FK506 and Cyclosporine A. In the pathogenic mucoralean fungus Mucor circinelloides, calcineurin mutation or inhibition confers a yeast-locked phenotype indicating that calcineurin governs the dimorphic transition. Genetic analysis in this study reveals that two calcineurin A catalytic subunits (out of three) are functionally diverged. Homology modeling illustrates modes of resistance resulting from amino substitutions in the interface between each calcineurin subunit and the inhibitory drugs. In addition, we show how the dimorphic transition orchestrated by calcineurin programs different outcomes during host-pathogen interactions. For example, when macrophages phagocytose Mucor yeast, subsequent phagosomal maturation occurs, indicating host cells respond appropriately to control the pathogen. On the other hand, upon phagocytosis of spores, macrophages fail to form mature phagosomes. Cytokine production from immune cells differs following exposure to yeast versus spores (which germinate into hyphae). Thus, the morphogenic transition can be targeted as an efficient treatment option against Mucor infection. In addition, genetic analysis (including gene disruption and mutational studies) further strengthens the understanding of calcineurin and provides a foundation to develop antifungal agents targeting calcineurin to deploy against Mucor and other pathogenic fungi. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Human pathogen avoidance adaptations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, researchers have become increasingly interested in the adaptations guiding the avoidance of disease-causing organisms. Here we discuss the latest developments in this area, including a recently developed information-processing model of the adaptations underlying pathogen

  5. Mutation and premating isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, R. C.; Thompson, J. N. Jr

    2002-01-01

    While premating isolation might be traceable to different genetic mechanisms in different species, evidence supports the idea that as few as one or two genes may often be sufficient to initiate isolation. Thus, new mutation can theoretically play a key role in the process. But it has long been thought that a new isolation mutation would fail, because there would be no other individuals for the isolation-mutation-carrier to mate with. We now realize that premeiotic mutations are very common and will yield a cluster of progeny carrying the same new mutant allele. In this paper, we discuss the evidence for genetically simple premating isolation barriers and the role that clusters of an isolation mutation may play in initiating allopatric, and even sympatric, species divisions.

  6. Bioeconomic modeling of lactational antimicrobial treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections caused by contagious pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den B.H.P.; Halasa, T.; Schaik, van G.; Hogeveen, H.; Nielen, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study determined the direct and indirect epidemiologic and economic effects of lactational treatment of new bovine subclinical intramammary infections (IMI) caused by contagious pathogens using an existing bioeconomic model. The dynamic and stochastic model simulated the dynamics of

  7. Mutational Analysis of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erstad, Derek J. [Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Cusack, James C. Jr., E-mail: jcusack@mgh.harvard.edu [Division of Surgical Oncology, Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114 (United States)

    2014-10-17

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine malignancy that is associated with a poor prognosis. The pathogenesis of MCC is not well understood, and despite a recent plethora of mutational analyses, we have yet to find a set of signature mutations implicated in the majority of cases. Mutations, including TP53, Retinoblastoma and PIK3CA, have been documented in subsets of patients. Other mechanisms are also likely at play, including infection with the Merkel cell polyomavirus in a subset of patients, dysregulated immune surveillance, epigenetic alterations, aberrant protein expression, posttranslational modifications and microRNAs. In this review, we summarize what is known about MCC genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities, and their clinical significance. We also examine aberrant protein function and microRNA expression, and discuss the therapeutic and prognostic implications of these findings. Multiple clinical trials designed to selectively target overexpressed oncogenes in MCC are currently underway, though most are still in early phases. As we accumulate more molecular data on MCC, we will be better able to understand its pathogenic mechanisms, develop libraries of targeted therapies, and define molecular prognostic signatures to enhance our clinicopathologic knowledge.

  8. Mutational Analysis of Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erstad, Derek J.; Cusack, James C. Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine malignancy that is associated with a poor prognosis. The pathogenesis of MCC is not well understood, and despite a recent plethora of mutational analyses, we have yet to find a set of signature mutations implicated in the majority of cases. Mutations, including TP53, Retinoblastoma and PIK3CA, have been documented in subsets of patients. Other mechanisms are also likely at play, including infection with the Merkel cell polyomavirus in a subset of patients, dysregulated immune surveillance, epigenetic alterations, aberrant protein expression, posttranslational modifications and microRNAs. In this review, we summarize what is known about MCC genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities, and their clinical significance. We also examine aberrant protein function and microRNA expression, and discuss the therapeutic and prognostic implications of these findings. Multiple clinical trials designed to selectively target overexpressed oncogenes in MCC are currently underway, though most are still in early phases. As we accumulate more molecular data on MCC, we will be better able to understand its pathogenic mechanisms, develop libraries of targeted therapies, and define molecular prognostic signatures to enhance our clinicopathologic knowledge

  9. Validation of high-resolution DNA melting analysis for mutation scanning of the CDKL5 gene: identification of novel mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Laure; Diebold, Bertrand; Leroux, Céline; Maurey, Hélène; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Delahaye, Andre; Dulac, Olivier; Metreau, Julia; Melikishvili, Gia; Toutain, Annick; Rivier, François; Bahi-Buisson, Nadia; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 gene (CDKL5) have been predominantly described in epileptic encephalopathies of female, including infantile spasms with Rett-like features. Up to now, detection of mutations in this gene was made by laborious, expensive and/or time consuming methods. Here, we decided to validate high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) for mutation scanning of the CDKL5 gene. Firstly, using a large DNA bank consisting to 34 samples carrying different mutations and polymorphisms, we validated our analytical conditions to analyse the different exons and flanking intronic sequences of the CDKL5 gene by HRMA. Secondly, we screened CDKL5 by both HRMA and denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) in a cohort of 135 patients with early-onset seizures. Our results showed that point mutations and small insertions and deletions can be reliably detected by HRMA. Compared to dHPLC, HRMA profiles are more discriminated, thereby decreasing unnecessary sequencing. In this study, we identified eleven novel sequence variations including four pathogenic mutations (2.96% prevalence). HRMA appears cost-effective, easy to set up, highly sensitive, non-toxic and rapid for mutation screening, ideally suited for large genes with heterogeneous mutations located along the whole coding sequence, such as the CDKL5 gene. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Fei; Snyder, John Hugh; Shi, Huan-Bin; Lu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that degrades cytoplasmic constituents in vacuoles. Plant pathogenic fungi develop special infection structures and/or secrete a range of enzymes to invade their plant hosts. It has been demonstrated that monitoring autophagy processes can be extremely useful in visualizing the sequence of events leading to pathogenicity of plant pathogenic fungi. In this review, we introduce the molecular mechanisms involved in autophagy. In addition, we explore the relationship between autophagy and pathogenicity in plant pathogenic fungi. Finally, we discuss the various experimental strategies available for use in the study of autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Lipids in host-pathogen interactions: pathogens exploit the complexity of the host cell lipidome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer-Janssen, Ynske P M; van Galen, Josse; Batenburg, Joseph J; Helms, J Bernd

    2010-01-01

    Lipids were long believed to have a structural role in biomembranes and a role in energy storage utilizing cellular lipid droplets and plasma lipoproteins. Research over the last decades has identified an additional role of lipids in cellular signaling, membrane microdomain organization and dynamics, and membrane trafficking. These properties make lipids an attractive target for pathogens to modulate host cell processes in order to allow their survival and replication. In this review we will summarize the often ingenious strategies of pathogens to modify the lipid homeostasis of host cells, allowing them to divert cellular processes. To this end pathogens take full advantage of the complexity of the lipidome. The examples are categorized in generalized and emerging principles describing the involvement of lipids in host-pathogen interactions. Several pathogens are described that simultaneously induce multiple changes in the host cell signaling and trafficking mechanisms. Elucidation of these pathogen-induced changes may have important implications for drug development. The emergence of high-throughput lipidomic techniques will allow the description of changes of the host cell lipidome at the level of individual molecular lipid species and the identification of lipid biomarkers.

  12. A novel lamin A/C mutation in a Dutch family with premature atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, A A W; van Rijsingen, I A W; Plomp, A S; Zwinderman, A H; Lekanne Deprez, R H; Mannens, M M; van den Bergh Weerman, M A; van der Wal, A C; Pinto-Sietsma, S J

    2013-07-01

    We report a novel lamin A/C (LMNA) mutation, p.Glu223Lys, in a family with extensive atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and steatosis hepatis. Sequence analysis of LMNA (using Alamut version 2.2), co-segregation analysis, electron microscopy, extensive phenotypic evaluation of the mutation carriers and literature comparison were used to determine the loss of function of this mutation. The father of three siblings died at the age of 45 years. The three siblings and the brother and sister of the father were referred to the cardiovascular genetics department, because of the premature atherosclerosis and dysmorphic characteristics observed in the father at autopsy. The novel LMNA mutation, p.Glu223Lys, was identified in the proband and his two sons. Clinical evaluation revealed atherosclerosis, insulin resistance and hypertension in the proband and dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis in all the patients with the mutation. Based on the facts that in silico analysis predicts a possibly pathogenic mutation, the mutation co-segregates with the disease, only fibroblasts from mutation carriers show nuclear blebbing and a similar phenotype was reported to be due to missense mutations in LMNA we conclude that we deal with a pathogenic mutation. We conclude that the phenotype is similar to Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Defining the pathogenesis of the human Atp12p W94R mutation using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meulemans, Ann; Seneca, Sara; Pribyl, Thomas; Smet, Joel; Alderweirldt, Valerie; Waeytens, Anouk; Lissens, Willy; Van Coster, Rudy; De Meirleir, Linda; di Rago, Jean-Paul; Gatti, Domenico L; Ackerman, Sharon H

    2010-02-05

    Studies in yeast have shown that a deficiency in Atp12p prevents assembly of the extrinsic domain (F(1)) of complex V and renders cells unable to make ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. De Meirleir et al. (De Meirleir, L., Seneca, S., Lissens, W., De Clercq, I., Eyskens, F., Gerlo, E., Smet, J., and Van Coster, R. (2004) J. Med. Genet. 41, 120-124) have reported that a homozygous missense mutation in the gene for human Atp12p (HuAtp12p), which replaces Trp-94 with Arg, was linked to the death of a 14-month-old patient. We have investigated the impact of the pathogenic W94R mutation on Atp12p structure/function. Plasmid-borne wild type human Atp12p rescues the respiratory defect of a yeast ATP12 deletion mutant (Deltaatp12). The W94R mutation alters the protein at the most highly conserved position in the Pfam sequence and renders HuAtp12p insoluble in the background of Deltaatp12. In contrast, the yeast protein harboring the corresponding mutation, ScAtp12p(W103R), is soluble in the background of Deltaatp12 but not in the background of Deltaatp12Deltafmc1, a strain that also lacks Fmc1p. Fmc1p is a yeast mitochondrial protein not found in higher eukaryotes. Tryptophan 94 (human) or 103 (yeast) is located in a positively charged region of Atp12p, and hence its mutation to arginine does not alter significantly the electrostatic properties of the protein. Instead, we provide evidence that the primary effect of the substitution is on the dynamic properties of Atp12p.

  14. Identification of a novel CLRN1 gene mutation in Usher syndrome type 3: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Hidekane; Oshikawa, Chie; Nakayama, Jun; Moteki, Hideaki; Usami, Shin-Ichi

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the CLRN1 gene mutation analysis in Japanese patients who were diagnosed with Usher syndrome type 3 (USH3) on the basis of clinical findings. Genetic analysis using massively parallel DNA sequencing (MPS) was conducted to search for 9 causative USH genes in 2 USH3 patients. We identified the novel pathogenic mutation in the CLRN1 gene in 2 patients. The missense mutation was confirmed by functional prediction software and segregation analysis. Both patients were diagnosed as having USH3 caused by the CLRN1 gene mutation. This is the first report of USH3 with a CLRN1 gene mutation in Asian populations. Validating the presence of clinical findings is imperative for properly differentiating among USH subtypes. In addition, mutation screening using MPS enables the identification of causative mutations in USH. The clinical diagnosis of this phenotypically variable disease can then be confirmed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. A study on the effects of some laboratory-derived genetic mutations on biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, S.; Parvathi, A.; George, J.; Krohne, G.; Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya

    , Germany Address for correspondence Sanath Kumar ENMU 2386 1500 S, Ave K Portales, New Mexico 88130 USA e-mail: sanathkm@yahoo.com Running Title: Gene mutations and Listeria biofilm Abstract Biofilms formed by the human pathogen Listeria...

  16. Predators indirectly control vector-borne disease: linking predator-prey and host-pathogen models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean M; Borer, Elizabeth T; Hosseini, Parviez R

    2010-01-06

    Pathogens transmitted by arthropod vectors are common in human populations, agricultural systems and natural communities. Transmission of these vector-borne pathogens depends on the population dynamics of the vector species as well as its interactions with other species within the community. In particular, predation may be sufficient to control pathogen prevalence indirectly via the vector. To examine the indirect effect of predators on vectored-pathogen dynamics, we developed a theoretical model that integrates predator-prey and host-pathogen theory. We used this model to determine whether predation can prevent pathogen persistence or alter the stability of host-pathogen dynamics. We found that, in the absence of predation, pathogen prevalence in the host increases with vector fecundity, whereas predation on the vector causes pathogen prevalence to decline, or even become extinct, with increasing vector fecundity. We also found that predation on a vector may drastically slow the initial spread of a pathogen. The predator can increase host abundance indirectly by reducing or eliminating infection in the host population. These results highlight the importance of studying interactions that, within the greater community, may alter our predictions when studying disease dynamics. From an applied perspective, these results also suggest situations where an introduced predator or the natural enemies of a vector may slow the rate of spread of an emerging vector-borne pathogen.

  17. Mutation breeding in crop improvement - achievements and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharkwal, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Crop improvement programmes through induced mutations were initiated about seven decades ago. Majority of the mutant varieties have been released during the last two decades. In terms of the development and release of mutant varieties, China (605), India (309), Russia (204), the Netherlands (176), USA (125) and Japan (120) are the leading countries. Radiation, especially gamma radiation was the most frequently used mutagen for inducing mutations in crop plants. Out of 1072 mutant varieties of cereals, rice alone accounts for 434 varieties followed by barley (269). Mutation breeding has made significant contribution in increasing the production of rice, ground nut, castor, chickpea, mungbean and urd bean in the Indian subcontinent. The future mutation breeding programmes should be aimed at improving the root characters, nodulation in legumes, alteration of fatty acid composition in oil seeds, host pathogen interactions, photo- insensitivity and apomixix in crop plants

  18. Molecular Clock of Neutral Mutations in a Fitness-Increasing Evolutionary Process

    OpenAIRE

    Kishimoto, Toshihiko; Ying, Bei-Wen; Tsuru, Saburo; Iijima, Leo; Suzuki, Shingo; Hashimoto, Tomomi; Oyake, Ayana; Kobayashi, Hisaka; Someya, Yuki; Narisawa, Dai; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The molecular clock of neutral mutations, which represents linear mutation fixation over generations, is theoretically explained by genetic drift in fitness-steady evolution or hitchhiking in adaptive evolution. The present study is the first experimental demonstration for the molecular clock of neutral mutations in a fitness-increasing evolutionary process. The dynamics of genome mutation fixation in the thermal adaptive evolution of Escherichia coli were evaluated in a prolonged evolution e...

  19. Alzheimer disease-like clinical phenotype in a family with FTDP-17 caused by a MAPT R406W mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, S.G.; Holm, I.E.; Schwartz, M.

    2008-01-01

    We report clinical, molecular, neuroimaging and neuropathological features of a Danish family with autosomal dominant inherited dementia, a clinical phenotype resembling Alzheimer's disease and a pathogenic mutation (R406W) in the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) gene. Pre-symptomatic an......We report clinical, molecular, neuroimaging and neuropathological features of a Danish family with autosomal dominant inherited dementia, a clinical phenotype resembling Alzheimer's disease and a pathogenic mutation (R406W) in the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) gene. Pre...

  20. Identification of novel mutations in Chinese Hans with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chaowen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD is the most common inherited renal disease with an incidence of 1 in 400 to 1000. The disease is genetically heterogeneous, with two genes identified: PKD1 (16p13.3 and PKD2 (4q21. Molecular diagnosis of the disease in at-risk individuals is complicated due to the structural complexity of PKD1 gene and the high diversity of the mutations. This study is the first systematic ADPKD mutation analysis of both PKD1 and PKD2 genes in Chinese patients using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC. Methods Both PKD1 and PKD2 genes were mutation screened in each proband from 65 families using DHPLC followed by DNA sequencing. Novel variations found in the probands were checked in their family members available and 100 unrelated normal controls. Then the pathogenic potential of the variations of unknown significance was examined by evolutionary comparison, effects of amino acid substitutions on protein structure, and effects of splice site alterations using online mutation prediction resources. Results A total of 92 variations were identified, including 27 reported previously. Definitely pathogenic mutations (ten frameshift, ten nonsense, two splicing defects and one duplication were identified in 28 families, and probably pathogenic mutations were found in an additional six families, giving a total detection level of 52.3% (34/65. About 69% (20/29 of the mutations are first reported with a recurrent mutation rate of 31%. Conclusions Mutation study of PKD1 and PKD2 genes in Chinese Hans with ADPKD may contribute to a better understanding of the genetic diversity between different ethnic groups and enrich the mutation database. Besides, evaluating the pathogenic potential of novel variations should also facilitate the clinical diagnosis and genetic counseling of the disease.

  1. A mitochondrial tRNA(His) gene mutation causing pigmentary retinopathy and neurosensorial deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimi, M; Galbiati, S; Perini, M P; Bordoni, A; Malferrari, G; Sciacco, M; Biunno, I; Strazzer, S; Moggio, M; Bresolin, N; Comi, G P

    2003-04-08

    We have identified a heteroplasmic G to A mutation at position 12,183 of the mitochondrial transfer RNA Histidine (tRNA(His)) gene in three related patients. These phenotypes varied according to mutation heteroplasmy: one had severe pigmentary retinopathy, neurosensorial deafness, testicular dysfunction, muscle hypotrophy, and ataxia; the other two had only retinal and inner ear involvement. The mutation is in a highly conserved region of the T(psi)C stem of the tRNA(His) gene and may alter secondary structure formation. This is the first described pathogenic, maternally inherited mutation of the mitochondrial tRNA(His) gene.

  2. Genetic Mutations in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many different types of genetic mutations are found in cancer cells. This infographic outlines certain types of alterations that are present in cancer, such as missense, nonsense, frameshift, and chromosome rearrangements.

  3. AIP mutations and gigantism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostomyan, Liliya; Potorac, Iulia; Beckers, Pablo; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2017-06-01

    AIP mutations are rare in sporadic acromegaly but they are seen at a higher frequency among certain specific populations of pituitary adenoma patients (pituitary gigantism cases, familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA) kindreds, and patients with macroadenomas who are diagnosed ≤30 years). AIP mutations are most prevalent in patients with pituitary gigantism (29% of this group were found to have mutations in AIP gene). These data support targeted genetic screening for AIP mutations/deletions in these groups of pituitary adenoma patients. Earlier diagnosis of AIP-related acromegaly-gigantism cases enables timely clinical evaluation and treatment, thereby improving outcomes in terms of excessive linear growth and acromegaly comorbidities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Mutation breeding in peas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaranowski, J [Institute of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Academy of Agriculture, Poznan (Poland); Micke, A [Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1985-02-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  5. Mutation breeding in peas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaranowski, J.; Micke, A.

    1985-01-01

    The pea as an ancient crop plant still today has wide uses and is an import source of food protein. It is also an important object for genetic studies and as such has been widely used in mutation induction experiments. However, in comparison with cereals this ancient crop plant (like several other grain legumes) has gained relatively little from advances in breeding. The review focuses on the prospects of genetic improvement of pea by induced mutations, discusses principles and gives methodological information. (author)

  6. Novel mutations underlying argininosuccinic aciduria in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashed Mohamed S

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Argininosuccinic aciduria (ASAuria is an autosomal recessive disorder of the urea cycle relatively common in Saudi Arabia as a consequence of extensive consanguinity. It is the most common urea cycle disorder identified in the Saudi population, which therefore prioritizes the need to delineate the underlying molecular defects leading to disease. Findings We utilized Whole Genome Amplification (WGA, PCR and direct sequencing to identify mutations underlying ASAuria cases diagnosed by our institution. A missense mutation that accounts for 50% of Saudi ASAuria patients was recently reported by our laboratory. In this study we report a further six novel mutations (and one previously reported found in Saudi patients with ASAuria. The novel four missense, one nonsense and one splice-site mutation were confirmed by their absence in >300 chromosomes from the normal population. Pathogenicity of the novel splice-site mutation was also confirmed using reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis. Cross species amino acid conservation at the substituted residues described were observed in some but not all instances. Conclusions Together, the eight mutations described by our laboratory, encompass >90% of ASAuria patients in Saudi Arabia and add to about 45 other ASAuria mutations reported worldwide.

  7. Novel GABRG2 mutations cause familial febrile seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boillot, Morgane; Morin-Brureau, Mélanie; Picard, Fabienne; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Lambrecq, Virginie; Minetti, Carlo; Striano, Pasquale; Zara, Federico; Iacomino, Michele; Ishida, Saeko; An-Gourfinkel, Isabelle; Daniau, Mailys; Hardies, Katia; Baulac, Michel; Dulac, Olivier; Leguern, Eric; Nabbout, Rima

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To identify the genetic cause in a large family with febrile seizures (FS) and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and subsequently search for additional mutations in a cohort of 107 families with FS, with or without epilepsy. Methods: The cohort consisted of 1 large family with FS and TLE, 64 smaller French families recruited through a national French campaign, and 43 Italian families. Molecular analyses consisted of whole-exome sequencing and mutational screening. Results: Exome sequencing revealed a p.Glu402fs*3 mutation in the γ2 subunit of the GABAA receptor gene (GABRG2) in the large family with FS and TLE. Three additional nonsense and frameshift GABRG2 mutations (p.Arg136*, p.Val462fs*33, and p.Pro59fs*12), 1 missense mutation (p.Met199Val), and 1 exonic deletion were subsequently identified in 5 families of the follow-up cohort. Conclusions: We report GABRG2 mutations in 5.6% (6/108) of families with FS, with or without associated epilepsy. This study provides evidence that GABRG2 mutations are linked to the FS phenotype, rather than epilepsy, and that loss-of-function of GABAA receptor γ2 subunit is the probable underlying pathogenic mechanism. PMID:27066572

  8. Genomics of adaptation during experimental evolution of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Wong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation is likely to be an important determinant of the success of many pathogens, for example when colonizing a new host species, when challenged by antibiotic treatment, or in governing the establishment and progress of long-term chronic infection. Yet, the genomic basis of adaptation is poorly understood in general, and for pathogens in particular. We investigated the genetics of adaptation to cystic fibrosis-like culture conditions in the presence and absence of fluoroquinolone antibiotics using the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Whole-genome sequencing of experimentally evolved isolates revealed parallel evolution at a handful of known antibiotic resistance genes. While the level of antibiotic resistance was largely determined by these known resistance genes, the costs of resistance were instead attributable to a number of mutations that were specific to individual experimental isolates. Notably, stereotypical quinolone resistance mutations in DNA gyrase often co-occurred with other mutations that, together, conferred high levels of resistance but no consistent cost of resistance. This result may explain why these mutations are so prevalent in clinical quinolone-resistant isolates. In addition, genes involved in cyclic-di-GMP signalling were repeatedly mutated in populations evolved in viscous culture media, suggesting a shared mechanism of adaptation to this CF-like growth environment. Experimental evolutionary approaches to understanding pathogen adaptation should provide an important complement to studies of the evolution of clinical isolates.

  9. Spectrum of MECP2 gene mutations in a cohort of Indian patients with Rett syndrome: report of two novel mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dhanjit Kumar; Raha, Sarbani; Sanghavi, Daksha; Maitra, Anurupa; Udani, Vrajesh

    2013-02-15

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder, primarily affecting females and characterized by developmental regression, epilepsy, stereotypical hand movements, and motor abnormalities. Its prevalence is about 1 in 10,000 female births. Rett syndrome is caused by mutations within methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. Over 270 individual nucleotide changes which cause pathogenic mutations have been reported. However, eight most commonly occurring missense and nonsense mutations account for almost 70% of all patients. We screened 90 individuals with Rett syndrome phenotype. A total of 19 different MECP2 mutations and polymorphisms were identified in 27 patients. Of the 19 mutations, we identified 7 (37%) frameshift, 6 (31%) nonsense, 14 (74%) missense mutations and one duplication (5%). The most frequent pathogenic changes were: missense p.T158M (11%), p.R133C (7.4%), and p.R306C (7.4%) and nonsense p.R168X (11%), p.R255X (7.4%) mutations. We have identified two novel mutations namely p.385-388delPLPP present in atypical patients and p.Glu290AlafsX38 present in a classical patient of Rett syndrome. Sequence homology for p.385-388delPLPP mutation revealed that these 4 amino acids were conserved across mammalian species. This indicated the importance of these 4 amino acids in structure and function of the protein. A novel variant p.T479T has also been identified in a patient with atypical Rett syndrome. A total of 62 (69%) patients remained without molecular genetics diagnosis that necessitates further search for mutations in other genes like CDKL5 and FOXG1 that are known to cause Rett phenotype. The majority of mutations are detected in exon 4 and only one mutation was present in exon 3. Therefore, our study suggests the need for screening exon 4 of MECP2 as first line of diagnosis in these patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Two novel mutations in the PPIB gene cause a rare pedigree of osteogenesis imperfecta type IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Pan, Jingxin; Guo, Dongwei; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Jie; Fang, Zishui; Guo, Chunmiao; Fang, Qun; Jiang, Weiying; Guo, Yibin

    2017-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare genetic skeletal disorder characterized by increased bone fragility and vulnerability to fractures. PPIB is identified as a candidate gene for OI-IX, here we detect two pathogenic mutations in PPIB and analyze the genotype-phenotype correlation in a Chinese family with OI. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to screen the whole exome of the parents of proband. Screening of variation frequency, evolutionary conservation comparisons, pathogenicity evaluation, and protein structure prediction were conducted to assess the pathogenicity of the novel mutations. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the candidate variants. RTQ-PCR was used to analyze the PPIB gene expression. All mutant genes screened out by NGS were excluded except PPIB. Two novel heterozygous PPIB mutations (father, c.25A>G; mother, c.509G>A) were identified in relation to osteogenesis imperfecta type IX. Both mutations were predicted to be pathogenic by bioinformatics analysis and RTQ-PCR analysis revealed downregulated PPIB expression in the two carriers. We report a rare pedigree with an autosomal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta type IX (OI-IX) caused by two novel PPIB mutations identified for the first time in China. The current study expands our knowledge of PPIB mutations and their associated phenotypes, and provides new information on the genetic defects associated with this disease for clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunoglobulin gene usage in the human anti-pathogen response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newkirk, M M; Rioux, J D

    1995-09-01

    The human antibody response to foreign pathogens is generated to a relatively small number of target surface proteins and carbohydrates that nonetheless have an extensive array of epitopes. The study of human monoclonal antibodies to different pathogens shows that there are a diversity of mechanisms used to generate a sufficient repertoire of antibodies to combat the invading pathogens. Although many different immunoglobulin gene elements are used to construct the anti-pathogen response, some elements are used more often than would be expected if all elements were used randomly. For example, the immune response to Haemophilus influenzae polysaccharide appears to be quite narrow, being restricted primarily to a specific heavy-chain gene, 3-15, and a lambda light-chain family II member, 4A. In contrast, for the immune response to cytomegalovirus proteins, a wider group of gene elements is needed. It is also surprising that despite an investigator bias for IgG- rather than IgM-secreting immortal B cells (because of their high affinity and neutralizing abilities), 26% of light chains and 13% of heavy chains showed a very low level of somatic mutation, equivalent to an IgM molecule that has not undergone affinity maturation. Although some highly mutated IgG molecules are present in the anti-pathogen response, most of the monoclonal antibodies specific for viruses or bacteria have a level of somatic hypermutation similar to that of the adult IgM repertoire. A number of studies have shown that there are similarities in the antibody responses to pathogens and to self (autoantibodies).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Identification of novel mutations in X-linked retinitis pigmentosa families and implications for diagnostic testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaus, Esther; Lorenz, Birgit; Netzer, Christian; Li, Yün; Schambeck, Maria; Wittmer, Mariana; Feil, Silke; Kirschner-Schwabe, Renate; Rosenberg, Thomas; Cremers, Frans P.M.; Bergen, Arthur A.B.; Barthelmes, Daniel; Baraki, Husnia; Schmid, Fabian; Tanner, Gaby; Fleischhauer, Johannes; Orth, Ulrike; Becker, Christian; Wegscheider, Erika; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Nürnberg, Peter; Bolz, Hanno Jörn; Gal, Andreas; Berger, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to identify mutations in X-chromosomal genes associated with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in patients from Germany, The Netherlands, Denmark, and Switzerland. Methods In addition to all coding exons of RP2, exons 1 through 15, 9a, ORF15, 15a and 15b of RPGR were screened for mutations. PCR products were amplified from genomic DNA extracted from blood samples and analyzed by direct sequencing. In one family with apparently dominant inheritance of RP, linkage analysis identified an interval on the X chromosome containing RPGR, and mutation screening revealed a pathogenic variant in this gene. Patients of this family were examined clinically and by X-inactivation studies. Results This study included 141 RP families with possible X-chromosomal inheritance. In total, we identified 46 families with pathogenic sequence alterations in RPGR and RP2, of which 17 mutations have not been described previously. Two of the novel mutations represent the most 3’-terminal pathogenic sequence variants in RPGR and RP2 reported to date. In exon ORF15 of RPGR, we found eight novel and 14 known mutations. All lead to a disruption of open reading frame. Of the families with suggested X-chromosomal inheritance, 35% showed mutations in ORF15. In addition, we found five novel mutations in other exons of RPGR and four in RP2. Deletions in ORF15 of RPGR were identified in three families in which female carriers showed variable manifestation of the phenotype. Furthermore, an ORF15 mutation was found in an RP patient who additionally carries a 6.4 kbp deletion downstream of the coding region of exon ORF15. We did not identify mutations in 39 sporadic male cases from Switzerland. Conclusions RPGR mutations were confirmed to be the most frequent cause of RP in families with an X-chromosomal inheritance pattern. We propose a screening strategy to provide molecular diagnostics in these families. PMID:18552978

  13. Reversible optic neuropathy with OPA1 exon 5b mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornille, K.; Milea, D.; Amati-Bonneau, P.

    2008-01-01

    A new c.740G>A (R247H) mutation in OPA1 alternate spliced exon 5b was found in a patient presenting with bilateral optic neuropathy followed by partial, spontaneous visual recovery. R247H fibroblasts from the patient and his unaffected father presented unusual highly tubular mitochondrial network......, significant increased susceptibility to apoptosis, oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling, and altered OPA1 protein profile, supporting the pathogenicity of this mutation. These results suggest that the clinical spectrum of the OPA1-associated optic neuropathies may be larger than previously described...

  14. Functional implications of the p.Cys680Arg mutation in the MLH1 mismatch repair protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Drost, Mark; Therkildsen, Christina

    2014-01-01

    >C missense mutation in exon 18 of the human MLH1 gene and biochemically characterization of the p.Cys680Arg mutant MLH1 protein to implicate it in the pathogenicity of the Lynch syndrome (LS). We show that the mutation is deficient in DNA mismatch repair and, therefore, contributing to LS in the carriers....

  15. wKinMut: An integrated tool for the analysis and interpretation of mutations in human protein kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Izarzugaza, Jose Maria; Vazquez, Miguel; del Pozo, Angela

    2013-01-01

    mutation remains a considerable challenge. Results The wKinMut web-server offers direct prediction of the potential pathogenicity of the mutations from a number of methods, including our recently developed prediction method based on the combination of information from a range of diverse sources, including...

  16. Mutations in POGLUT1, Encoding Protein O-Glucosyltransferase 1, Cause Autosomal-Dominant Dowling-Degos Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basmanav, F Buket; Oprisoreanu, Ana-Maria; Pasternack, Sandra M

    2014-01-01

    Dowling-Degos disease (DDD) is an autosomal-dominant genodermatosis characterized by progressive and disfiguring reticulate hyperpigmentation. We previously identified loss-of-function mutations in KRT5 but were only able to detect pathogenic mutations in fewer than half of our subjects. To ident...

  17. Determining the role of missense mutations in the POU domain of HNF1A that reduce the DNA-binding affinity: A computational approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha P

    Full Text Available Maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 3 (MODY3 is a non-ketotic form of diabetes associated with poor insulin secretion. Over the past years, several studies have reported the association of missense mutations in the Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1 Alpha (HNF1A with MODY3. Missense mutations in the POU homeodomain (POUH of HNF1A hinder binding to the DNA, thereby leading to a dysfunctional protein. Missense mutations of the HNF1A were retrieved from public databases and subjected to a three-step computational mutational analysis to identify the underlying mechanism. First, the pathogenicity and stability of the mutations were analyzed to determine whether they alter protein structure and function. Second, the sequence conservation and DNA-binding sites of the mutant positions were assessed; as HNF1A protein is a transcription factor. Finally, the biochemical properties of the biological system were validated using molecular dynamic simulations in Gromacs 4.6.3 package. Two arginine residues (131 and 203 in the HNF1A protein are highly conserved residues and contribute to the function of the protein. Furthermore, the R131W, R131Q, and R203C mutations were predicted to be highly deleterious by in silico tools and showed lower binding affinity with DNA when compared to the native protein using the molecular docking analysis. Triplicate runs of molecular dynamic (MD simulations (50ns revealed smaller changes in patterns of deviation, fluctuation, and compactness, in complexes containing the R131Q and R131W mutations, compared to complexes containing the R203C mutant complex. We observed reduction in the number of intermolecular hydrogen bonds, compactness, and electrostatic potential, as well as the loss of salt bridges, in the R203C mutant complex. Substitution of arginine with cysteine at position 203 decreases the affinity of the protein for DNA, thereby destabilizing the protein. Based on our current findings, the MD approach is an important

  18. Elucidating the Interdependence of Drug Resistance from Combinations of Mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragland, Debra A; Whitfield, Troy W; Lee, Sook-Kyung; Swanstrom, Ronald; Zeldovich, Konstantin B; Kurt-Yilmaz, Nese; Schiffer, Celia A

    2017-11-14

    HIV-1 protease is responsible for the cleavage of 12 nonhomologous sites within the Gag and Gag-Pro-Pol polyproteins in the viral genome. Under the selective pressure of protease inhibition, the virus evolves mutations within (primary) and outside of (secondary) the active site, allowing the protease to process substrates while simultaneously countering inhibition. The primary protease mutations impede inhibitor binding directly, while the secondary mutations are considered accessory mutations that compensate for a loss in fitness. However, the role of secondary mutations in conferring drug resistance remains a largely unresolved topic. We have shown previously that mutations distal to the active site are able to perturb binding of darunavir (DRV) via the protein's internal hydrogen-bonding network. In this study, we show that mutations distal to the active site, regardless of context, can play an interdependent role in drug resistance. Applying eigenvalue decomposition to collections of hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interactions from a series of molecular dynamics simulations of 15 diverse HIV-1 protease variants, we identify sites in the protease where amino acid substitutions lead to perturbations in nonbonded interactions with DRV and/or the hydrogen-bonding network of the protease itself. While primary mutations are known to drive resistance in HIV-1 protease, these findings delineate the significant contributions of accessory mutations to resistance. Identifying the variable positions in the protease that have the greatest impact on drug resistance may aid in future structure-based design of inhibitors.

  19. Mutator activity in Schizophyllum commune

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shneyour, Y.; Koltin, Y. (Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Dept. of Microbiology)

    1983-01-01

    A strain with an elevated level of spontaneous mutations and an especially high rate of reversion at a specific locus (pab/sup -/) was identified. The mutator trait is recessive. UV sensitivity and the absence of a UV-specific endonucleolytic activity were associated with the enhancement of the mutation rate in mutator strains. The endonuclease associated with the regulation of the mutation rate also acted on single-stranded DNA. The molecular weight of this enzyme is about 38,000 daltons.

  20. Modeling the intracellular pathogen-immune interaction with cure rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Balram; Dubey, Preeti; Dubey, Uma S.

    2016-09-01

    Many common and emergent infectious diseases like Influenza, SARS, Hepatitis, Ebola etc. are caused by viral pathogens. These infections can be controlled or prevented by understanding the dynamics of pathogen-immune interaction in vivo. In this paper, interaction of pathogens with uninfected and infected cells in presence or absence of immune response are considered in four different cases. In the first case, the model considers the saturated nonlinear infection rate and linear cure rate without absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells and without immune response. The next model considers the effect of absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells while all other terms are same as in the first case. The third model incorporates innate immune response, humoral immune response and Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) mediated immune response with cure rate and without absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells. The last model is an extension of the third model in which the effect of absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells has been considered. Positivity and boundedness of solutions are established to ensure the well-posedness of the problem. It has been found that all the four models have two equilibria, namely, pathogen-free equilibrium point and pathogen-present equilibrium point. In each case, stability analysis of each equilibrium point is investigated. Pathogen-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when basic reproduction number is less or equal to unity. This implies that control or prevention of infection is independent of initial concentration of uninfected cells, infected cells, pathogens and immune responses in the body. The proposed models show that introduction of immune response and cure rate strongly affects the stability behavior of the system. Further, on computing basic reproduction number, it has been found to be minimum for the fourth model vis-a-vis other models. The analytical findings of each model have been exemplified by

  1. SDHAF2 mutations in familial and sporadic paraganglioma and phaeochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Jean-Pierre; Kunst, Henricus P M; Cascon, Alberto; Sampietro, Maria Lourdes; Gaal, José; Korpershoek, Esther; Hinojar-Gutierrez, Adolfo; Timmers, Henri J L M; Hoefsloot, Lies H; Hermsen, Mario A; Suárez, Carlos; Hussain, A Karim; Vriends, Annette H J T; Hes, Frederik J; Jansen, Jeroen C; Tops, Carli M; Corssmit, Eleonora P; de Knijff, Peter; Lenders, Jacques W M; Cremers, Cor W R J; Devilee, Peter; Dinjens, Winand N M; de Krijger, Ronald R; Robledo, Mercedes

    2010-04-01

    Paragangliomas and phaeochromocytomas are neuroendocrine tumours associated frequently with germline mutations of SDHD, SDHC, and SDHB. Previous studies have shown the imprinted SDHAF2 gene to be mutated in a large Dutch kindred with paragangliomas. We aimed to identify SDHAF2 mutation carriers, assess the clinical genetic significance of SDHAF2, and describe the associated clinical phenotype. We undertook a multicentre study in Spain and The Netherlands in 443 apparently sporadic patients with paragangliomas and phaeochromocytomas who did not have mutations in SDHD, SDHC, or SDHB. We analysed DNA of 315 patients for germline mutations of SDHAF2; a subset (n=200) was investigated for gross gene deletions. DNA from a group of 128 tumours was studied for somatic mutations. We also examined a Spanish family with head and neck paragangliomas with a young age of onset for the presence of SDHAF2 mutations, undertook haplotype analysis in this kindred, and assessed their clinical phenotype. We did not identify any germline or somatic mutations of SDHAF2, and no gross gene deletions were noted in the subset of apparently sporadic patients analysed. Investigation of the Spanish family identified a pathogenic germline DNA mutation of SDHAF2, 232G-->A (Gly78Arg), identical to the Dutch kindred. SDHAF2 mutations do not have an important role in phaeochromocytoma and are rare in head and neck paraganglioma. Identification of a second family with the Gly78Arg mutation suggests that this is a crucial residue for the function of SDHAF2. We conclude that SDHAF2 mutation analysis is justified in very young patients with isolated head and neck paraganglioma without mutations in SDHD, SDHC, or SDHB, and in individuals with familial antecedents who are negative for mutations in all other risk genes. Dutch Cancer Society, European Union 6th Framework Program, Fondo Investigaciones Sanitarias, Fundación Mutua Madrileña, and Red Temática de Investigación Cooperativa en Cáncer. 2010

  2. Understanding the Pathogenicity of Burkholderia contaminans, an Emerging Pathogen in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunvar, Jaroslav; Kalferstova, Lucie; Bloodworth, Ruhi A M; Kolar, Michal; Degrossi, Jose; Lubovich, Silvina; Cardona, Silvia T; Drevinek, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Several bacterial species from the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are feared opportunistic pathogens that lead to debilitating lung infections with a high risk of developing fatal septicemia in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. However, the pathogenic potential of other Bcc species is yet unknown. To elucidate clinical relevance of Burkholderia contaminans, a species frequently isolated from CF respiratory samples in Ibero-American countries, we aimed to identify its key virulence factors possibly linked with an unfavorable clinical outcome. We performed a genome-wide comparative analysis of two isolates of B. contaminans ST872 from sputum and blood culture of a female CF patient in Argentina. RNA-seq data showed significant changes in expression for quorum sensing-regulated virulence factors and motility and chemotaxis. Furthermore, we detected expression changes in a recently described low-oxygen-activated (lxa) locus which encodes stress-related proteins, and for two clusters responsible for the biosynthesis of antifungal and hemolytic compounds pyrrolnitrin and occidiofungin. Based on phenotypic assays that confirmed changes in motility and in proteolytic, hemolytic and antifungal activities, we were able to distinguish two phenotypes of B. contaminans that coexisted in the host and entered her bloodstream. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the sputum and bloodstream isolates (each representing a distinct phenotype) differed by over 1,400 mutations as a result of a mismatch repair-deficient hypermutable state of the sputum isolate. The inferred lack of purifying selection against nonsynonymous mutations and the high rate of pseudogenization in the derived isolate indicated limited evolutionary pressure during evolution in the nutrient-rich, stable CF sputum environment. The present study is the first to examine the genomic and transcriptomic differences between longitudinal isolates of B. contaminans. Detected activity of a number of putative virulence

  3. Somatic Mutations and Clonal Hematopoiesis in Aplastic Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizato, Tetsuichi; Dumitriu, Bogdan; Hosokawa, Kohei; Makishima, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenichi; Townsley, Danielle; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Sato, Yusuke; Liu, Delong; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Wu, Colin O; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Clemente, Michael J; Kataoka, Keisuke; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Okuno, Yusuke; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Nagata, Yasunobu; Katagiri, Takamasa; Kon, Ayana; Sanada, Masashi; Scheinberg, Phillip; Miyano, Satoru; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P; Nakao, Shinji; Young, Neal S; Ogawa, Seishi

    2015-07-02

    In patients with acquired aplastic anemia, destruction of hematopoietic cells by the immune system leads to pancytopenia. Patients have a response to immunosuppressive therapy, but myelodysplastic syndromes and acute myeloid leukemia develop in about 15% of the patients, usually many months to years after the diagnosis of aplastic anemia. We performed next-generation sequencing and array-based karyotyping using 668 blood samples obtained from 439 patients with aplastic anemia. We analyzed serial samples obtained from 82 patients. Somatic mutations in myeloid cancer candidate genes were present in one third of the patients, in a limited number of genes and at low initial variant allele frequency. Clonal hematopoiesis was detected in 47% of the patients, most frequently as acquired mutations. The prevalence of the mutations increased with age, and mutations had an age-related signature. DNMT3A-mutated and ASXL1-mutated clones tended to increase in size over time; the size of BCOR- and BCORL1-mutated and PIGA-mutated clones decreased or remained stable. Mutations in PIGA and BCOR and BCORL1 correlated with a better response to immunosuppressive therapy and longer and a higher rate of overall and progression-free survival; mutations in a subgroup of genes that included DNMT3A and ASXL1 were associated with worse outcomes. However, clonal dynamics were highly variable and might not necessarily have predicted the response to therapy and long-term survival among individual patients. Clonal hematopoiesis was prevalent in aplastic anemia. Some mutations were related to clinical outcomes. A highly biased set of mutations is evidence of Darwinian selection in the failed bone marrow environment. The pattern of somatic clones in individual patients over time was variable and frequently unpredictable. (Funded by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research and others.).

  4. Mutation Spectrum of the ABCA4 Gene in a Greek Cohort with Stargardt Disease: Identification of Novel Mutations and Evidence of Three Prevalent Mutated Alleles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamakari Smaragda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the frequency and pattern of disease-associated mutations of ABCA4 gene among Greek patients with presumed Stargardt disease (STGD1. Materials and Methods. A total of 59 patients were analyzed for ABCA4 mutations using the ABCR400 microarray and PCR-based sequencing of all coding exons and flanking intronic regions. MLPA analysis as well as sequencing of two regions in introns 30 and 36 reported earlier to harbor deep intronic disease-associated variants was used in 4 selected cases. Results. An overall detection rate of at least one mutant allele was achieved in 52 of the 59 patients (88.1%. Direct sequencing improved significantly the complete characterization rate, that is, identification of two mutations compared to the microarray analysis (93.1% versus 50%. In total, 40 distinct potentially disease-causing variants of the ABCA4 gene were detected, including six previously unreported potentially pathogenic variants. Among the disease-causing variants, in this cohort, the most frequent was c.5714+5G>A representing 16.1%, while p.Gly1961Glu and p.Leu541Pro represented 15.2% and 8.5%, respectively. Conclusions. By using a combination of methods, we completely molecularly diagnosed 48 of the 59 patients studied. In addition, we identified six previously unreported, potentially pathogenic ABCA4 mutations.

  5. Mutation analysis of the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes in Vietnamese patients with osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Duy, Binh; Zhytnik, Lidiia; Maasalu, Katre; Kändla, Ivo; Prans, Ele; Reimann, Ene; Märtson, Aare; Kõks, Sulev

    2016-08-12

    The genetics of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) have not been studied in a Vietnamese population before. We performed mutational analysis of the COL1A1 and COL1A2 genes in 91 unrelated OI patients of Vietnamese origin. We then systematically characterized the mutation profiles of these two genes which are most commonly related to OI. Genomic DNA was extracted from EDTA-preserved blood according to standard high-salt extraction methods. Sequence analysis and pathogenic variant identification was performed with Mutation Surveyor DNA variant analysis software. Prediction of the pathogenicity of mutations was conducted using Alamut Visual software. The presence of variants was checked against Dalgleish's osteogenesis imperfecta mutation database. The sample consisted of 91 unrelated osteogenesis imperfecta patients. We identified 54 patients with COL1A1/2 pathogenic variants; 33 with COL1A1 and 21 with COL1A2. Two patients had multiple pathogenic variants. Seventeen novel COL1A1 and 10 novel COL1A2 variants were identified. The majority of identified COL1A1/2 pathogenic variants occurred in a glycine substitution (36/56, 64.3 %), usually serine (23/36, 63.9 %). We found two pathogenic variants of the COL1A1 gene c.2461G > A (p.Gly821Ser) in four unrelated patients and one, c.2005G > A (p.Ala669Thr), in two unrelated patients. Our data showed a lower number of collagen OI pathogenic variants in Vietnamese patients compared to reported rates for Asian populations. The OI mutational profile of the Vietnamese population is unique and related to the presence of a high number of recessive mutations in non-collagenous OI genes. Further analysis of OI patients negative for collagen mutations, is required.

  6. Molecular Clock of Neutral Mutations in a Fitness-Increasing Evolutionary Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishimoto, Toshihiko; Ying, Bei-Wen; Tsuru, Saburo; Iijima, Leo; Suzuki, Shingo; Hashimoto, Tomomi; Oyake, Ayana; Kobayashi, Hisaka; Someya, Yuki; Narisawa, Dai; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2015-07-01

    The molecular clock of neutral mutations, which represents linear mutation fixation over generations, is theoretically explained by genetic drift in fitness-steady evolution or hitchhiking in adaptive evolution. The present study is the first experimental demonstration for the molecular clock of neutral mutations in a fitness-increasing evolutionary process. The dynamics of genome mutation fixation in the thermal adaptive evolution of Escherichia coli were evaluated in a prolonged evolution experiment in duplicated lineages. The cells from the continuously fitness-increasing evolutionary process were subjected to genome sequencing and analyzed at both the population and single-colony levels. Although the dynamics of genome mutation fixation were complicated by the combination of the stochastic appearance of adaptive mutations and clonal interference, the mutation fixation in the population was simply linear over generations. Each genome in the population accumulated 1.6 synonymous and 3.1 non-synonymous neutral mutations, on average, by the spontaneous mutation accumulation rate, while only a single genome in the population occasionally acquired an adaptive mutation. The neutral mutations that preexisted on the single genome hitchhiked on the domination of the adaptive mutation. The successive fixation processes of the 128 mutations demonstrated that hitchhiking and not genetic drift were responsible for the coincidence of the spontaneous mutation accumulation rate in the genome with the fixation rate of neutral mutations in the population. The molecular clock of neutral mutations to the fitness-increasing evolution suggests that the numerous neutral mutations observed in molecular phylogenetic trees may not always have been fixed in fitness-steady evolution but in adaptive evolution.

  7. Molecular Clock of Neutral Mutations in a Fitness-Increasing Evolutionary Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Kishimoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The molecular clock of neutral mutations, which represents linear mutation fixation over generations, is theoretically explained by genetic drift in fitness-steady evolution or hitchhiking in adaptive evolution. The present study is the first experimental demonstration for the molecular clock of neutral mutations in a fitness-increasing evolutionary process. The dynamics of genome mutation fixation in the thermal adaptive evolution of Escherichia coli were evaluated in a prolonged evolution experiment in duplicated lineages. The cells from the continuously fitness-increasing evolutionary process were subjected to genome sequencing and analyzed at both the population and single-colony levels. Although the dynamics of genome mutation fixation were complicated by the combination of the stochastic appearance of adaptive mutations and clonal interference, the mutation fixation in the population was simply linear over generations. Each genome in the population accumulated 1.6 synonymous and 3.1 non-synonymous neutral mutations, on average, by the spontaneous mutation accumulation rate, while only a single genome in the population occasionally acquired an adaptive mutation. The neutral mutations that preexisted on the single genome hitchhiked on the domination of the adaptive mutation. The successive fixation processes of the 128 mutations demonstrated that hitchhiking and not genetic drift were responsible for the coincidence of the spontaneous mutation accumulation rate in the genome with the fixation rate of neutral mutations in the population. The molecular clock of neutral mutations to the fitness-increasing evolution suggests that the numerous neutral mutations observed in molecular phylogenetic trees may not always have been fixed in fitness-steady evolution but in adaptive evolution.

  8. Molecular characteristics of the KCNJ5 mutated aldosterone-producing adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Masanori; Yoshimoto, Takanobu; Nakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Nakano, Yujiro; Fukaishi, Takahiro; Tsuchiya, Kyoichiro; Minami, Isao; Bouchi, Ryotaro; Okamura, Kohji; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Hashimoto, Koshi; Hata, Ken-Ichiro; Kihara, Kazunori; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2017-10-01

    The pathophysiology of aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) has been investigated via genetic approaches and the pathogenic significance of a series of somatic mutations, including KCNJ5 , has been uncovered. However, how the mutational status of an APA is associated with its molecular characteristics, including its transcriptome and methylome, has not been fully understood. This study was undertaken to explore the molecular characteristics of APAs, specifically focusing on APAs with KCNJ5 mutations as opposed to those without KCNJ5 mutations, by comparing their transcriptome and methylome status. Cortisol-producing adenomas (CPAs) were used as reference. We conducted transcriptome and methylome analyses of 29 APAs with KCNJ5 mutations, 8 APAs without KCNJ5 mutations and 5 CPAs. Genome-wide gene expression and CpG methylation profiles were obtained from RNA and DNA samples extracted from these 42 adrenal tumors. Cluster analysis of the transcriptome and methylome revealed molecular heterogeneity in APAs depending on their mutational status. DNA hypomethylation and gene expression changes in Wnt signaling and inflammatory response pathways were characteristic of APAs with KCNJ5 mutations. Comparisons between transcriptome data from our APAs and that from normal adrenal cortex obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus suggested similarities between APAs with KCNJ5 mutations and zona glomerulosa. The present study, which is based on transcriptome and methylome analyses, indicates the molecular heterogeneity of APAs depends on their mutational status. Here, we report the unique characteristics of APAs with KCNJ5 mutations. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  9. Contribution of APC and MUTYH mutations to familial adenomatous polyposis susceptibility in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Janos; Kovacs, Marietta Eva; Matrai, Zoltan; Orosz, Enikő; Kásler, Miklós; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Olah, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a colorectal cancer predisposition syndrome with considerable genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity, defined by the development of multiple adenomas throughout the colorectum. FAP is caused either by monoallelic mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli gene APC, or by biallelic germline mutations of MUTYH, this latter usually presenting with milder phenotype. The aim of the present study was to characterize the genotype and phenotype of Hungarian FAP patients. Mutation screening of 87 unrelated probands from FAP families (21 of them presented as the attenuated variant of the disease, showing APC were identified in 65 patients (75 %), including nine cases (37.5 %) with large genomic alterations. Twelve of the point mutations were novel. In addition, APC-negative samples were also tested for MUTYH mutations and we were able to identify biallelic pathogenic mutations in 23 % of these cases (5/22). Correlations between the localization of APC mutations and the clinical manifestations of the disease were observed, cases with a mutation in the codon 1200-1400 region showing earlier age of disease onset (p APC- and MUTYH-associated FAP in our cohort: the age at onset of polyposis was significantly delayed for biallelic MUTYH mutation carriers as compared to patients with an APC mutation. Our data represent the first comprehensive study delineating the mutation spectra of both APC and MUTYH in Hungarian FAP families, and underscore the overlap between the clinical characteristics of APC- and MUTYH-associated phenotypes, necessitating a more appropriate clinical characterization of FAP families.

  10. The plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato is genetically monomorphic and under strong selection to evade tomato immunity.

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    Rongman Cai

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, genome sequencing of many isolates of genetically monomorphic bacterial human pathogens has given new insights into pathogen microevolution and phylogeography. Here, we report a genome-based micro-evolutionary study of a bacterial plant pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato. Only 267 mutations were identified between five sequenced isolates in 3,543,009 nt of analyzed genome sequence, which suggests a recent evolutionary origin of this pathogen. Further analysis with genome-derived markers of 89 world-wide isolates showed that several genotypes exist in North America and in Europe indicating frequent pathogen movement between these world regions. Genome-derived markers and molecular analyses of key pathogen loci important for virulence and motility both suggest ongoing adaptation to the tomato host. A mutational hotspot was found in the type III-secreted effector gene hopM1. These mutations abolish the cell death triggering activity of the full-length protein indicating strong selection for loss of function of this effector, which was previously considered a virulence factor. Two non-synonymous mutations in the flagellin-encoding gene fliC allowed identifying a new microbe associated molecular pattern (MAMP in a region distinct from the known MAMP flg22. Interestingly, the ancestral allele of this MAMP induces a stronger tomato immune response than the derived alleles. The ancestral allele has largely disappeared from today's Pto populations suggesting that flagellin-triggered immunity limits pathogen fitness even in highly virulent pathogens. An additional non-synonymous mutation was identified in flg22 in South American isolates. Therefore, MAMPs are more variable than expected differing even between otherwise almost identical isolates of the same pathogen strain.

  11. Comprehensive spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 deleterious mutations in breast cancer in Asian countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Ava; Shin, Vivian Y; Ho, John C W; Kang, Eunyoung; Nakamura, Seigo; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Lee, Ann S G; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Ginsburg, Ophira M; Kurian, Allison W; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Siu, Man-Ting; Law, Fian B F; Chan, Tsun-Leung; Narod, Steven A; Ford, James M; Ma, Edmond S K; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 5%–10% of breast cancers are due to genetic predisposition caused by germline mutations; the most commonly tested genes are BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Some mutations are unique to one family and others are recurrent; the spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations varies depending on the geographical origins, populations or ethnic groups. In this review, we compiled data from 11 participating Asian countries (Bangladesh, Mainland China, Hong Kong SAR, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam), and from ethnic Asians residing in Canada and the USA. We have additionally conducted a literature review to include other Asian countries mainly in Central and Western Asia. We present the current pathogenic mutation spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 genes in patients with breast cancer in various Asian populations. Understanding BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in Asians will help provide better risk assessment and clinical management of breast cancer. PMID:26187060

  12. Intestinal Stem Cell Dynamics: A Story of Mice and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, Michael C; Flanagan, Dustin J; Sansom, Owen J

    2018-06-01

    Stem cell dynamics define the probability of accumulating mutations within the intestinal epithelium. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Nicholson et al. (2018) report that human intestinal stem cell dynamics differ significantly from those of mice and establish that oncogenic mutations are more likely to expand; therefore, "normal" epithelium may carry multiple mutations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Novel Mutation in ERCC8 Gene Causing Cockayne Syndrome

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    Maryam Taghdiri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cockayne syndrome (CS is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by impaired neurological and sensory functions, cachectic dwarfism, microcephaly, and photosensitivity. This syndrome shows a variable age of onset and rate of progression, and its phenotypic spectrum include a wide range of severity. Due to the progressive nature of this disorder, diagnosis can be more important when additional signs and symptoms appear gradually and become steadily worse over time. Therefore, mutation analysis of genes involved in CS pathogenesis can be helpful to confirm the suspected clinical diagnosis. Here, we report a novel mutation in ERCC8 gene in a 16-year-old boy who suffers from poor weight gain, short stature, microcephaly, intellectual disability, and photosensitivity. The patient was born to consanguineous family with no previous documented disease in his parents. To identify disease-causing mutation in the patient, whole exome sequencing utilizing next-generation sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed. Results revealed a novel homozygote mutation in ERCC8 gene (NM_000082: exon 11, c.1122G>C in our patient. Another gene (ERCC6, which is also involved in CS did not have any disease-causing mutations in the proband. The new identified mutation was then confirmed by Sanger sequencing in the proband, his parents, and extended family members, confirming co-segregation with the disease. In addition, different bioinformatics programs which included MutationTaster, I-Mutant v2.0, NNSplice, Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion, The PhastCons, Genomic Evolutationary Rate Profiling conservation score, and T-Coffee Multiple Sequence Alignment predicted the pathogenicity of the mutation. Our study identified a rare novel mutation in ERCC8 gene and help to provide accurate genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis to minimize new affected individuals in this family.

  14. A Novel Mutation in ERCC8 Gene Causing Cockayne Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghdiri, Maryam; Dastsooz, Hassan; Fardaei, Majid; Mohammadi, Sanaz; Farazi Fard, Mohammad Ali; Faghihi, Mohammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by impaired neurological and sensory functions, cachectic dwarfism, microcephaly, and photosensitivity. This syndrome shows a variable age of onset and rate of progression, and its phenotypic spectrum include a wide range of severity. Due to the progressive nature of this disorder, diagnosis can be more important when additional signs and symptoms appear gradually and become steadily worse over time. Therefore, mutation analysis of genes involved in CS pathogenesis can be helpful to confirm the suspected clinical diagnosis. Here, we report a novel mutation in ERCC8 gene in a 16-year-old boy who suffers from poor weight gain, short stature, microcephaly, intellectual disability, and photosensitivity. The patient was born to consanguineous family with no previous documented disease in his parents. To identify disease-causing mutation in the patient, whole exome sequencing utilizing next-generation sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was performed. Results revealed a novel homozygote mutation in ERCC8 gene (NM_000082: exon 11, c.1122G>C) in our patient. Another gene ( ERCC6 ), which is also involved in CS did not have any disease-causing mutations in the proband. The new identified mutation was then confirmed by Sanger sequencing in the proband, his parents, and extended family members, confirming co-segregation with the disease. In addition, different bioinformatics programs which included MutationTaster, I-Mutant v2.0, NNSplice, Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion, The PhastCons, Genomic Evolutationary Rate Profiling conservation score, and T-Coffee Multiple Sequence Alignment predicted the pathogenicity of the mutation. Our study identified a rare novel mutation in ERCC8 gene and help to provide accurate genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis to minimize new affected individuals in this family.

  15. EG-08IDH MUTATIONS IN GLIOMAS ASSOCIATED WITH ENCHONDROMATOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, M. Kelly; Joseph, Loren; Venneti, Sriram; Daher, Ahmad; Pytel, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The enchondromatoses, Ollier's disease and Maffucci syndrome, are non-heritable developmental disorders characterized by multiple enchondromas (Olllier's) in association with hemangiomas (Maffucci). Glial neoplasms are reported in both disorders but a pathogenic mechanism underlying this association has not been identified. We report a case of anaplastic astrocytoma in a 23 year old man with Maffucci syndrome whose tumor carried a substitution mutation of arginine for cysteine at position 132 (R132C) of the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) protein. This mutation, commonly found in Maffucci-associated enchondromas and hemangiomas, was not detected on routine immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of the astrocytoma using the R132H mutation-specific antibody, commonly applied in clinical laboratories. The R132C mutation was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequently confirmed using a SNaPshot assay. Because somatic mosaic IDH mutations are associated with enchondromas and hemangiomas in Maffucci syndrome, we looked for the R132C mutation in a hemangioma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) and histologically normal brain surrounding the tumor from this patient. The mutation was present in the hemangioma, absent in PBMNC, and present in 2% of alleles in ‘normal’ brain. The low level in surrounding brain tissue is consistent with tumor cell infiltration, not mosaicism, as a S173T p53 mutation in the tumor showed similar results. Using IHC, we further demonstrated that the mutant IDH1 protein in this glioma functions as an oncometabolite. Two repressive histone trimethylation marks were strongly positive in the tumor, supporting a role for 2-hydroxyglutarate in the inhibition of histone demethylation. Together, these data demonstrate that an IDH1 mutation common in enchodromatoses underlies the association of glial tumors reported in both Ollier's disease and Maffucci syndrome.

  16. Extended mutation spectrum of Usher syndrome in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Västinsalo, Hanna; Jalkanen, Reetta; Bergmann, Carsten; Neuhaus, Christine; Kleemola, Leenamaija; Jauhola, Liisa; Bolz, Hanno Jörn; Sankila, Eeva-Marja

    2013-06-01

    The Finnish distribution of clinical Usher syndrome (USH) types is 40% USH3, 34% USH1 and 12% USH2. All patients with USH3 carry the founder mutation in clarin 1 (CLRN1), whereas we recently reported three novel myosin VIIA (MYO7A) mutations in two unrelated patients with USH1. This study was carried out to further investigate the USH mutation spectrum in Finnish patients. We analysed samples from nine unrelated USH patients/families without known mutations and two USH3 families with atypically severe phenotype. The Asper Ophthalmics USH mutation chip was used to screen for known mutations and to evaluate the chip in molecular diagnostics of Finnish patients. The chip revealed a heterozygous usherin (USH2A) mutation, p.N346H, in one patient. Sequencing of MYO7A and/or USH2A in three index patients revealed two novel heterozygous mutations, p.R873W in MYO7A and c.14343+2T>C in USH2A. We did not identify definite pathogenic second mutations in the patients, but identified several probably nonpathogenic variations that may modify the disease phenotype. Possible digenism could not be excluded in two families segregating genomic variations in both MYO7A and USH2A, and two families with CLRN1 and USH2A. We conclude that there is considerable genetic heterogeneity of USH1 and USH2 in Finland, making molecular diagnostics and genetic counselling of patients and families challenging. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  17. Evolution of Salmonella enterica virulence via point mutations in the fimbrial adhesin.

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    Dagmara I Kisiela

    Full Text Available Whereas the majority of pathogenic Salmonella serovars are capable of infecting many different animal species, typically producing a self-limited gastroenteritis, serovars with narrow host-specificity exhibit increased virulence and their infections frequently result in fatal systemic diseases. In our study, a genetic and functional analysis of the mannose-specific type 1 fimbrial adhesin FimH from a variety of serovars of Salmonella enterica revealed that specific mutant variants of FimH are common in host-adapted (systemically invasive serovars. We have found that while the low-binding shear-dependent phenotype of the adhesin is preserved in broad host-range (usually systemically non-invasive Salmonella, the majority of host-adapted serovars express FimH variants with one of two alternative phenotypes: a significantly increased binding to mannose (as in S. Typhi, S. Paratyphi C, S. Dublin and some isolates of S. Choleraesuis, or complete loss of the mannose-binding activity (as in S. Paratyphi B, S. Choleraesuis and S. Gallinarum. The functional diversification of FimH in host-adapted Salmonella results from recently acquired structural mutations. Many of the mutations are of a convergent nature indicative of strong positive selection. The high-binding phenotype of FimH that leads to increased bacterial adhesiveness to and invasiveness of epithelial cells and macrophages usually precedes acquisition of the non-binding phenotype. Collectively these observations suggest that activation or inactivation of mannose-specific adhesive properties in different systemically invasive serovars of Salmonella reflects their dynamic trajectories of adaptation to a life style in specific hosts. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that point mutations are the target of positive selection and, in addition to horizontal gene transfer and genome degradation events, can contribute to the differential pathoadaptive evolution of Salmonella.

  18. Disabilities caused by unstable mutations in Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Morales Montero, Fernando; Cuenca Berger, Patricia; Castro Volio, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy and fragile X syndrome are two genetically determined relatively common disabilities. Both are examples of a new type of mutation mechanism called unstable or dynamic mutations, triple repeats expansions or DNA amplification. Fragile X syndrome is recognized as the main cause of hereditary mental retardation and myotonic dystrophy is considered the most common muscular dystrophy of adults. This is a prospective non randomized study of clinically affected people,...

  19. Are There Mutator Polymerases?

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    Miguel Garcia-Diaz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA polymerases are involved in different cellular events, including genome replication and DNA repair. In the last few years, a large number of novel DNA polymerases have been discovered, and the biochemical analysis of their properties has revealed a long list of intriguing features. Some of these polymerases have a very low fidelity and have been suggested to play mutator roles in different processes, like translesion synthesis or somatic hypermutation. The current view of these processes is reviewed, and the current understanding of DNA polymerases and their role as mutator enzymes is discussed.

  20. MUTATIONS IN CALMODULIN GENES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an isolated polynucleotide encoding at least a part of calmodulin and an isolated polypeptide comprising at least a part of a calmodulin protein, wherein the polynucleotide and the polypeptide comprise at least one mutation associated with a cardiac disorder. The ...... the binding of calmodulin to ryanodine receptor 2 and use of such compound in a treatment of an individual having a cardiac disorder. The invention further provides a kit that can be used to detect specific mutations in calmodulin encoding genes....

  1. Mutations in noncoding regions of GJB1 are a major cause of X-linked CMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaselli, Pedro J.; Rossor, Alexander M.; Horga, Alejandro; Jaunmuktane, Zane; Carr, Aisling; Saveri, Paola; Piscosquito, Giuseppe; Pareyson, Davide; Laura, Matilde; Blake, Julian C.; Poh, Roy; Polke, James; Houlden, Henry

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and clinical and genetic characteristics of patients with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) due to mutations in noncoding regions of the gap junction β-1 gene (GJB1). Methods: Mutations were identified by bidirectional Sanger sequence analysis of the 595 bases of the upstream promoter region, and 25 bases of the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) sequence in patients in whom mutations in the coding region had been excluded. Clinical and neurophysiologic data were retrospectively collected. Results: Five mutations were detected in 25 individuals from 10 kindreds representing 11.4% of all cases of CMTX1 diagnosed in our neurogenetics laboratory between 1996 and 2016. Four pathogenic mutations, c.-17G>A, c.-17+1G>T, c.-103C>T, and c.-146-90_146-89insT were detected in the 5′UTR. A novel mutation, c.*15C>T, was detected in the 3′ UTR of GJB1 in 2 unrelated families with CMTX1 and is the first pathogenic mutation in the 3′UTR of any myelin-associated CMT gene. Mutations segregated with the phenotype, were at sites predicted to be pathogenic, and were not present in the normal population. Conclusions: Mutations in noncoding DNA are a major cause of CMTX1 and highlight the importance of mutations in noncoding DNA in human disease. Next-generation sequencing platforms for use in inherited neuropathy should therefore include coverage of these regions. PMID:28283593

  2. The Versatile Mutational Resistome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Carla López-Causapé

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most striking features of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its outstanding capacity for developing antimicrobial resistance to nearly all available antipseudomonal agents through the selection of chromosomal mutations, leading to the failure of the treatment of severe hospital-acquired or chronic infections. Recent whole-genome sequencing (WGS data obtained from in vitro assays on the evolution of antibiotic resistance, in vivo monitoring of antimicrobial resistance development, analysis of sequential cystic fibrosis isolates, and characterization of widespread epidemic high-risk clones have provided new insights into the evolutionary dynamics and mechanisms of P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance, thus motivating this review. Indeed, the analysis of the WGS mutational resistome has proven to be useful for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of classical resistance pathways and to describe new mechanisms for the majority of antipseudomonal classes, including β-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, or polymixins. Beyond addressing a relevant scientific question, the analysis of the P. aeruginosa mutational resistome is expected to be useful, together with the analysis of the horizontally-acquired resistance determinants, for establishing the antibiotic resistance genotype, which should correlate with the antibiotic resistance phenotype and as such, it should be useful for the design of therapeutic strategies and for monitoring the efficacy of administered antibiotic treatments. However, further experimental research and new bioinformatics tools are still needed to overcome the interpretation limitations imposed by the complex interactions (including those leading to collateral resistance or susceptibility between the 100s of genes involved in the mutational resistome, as well as the frequent difficulties for differentiating relevant mutations from simple natural polymorphisms.

  3. The Versatile Mutational Resistome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Causapé, Carla; Cabot, Gabriel; Del Barrio-Tofiño, Ester; Oliver, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    One of the most striking features of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is its outstanding capacity for developing antimicrobial resistance to nearly all available antipseudomonal agents through the selection of chromosomal mutations, leading to the failure of the treatment of severe hospital-acquired or chronic infections. Recent whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data obtained from in vitro assays on the evolution of antibiotic resistance, in vivo monitoring of antimicrobial resistance development, analysis of sequential cystic fibrosis isolates, and characterization of widespread epidemic high-risk clones have provided new insights into the evolutionary dynamics and mechanisms of P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance, thus motivating this review. Indeed, the analysis of the WGS mutational resistome has proven to be useful for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of classical resistance pathways and to describe new mechanisms for the majority of antipseudomonal classes, including β-lactams, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, or polymixins. Beyond addressing a relevant scientific question, the analysis of the P. aeruginosa mutational resistome is expected to be useful, together with the analysis of the horizontally-acquired resistance determinants, for establishing the antibiotic resistance genotype, which should correlate with the antibiotic resistance phenotype and as such, it should be useful for the design of therapeutic strategies and for monitoring the efficacy of administered antibiotic treatments. However, further experimental research and new bioinformatics tools are still needed to overcome the interpretation limitations imposed by the complex interactions (including those leading to collateral resistance or susceptibility) between the 100s of genes involved in the mutational resistome, as well as the frequent difficulties for differentiating relevant mutations from simple natural polymorphisms.

  4. Pathogenic mycoflora on carrot seeds

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    Bogdan Nowicki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Altogether 300 seed samples were collected during 9 years in 8 regions of Poland and the fungi Were isolated and their pathogenicity to carrot seedlings was examined. Alternaria rudicina provcd to be the most important pathogen although. A. alternata was more common. The other important pathogens were Fusarium spp., Phoma spp. and Botrytis cinerea. The infection of carrot seeds by A. radicina should be used as an important criterium in seed quality evaluation.

  5. Mutational analysis of GALT gene in Greek patients with galactosaemia: identification of two novel mutations and clinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulpis, Kleopatra H; Thodi, Georgia; Iakovou, Konstantinos; Chatzidaki, Maria; Dotsikas, Yannis; Molou, Elina; Triantafylli, Olga; Loukas, Yannis L

    2017-10-01

    Classical galactosaemia is an inborn error of metabolism due to the deficiency of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT). The aim of the study was to identify the underlying mutations in Greek patients with GALT deficiency and evaluate their psychomotor and speech development. Patients with GALT deficiency (n = 17) were picked up through neonatal screening. Mutational analysis was conducted via Sanger sequencing, while in silico analysis was used in the cases of novel missense mutations. Psychomotor speech development tests were utilized for the clinical evaluation of the patients. Eleven different mutations in the GALT gene were detected in the patient cohort, including two novel ones. The most frequent mutation was p.Q188R (c.563 A > G). As for the novel mutations, p.M298I (c.894 G > A) was identified in four out of 32 independent alleles, while p.P115S (c.343 C > T) was identified once. Psychomotor evaluation revealed that most of the patients were found in the borderline area (Peabody test), while only two had speech delay problems. The WISK test revealed three patients at borderline limits and two were at lower than normal limits. The mutational spectrum of the GALT gene in Greek patients is presented for the first time. The mutation p.Q188R is the most frequent among Greek patients. Two novel mutations were identified and their potential pathogenicity was estimated. Regarding the phenotypic characteristics, psychomotor disturbances and speech delay were mainly observed among GALT-deficient patients.

  6. A novel mutation in the MITF may be digenic with GJB2 mutations in a large Chinese family of Waardenburg syndrome type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xukun; Zhang, Tianyu; Wang, Zhengmin; Jiang, Yi; Chen, Yan; Wang, Hongyan; Ma, Duan; Wang, Lei; Li, Huawei

    2011-12-20

    Waardenburg syndrome type II (WS2) is associated with syndromic deafness. A subset of WS2, WS2A, accounting for approximately 15% of patients, is attributed to mutations in the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene. We examined the genetic basis of WS2 in a large Chinese family. All 9 exons of the MITF gene, the single coding exon (exon 2) of the most common hereditary deafness gene GJB2 and the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) 12S rRNA were sequenced. A novel heterozygous mutation c.[742_743delAAinsT;746_747delCA] in exon 8 of the MITF gene co-segregates with WS2 in the family. The MITF mutation results in a premature termination codon and a truncated MITF protein with only 247 of the 419 wild type amino acids. The deaf proband had this MITF gene heterozygous mutation as well as a c.[109G>A]+[235delC] compound heterozygous pathogenic mutation in the GJB2 gene. No pathogenic mutation was found in mtDNA 12S rRNA in this family. Thus, a novel compound heterozygous mutation, c.[742_743delAAinsT;746_747delCA] in MITF exon 8 was the key genetic reason for WS2 in this family, and a digenic effect of MITF and GJB2 genes may contribute to deafness of the proband. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. [Gene mutation analysis and prenatal diagnosis of a family with Bartter syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Ma, Na; Li, Xiu-Rong; Gong, Fei; DU, Juan

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the mutation of related genes and prenatal diagnosis of a family with Bartter syndrome (BS). The high-throughput capture sequencing technique and PCR-Sanger sequencing were used to detect pathogenic genes in the proband of this family and analyze the whole family at the genomic level. After the genetic cause was clarified, the amniotic fluid was collected from the proband's mother who was pregnant for 5 months for prenatal diagnosis. The proband carried compound heterozygous mutations of c.88C>T(p.Arg30*) and c.968+2T>A in the CLCNKB gene; c.88C>T(p.Arg30*) had been reported as a pathogenic mutation, and c.968+2T>A was a new mutation. Pedigree analysis showed that the two mutations were inherited from the mother and father, respectively. Prenatal diagnosis showed that the fetus did not inherit the mutations from parents and had no mutations at the two loci. The follow-up visit confirmed that the infant was in a healthy state, which proved the accuracy of genetic diagnosis and prenatal diagnosis. The compound heterozygous mutations c.88C>T(p.Arg30*) and c.968+2T>A in the CLCNKB gene are the cause of BS in the proband, and prenatal diagnosis can prevent the risk of recurrence of BS in this family.

  8. Characterization of the factor VIII defect in 147 patients with sporadic hemophilia A: Family studies indicate a mutation type-dependent sex ratio of mutation frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J.; Schmidt, W.; Olek, K. [Univ. of Bonn (Germany)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The clinical manifestation of hemophilia A is caused by a wide range of different mutations. In this study the factor VIII genes of 147 severe hemophilia A patients-all exclusively from sporadic families-were screened for mutations by use of the complete panel of modern DNA techniques. The pathogenous defect could be characterized in 126 patients (85.7%). Fifty-five patients (37.4%) showed a F8A-gene inversion, 47 (32.0%) a point mutation, 14 (9.5%) a small deletion, 8 (5.4%) a large deletion, and 2 (1.4%) a small insertion. Further, four (2.7%) mutations were localized but could not be sequenced yet. No mutation could be identified in 17 patients (11.6%). Sixteen (10.9%) of the P identified mutations occurred in the B domain. Four of these were located in an adenosine nucleotide stretch at codon 1192, indicating a mutation hotspot. Somatic mosaicisms were detected in 3 (3.9%) of 76 patients` mothers, comprising 3 of 16 de novo mutations in the patients` mothers. Investigation of family relatives allowed detection of a de novo mutation in 16 of 76 two-generation and 28 of 34 three-generation families. On the basis of these data, the male:female ratio of mutation frequencies (k) was estimated as k = 3.6. By use of the quotients of mutation origin in maternal grandfather to patient`s mother or to maternal grandmother, k was directly estimated as k = 15 and k = 7.5, respectively. Considering each mutation type separately, we revealed a mutation type-specific sex ratio of mutation frequencies. Point mutations showed a 5-to-10-fold-higher and inversions a >10-fold- higher mutation rate in male germ cells, whereas deletions showed a >5-fold-higher mutation rate in female germ cells. Consequently, and in accordance with the data of other diseases like Duchenne muscular dystrophy, our results indicate that at least for X-chromosomal disorders the male:female mutation rate of a disease is determined by its proportion of the different mutation types. 68 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  9. Mutation, somatic mutation and diseases of man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnet, F.M.

    1976-01-01

    The relevance of the intrinsic mutagenesis for the evolution process, genetic diseases and the process of aging is exemplified. The fundamental reaction is the function of the DNA and the DNA-enzymes like the DNA-polymerases in replication, repair, and transcription. These defects are responsible for the mutation frequency and the genetic drift in the evolution process. They cause genetic diseases like Xeroderma pigmentosum which is described here in detail. The accumulation of structural and functional mistakes leads to diseases of old age, for example to autoimmune diseases and immune suppression. There is a proportionality between the duration of life and the frequency of mistakes in the enzymatic repair system. No possibility of prophylaxis or therapy is seen. Methods for prognosis could be developed. (AJ) [de

  10. Missense mutation in GRN gene affecting RNA splicing and plasma progranulin level in a family affected by frontotemporal lobar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzzi, Simona; Colleoni, Lara; Corbetta, Paola; Baldinelli, Sara; Fiori, Chiara; Girelli, Francesca; Silvestrini, Mauro; Caroppo, Paola; Giaccone, Giorgio; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Rossi, Giacomina

    2017-06-01

    Gene coding for progranulin, GRN, is a major gene linked to frontotemporal lobar degeneration. While most of pathogenic GRN mutations are null mutations leading to haploinsufficiency, GRN missense mutations do not have an obvious pathogenicity, and only a few have been revealed to act through different pathogenetic mechanisms, such as cytoplasmic missorting, protein degradation, and abnormal cleavage by elastase. The aim of this study was to disclose the pathogenetic mechanisms of the GRN A199V missense mutation, which was previously reported not to alter physiological progranulin features but was associated with a reduced plasma progranulin level. After investigating the family pedigree, we performed genetic and biochemical analysis on its members and performed RNA expression studies. We found that the mutation segregates with the disease and discovered that its pathogenic feature is the alteration of GRN mRNA splicing, actually leading to haploinsufficiency. Thus, when facing with a missense GRN mutation, its pathogenetic effects should be investigated, especially if associated with low plasma progranulin levels, to determine its nature of either benign polymorphism or pathogenic mutation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mutations and chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihlman, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    The genetic changes of mutations and chromosomal aberrations are discussed. The consequences of both depend not only on the type of genetic change produced but also on the type of cell that is affected and on the development stage of the organism. (C.F.)

  12. Mutations in GABRB3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rikke S; Wuttke, Thomas V; Helbig, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of mutations in GABRB3 encoding the β3 subunit of the GABAA receptor in individual patients with epilepsy with regard to causality, the spectrum of genetic variants, their pathophysiology, and associated phenotypes. METHODS: We performed massive parallel sequencing ...

  13. Evolution of complex dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilds, Roy; Kauffman, Stuart A.; Glass, Leon

    2008-09-01

    We study the evolution of complex dynamics in a model of a genetic regulatory network. The fitness is associated with the topological entropy in a class of piecewise linear equations, and the mutations are associated with changes in the logical structure of the network. We compare hill climbing evolution, in which only mutations that increase the fitness are allowed, with neutral evolution, in which mutations that leave the fitness unchanged are allowed. The simple structure of the fitness landscape enables us to estimate analytically the rates of hill climbing and neutral evolution. In this model, allowing neutral mutations accelerates the rate of evolutionary advancement for low mutation frequencies. These results are applicable to evolution in natural and technological systems.

  14. Pathogenic agents in freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldreich, Edwin E.

    1996-02-01

    Numerous pathogenic agents have been found in freshwaters used as sources for water supplies, recreational bathing and irrigation. These agents include bacterial pathogens, enteric viruses, several protozoans and parasitic worms more common to tropical waters. Although infected humans are a major source of pathogens, farm animals (cattle, sheep, pigs), animal pets (dogs, cats) and wildlife serve as significant reservoirs and should not be ignored. The range of infected individuals within a given warm-blooded animal group (humans included) may range from 1 to 25%. Survival times for pathogens in the water environment may range from a few days to as much as a year (Ascaris, Taenia eggs), with infective dose levels varying from one viable cell for several primary pathogenic agents to many thousands of cells for a given opportunistic pathogen.As pathogen detection in water is complex and not readily incorporated into routine monitoring, a surrogate is necessary. In general, indicators of faecal contamination provide a positive correlation with intestinal pathogen occurrences only when appropriate sample volumes are examined by sensitive methodology.Pathways by which pathogens reach susceptible water users include ingestion of contaminated water, body contact with polluted recreational waters and consumption of salad crops irrigated by polluted freshwaters. Major contributors to the spread of various water-borne pathogens are sewage, polluted surface waters and stormwater runoff. All of these contributions are intensified during periods of major floods. Several water-borne case histories are cited as examples of breakdowns in public health protection related to water supply, recreational waters and the consumption of contaminated salad crops. In the long term, water resource management must focus on pollution prevention from point sources of waste discharges and the spread of pathogens in watershed stormwater runoff.

  15. Mutation update on the CHD7 gene involved in CHARGE syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Nicole; Bergman, Jorieke E H; Swertz, Morris A

    2012-01-01

    , for example, the central nervous system, eye, ear, nose, and mediastinal organs, are variably involved. In this article, we review all the currently described CHD7 variants, including 183 new pathogenic mutations found by our laboratories. In total, we compiled 528 different pathogenic CHD7 alterations from......, predominantly arginine to stop codon mutations. We built a locus-specific database listing all the variants that is easily accessible at www.CHD7.org. In addition, we summarize the latest data on CHD7 expression studies, animal models, and functional studies, and we discuss the latest clinical insights...

  16. Environmental Factors and Zoonotic Pathogen Ecology in Urban Exploiter Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Himsworth, Chelsea H; Nemeth, Nicole M; Pearl, David L; Jardine, Claire M

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge of pathogen ecology, including the impacts of environmental factors on pathogen and host dynamics, is essential for determining the risk that zoonotic pathogens pose to people. This review synthesizes the scientific literature on environmental factors that influence the ecology and epidemiology of zoonotic microparasites (bacteria, viruses and protozoa) in globally invasive urban exploiter wildlife species (i.e., rock doves [Columba livia domestica], European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris], house sparrows [Passer domesticus], Norway rats [Rattus norvegicus], black rats [R. rattus] and house mice [Mus musculus]). Pathogen ecology, including prevalence and pathogen characteristics, is influenced by geographical location, habitat, season and weather. The prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in mice and rats varies markedly over short geographical distances, but tends to be highest in ports, disadvantaged (e.g., low income) and residential areas. Future research should use epidemiological approaches, including random sampling and robust statistical analyses, to evaluate a range of biotic and abiotic environmental factors at spatial scales suitable for host home range sizes. Moving beyond descriptive studies to uncover the causal factors contributing to uneven pathogen distribution among wildlife hosts in urban environments may lead to targeted surveillance and intervention strategies. Application of this knowledge to urban maintenance and planning may reduce the potential impacts of urban wildlife-associated zoonotic diseases on people.

  17. Mutations in ABCR (ABCA4) in patients with Stargardt macular degeneration or cone-rod degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, C E; Rucinski, D; Rosenfeld, P J; Hirose, T; Berson, E L; Dryja, T P

    2001-09-01

    To determine the spectrum of ABCR mutations associated with Stargardt macular degeneration and cone-rod degeneration (CRD). One hundred eighteen unrelated patients with recessive Stargardt macular degeneration and eight with recessive CRD were screened for mutations in ABCR (ABCA4) by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Variants were characterized by direct genomic sequencing. Segregation analysis was performed on the families of 20 patients in whom at least two or more likely pathogenic sequence changes were identified. The authors found 77 sequence changes likely to be pathogenic: 21 null mutations (15 novel), 55 missense changes (26 novel), and one deletion of a consensus glycosylation site (also novel). Fifty-two patients with Stargardt macular degeneration (44% of those screened) and five with CRD each had two of these sequence changes or were homozygous for one of them. Segregation analyses in the families of 19 of these patients were informative and revealed that the index cases and all available affected siblings were compound heterozygotes or homozygotes. The authors found one instance of an apparently de novo mutation, Ile824Thr, in a patient. Thirty-seven (31%) of the 118 patients with Stargardt disease and one with CRD had only one likely pathogenic sequence change. Twenty-nine patients with Stargardt disease (25%) and two with CRD had no identified sequence changes. This report of 42 novel mutations brings the growing number of identified likely pathogenic sequence changes in ABCR to approximately 250.

  18. Are pathogenic bacteria just looking for food? Metabolism and microbial pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohmer, Laurence; Hocquet, Didier; Miller, Samuel I.

    2011-01-01

    It is interesting to speculate that the evolutionary drive of microbes to develop pathogenic characteristics was to access the nutrient resources that animals provided. Environments in animals that pathogens colonize have also driven the evolution of new bacterial characteristics to maximize these new nutritional opportunities. This review focuses on genomic and functional aspects of pathogen metabolism that allow efficient utilization of nutrient resources provided by animals. Similar to genes encoding specific virulence traits, some genes encoding metabolic functions have been horizontally acquired by pathogens to provide a selective advantage in host tissues. Selective advantage in host tissues can also be gained in some circumstances by loss of function due to mutations that alter metabolic capabilities. Greater understanding of bacterial metabolism within host tissues should be important for increased understanding of host-pathogen interactions and the development of future therapeutic strategies. PMID:21600774

  19. Mutations in galactosemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichardt, J.K.V. [Univ. of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This Letter raises four issues concerning two papers on galactosemia published in the March 1995 of the Journal. First, table 2 in the paper by Elsas et al. incorrectly attributes seven galactose-l-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) mutations (S135L, L195P, K285N, N314D, R333W, R333G, and K334R). The table also fails to mention that others have reported the same two findings attributed to {open_quotes}Leslie et al.; Elsas et al. and in press{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Leslie et al.; Elsas et al.{close_quotes} The first finding on the prevalence of the Q188R galactosemia mutation in the G/G Caucasian population has also been described by Ng et al., and the second finding on the correlation of the N314D GALT mutation with the Duarte variant was reported by Lin et al. Second, Elsas et al. suggest that the E203K and N314D mutations may {open_quotes}produce intra-allelic complementation when in cis{close_quotes}. This speculation is supported by the activity data of individual III-2 but is inconsistent with the activities of three other individuals I-1, II-1, and III-1 of the same pedigree. The GALT activity measured in these three individuals suggests a dominant negative effect of E203K in E203K-N314D chromosomes, since they all have less than normal activity. Thus, the preponderance of the data in this paper is at odds with the authors speculation. It is worth recalling that Lin et al. also identified four N314D GALT mutations on 95 galactosemic chromosomes examined. A similar situation also appears to be the case in proband III-1 (with genotype E203K-N314D/IVSC) in the Elsas et al. paper. 9 refs.

  20. Comprehensive analysis of pathogenic deletion variants in Fanconi anemia genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Elizabeth K; Kamat, Aparna; Lach, Francis P; Donovan, Frank X; Kimble, Danielle C; Narisu, Narisu; Sanborn, Erica; Boulad, Farid; Davies, Stella M; Gillio, Alfred P; Harris, Richard E; MacMillan, Margaret L; Wagner, John E; Smogorzewska, Agata; Auerbach, Arleen D; Ostrander, Elaine A; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C

    2014-11-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare recessive disease resulting from mutations in one of at least 16 different genes. Mutation types and phenotypic manifestations of FA are highly heterogeneous and influence the clinical management of the disease. We analyzed 202 FA families for large deletions, using high-resolution comparative genome hybridization arrays, single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays, and DNA sequencing. We found pathogenic deletions in 88 FANCA, seven FANCC, two FANCD2, and one FANCB families. We find 35% of FA families carry large deletions, accounting for 18% of all FA pathogenic variants. Cloning and sequencing across the deletion breakpoints revealed that 52 FANCA deletion ends, and one FANCC deletion end extended beyond the gene boundaries, potentially affecting neighboring genes with phenotypic consequences. Seventy-five percent of the FANCA deletions are Alu-Alu mediated, predominantly by AluY elements, and appear to be caused by nonallelic homologous recombination. Individual Alu hotspots were identified. Defining the haplotypes of four FANCA deletions shared by multiple families revealed that three share a common ancestry. Knowing the exact molecular changes that lead to the disease may be critical for a better understanding of the FA phenotype, and to gain insight into the mechanisms driving these pathogenic deletion variants. © 2014 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  1. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 45

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-07-01

    This issue of the Mutation Breeding newsletter contains 39 articles dealing with radiation induced mutations and chemical mutagenesis techniques in plant breeding programs with the aims of improving crop productivity and disease resistance as well as exploring genetic variabilities

  2. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects.

  3. Mutation breeding newsletter. No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This issue of the newsletter reports a number of research news and research abstracts on application of radiation induced mutation techniques to increase mutagenesis and mutation frequency in plant breeding projects

  4. Comparative proteomic analysis of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains from the swine pathogen Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klein Cátia S

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae is a highly infectious swine pathogen and is the causative agent of enzootic pneumonia (EP. Following the previous report of a proteomic survey of the pathogenic 7448 strain of swine pathogen, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, we performed comparative protein profiling of three M. hyopneumoniae strains, namely the non-pathogenic J strain and the two pathogenic strains 7448 and 7422. Results In 2DE comparisons, we were able to identify differences in expression levels for 67 proteins, including the overexpression of some cytoadherence-related proteins only in the pathogenic strains. 2DE immunoblot analyses allowed the identification of differential proteolytic cleavage patterns of the P97 adhesin in the three strains. For more comprehensive protein profiling, an LC-MS/MS strategy was used. Overall, 35% of the M. hyopneumoniae genome coding capacity was covered. Partially overlapping profiles of identified proteins were observed in the strains with 81 proteins identified only in one strain and 54 proteins identified in two strains. Abundance analysis of proteins detected in more than one strain demonstrates the relative overexpression of 64 proteins, including the P97 adhesin in the pathogenic strains. Conclusions Our results indicate the physiological differences between the non-pathogenic strain, with its non-infective proliferate lifestyle, and the pathogenic strains, with its constitutive expression of adhesins, which would render the bacterium competent for adhesion and infection prior to host contact.

  5. Pathogenic adaptation of intracellular bacteria by rewiring a cis-regulatory input function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Suzanne E; Walthers, Don; Tomljenovic, Ana M; Mulder, David T; Silphaduang, Uma; Duong, Nancy; Lowden, Michael J; Wickham, Mark E; Waller, Ross F; Kenney, Linda J; Coombes, Brian K

    2009-03-10

    The acquisition of DNA by horizontal gene transfer enables bacteria to adapt to previously unexploited ecological niches. Although horizontal gene transfer and mutation of protein-coding sequences are well-recognized forms of pathogen evolution, the evolutionary significance of cis-regulatory mutations in creating phenotypic diversity through altered transcriptional outputs is not known. We show the significance of regulatory mutation for pathogen evolution by mapping and then rewiring a cis-regulatory module controlling a gene required for murine typhoid. Acquisition of a binding site for the Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 regulator, SsrB, enabled the srfN gene, ancestral to the Salmonella genus, to play a role in pathoadaptation of S. typhimurium to a host animal. We identified the evolved cis-regulatory module and quantified the fitness gain that this regulatory output accrues for the bacterium using competitive infections of host animals. Our findings highlight a mechanism of pathogen evolution involving regulatory mutation that is selected because of the fitness advantage the new regulatory output provides the incipient clones.

  6. Combinatorial stresses kill pathogenic Candida species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloriti, Despoina; Tillmann, Anna; Cook, Emily; Jacobsen, Mette; You, Tao; Lenardon, Megan; Ames, Lauren; Barahona, Mauricio; Chandrasekaran, Komelapriya; Coghill, George; Goodman, Daniel; Gow, Neil A. R.; Grebogi, Celso; Ho, Hsueh-Lui; Ingram, Piers; McDonagh, Andrew; De Moura, Alessandro P. S.; Pang, Wei; Puttnam, Melanie; Radmaneshfar, Elahe; Romano, Maria Carmen; Silk, Daniel; Stark, Jaroslav; Stumpf, Michael; Thiel, Marco; Thorne, Thomas; Usher, Jane; Yin, Zhikang; Haynes, Ken; Brown, Alistair J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic microbes exist in dynamic niches and have evolved robust adaptive responses to promote survival in their hosts. The major fungal pathogens of humans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, are exposed to a range of environmental stresses in their hosts including osmotic, oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Significant efforts have been devoted to the characterization of the adaptive responses to each of these stresses. In the wild, cells are frequently exposed simultaneously to combinations of these stresses and yet the effects of such combinatorial stresses have not been explored. We have developed a common experimental platform to facilitate the comparison of combinatorial stress responses in C. glabrata and C. albicans. This platform is based on the growth of cells in buffered rich medium at 30°C, and was used to define relatively low, medium and high doses of osmotic (NaCl), oxidative (H 2O2) and nitrosative stresses (e.g., dipropylenetriamine (DPTA)-NONOate). The effects of combinatorial stresses were compared with the corresponding individual stresses under these growth conditions. We show for the first time that certain combinations of combinatorial stress are especially potent in terms of their ability to kill C. albicans and C. glabrata and/or inhibit their growth. This was the case for combinations of osmotic plus oxidative stress and for oxidative plus nitrosative stress. We predict that combinatorial stresses may be highly signif cant in host defences against these pathogenic yeasts. PMID:22463109

  7. The flagellar master operon flhDC is a pleiotropic regulator involved in motility and virulence of the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To investigate the function of the master flagellar operon flhDC in the fish pathogen Yersinia ruckeri and compare the effect of flhD mutation to a naturally occurring mutation causing loss-of-motility in emergent biotype 2 (BT2) strains. Methods and Results: In this study isogenic Y. ruckeri ...

  8. Identification of Six Novel PTH1R Mutations in Families with a History of Primary Failure of Tooth Eruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, Lotte; Christoffersen, Line Borck; Daugaard-Jensen, Jette

    2013-01-01

    Primary Failure of tooth Eruption (PFE) is a non-syndromic disorder which can be caused by mutations in the parathyroid hormone receptor 1 gene (PTH1R). Traditionally, the disorder has been identified clinically based on post-emergent failure of eruption of permanent molars. However, patients...... undergone surgical and/or orthodontic interventions, and identified novel PTH1R mutations in all. Four of the six mutations were predicted to abolish correct mRNA maturation either through introduction of premature stop codons (c.947C>A and c.1082G>A), or by altering correct mRNA splicing (c.544......-26_544-23del and c.989G>T). The latter was validated by transfection of minigenes. The six novel mutations expand the mutation spectrum for PFE from eight to 14 pathogenic mutations. Loss-of-function mutations in PTH1R are also associated with recessively inherited Blomstrand chondrodysplasia. We compiled all...

  9. Clinical analysis of PMS2: mutation detection and avoidance of pseudogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Cecily P; Robles, Jorge; Swensen, Jeffrey J; Miller, Christine E; Lyon, Elaine; Mao, Rong; Bayrak-Toydemir, Pinar; Samowitz, Wade S

    2010-05-01

    Germline mutation detection in PMS2, one of four mismatch repair genes associated with Lynch syndrome, is greatly complicated by the presence of numerous pseudogenes. We used a modification of a long-range PCR method to evaluate PMS2 in 145 clinical samples. This modification avoids potential interference from the pseudogene PMS2CL by utilizing a long-range product spanning exons 11-15, with the forward primer anchored in exon 10, an exon not shared by PMS2CL. Large deletions were identified by MLPA. Pathogenic PMS2 mutations were identified in 22 of 59 patients whose tumors showed isolated loss of PMS2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC), the IHC profile most commonly associated with a germline PMS2 mutation. Three additional patients with pathogenic mutations were identified from 53 samples without IHC data. Thirty-seven percent of the identified mutations were large deletions encompassing one or more exons. In 27 patients whose tumors showed absence of either another protein or combination of proteins, no pathogenic mutations were identified. We conclude that modified long-range PCR can be used to preferentially amplify the PMS2 gene and avoid pseudogene interference, thus providing a clinically useful germline analysis of PMS2. Our data also support the use of IHC screening to direct germline testing of PMS2. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. MLL2 mutation detection in 86 patients with Kabuki syndrome: a genotype-phenotype study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrythanasis, P; van Bon, B W; Steehouwer, M; Rodríguez-Santiago, B; Simpson, M; Dias, P; Anderlid, B M; Arts, P; Bhat, M; Augello, B; Biamino, E; Bongers, E M H F; Del Campo, M; Cordeiro, I; Cueto-González, A M; Cuscó, I; Deshpande, C; Frysira, E; Izatt, L; Flores, R; Galán, E; Gener, B; Gilissen, C; Granneman, S M; Hoyer, J; Yntema, H G; Kets, C M; Koolen, D A; Marcelis, C l; Medeira, A; Micale, L; Mohammed, S; de Munnik, S A; Nordgren, A; Psoni, S; Reardon, W; Revencu, N; Roscioli, T; Ruiterkamp-Versteeg, M; Santos, H G; Schoumans, J; Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, J H M; Silengo, M C; Toledo, L; Vendrell, T; van der Burgt, I; van Lier, B; Zweier, C; Reymond, A; Trembath, R C; Perez-Jurado, L; Dupont, J; de Vries, B B A; Brunner, H G; Veltman, J A; Merla, G; Antonarakis, S E; Hoischen, A

    2013-12-01

    Recently, pathogenic variants in the MLL2 gene were identified as the most common cause of Kabuki (Niikawa-Kuroki) syndrome (MIM#147920). To further elucidate the genotype-phenotype correlation, we studied a large cohort of 86 clinically defined patients with Kabuki syndrome (KS) for mutations in MLL2. All patients were assessed using a standardized phenotype list and all were scored using a newly developed clinical score list for KS (MLL2-Kabuki score 0-10). Sequencing of the full coding region and intron-exon boundaries of MLL2 identified a total of 45 likely pathogenic mutations (52%): 31 nonsense, 10 missense and four splice-site mutations, 34 of which were novel. In five additional patients, novel, i.e. non-dbSNP132 variants of clinically unknown relevance, were identified. Patients with likely pathogenic nonsense or missense MLL2 mutations were usually more severely affected (median 'MLL2-Kabuki score' of 6) as compared to the patients without MLL2 mutations (median 'MLL2-Kabuki score' of 5), a significant difference (p < 0.0014). Several typical facial features such as large dysplastic ears, arched eyebrows with sparse lateral third, blue sclerae, a flat nasal tip with a broad nasal root, and a thin upper and a full lower lip were observed more often in mutation positive patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Mutation of the S and 3c genes in genomes of feline coronaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguma, Keisuke; Ohno, Megumi; Yoshida, Mayuko; Sentsui, Hiroshi

    2018-05-17

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is classified into two biotypes based on its pathogenicity in cats: a feline enteric coronavirus of low pathogenicity and a highly virulent feline infectious peritonitis virus. It has been suspected that FCoV alters its biotype via mutations in the viral genome. The S and 3c genes of FCoV have been considered the candidates for viral pathogenicity conversion. In the present study, FCoVs were analyzed for the frequency and location of mutations in the S and 3c genes from faecal samples of cats in an animal shelter and the faeces, effusions, and tissues of cats that were referred to veterinary hospitals. Our results indicated that approximately 95% FCoVs in faeces did not carry mutations in the two genes. However, 80% FCoVs in effusion samples exhibited mutations in the S and 3c genes with remainder displaying a mutation in the S or 3c gene. It was also suggested that mutational analysis of the 3c gene could be useful for studying the horizontal transmission of FCoVs in multi-cat environments.

  12. Genome Analysis of a Transmissible Lineage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Reveals Pathoadaptive Mutations and Distinct Evolutionary Paths of Hypermutators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marvig, Rasmus Lykke; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Molin, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Genome sequencing of bacterial pathogens has advanced our understanding of their evolution, epidemiology, and response to antibiotic therapy. However, we still have only a limited knowledge of the molecular changes in in vivo evolving bacterial populations in relation to long-term, chronic...... targeted by mutations to optimize pathogen fitness (pathoadaptive mutations). These genes were related to antibiotic resistance, the cell envelope, or regulatory functions, and we find that the prevalence of pathoadaptive mutations correlates with evolutionary success of co-evolving sub-lineages. The long...... likelihood to acquire mutations and identify two homopolymer-containing genes preferentially mutated in hypermutators. This homopolymer facilitated differential mutagenesis provides a novel genome-wide perspective on the different evolutionary trajectories of hypermutators, which may help explain...

  13. Parkinson disease: α-synuclein mutational screening and new clinical insight into the p.E46K mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Márcia M G; Rodrigues, Fabíola C; Leite, Marco Antônio A; Campos Júnior, Mário; Rosso, Ana Lucia; Nicaretta, Denise H; Pereira, João S; Silva, Delson José; Della Coletta, Marcus V; Vasconcellos, Luiz Felipe R; Abreu, Gabriella M; Dos Santos, Jussara M; Santos-Rebouças, Cíntia B

    2015-06-01

    Amongst Parkinson's disease-causing genetic factors, missense mutations and genomic multiplications in the gene encoding α-synuclein are well established causes of the disease, although genetic data in populations with a high degree of admixture, such as the Brazilian one, are still scarce. In this study, we conducted a molecular screening of α-synuclein point mutations and copy number variation in the largest cohort of Brazilian patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 549) and also in twelve Portuguese and one Bolivian immigrants. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leukocytes or saliva, and the mutational screening was performed by quantitative and qualitative real-time PCR. The only alteration identified was the p.E46K mutation in a 60-year-old man, born in Bolivia, with a familial history of autosomal dominant Parkinson's disease. This is the second family ever reported, in which this rare pathogenic mutation is segregating. The same mutation was firstly described ten years ago in a Spanish family with a neurodegenerative syndrome combining parkinsonism, dementia and visual hallucinations. The clinical condition of our proband reveals a less aggressive phenotype than previously described and reinforces that marked phenotypic heterogeneity is common among patients with Parkinson's disease, even among those carriers sharing the same mutation. Our findings add new insight into the preexisting information about α-synuclein p.E46K, improving our understanding about the endophenotypes associated to this mutation and corroborate that missense alterations and multiplications in α-synuclein are uncommon among Brazilian patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The value of pathogen information in treating clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Elva; Smith, Rebecca L; Kristensen, Anders R; Hertl, Julia A; Schukken, Ynte H; Tauer, Loren W; Welcome, Frank L; Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the economic value of obtaining timely and more accurate clinical mastitis (CM) test results for optimal treatment of cows. Typically CM is first identified when the farmer observes recognisable outward signs. Further information of whether the pathogen causing CM is Gram-positive, Gram-negative or other (including no growth) can be determined by using on-farm culture methods. The most detailed level of information for mastitis diagnostics is obtainable by sending milk samples for culture to an external laboratory. Knowing the exact pathogen permits the treatment method to be specifically targeted to the causation pathogen, resulting in less discarded milk. The disadvantages are the additional waiting time to receive test results, which delays treating cows, and the cost of the culture test. Net returns per year (NR) for various levels of information were estimated using a dynamic programming model. The Value of Information (VOI) was then calculated as the difference in NR using a specific level of information as compared to more detailed information on the CM causative agent. The highest VOI was observed where the farmer assumed the pathogen causing CM was the one with the highest incidence in the herd and no pathogen specific CM information was obtained. The VOI of pathogen specific information, compared with non-optimal treatment of Staphylococcus aureus where recurrence and spread occurred due to lack of treatment efficacy, was $20.43 when the same incorrect treatment was applied to recurrent cases, and $30.52 when recurrent cases were assumed to be the next highest incidence pathogen and treated accordingly. This indicates that negative consequences associated with choosing the wrong CM treatment can make additional information cost-effective if pathogen identification is assessed at the generic information level and if the pathogen can spread to other cows if not treated appropriately.

  15. Genetic screens to identify pathogenic gene variants in the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drost, Mark; Lützen, Anne; van Hees, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    In many individuals suspected of the common cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome, variants of unclear significance (VUS), rather than an obviously pathogenic mutations, are identified in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. The uncertainty of whether such VUS inactivate MMR, and therefore...... function. When a residue identified as mutated in an individual suspected of Lynch syndrome is listed as critical in such a reverse diagnosis catalog, there is a high probability that the corresponding human VUS is pathogenic. To investigate the applicability of this approach, we have generated....... Nearly half of these critical residues match with VUS previously identified in individuals suspected of Lynch syndrome. This aids in the assignment of pathogenicity to these human VUS and validates the approach described here as a diagnostic tool. In a wider perspective, this work provides a model...

  16. RAD50 germline mutations are associated with poor survival in BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Cong; Zhang, Juan; Ouyang, Tao; Li, Jinfeng; Wang, Tianfeng; Fan, Zhaoqing; Fan, Tie; Lin, Benyao; Xie, Yuntao

    2018-05-04

    RAD50 is a highly conserved DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair gene. However, the associations between RAD50 germline mutations and the survival and risk of breast cancer have not been fully elucidated. Here, we aimed to investigate the clinical impact of RAD50 germline mutations in a large cohort of unselected breast cancer patients. In this study, RAD50 germline mutations were determined using next-generation sequencing in 7657 consecutive unselected breast cancer patients without BRCA1/2 mutations. We also screened for RAD50 recurrent mutations (L719fs, K994fs, and H1269fs) in 5000 healthy controls using Sanger sequencing. We found that 26 out of 7657 (0.34%) patients had RAD50 pathogenic mutations, and 16 patients carried one of the three recurrent mutations (L719fs, n=6 cases; K994fs, n=5 cases; and H1269fs, n=5 cases); the recurrent mutation rate was 0.21%. The frequency of the three recurrent mutations in the 5000 healthy controls was 0.18% (9/5000). These mutations did not confer an increased risk of breast cancer in the studied patients [odds ratios (OR), 1.16; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.51-2.63; P = 0.72]. Nevertheless, multivariate analysis revealed that RAD50 pathogenic mutations were an independent unfavourable predictor of recurrence-free survival (RFS) [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 2.66; 95% CI, 1.18-5.98; P=0.018] and disease-specific survival (DSS) (adjusted HR 4.36; 95% CI, 1.58-12.03; P=0.004) in the entire study cohort. Our study suggested that RAD50 germline mutations are not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, but patients with RAD50 germline mutations have unfavourable survival compared with patients without these mutations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 UICC.

  17. Clustering of Caucasian Leber hereditary optic neuropathy patients containing the 11778 or 14484 mutations on an mtDNA lineage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.D.; Sun, F.; Wallace, D.C. [Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a type of blindness caused by mtDNA mutations. Three LHON mtDNA mutations at nucleotide positions 3460, 11778, and 14484 are specific for LHON and account for 90% of worldwide cases and are thus designated as {open_quotes}primary{close_quotes} LHON mutations. Fifteen other {open_quotes}secondary{close_quotes} LHON mtDNA mutations have been identified, but their pathogenicity is unclear. mtDNA haplotype and phylogenetic analysis of the primary LHON mutations in North American Caucasian patients and controls has shown that, unlike the 3460 and 11778 mutations, which are distributed throughout the European-derived (Caucasian) mtDNA phylogeny, patients containing the 14484 mutation tended to be associated with European mtDNA haplotype J. To investigate this apparent clustering, we performed {chi}{sup 2}-based statistical analyses to compare the distribution of LHON patients on the Caucasian phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that, unlike the 3460 and 11778 mutations, the 14484 mutation was not distributed on the phylogeny in proportion to the frequencies of the major Caucasian mtDNA haplogroups found in North America. The 14484 mutation was next shown to occur on the haplogroup J background more frequently that expected, consistent with the observation that {approximately}75% of worldwide 14484-positive LHON patients occur in association with haplogroup J. The 11778 mutation also exhibited a moderate clustering on haplogroup J. These observations were supported by statistical analysis using all available mutation frequencies reported in the literature. This paper thus illustrates the potential importance of genetic background in certain mtDNA-based diseases, speculates on a pathogenic role for a subset of LHON secondary mutations and their interaction with primary mutations, and provides support for a polygenic model for LHON expression in some cases. 18 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Biallelic PMS2 Mutation and Heterozygous DICER1 Mutation Presenting as Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency With Corpus Callosum Agenesis: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyuo, Cletus; Radwan, Walid; Ahn, Janice; Gyure, Kymberly; Qaiser, Rabia; Tomboc, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency syndrome is a cancer predisposition syndrome caused by autosomal recessive biallelic (homozygous) germline mutations in the mismatch repair genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2). The clinical spectrum includes neoplastic and non-neoplastic manifestations. We present the case of a 7-year-old boy who presented with T-lymphoblastic lymphoma and glioblastoma, together with non-neoplastic manifestations including corpus callosum agenesis, arachnoid cyst, developmental venous anomaly, and hydrocephalus. Gene mutation analysis revealed pathogenic biallelic mutations of PMS2 and heterozygous DICER1 variant predicted to be pathogenic. This report is the first to allude to a possible interaction of the mismatch repair system with DICER1 to cause corpus callosum agenesis.

  19. Mutation breeding in pepper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daskalov, S [Plant Breeding Unit, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Seibersdorf Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1986-03-01

    Pepper (Capsicum sp.) is an important vegetable and spice crop widely grown in tropical as well as in temperate regions. Until recently the improvement programmes were based mainly on using natural sources of germ plasma, crossbreeding and exploiting the heterosis of F{sub 1} hybrids. However, interest in using induced mutations is growing. A great number of agronomically useful mutants as well as mutants valuable for genetic, cytological and physiological studies have been induced and described. In this review information is presented about suitable mutagen treatment procedures with radiation as well as chemicals, M{sub 1} effects, handling the treated material in M{sub 1}, M{sub 2} and subsequent generations, and mutant screening procedures. This is supplemented by a description of reported useful mutants and released cultivars. Finally, general advice is given on when and how to incorporate mutation induction in Capsicum improvement programmes. (author)

  20. Mutation breeding in pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daskalov, S.

    1986-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum sp.) is an important vegetable and spice crop widely grown in tropical as well as in temperate regions. Until recently the improvement programmes were based mainly on using natural sources of germ plasma, crossbreeding and exploiting the heterosis of F 1 hybrids. However, interest in using induced mutations is growing. A great number of agronomically useful mutants as well as mutants valuable for genetic, cytological and physiological studies have been induced and described. In this review information is presented about suitable mutagen treatment procedures with radiation as well as chemicals, M 1 effects, handling the treated material in M 1 , M 2 and subsequent generations, and mutant screening procedures. This is supplemented by a description of reported useful mutants and released cultivars. Finally, general advice is given on when and how to incorporate mutation induction in Capsicum improvement programmes. (author)

  1. Detection of mutations in the COL4A5 gene by SSCP in X-linked Alport syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Juncker, I; Persson, U

    2001-01-01

    , three in-frame deletions, four nonsense mutations, and six splice site mutations. Twenty-two of the mutations have not previously been reported. Furthermore, we found one non-pathogenic amino acid substitution, one rare variant in a non-coding region, and one polymorphism with a heterozygosity of 28...... of type IV-collagen. We performed mutation analysis of the COL4A5 gene by PCR-SSCP analysis of each of the 51 exons with flanking intronic sequences in 81 patients suspected of X-linked Alport syndrome including 29 clear X-linked cases, 37 cases from families with a pedigree compatible with X...

  2. Functional characterization of rare missense mutations in MLH1 and MSH2 identified in Danish colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lise Lotte; Kariola, Reetta; Korhonen, Mari K

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we have performed a population based study to analyse the frequency of colorectal cancer related MLH1 and MSH2 missense mutations in the Danish population. Half of the analyzed mutations were rare and most likely only present in the families where they were identified originally. Some...... of the missense mutations were located in conserved regions in the MLH1 and MSH2 proteins indicating a relation to disease development. In the present study, we functionally characterized 10 rare missense mutations in MLH1 and MSH2 identified in 13 Danish CRC families. To elucidate the pathogenicity...

  3. Mutation analysis of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in Danish patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Marie Luise; Ripa, Rasmus S; Bülow, Steffen

    2004-01-01

    Development of one hundred or more adenomas in the colon and rectum is diagnostic for the dominantly inherited, autosomal disease Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). It is possible to identify a mutation in the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) gene in approximately 80% of the patients, and almost...... 1,000 different pathogenic mutations have been identified in the APC gene up till now. We report 12 novel and 24' previously described germline APC mutations from 48 unrelated Danish families. Four families with the mutation localized in the 3' region of the gene showed great variance in phenotypic...

  4. The Arctic Alzheimer mutation enhances sensitivity to toxic stress in human neuroblastoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sennvik, Kristina; Nilsberth, Camilla; Stenh, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    The E693G (Arctic) mutation of the amyloid precursor protein was recently found to lead to early-onset Alzheimer's disease in a Swedish family. In the present study, we report that the Arctic mutation decreases cell viability in human neuroblastoma cells. The cell viability, as measured by the MTT...... their secretion of beta-secretase cleaved amyloid precursor protein. The enhanced sensitivity to toxic stress in cells with the Arctic mutation most likely contributes to the pathogenic pathway leading to Alzheimer's disease....

  5. CYP1B1 Mutations in Individuals With Primary Congenital Glaucoma and Residing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønskov, Karen; Redó-Riveiro, Alba; Sandfeld, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    Primary congenital glaucoma (PCG OMIM 231300) can be caused by pathogenic sequence variations in cytochrome P450, subfamily 1, polypeptide 1 (CYP1B1). The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of sequence variations in CYP1B1 in a cohort of individuals with PCG residing...... mutations, 5 of which were novel. The frequency of CYP1B1 mutations in this cohort was comparable with other populations. We also detected an individual heterozygous for p.(Tyr81Asn) mutation, previously suggested to cause autosomal dominant primary open-angle glaucoma....

  6. No certain predictors for mutation status in a Danish cohort with familial hypercholesterolemia: a descriptive study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Brusgaard, Klaus; Hansen, Annebirthe Bo

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In order to enable clinicians to refer the right persons suspected of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) for mutation screening, a retrospective study was conducted in a Danish FH cohort. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study comprised 643 probands and 395 relatives, of which 421 individuals had...... a pathogenic mutation, and 211 had cardiovascular disease (CVD). Logistic regression, Cox regression, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were used to find optimal predictive variables for mutation status and evaluate risk factors for CVD. RESULTS: Age alone had significant predictive power...... criteria should therefore be referred in order to facilitate family tracing and genetic counseling...