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Sample records for paternal pericentric inversion

  1. Pericentric Inversion of Chromosome 9 in an Infant With Ambiguous Genitalia.

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    Sotoudeh, Arya; Rostami, Parastoo; Nakhaeimoghadam, Maryam; Mohsenipour, Reihaneh; Rezaei, Nima

    2017-10-01

    Pericentric inversion of Chromosome 9 is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities, which could be associated with various manifestations in some cases. Herein, a patient is presented with ambiguous genitalia that karyotyping revealed pericentric inversion of Chromosome 9 (p12,q13). Pericentric inversion of Chromosome 9 could be considered in the list of differential diagnosis of those with ambiguous genitalia, while chromosomal karyotype and culture could be recommended in children with ambiguous genitalia.

  2. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 12; a three family study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Annette; Hertz, Jens Michael

    1992-01-01

    A pericentric inversion of chromosome 12 has been followed in three large independently ascertained Danish families. Out of a total number of 52 persons examined, 25 were found to carry the inversion. The breakpoints in all three families were localized to p13 and q13, resulting in more than one...... rate is calculated to be 0.58, which is not significantly different from an expected segregation rate of 0.5. In family 3, an additional inversion of a chromosome 9 has been found in 4 individuals. Our results are discussed in relation to previous findings and with respect to the genetic counselling...... of families with pericentric inversions....

  3. Are Pericentric Inversions Reorganizing Wedge Shell Genomes?

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    Daniel García-Souto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wedge shells belonging to the Donacidae family are the dominant bivalves in exposed beaches in almost all areas of the world. Typically, two or more sympatric species of wedge shells differentially occupy intertidal, sublittoral, and offshore coastal waters in any given locality. A molecular cytogenetic analysis of two sympatric and closely related wedge shell species, Donax trunculus and Donax vittatus, was performed. Results showed that the karyotypes of these two species were both strikingly different and closely alike; whilst metacentric and submetacentric chromosome pairs were the main components of the karyotype of D. trunculus, 10–11 of the 19 chromosome pairs were telocentric in D. vittatus, most likely as a result of different pericentric inversions. GC-rich heterochromatic bands were present in both species. Furthermore, they showed coincidental 45S ribosomal RNA (rRNA, 5S rRNA and H3 histone gene clusters at conserved chromosomal locations, although D. trunculus had an additional 45S rDNA cluster. Intraspecific pericentric inversions were also detected in both D. trunculus and D. vittatus. The close genetic similarity of these two species together with the high degree of conservation of the 45S rRNA, 5S rRNA and H3 histone gene clusters, and GC-rich heterochromatic bands indicate that pericentric inversions contribute to the karyotype divergence in wedge shells.

  4. A pericentric inversion of chromosome X disrupting F8 and resulting in haemophilia A.

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    Xin, Yu; Zhou, Jingyi; Ding, Qiulan; Chen, Changming; Wu, Xi; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Hongli; Jiang, Xiaofeng

    2017-08-01

    The frequency of X chromosome pericentric inversion is much less than that of autosome chromosome. We hereby characterise a pericentric inversion of X chromosome associated with severe factor VIII (FVIII) deficiency in a sporadic haemophilia A (HA) pedigree. PCR primer walking and genome walking strategies were adopted to identify the exact breakpoints of the inversion. Copy number variations (CNVs) of the F8 and the whole chromosomes were detected by AccuCopy and Affymetrix CytoScan High Definition (HD) assays, respectively. A karyotype analysis was performed by cytogenetic G banding technique. We identified a previously undescribed type of pericentric inversion of the X chromosome [inv(X)(p11.21q28)] in the proband with FVIII:C inversion segment was approximately 64.4% of the total chromosomal length. The karyotype analysis of the X chromosome confirmed the pericentric inversion of the X chromosome in the proband and his mother. A haplotype analysis traced the inversion to his maternal grandfather, who was not a somatic mosaic of the inversion. This finding indicated that the causative mutation may originate from his germ cells or a rare possibility of germ-cell mosaicism. The characterisation of pericentric inversion involving F8 extended the molecular mechanisms causing HA. The pericentric inversion rearrangement involves F8 by non-homologous end joining is responsible for pathogensis of severe HA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. X-ray induced pericentric inversions in Anopheles albimanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbani, M.G.; Seawright, J.A.; Kitzmiller, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Sixteen different pericentric inversions, ten on chromosome 2 and six on chromosome 3, have been isolated and characterized. The partial sterility in the inversion heterozygotes ranged from about 28 to 50%. Contrary to theoretical considerations, a curvilinear relationship exists between inversion length and partial sterility, whereby a reduction in sterility was noted for progressively longer inversions. The break-points are distributed randomly over the autosomes, but are observed more frequently in the areas of the salivary gland chromosomes where diffuse and broken bands of variable stainability are located. (author)

  6. Male infertility associated with de novo pericentric inversion of chromosome 1.

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    Balasar, Özgür; Zamani, Ayşe Gül; Balasar, Mehmet; Acar, Hasan

    2017-12-01

    Inversion occurs after two breaks in a chromosome have happened and the segment rotates 180° before reinserting. Inversion carriers have produced abnormal gametes if there is an odd number crossing- over between the inverted and the normal homologous chromosomes causing a duplication or deletion. Reproductive risks such as infertility, abortion, stillbirth and birth of malformed child would be expected in that case. A 54-year- old male patient was consulted to our clinic for primary infertility. The routine chromosome study were applied using peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures and analyzed by giemsa-trypsin-giemsa (GTG) banding, and centromer banding (C-banding) stains. Y chromosome microdeletions in the azoospermia factor (AZF) regions were analyzed with polymerase chain reaction. Additional test such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to detect the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY). Semen analysis showed azoospermia. A large pericentric inversion of chromosome 1 46,XY, inv(1) (p22q32) was found in routine chromosome analysis. No microdeletions were seen in AZF regions. In our patient the presence of SRY region was observed by using FISH technique with SRY-specific probe. Men who have pericentric inversion of chromosome 1, appear to be at risk for infertility brought about by spermatogenic breakdown. The etiopathogenic relationship between azoospermia and pericentric inversion of chromosome 1 is discussed.

  7. Recombinant Chromosome 4 from a Familial Pericentric Inversion: Prenatal and Adulthood Wolf-Hirschhorn Phenotypes

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    Francesca Malvestiti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericentric inversion of chromosome 4 can give rise to recombinant chromosomes by duplication or deletion of 4p. We report on a familial case of Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome characterized by GTG-banding karyotypes, FISH, and array CGH analysis, caused by a recombinant chromosome 4 with terminal 4p16.3 deletion and terminal 4q35.2 duplication. This is an aneusomy due to a recombination which occurred during the meiosis of heterozygote carrier of cryptic pericentric inversion. We also describe the adulthood and prenatal phenotypes associated with the recombinant chromosome 4.

  8. Heterologous Synapsis and Crossover Suppression in Heterozygotes for a Pericentric Inversion in the Zebra Finch.

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    del Priore, Lucía; Pigozzi, María I

    2015-01-01

    In the zebra finch, 2 alternative morphs regarding centromere position were described for chromosome 6. This polymorphism was interpreted to be the result of a pericentric inversion, but other causes of the centromere repositioning were not ruled out. We used immunofluorescence localization to examine the distribution of MLH1 foci on synaptonemal complexes to test the prediction that pericentric inversions cause synaptic irregularities and/or crossover suppression in heterozygotes. We found complete suppression of crossing over in the region involved in the rearrangement in male and female heterozygotes. In contrast, the same region showed high levels of crossing over in homozygotes for the acrocentric form of this chromosome. No inversion loops or synaptic irregularities were detected along bivalent 6 in heterozygotes suggesting that heterologous pairing is achieved during zygotene or early pachytene. Altogether these findings strongly indicate that the polymorphic chromosome 6 originated by a pericentric inversion. Since inversions are common rearrangements in karyotypic evolution in birds, it seems likely that early heterologous pairing could help to fix these rearrangements, preventing crossing overs in heterozygotes and their deleterious effects on fertility. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Molecular analysis of recombination in a family with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and a large pericentric X chromosome inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shashi, V.; Golden, W.L.; Allinson, P.S. [Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    It has been demonstrated in animal studies that, in animals heterozygous for pericentric chromosomal inversions, loop formation is greatly reduced during meiosis. This results in absence of recombination within the inverted segment, with recombination seen only outside the inversion. A recent study in yeast has shown that telomeres, rather than centromeres, lead in chromosome movement just prior to meiosis and may be involved in promoting recombination. We studied by cytogenetic analysis and DNA polymorphisms the nature of meiotic recombination in a three-generation family with a large pericentric X chromosome inversion, inv(X)(p21.1q26), in which Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was cosegregating with the inversion. On DNA analysis there was no evidence of meiotic recombination between the inverted and normal X chromosomes in the inverted segment. Recombination was seen at the telomeric regions, Xp22 and Xq27-28. No deletion or point mutation was found on analysis of the DMD gene. On the basis of the FISH results, we believe that the X inversion is the mutation responsible for DMD in this family. Our results indicate that (1) pericentric X chromosome inversions result in reduction of recombination between the normal and inverted X chromosomes; (2) meiotic X chromosome pairing in these individuals is likely initiated at the telomeres; and (3) in this family DMD is caused by the pericentric inversion. 50 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Chromosomal changes in pathology and during evolution: analysis of pericentric inversions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutrillaux, B.; Aurias, A.; Viegas-Pequignot, E.

    1980-01-01

    The great similarities between pericentric inversions observed in human pathology, having occurred during evolution, or radio-induced in human cells, indicate that they do not occur at random. About 1/3rd to 1/4th of these chromosomal rearrangements are capable to induce abnormal progeny after aneusomy of recombination, during meiosis [fr

  11. [Recombinant chromosome 4 with partial 4p deletion and 4q duplication inherited from paternal pericentric inversion].

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    Mun, Se Jin; Cho, Eun Hae; Chey, Myoung-Jae; Shim, Gyu-Hong; Shin, Bo-Moon; Lee, Rae-Kyung; Ko, Ji-Kyung; Yoo, Soo Jin

    2010-02-01

    Pericentric inversion of chromosome 4 can give rise to 2 alternate recombinant (rec) chromosomesby duplication or deletion of 4p. The deletion of distal 4p manifests as Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). Here, we report the molecular cytogenetic findings and clinical manifestations observed in an infant with 46,XX,rec(4)dup(4q)inv(4)(p16q31.3)pat. The infant was delivered by Cesarean section at the 33rd week of gestation because pleural effusion and polyhydramnios were detected on ultrasonography. At birth, the infant showed no malformation or dysfunction, except for a preauricular skin tag. Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of neonatal peripheral blood samples showed a gain of 38 Mb on 4q31.3-qter and a loss of 3 Mb on 4p16.3, and these results were consistent with WHS. At the last follow-up at 8 months of age (corrected age, 6 months), the infant had not achieved complete head control.

  12. Recombinant 4 syndrome due to an unbalanced pericentric inversion of chromosome 4.

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    Battaglia, A; Brothman, A R; Carey, J C

    2002-09-15

    An informative patient with a MCA/MR syndrome consisting of developmental delay, prenatal onset growth delay, microcephaly, distinctive face, iris coloboma, and a congenital heart defect was found, on chromosome analysis, to have the following complement: 46,XY,rec(4) dup(4p) inv(4)(p14q35.1) mat. He has a partial 4p trisomy/distal 4q deletion due to an unbalanced pericentric inversion inherited from his mother. Dup (4p) trisomy was originally described by Wilson et al. [1970: Am J Hum Genet 22:679-690] in a similar case with the same chromosome 4 inversion. To date, at least 85 cases of dup (4p) syndrome have been published, mostly due to unbalanced translocations. Recent articles suggest that the phenotype is hard to recognize clinically due to the lack of specificity of findings. In contrast, 4p trisomy due to an unbalanced pericentric inversion of chromosome 4(p14q35), i.e., the recombinant 4 syndrome observed in our patient, appears to be a discrete entity with relatively consistent features. In total there are four other kindreds described in the literature with this inversion, and the phenotype seems recognizable. Thus, we suggest that recombinant 4 syndrome is a discrete entity among 4p trisomy patients. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 18 in parents leading to a phenotypically normal child with segmental uniparental disomy 18.

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    Kariminejad, Ariana; Kariminejad, Roxana; Moshtagh, Azadeh; Zanganeh, Maryam; Kariminejad, Mohammad Hassan; Neuenschwander, Stefan; Okoniewski, Michal; Wey, Eva; Schinzel, Albert; Baumer, Alessandra

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we report a familial inversion of chromosome 18, inv(18)(p11.31q21.33), in both members of a consanguineous couple. Their first child had inherited one balanced pericentric inversion along with a recombinant chromosome 18 resulting in dup(18q)/del(18p), and had mild dysmorphic features in the absence of mental and developmental retardation. The second child had received two recombinant chromosomes 18, from the mother a derivative chromosome 18 with dup(18p)/del(18q) and from the father a derivative chromosome 18 with dup(18q)/del(18p). The aberration was prenatally detected; however, as the two opposite aneuploidies were thought to compensate each other, the family decided to carry on with the pregnancy, knowing that uniparental disomy for the segments outside the inversion could have an adverse influence on the development of the child. Uniparental disomy was confirmed by SNP arrays. The child, who has been followed up until the age of 20 months, is healthy and normal. It seems to be the first reported case with two opposite recombinant chromosomes that compensate each other and lead to segmental uniparental disomy for two segments on the chromosome, one maternal and the other paternal.

  14. Evidence that meiotic pairing starts at the telomeres: Molecular analysis of recombination in a family with a pericentric X chromosome inversion

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    Shashi, V.; Allinson, P.S.; Golden, W.L.; Kelly, T.E. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Recent studies in yeast have shown that telomeres rather than centromeres lead in chromosome movement just prior to meiosis and may have a role in recombination. Cytological studies of meiosis in Drosophila and mice have shown that in pericentric inversion heterozygotes there is lack of loop formation, with recobmination seen only outside the inversion. In a family with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) we recognized that only affected males and carrier females had a pericentric X chromosome inversion (inv X(p11.4;q26)). Since the short arm inversion breakpoint was proximal to the DMD locus, it could not be implicated in the mutational event causing DMD. There was no history of infertility, recurrent miscarriages or liveborn unbalanced females to suggest there was recombination within the inversion. We studied 22 members over three generations to understand the pattern of meiotic recombination between the normal and the inverted X chromosome. In total, 17 meioses involving the inverted X chromosome in females were studied by cytogenetic analysis and 16 CA repeat polymorphisms along the length of the X chromosome. Results: (a) There was complete concordance between the segregation of the DMD mutation and the inverted X chromosome. (b) On DNA analysis, there was complete absence of recombination within the inverted segment. We also found no recombination at the DMD locus. Recombination was seen only at Xp22 and Xq27-28. (c) Recombination was seen in the same individual at both Xp22 and Xq27-28 without recombination otherwise. Conclusions: (1) Pericentric X inversions reduce the genetic map length of the chromosome, with the physical map length being normal. (2) Meiotic X chromosome pairing in this family is initiated at the telomeres. (3) Following telomeric pairing in pericentric X chromosome inversions, there is inhibition of recombination within the inversion and adjacent regions.

  15. Two siblings with alternate unbalanced recombinants derived from a large cryptic maternal pericentric inversion of chromosome 20.

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    Descipio, Cheryl; Morrissette, Jennifer D; Conlin, Laura K; Clark, Dinah; Kaur, Maninder; Coplan, James; Riethman, Harold; Spinner, Nancy B; Krantz, Ian D

    2010-02-01

    Two brothers, with dissimilar clinical features, were each found to have different abnormalities of chromosome 20 by subtelomere fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The proband had deletion of 20p subtelomere and duplication of 20q subtelomere, while his brother was found to have a duplication of 20p subtelomere and deletion of 20q subtelomere. Parental cytogenetic studies were initially thought to be normal, both by G-banding and by subtelomere FISH analysis. Since chromosome 20 is a metacentric chromosome and an inversion was suspected, we used anchored FISH to assist in identifying a possible inversion. This approach employed concomitant hybridization of a FISH probe to the short (p) arm of chromosome 20 with the 20q subtelomere probe. We identified a cytogenetically non-visible, mosaic pericentric inversion of one of the maternal chromosome 20 homologs, providing a mechanistic explanation for the chromosomal abnormalities present in these brothers. Array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) with both a custom-made BAC and cosmid-based subtelomere specific array (TEL array) and a commercially available SNP-based array confirmed and further characterized these rearrangements, identifying this as the largest pericentric inversion of chromosome 20 described to date. TEL array data indicate that the 20p breakpoint is defined by BAC RP11-978M13, approximately 900 kb from the pter; SNP array data reveal this breakpoint to occur within BAC RP11-978M13. The 20q breakpoint is defined by BAC RP11-93B14, approximately 1.7 Mb from the qter, by TEL array; SNP array data refine this breakpoint to within a gap between BACs on the TEL array (i.e., between RP11-93B14 and proximal BAC RP11-765G16). Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Different segregation patterns in five carriers due to a pericentric inversion of chromosome 1.

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    Luo, Yuqin; Xu, Chenming; Sun, Yixi; Wang, Liya; Chen, Songchang; Jin, Fan

    2014-12-01

    Pericentric inversion can produce recombinant gametes; however, meiotic segregation studies on the relationship between the frequency of recombinants and the inverted segment size are rare. Triple-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to analyze the meiotic behavior in five inv(1) carriers with different breakpoints. Recombination gametes were absent in Patient 1, whereas the percentages of the recombinants in Patients 2, 3, 4, and 5 were of 9.2%, 15.3%, 17.3%, and 40.9%, respectively. A significant difference was present for the frequencies of the recombinant spermatozoa among the five patients (p 0.05). The meiotic segregation of nine inv(1) carriers (including those presented in this paper) is now available. A significant correlation was discovered between the rate of recombination and the proportion of the chromosome implicated in the inversion (R = 0.9435, p < 0.001). The frequency of the recombinant gametes was directly related to the proportion of the chromosome that was inverted. Sperm-FISH allowed an additional comprehension of the patterns of meiotic segregation and provided accurate genetic counseling.

  17. Recurrent proximal 18p monosomy and 18q trisomy in a family due to a pericentric inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Ayse Gul; Acar, Aynur; Durakbasi-Dursun, Gul; Yildirim, M Selman; Ceylaner, Serdar; Tuncez, Ebru

    2014-05-01

    Here, we report on a family with pericentric inversion of chromosome 18 [inv(18)(p11.2q21)] and two recombinants with a duplication of q21 → qter and a deletion of p11.2 → pter regions in a four-generation family. This chromosomal abnormality was inherited in our first patient from the father, while it was transmitted to the second patient from the mother. Array-CGH analysis were used to better characterize duplicated and deleted chromosomal regions and showed no genomic copy number variation (CNV) differences between these two relatives. We discussed genotype-phenotype correlations including previously reported. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Angelman syndrome associated with an inversion of chromosome 15q11.2q24.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, V.; Knoll, J.H.M.; Wagstaff, J.; Lalande, M. [and others

    1997-03-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) most frequently results from large ({ge}5 Mb) de novo deletions of chromosome 15q11-q13. The deletions are exclusively of maternal origin, and a few cases of paternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 15 have been reported. The latter finding indicates that AS is caused by the absence of a maternal contribution to the imprinted 15q11-q13 region. Failure to inherit a paternal 15q11-q13 contribution results in the clinically distinct disorder of Prader-Willi syndrome. Cases of AS resulting from translocations or pericentric inversions have been observed to be associated with deletions, and there have been no confirmed reports of balanced rearrangements in AS. We report the first such case involving a paracentric inversion with a breakpoint located {approximately}25 kb proximal to the reference marker D15S10. This inversion has been inherited from a phenotypically normal mother. No deletion is evident by molecular analysis in this case, by use of cloned fragments mapped to within {approximately}1 kb of the inversion breakpoint. Several hypotheses are discussed to explain the relationship between the inversion and the AS phenotype. 47 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Relatives with opposite chromosome constitutions, rec(10)dup(10p)inv(10)(p15.1q26.12) and rec(10)dup(10q)inv(10)(p15.1q26.12), due to a familial pericentric inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuladaite, Zivile; Preiksaitiene, Egle; Utkus, Algirdas; Kučinskas, Vaidutis

    2014-01-01

    Large pericentric inversions in chromosome 10 are rare chromosomal aberrations with only few cases of familial inheritance. Such chromosomal rearrangements may lead to production of unbalanced gametes. As a result of a recombination event in the inversion loop, 2 recombinants with duplicated and deficient chromosome segments, including the regions distal to the inversion, may be produced. We report on 2 relatives in a family with opposite terminal chromosomal rearrangements of chromosome 10, i.e. rec(10)dup(10p)inv(10) and rec(10)dup(10q)inv(10), due to familial pericentric inversion inv(10)(p15.1q26.12). Based on array-CGH results, we characterized the exact genomic regions involved and compared the clinical features of both patients with previous reports on similar pericentric inversions and regional differences within 10p and 10q. The fact that both products of recombination are viable indicates a potentially high recurrence risk of unbalanced offspring. This report of unbalanced rearrangements in chromosome 10 in 2 generations confirms the importance of screening for terminal imbalances in patients with idiopathic intellectual disability by molecular cytogenetic techniques such as FISH, MLPA or microarrays. It also underlines the necessity for FISH to define structural characteristics of such cryptic intrachromosomal rearrangements and the underlying cytogenetic mechanisms. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Contrasting Evolutionary Paths Among Indo-Pacific Pomacentrus Species Promoted by Extensive Pericentric Inversions and Genome Organization of Repetitive Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getlekha, Nuntaporn; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Maneechot, Nuntiya; Bertollo, Luiz Antônio Carlos; Supiwong, Weerayuth; Tanomtong, Alongklod; Molina, Wagner Franco

    2018-02-01

    Pomacentrus (damselfishes) is one of the most characteristic groups of fishes in the Indo-Pacific coral reef. Its 77 described species exhibit a complex taxonomy with cryptic lineages across their extensive distribution. Periods of evolutionary divergences between them are very variable, and the cytogenetic events that followed their evolutionary diversification are largely unknown. In this respect, analyses of chromosomal divergence, within a phylogenetic perspective, are particularly informative regarding karyoevolutionary trends. As such, we conducted conventional cytogenetic and cytogenomic analyses in four Pomacentrus species (Pomacentrus similis, Pomacentrus auriventris, Pomacentrus moluccensis, and Pomacentrus cuneatus), through the mapping of repetitive DNA classes and transposable elements, including 18S rDNA, 5S rDNA, (CA) 15 , (GA) 15 , (CAA) 10 , Rex6, and U2 snDNA as markers. P. auriventris and P. similis, belonging to the Pomacentrus coelestis complex, have indistinguishable karyotypes (2n = 48; NF = 48), with a peculiar syntenic organization of ribosomal genes. On the other hand, P. moluccensis and P. cuneatus, belonging to another clade, exhibit very different karyotypes (2n = 48, NF = 86 and 92, respectively), with a large number of bi-armed chromosomes, where multiple pericentric inversions played a significant role in their karyotype organization. In this sense, different chromosomal pathways followed the phyletic diversification in the Pomacentrus genus, making possible the characterization of two well-contrasting species groups regarding their karyotype features. Despite this, pericentric inversions act as an effective postzygotic barrier in many organisms, which appear to be also the case for P. moluccensis and P. cuneatus; the extensive chromosomal similarities in the two species of P. coelestis complex suggest minor participation of chromosomal postzygotic barriers in the phyletic diversification of these species.

  1. Pericentric Inversion of Human Chromosome 9 Epidemiology Study in Czech Males and Females.

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    Šípek, A; Panczak, A; Mihalová, R; Hrčková, L; Suttrová, E; Sobotka, V; Lonský, P; Kaspříková, N; Gregor, V

    2015-01-01

    Pericentric inversion of human chromosome 9 [inv(9)] is a relatively common cytogenetic finding. It is largely considered a clinically insignificant variant of the normal human karyotype. However, numerous studies have suggested its possible association with certain pathologies, e.g., infertility, habitual abortions or schizophrenia. We analysed the incidence of inv(9) and the spectrum of clinical indications for karyotyping among inv(9) carriers in three medical genetics departments in Prague. In their cytogenetic databases, among 26,597 total records we identified 421 (1.6 %) cases of inv(9) without any concurrent cytogenetic pathology. This study represents the world's largest epidemiological study on inv(9) to date. The incidence of inv(9) calculated in this way from diagnostic laboratory data does not differ from the incidence of inv(9) in three specific populationbased samples of healthy individuals (N = 4,166) karyotyped for preventive (amniocentesis for advanced maternal age, gamete donation) or legal reasons (children awaiting adoption). The most frequent clinical indication in inv(9) carriers was "idiopathic reproductive failure" - 37.1 %. The spectra and percentages of indications in individuals with inv(9) were further statistically evaluated for one of the departments (N = 170) by comparing individuals with inv(9) to a control group of 661 individuals with normal karyotypes without this inversion. The proportion of clinical referrals for "idiopathic reproductive failure" among inv(9) cases remains higher than in controls, but the difference is not statistically significant for both genders combined. Analysis in separated genders showed that the incidence of "idiopathic reproductive failure" could differ among inv(9) female and male carriers.

  2. Pericentral retinopathy and racial differences in hydroxychloroquine toxicity.

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    Melles, Ronald B; Marmor, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    To describe patterns of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy distinct from the classic parafoveal (bull's eye) maculopathy. Retrospective case series. Patients from a large multi-provider group practice and a smaller university referral practice diagnosed with hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Patients with widespread or "end-stage" retinopathy were excluded. Review of ophthalmic studies (fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, multifocal electroretinography, visual fields) and classification of retinopathy into 1 of 3 patterns: parafoveal (retinal changes 2°-6° from the fovea), pericentral (retinal changes ≥ 8° from the fovea), or mixed (retinal changes in both parafoveal and pericentral areas). Relative frequency of different patterns of hydroxychloroquine retinopathy and comparison of risk factors. Of 201 total patients (18% Asian) with hydroxychloroquine retinopathy, 153 (76%) had typical parafoveal changes, 24 (12%) also had a zone of pericentral damage, and 24 (12%) had pericentral retinopathy without any parafoveal damage. Pericentral retinopathy alone was seen in 50% of Asian patients but only in 2% of white patients. Patients with the pericentral pattern were taking hydroxychloroquine for a somewhat longer duration (19.5 vs. 15.0 years, P Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy does not always develop in a parafoveal (bull's eye) pattern, and a pericentral pattern of damage is especially prevalent among Asian patients. Screening practices may need to be adjusted to recognize pericentral and parafoveal hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a familial pericentric inversion 3 associated with short stature.

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    Dutta, Usha R; Hansmann, Ingo; Schlote, Dietmar

    2015-03-01

    Short stature refers to the height of an individual which is below expected. The causes are heterogenous and influenced by several genetic and environmental factors. Chromosomal abnormalities are a major cause of diseases and cytogenetic mapping is one of the powerful tools for the identification of novel disease genes. Here we report a three generation family with a heterozygous pericentric inversion of 46, XX, inv(3) (p24.1q26.1) associated with Short stature. Positional cloning strategy was used to physically map the breakpoint regions by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Fine mapping was performed with Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones spanning the breakpoint regions. In order to further characterize the breakpoint regions extensive molecular mapping was carried out with the breakpoint spanning BACs which narrowed down the breakpoint region to 2.9 kb and 5.3 kb regions on p and q arm respectively. Although these breakpoints did not disrupt any validated genes, we had identified a novel putative gene in the vicinity of 3q26.1 breakpoint region by in silico analysis. Trying to find the presence of any transcripts of this putative gene we analyzed human total RNA by RT-PCR and identified transcripts containing three new exons confirming the existence of a so far unknown gene close to the 3q breakpoint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Dependence of paracentric inversion rate on tract length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    York, Thomas L; Durrett, Rick; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We develop a Bayesian method based on MCMC for estimating the relative rates of pericentric and paracentric inversions from marker data from two species. The method also allows estimation of the distribution of inversion tract lengths. RESULTS: We apply the method to data from...... Drosophila melanogaster and D. yakuba. We find that pericentric inversions occur at a much lower rate compared to paracentric inversions. The average paracentric inversion tract length is approx. 4.8 Mb with small inversions being more frequent than large inversions.If the two breakpoints defining...... a paracentric inversion tract are uniformly and independently distributed over chromosome arms there will be more short tract-length inversions than long; we find an even greater preponderance of short tract lengths than this would predict. Thus there appears to be a correlation between the positions...

  5. Extensive Pericentric Rearrangements in the Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotype "Chinese Spring" Revealed from Chromosome Shotgun Sequence Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ma, J.; Stiller, J.; Wei, Y.M.; Zheng, Y.L.; Devos, K. M.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Liu, C.L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 11 (2014), s. 3039-3048 ISSN 1759-6653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : chromosomal rearrangement * comparative genomics * pericentric inversion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.229, year: 2014

  6. Inversion (X)(p11.4q22) associated with Norrie disease in a four generation family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettenati, M J; Rao, P N; Weaver, R G; Thomas, I T; McMahan, M R

    1993-03-01

    We report on a 4-generation family in which Norrie disease occurs together with a pericentric inversion of the X chromosome in all affected males and carrier females. The breakpoint in the short arm of the X chromosome appears to be at the purported location of the Norrie disease gene. This is the second report of an association between Norrie disease and a chromosome aberration involving Xp11, and the first report of a specific gene disruption, thus physical gene location, due to a pericentric chromosome inversion.

  7. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 (p14.3q21) associated with developmental delays, hypopigmented skin lesions and abnormal brain MRI findings - a new case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachor, D.A.; Lofton, M. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We report 3 year old male, referred for evaluation of developmental delays. Pregnancy was complicated by oligohydramnios, proteinuria and prematurity. Medical history revealed: bilateral inguinal hernia, small scrotal sac, undescended testes, developmental delays and behavioral problems. The child had: microcephaly, facial dysmorphic features, single palmar creases, hypopigmented skin lesions of variable size, intermittent exotropia and small retracted testes. Neurological examination was normal. Cognitive level was at the average range with mild delay in his adaptive behavior. Expressive language delays and severe articulation disorder were noted, as well as clumsiness, poor control and precision of gross and fine motor skills. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral leukocytes indicated that one of the number 11 chromosomes had undergone a pericentric inversion with breakpoints on the short (p) arm at band p14.3 and the long (q) arm at band q21. An MRI of the brain showed mild delay in myelinization pattern of white matter. Chromosome 11 inversion in other sites was associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and several malignancies. To our knowledge this is the first description of inv(11)(p14.3q21) that is associated with microcephaly, dysmorphic features, hypopigmented skin lesions and speech delay. This inversion may disrupt the expression of the involved genes. However, additional cases with the same cytogenetic anomaly are needed to explore the phenotypic significance of this disorder.

  8. A Chromosome 7 Pericentric Inversion Defined at Single-Nucleotide Resolution Using Diagnostic Whole Genome Sequencing in a Patient with Hand-Foot-Genital Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christopher M; Crinnion, Laura A; Harrison, Sally M; Lascelles, Carolina; Antanaviciute, Agne; Carr, Ian M; Bonthron, David T; Sheridan, Eamonn

    2016-01-01

    Next generation sequencing methodologies are facilitating the rapid characterisation of novel structural variants at nucleotide resolution. These approaches are particularly applicable to variants initially identified using alternative molecular methods. We report a child born with bilateral postaxial syndactyly of the feet and bilateral fifth finger clinodactyly. This was presumed to be an autosomal recessive syndrome, due to the family history of consanguinity. Karyotype analysis revealed a homozygous pericentric inversion of chromosome 7 (46,XX,inv(7)(p15q21)x2) which was confirmed to be heterozygous in both unaffected parents. Since the resolution of the karyotype was insufficient to identify any putatively causative gene, we undertook medium-coverage whole genome sequencing using paired-end reads, in order to elucidate the molecular breakpoints. In a two-step analysis, we first narrowed down the region by identifying discordant read-pairs, and then determined the precise molecular breakpoint by analysing the mapping locations of "soft-clipped" breakpoint-spanning reads. PCR and Sanger sequencing confirmed the identified breakpoints, both of which were located in intergenic regions. Significantly, the 7p15 breakpoint was located 523 kb upstream of HOXA13, the locus for hand-foot-genital syndrome. By inference from studies of HOXA locus control in the mouse, we suggest that the inversion has delocalised a HOXA13 enhancer to produce the phenotype observed in our patient. This study demonstrates how modern genetic diagnostic approach can characterise structural variants at nucleotide resolution and provide potential insights into functional regulation.

  9. Branchio-otic syndrome caused by a genomic rearrangement: clinical findings and molecular cytogenetic studies in a patient with a pericentric inversion of chromosome 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T; Bierhals, T; Kortüm, F; Bartels, I; Liehr, T; Burfeind, P; Shoukier, M; Frank, V; Bergmann, C; Kutsche, K

    2014-01-01

    Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited developmental disorder, which is characterized by anomalies of the ears, the branchial arches and the kidneys. It is caused by mutations in the genes EYA1,SIX1 and SIX5. Genomic rearrangements of chromosome 8 affecting the EYA1 gene have also been described. Owing to this fact, methods for the identification of abnormal copy numbers such as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) have been introduced as routine laboratory techniques for molecular diagnostics of BOR syndrome. The advantages of these techniques are clear compared to standard cytogenetic and array approaches as well as Southern blot. MLPA detects deletions or duplications of a part or the entire gene of interest, but not balanced structural aberrations such as inversions and translocations. Consequently, disruption of a gene by a genomic rearrangement may escape detection by a molecular genetic analysis, although this gene interruption results in haploinsufficiency and, therefore, causes the disease. In a patient with clinical features of BOR syndrome, such as hearing loss, preauricular fistulas and facial dysmorphisms, but no renal anomalies, neither sequencing of the 3 genes linked to BOR syndrome nor array comparative genomic hybridization and MLPA were able to uncover a causative mutation. By routine cytogenetic analysis, we finally identified a pericentric inversion of chromosome 8 in the affected female. High-resolution multicolor banding confirmed the chromosome 8 inversion and narrowed down the karyotype to 46,XX,inv(8)(p22q13). By applying fluorescence in situ hybridization, we narrowed down both breakpoints on chromosome 8 and found the EYA1 gene in q13.3 to be directly disrupted. We conclude that standard karyotyping should not be neglected in the genetic diagnostics of BOR syndrome or other Mendelian disorders, particularly when molecular testing failed to detect any causative alteration in patients with

  10. Radiation induced reciprocal translocations and inversions in anopheles albimanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, P.E.; Seawright, J.A.; Benedict, M.Q.; Narang, S.

    1982-01-01

    Reciprocal translocations and inversions were induced in Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann by irradiation of males with X rays. A total of 1669 sperm were assayed, and 175 new aberrations were identified as follows: 102 reciprocal translocations (67 autosomal and 35 sex-linked), 45 pericentric inversions, and 28 paracentric inversions. Eleven of the translocations were nearly whole-arm interchanges, and these were selected for the construction of 'capture systems' for compound chromosomes. Two double-heterozygous translocation strains and four homozygous translocation strains were established. Anopheles albimanus females were irradiated, and a pseudolinkage scheme involving mutant markers was employed to identify reciprocal translocations. The irradiation of females was very inefficient; only one translocation was recovered from 1080 ova tested

  11. A sex-chromosome inversion causes strong overdominance for sperm traits that affect siring success

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knief, U.; Forstmeier, W.; Pei, Y.; Ihle, M.; Wang, D.; Martin, K.; Opatová, Pavlína; Albrechtová, Jana; Wittig, M.; Franke, A.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Kempenaers, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 8 (2017), s. 1177-1184 E-ISSN 2397-334X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Finch Taeniopygia guttata * mixed-effects models * zebra finch * pericentric inversions * fitness consequences * genetic parameters Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology

  12. Negative electroretinograms in pericentral pigmentary retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Kazuki; Kondo, Mineo; Nakamura, Makoto; Hotta, Junko; Terasaki, Hiroko; Miyake, Yozo; Hida, Tetsuo

    2006-01-01

    The clinical presentation and electrophysiological findings are described of three consecutive cases with pericentral pigmentary retinal degeneration. The responses to bright flashes after dark adaptation showed negative waveform shape in all cases. Rod responses were strongly reduced compared with cone responses. Cone electroretinograms elicited by long-duration stimuli showed greater loss of the on-response than the off-response. The ratio of the on-response amplitude to off-response amplitude of these patients (0.52 +/- 0.12; mean +/- SD, n = 6) was significantly smaller than that of normal subject (0.83 +/- 0.21; mean +/- SD, n = 8) (Mann-Whitney U-test, P retinal function, especially in transmission between photoreceptors and depolarizing bipolar cells.

  13. Molecular evidence for high frequency of multiple paternity in a freshwater shrimp species Caridina ensifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gen Hua Yue

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular genetic analyses of parentage provide insights into mating systems. Although there are 22,000 members in Malacostraca, not much has been known about mating systems in Malacostraca. The freshwater shrimp Caridina ensifera blue, is a new species belonging to Malacostraca which was discovered recently in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Due to its small body size and low fecundity, this species is an ideal species to study the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity and to understand of how the low fecundity species persist and evolve.In this study, we developed four polymorphic microsatellites from C. ensifera and applied them to investigate the occurrence and frequency of multiple paternity in 20 C. ensifera broods caught from Lake Matano, Sulawesi. By genotyping the mother and all offspring from each brood we discovered multiple paternity in all 20 broods. In most of the 20 broods, fathers contributed skewed numbers of offspring and there was an apparent inverse correlation between reproductive success of sires and their relatedness to mothers.Our results in combination with recent reports on multiple paternity in crayfish, crab and lobster species suggests that multiple paternity is common in Malacostraca. Skewed contribution of fathers to the numbers of offspring and inverse correlation between reproductive success of sires and their relatedness to mothers suggest that sperm competition occurred and/or pre- and postcopulatory female choice happen, which may be important for avoiding the occurrence of inbreeding and optimize genetic variation in offspring and for persistence and evolution of low fecundity species.

  14. Who wants paternalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sofie K.; Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the demand side of paternalism. We investigate attitudes towards paternalism among Danish students. The main question is whether demand for paternalism is related to self-control, either because people with self-control problems seek commitment devices to overcome these prob...

  15. No evidence for a paternal interchromosomal effect from analysis of the origin of nondisjunction in Down syndrome patients with concomitant familial chromosome rearrangements.

    OpenAIRE

    Schinzel, A A; Adelsberger, P A; Binkert, F; Basaran, S; Antonarakis, S E

    1992-01-01

    The parental origin of the extra chromosome 21 was determined with DNA polymorphisms in seven families in whom the proband and one of the parents carried an additional chromosome rearrangement (balanced translocation or pericentric inversion) not involving chromosome 21. The balanced rearrangement was inherited from the mother in two families and from the father in five families, whereas the additional chromosome 21 was derived from the mother in all seven families. These findings are not in ...

  16. Contrasting behavior of heterochromatic and euchromatic chromosome portions and pericentric genome separation in pre-bouquet spermatocytes of hybrid mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherthan, Harry; Schöfisch, Karina; Dell, Thomas; Illner, Doris

    2014-12-01

    The spatial distribution of parental genomes has attracted much interest because intranuclear chromosome distribution can modulate the transcriptome of cells and influence the efficacy of meiotic homologue pairing. Pairing of parental chromosomes is imperative to sexual reproduction as it translates into homologue segregation and genome haploidization to counteract the genome doubling at fertilization. Differential FISH tagging of parental pericentromeric genome portions and specific painting of euchromatic chromosome arms in Mus musculus (MMU) × Mus spretus (MSP) hybrid spermatogenesis disclosed a phase of homotypic non-homologous pericentromere clustering that led to parental pericentric genome separation from the pre-leptoteneup to zygotene stages. Preferential clustering of MMU pericentromeres correlated with particular enrichment of epigenetic marks (H3K9me3), HP1-γ and structural maintenance of chromosomes SMC6 complex proteins at the MMU major satellite DNA repeats. In contrast to the separation of heterochromatic pericentric genome portions, the euchromatic arms of homeologous chromosomes showed considerable presynaptic pairing already during leptotene stage of all mice investigated. Pericentric genome separation was eventually disbanded by telomere clustering that concentrated both parental pericentric genome portions in a limited nuclear sector of the bouquet nucleus. Our data disclose the differential behavior of pericentromeric heterochromatin and the euchromatic portions of the parental genomes during homologue search. Homotypic pericentromere clustering early in prophase I may contribute to the exclusion of large repetitive DNA domains from homology search, while the telomere bouquet congregates and registers spatially separated portions of the genome to fuel synapsis initiation and high levels of homologue pairing, thus contributing to the fidelity of meiosis and reproduction.

  17. A familial pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 associated with a microdeletion of 163 kb and microduplication of 288 kb at 11p13 and 11q22.3 without aniridia or eye anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balay, Lara; Totten, Ellen; Okada, Luna; Zell, Sidney; Ticho, Benjamin; Israel, Jeannette; Kogan, Jillene

    2016-01-01

    Interstitial deletions of 11p13 involving MPPED2, DCDC5, DCDC1, DNAJC24, IMMP1L, and ELP4 are previously reported to have downstream transcriptional effects on the expression of PAX6, due to a downstream regulatory region (DRR). Currently, no clear genotype-phenotype correlations have been established allowing for conclusive information regarding the exact location of the PAX6 DRR, though its location has been approximated in mouse models to be within the Elp4 gene. Of the clinical reports currently published examining patients with intact PAX6 genes but harboring deletions identified in genes downstream of PAX6, 100% indicate phenotypes which include aniridia, whereas approximately half report additional eye deformities, autism, or intellectual disability. In this clinical report, we present a 12-year-old male patient, his brother, and mother with pericentric inversions of chromosome 11 associated with submicroscopic interstitial deletions of 11p13 and duplications of 11q22.3. The inversions were identified by standard cytogenetic analysis; microarray and FISH detected the chromosomal imbalance. The patient's phenotype includes intellectual disability, speech abnormalities, and autistic behaviors, but interestingly neither the patient, his brother, nor mother have aniridia or other eye anomalies. To the best of our knowledge, these findings in three family members represent the only reported cases with 11p13 deletions downstream of PAX6 not demonstrating phenotypic characteristics of aniridia or abnormal eye development. Although none of the deleted genes are obvious candidates for the patient's phenotype, the absence of aniridia in the presence of this deletion in all three family members further delineates the location of the DRR for PAX6. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Chromosomal inversion differences correlate with range overlap in passerine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Daniel M; Price, Trevor D

    2017-10-01

    Chromosomal inversions evolve frequently but the reasons for this remain unclear. We used cytological descriptions of 411 species of passerine birds to identify large pericentric inversion differences between species, based on the position of the centromere. Within 81 small clades comprising 284 of the species, we found 319 differences on the 9 largest autosomes combined, 56 on the Z chromosome, and 55 on the W chromosome. We also identified inversions present within 32 species. Using a new fossil-calibrated phylogeny, we examined the phylogenetic, demographic and genomic context in which these inversions have evolved. The number of inversion differences between closely related species is consistently predicted by whether the ranges of species overlap, even when time is controlled for as far as is possible. Fixation rates vary across the autosomes, but inversions are more likely to be fixed on the Z chromosome than the average autosome. Variable mutagenic input alone (estimated by chromosome size, map length, GC content or repeat density) cannot explain the differences between chromosomes in the number of inversions fixed. Together, these results support a model in which inversions increase because of their effects on recombination suppression in the face of hybridization. Other factors associated with hybridization may also contribute, including the possibility that inversions contain incompatibility alleles, making taxa less likely to collapse following secondary contact.

  19. Paternalism and Antipaternalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cardoso Simões

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2011v10n1p165 This paper aims to examine the relation between paternalism and antipaternalism. The original intention is disable the arguments seeking to justify acceptance on the part of Mill of moral and legal paternalism. The work will also investigate the concern milleans with the concepts of autonomy and self-development, positioning itself for a reading of Mill as a thinker who advocates a weak version of paternalism. This research suggests, moreover, the communication with the interpreters of contemporary Mill, which will assess the impact of their ideas on the current dialogue on the liberty and paternalism.

  20. DEVELOPMENTAL FOLLOW-UP OF A FEMALE INFANT WITH RECOMBINANT DOWN SYNDROME UP TO THREE AND A HALF YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darija Strah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recombinant Down Syndrome with partial duplication of the long arm of chromosome 21 represents a rare form of partial trisomy 21. The cause is mostly chromosome rearrangement- pericentric inversion of maternal or paternal homologous chromosome 21 and duplication of Down syndrome critical region p11.1q22.1, resulting in a child with phenotypical signs of classical Down syndrome with psychomotorical developmental delay. Methods: We describe a Down sydrome female infant with partial trisomy of chromosome 21. Ultra- sound screening for Down syndrome in the first trimester of pregnancy determined high risk for chromosomal abnormality. Amniocentesis showed normal prenatal karyotype. After birth a female infant started to show symptoms and signs, typical for classical Down syndrome. Postnatal karyotype revealed pericentric inversion and duplication of one chro- mosome 21 of maternal origin in the p11.1q22.1 region. The follow up of female infant up to three and a half years shows signs of psychomotorical delay with no structural defects. Therefore her developmental amelioration is less expressed compared to classical Down syndrome. Conclusions: Developmental follow up of a girl with partial trisomy 21 reveals a lot of similarities with the development of children with classical trisomy 21, but less expressed: facial gestalt, short statue, hypotonia and intellectual disabilities. Global developmental delay in spite of developmental treatment grows more and more evidently.

  1. Eosinophilic fasciitis associated with hypereosinophilia, abnormal bone-marrow karyotype and inversion of chromosome 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, J S; Bosworth, J; Min, T; Mercieca, J; Holden, C A

    2014-03-01

    We report the case of a male patient presenting with eosinophilia, pulmonary oedema and eosinophilic fasciitis (EF). He had the classic clinical appearance and magnetic resonance imaging of EF. Cytogenetic analysis of the bone marrow revealed a previously undescribed pericentric inversion of chromosome 5. Overall, the presentation was consistent with a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukaemia, not otherwise specified (CEL-NOS). Dermatologists should consult a haematologist in cases of EF, in order to rule out possible haematological malignancies. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Effects of a Paternal Participation Program during Cesarean Section on Paternal Infant Attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Kyoung Kim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeIn this study effects of a paternal participation program during cesarean section on paternal infant attachment were investigate. The experimental treatment was an integrative nursing intervention to promote father to infant attachment.MethodsStudy design was a non-equivalent control group posttest design. The program consisted of emotional support to spouse and father towards infant attachment immediately following cesarean birth. Participants were 66 men, partners of women with normal full term pregnancy having a cesarean section with spinal or epidural anesthesia, (experimental group, 34; control group, 32. The experiment was carried out from August 1 to October 30, 2010. Control group data were obtained from May 1 to June 30, 2012. Posttest was performed 72 hours after cesarean birth. A self-report questionnaire including a paternal attachment instrument was used. Data were analyzed using t-test, propensity score matching, and analysis of covariance with the SPSS/WIN 18.0 program.ResultsTotal score for paternal infant attachment in the experimental group was significantly higher than the control group (p<.001. After matching, significant differences were found between the two groups through all subcategories. Adjusted mean score for paternal infant attachment verified experimental effects.ConclusionResults indicate that this paternal participation program during cesarean section is effective in improving paternal infant attachment.

  3. Paternal age in relation to offspring intelligence in the West of Scotland Twenty-07 prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Whitley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of advancing maternal age on offspring's health and development are well understood. Much less is known about the impact of paternal age. METHODS: We explored paternal age-offspring cognition associations in 772 participants from the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. Offspring cognitive ability was assessed using Part 1 of the Alice Heim 4 (AH4 test of General Intelligence and by reaction time (RT. RESULTS: There was no evidence of a parental age association with offspring RT. However, we observed an inverse U-shaped association between paternal age and offspring AH4 score with the lowest scores observed for the youngest and oldest fathers. Adjustment for parental education and socioeconomic status somewhat attenuated this association. Adjustment for number of, particularly older, siblings further reduced the scores of children of younger fathers and appeared to account for the lower offspring scores in the oldest paternal age group. CONCLUSION: We observed a paternal age association with AH4 but not RT, a measure of cognition largely independent of social and educational experiences. Factors such as parental education, socioeconomic status and number of, particularly older, siblings may play an important role in accounting for paternal age-AH4 associations. Future studies should include parental intelligence.

  4. Pericentric intrachromosomal insertion responsible for recurrence of del(11)(p13p14) in a family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henry, I.; Hoovers, J.; Barichard, F.; Berthéas, M. F.; Puech, A.; Prieur, F.; Gessler, M.; Bruns, G.; Mannens, M.; Junien, C.

    1993-01-01

    The combined use of qualitative and quantitative analysis of 11p13 polymorphic markers together with chromosomal in situ suppression hybridization (CISS) with biotin labeled probes mapping to 11p allowed us to characterize a complex rearrangement segregating in a family. We detected a pericentric

  5. [Forensic hematology genetics--paternity testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, A; Bär, W

    1997-05-01

    In Switzerland paternity investigations are carried out using DNA analysis only since 1991. DNA patterns are inherited and only with the exception of genetically identical twins they are different in everyone and therefore unique to an individual. Hence DNA-systems are an excellent tool to resolve paternity disputes. DNA polymorphisms used for paternity diagnosis are length polymorphisms of the highly polymorphic VNTR loci [variable number of tandem repeats]. The most frequently applied systems are the DNA single locus systems. In addition to the DNA single locus systems the application of PCR (PCR = polymerase chain reaction) based DNA systems has increased particularly in difficult deficiency cases or in cases where only small evidential samples or partially degraded DNA are available. Normally four independent DNA single probes are used to produce a DNA profile from the mother, the child and the alleged father. A child inherits half the DNA patterns from its mother and the other half from its true biological father. If an alleged father doesn't possess the paternal specific DNA pattern in his DNA profile he is excluded from the paternity. In case of non-exclusion the probability for paternity is calculated according to Essen-Möller. When applying four highly polymorphic DNA single locus systems the biostatistical evaluation leads always to W-values exceeding 99.8% [= required value for positive proof of paternity]. DNA analysis is currently the best available method to achieve such effective conclusions in paternity investigations.

  6. Certainty of paternity and paternal investment in eastern bluebirds and tree swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempenaers, Bart; Lanctot, Richard B.; Robertson, Raleigh J.

    1998-01-01

    Extra-pair paternity is common in many socially monogamous passerine birds with biparental care. Thus, males often invest in offspring to which they are not related. Models of optimal parental investment predict that, under certain assumptions, males should lower their investment in response to reduced certainty of paternity. We attempted to reduce certainty of paternity experimentally in two species, the eastern bluebird, Sialia sialis, and the tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, by temporarily removing fertile females on two mornings during egg laying. In both species, experimental males usually attempted to copulate with the female immediately after her reappearance, suggesting that they experienced the absence of their mate as a threat to their paternity. Experimental males copulated at a significantly higher rate than control males. However, contrary to the prediction of the model, experimental males did not invest less than control males in their offspring. There was no difference between experimental and control nests in the proportion of male feeds, male and female feeding rates, nestling growth and nestling condition and size at age 14 days. We argue that females might have restored the males’ confidence in paternity after the experiment by soliciting or accepting copulations. Alternatively, males may not reduce their effort, because the fitness costs to their own offspring may outweigh the benefits for the males, at least in populations where females cannot fully compensate for reduced male investment.

  7. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben C Arslan

    Full Text Available Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (<1% of variance explained on intelligence. We discuss future avenues for studies of paternal age effects and suggest that stronger research designs are needed to rule out confounding factors involving birth order and the Flynn effect.

  8. Complex chromosomal rearrangement in a girl with psychomotor-retardation and a de novo inversion: inv(2)(p15;q24.2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot-Hershkovitz, Einat; Raas-Rothschild, Annick; Frumkin, Ayala; Granot, David; Silverstein, Shira; Abeliovich, Dvorah

    2011-08-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of DNA from a girl with severe psychomotor retardation revealed a de novo pericentric inversion of chromosome 2: 46,XX,inv(2)(p15q24.2). In order to elucidate the possible role of the inversion in the girl's abnormal phenotype, we analyzed the inversion breakpoints. FISH analysis revealed BAC clones spanning the breakpoints at 2p and 2q of the inversion. Southern blot hybridization with DNA probes from the BAC regions was used to refine the localization of the breakpoints, followed by inverse-PCR which enabled us to sequence the inversion breakpoints. We found a complex chromosomal rearrangement, including five breakpoints, four at 2q and one at 2p joined with minor insertions/deletions of a few bases. The breakpoint at 2p was within the NRXN1 gene that has previously been associated with autism, intellectual disabilities, and psychiatric disorders. In 2q, the breakpoints disrupted two genes, TANC1 and RBMS1; the phenotypic effect of these genes is not currently known. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Sperm competition games when males invest in paternal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Gustavo S; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2017-08-16

    Sperm competition games investigate how males partition limited resources between pre- and post-copulatory competition. Although extensive research has explored how various aspects of mating systems affect this allocation, male allocation between mating, fertilization and parental effort has not previously been considered. Yet, paternal care can be energetically expensive and males are generally predicted to adjust their parental effort in response to expected paternity. Here, we incorporate parental effort into sperm competition games, particularly exploring how the relationship between paternal care and offspring survival affects sperm competition and the relationship between paternity and paternal care. Our results support existing expectations that (i) fertilization effort should increase with female promiscuity and (ii) paternal care should increase with expected paternity. However, our analyses also reveal that the cost of male care can drive the strength of these patterns. When paternal behaviour is energetically costly, increased allocation to parental effort constrains allocation to fertilization effort. As paternal care becomes less costly, the association between paternity and paternal care weakens and may even be absent. By explicitly considering variation in sperm competition and the cost of male care, our model provides an integrative framework for predicting the interaction between paternal care and patterns of paternity. © 2017 The Author(s).

  10. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ruben C; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father's age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents' trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring's. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents' intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (birth order and the Flynn effect.

  11. Paternally expressed Peg3 controls maternally expressed Zim1 as a trans factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Ye

    Full Text Available The expression of two adjacent imprinted genes, Peg3 and Zim1, is inversely correlated: down-regulation of Peg3 coinciding with up-regulation of Zim1. The current study characterized this inverse correlation using a mutant allele targeting Peg3. According to the results, the mutation on the paternal allele of Peg3 resulted in a dramatic increase in the transcription levels of the maternal allele of Zim1, suggesting the involvement of unknown trans factors in this trans-allelic event. Subsequent ChIP experiments revealed that the protein encoded by Peg3 itself binds to the zinc finger exon of Zim1, which is modified with the repression mark H3K9me3. Interestingly, the levels of H3K9me3 on Zim1 are also reduced in the mutant cells lacking the protein PEG3, suggesting potential roles for PEG3 in establishing H3K9me3 on Zim1. Reintroducing PEG3 into the mutant cell restored down-regulation of Zim1, confirming the predicted repressor role for Peg3 on Zim1. Overall, these results demonstrated that paternally expressed Peg3 controls maternally expressed Zim1 as a trans factor. The current study also provides the first case for the trans-allelic interaction of two oppositely imprinted genes through their gene products.

  12. The effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence and personality when controlling for paternal trait level

    OpenAIRE

    Arslan, Ruben C.; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but n...

  13. Paternal inheritance in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Mendel, Zvi; Franco, José Carlos; Ghanim, Murad

    2014-10-01

    Mealybugs have a haplodiploid reproduction system, with paternal genome elimination (PGE); the males are diploid soon after fertilization, but during embryogenesis, the male paternal set of chromosomes becomes heterochromatic (HC) and therefore inactive. Previous studies have suggested that paternal genes can be passed on from mealybug males to their sons, but not necessarily by any son, to the next generation. We employed crosses between two mealybug species— Planococcus ficus (Signoret) and Planococcus citri (Risso)—and between two populations of P. ficus, which differ in their mode of pheromone attraction, in order to demonstrate paternal inheritance from males to F2 through F1 male hybrids. Two traits were monitored through three generations: mode of male pheromone attraction (pherotype) and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene segment (genotype). Our results demonstrate that paternal inheritance in mealybugs can occur from males to their F2 offspring, through F1 males (paternal line). F2 backcrossed hybrid males expressed paternal pherotypes and ITS2 genotypes although their mother originated through a maternal population. Further results revealed other, hitherto unknown, aspects of inheritance in mealybugs, such as that hybridization between the two species caused absence of paternal traits in F2 hybrid females produced by F1 hybrid females. Furthermore, hybridization between the two species raised the question of whether unattracted males have any role in the interactions between P. ficus and P. citri.

  14. Influence of paternal age on perinatal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Emily G; DeFranco, Emily A

    2017-11-01

    There is an increasing trend to delay childbearing to advanced parental age. Increased risks of advanced maternal age and assisted reproductive technologies are widely accepted. There are limited data regarding advanced paternal age. To adequately counsel patients on risk, more research regarding advanced paternal age is necessary. We sought to determine the influence of paternal age on perinatal outcomes, and to assess whether this influence differs between pregnancies achieved spontaneously and those achieved with assisted reproductive technology. A population-based retrospective cohort study of all live births in Ohio from 2006 through 2012 was completed. Data were evaluated to determine if advanced paternal age is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in pregnancies. The analysis was stratified by status of utilization of assisted reproductive technology. Generalized linear regression models assessed the association of paternal age on pregnancy complications in assisted reproductive technology and spontaneously conceived pregnancies, after adjusting for maternal age, race, multifetal gestation, and Medicaid status, using Stata software (Stata, Release 12; StataCorp, College Station, TX). Paternal age was documented in 82.2% of 1,034,552 live births in Ohio during the 7-year study period. Paternal age ranged from 12-87 years, with a median of 30 (interquartile range, 26-35) years. Maternal age ranged from 11-62 years, with a median of 27 (interquartile range, 22-31) years. The use of assisted reproductive technology in live births increased as paternal age increased: 0.1% 60 years, P risk factors, increased paternal age was not associated with a significant increase in the rate of preeclampsia, preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, congenital anomaly, genetic disorder, or neonatal intensive care unit admission. The influence of paternal age on pregnancy outcomes was similar in pregnancies achieved with and without assisted reproductive

  15. Electron microscope mapping of the pericentric and intercalary heterochromatic regions of the polytene chromosomes of the mutant Suppressor of underreplication in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeshin, F; Belyaeva, S; Zhimulev, F

    2001-12-01

    Breaks and ectopic contacts in the heterochromatic regions of Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosomes are the manifestations of the cytological effects of DNA underreplication. Their appearance makes these regions difficult to map. The Su(UR)ES gene, which controls the phenomenon, has been described recently. Mutation of this locus gives rise to new blocks of material in the pericentric heterochromatic regions and causes the disappearance of breaks and ectopic contacts in the intercalary heterochromatic regions, thereby making the banding pattern distinct and providing better opportunities for mapping of the heterochromatic regions in polytene chromosomes. Here, we present the results of an electron microscope study of the heterochromatic regions. In the wild-type salivary glands, the pericentric regions correspond to the beta-heterochromatin and do not show the banding pattern. The most conspicuous cytological effect of the Su(UR)ES mutation is the formation of a large banded chromosome fragment comprising at least 25 bands at the site where the 3L and 3R proximal arms connect. In the other pericentric regions, 20CF, 40BF and 41BC, 15, 12 and 9 new bands were revealed, respectively. A large block of densely packed material appears in the most proximal part of the fourth chromosome. An electron microscope analysis of 26 polytene chromosome regions showing the characteristic features of intercalary heterochromatin was also performed. Suppression of DNA underreplication in the mutant transforms the bands with weak spots into large single bands.

  16. Paternal occupational exposure to pesticides or herbicides as risk factors for cancer in children and young adults: a case-control study from the North of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Mark S; Hammal, Donna M; Dorak, M Tevfik; McNally, Richard J Q; Parker, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Researchers in numerous studies have suggested that preconception paternal occupational exposures to various substances, including pesticides and herbicides, may be involved in the etiology of childhood cancers. Using data from the Northern Region Young Persons' Malignant Disease Registry, the authors investigated whether paternal occupations likely to involve such exposures, as recorded at the time of a child's birth, were associated with children's cancer risk. The authors matched cases (n = 4,723), on sex and year of birth, to controls from 2 independent sources: (1) all other patients from the registry with a different cancer and (2) 100 cancer-free individuals per case from the Cumbrian Births Database. An inverse association existed, particularly in males, between lymphoid leukemia and paternal occupations with likely exposures to pesticides and/or herbicides. However, this was not significant after stratifying by residential status (urban versus rural). Results do not support a role for preconception paternal occupational exposures to pesticides or herbicides in the etiology of childhood cancer.

  17. Paternity leave experiences of NHS doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Hannah; Szram, Joanna

    2013-10-01

    This study assesses NHS doctors' experiences of paternity leave and evaluates whether practices have changed since the introduction of additional paternity leave (APL) in April 2011. An anonymised online survey designed to discover experiences and uptake of APL and ordinary paternity leave (OPL) was distributed to all members of the London Deanery Synapse® network. In total, 364 fathers responded. Their seniority ranged from foundation trainees to consultants. Following the formal introduction of OPL in 2003, the number of fathers taking any paternity leave increased (from 50% to 95.6%). The majority of respondents (76.7%) felt well supported by their employer. Since the introduction of APL, 3% of respondents took additional leave. Reasons for the low uptake of APL included the impracticalities of the law, poor awareness and perceived attitudes and implications for training. Problems with OPL included the inadequate provision of cover and difficulties in timing the leave appropriately.

  18. Advanced paternal age and stillbirth rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urhøj, Stine Kjær; Andersen, Per Kragh; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2017-01-01

    Advanced paternal age has been associated with a variety of rare conditions and diseases of great public health impact. An increased number of de novo point mutations in sperm with increasing age have been suggested as a mechanism, which would likely also affect fetal viability. We examined...... the association between paternal age and stillbirth rate in a large nationwide cohort. We identified all pregnancies in Denmark from 1994 to 2010 carried to a gestational age of at least 22 completed weeks (n = 944,031) as registered in national registers and linked to individual register data about the parents....... The hazard ratio of stillbirth according to paternal age was estimated, adjusted for maternal age in 1-year categories, year of outcome, and additionally parental educational levels. The relative rate of stillbirth (n = 4946) according to paternal age was found to be J-shaped with the highest hazard ratio...

  19. Maternal modulation of paternal effects on offspring development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashoodh, Rahia; Habrylo, Ireneusz B; Gudsnuk, Kathryn M; Pelle, Geralyn; Champagne, Frances A

    2018-03-14

    The paternal transmission of environmentally induced phenotypes across generations has been reported to occur following a number of qualitatively different exposures and appear to be driven, at least in part, by epigenetic factors that are inherited via the sperm. However, previous studies of paternal germline transmission have not addressed the role of mothers in the propagation of paternal effects to offspring. We hypothesized that paternal exposure to nutritional restriction would impact male mate quality and subsequent maternal reproductive investment with consequences for the transmission of paternal germline effects. In the current report, using embryo transfer in mice, we demonstrate that sperm factors in adult food restricted males can influence growth rate, hypothalamic gene expression and behaviour in female offspring. However, under natural mating conditions females mated with food restricted males show increased pre- and postnatal care, and phenotypic outcomes observed during embryo transfer conditions are absent or reversed. We demonstrate that these compensatory changes in maternal investment are associated with a reduced mate preference for food restricted males and elevated gene expression within the maternal hypothalamus. Therefore, paternal experience can influence offspring development via germline inheritance, but mothers can serve as a modulating factor in determining the impact of paternal influences on offspring development. © 2018 The Author(s).

  20. From here to paternity: neural correlates of the onset of paternal behavior in California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Trynke R; Chauke, Miyetani; Harris, Breanna N; Saltzman, Wendy

    2009-08-01

    In a minority of mammalian species, including humans, fathers play a significant role in infant care. Compared to maternal behavior, the neural and hormonal bases of paternal care are poorly understood. We analyzed behavioral, neuronal and neuropeptide responses towards unfamiliar pups in biparental California mice, comparing males housed with another male ("virgin males") or with a female before ("paired males") or after ("new fathers") the birth of their first litter. New fathers approached pups more rapidly and spent more time engaging in paternal behavior than virgin males. In each cage housing two virgin males, one was spontaneously paternal and one was not. New fathers and paired males spent more time sniffing and touching a wire mesh ball containing a newborn pup than virgin males. Only new fathers showed significantly increased Fos-like immunoreactivity in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPO) following exposure to a pup-containing ball, as compared to an empty ball. Moreover, Fos-LIR in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (STMV and STMPM) and caudal dorsal raphe nucleus (DRC) was increased in new fathers, independent of test condition. No differences were found among the groups in Fos-LIR in oxytocinergic or vasopressinergic neurons. These results suggest that sexual and paternal experiences facilitate paternal behavior, but other cues play a role as well. Paternal experience increases Fos-LIR induced by distal pup cues in the MPO, but not in oxytocin and vasopressin neurons. Fatherhood also appears to alter neurotransmission in the BNST and DRC, regions implicated in emotionality and stress-responsiveness.

  1. Avian paternal care had dinosaur origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchio, David J; Moore, Jason R; Erickson, Gregory M; Norell, Mark A; Jackson, Frankie D; Borkowski, John J

    2008-12-19

    The repeated discovery of adult dinosaurs in close association with egg clutches leads to speculation over the type and extent of care exhibited by these extinct animals for their eggs and young. To assess parental care in Cretaceous troodontid and oviraptorid dinosaurs, we examined clutch volume and the bone histology of brooding adults. In comparison to four archosaur care regressions, the relatively large clutch volumes of Troodon, Oviraptor, and Citipati scale most closely with a bird-paternal care model. Clutch-associated adults lack the maternal and reproductively associated histologic features common to extant archosaurs. Large clutch volumes and a suite of reproductive features shared only with birds favor paternal care, possibly within a polygamous mating system. Paternal care in both troodontids and oviraptorids indicates that this care system evolved before the emergence of birds and represents birds' ancestral condition. In extant birds and over most adult sizes, paternal and biparental care correspond to the largest and smallest relative clutch volumes, respectively.

  2. ISFG: Recommendations on biostatistics in paternity testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjertson, David W; Brenner, Charles H; Baur, Max P

    2007-01-01

    The Paternity Testing Commission (PTC) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics has taken up the task of establishing the biostatistical recommendations in accordance with the ISO 17025 standards and a previous set of ISFG recommendations specific to the genetic investigations...... in paternity cases. In the initial set, the PTC recommended that biostatistical evaluations of paternity are based on a likelihood ratio principle - yielding the paternity index, PI. Here, we have made five supplementary biostatistical recommendations. The first recommendation clarifies and defines basic...... concepts of genetic hypotheses and calculation concerns needed to produce valid PIs. The second and third recommendations address issues associated with population genetics (allele probabilities, Y-chromosome markers, mtDNA, and population substructuring) and special circumstances (deficiency...

  3. Paternal Age Alters Social Development in Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, Magdalena; Haworth, Claire M A; Ronald, Angelica; Krapohl, Eva; Happé, Francesca; Mill, Jonathan; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Fernandes, Cathy; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rijsdijk, Frühling

    2017-05-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) at conception has been linked with autism and schizophrenia in offspring, neurodevelopmental disorders that affect social functioning. The current study explored the effects of paternal age on social development in the general population. We used multilevel growth modeling to investigate APA effects on socioemotional development from early childhood until adolescence, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) sample. We also investigated genetic and environmental underpinnings of the paternal age effects on development, using the Additive genetics, Common environment, unique Environment (ACE) and gene-environment (GxE) models. In the general population, both very young and advanced paternal ages were associated with altered trajectory of social development (intercept: p = .01; slope: p = .03). No other behavioral domain was affected by either young or advanced age at fatherhood, suggesting specificity of paternal age effects. Increased importance of genetic factors in social development was recorded in the offspring of older but not very young fathers, suggesting distinct underpinnings of the paternal age effects at these two extremes. Our findings highlight that the APA-related deficits that lead to autism and schizophrenia are likely continuously distributed in the population. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Multilocus DNA fingerprinting in paternity analysis: a Chilean experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cifuentes O. Lucía

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA polymorphism is very useful in paternity analysis. The present paper describes paternity studies done using DNA profiles obtained with the (CAC5 probe. All of the subjects studied were involved in nonjudicial cases of paternity. Genomic DNA digested with HaeIII was run on agarose gels and hybridized in the gel with the (CAC5 probe labeled with 32P. The mean number of bands larger than the 4.3 kb per individual was 16.1. The mean proportion of bands shared among unrelated individuals was 0.08 and the mean number of test bands was 7.1. This corresponded to an exclusion probability greater than 0.999999. Paternity was excluded in 34.5% of the cases. The mutation frequency estimated from non-excluded cases was 0.01143 bands per child. In these cases, the paternity was confirmed by a locus-specific analysis of eight independent PCR-based loci. The paternity index was computed in all non-excluded cases. It can be concluded that this method is a powerful and inexpensive alternative to solve paternity doubts.

  5. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Charlie D; Hodgson, David J; André, Carl; Sørdalen, Tonje K; Knutsen, Halvor; Griffiths, Amber G F

    2015-01-01

    Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding.

  6. Genotype Reconstruction of Paternity in European Lobsters (Homarus gammarus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie D Ellis

    Full Text Available Decapod crustaceans exhibit considerable variation in fertilisation strategies, ranging from pervasive single paternity to the near-ubiquitous presence of multiple paternity, and such knowledge of mating systems and behaviour are required for the informed management of commercially-exploited marine fisheries. We used genetic markers to assess the paternity of individual broods in the European lobster, Homarus gammarus, a species for which paternity structure is unknown. Using 13 multiplexed microsatellite loci, three of which are newly described in this study, we genotyped 10 eggs from each of 34 females collected from an Atlantic peninsula in the south-western United Kingdom. Single reconstructed paternal genotypes explained all observed progeny genotypes in each of the 34 egg clutches, and each clutch was fertilised by a different male. Simulations indicated that the probability of detecting multiple paternity was in excess of 95% if secondary sires account for at least a quarter of the brood, and in excess of 99% where additional sire success was approximately equal. Our results show that multiple paternal fertilisations are either absent, unusual, or highly skewed in favour of a single male among H. gammarus in this area. Potential mechanisms upholding single paternal fertilisation are discussed, along with the prospective utility of parentage assignments in evaluations of hatchery stocking and other fishery conservation approaches in light of this finding.

  7. Multiple paternity in reptiles: patterns and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uller, Tobias; Olsson, Mats

    2008-06-01

    The evolution of female promiscuity poses an intriguing problem as benefits of mating with multiple males often have to arise via indirect, genetic, effects. Studies on birds have documented that multiple paternity is common in natural populations but strong evidence for selection via female benefits is lacking. In an attempt to evaluate the evidence more broadly, we review studies of multiple paternity in natural populations of all major groups of nonavian reptiles. Multiple paternity has been documented in all species investigated so far and commonly exists in over 50% of clutches, with particularly high levels in snakes and lizards. Marine turtles and lizards with prolonged pair-bonding have relatively low levels of multiple paternity but levels are nevertheless higher than in many vertebrates with parental care. There is no evidence that high levels of polyandry are driven by direct benefits to females and the evidence that multiple paternity arises from indirect genetic benefits is weak. Instead, we argue that the most parsimonious explanation for patterns of multiple paternity is that it represents the combined effect of mate-encounter frequency and conflict over mating rates between males and females driven by large male benefits and relatively small female costs, with only weak selection via indirect benefits. A crucial step for researchers is to move from correlative approaches to experimental tests of assumptions and predictions of theory under natural settings, using a combination of molecular techniques and behavioural observations.

  8. The impact of paternity leave on fathers' future earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rege, Mari; Solli, Ingeborg F

    2013-12-01

    Using Norwegian registry data, we investigate the effect of paternity leave on fathers' long-term earnings. If the paternity leave increased long-term father involvement, then we should expect a reduction in fathers' long-term earnings as they shift time and effort from market to home production. For identification, we use the Norwegian introduction of a paternity-leave quota in 1993, reserving four weeks of the total of 42 weeks of paid parental leave exclusively for the father. The introduction of the paternity-leave quota led to a sharp increase in rates of leave-taking for fathers. We estimate a difference-in-differences model that exploits differences in fathers' exposure to the paternity-leave quota by the child's age and year of observation. Our analysis suggests that four weeks of paternity leave during the child's first year decreases fathers' future earnings, an effect that persists through our last point of observation, when the child is 5 years old. A battery of robustness tests supports our results.

  9. Meiotic recombination, synapsis, meiotic inactivation and sperm aneuploidy in a chromosome 1 inversion carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Gordon; Chow, Victor; Ma, Sai

    2012-01-01

    Disrupted meiotic behaviour of inversion carriers may be responsible for suboptimal sperm parameters in these carriers. This study investigated meiotic recombination, synapsis, transcriptional silencing and chromosome segregation effects in a pericentric inv(1) carrier. Recombination (MLH1), synapsis (SYCP1, SYCP3) and transcriptional inactivation (γH2AX, BRCA1) were examined by fluorescence immunostaining. Chromosome specific rates of recombination were determined by fluorescence in-situ hybridization. Furthermore, testicular sperm was examined for aneuploidy and segregation of the inv(1). Our findings showed that global recombination rates were similar to controls. Recombination on the inv(1) and the sex chromosomes were reduced. The inv(1) associated with the XY body in 43.4% of cells, in which XY recombination was disproportionately absent, and 94.3% of cells displayed asynapsed regions which displayed meiotic silencing regardless of their association with the XY body. Furthermore, a low frequency of chromosomal imbalance was observed in spermatozoa (3.4%). Our results suggest that certain inversion carriers may display unimpaired global recombination and impaired recombination on the involved and the sex chromosomes during meiosis. Asynapsis or inversion-loop formation in the inverted region may be responsible for impaired spermatogenesis and may prevent sperm-chromosome imbalance. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Consistent paternity skew through ontogeny in Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig D H Sherman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large number of studies in postcopulatory sexual selection use paternity success as a proxy for fertilization success. However, selective mortality during embryonic development can lead to skews in paternity in situations of polyandry and sperm competition. Thus, when assessment of paternity fails to incorporate mortality skews during early ontogeny, this may interfere with correct interpretation of results and subsequent evolutionary inference. In a previous series of in vitro sperm competition experiments with amphibians (Litoria peronii, we showed skewed paternity patterns towards males more genetically similar to the female. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we use in vitro fertilizations and sperm competition trials to test if this pattern of paternity of fully developed tadpoles reflects patterns of paternity at fertilization and if paternity skews changes during embryonic development. We show that there is no selective mortality through ontogeny and that patterns of paternity of hatched tadpoles reflects success of competing males in sperm competition at fertilization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: While this study shows that previous inferences of fertilization success from paternity data are valid for this species, rigorous testing of these assumptions is required to ensure that differential embryonic mortality does not confound estimations of true fertilization success.

  11. Memories of paternal relations are associated with coping and defense mechanisms in breast cancer patients: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Renzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer diagnosis and treatment represent stressful events that demand emotional adjustment, thus recruiting coping strategies and defense mechanisms. As parental relations were shown to influence emotion regulation patterns and adaptive processes in adulthood, the present study investigated whether they are specifically associated to coping and defense mechanisms in patients with breast cancer. Methods One hundred and ten women hospitalized for breast cancer surgery were administered questionnaires assessing coping with cancer, defense mechanisms, and memories of parental bonding in childhood. Results High levels of paternal overprotection were associated with less mature defenses, withdrawal and fantasy and less adaptive coping mechanisms, such as hopelessness/helplessness. Low levels of paternal care were associated with a greater use of repression. No association was found between maternal care, overprotection, coping and defense mechanisms. Immature defenses correlated positively with less adaptive coping styles, while mature defenses were positively associated to a fighting spirit and to fatalism, and inversely related to less adaptive coping styles. Conclusions These data suggest that paternal relations in childhood are associated with emotional, cognitive, and behavioral regulation in adjusting to cancer immediately after surgery. Early experiences of bonding may constitute a relevant index for adaptation to cancer, indicating which patients are at risk and should be considered for psychological interventions.

  12. What Exactly (If Anything) Is Wrong with Paternalism towards Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drerup, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical and practical issues concerning the justification of paternalism towards children are widely debated in a variety of philosophical contexts. The major focus of these debates lies either on questions concerning the general legitimacy of paternalism towards children or on justifications of paternalism in concrete situations involving…

  13. Paternal and maternal birthweights and the risk of infant preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanoff, Mark A

    2008-01-01

    Increasing paternal birthweight has been associated with increased risk of fathering a preterm infant, causing speculation that a fetus programmed to grow rapidly can trigger preterm labor. Pregnancies occurring from 1974-1989 among women themselves born in the Danish Perinatal Study (1959-1961) were identified through the Population Register; obstetric records were abstracted. Paternal birthweight was obtained by linking Personal Identification Numbers of the fathers to archived midwifery records. Paternal birthweight was not associated with preterm infants overall. However, there was a significant interaction between paternal and maternal birthweights (P = .003). When the mother weighed less than 3 kg at birth, increasing paternal birthweight was associated with increased occurrence of preterm birth (P for trend = .02); paternal birthweight was unassociated with preterm birth for mothers weighing 3 kg or more at birth (P = .34). When the mother was born small, increasing paternal birthweight was associated with increased risk of preterm birth, suggesting that a fetus growing faster than its mother can accommodate might trigger preterm birth.

  14. Paternal care and litter size coevolution in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, Paula; Hobson, Liane

    2016-04-27

    Biparental care of offspring occurs in diverse mammalian genera and is particularly common among species with socially monogamous mating systems. Despite numerous well-documented examples, however, the evolutionary causes and consequences of paternal care in mammals are not well understood. Here, we investigate the evolution of paternal care in relation to offspring production. Using comparative analyses to test for evidence of evolutionary associations between male care and life-history traits, we explore if biparental care is likely to have evolved because of the importance of male care to offspring survival, or if evolutionary increases in offspring production are likely to result from the evolution of biparental care. Overall, we find no evidence that paternal care has evolved in response to benefits of supporting females to rear particularly costly large offspring or litters. Rather, our findings suggest that increases in offspring production are more likely to follow the evolution of paternal care, specifically where males contribute depreciable investment such as provisioning young. Through coevolution with litter size, we conclude that paternal care in mammals is likely to play an important role in stabilizing monogamous mating systems and could ultimately promote the evolution of complex social behaviours. © 2016 The Authors.

  15. Paternal identity impacts embryonic development for two species of freshwater fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Linhart, Otomar; Krejszeff, Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    then partition variation in embryonic phenotypic performance to maternal, paternal, and parental interactions using the Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) model. Results showed that paternal, maternal, and the paternal. ×. maternal interaction terms were highly significant for both species; clearly......Paternal, compared to maternal, contributions were believed to have only a limited influence on embryonic development and larval fitness traits in fishes. Therefore, the perspective of male influence on early life history traits has come under scrutiny. This study was conducted to determine...... demonstrating that certain family combinations were more compatible than others. Paternal effects explained 20.24% of the total variance, which was 2-fold higher than the maternal effects (10.73%) in Ide, while paternal effects explained 18.9% of the total variance, which was 15-fold higher than the maternal...

  16. Genotype-phenotype analysis of recombinant chromosome 4 syndrome: an array-CGH study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat, Morteza; Hemmat, Omid; Anguiano, Arturo; Boyar, Fatih Z; El Naggar, Mohammed; Wang, Jia-Chi; Wang, Borris T; Sahoo, Trilochan; Owen, Renius; Haddadin, Mary

    2013-05-02

    Recombinant chromosome 4, a rare constitutional rearrangement arising from pericentric inversion, comprises a duplicated segment of 4p13~p15→4pter and a deleted segment of 4q35→4qter. To date, 10 cases of recombinant chromosome 4 have been reported. We describe the second case in which array-CGH was used to characterize recombinant chromosome 4 syndrome. The patient was a one-year old boy with consistent clinical features. Conventional cytogenetics and FISH documented a recombinant chromosome 4, derived from a paternal pericentric inversion, leading to partial trisomy 4p and partial monosomy of 4q. Array-CGH, performed to further characterize the rearranged chromosome 4 and delineate the breakpoints, documented a small (4.36 Mb) 4q35.1 terminal deletion and a large (23.81 Mb) 4p15.1 terminal duplication. Genotype-phenotype analysis of 10 previously reported cases and the present case indicated relatively consistent clinical features and breakpoints. This consistency was more evident in our case and another characterized by array-CGH, where both showed the common breakpoints of p15.1 and q35.1. A genotype-phenotype correlation study between rec(4), dup(4p), and del(4q) syndromes revealed that urogenital and cardiac defects are probably due to the deletion of 4q whereas the other clinical features are likely due to 4p duplication. Our findings support that the clinical features of patients with rec(4) are relatively consistent and specific to the regions of duplication or deletion. Recombinant chromosome 4 syndrome thus appears to be a discrete entity that can be suspected on the basis of clinical features or specific deleted and duplicated chromosomal regions.

  17. Association of paternal IQ in early adulthood with offspring mortality and hospital admissions for injuries: a cohort study of 503 492 Swedish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Silventoinen, Karri; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

    2014-07-01

    Higher intelligence (IQ) has been related to a lower risk of mortality and hospital admissions for injuries, but little is known about the effect of parental IQ on offspring outcomes. We explored associations of paternal IQ with mortality and hospitalisations for injuries from all external causes in offspring. A cohort of 503 492 Swedish children under 5 years of age with information on paternal IQ was obtained by record linkage of national registers. HR with 95% CIs were estimated using Cox regression. There was some evidence that paternal IQ was inversely associated with total and external-cause mortality in offspring, although the effects were modest and disappeared when controlling for parents' socioeconomic position (SEP). The only robust gradient was found between paternal IQ and hospital admissions for injuries (HRper 1-SD increase in IQ 0.93, 95% CI 0.92 to 0.94; pIQ may have an increased risk of injury by external causes. Messages on family safety and injury prevention might be tailored according to parental cognitive abilities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Birth outcomes after preconception paternal exposure to methotrexate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Rachel W; Larsen, Michael Due; Magnussen, Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methotrexate (MTX), a folic acid antagonist, is often prescribed for moderate to severe inflammatory related diseases. The safety of paternal MTX use prior to conception is unknown. This study, using the National Danish Registries, aimed to examine the association between paternal MTX...

  19. Libertarian Paternalism Is Not an Oxymoron

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert

    2003-01-01

    The idea of libertarian paternalism might seem to be an oxymoron, but it is both possible and legitimate for private and public institutions to affect behavior while also respecting freedom of choice. Often people’s preferences are ill-formed, and their choices will inevitably be influenced by default rules, framing effects, and starting points. In these circumstances, a form of paternalism cannot be avoided. Equipped with an understanding of behavioral findings of bounded rationality and bou...

  20. The making and breaking of paternity secrets in donor insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Lyn

    2010-07-01

    This paper analyses the complex issues faced by regulators of the infertility treatment industry in response to the social and technological changes that heralded a new openness in knowledge about genetics, paternity and the concomitant need for donor offspring to know their genetic origins. The imperative for full information about their donor and biological father, who contributed to their creation and half of their genome, was an outcome unanticipated by the architects of the donor insemination programme. Genetic paternity testing realised the possibility of fixed and certain knowledge about paternity. This paper outlines medicine's role in the formation of normative families through the use of donor insemination. Extending information from an Australian study on the use of DNA paternity testing, it analyses what the social and scientific changes that have emerged and gained currency in the last several decades mean for the new 'openness' and the role of paternity testing in this context. It concludes with recommendations about how to deal with the verification of paternity in linking donor conceived adult children to their donor.

  1. Evidence for paternal leakage in hybrid periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Fontaine

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial inheritance is generally assumed to be maternal. However, there is increasing evidence of exceptions to this rule, especially in hybrid crosses. In these cases, mitochondria are also inherited paternally, so "paternal leakage" of mitochondria occurs. It is important to understand these exceptions better, since they potentially complicate or invalidate studies that make use of mitochondrial markers. We surveyed F1 offspring of experimental hybrid crosses of the 17-year periodical cicadas Magicicada septendecim, M. septendecula, and M. cassini for the presence of paternal mitochondrial markers at various times during development (1-day eggs; 3-, 6-, 9-week eggs; 16-month old 1st and 2nd instar nymphs. We found evidence of paternal leakage in both reciprocal hybrid crosses in all of these samples. The relative difficulty of detecting paternal mtDNA in the youngest eggs and ease of detecting leakage in older eggs and in nymphs suggests that paternal mitochondria proliferate as the eggs develop. Our data support recent theoretical predictions that paternal leakage may be more common than previously estimated.

  2. Evidence for paternal leakage in hybrid periodical cicadas (Hemiptera: Magicicada spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Kathryn M; Cooley, John R; Simon, Chris

    2007-09-12

    Mitochondrial inheritance is generally assumed to be maternal. However, there is increasing evidence of exceptions to this rule, especially in hybrid crosses. In these cases, mitochondria are also inherited paternally, so "paternal leakage" of mitochondria occurs. It is important to understand these exceptions better, since they potentially complicate or invalidate studies that make use of mitochondrial markers. We surveyed F1 offspring of experimental hybrid crosses of the 17-year periodical cicadas Magicicada septendecim, M. septendecula, and M. cassini for the presence of paternal mitochondrial markers at various times during development (1-day eggs; 3-, 6-, 9-week eggs; 16-month old 1st and 2nd instar nymphs). We found evidence of paternal leakage in both reciprocal hybrid crosses in all of these samples. The relative difficulty of detecting paternal mtDNA in the youngest eggs and ease of detecting leakage in older eggs and in nymphs suggests that paternal mitochondria proliferate as the eggs develop. Our data support recent theoretical predictions that paternal leakage may be more common than previously estimated.

  3. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-9 - Maternity and paternity absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maternity and paternity absence. 1.410(a)-9... Maternity and paternity absence. (a) Elapsed time—(1) Rule. For purposes of applying the rules of § 1.410(a...)(5)(E) and 411(a)(6)(E) (relating to maternity or paternity absence), the severance from service date...

  4. Theory of Patronized Goods. Liberal Evolution of Paternalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubinstein Aleksandr Yakovlevich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The neo-classical principles of rational behavior are considered in the context of the nature of paternalism as the basis of the Theory of patronized goods. The formation of society’s normative interests is discussed in concern of political aspects. The article illustrates the theoretical and the practical aspects of the concept of consociation democracy, providing liberalization of the institutions for making political and economic decisions. The results of analysis reveal a pattern of paternalism drifting towards institutional liberalization. Proposed a hypothesis explaining why the economic policy in modern Russia still remains somewhere between archaic and merit paternalism.

  5. Who wants paternalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sofie Kragh; Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    these problems, or because people with good self-control want those who lack it to change their behaviors. We find no evidence linking self-control to attitudes towards weak forms of paternalism (e.g. nudges or information about health consequences). But respondents with good selfcontrol are significantly more...

  6. Paternity tests in Mexico: Results obtained in 3005 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aceves, M E; Romero Rentería, O; Díaz-Navarro, X X; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2018-04-01

    National and international reports regarding the paternity testing activity scarcely include information from Mexico and other Latin American countries. Therefore, we report different results from the analysis of 3005 paternity cases analyzed during a period of five years in a Mexican paternity testing laboratory. Motherless tests were the most frequent (77.27%), followed by trio cases (20.70%); the remaining 2.04% included different cases of kinship reconstruction. The paternity exclusion rate was 29.58%, higher but into the range reported by the American Association of Blood Banks (average 24.12%). We detected 65 mutations, most of them involving one-step (93.8% and the remaining were two-step mutations (6.2%) thus, we were able to estimate the paternal mutation rate for 17 different STR loci: 0.0018 (95% CI 0.0005-0.0047). Five triallelic patterns and 12 suspected null alleles were detected during this period; however, re-amplification of these samples with a different Human Identification (HID) kit confirmed the homozygous genotypes, which suggests that most of these exclusions actually are one-step mutations. HID kits with ≥20 STRs detected more exclusions, diminishing the rate of inconclusive results with isolated exclusions (Powerplex 21 kit (20 STRs) and Powerplex Fusion kit (22 STRs) offered similar PI (p = 0.379) and average number of exclusions (PE) (p = 0.339) when a daughter was involved in motherless tests. In brief, besides to report forensic parameters from paternity tests in Mexico, results describe improvements to solve motherless paternity tests using HID kits with ≥20 STRs instead of one including 15 STRs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Factors Associated with Perceived Paternal Involvement in Childrearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Susan; Thompson, Vetta L. Sanders

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed African American and white fathers living with their young children and the children's mothers regarding variables associated with perceived paternal involvement in child care. Results indicated that ethnicity, gender role orientation, and perceived skill at child care related to higher levels of perceived paternal engagement in and…

  8. Differential occurrence of chromosome inversion polymorphisms among Muller's elements in three species of the tripunctata group of Drosophila, including a species with fast chromosomal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brianti, Mitsue T; Ananina, Galina; Klaczko, Louis B

    2013-01-01

    Detailed chromosome maps with reliable homologies among chromosomes of different species are the first step to study the evolution of the genetic architecture in any set of species. Here, we present detailed photo maps of the polytene chromosomes of three closely related species of the tripunctata group (subgenus Drosophila): Drosophila mediopunctata, D. roehrae, and D. unipunctata. We identified Muller's elements in each species, using FISH, establishing reliable chromosome homologies among species and D. melanogaster. The simultaneous analysis of chromosome inversions revealed a distribution pattern for the inversion polymorphisms among Muller's elements in the three species. Element E is the most polymorphic, with many inversions in each species. Element C follows; while the least polymorphic elements are B and D. While interesting, it remains to be determined how general this pattern is among species of the tripunctata group. Despite previous studies showing that D. mediopunctata and D. unipunctata are phylogenetically closer to each other than to D. roehrae, D. unipunctata shows rare karyotypic changes. It has two chromosome fusions: an additional heterochromatic chromosome pair and a pericentric inversion in the X chromosome. This especial conformation suggests a fast chromosomal evolution that deserves further study.

  9. [Effect of paternity leave on maternal postpartum depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séjourné, N; Beaumé, M; Vaslot, V; Chabrol, H

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the role of the paternity leave in the appearance of the maternal postpartum depression. Fifty-one couples took part in the whole study. Between the second and the fifth day after the childbirth, the mother completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), which measures the symptoms of depression and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) which measures the social support the mother has become. The father completed the EPDS. Two months and then the second time four months after the childbirth, the mother received the EPDS, the MSPSS, and questionnaires measuring the temperament of the baby, the maternal skills, the feeling of being a mother and the quality of life postpartum. In order to evaluate the paternal involvement, the father completed the EPDS and questions about paternal skills and involvement. The paternity leave seemed not to have any consequences on the results at the EPDS or other questionnaires. However, lack of paternal involvement was a significant predictor of the intensity of the depressive symptoms of the mothers. It is not the presence of the father wich seems important to take into account for detection and the traitement of postpatum depression but his participation in the care of the baby. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Konference Fathers and Paternity Leave: Men Do It

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maříková, Hana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 14 (2006), s. 833-835 ISSN 0038-0288. [Fathers and Paternity Leave: Men Do It] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700280504 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : parental leave * paternity leave * fathering Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 0.128, year: 2006

  11. Structural rearrangements of chromosomes in the domestic chicken: experimental production by X-irradiation of spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooster, W.E.; Fechheimer, N.S.; Jaap, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    In order to produce chicks heterozygous for structural aberrations of chromosomes, 67 hens were inseminated with semen that had been exposed to 1200 R of X-rays. A sample of 204 chicks was hatched and survived. Among these, 18 (8.9%) contained rearrangements comprising 19 translocations and one pericentric inversion. All 10 males and eight females heterozygous for rearrangements were fertile and transmitted these rearrangements to approximately half their hatched progeny. Each of the major chromosomes of the chicken karyotype, except number 6, was involved in one or more of the translocations. The pericentric inversion was of a segment of chromosome number 2. (author)

  12. Who's your daddy?: paternal inheritance of metabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isganaitis, Elvira; Suehiro, Harumi; Cardona, Connie

    2017-02-01

    Although the importance of optimizing mothers' health prior to conception and during pregnancy is now well accepted, recent data also implicate health and nutritional status of fathers as contributors to chronic disease risk in their progeny. This brief review will highlight recent epidemiological and experimental studies linking paternal overnutrition, undernutrition, and other forms of stress, to metabolic disease in the offspring. The past 2 years have brought tremendous insights into the mechanisms by which paternal exposures can contribute to disease susceptibility in the next generation. Recent data, both from humans and experimental models, demonstrate that paternal obesity and undernutrition result in epigenetic reprogramming of male germ cells, notably altered DNA methylation, histone retention, and expression of small noncoding RNAs and transfer RNA fragments. Novel mechanisms have also been identified, such as epididymal transport vesicles, seminal fluid hormones and metabolites, and a unique seminal fluid microbiome. Paternal nutritional and other perturbations are linked to risk of metabolic disease and obesity in offspring. Germ cell-dependent mechanisms have recently been linked to these intergenerational effects. Nongenetic, paternal inheritance of chronic disease has important implications for public health, and may provide novel opportunities for multigenerational disease prevention.

  13. The effect of paternal factors on perinatal and paediatric outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldereid, Nan B; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Pinborg, Anja

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal factors, including increasing childbearing age and various life-style factors, are associated with poorer short- and long-term outcomes for children, whereas knowledge of paternal parameters is limited. Recently, increasing paternal age has been associated with adverse obstet...... IMPLICATIONS: Although the increased risks of adverse outcome in offspring associated with paternal factors and identified in this report represent serious health effects, the magnitude of these effects seems modest....

  14. Noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) through maternal plasma DNA sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Haojun; Xie, Yifan; Li, Xuchao

    2016-01-01

    developed a noninvasive prenatal paternity testing (NIPAT) based on SNP typing with maternal plasma DNA sequencing. We evaluated the influence factors (minor allele frequency (MAF), the number of total SNP, fetal fraction and effective sequencing depth) and designed three different selective SNP panels......Short tandem repeats (STRs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been already used to perform noninvasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal plasma DNA. The frequently used technologies were PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and SNP typing array, respectively. Here, we...... paternity test using STR multiplex system. Our study here proved that the maternal plasma DNA sequencing-based technology is feasible and accurate in determining paternity, which may provide an alternative in forensic application in the future....

  15. Multiple paternity in the cultured yellow pond turtles (Mauremys mutica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Cheng; Zhao, Jian; Li, Wei; Wei, Cheng-Qing; Zhu, Xin-Ping

    2017-08-01

    As a result of hunting and habitat loss, wild populations of the yellow pond turtle, Mauremys mutica, are decreasing. The International Union for Conservation of Nature considers M. mutica to be an endangered species. All studied freshwater turtles have polyandrous mating with multiple paternity. To survey the mating strategies of M. mutica, 1year's genetic data of parents and all offspring in an artificially captive population were analyzed. Two groups of multiplex PCR containing 16 microsatellite loci were used to analyze the paternity of 302 hatchlings from 132 parents and from 159 clutches. The genetic data indicated that multiple paternity is rare in M. mutica, occurring in only seven of 138 clutches. Although the frequency of multiple paternity was only 5.07%, results of the present research indicate that M. mutica has a polyandrous mating system. In the breeding season, the successive clutches of 34 females each had the same paternity as the previous clutches. It was observed that four males (f85, f58, f87, and f76) had more than 20 offspring each, totaling 99 and representing 32.78% of all offspring. This finding implies that paternity is competitive in this artificially captive population and might bias the genetic diversity of the offspring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Paternal ADHD Symptoms and Child Conduct Problems: Is Father Involvement Always Beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romirowsky, Abigail Mintz; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal psychopathology robustly predicts poor developmental and treatment outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the high heritability of ADHD, few studies have examined associations between paternal ADHD symptoms and child adjustment, and none have also considered degree of paternal involvement in childrearing. Identification of modifiable risk factors for child conduct problems is particularly important in this population given the serious adverse outcomes resulting from this comorbidity. Methods This cross-sectional study examined the extent to which paternal involvement in childrearing moderated the association between paternal ADHD symptoms and child conduct problems among 37 children with ADHD and their biological fathers. Results Neither paternal ADHD symptoms nor involvement was independently associated with child conduct problems. However, the interaction between paternal ADHD symptoms and involvement was significant, such that paternal ADHD symptoms were positively associated with child conduct problems only when fathers were highly involved in childrearing. Conclusions The presence of adult ADHD symptoms may determine whether father involvement in childrearing has a positive or detrimental influence on comorbid child conduct problems. PMID:25250402

  17. Paternal ADHD symptoms and child conduct problems: is father involvement always beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romirowsky, A M; Chronis-Tuscano, A

    2014-09-01

    Maternal psychopathology robustly predicts poor developmental and treatment outcomes for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Despite the high heritability of ADHD, few studies have examined associations between paternal ADHD symptoms and child adjustment, and none have also considered degree of paternal involvement in childrearing. Identification of modifiable risk factors for child conduct problems is particularly important in this population given the serious adverse outcomes resulting from this comorbidity. This cross-sectional study examined the extent to which paternal involvement in childrearing moderated the association between paternal ADHD symptoms and child conduct problems among 37 children with ADHD and their biological fathers. Neither paternal ADHD symptoms nor involvement was independently associated with child conduct problems. However, the interaction between paternal ADHD symptoms and involvement was significant, such that paternal ADHD symptoms were positively associated with child conduct problems only when fathers were highly involved in childrearing. The presence of adult ADHD symptoms may determine whether father involvement in childrearing has a positive or detrimental influence on comorbid child conduct problems.

  18. Paternal influences on adolescent sexual risk behaviors: a structured literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida; Lee, Jane; McCarthy, Katharine; Michael, Shannon L; Pitt-Barnes, Seraphine; Dittus, Patricia

    2012-11-01

    To date, most parent-based research has neglected the role of fathers in shaping adolescent sexual behavior and has focused on mothers. The objective of this study was to conduct a structured review to assess the role of paternal influence on adolescent sexual behavior and to assess the methodological quality of the paternal influence literature related to adolescent sexual behavior. We searched electronic databases: PubMed, PsychINFO, Social Services Abstracts, Family Studies Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies published between 1980 and 2011 that targeted adolescents 11 to 18 years and focused on paternal parenting processes were included. Methodological quality was assessed by using an 11-item scoring system. Thirteen articles were identified and reviewed. Findings suggest paternal factors are independently associated with adolescent sexual behavior relative to maternal factors. The most commonly studied paternal influence was emotional qualities of the father-adolescent relationship. Paternal communication about sex was most consistently associated with adolescent sexual behavior, whereas paternal attitudes about sex was least associated. Methodological limitations include a tendency to rely on cross-sectional design, nonprobability sampling methods, and focus on sexual debut versus broader sexual behavior. Existing research preliminarily suggests fathers influence the sexual behavior of their adolescent children; however, more rigorous research examining diverse facets of paternal influence on adolescent sexual behavior is needed. We provide recommendations for primary care providers and public health practitioners to better incorporate fathers into interventions designed to reduce adolescent sexual risk behavior.

  19. Paternal Influences on Adolescent Sexual Risk Behaviors: A Structured Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouris, Alida; Lee, Jane; McCarthy, Katharine; Michael, Shannon L.; Pitt-Barnes, Seraphine; Dittus, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To date, most parent-based research has neglected the role of fathers in shaping adolescent sexual behavior and has focused on mothers. The objective of this study was to conduct a structured review to assess the role of paternal influence on adolescent sexual behavior and to assess the methodological quality of the paternal influence literature related to adolescent sexual behavior. METHODS: We searched electronic databases: PubMed, PsychINFO, Social Services Abstracts, Family Studies Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. Studies published between 1980 and 2011 that targeted adolescents 11 to 18 years and focused on paternal parenting processes were included. Methodological quality was assessed by using an 11-item scoring system. RESULTS: Thirteen articles were identified and reviewed. Findings suggest paternal factors are independently associated with adolescent sexual behavior relative to maternal factors. The most commonly studied paternal influence was emotional qualities of the father-adolescent relationship. Paternal communication about sex was most consistently associated with adolescent sexual behavior, whereas paternal attitudes about sex was least associated. Methodological limitations include a tendency to rely on cross-sectional design, nonprobability sampling methods, and focus on sexual debut versus broader sexual behavior. CONCLUSIONS: Existing research preliminarily suggests fathers influence the sexual behavior of their adolescent children; however, more rigorous research examining diverse facets of paternal influence on adolescent sexual behavior is needed. We provide recommendations for primary care providers and public health practitioners to better incorporate fathers into interventions designed to reduce adolescent sexual risk behavior. PMID:23071205

  20. Paternal programming of offspring cardiometabolic diseases in later life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Tsuprykov, Oleg; Yang, Xiaoping; Hocher, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Early – intrauterine – environmental factors are linked to the development of cardiovascular disease in later life. Traditionally, these factors are considered to be maternal factors such as maternal under and overnutrition, exposure to toxins, lack of micronutrients, and stress during pregnancy. However, in the recent years, it became obvious that also paternal environmental factors before conception and during sperm development determine the health of the offspring in later life. We will first describe clinical observational studies providing evidence for paternal programming of adulthood diseases in progeny. Next, we describe key animal studies proving this relationship, followed by a detailed analysis of our current understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of paternal programming. Alterations of noncoding sperm micro-RNAs, histone acetylation, and targeted as well as global DNA methylation seem to be in particular involved in paternal programming of offspring's diseases in later life. PMID:27457668

  1. Multiple paternity and hybridization in two smooth-hound sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Ilaria A M; Riginella, Emilio; Gristina, Michele; Rasotto, Maria B; Zane, Lorenzo; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2015-08-10

    Multiple paternity appears to be a common trait of elasmobranch mating systems, with its occurrence likely driven by convenience, due to females seeking to minimize the stress of male harassment. Here we use molecular markers to analyse the frequency of multiple paternity in two related viviparous sharks, Mustelus mustelus and Mustelus punctulatus. We first applied molecular methods to assign pregnant females, embryos and additional reference adults (N = 792) to one of the two species. Paternity analysis was performed using a total of 9 polymorphic microsatellites on 19 females and 204 embryos of M. mustelus, and on 13 females and 303 embryos of M. punctulatus. Multiple paternity occurs in both species, with 47% of M. mustelus and 54% of M. punctulatus litters sired by at least two fathers. Female fecundity is not influenced by multiple mating and in 56% of polyandrous litters paternity is skewed, with one male siring most of the pups. Genetic analyses also revealed hybridization between the two species, with a M. punctulatus female bearing pups sired by a M. mustelus male. The frequency of polyandrous litters in these species is consistent with aspects of their reproductive biology, such as synchronous ovulation and possible occurrence of breeding aggregations.

  2. Economics of paternalism: the hidden costs of self-commanding strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Salvat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an economic assessment of paternalism by comparing different alternative responses to dynamically inconsistent behaviors consecutive to hyperbolic discounting. Two main types of action are possible, self-commanding strategies and paternalism The first category includes personal rules and pre-commitment The second can be subcategorized between coercive and non-coercive forms of paternalism, which are respectively associated (although it is debatable with legal paternalism and with ‘nudges’. Despite being self-inflicted, self-commanding strategies are actually not cost free and can result in a dramatic cutback of people’s freedom of choice. Likewise, legal paternalism can, on occasion, be less harmful than personal rules or pre-commitment; similarly, nudges can be more invasive and less effective than their proponents want us to believe. The aim of this paper is not to propose any standardized form of response to irrational behavior (whatever that may mean but to argue, on the contrary, that every case should be individually appraised. Individual situations can be remedied by self-commanding strategies or by paternalistic policies, either in isolation or in combination.

  3. Father-Son Inter-Generational Transmission of Authoritarian Paternal Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Peter O.; Statum, Jo Ann

    1984-01-01

    Attempted to determine authoritarian paternal attitude inter-generational transmission in fathers and sons (N=75). Results suggested that authoritarian paternal attitudes could be indicated in terms of five factors: Dominant, Rigidity, Conformity, Intolerant, and Uncreative; and that the sons expressed strongly the authoritarian attitudes of their…

  4. Advancing paternal age and schizophrenia: the impact of delayed fatherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ek, Mats; Wicks, Susanne; Svensson, Anna C; Idring, Selma; Dalman, Christina

    2015-05-01

    It is well known that advancing paternal age is associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring, but the mechanism behind this association remains unknown. This study investigates if delayed fatherhood rather than advancing paternal age per se might explain the increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring associated with advancing paternal age. This is a register-based study of the Swedish population looking at people born 1955-1985 who have 1 or 2 siblings (n = 2 589 502). The main analysis investigated whether the association between advancing paternal age and schizophrenia was explained by delayed fatherhood. Possible confounding factors were taken into account. Cox regression was used throughout. In the main analysis the association between advancing paternal age and increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring disappeared after controlling for delayed fatherhood (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.72-1.21 comparing 45+ years old fathers to those 25-29), whereas delayed fatherhood showed an association with increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring comparing 35-39 and 40-44 years old fathers to 25-29 year olds (HR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.18-1.58; HR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.44-2.28, respectively). The results remained when controlling for possible confounders. This study suggests that the association between paternal age and schizophrenia is not due to paternal age per se, but rather to an unknown factor associated with both delayed fatherhood and schizophrenia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Advanced paternal age and risk of fetal death: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Hansen, Kasper Daniel; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2004-01-01

    Cohort from 1997 to 1999 to assess the association between paternal age and fetal death. Fathers of the pregnancies were identified by record linkage to population registers. The paternal age-related risks of fetal death and its components, early and late fetal loss, were estimated using survival......A possible detrimental paternal age effect on offspring health due to mutations of paternal origin should be reflected in an association between paternal age and fetal loss. The authors used data from a prospective study of 23,821 pregnant women recruited consecutively to the Danish National Birth...... analysis. Pregnancies fathered by a man aged 50 or more years (n = 124) had almost twice the risk of ending in a fetal loss compared with pregnancies with younger fathers (hazard ratio = 1.88, 95% confidence interval: 0.93, 3.82), after adjustment for maternal age, reproductive history, and maternal...

  6. Mechanisms and consequences of paternally transmitted chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, F; Wyrobek, A J

    2005-04-05

    Paternally transmitted chromosomal damage has been associated with pregnancy loss, developmental and morphological defects, infant mortality, infertility, and genetic diseases in the offspring including cancer. There is epidemiological evidence linking paternal exposure to occupational or environmental agents with an increased risk of abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also a large body of literature on germ cell mutagenesis in rodents showing that treatment of male germ cells with mutagens has dramatic consequences on reproduction producing effects such as those observed in human epidemiological studies. However, we know very little about the etiology, transmission and early embryonic consequences of paternally-derived chromosomal abnormalities. The available evidence suggests that: (1) there are distinct patterns of germ cell-stage differences in the sensitivity of induction of transmissible genetic damage with male postmeiotic cells being the most sensitive; (2) cytogenetic abnormalities at first metaphase after fertilization are critical intermediates between paternal exposure and abnormal reproductive outcomes; and, (3) there are maternally susceptibility factors that may have profound effects on the amount of sperm DNA damage that is converted into chromosomal aberrations in the zygote and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes.

  7. Elucidating the mechanisms of paternal non-disjunction of chromosome 21 in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, A R; Petersen, M B; Pettay, D; Taft, L; Allran, K; Freeman, S B; Karadima, G; Avramopoulos, D; Torfs, C; Mikkelsen, M; Hassold, T J; Sherman, S L

    1998-08-01

    Paternal non-disjunction of chromosome 21 accounts for 5-10% of Down syndrome cases, therefore, relative to the maternally derived cases, little is known about paternally derived trisomy 21. We present the first analysis of recombination and non-disjunction for a large paternally derived population of free trisomy 21 conceptuses ( n = 67). Unlike maternal cases where the ratio of meiosis I (MI) to meiosis II (MII) errors is 3:1, a near 1:1 ratio exists among paternal cases, with a slight excess of MII errors. We found no paternal age effect for the overall population nor when classifying cases according to stage of non-disjunction error. Among 22 MI cases, only five had an observable recombinant event. This differs significantly from the 11 expected events ( P < 0.02, Fisher's exact), suggesting reduced recombination along the non-disjoined chromosomes 21 involved in paternal MI non-disjunction. No difference in recombination was detected among 27 paternal MII cases as compared with controls. However, cases exhibited a slight increase in the frequency of proximal and medial exchange when compared with controls (0.37 versus 0.28, respectively). Lastly, this study confirmed previous reports of excess male probands among paternally derived trisomy 21 cases. However, we report evidence suggesting an MII stage-specific sex ratio disturbance where 2.5 male probands were found for each female proband. Classification of MII cases based on the position of the exchange event suggested that the proband sex ratio disturbance was restricted to non-telomeric exchange cases. Based on these findings, we propose new models to explain the association between paternally derived trisomy 21 and excessive male probands.

  8. Resolving Questioned Paternity Issues Using a Philippine Genetic Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Corazon De Ungria

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The utility of the Philippines genetic database consisting of seven Short Tandem Repeat (STR markers for testing of ten questioned paternity cases was investigated. The markers used were HUMvWA, HUMTH01, HUMCSF1PO, HUMFOLP23, D8S306, HUMFES/FPS, and HUMF13A01. These markers had a combined Power of Paternity Exclusion of 99.17%. Due to the gravity of some cases handled in the laboratory, routine procedures must be assessed to determine the capacity of the analysis to exclude a non-father of predict paternity. Clients showed a preference for only testing father and child to lower costs and reduce conflicts, particularly when the mother objects to the conduct of DNA tests, or when she is deceased or cannot be located. The Probability of Paternity was calculated with and without the mother’s profile in each of the cases. In all instances, results were more informative when the mother’s DNA profile was included. Moreover, variations in the allelic distribution of five STR markers among eight Caucasian, one African-American, and two Amerindian (Argentina populations resulted in significant differences in Probability of Paternity estimates compared to those calculated using the Philippine Database.Based on the results of the present study, it is recommended that tests on alleged father-child samples be performed to screen for at least two mismatches. In the absence of theses mismatches, further analysis that includes the mother’s DNA profile is recommended. Moreover, it is recommended that a Philippines genetic database be used for DNA-based paternity testing in the Philippines.

  9. EFFECTS OF PARTIAL HEPATECTOMY, PHENOBARBITAL AND 3-METHYLCHOLANTHRENE ON KINETIC-PARAMETERS OF GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE AND PHOSPHOGLUCONATE DEHYDROGENASE IN-SITU IN PERIPORTAL, INTERMEDIATE AND PERICENTRAL ZONES OF RAT-LIVER LOBULES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonges, G. N.; Vogels, I. M. C.; van Noorden, C. J. F.

    1995-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGDH) are heterogeneously distributed in liver lobules of female rats. The maximum activity of both enzymes is approximately twice higher in intermediate and pericentral zones than in periportal zones. Enzyme activities

  10. Case-control analysis of paternal age and trisomic anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Souza, E; Morris, David Jackson; Garne, Ester

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether older paternal age increases the risk of fathering a pregnancy with Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), Klinefelter (XXY) or XYY syndrome.......To determine whether older paternal age increases the risk of fathering a pregnancy with Patau (trisomy 13), Edwards (trisomy 18), Klinefelter (XXY) or XYY syndrome....

  11. Paternal Involvement in Child- Rearing Activities: The Perspective of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In recognition of the need to widen the scope of fatherhood scholarship, this article centered on examining paternal involvement but in a socio- cultural context and developmental stage that has headed little attention in previous research. An attempt was made to investigate the nature of paternal involvement (ways, desires ...

  12. Evolution of monogamy, paternal investment, and female life history in Peromyscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jašarević, Eldin; Bailey, Drew H; Crossland, Janet P; Dawson, Wallace D; Szalai, Gabor; Ellersieck, Mark R; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S; Geary, David C

    2013-02-01

    The timing of reproductive development and associated trade-offs in quantity versus quality of offspring produced across the life span are well documented in a wide range of species. The relation of these aspects of maternal life history to monogamy and paternal investment in offspring is not well studied in mammals, due in part to the rarity of the latter. By using five large, captive-bred populations of Peromyscus species that range from promiscuous mating with little paternal investment (P. maniculatus bairdii) to social and genetic monogamy with substantial paternal investment (P. californicus insignis), we modeled the interaction between monogamy and female life history. Monogamy and high paternal investment were associated with smaller litter size, delayed maternal reproduction that extended over a longer reproductive life span, and larger, higher quality offspring. The results suggest monogamy and paternal investment can alter the evolution of female life-history trajectories in mammals. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Constitutional chromosome anomalies in patients with cerebral gigantism (Sotos syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeusler, G; Guchev, Z; Köhler, I; Schober, E; Haas, O; Frisch, H

    1993-01-01

    Two boys are presented with the clinical features of cerebral gigantism and chromosomal variants which have not been described so far in this syndrome. In the first boy a de novo pericentric inversion of chromosome Y was found, the karyotypes of all other investigated family members were normal. The patient had an obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and atrial septal defect type II. The second boy had inherited pericentric inversion of the heterochromatic region of chromosome 9 from his mother. This chromosome 9 variant was also found in his sister who had a similar phenotype but without gigantism. Endocrine evaluation demonstrated normal results in both boys. The intellectual achievement in both cases was average.

  14. Divergent Trends in US Maternity and Paternity Leave, 1994-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorsky, Jay L

    2017-03-01

    To determine the number and type of US workers taking maternity or paternity leave. We created a publicly available ecological long-term series for measuring parental leave from 1994 to 2015 by using the Current Population Survey, which interviews about 60 000 randomly selected households monthly. The average month from 1994 to 2015 saw 273 000 women and 13 000 men on maternity or paternity leave. Maternity leave rates per 10 000 births showed no trend over 22 years (mean = 677.6). Paternity figures increased by a factor of 3, but started from a small base (14.7-54.6). We observed no national impact on maternity or paternity leave after implementation of state laws that provided paid leave. About half (51.1%) of employees on maternity or paternity leave during 2015 received paid time off. The typical woman on maternity leave was older, more likely married, more likely non-Hispanic White, and more educated than the typical woman who gave birth. Although the US economy has expanded dramatically since 1994, this improvement does not appear to have translated into more women taking maternity leave.

  15. Is advanced paternal age a health risk for the offspring?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Urhoj, Stine Kjaer

    2017-01-01

    consistently associated with increased paternal age are stillbirths, musculo-skeletal syndromes, cleft palate, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and retinoblastoma, and neurodevelopmental disorders in the autism spectrum and schizophrenia. Finally, we consider the public health impact of the increasing paternal age...

  16. 25 CFR 11.609 - Determination of paternity and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Domestic Relations § 11.609 Determination of paternity and support. The... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of paternity and support. 11.609 Section 11... child and to obtain a judgment for the support of the child. A judgment of the court establishing the...

  17. Paternal age at birth is associated with offspring leukocyte telomere length in the nurses' health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, J; Du, M; Wong, J Y Y; Han, J; De Vivo, I

    2012-12-01

    current analysis was limited to healthy controls. We also included existing LTL data from a small random sample of women participating in a cognitive sub-study. LTL was measured using the quantitative PCR-based method. Exposure and covariate information are extracted from biennial questionnaires completed by the participants. We found a strong association between paternal age at birth and participant LTL (P = 1.6 × 10(-5)) that remained robust after controlling for indicators of early life SES. Maternal age at birth showed a weak inverse association with participant LTL after adjusting for age at blood collection and paternal age at birth (P = 0.01). We also noted a stronger association between paternal age at birth and participant LTL among premenopausal than among postmenopausal women (P(interaction) = 0.045). However, this observation may be due to chance as premenopausal women represented only 12.6% (N = 535) of the study population and LTL was not correlated with age at menopause, total or estrogen-only hormone therapy (HT) use suggesting that changes in in vivo estrogen exposure do not influence telomere length regulation. The women in our study are not representative of the general US female population, with an underrepresentation of non-white and low social class groups. Although the interaction was not significant, we noted that the paternal age at birth association with offspring LTL appeared weaker among women whose parents did not own their home at the time of the participant's birth. As telomere dynamics may differ among individuals who are most socioeconomically deprived, SES indicators may have more of an influence on the relationship between paternal age at birth and offspring LTL in such populations. As of yet, our and prior studies have not identified childhood or adult characteristics that confound the paternal age at birth association with offspring LTL, supporting the hypothesis that offspring may inherit the longer telomeres found in sperm of older

  18. Paternal obesity is associated with IGF2 hypomethylation in newborns: results from a Newborn Epigenetics Study (NEST) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubry, Adelheid; Schildkraut, Joellen M; Murtha, Amy; Wang, Frances; Huang, Zhiqing; Bernal, Autumn; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Jirtle, Randy L; Murphy, Susan K; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2013-02-06

    Data from epidemiological and animal model studies suggest that nutrition during pregnancy may affect the health status of subsequent generations. These transgenerational effects are now being explained by disruptions at the level of the epigenetic machinery. Besides in vitro environmental exposures, the possible impact on the reprogramming of methylation profiles at imprinted genes at a much earlier time point, such as during spermatogenesis or oogenesis, has not previously been considered. In this study, our aim was to determine associations between preconceptional obesity and DNA methylation profiles in the offspring, particularly at the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of the imprinted Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2) gene. We examined DNA from umbilical cord blood leukocytes from 79 newborns, born between July 2005 and November 2006 at Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC. Their mothers participated in the Newborn Epigenetics Study (NEST) during pregnancy. Parental characteristics were obtained via standardized questionnaires and medical records. DNA methylation patterns at two DMRs were analyzed by bisulfite pyrosequencing; one DMR upstream of IGF2 (IGF2 DMR), and one DMR upstream of the neighboring H19 gene (H19 DMR). Multiple regression models were used to determine potential associations between the offspring's DNA methylation patterns and parental obesity before conception. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m². Hypomethylation at the IGF2 DMR was associated with paternal obesity. Even after adjusting for several maternal and newborn characteristics, we observed a persistent inverse association between DNA methylation in the offspring and paternal obesity (β-coefficient was -5.28, P = 0.003). At the H19 DMR, no significant associations were detected between methylation patterns and paternal obesity. Our data suggest an increase in DNA methylation at the IGF2 and H19 DMRs among newborns from obese mothers, but a larger study

  19. Fathers in Turkey: Paternity Characteristics, Gender Role, Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ünüvar, Perihan

    2017-01-01

    Objective of this study is to examine the correlation the quality of paternity, gender roles and communication skills of fathers. The scores in the scale of supporting developmental tasks were used in order to determine the quality of paternity. The other data collection tools were the BEM sex role inventory and the communication skills inventory.…

  20. Impact of maternal and paternal smoking on birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Sachiko; Naruse, Hiroo; Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Murakoshi, Takeshi; Doi, Hiroyuki; Subramanian, S V

    2017-09-01

    The adverse effects of maternal and paternal smoking on child health have been studied. However, few studies demonstrate the interaction effects of maternal/paternal smoking, and birth outcomes other than birth weight have not been evaluated. The present study examined individual effects of maternal/paternal smoking and their interactions on birth outcomes. A follow-up hospital-based study from pregnancy to delivery was conducted from 1997 to 2010 with parents and newborn infants who delivered at a large hospital in Hamamatsu, Japan. The relationships between smoking and growth were evaluated with logistic regression. The individual effects of maternal smoking are related to low birth weight (LBW), short birth length and small head circumference. The individual effects of paternal smoking are related to short birth length and small head circumference. In the adjusted model, both parents' smoking showed clear associations with LBW (odds ratio [OR] = 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.27) and short birth length (-1 standard deviation [SD] OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.07-1.79; -2 SD OR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.84-4.10). Maternal smoking was significantly associated with birth weight and length, but paternal smoking was not. However, if both parents smoked, the risk of shorter birth length increased. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno D Pires

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship theory proposes that imprinting can evolve due to a conflict between maternal and paternal alleles over resource allocation during seed development. One assumption of this theory is that paternal alleles can regulate seed growth; however, paternal effects on seed size are often very low or non-existent. We demonstrate that there is a pool of cryptic genetic variation in the paternal control of Arabidopsis thaliana seed development. Such cryptic variation can be exposed in seeds that maternally inherit a medea mutation, suggesting that MEA acts as a maternal buffer of paternal effects. Genetic mapping using recombinant inbred lines, and a novel method for the mapping of parent-of-origin effects using whole-genome sequencing of segregant bulks, indicate that there are at least six loci with small, paternal effects on seed development. Together, our analyses reveal the existence of a pool of hidden genetic variation on the paternal control of seed development that is likely shaped by parental conflict.

  2. Intergenerational Comparisons of Paternal Korean Child Rearing Practices and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kwanghee; Honig, Alice Sterling

    2000-01-01

    Explored possible antecedents of paternal child rearing in middle-class, two-parent, Korean families. Found that fathers reported disciplinary practices similar to those of their own fathers. Fathers reported more nurturance and acceptance/flexibility than grandfathers. Paternal job satisfaction, relationship with own mother, and educational…

  3. Religion as a means to assure paternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassmann, Beverly I; Kurapati, Nikhil T; Hug, Brendan F; Burke, Erin E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Karafet, Tatiana M; Hammer, Michael F

    2012-06-19

    The sacred texts of five world religions (Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism) use similar belief systems to set limits on sexual behavior. We propose that this similarity is a shared cultural solution to a biological problem: namely male uncertainty over the paternity of offspring. Furthermore, we propose the hypothesis that religious practices that more strongly regulate female sexuality should be more successful at promoting paternity certainty. Using genetic data on 1,706 father-son pairs, we tested this hypothesis in a traditional African population in which multiple religions (Islam, Christianity, and indigenous) coexist in the same families and villages. We show that the indigenous religion enables males to achieve a significantly (P = 0.019) lower probability of cuckoldry (1.3% versus 2.9%) by enforcing the honest signaling of menstruation, but that all three religions share tenets aimed at the avoidance of extrapair copulation. Our findings provide evidence for high paternity certainty in a traditional African population, and they shed light on the reproductive agendas that underlie religious patriarchy.

  4. Paternal Stimulation and Early Child Development in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joshua; McCoy, Dana Charles; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Salhi, Carmel; Fink, Günther

    2016-10-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between paternal stimulation and children's growth and development, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of paternal stimulation and to assess whether paternal stimulation was associated with early child growth and development. Data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys rounds 4 and 5 were combined across 38 LMICs. The sample comprised 87 286 children aged 3 and 4 years. Paternal stimulation was measured by the number of play and learning activities (up to 6) a father engaged in with his child over the past 3 days. Linear regression models were used to estimate standardized mean differences in height-for-age z-scores and Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI) z-scores across 3 levels of paternal stimulation, after controlling for other caregivers' stimulation and demographic covariates. A total of 47.8% of fathers did not engage in any stimulation activities, whereas 6.4% of fathers engaged in 5 or 6 stimulation activities. Children whose fathers were moderately engaged in stimulation (1-4 activities) showed ECDI scores that were 0.09 SD (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.12 to -0.06) lower than children whose fathers were highly engaged; children whose fathers were unengaged showed ECDI scores that were 0.14 SD lower (95% CI: -0.17 to -0.12). Neither moderate paternal stimulation nor lack of paternal stimulation was associated with height-for-age z-scores, relative to high stimulation. Increasing paternal engagement in stimulation is likely to improve early child development in LMICs. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Investigation of paternity establishing without the putative father using hypervariable DNA probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, T; Odaira, T; Nata, M; Sagisaka, K

    1990-09-01

    Seven kinds of DNA probes which recognize hypervariable loci were applied for paternity test. The putative father was decreased and unavailable for the test. The two legitimate children and their mother (the deceased's wife) and the four illegitimate children and their mother (the deceased's kept mistress) were available for analysis. Paternity index of four illegitimate child was investigated. Allelic frequencies and their confidence intervals among unrelated Japanese individuals were previously reported from our laboratory, and co-dominant segregation of the polymorphism was confirmed in family studies. Cumulative paternity indices of four illegitimate children from 16 kinds of standard blood group markers were 165, 42, 0.09, and 36, respectively. On the other hand, cumulative paternity indices from 7 kinds of DNA probes are 2,363, 4,685, 57,678, and 54,994, respectively, which are 14, 113, 640, 864, and 1,509 times higher than that from standard blood group markers. The DNA analyses gave nearly conclusive evidence that the putative father was the biological father of the children. Especially, the paternity relation of the third illegitimate child could not be established without the DNA analyses. Accordingly, DNA polymorphism is considered to be informative enough for paternity test.

  6. From killer to carer: steroid hormones and paternal behaviour | de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mammalian parental investment (i.e. care of descendant offspring) is largely biased towards maternal contributions due to the specific feeding needs of mammalian offspring; however, varying degrees of paternal investment have been reported in about 10% of all mammalian species. Within the order Carnivora, paternal ...

  7. Bayesian inference on genetic merit under uncertain paternity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tempelman Robert J

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A hierarchical animal model was developed for inference on genetic merit of livestock with uncertain paternity. Fully conditional posterior distributions for fixed and genetic effects, variance components, sire assignments and their probabilities are derived to facilitate a Bayesian inference strategy using MCMC methods. We compared this model to a model based on the Henderson average numerator relationship (ANRM in a simulation study with 10 replicated datasets generated for each of two traits. Trait 1 had a medium heritability (h2 for each of direct and maternal genetic effects whereas Trait 2 had a high h2 attributable only to direct effects. The average posterior probabilities inferred on the true sire were between 1 and 10% larger than the corresponding priors (the inverse of the number of candidate sires in a mating pasture for Trait 1 and between 4 and 13% larger than the corresponding priors for Trait 2. The predicted additive and maternal genetic effects were very similar using both models; however, model choice criteria (Pseudo Bayes Factor and Deviance Information Criterion decisively favored the proposed hierarchical model over the ANRM model.

  8. The effect of pregnancy on paternal skin allograft survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Elucidation of maternal-fetal tolerance mechanisms clarifies the role of regulatory T cells (Treg) in transplant tolerance. This study aim to investigate the effect of pregnancy on paternal skin allograft survival. Flow cytometry techniques, mixed lymphocytes reaction (MLR), PCR, real-time PCR and skin transplantation were key methods. Treg increased significantly from 4.2% before pregnancy to peak at 6.8% day 8 after pregnancy. Both heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) mRNA express high in placenta while low in spleen (P<0.05). Although Treg increased during pregnancy, and splenocytes from the pregnant mice showed lower MLR response toward the paternal stimulator, single time pregnancy showed no significant protective effect on paternal skin allograft survival in the tested condition.

  9. Paternal exposure and counselling: experience of a Teratology Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Marco; Cesari, Elena; Cavaliere, Annafranca; Ligato, Maria Serena; Nobili, Elena; Visconti, Daniela; Caruso, Alessandro

    2008-09-01

    We describe paternal exposure and counselling in a selected population calling to an Italian Teratology Information Service (TIS). The majority of callers asked for paternal drug exposure (76%, drugs except chemotherapy) and treatment for cancer (17%, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy). Others asked for exposure to diagnostic radiations (4%), recreational drugs (2%) and occupational chemicals (1%). Among paternal drugs neurological compounds, immunosuppressive drugs and antiviral agents were the main reasons for calling. In humans, there are no evidences of birth defects after paternal exposures, but to minimize any possible risk, counselling in men exposed to radio and chemotherapy should recommend delaying conception for at least 3 months after the end of the therapy. Male patients treated with drugs, whose teratogenic potential has been well assessed or suspected for maternal exposure, should be advised to practice effective birth control during therapy and up to one or two cycles of spermatogenesis and to avoid semen contact with vaginal walls during first trimester of pregnancy.

  10. Psychosocial factors associated with paternal postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontigny, Francine; Girard, Marie-Eve; Lacharité, Carl; Dubeau, Diane; Devault, Annie

    2013-08-15

    While maternal postpartum depression is a well-known phenomenon, paternal postnatal depression has been less studied. It is known that paternal postnatal depression impacts on children's and families' development, affects marital satisfaction and affects the economic health of industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to identify the psychosocial factors associated with paternal postnatal depression. A descriptive-correlational study was conducted with a sample of fathers of infants (average age: 11 months) who were breastfed exclusively or predominantly for at least 6 months, comparing psychosocial factors in fathers with (n: 17, 8.2%) and without a positive score for depression on the EPDS scale (n: 188). Psychosocial factors were assessed through questionnaires. Depression in fathers of breastfed infants is associated with the experience of perinatal loss in a previous pregnancy, parenting distress, infant temperament (difficult child), dysfunctional interactions with the child, decreased marital adjustment and perceived low parenting efficacy. Multivariate analysis suggests an independent effect of psychosocial factors such as parenting distress, quality of the marital relationship and perceived parenting efficacy on paternal depression. The sample focused on fathers of breastfed infant, since breastfeeding has become the feeding norm, and this should be taken into account when considering the generalization of findings. These findings emphasize the need to consider a set of psychosocial factors when examining fathers' mental health in the first year of a child's birth. Health professionals can enhance parenting efficacy and alleviate parenting distress by supporting fathers' unique experiences and addressing their needs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Associations Between Paternal Responsiveness and Stress Responsiveness in the Biparental California Mouse, Peromyscus californicus

    OpenAIRE

    Chauke, Miyetani

    2012-01-01

    The mechanistic basis of paternal behavior in mammals is poorly understood. Assuming there are parallels between the factors mediating maternal and paternal behavior, it can be expected that the onset of paternal behavior is facilitated by reductions in stress responsiveness, as occurs in females of several mammalian species. This dissertation describes studies investigating the role of stress responsiveness in the expression of paternal behavior in biparental, monogamous California mice (Per...

  12. Regulatory role of prolactin in paternal behavior in male parents: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hashemian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In all mammalian species, a combination of neuroendocrine and experiential factors contributes to the emergence of remarkable behavioral changes observed in parental behavior. Yet, our understanding of neuroendocrine bases of paternal behavior in humans is still preliminary and more research is needed in this area. In the present review, the authors summarized hormonal bases of paternal behavior in both human and nonhuman mammalian species and focused on studies on the regulatory role of prolactin in occurrence of paternal behavior. All peer-reviewed journal articles published before 2015 for each area discussed (parental brain, hormonal bases of maternal behavior, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in nonhuman mammalian species, hormonal bases of paternal behavior and the role of prolactin in regulation of paternal behavior in humans were searched by PubMed, Medline, and Scopus for original research and review articles. Publications between 1973 and 2015 were included. Similar to female parents, elevated prolactin levels in new fathers most probably contribute to child-caring behavior and facilitate behavioral and emotional states attributed to child care. Moreover, elevated parental prolactin levels after childbirth decrease the parents′ libidos so that they invest more in parental care than in fertility behavior. According to the available clinical studies, elevation in the amounts of prolactin levels after childbirth in male parents are probably associated with paternal behavior observed in humans.

  13. Paternal Autonomy Restriction, Neighborhood Safety, and Child Anxiety Trajectory in Community Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Vince, Christine E.; Chan, Priscilla T.; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    Intrusive parenting, primarily examined among middle to upper-middle class mothers, has been positively associated with the presence and severity of anxiety in children. This study employed cross-sectional linear regression and longitudinal latent growth curve analyses to evaluate the main and interactive effects of early childhood paternal autonomy restriction (AR) and neighborhood safety (NS) on the trajectory of child anxiety in a sample of 596 community children and fathers from the NICHD SECYD. Longitudinal analyses revealed that greater paternal AR at age 6 was actually associated with greater decreases in child anxiety in later childhood. Cross-sectional analyses revealed main effects for NS across childhood, and interactive effects of paternal AR and NS that were present only in early childhood, whereby children living in safer neighborhoods demonstrated increased anxiety when experiencing lower levels of paternal AR. Findings further clarify for whom and when paternal AR impacts child anxiety in community youth. PMID:25242837

  14. Paternal Autonomy Restriction, Neighborhood Safety, and Child Anxiety Trajectory in Community Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Vince, Christine E; Chan, Priscilla T; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2014-07-01

    Intrusive parenting, primarily examined among middle to upper-middle class mothers, has been positively associated with the presence and severity of anxiety in children. This study employed cross-sectional linear regression and longitudinal latent growth curve analyses to evaluate the main and interactive effects of early childhood paternal autonomy restriction (AR) and neighborhood safety (NS) on the trajectory of child anxiety in a sample of 596 community children and fathers from the NICHD SECYD. Longitudinal analyses revealed that greater paternal AR at age 6 was actually associated with greater decreases in child anxiety in later childhood. Cross-sectional analyses revealed main effects for NS across childhood, and interactive effects of paternal AR and NS that were present only in early childhood, whereby children living in safer neighborhoods demonstrated increased anxiety when experiencing lower levels of paternal AR. Findings further clarify for whom and when paternal AR impacts child anxiety in community youth.

  15. Nudging towards nutrition? Soft paternalism and obesity-related reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most contentious issues facing the United States today. Some researchers warn of an obesity "epidemic" that poses a grave threat to our nation's health, while others attack these claims as alarmist and misguided. This divide reinforces the political schism between advocates of government intervention and anti-regulatory groups. As a result, obesity science finds itself entangled in partisan battles that leave little room for compromise. This paper explores the potential for the political philosophy of soft paternalism to provide a regulatory framework that may appeal to both sides of the obesity reform debate. Soft paternalism draws upon social science research in order to develop policies that encourage better decision-making, while preserving individual choice. Applying this framework to the issue of obesity, I look at two areas of potential reform: 1) information-based policies such as nutritional label design, and 2) policies that affect default choices, such as portion size norms. I find that while soft paternalism is an appealing framework that offers many promising reforms, it is not a panacea. Instead, I argue that these proposals should be considered on their own merit, not as a complete solution precluding other measures. In addition, in light of potential criticism concerning the stigmatizing effect of some obesity-related measures, I suggest that reforms based on soft paternalism can and should be tailored to promote more mindful eating habits. With these concerns in mind, I conclude that soft paternalism is a promising approach that warrants serious consideration by policymakers.

  16. The Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome in adulthood: Evaluation of a 24-year-old man with a rec(4) chromosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogle, R.; Sillence, D.O.; Merrick, A. [Children`s Hospital, Summer Hill, NSW (Australia)] [and others

    1996-10-16

    We describe a profoundly intellectually disabled 24-year-old man with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome, left hemiplegia, epilepsy, atrophy of the right cerebral hemisphere, and dilatation of the right ventricle. The patient had a small ventricular septal defect, was wheelchair bound, and totally dependent. He had no speech, but vocalized to show his feelings. In this patient, the del(4)(p15) was subtle and arose due to the inheritance of a recombinant chromosome (4) from a maternal pericentric inversion - 46,XX,inv(4)(p15.32q35). Fluorescence in situ hybridization with probe D4S96 confirmed the deletion. This is the second case of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome resulting from a large pericentric inversion of chromosome 4. 14 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Implications of advancing paternal age: does it affect offspring school performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C Svensson

    Full Text Available Average paternal age is increasing in many high income countries, but the implications of this demographic shift for child health and welfare are poorly understood. There is equivocal evidence that children of older fathers are at increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced IQ. We therefore report here on the relationship between paternal age and a composite indicator of scholastic achievement during adolescence, i.e. compulsory school leaving grades, among recent birth cohorts in Stockholm County where delayed paternity is notably common. We performed a record-linkage study comprising all individuals in Stockholm County who finished 9 years of compulsory school from 2000 through 2007 (n = 155,875. Data on school leaving grades and parental characteristics were retrieved from administrative and health service registers and analyzed using multiple linear regression. Advancing paternal age at birth was not associated with a decrease in school leaving grades in adolescent offspring. After adjustment for year of graduation, maternal age and parental education, country of birth and parental mental health service use, offspring of fathers aged 50 years or older had on average 0.3 (95% CI -3.8, 4.4 points higher grades than those of fathers aged 30-34 years. In conclusion, advancing paternal age is not associated with poorer school performance in adolescence. Adverse effects of delayed paternity on offspring cognitive function, if any, may be counterbalanced by other potential advantages for children born to older fathers.

  18. Paternal identity impacts embryonic development for two species of freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Linhart, Otomar; Krejszeff, Sławomir; Żarski, Daniel; Pitcher, Trevor E; Politis, Sebastian Nikitas; Butts, Ian Anthony Ernest

    2017-05-01

    Paternal, compared to maternal, contributions were believed to have only a limited influence on embryonic development and larval fitness traits in fishes. Therefore, the perspective of male influence on early life history traits has come under scrutiny. This study was conducted to determine parental effects on the rate of eyed embryos of Ide Leuciscus idus and Northern pike Esox lucius. Five sires and five dams from each species were crossed using a quantitative genetic breeding design and the resulting 25 sib groups of each species were reared to the embryonic eyed stage. We then partition variation in embryonic phenotypic performance to maternal, paternal, and parental interactions using the Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) model. Results showed that paternal, maternal, and the paternal×maternal interaction terms were highly significant for both species; clearly demonstrating that certain family combinations were more compatible than others. Paternal effects explained 20.24% of the total variance, which was 2-fold higher than the maternal effects (10.73%) in Ide, while paternal effects explained 18.9% of the total variance, which was 15-fold higher than the maternal effects (1.3%) in Northern pike. Together, these results indicate that male effects are of major importance during embryonic development for these species. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that genetic compatibility between sires and dams plays an important role and needs to be taken into consideration for reproduction of these and likely other economically important fish species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The certainty that engendered doubt: paternity and DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fonseca

    Full Text Available There has been a surge in the use of DNA paternity tests in Brazil in both private and government laboratories. This raises interesting questions about the influence of the medical and legal spheres on gender and kinship relations in contemporary society. To analyze this phenomenon, we conducted research and observations in various government agencies in Porto Alegre (the Public Defender's office, Mediation Hearings, Family Court and the Court's Medical Service of people involved in legal disputes over paternal identification. We also studied how recent changes in the laws concerning paternal recognition are applied by the different personalities on the scene. Based on this data, we present the hypothesis that far from inspiring greater tranquility, the simple existence of the test instigates doubt. This has profound repercussions on our form of "knowing" who is the father. The situation described in this paper raises new challenges for an anthropology of knowledge, which focuses on an analysis of Western beliefs - including scientific ones.

  20. The causal effect of paternal unemployment on children's personality

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, Viola; Bertoni, Marco; Corazzini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), we show that paternal unemployment has a surprisingly positive causal effect on the "Big 5" personality traits of children aged 17 to 25. In particular, our results from longitudinal value-added models for personality suggest that paternal unemployment makes children significantly more conscientious and less neurotic. Our results are robust to different estimation methods and to selection on unobservables. Furthermore, these...

  1. The Impact of Paternal and Maternal Smoking on Semen Quality of Adolescent Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Jonatan; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Silfver, Karl Ågren; Stenqvist, Amelie; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been reported to negatively impact sperm counts of the sons. Sufficient data on the effect of paternal smoking is lacking. We wished to elucidate the impact of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy and current own smoking on reproductive function of the male offspring. Semen parameters including sperm DNA integrity were analyzed in 295 adolescents from the general population close to Malmö, Sweden, recruited for the study during 2008-2010. Information on maternal smoking was obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, and regarding own and paternal smoking from questionnaires. The impacts of maternal, paternal and own smoking were evaluated in a multivariate regression model and by use of models including interaction terms. Totally, three exposures and five outcomes were evaluated. In maternally unexposed men, paternal smoking was associated with 46% lower total sperm count (95%CI: 21%, 64%) in maternally unexposed men. Both paternal and maternal smoking were associated with a lower sperm concentration (mean differences: 35%; 95%CI: 8.1%, 55% and 36%; 95%CI: 3.9%, 57%, respectively) if the other parent was a non-smoker. No statistically significant impact of own smoking on semen parameters was seen. Prenatal both maternal and paternal smoking were separately associated with some decrease in sperm count in men of whom the other parent was not reported to smoke.

  2. The Impact of Paternal and Maternal Smoking on Semen Quality of Adolescent Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Axelsson

    Full Text Available Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been reported to negatively impact sperm counts of the sons. Sufficient data on the effect of paternal smoking is lacking.We wished to elucidate the impact of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy and current own smoking on reproductive function of the male offspring.Semen parameters including sperm DNA integrity were analyzed in 295 adolescents from the general population close to Malmö, Sweden, recruited for the study during 2008-2010. Information on maternal smoking was obtained from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, and regarding own and paternal smoking from questionnaires. The impacts of maternal, paternal and own smoking were evaluated in a multivariate regression model and by use of models including interaction terms. Totally, three exposures and five outcomes were evaluated.In maternally unexposed men, paternal smoking was associated with 46% lower total sperm count (95%CI: 21%, 64% in maternally unexposed men. Both paternal and maternal smoking were associated with a lower sperm concentration (mean differences: 35%; 95%CI: 8.1%, 55% and 36%; 95%CI: 3.9%, 57%, respectively if the other parent was a non-smoker. No statistically significant impact of own smoking on semen parameters was seen.Prenatal both maternal and paternal smoking were separately associated with some decrease in sperm count in men of whom the other parent was not reported to smoke.

  3. Multiple ways to prevent transmission of paternal mitochondrial DNA for maternal inheritance in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ken; Sato, Miyuki

    2017-10-01

    Mitochondria contain their own DNA (mtDNA). In most sexually reproducing organisms, mtDNA is inherited maternally (uniparentally); this type of inheritance is thus referred to as 'maternal (uniparental) inheritance'. Recent studies have revealed various mechanisms to prevent the transmission of sperm-derived paternal mtDNA to the offspring, thereby ensuring maternal inheritance of mtDNA. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, paternal mitochondria and their mtDNA degenerate almost immediately after fertilization and are selectively degraded by autophagy, which is referred to as 'allophagy' (allogeneic [non-self] organelle autophagy). In the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, paternal mtDNA is largely eliminated by an endonuclease G-mediated mechanism. Paternal mitochondria are subsequently removed by endocytic and autophagic pathways after fertilization. In many mammals, including humans, paternal mitochondria enter fertilized eggs. However, the fate of paternal mitochondria and their mtDNA in mammals is still a matter of debate. In this review, we will summarize recent knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying the prevention of paternal mtDNA transmission, which ensures maternal mtDNA inheritance in animals. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Paternal and maternal age at pregnancy and autism spectrum disorders in offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luh Putu Rihayani Budi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs has increased 10 times over the past half century, while paternal and maternal age at pregnancy has also increased. Studies looking for an association between paternal or maternal age at pregnancy and ASDs in offspring have not been conclusive. Objective To assess for possible associations between paternal and maternal age at pregnancy and ASDs in offspring. Methods This case-control study had 50 case and 100 control subjects, each case was matched for age and gender to two controls. Case subjects were obtained by consecutive sampling of patients aged 18 months to 7 years who visited the Developmental Behavioral & Community Pediatrics Outpatient Clinic and private growth and development centers from January to April 2013, while control group were children of the same age range and same gender who visited pediatric outpatient clinic at Sanglah Hospital mostly due to acute respiratory tract infection, without ASDs as assessed by the DSM-IV-TR criteria. We interviewed parents to collect the following data: maternal and paternal age at pregnancy, child’s birth weight, history of asphyxia, hospital admission during the neonatal period, pathological labor, maternal smoking during pregnancy, paternal smoking, and gestational age. Data analysis was performed with Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Results Multivariable analysis showed that higher paternal age at pregnancy was associated with ASDs in offspring (OR 6.3; 95%CI 2.0 to 19.3; P 0.001. However, there was no significant association between maternal age during pregnancy and the incidence of ASDs. Asphyxia and paternal smoking were also associated with higher incidence of ASDs in the offspring (OR 10.3; 95%CI 1.9 to 56.5; P 0.007 and OR 3.2; 95%CI 1.5 to 6.9; P 0.003, respectively. Conclusion Paternal age >=40 years increased the risk of ASDs in offspring by 6.3 times. In addition, paternal smoking increased the risk of ASDs in

  5. Paternity leave in Sweden: costs, savings and health gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lindholm, Lars; Winkvist, Anna

    2007-06-01

    The initial objective is to examine the relationship between paternity leave in 1978-1979 and male mortality during 1981-2001, and the second objective is to calculate the cost-effectiveness of the 1974 parental insurance reform in Sweden. Based on a population of all Swedish couples who had their first child together in 1978 (45,801 males), the risk of death for men who took paternity leave, compared with men who did not, was estimated by odds ratios. The cost-effectiveness analysis considered costs for information, administration and production losses, minus savings due to decreased sickness leave and inpatient care, compared to health gains in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). It is demonstrated that fathers who took paternity leave have a statistically significant decreased death risk of 16%. Costs minus savings (discounted values) stretch from a net cost of EUR 19 million to a net saving of EUR 11 million, and the base case cost-effectiveness is EUR 8000 per QALY. The study indicates that that the right to paternity leave is a desirable reform based on commonly stated public health, economic, and feminist goals. The critical issue in future research should be to examine impact from health-related selection.

  6. Effect of paternal age in achondroplasia, thanatophoric dysplasia, and osteogenesis imperfecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orioli, I.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Castilla, E.E. [Centro de Educacion Medica e Investigacion Clinica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Scarano, G.; Mastroiacovo, P. [Universita Cattolica, Rome (Italy)

    1995-11-06

    The paternal ages of nonfamilial cases of achondroplasia (AC) (n = 78), thanatophoric dysplasia (TD) (n = 64), and osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) (n = 106), were compared with those of matched controls, from an Italian Indagine Policentrica Italiana sulle Malformazioni Congenite (IPIMC) and a South American Estudio Colaborativo Latinoamericano de Malformaciones Congenitas (ECLAMC) series. The degree of paternal age effect on the origin of these dominant mutations differed among the three conditions. Mean paternal age was highly elevated in AC, 36.30 {plus_minus} 6.74 years in the IPIMC, and 37.19 {plus_minus} 10.53 years in the ECLAMC; less consistently elevated in TD, 33.60 {plus_minus} 7.08 years in the IPIMC, and 36.41 {plus_minus} 9.38 years in the ECLAMC; and only slightly elevated in OI in the ECLAMC, 31.15 {plus_minus} 9.25 years, but not in the IPIMC, 32.26 {plus_minus} 6.07 years. Increased maternal age or birth order in these conditions disappeared when corrected for paternal age. Approximately 50% of AC and TD cases, and only 30% of OI cases, were born to fathers above age 35 years. For AC and TD, the increase in relative incidence with paternal age fitted an exponential curve. The variability of paternal age effect in these new mutations could be due, among other reasons, to the high proportion of germ-line mosaicism in OI parents, or to the localization of the AC gene, mapped to the 4p16.3 region, in the neighborhood of an unstable DNA area. 28 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  7. A new derived and highly polymorphic chromosomal race of Liolaemus monticola (Iguanidae) from the 'Norte Chico' of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamborot, M

    1998-06-01

    A multiple Robertsonian fission chromosomal race of the Liolaemus monticola complex in Chile is described and is shown to be the most derived and the most complex among the Liolaemus examined thus far. The 29 karyotyped lizards analysed from the locality of Mina Hierro Viejo, Petorca, Provincia de Valparaiso, Chile, exhibited a diploid chromosomal number ranging from 42 to 44, and several polymorphisms. The polymorphisms included: a pair 1 fission; a pair 2 fission plus a pericentric inversion in one of the fission products, which moved the NOR and satellite from the tip of the long arm of the metacentric 2 to the short arm of the fission product; a fission in pair 3; a polymorphism for an enlarged chromosome pair 6; and a polymorphism for a pericentric inversion in pair 7. This population is fixed for a fission of chromosome pair 4. A total of 76% of the lizards analysed were polymorphic for one or more pairs of chromosomes. We have compared these data with other Liolaemus monticola chromosomal races and calculated the Hardy-Weinberg ratios for the polymorphic chromosome pairs in this Multiple-Fission race. Karyotypic differences between the Northern (2n = 38-40) and the Multiple-Fission (2n = 42-44) races were attributed mainly to Robertsonian fissions, an enlarged chromosome and pericentric inversions involving the macrochromosomes and one microchromosome pair.

  8. PPO.46 Risk of Miscarriage associated with Maternal and Paternal Smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meaney, S.; Corcoran, P.; Lutomski, J.E.; Spillane, N.; O'Donoghue, K.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Maternal smoking has been associated with increased risk of miscarriage. However little is known about the influence of paternal smoking. The study aimed to examine maternal and paternal smoking as risk factors for miscarriage. STUDY DESIGN: A cohort study was conducted in a large,

  9. Elevated paternal glucocorticoid exposure modifies memory retention in female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshurun, Shlomo; Rogers, Jake; Short, Annabel K; Renoir, Thibault; Pang, Terence Y; Hannan, Anthony J

    2017-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that behavioral traits are subject to transgenerational modification by paternal environmental factors. We previously reported on the transgenerational influences of increased paternal stress hormone levels on offspring anxiety and depression-related behaviors. Here, we investigated whether offspring sociability and cognition are also influenced by paternal stress. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were treated with corticosterone (CORT; 25mg/L) for four weeks prior to paired-matings to generate F1 offspring. Paternal CORT treatment was associated with decreased body weights of female offspring and a marked reduction of the male offspring. There were no differences in social behavior of adult F1 offspring in the three-chamber social interaction test. Despite male offspring of CORT-treated fathers displaying hyperactivity in the Y-maze, there was no observable difference in short-term spatial working memory. Spatial learning and memory testing in the Morris water maze revealed that female, but not male, F1 offspring of CORT-treated fathers had impaired memory retention. We used our recently developed methodology to analyze the spatial search strategy of the mice during the learning trials and determined that the impairment could not be attributed to underlying differences in search strategy. These results provide evidence for the impact of paternal corticosterone administration on offspring cognition and complement the cumulative knowledge of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of acquired traits in rodents and humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Paternal obesity is associated with IGF2 hypomethylation in newborns: results from a Newborn Epigenetics Study (NEST cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubry Adelheid

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from epidemiological and animal model studies suggest that nutrition during pregnancy may affect the health status of subsequent generations. These transgenerational effects are now being explained by disruptions at the level of the epigenetic machinery. Besides in vitro environmental exposures, the possible impact on the reprogramming of methylation profiles at imprinted genes at a much earlier time point, such as during spermatogenesis or oogenesis, has not previously been considered. In this study, our aim was to determine associations between preconceptional obesity and DNA methylation profiles in the offspring, particularly at the differentially methylated regions (DMRs of the imprinted Insulin-like Growth Factor 2 (IGF2 gene. Methods We examined DNA from umbilical cord blood leukocytes from 79 newborns, born between July 2005 and November 2006 at Duke University Hospital, Durham, NC. Their mothers participated in the Newborn Epigenetics Study (NEST during pregnancy. Parental characteristics were obtained via standardized questionnaires and medical records. DNA methylation patterns at two DMRs were analyzed by bisulfite pyrosequencing; one DMR upstream of IGF2 (IGF2 DMR, and one DMR upstream of the neighboring H19 gene (H19 DMR. Multiple regression models were used to determine potential associations between the offspring's DNA methylation patterns and parental obesity before conception. Obesity was defined as body mass index (BMI ≥30 kg/m2. Results Hypomethylation at the IGF2 DMR was associated with paternal obesity. Even after adjusting for several maternal and newborn characteristics, we observed a persistent inverse association between DNA methylation in the offspring and paternal obesity (β-coefficient was -5.28, P = 0.003. At the H19 DMR, no significant associations were detected between methylation patterns and paternal obesity. Our data suggest an increase in DNA methylation at the IGF2 and H19 DMRs among

  11. Contracts and Capabilities: An Evolutionary Perspective on the Autonomy-Paternalism Debate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Deakin (Simon)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAn evolutionary conception of contract law is suggested as a basis for assessing claims made in the autonomy-paternalism debate. Paternalism forms one part – although by no means the whole – of a discriminating approach to contract enforcement. Selective enforcement is a long-standing

  12. Teenage pregnancy and the influence of paternal involvement on fetal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alio, Amina P; Mbah, Alfred K; Grunsten, Ryan A; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2011-12-01

    We sought to assess the impact of paternal involvement on adverse birth outcomes in teenage mothers. Using vital records data, we generated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to assess the association between paternal involvement and fetal outcomes in 192,747 teenage mothers. Paternal involvement status was based on presence/absence of paternal first and/or last name on the birth certificate. Data were obtained from vital records data from singleton births in Florida between 1998 and 2007. The study population consisted of 192,747 teenage mothers ≤ 20 years old with live single births in the State of Florida. Low birth weight, very low birth weight, preterm birth, very preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA), neonatal death, post-neonatal death, and infant death. Risks of SGA (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 1.03-1.10), low birth weight (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.15-1.23), very low birth weight (OR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.41-1.67), preterm birth (OR = 1.21; 95% CI: 1.17-1.25), and very preterm birth (OR = 1.49; 95% CI: 1.38-1.62) were elevated for mothers in the father-absent group. When results were stratified by race, black teenagers in the father-absent group had the highest risks of adverse birth outcomes when compared to white teenagers in the father-involved group. Lack of paternal involvement is a risk factor for adverse birth outcomes among teenage mothers; risks are most pronounced among African-American teenagers. Our findings suggest that increased paternal involvement can have a positive impact on birth outcomes for teenage mothers, which may be important for decreasing the racial disparities in infant morbidities. More studies assessing the impact of greater paternal involvement on birth outcomes are needed. Copyright © 2011 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Shared decision making, paternalism and patient choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandman, Lars; Munthe, Christian

    2010-03-01

    In patient centred care, shared decision making is a central feature and widely referred to as a norm for patient centred medical consultation. However, it is far from clear how to distinguish SDM from standard models and ideals for medical decision making, such as paternalism and patient choice, and e.g., whether paternalism and patient choice can involve a greater degree of the sort of sharing involved in SDM and still retain their essential features. In the article, different versions of SDM are explored, versions compatible with paternalism and patient choice as well as versions that go beyond these traditional decision making models. Whenever SDM is discussed or introduced it is of importance to be clear over which of these different versions are being pursued, since they connect to basic values and ideals of health care in different ways. It is further argued that we have reason to pursue versions of SDM involving, what is called, a high level dynamics in medical decision-making. This leaves four alternative models to choose between depending on how we balance between the values of patient best interest, patient autonomy, and an effective decision in terms of patient compliance or adherence: Shared Rational Deliberative Patient Choice, Shared Rational Deliberative Paternalism, Shared Rational Deliberative Joint Decision, and Professionally Driven Best Interest Compromise. In relation to these models it is argued that we ideally should use the Shared Rational Deliberative Joint Decision model. However, when the patient and professional fail to reach consensus we will have reason to pursue the Professionally Driven Best Interest Compromise model since this will best harmonise between the different values at stake: patient best interest, patient autonomy, patient adherence and a continued care relationship.

  14. Chimerism representing both paternal alleles detected by HLA typing before kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mette; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Møller, Bjarne Kuno

    2014-01-01

    trisomy 6p or by chimerism. Flow cytometric analysis, employing antibodies specific for the two paternal HLA-A alleles, clearly showed two distinct populations of cells: 83% expressing HLA-A11 and 12% expressing HLA-A2, suggesting a paternal chimerism. We are studying these cell populations to possibly...... identify the mechanism behind this rather unusual paternally derived chimerism. This exceptional case illustrates that careful scrutiny of HLA-typing results may produce atypical conclusions. Clinically, the father is considered the best donor based on immunogenetics....

  15. Low birthweight and prematurity in relation to paternal factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Olsen, Jørn; Christensen, Kaare

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of paternal determinants in the occurrence of low birthweight and prematurity is not well known. We investigated these outcomes in siblings and paternal half siblings as a function of changes in putative external determinants between two births in fathers who had...... experienced the birth of a premature and/or low birthweight (PTB/LBW) infant. METHODS: All fathers who, between 1980 and 1992, had an infant born before 37 completed weeks' gestation or weighing

  16. Human mutagens: evidence from paternal exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narod, S.A.; Douglas, G.R.; Nestmann, E.R.; Blakey, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The importance of inherited mutations as a cause of human disease has been established clearly through examples of well-defined genetic anomalies, such as Down syndrome and retinoblastoma. Furthermore, it is suspected that environmental contaminants induce mutations resulting in increased risk for such defects in subsequent generations of persons exposed. The present lack of direct evidence for induced inherited genetic disorders in human beings hampers the development of risk estimation techniques for extrapolation from animal models. The most extensive prospective epidemiologic studies of inherited genetic effects have involved survivors of atomic bomb detonations and patients treated with cancer chemotherapy. In neither case has a significant elevation in inherited genetic effects or cancer been detected in the offspring of exposed individuals. Epidemiologic studies of subjects receiving chronic exposure may be confounded by the effect of maternal exposure during pregnancy. Consideration of only paternal exposure can minimize the confounding influence of teratogenicity, enhancing the resolving power of studies for inherited effects. Using this approach, retrospective (case-control) studies of childhood cancer patients have provided limited but suggestive evidence for inheritance of induced effects. Endpoints, such as congenital malformations and spontaneous abortion following paternal exposure, can also be considered as indicators of heritable mutagenic effects. For example, there is limited evidence suggesting that paternal exposure to anaesthetic gases may cause miscarriage and congenital abnormalities as a result of induced male germ cell mutations. 104 references

  17. Fathers and Asthma Care: Paternal Involvement, Beliefs, and Management Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Deborah; Masek, Bruce; Barreto, Esteban; Baer, Lee; Lapey, Allen; Budge, Eduardo; McQuaid, Elizabeth L

    2015-09-01

    To compare asthma care roles of maternal and paternal caregivers, and examine associations between caregiver involvement and the outcomes of adherence, morbidity, and parental quality of life (QoL). Mothers and fathers in 63 families of children, ages 5-9 years, with persistent asthma completed semistructured interviews and questionnaires. Adherence was measured via electronic monitoring. Paired t tests compared parental asthma care roles, and analysis of covariance, controlling for socioeconomic status, evaluated associations of asthma outcomes with caregiver involvement scores. Mothers had higher scores on measures of involvement, beliefs in medication necessity, and on four subscales of the Family Asthma Management System Scale interview (Asthma Knowledge, Relationship with Provider, Symptom Assessment, and Response to Symptoms). Maternal QoL was lowest when both maternal and paternal involvement was high. Paternal involvement was associated with increased morbidity. There is room for enhancement of fathers' asthma care roles. Higher levels of paternal involvement may be driven by family need. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The association between paternal sensitivity and infant-father attachment security: a meta-analysis of three decades of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Nicole; Tharner, Anne; Van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Volling, Brenda L; Verhulst, Frank C; Lambregtse-Van den Berg, Mijke P; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-12-01

    For almost three decades, the association between paternal sensitivity and infant-father attachment security has been studied. The first wave of studies on the correlates of infant-father attachment showed a weak association between paternal sensitivity and infant-father attachment security (r = .13, p infant-father attachment based on all studies currently available is presented, and the change over time of the association between paternal sensitivity and infant-father attachment is investigated. Studies using an observational measure of paternal interactive behavior with the infant, and the Strange Situation Procedure to observe the attachment relationship were included. Paternal sensitivity is differentiated from paternal sensitivity combined with stimulation in the interaction with the infant. Higher levels of paternal sensitivity were associated with more infant-father attachment security (r = .12, p attachment security than sensitive interactions without stimulation of play. Despite possible changes in paternal role patterns, we did not find stronger associations between paternal sensitivity and infant attachment in more recent years.

  19. Paternal body mass index (BMI is associated with offspring intrauterine growth in a gender dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Peng Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental alternations leading to fetal programming of cardiovascular diseases in later life have been attributed to maternal factors. However, animal studies showed that paternal obesity may program cardio-metabolic diseases in the offspring. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that paternal BMI may be associated with fetal growth. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed the relationship between paternal body mass index (BMI and birth weight, ultrasound parameters describing the newborn's body shape as well as parameters describing the newborns endocrine system such as cortisol, aldosterone, renin activity and fetal glycated serum protein in a birth cohort of 899 father/mother/child triplets. Since fetal programming is an offspring sex specific process, male and female offspring were analyzed separately. Multivariable regression analyses considering maternal BMI, paternal and maternal age, hypertension during pregnancy, maternal total glycated serum protein, parity and either gestational age (for birth weight or time of ultrasound investigation (for ultrasound parameters as confounding showed that paternal BMI is associated with growth of the male but not female offspring. Paternal BMI correlated with birth parameters of male offspring only: birth weight; biparietal diameter, head circumference; abdominal diameter, abdominal circumference; and pectoral diameter. Cortisol was likewise significantly correlated with paternal BMI in male newborns only. CONCLUSIONS: Paternal BMI affects growth of the male but not female offspring. Paternal BMI may thus represent a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases of male offspring in later life. It remains to be demonstrated whether this is linked to an offspring sex specific paternal programming of cortisol secretion.

  20. Proposed amendments to the legal proposition on establishment of non-marital paternity from 1855

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulauzov Maša M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Proposed amendments to the article 130 of Serbian Civil Code (henceforth: SCC of 1844 regarding establishment of non-marital paternity were scrutinized in this paper. Originally, establishment of non-marital paternity was granted, but with significant restriction that presumed parent could have been declared the father of an illegitimate child only if he had recognized paternity. That is the reason why in 1855 the Supreme Court suggested amendment to the provision concerning determination of paternity. According to proposed modification, evidence that presumed father was on intimate terms with child's mother in the time of conception should have been sufficient for establishment of paternity. As non-marital relationships were condemned in patriarchal Serbian 19th century society, illegitimate children were considered a product of sin and family disgrace. Hence, the Ministry of Justice, the State Council and Prince Aleksandar Karađorđević were not interested in bettering their position by widening possibilities of determination of fatherhood. Subsequently, in 1868 the amendment was passed by which non-marital paternity could not have been established by a court order, subject to certain exceptions (if one raped or abducted a woman, and the time of conception coincided with the time of abduction or rape. Since 1868 paternity could have been determined solely subject to the consent, i.e. recognition of the illegitimate father.

  1. [Influence of paternal age in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, A; Szöke, A; Leboyer, M; Schürhoff, F

    2011-06-01

    Schizophrenia is an aetiologically heterogeneous syndrome, with a strong genetic component. Despite a reduced fertility in this disorder, its prevalence is maintained and could be explained by de novo genetic mutations. Advanced paternal age (APA) is a major source of new mutations in human beings and could thus be associated with an increased risk of developing schizophrenia in offspring. New mutations related to APA have been implicated as a cause of sporadic cases in several autosomal dominant diseases and also in neurodevelopmental diseases, autism, intellectual disabilities, and social functioning. The aim of the present study was to summarize the results of studies investigating the role of APA, and to discuss some interpretations. All relevant studies were identified through the National Library of Medicine (PubMed(®) database). Keywords used for research were "age" and "schizophrenia" linked to "paternal or father". We have identified and analysed eight cohort studies, five case-control studies, two meta-analyses, and one review concerning different father's mutations potentially transmitted, two studies comparing paternal age at conception between sporadic versus familial cases of schizophrenia. All studies selected have been published between 2000 and 2009. After controlling for several confounding factors including maternal age, the relative risk of schizophrenia increased from 1.84 to 4.62 in offspring of fathers with an older age of fatherhood. Mother's age showed no significant effects after adjusting for paternal age. There was a significant association between paternal age and risk of developing schizophrenia, there was a weaker association with psychosis. The results of these different studies are confirmed by two recent meta-analyses which found an increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring of fathers older than 35 years. Two main hypotheses could explain these results. The first one is based on the presence of new mutations in the

  2. Paternal leakage of mitochondrial DNA in experimental crosses of populations of the potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoolahan, Angelique H; Blok, Vivian C; Gibson, Tracey; Dowton, Mark

    2011-12-01

    Animal mtDNA is typically assumed to be maternally inherited. Paternal mtDNA has been shown to be excluded from entering the egg or eliminated post-fertilization in several animals. However, in the contact zones of hybridizing species and populations, the reproductive barriers between hybridizing organisms may not be as efficient at preventing paternal mtDNA inheritance, resulting in paternal leakage. We assessed paternal mtDNA leakage in experimental crosses of populations of a cyst-forming nematode, Globodera pallida. A UK population, Lindley, was crossed with two South American populations, P5A and P4A. Hybridization of these populations was supported by evidence of nuclear DNA from both the maternal and paternal populations in the progeny. To assess paternal mtDNA leakage, a ~3.4 kb non-coding mtDNA region was analyzed in the parental populations and in the progeny. Paternal mtDNA was evident in the progeny of both crosses involving populations P5A and P4A. Further, paternal mtDNA replaced the maternal mtDNA in 22 and 40 % of the hybrid cysts from these crosses, respectively. These results indicate that under appropriate conditions, paternal leakage occurs in the mtDNA of parasitic nematodes, and supports the hypothesis that hybrid zones facilitate paternal leakage. Thus, assumptions of strictly maternal mtDNA inheritance may be frequently violated, particularly when divergent populations interbreed.

  3. Religion, Convention, and Paternal Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, W. Bradford

    2002-01-01

    Examines the influence of religious affiliation and attendance on the involvement of residential fathers in one-on-one activities, dinner with their families, and youth activities and found religious effects for each of these three measures. The study indicates that religion is related to paternal involvement in all three areas that were examined.…

  4. High Correlated Paternity Leads to Negative Effects on Progeny Performance in Two Mediterranean Shrub Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Nora

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic habitat deterioration can promote changes in plant mating systems that subsequently may affect progeny performance, thereby conditioning plant recruitment for the next generation. However, very few studies yet tested mating system parameters other than outcrossing rates; and the direct effects of the genetic diversity of the pollen received by maternal plants (i.e. correlated paternity has often been overlooked. In this study, we investigated the relation between correlated paternity and progeny performance in two common Mediterranean shrubs, Myrtus communis and Pistacia lentiscus. To do so, we collected open-pollinated progeny from selected maternal plants, calculated mating system parameters using microsatellite genotyping and conducted sowing experiments under greenhouse and field conditions. Our results showed that some progeny fitness components were negatively affected by the high correlated paternity of maternal plants. In Myrtus communis, high correlated paternity had a negative effect on the proportion and timing of seedling emergence in the natural field conditions and in the greenhouse sowing experiment, respectively. In Pistacia lentiscus, seedling emergence time under field conditions was also negatively influenced by high correlated paternity and a progeny survival analysis in the field experiment showed greater mortality of seedlings from maternal plants with high correlated paternity. Overall, we found effects of correlated paternity on the progeny performance of Myrtus communis, a self-compatible species. Further, we also detected effects of correlated paternity on the progeny emergence time and survival in Pistacia lentiscus, an obligate outcrossed species. This study represents one of the few existing empirical examples which highlight the influence that correlated paternity may exert on progeny performance in multiple stages during early seedling growth.

  5. Beyond Boys' Bad Behavior: Paternal Incarceration and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Anna R

    2016-12-07

    A growing number of American school-aged children have incarcerated or formally incarcerated parents necessitating a more comprehensive understanding of the intergenerational effects of mass imprisonment. Using the Fragile Families Study, I assess whether having an incarcerated father impacts children's cognitive skill development into middle childhood. While previous studies have primarily found effects for boys' behavior problems, matching models and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that experiencing paternal incarceration by age 9 is associated with lower cognitive skills for both boys and girls and these negative effects hold net of a pre-paternal incarceration measure of child cognitive ability. Moreover, I estimate that paternal incarceration explains between 2 and 15 percent of the Black-White achievement gap at age 9. These findings represent new outcomes of importance and suggest that paternal incarceration may play an even larger role in the production of intergenerational inequalities for American children than previously documented.

  6. Paternal Hostility and Maternal Hostility in European American and African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ed Y; Reeb, Ben T; Martin, Monica J; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L; Conger, Rand D

    2014-06-01

    The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development.

  7. Beyond Boys’ Bad Behavior: Paternal Incarceration and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of American school-aged children have incarcerated or formally incarcerated parents necessitating a more comprehensive understanding of the intergenerational effects of mass imprisonment. Using the Fragile Families Study, I assess whether having an incarcerated father impacts children’s cognitive skill development into middle childhood. While previous studies have primarily found effects for boys’ behavior problems, matching models and sensitivity analyses demonstrate that experiencing paternal incarceration by age 9 is associated with lower cognitive skills for both boys and girls and these negative effects hold net of a pre-paternal incarceration measure of child cognitive ability. Moreover, I estimate that paternal incarceration explains between 2 and 15 percent of the Black-White achievement gap at age 9. These findings represent new outcomes of importance and suggest that paternal incarceration may play an even larger role in the production of intergenerational inequalities for American children than previously documented. PMID:28579646

  8. Paternal depression in the postnatal period and child development: mediators and moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Galve, Leticia; Stein, Alan; Hanington, Lucy; Heron, Jon; Ramchandani, Paul

    2015-02-01

    To explore potential mediating and moderating factors that influence the association between paternal depression in the postnatal period and subsequent child behavioral and emotional problems. A population-based cohort (N = 13,822) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) was recruited during pregnancy. Paternal and maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 8 weeks after the birth of the child. Child outcomes were assessed at 3.5 years by using the Rutter revised preschool scales and at 7 years by using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Path analysis was used to assess hypothesized mediators (ie, depression in the other parent, couple conflict, and paternal noninvolvement) of the associations between both paternal and maternal depression and child outcomes. We also tested for hypothesized moderators (ie, paternal education and antisocial traits). Family factors (maternal depression and couple conflict) mediated two-thirds of the overall association between paternal depression and child outcomes at 3.5 years. Similar findings were seen when children were 7 years old. In contrast, family factors mediated less than one-quarter of the association between maternal depression and child outcomes. There was no evidence of moderating effects of either parental education or antisocial traits. The majority of the association between depression in fathers postnatally and subsequent child behavior is explained by the mediating role of family environment, whereas the association between depression in mothers and child outcomes appears to be better explained by other factors, perhaps including direct mother-infant interaction. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Cues of Paternal Uncertainty and Father to Child Physical Abuse as Reported by Mothers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Gisele Caldas; Nadanovsky, Paulo; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin; Moraes, Claudia Leite; Reichenheim, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Paternity is uncertain, so if paternal feelings evolved to promote fitness, we might expect them to vary in response to variables indicative of paternity probability. We therefore hypothesized that the risk of lapses of paternal affection, including abusive assaults on children, will be exacerbated by cues of non-paternity. Methods:…

  10. Individual variation in paternal responses of virgin male California mice (Peromyscus californicus): behavioral and physiological correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, T.R.; Korosi, A.; Harris, B.N.; Perea-Rodriguez, J.P.; Saltzman, W.

    2012-01-01

    California mice Peromyscus californicus are a rodent species in which fathers provide extensive paternal care; however, behavioral responses of virgin males toward conspecific neonates vary from paternal behavior to tolerance to infanticide. Indirect evidence suggests that paternal responses might

  11. Parental Divorce, Maternal-Paternal Alcohol Problems, and Adult Offspring Lifetime Alcohol Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Alonzo, Dana; Hasin, Deborah S

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime alcohol dependence using data from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime alcohol dependence. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems doubled the likelihood of alcohol dependence. Divorce and history of alcohol problems for both parents tripled the likelihood. Offspring of parental divorce may be more vulnerable to developing alcohol dependence, particularly when one or both parents have alcohol problems.

  12. Discovering misattributed paternity in genetic counselling: different ethical perspectives in two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzo, Pamela; Caenazzo, Luciana; Parker, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    Misattributed paternity or 'false' paternity is when a man is wrongly thought, by himself and possibly by others, to be the biological father of a child. Nowadays, because of the progression of genetics and genomics the possibility of finding misattributed paternity during familial genetic testing has increased. In contrast to other medical information, which pertains primarily to individuals, information obtained by genetic testing and/or pedigree analysis necessarily has implications for other biologically related members in the family. Disclosing or not a misattributed paternity has a number of different biological and social consequences for the people involved. Such an issue presents important ethical and deontological challenges. The debate centres on whether or not to inform the family and, particularly, whom in the family, about the possibility that misattributed paternity might be discovered incidentally, and whether or not it is the duty of the healthcare professional (HCP) to disclose the results and to whom. In this paper, we consider the different perspectives and reported problems, and analyse their cultural, ethical and legal dimensions. We compare the position of HCPs from an Italian and British point of view, particularly their role in genetic counselling. We discuss whether the Oviedo Convention of the Council of Europe (1997) can be seen as a basis for enriching the debate.

  13. Is There an Association between Advanced Paternal Age and Endophenotype Deficit Levels in Schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuang, Debby; Esterberg, Michelle; Braff, David; Calkins, Monica; Cadenhead, Kristin; Dobie, Dorcas; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F.; Greenwood, Tiffany; Gur, Raquel; Gur, Ruben; Horan, William; Lazzeroni, Laura C.; Light, Gregory A.; Millard, Steven P.; Olincy, Ann; Nuechterlein, Keith; Seidman, Larry; Siever, Larry; Silverman, Jeremy; Stone, William; Sprock, Joyce; Sugar, Catherine; Swerdlow, Neal; Tsuang, Ming; Turetsky, Bruce; Radant, Allen

    2014-01-01

    The children of older fathers have increased risks of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and among those who develop these disorders, those with older fathers present with more severe clinical symptoms. However, the influence of advanced paternal age on other important domains related to schizophrenia, such as quantitative endophenotype deficit levels, remains unknown. This study investigated the associations between paternal age and level of endophenotypic impairment in a well-characterized family-based sample from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS). All families included at least one affected subject and one unaffected sibling. Subjects met criteria for schizophrenia (probands; n = 293) or were unaffected first-degree siblings of those probands (n = 382). Paternal age at the time of subjects’ birth was documented. Subjects completed a comprehensive clinical assessment and a battery of tests that measured 16 endophenotypes. After controlling for covariates, potential paternal age–endophenotype associations were analyzed using one model that included probands alone and a second model that included both probands and unaffected siblings. Endophenotype deficits in the Identical Pairs version of the 4-digit Continuous Performance Test and in the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery verbal memory test showed significant associations with paternal age. However, after correcting for multiple comparisons, no endophenotype was significantly associated with paternal age. These findings suggest that factors other than advanced paternal age at birth may account for endophenotypic deficit levels in schizophrenia. PMID:24523888

  14. Is there an association between advanced paternal age and endophenotype deficit levels in schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuang, Debby; Esterberg, Michelle; Braff, David; Calkins, Monica; Cadenhead, Kristin; Dobie, Dorcas; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Greenwood, Tiffany; Gur, Raquel; Gur, Ruben; Horan, William; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Light, Gregory A; Millard, Steven P; Olincy, Ann; Nuechterlein, Keith; Seidman, Larry; Siever, Larry; Silverman, Jeremy; Stone, William; Sprock, Joyce; Sugar, Catherine; Swerdlow, Neal; Tsuang, Ming; Turetsky, Bruce; Radant, Allen

    2014-01-01

    The children of older fathers have increased risks of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and among those who develop these disorders, those with older fathers present with more severe clinical symptoms. However, the influence of advanced paternal age on other important domains related to schizophrenia, such as quantitative endophenotype deficit levels, remains unknown. This study investigated the associations between paternal age and level of endophenotypic impairment in a well-characterized family-based sample from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS). All families included at least one affected subject and one unaffected sibling. Subjects met criteria for schizophrenia (probands; n = 293) or were unaffected first-degree siblings of those probands (n = 382). Paternal age at the time of subjects' birth was documented. Subjects completed a comprehensive clinical assessment and a battery of tests that measured 16 endophenotypes. After controlling for covariates, potential paternal age-endophenotype associations were analyzed using one model that included probands alone and a second model that included both probands and unaffected siblings. Endophenotype deficits in the Identical Pairs version of the 4-digit Continuous Performance Test and in the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery verbal memory test showed significant associations with paternal age. However, after correcting for multiple comparisons, no endophenotype was significantly associated with paternal age. These findings suggest that factors other than advanced paternal age at birth may account for endophenotypic deficit levels in schizophrenia.

  15. Is there an association between advanced paternal age and endophenotype deficit levels in schizophrenia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debby Tsuang

    Full Text Available The children of older fathers have increased risks of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and among those who develop these disorders, those with older fathers present with more severe clinical symptoms. However, the influence of advanced paternal age on other important domains related to schizophrenia, such as quantitative endophenotype deficit levels, remains unknown. This study investigated the associations between paternal age and level of endophenotypic impairment in a well-characterized family-based sample from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia (COGS. All families included at least one affected subject and one unaffected sibling. Subjects met criteria for schizophrenia (probands; n = 293 or were unaffected first-degree siblings of those probands (n = 382. Paternal age at the time of subjects' birth was documented. Subjects completed a comprehensive clinical assessment and a battery of tests that measured 16 endophenotypes. After controlling for covariates, potential paternal age-endophenotype associations were analyzed using one model that included probands alone and a second model that included both probands and unaffected siblings. Endophenotype deficits in the Identical Pairs version of the 4-digit Continuous Performance Test and in the Penn Computerized Neurocognitive Battery verbal memory test showed significant associations with paternal age. However, after correcting for multiple comparisons, no endophenotype was significantly associated with paternal age. These findings suggest that factors other than advanced paternal age at birth may account for endophenotypic deficit levels in schizophrenia.

  16. Testosterone and paternal care in East African foragers and pastoralists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martin N.; Marlowe, Frank W.; Bugumba, Revocatus; Ellison, Peter T.

    2008-01-01

    The ‘challenge hypothesis’ posits that testosterone facilitates reproductive effort (investment in male–male competition and mate-seeking) at the expense of parenting effort (investment in offspring and mates). Multiple studies, primarily in North America, have shown that men in committed relationships, fathers, or both maintain lower levels of testosterone than unpaired men. Data from non-western populations, however, show inconsistent results. We hypothesized that much of this cross-cultural variation can be attributed to differential investment in mating versus parenting effort, even among married fathers. Here, we directly test this idea by comparing two neighbouring Tanzanian groups that exhibit divergent styles of paternal involvement: Hadza foragers and Datoga pastoralists. We predicted that high levels of paternal care by Hadza fathers would be associated with decreased testosterone in comparison with non-fathers, and that no such difference between fathers and non-fathers would be evident in Datoga men, who provide minimal direct paternal care. Twenty-seven Hadza men and 80 Datoga men between the ages of 17 and 60 provided morning and afternoon saliva samples from which testosterone was assayed. Measurements in both populations confirmed these predictions, adding further support to the hypothesis that paternal care is associated with decreased testosterone production in men. PMID:18826936

  17. Transgenerational inheritance of heart disorders caused by paternal bisphenol A exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombó, Marta; Fernández-Díez, Cristina; González-Rojo, Silvia; Navarro, Claudia; Robles, Vanesa; Herráez, María Paz

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor used in manufacturing of plastic devices, resulting in an ubiquitous presence in the environment linked to human infertility, obesity or cardiovascular diseases. Both transcriptome and epigenome modifications lie behind these disorders that might be inherited transgenerationally when affecting germline. To assess potential effects of paternal exposure on offspring development, adult zebrafish males were exposed to BPA during spermatogenesis and mated with non-treated females. Results showed an increase in the rate of heart failures of progeny up to the F2, as well as downregulation of 5 genes involved in cardiac development in F1 embryos. Moreover, BPA causes a decrease in F0 and F1 sperm remnant mRNAs related to early development. Results reveal a paternal inheritance of changes in the insulin signaling pathway due to downregulation of insulin receptor β mRNAs, suggesting a link between BPA male exposure and disruption of cardiogenesis in forthcoming generations. - Highlights: • We examine the effects of adult male exposure to BPA on the progeny (F1 and F2). • Paternal exposure promotes similar cardiac malformations to those caused by direct exposure. • BPA applied during spermatogenesis decrease the insra and insrb transcripts in spermatozoa. • Sperm insrb transcript controls embryonic expression being the downregulation inherited by F1. • Paternal BPA exposure impairs heart development in F1 and F2 disrupting insulin signaling pathway. - Paternal bisphenol A exposure impairs cardiac development throughout generations.

  18. Different implications of paternal and maternal atopy for perinatal IgE production and asthma development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Chiang; Chen, Rong-Fu; Kuo, Ho-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a hereditary disease associated with IgE-mediated reaction. Whether maternal atopy and paternal atopy have different impacts on perinatal IgE production and asthma development remains unclear. This paper reviews and summarizes the effects of maternal and paternal atopy on the developmental aspects of IgE production and asthma. Maternal atopy affects both pre- and postnatal IgE production, whereas paternal atopy mainly affects the latter. Maternally transmitted genes GSTP1 and FceRI-beta are associated with lung function and allergic sensitization, respectively. In IgE production and asthma development, the maternal influence on gene-environment interaction is greater than paternal influence. Maternal, paternal, and/or postnatal environmental modulation of allergic responses have been linked to epigenetic mechanisms, which may be good targets for early prevention of asthma.

  19. Different Implications of Paternal and Maternal Atopy for Perinatal IgE Production and Asthma Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chiang Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a hereditary disease associated with IgE-mediated reaction. Whether maternal atopy and paternal atopy have different impacts on perinatal IgE production and asthma development remains unclear. This paper reviews and summarizes the effects of maternal and paternal atopy on the developmental aspects of IgE production and asthma. Maternal atopy affects both pre- and postnatal IgE production, whereas paternal atopy mainly affects the latter. Maternally transmitted genes GSTP1 and FceRI-beta are associated with lung function and allergic sensitization, respectively. In IgE production and asthma development, the maternal influence on gene-environment interaction is greater than paternal influence. Maternal, paternal, and/or postnatal environmental modulation of allergic responses have been linked to epigenetic mechanisms, which may be good targets for early prevention of asthma.

  20. Association of missing paternal demographics on infant birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika R. Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of fathers in the development of obesity in their offspring remains poorly understood. We evaluated associations of missing paternal demographic information on birth certificates with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Methods Data were from the Linked CENTURY Study, a database linking birth certificate and well-child visit data for 200,258 Massachusetts children from 1980–2008. We categorized participants based on the availability of paternal age, education, or race/ethnicity and maternal marital status on the birth certificate: (1 pregnancies missing paternal data; (2 pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data; and (3 pregnancies involving married women with paternal data. Using linear and logistic regression, we compared differences in smoking during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, birthweight, breastfeeding initiation, and ever recording a weight for length (WFL ≥ the 95th percentile or crossing upwards ≥2 WFL percentiles between 0–24 months among the study groups. Results 11,989 (6.0 % birth certificates were missing paternal data; 31,323 (15.6 % mothers were unmarried. In adjusted analyses, missing paternal data was associated with lower birthweight (β -0.07 kg; 95 % CI: −0.08, −0.05, smoking during pregnancy (AOR 4.40; 95 % CI: 3.97, 4.87, non-initiation of breastfeeding (AOR 0.39; 95 % CI: 0.36, 0.42, and with ever having a WFL ≥ 95th percentile (AOR 1.10; 95 % CI: 1.01, 1.20. Similar associations were noted for pregnancies involving unmarried women with paternal data, but differences were less pronounced. Conclusions Missing paternal data on the birth certificate is associated with perinatal risk factors for childhood obesity. Efforts to understand and reduce obesity risk factors in early life may need to consider paternal factors.

  1. Effects of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched diets on lipid metabolism in periportal and pericentral compartments of female rat liver lobules and the consequences for cell proliferation after partial hepatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noorden, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of a low fat diet or diets enriched with either n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (safflower or fish oil, respectively) on lipid metabolism in periportal and pericentral zones of female rat liver lobules were investigated in relation with cell proliferation after partial

  2. Chinese Preschool Children’s Socioemotional Development: The Effects of Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufen Xing

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the relative prediction and joint effects of maternal and paternal psychological control on children’s socioemotional development. A total of 325 preschool children between the ages of 34 and 57 months (M = 4 years 2 months and their parents participated in the study. Fathers and mothers, respectively, reported their levels of psychological control and mothers evaluated the socioemotional development of children using two indicators (i.e., behavioral problems and prosocial behaviors. The results indicated that the relative predictive effects of maternal and paternal psychological control on children’s socioemotional development differed. Specifically, maternal psychological control was a significant predictor of children’s behavioral problems and prosocial behaviors, whereas the levels of paternal psychological control were unrelated to children’s socioemotional development. With regard to the combined effects of maternal and paternal psychological control, the results of ANOVAs and simple slope analysis both indicated that children would be at risk of behavioral problems as long as they had one highly psychologically controlling parent. High levels of paternal psychological control were associated with increased behavioral problems of children only when maternal psychological control was low. However, the association between maternal psychological control and children’s behavioral behaviors was significant, despite paternal psychological control.

  3. Maternal or paternal suicide and offspring's psychiatric and suicide-attempt hospitalization risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, S Janet; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Runeson, Bo; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas; Wilcox, Holly C

    2010-11-01

    We examined whether the risk for psychiatric morbidity requiring inpatient care was higher for offspring who experienced parental suicide, compared with offspring of fatal accident decedents, and whether the association varied according to the deceased parent's gender. Children and adolescents (0-17 years of age) who experienced maternal (N = 5600) or paternal (N = 17,847) suicide in 1973-2003 in Sweden were identified by using national, longitudinal, population-based registries. Cox regression modeling was used to compare psychiatric hospitalization risks among offspring of suicide decedents and propensity score-matched offspring of accident decedents. Offspring of maternal suicide decedents had increased risk of suicide-attempt hospitalization, after controlling for psychiatric hospitalization for decedents and surviving parents, compared with offspring of maternal accidental decedents. Offspring of paternal suicide decedents had similar risk of suicide-attempt hospitalization, compared with offspring of accident decedents, but had increased risk of hospitalization attributable to depressive and anxiety disorders. The magnitude of risks for offspring suicide-attempt hospitalization was greater for those who experienced maternal versus paternal suicide, compared with their respective control offspring (interaction P = .05; offspring of maternal decedents, adjusted hazard ratio: 1.80 [95% confidence interval: 1.19-2.74]; offspring of paternal decedents, adjusted hazard ratio: 1.14 [95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.35]). Maternal suicide is associated with increased risk of suicide-attempt hospitalization for offspring, beyond the risk associated with maternal accidental death. However, paternal suicide is not associated with suicide-attempt hospitalization. Future studies should examine factors that might differ between offspring who experience maternal versus paternal suicide, including genetic or early environmental determinants.

  4. Mutation risk associated with paternal and maternal age in a cohort of retinoblastoma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Melissa B; Hudgins, Louanne; Balise, Raymond R; Abramson, David H; Kleinerman, Ruth A

    2012-07-01

    Autosomal dominant conditions are known to be associated with advanced paternal age, and it has been suggested that retinoblastoma (Rb) also exhibits a paternal age effect due to the paternal origin of most new germline RB1 mutations. To further our understanding of the association of parental age and risk of de novo germline RB1 mutations, we evaluated the effect of parental age in a cohort of Rb survivors in the United States. A cohort of 262 Rb patients was retrospectively identified at one institution, and telephone interviews were conducted with parents of 160 survivors (65.3%). We classified Rb survivors into three groups: those with unilateral Rb were classified as sporadic if they had no or unknown family history of Rb, those with bilateral Rb were classified as having a de novo germline mutation if they had no or unknown family history of Rb, and those with unilateral or bilateral Rb, who had a family history of Rb, were classified as familial. We built two sets of nested logistic regression models to detect an increased odds of the de novo germline mutation classification related to older parental age compared to sporadic and familial Rb classifications. The modeling strategy evaluated effects of continuous increasing maternal and paternal age and 5-year age increases adjusted for the age of the other parent. Mean maternal ages for survivors classified as having de novo germline mutations and sporadic Rb were similar (28.3 and 28.5, respectively) as were mean paternal ages (31.9 and 31.2, respectively), and all were significantly higher than the weighted general US population means. In contrast, maternal and paternal ages for familial Rb did not differ significantly from the weighted US general population means. Although we noted no significant differences between mean maternal and paternal ages between each of the three Rb classification groups, we found increased odds of a survivor being in the de novo germline mutation group for each 5-year increase in

  5. Parents' Relative Socioeconomic Status and Paternal Involvement in Chinese Families: The Mediating Role of Coparenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Wu, Xinchun; Zou, Shengqi

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of coparenting in the association between differences/similarities in paternal and maternal socioeconomic status (SES) and paternal involvement in Chinese families. The sample included 244 couples with children aged 3-7 years. Fathers and mothers reported their individual incomes, educational levels, occupations, and coparenting behavior (measured using the Coparenting Scale), and fathers completed the Father Involvement Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine the associations between SES and paternal involvement. Results suggested that SES indicator measures were outcome specific. Occupational differences/similarities were associated with paternal involvement indirectly, via fathers' family integrity practices. Income and educational differences/similarities did not affect paternal involvement. The results suggested that the traditional Chinese view that "men are chiefly responsible for activity in society, while women are responsible for the home" has faded.

  6. 45 CFR 303.5 - Establishment of paternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... paternity in any case involving incest or forcible rape, or in any case in which legal proceedings for... through video or audio equipment, and in writing, of the alternatives to, the legal consequences of, and...

  7. Paternal occupation and birth defects: findings from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desrosiers, T.A.; Herring, A.H.; Shapira, S.K.; Hooiveld, M.; Luben, T.J.; Herdt-Losavio, M.L.; Lin, S.; Olshan, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Several epidemiological studies have suggested that certain paternal occupations may be associated with an increased prevalence of birth defects in offspring. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the authors investigated the association between paternal occupation

  8. Multiple song features are related to paternal effort in common nightingales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Conny; Weiss, Michael; Kipper, Silke

    2015-06-18

    Sexual ornamentation may be related to the degree of paternal care and the 'good-parent' model predicts that male secondary characters honestly advertise paternal investment. In most birds, males are involved in bringing up the young and successful reproduction highly depends on male contribution during breeding. In passerines, male song is indicative of male attributes and for few species it has been shown that song features also signal paternal investment to females. Males of nightingales Luscinia megarhynchos are famous for their elaborate singing but so far there is only little knowledge on the role of male song in intersexual communication, and it is unknown whether male song predicts male parenting abilities. Using RFID technology to record male feeding visits to the nest, we found that nightingale males substantially contribute to chick feeding. Also, we analyzed male nocturnal song with focus on song features that have been shown to signal male quality before. We found that several song features, namely measures of song complexity and song sequencing, were correlated with male feeding rates. Moreover, the combination of these song features had strong predictive power for male contribution to nestling feeding. Since male nightingales are involved in chick rearing, paternal investment might be a crucial variable for female mate choice in this species. Females may assess future paternal care on the basis of song features identified in our study and thus these features may have evolved to signal direct benefits to females. Additionally we underline the importance of multiple acoustic cues for female mating decisions especially in species with complex song such as the nightingale.

  9. Multiple paternity in polyandrous barn owls (Tyto alba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Henry

    Full Text Available In polyandrous species females produce successive clutches with several males. Female barn owls (Tyto alba often desert their offspring and mate to produce a 2(nd annual brood with a second male. We tested whether copulating during chick rearing at the 1(st annual brood increases the male's likelihood to obtain paternity at the 2(nd annual breeding attempt of his female mate in case she deserts their brood to produce a second brood with a different male. Using molecular paternity analyses we found that 2 out of 26 (8% second annual broods of deserting females contained in total 6 extra-pair young out of 15 nestlings. These young were all sired by the male with whom the female had produced the 1(st annual brood. In contrast, none of the 49 1(st annual breeding attempts (219 offspring and of the 20 2(nd annual breeding attempts (93 offspring of non-deserting females contained extra-pair young. We suggest that female desertion can select male counter-strategies to increase paternity and hence individual fitness. Alternatively, females may copulate with the 1(st male to derive genetic benefits, since he is usually of higher quality than the 2(nd male which is commonly a yearling individual.

  10. The paternal-sex-ratio (PSR) chromosome in natural populations of Nasonia (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukeboom, L.W.; Werren, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    Selfish genetic elements may be important in promoting evolutionary change. Paternal sex ratio (PSR) is a selfish B chromosome that causes all-male families in the haplodiploid parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis, by inducing paternal genome loss in fertilized eggs. The natural distribution and

  11. Sex differences in life history drive evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Hope; Bonsall, Michael B; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2013-04-01

    Evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care have been common in many animal groups. We use a mathematical model to examine the effect of male and female life-history characteristics (stage-specific maturation and mortality) on evolutionary transitions among maternal, paternal, and bi-parental care. When males and females are relatively similar - that is, when females initially invest relatively little into eggs and both sexes have similar mortality and maturation - transitions among different patterns of care are unlikely to be strongly favored. As males and females become more different, transitions are more likely. If females initially invest heavily into eggs and this reduces their expected future reproductive success, transitions to increased maternal care (paternal → maternal, paternal → bi-parental, bi-parental → maternal) are favored. This effect of anisogamy (i.e., the fact that females initially invest more into each individual zygote than males) might help explain the predominance of maternal care in nature and differs from previous work that found no effect of anisogamy on the origin of different sex-specific patterns of care from an ancestral state of no care. When male mortality is high or male egg maturation rate is low, males have reduced future reproductive potential and transitions to increased paternal care (maternal → paternal, bi-parental → paternal, maternal → bi-parental) are favored. Offspring need (i.e., low offspring survival in the absence of care) also plays a role in transitions to paternal care. In general, basic life-history differences between the sexes can drive evolutionary transitions among different sex-specific patterns of care. The finding that simple life-history differences can alone lead to transitions among maternal and paternal care suggests that the effect of inter-sexual life-history differences should be considered as a baseline scenario when attempting to understand how other

  12. Mate guarding in the Seychelles warbler is energetically costly and adjusted to paternity risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komdeur, J

    2001-10-22

    Males may increase their fitness through extra-pair copulations (copulations outside the pair bond) that result in extra-pair fertilizations, but also risk lost paternity when they leave their own mate unguarded. The fitness costs of cuckoldry for Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) are considerable because warblers have a single-egg clutch and, given the short breeding season, no time for a successful replacement clutch. Neighbouring males are the primary threat to a male's genetic paternity. Males minimize their loss of paternity by guarding their mates to prevent them from having extra-pair copulations during their fertile period. Here, I provide experimental evidence that mate-guarding behaviour is energetically costly and that the expression of this trade-off is adjusted to paternity risk (local male density). Free-living males that were induced to reduce mate guarding spent significantly more time foraging and gained significantly better body condition than control males. The larger the reduction in mate guarding, the more pronounced was the increase in foraging and body condition (accounting for food availability). An experimental increase in paternity risk resulted in an increase in mate-guarding intensity and a decrease in foraging and body condition, and vice versa. This is examined using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data. This study on the Seychelles warbler offers experimental evidence that mate guarding is energetically costly and adjusted to paternity risk.

  13. The fate of paternal mitochondria in marmoset pre-implantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetjens, C M; Wesselmann, R

    2008-06-01

    Sperm-derived mitochondria are integrated into the oocyte at fertilization but seem to vanish during the early cleavage phase. The developmental potential of pre-implantation embryos seems to be closely related to their ability to induce degeneration of these mitochondria, but the mechanisms underlying their loss of function are not yet understood. This study focuses on the fate of paternal mitochondria in pre-implantation embryos. Stimulation, collection and in vitro culture of oocytes from Callithrix jacchus, allows the study of the destiny of paternal mitochondria by utilizing immunostaining of pre-implantation embryos, fluorescence and laserscanning microscopy. Live pre-implantation embryos were stained with a fluorescence indicator reflecting mitochondrial membrane potential. Evidence indicating the loss of mitochondrial function was not found nor that apoptosis pathways were involved in the disappearance of paternally derived mitochondria. These findings may have implications for mitochondrially inherited diseases and could lead to new strategies for improving assisted reproduction.

  14. Advanced paternal age increases the risk of schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder in a Chinese Han population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuejing; Liu, Xiang; Luo, Hongrong; Deng, Wei; Zhao, Gaofeng; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Lan; Ma, Xiaohong; Liu, Xiehe; Murray, Robin A; Collier, David A; Li, Tao

    2012-08-15

    Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, patient and non-patient version (SCID-P/NP), this study investigated 351 patients with schizophrenia, 122 with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and 238 unrelated healthy volunteers in a Chinese Han population. The relative risks posed by advanced paternal age for schizophrenia and OCD in offspring were computed under logistic regression analyses and adjusted for the participant's sex, age and co-parent age at birth. Compared to the offspring with paternal age of 25-29 years old, the relative risks rose from 2.660 to 10.183 in the paternal age range of 30-34 and ≥35. The relative risks for OCD increased from 2.225 to 5.413 in 30-34 and ≥35. For offspring with paternal age of maternal age and risk for schizophrenia/OCD was not seen. Interaction analysis showed an interaction effect between paternal age and maternal age at birth. Such a tendency of risk affected by parental age for schizophrenia and OCD existed after splitting out the data of early onset patients. Sex-specific analyses found that the relative risks for schizophrenia with paternal age of 30-34 and ≥35 in male offspring were 2.407 and 10.893, and in female offspring were 3.080 and 9.659. The relative risks for OCD with paternal age of 30-34 and ≥35 in male offspring were 3.493 and 7.373, and in female offspring 2.005 and 4.404. The mean paternal age of schizophrenia/OCD patients born before the early 1980s was much greater than that of patients who were born after then. The findings illustrated that advanced paternal age is associated with increased risk for both schizophrenia and OCD in a Chinese Han population, prominently when paternal age is over 35. Biological and non-biological mechanisms may both be involved in the effects of advanced paternal age on schizophrenia and OCD. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Paternalistic Leadership in Korean Small and Medium Scale Enterprises: Applicability of a Turkish Paternalism Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulaş Çakar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Social and cultural exchange between Korea and Turkey has been rapidly increasing and is expected to be accelerated for the future. Especially business exchange is interest of many people in both countries. This paper aims to provide insights for business people in Korea and Turkey to understand each country’s cultural aspects. Among different perspectives, paternalism is focused in the study. Paternalism is an important intersection of both cultures but it did not receive much attention. Even though both Turkish and Korean leaders are paternalistic, the origin of the characteristic is based on different background. The current studies of paternalism in Korea are based on Confucianism and economic crisis whereas those of Turkey are based on nomadic history, military Coup d'Etat, complicated bureaucracy, and economic instability. Using a paternalism scale developed with Turkish sample, this study measured Korean employees’ perception on paternalism and paternalistic leadership. The results showed that the scale is applicable in Korean organizations as well.

  16. Disrupting Dominant Discourses about Paternal Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownson, Chris

    It is clear that the impact of paternal participation on children is overwhelmingly positive. Despite the benefits, men still lag behind women as equal and responsible contributors in childcare although their participation is increasing. This paper focuses on why men are not more involved in childcare and recognizes the ways in which…

  17. Young Adult South African Daughters’ Perceptions of Paternal Involvement and Nurturance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Wessels

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess current and retrospective levels of reported and desired paternal involvement experienced by young adult daughters, as well as current and retrospective levels of paternal nurturance. A sample of 89, female, third year South African Psychology students completed self-administered questionnaires, consisting of a biographical questionnaire, four Father Involvement Scales and two Nurturant Father Scales. Daughters reported their fathers as having been involved and nurturing while growing up. Although they indicated that they perceived fathers as somewhat less involved in young adulthood; they reported being satisfied with the level of father involvement. Daughters also reported high current paternal nurturance. The findings therefore indicate that a group of middle to upper middle-class South African daughters perceived their fathers as relatively involved in their lives and suggest that their fathers’ involvement extends beyond traditional father roles.

  18. Adolescent obesity and maternal and paternal sensitivity and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal Davis, R; Ashba, Jacqueline; Appugliese, Danielle P; Kaciroti, Niko; Corwyn, Robert F; Bradley, Robert H; Lumeng, Julie C

    2011-06-01

    To determine if adolescent obesity is associated with parenting characterized by lower sensitivity and lower monitoring of adolescent activities. We used data from 744 adolescents in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Height and weight were measured at age 15½ years and obesity defined as body mass index ≥ 95th percentile for age and sex. Maternal and paternal sensitivity were assessed by direct observation of a parent-adolescent interaction task. Maternal and paternal monitoring were assessed by parent report. Lower sensitivity and lower monitoring were each defined as the lowest quartiles. Two separate multivariate logistic regression models were created to evaluate, individually for mothers and fathers, associations of sensitivity and monitoring with adolescent obesity, controlling for adolescent sex and race, family income-to-needs ratio, and parental obesity. Fourteen percent of the adolescents were obese. Lower sensitivity was associated with adolescent obesity in the maternal parenting model (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-3.86, n = 709), but not paternal parenting model (AOR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.38-1.63, n = 460). Neither maternal nor paternal monitoring was associated with adolescent obesity (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.63-1.68; AOR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.52-2.22, respectively). Lower maternal sensitivity, measured by direct observation of parent-adolescent interactions, was associated with adolescent obesity. Efforts to prevent and treat childhood obesity, both at the practitioner level and the community level, may be enhanced by educating parents that their reactions to their children's behaviors may have consequences related to obesity.

  19. The relation between maternal schizophrenia and low birth weight is modified by paternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Herng-Ching; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Tang, Chao-Hsuin; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2010-06-01

    Paternal characteristics have never been considered in the relation between maternal schizophrenia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of our study was to consider different paternal ages while investigating the relation between maternal schizophrenia and low birth weight (LBW), using a nationwide population-based dataset. Our study used data from the 2001 to 2003 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Dataset and birth certificate registry. A total of 543 394 singleton live births were included. We performed multivariate logistic regression analyses to explore the relation between maternal schizophrenia and the risk of LBW, taking different paternal age groups into account (aged 29 years or younger, 30 to 39 years, and 40 years and older), and after adjusting for other characteristics of infant, mother, and father as well as the difference between the parent's ages. Mothers with schizophrenia had a higher percentage of LBW infants than mothers who did not (11.8%, compared with 6.8%). For infants whose mothers had schizophrenia, the adjusted odds ratios of LBW were 1.47 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.27, P paternal age groups of 30 to 39 years and 40 years or older, respectively. However, maternal schizophrenia was not a significant predictor of LBW for infants whose fathers were aged 29 years and younger. The relation between LBW and maternal schizophrenia is modified by paternal age. More attention should be paid to the interaction of paternal characteristics and maternal psychiatric disorders in producing adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  20. the realities surrounding the applicability of medical paternalism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    theories and arguments for and against medical paternalism, this study further ... situations yet the process of medical decision ... Poststgraduate School, Faculty of Law, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. ..... 'patient-centered' medicine now.

  1. Paternal social experience affects male reproductive behaviour in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [Dasgupta P., Halder S. and Nandy B. 2016 Paternal social experience affects male reproductive behaviour in Drosophila .... allowed to the competitor male to interact with the female. Following ... conditions including maternal environment.

  2. To nudge or not to nudge: cancer screening programmes and the limits of libertarian paternalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploug, Thomas; Holm, Søren; Brodersen, John

    2012-12-01

    'Nudging--and the underlying idea 'libertarian paternalism'--to an increasing degree influences policy thinking in the healthcare sector. This article discusses the influence exerted upon a woman's choice of participation in the Danish breast screening programme in light of 'libertarian paternalism'. The basic tenet of 'libertarian paternalism' is outlined and the relationship between 'libertarian paternalism' and informed consent investigated. Key elements in the process of enrolling women into the Danish mammography screening programme are introduced. It is shown that for several reasons the influence exerted upon women's choices of participation cannot be justified within a welfare-enhancing libertarian paternalistic framework. The article suggests that screening programmes alternatively adopt a liberty-enhancing approach and considers the practical implications of this alternative.

  3. No evidence of extra-pair paternity in a colonial seabird, the common tern (Sterna hirundo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, M.; Matessi, Giuliano; Marin, G.

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of extra-pair paternity and egg dumping was investigated in a colony of common terns (Sterna hirundo), a colonial seabird, in the Venetian lagoon. Ten families were sampled and multilocus DNA fingerprinting analysis was performed. No indication of extra-pair paternity or egg dumping...... was found in any of the families. The results are discussed in the light of life-history strategies, the benefits of coloniality and the evolution of adoption behaviour in the species.......The incidence of extra-pair paternity and egg dumping was investigated in a colony of common terns (Sterna hirundo), a colonial seabird, in the Venetian lagoon. Ten families were sampled and multilocus DNA fingerprinting analysis was performed. No indication of extra-pair paternity or egg dumping...

  4. Different Implications of Paternal and Maternal Atopy for Perinatal IgE Production and Asthma Development

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chih-Chiang; Chen, Rong-Fu; Kuo, Ho-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is a hereditary disease associated with IgE-mediated reaction. Whether maternal atopy and paternal atopy have different impacts on perinatal IgE production and asthma development remains unclear. This paper reviews and summarizes the effects of maternal and paternal atopy on the developmental aspects of IgE production and asthma. Maternal atopy affects both pre- and postnatal IgE production, whereas paternal atopy mainly affects the latter. Maternally transmitted genes GSTP1 and FceRI-...

  5. Cytogenetic comparison of Podocnemis expansa and Podocnemis unifilis: A case of inversion and duplication involving constitutive heterochromatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunski, Ricardo José; Cunha, Isabel Souza; Degrandi, Tiago Marafiga; Ledesma, Mario; Garnero, Analía Del Valle

    2013-01-01

    Podocnemis expansa and P. unifilis present 2n = 28 chromosomes, a diploid number similar to those observed in other species of the genus. The aim of this study was to characterize these two species using conventional staining and differential CBG-, GTG and Ag-NOR banding. We analyzed specimens of P. expansa and P. unifilis from the state of Tocantins (Brazil), in which we found a 2n = 28 and karyotypes differing in the morphology of the 13th pair, which was submetacentric in P. expansa and telocentric in P. unifilis. The CBG-banding patterns revealed a heterochromatic block in the short arm of pair 13 of P. expansa and an interstitial one in pair 13 of P. unifilis, suggesting a pericentric inversion. Pair 14 of P. unifilis showed an insterstitial band in the long arm that was absent in P. expansa, suggesting a duplication in this region. Ag-NORs were observed in the first chromosome pair of both species and was associated to a secondary constriction and heterochromatic blocks. PMID:24130442

  6. Offspring's Leukocyte Telomere Length, Paternal Age, and Telomere Elongation in Sperm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Cherkas, Lynn F; Kato, Bernet S

    2008-01-01

    ), the NHLBI Family Heart Study (NHLBI-Heart), the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins (Danish Twins), and the UK Adult Twin Registry (UK Twins). Using Southern blots, Q-FISH, and flow-FISH, we also measured telomere parameters in sperm from 46 young (50 years) donors. Paternal age...... had an independent effect, expressed by a longer LTL in males of the Framingham Offspring and Danish Twins, males and females of the NHLBI-Heart, and females of UK Twins. For every additional year of paternal age, LTL in offspring increased at a magnitude ranging from half to more than twice......Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex genetic trait. It shortens with age and is associated with a host of aging-related disorders. Recent studies have observed that offspring of older fathers have longer LTLs. We explored the relation between paternal age and offspring's LTLs in 4 different...

  7. Paternal Caregivers' Parenting Practices and Psychological Functioning among African American Youth Living in Urban Public Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Otima; Clark Goings, Trenette; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R; Lombe, Margaret; Stephens, Jennifer; Nebbitt, Von E

    2017-09-01

    Structural factors associated with public housing contribute to living environments that expose families to adverse life events that may in turn directly impact parenting and youth outcomes. However, despite the growth in research on fathers, research on families in public housing has practically excluded fathers and the role fathers play in the well-being of their adolescents. Using a sample of 660 African American adolescents recruited from public housing, we examined the relationship between paternal caregivers' (i.e., fathers' and father figures') parenting practices and adolescents' depressive symptoms, attitudes toward deviance, and self-efficacy. Using a latent profile analysis (LPA), we confirmed a four-class model of paternal parenting practices ranging from high to low levels of monitoring and encouragement. Results from a one-way ANOVA indicated that paternal caregivers with high (compared to moderate) levels of encouragement and monitoring were associated with youth who reported less depressive symptoms, higher levels of self-efficacy, and less favorable attitudes toward deviance. Discriminant analysis results indicated that approximately half of the sample were correctly classified into two paternal caregiver classes. The findings provide evidence that some of these caregivers engage in parenting practices that support youths' psychological functioning. More research is needed to determine what accounts for the variability in levels of paternal encouragement and supervision, including environmental influences, particularly for paternal caregivers exhibiting moderate-to-low levels of paternal encouragement and monitoring. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  8. The Definition of Nudge and Libertarian Paternalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    2016-01-01

    paternalism, but also clarifies how nudges relate to incentives and information, and may even be consistent with the removal of certain types of choices. In the end we are left with a revised definition of the concept of nudge that allows for consistently categorising behaviour change interventions...

  9. Paternal involvement and early infant neurodevelopment: the mediation role of maternal parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjeong; Kang, Su-Kyoung; Yee, Bangsil; Shim, So-Yeon; Chung, Mira

    2016-12-12

    Father-child interactions are associated with improved developmental outcomes among infants. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has addressed the effects of paternal involvement on the neurodevelopment of infants who are less than 6 months of age, and no study has reported how maternal parenting stress mediates the relationship between paternal involvement and infant neurodevelopment during early infancy. This study investigates the direct and indirect relationship between paternal involvement and infant neurodevelopment at 3-4 months of age. The indirect relationship was assessed through the mediating factor of maternal parenting stress. The participants were recruited through the Sesalmaul Research Center's website from April to June 2014. The final data included 255 mothers and their healthy infants, who were aged 3-4 months. The mothers reported paternal involvement and maternal parenting stress by using Korean Parenting Alliance Inventory (K-PAI) and Parenting Stress Index (PSI), respectively. Experts visited the participants' homes to observe infant neurodevelopment, and completed a developmental examination using Korean version of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II (K-ASQ II). A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used for data analysis. Infants' mean ages were 106 days and girls accounted for 46.3%. The mean total scores (reference range) of the K-PAI, PSI, and the K-ASQ II were 55.5 (17-68), 45.8 (25-100), and 243.2 (0-300), respectively. Paternal involvement had a positive relationship with K-ASQ II scores (β = 0.29, p parenting stress was negatively related with K-ASQ II scores (β = -0.32, p parenting stress mediated the relationship between paternal involvement and early infant neurodevelopment (Z = 3.24, p parenting stress (β = -0.25, p parenting stress partially mediates that association. This result emphasizes the importance of fathers' involvement and mothers' parenting stress on early infant

  10. The Effect of Paternal Age on Offspring Intelligence and Personality when Controlling for Parental Trait Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Ruben C.; Penke, Lars; Johnson, Wendy; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    Paternal age at conception has been found to predict the number of new genetic mutations. We examined the effect of father’s age at birth on offspring intelligence, head circumference and personality traits. Using the Minnesota Twin Family Study sample we tested paternal age effects while controlling for parents’ trait levels measured with the same precision as offspring’s. From evolutionary genetic considerations we predicted a negative effect of paternal age on offspring intelligence, but not on other traits. Controlling for parental intelligence (IQ) had the effect of turning an initially positive association non-significantly negative. We found paternal age effects on offspring IQ and Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Absorption, but they were not robustly significant, nor replicable with additional covariates. No other noteworthy effects were found. Parents’ intelligence and personality correlated with their ages at twin birth, which may have obscured a small negative effect of advanced paternal age (birth order and the Flynn effect. PMID:24587224

  11. Daddy issues: paternal effects on phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Oliver J

    2012-11-09

    The once popular and then heretical idea that ancestral environment can affect the phenotype of future generations is coming back into vogue due to advances in the field of epigenetic inheritance. How paternal environmental conditions influence the phenotype of progeny is now a tractable question, and researchers are exploring potential mechanisms underlying such effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Paternal Attachment, Parenting Beliefs and Children's Attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kimberly S.

    2010-01-01

    Relationships between fathers' romantic attachment style, parenting beliefs and father-child attachment security and dependence were examined in a diverse sample of 72 fathers of young children. Paternal romantic attachment style was coded based on fathers' endorsement of a particular style represented in the Hazan and Shaver Three-Category…

  13. The effect of multiple paternity on genetic diversity of small populations during and after colonisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Rafajlović

    Full Text Available Genetic variation within and among populations is influenced by the genetic content of the founders and the migrants following establishment. This is particularly true if populations are small, migration rate low and habitats arranged in a stepping-stone fashion. Under these circumstances the level of multiple paternity is critical since multiply mated females bring more genetic variation into founder groups than single mated females. One such example is the marine snail Littorina saxatilis that during postglacial times has invaded mainland refuge areas and thereafter small islands emerging due to isostatic uplift by occasional rafting of multiply mated females. We modelled effects of varying degrees of multiple paternity on the genetic variation of island populations colonised by the founders spreading from the mainland, by quantifying the population heterozygosity during both the transient colonisation process, and after a steady state (with migration has been reached. During colonisation, multiple mating by [Formula: see text] males increased the heterozygosity by [Formula: see text] in comparison with single paternity, while in the steady state the increase was [Formula: see text] compared with single paternity. In the steady state the increase of heterozygosity due to multiple paternity is determined by a corresponding increase in effective population size. During colonisation, by contrast, the increase in heterozygosity is larger and it cannot be explained in terms of the effective population size alone. During the steady-state phase bursts of high genetic variation spread through the system, and far from the mainland this led to short periods of high diversity separated by long periods of low diversity. The size of these fluctuations was boosted by multiple paternity. We conclude that following glacial periods of extirpation, recolonization of isolated habitats by this species has been supported by its high level of multiple paternity.

  14. The Effect of Multiple Paternity on Genetic Diversity of Small Populations during and after Colonisation

    KAUST Repository

    Rafajlović, Marina

    2013-10-28

    Genetic variation within and among populations is influenced by the genetic content of the founders and the migrants following establishment. This is particularly true if populations are small, migration rate low and habitats arranged in a stepping-stone fashion. Under these circumstances the level of multiple paternity is critical since multiply mated females bring more genetic variation into founder groups than single mated females. One such example is the marine snail Littorina saxatilis that during postglacial times has invaded mainland refuge areas and thereafter small islands emerging due to isostatic uplift by occasional rafting of multiply mated females. We modelled effects of varying degrees of multiple paternity on the genetic variation of island populations colonised by the founders spreading from the mainland, by quantifying the population heterozygosity during both the transient colonisation process, and after a steady state (with migration) has been reached. During colonisation, multiple mating by 2-10 males increased the heterozygosity by 10-300% in comparison with single paternity, while in the steady state the increase was 10-50% compared with single paternity. In the steady state the increase of heterozygosity due to multiple paternity is determined by a corresponding increase in effective population size. During colonisation, by contrast, the increase in heterozygosity is larger and it cannot be explained in terms of the effective population size alone. During the steady-state phase bursts of high genetic variation spread through the system, and far from the mainland this led to short periods of high diversity separated by long periods of low diversity. The size of these fluctuations was boosted by multiple paternity. We conclude that following glacial periods of extirpation, recolonization of isolated habitats by this species has been supported by its high level of multiple paternity. 2013 Rafajlovi? et al.

  15. Higher levels of multiple paternities increase seedling survival in the long-lived tree Eucalyptus gracilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F Breed

    Full Text Available Studying associations between mating system parameters and fitness in natural populations of trees advances our understanding of how local environments affect seed quality, and thereby helps to predict when inbreeding or multiple paternities should impact on fitness. Indeed, for species that demonstrate inbreeding avoidance, multiple paternities (i.e. the number of male parents per half-sib family should still vary and regulate fitness more than inbreeding--named here as the 'constrained inbreeding hypothesis'. We test this hypothesis in Eucalyptus gracilis, a predominantly insect-pollinated tree. Fifty-eight open-pollinated progeny arrays were collected from trees in three populations. Progeny were planted in a reciprocal transplant trial. Fitness was measured by family establishment rates. We genotyped all trees and their progeny at eight microsatellite loci. Planting site had a strong effect on fitness, but seed provenance and seed provenance × planting site did not. Populations had comparable mating system parameters and were generally outcrossed, experienced low biparental inbreeding and high levels of multiple paternity. As predicted, seed families that had more multiple paternities also had higher fitness, and no fitness-inbreeding correlations were detected. Demonstrating that fitness was most affected by multiple paternities rather than inbreeding, we provide evidence supporting the constrained inbreeding hypothesis; i.e. that multiple paternity may impact on fitness over and above that of inbreeding, particularly for preferentially outcrossing trees at life stages beyond seed development.

  16. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers’ Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers’ lives and/or or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother–child interaction (Time 2). Of the 101 mothers who participated in this longitudinal study with their toddlers, 51 had never experienced an episode of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 50 had experienced an episode of MDD during the first 18 months of their toddlers’ lives. Maternal depression at Time 1 was significantly associated with toddlers’ externalizing and internalizing behavior problems only when paternal psychopathology was present. As predicted, maternal negativity at Time 2 was found to mediate the relationship between maternal depression at Time 1 and toddlers’ externalizing behavior problems at Time 3. PMID:19130357

  17. Displays of paternal mouse pup retrieval following communicative interaction with maternal mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Fujimoto, Hiroko; Akther, Shirin; Inzhutova, Alena; Liang, Mingkun; Zhong, Jing; Tsuji, Takahiro; Yoshihara, Toru; Sumi, Kohei; Ishiyama, Mizuho; Ma, Wen-Jie; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Mukaida, Naofumi; Sakurai, Takeshi; Hori, Osamu; Yoshioka, Katsuji; Hirao, Atsushi; Kato, Yukio; Ishihara, Katsuhiko; Kato, Ichiro; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Cherepanov, Stanislav M; Salmina, Alla B; Hirai, Hirokazu; Asano, Masahide; Brown, David A; Nagano, Isamu; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the knowledge of maternal care, much less is known about the factors required for paternal parental care. Here we report that new sires of laboratory mice, though not spontaneously parental, can be induced to show maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval) using signals from dams separated from their pups. During this interaction, the maternal mates emit 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations to their male partners, which are equivalent to vocalizations that occur following pheromone stimulation. Without these signals or in the absence of maternal mates, the sires do not retrieve their pups within 5 min. These results show that, in mice, the maternal parent communicates to the paternal parent to encourage pup care. This new paradigm may be useful in the analysis of the parental brain during paternal care induced by interactive communication.

  18. The interactive effect of paternal problem drinking and maternal problem drinking on adolescent internalizing problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effects of both paternal problem drinking and maternal problem drinking on adolescent internalizing problems (depression and anxiety symptomatology). Surveys were administered to 566 10th and 11th grade students from the Mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. in the spring of 2007 and again in the spring of 2008. Although significant main effects were not observed, significant interactions were found between paternal problem drinking and maternal problem drinking for internalizing problems, especially for boys. In general, these interactions indicated that when paternal problem drinking was high, depression symptomatology and anxiety symptomatology were lower if maternal problem drinking was low. Findings from this study highlight the need to consider both paternal and maternal problem drinking when examining the effects that parental problem drinking may have on adolescent adjustment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. I Want to but I Won't: Pluralistic Ignorance Inhibits Intentions to Take Paternity Leave in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeru Miyajima

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of male employees who take paternity leave in Japan has been low in past decades. However, the majority of male employees actually wish to take paternity leave if they were to have a child. Previous studies have demonstrated that the organizational climate in workplaces is the major determinant of male employees' use of family-friendly policies, because males are often stigmatized and fear receiving negative evaluation from others. While such normative pressure might be derived from prevailing social practices relevant to people's expectation of social roles (e.g., “Men make houses, women make homes”, these social practices are often perpetuated even after the majority of group members have ceased to support them. The perpetuation of this unpopular norm could be caused by the social psychological phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance. While researches have explored people's beliefs about gender roles from various perspectives, profound understanding of these beliefs regarding gender role norms, and the accuracy of others' beliefs remains to be attained. The current research examined the association between pluralistic ignorance and the perpetually low rates of taking paternity leave in Japan. Specifically, Study 1 (n = 299 examined Japanese male employees' (ages ranging from the 20 s to the 40 s attitudes toward paternity leave and to estimate attitudes of other men of the same age, as well as behavioral intentions (i.e., desire and willingness to take paternity leave if they had a child in the future. The results demonstrated that male employees overestimated other men's negative attitudes toward paternity leave. Moreover, those who had positive attitudes toward taking leave and attributed negative attitudes to others were less willing to take paternity leave than were those who had positive attitudes and believed others shared those attitudes, although there was no significant difference between their desires to take paternity

  20. I Want to but I Won't: Pluralistic Ignorance Inhibits Intentions to Take Paternity Leave in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Takeru; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The number of male employees who take paternity leave in Japan has been low in past decades. However, the majority of male employees actually wish to take paternity leave if they were to have a child. Previous studies have demonstrated that the organizational climate in workplaces is the major determinant of male employees' use of family-friendly policies, because males are often stigmatized and fear receiving negative evaluation from others. While such normative pressure might be derived from prevailing social practices relevant to people's expectation of social roles (e.g., "Men make houses, women make homes"), these social practices are often perpetuated even after the majority of group members have ceased to support them. The perpetuation of this unpopular norm could be caused by the social psychological phenomenon of pluralistic ignorance. While researches have explored people's beliefs about gender roles from various perspectives, profound understanding of these beliefs regarding gender role norms, and the accuracy of others' beliefs remains to be attained. The current research examined the association between pluralistic ignorance and the perpetually low rates of taking paternity leave in Japan. Specifically, Study 1 ( n = 299) examined Japanese male employees' (ages ranging from the 20 s to the 40 s) attitudes toward paternity leave and to estimate attitudes of other men of the same age, as well as behavioral intentions (i.e., desire and willingness) to take paternity leave if they had a child in the future. The results demonstrated that male employees overestimated other men's negative attitudes toward paternity leave. Moreover, those who had positive attitudes toward taking leave and attributed negative attitudes to others were less willing to take paternity leave than were those who had positive attitudes and believed others shared those attitudes, although there was no significant difference between their desires to take paternity leave. Study 2 ( n

  1. Controversies in oncologist-patient communication: a nuanced approach to autonomy, culture, and paternalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherny, Nathan I

    2012-01-01

    Difficult dialogues with patients facing life-changing decisions are an intrinsic part of oncologic practice and a major source of stress. Having a sophisticated approach to the concepts of autonomy, paternalism, and culture can help in addressing difficult dilemmas that arise around the issues of disclosure and decision making. This article addresses some of the most common major challenges in oncologist-patient communication with a nuanced approach to the concepts of autonomy, paternalism, and culture. It introduces the new concept of"voluntary diminished autonomy" and describes the implications this concept has for the consent process. It also attempts to bring clarity to common problems and misconceptions relating to culture, paternalism, and therapeutic privilege as these pertain to the communication practices of oncologists.

  2. Adoptive paternal age and risk of psychosis in adoptees: a register based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Ek

    Full Text Available The association between advancing paternal age and increased risk of schizophrenia in the off-spring is well established. The underlying mechanisms are unknown. In order to investigate whether the psychosocial environment associated with growing up with an aged father explains the increased risk we conducted a study of all adoptive children in Sweden from 1955-1985 (n =31 188. Their risk of developing schizophrenia or non-affective psychosis in relation to advancing age of their adoptive fathers' was examined. We found no association between risk of psychoses and advancing adoptive paternal age. There was no support of psychosocial environmental factors explaining the "paternal age effect".

  3. Loss of function of KIAA2022 causes mild to severe intellectual disability with an autism spectrum disorder and impairs neurite outgrowth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maldergem, L. van; Hou, Q.; Kalscheuer, V.M.M.; Rio, M. del; Doco-Fenzy, M.; Medeira, A.; Brouwer, A.P.M. de; Cabrol, C.; Haas, S.A.; Cacciagli, P.; Moutton, S.; Landais, E.; Motte, J.; Colleaux, L.; Bonnet, C.; Villard, L.; Dupont, J.; Man, H.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Existence of a discrete new X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) syndrome due to KIAA2022 deficiency was questioned by disruption of KIAA2022 by an X-chromosome pericentric inversion in a XLID family we reported in 2004. Three additional families with likely pathogenic KIAA2022 mutations were

  4. Was bioethics founded on historical and conceptual mistakes about medical paternalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B

    2011-02-01

    Bioethics has a founding story in which medical paternalism, the interference with the autonomy of patients for their own clinical benefit, was an accepted ethical norm in the history of Western medical ethics and was widespread in clinical practice until bioethics changed the ethical norms and practice of medicine. In this paper I show that the founding story of bioethics misreads major texts in the history of Western medical ethics. I also show that a major source for empirical claims about the widespread practice of medical paternalism has been misread. I then show that that bioethics based on its founding story deprofessionalizes medical ethics. The result leaves the sick exposed to the predatory power of medical practitioners and healthcare organizations with only their autonomy-based rights to non-interference, expressed in contracts, to protect them. The sick are stripped of the protection afforded by a professional, fiduciary relationship of physicians to their patients. Bioethics based on its founding story reverts to the older model of a contractual relationship between the sick and medical practitioners not worthy of intellectual or moral trust (because such trust cannot be generated by what I call 'deprofessionalizing bioethics'). On closer examination, bioethics based on its founding story, ironically, eliminates paternalism as a moral category in bioethics, thus causing bioethics to collapse on itself because it denies one of the necessary conditions for medical paternalism. Bioethics based on its founding story should be abandoned. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Habitat geometry does not affect levels of extrapair paternity in an extremely unfaithful fairy-wren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, L.; Van de Pol, M.; Cockburn, A.

    2014-01-01

    Density of potential mates has often been proposed to explain the enormous variation in extrapair paternity. However, density is often confounded by other ecological factors that might affect extrapair paternity in their own way. Furthermore, extrapair mating shows strong phylogenetic inertia,

  6. What Provisions Do Orthopaedic Programs Make for Maternity, Paternity, and Adoption Leave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jennifer; Teuscher, David

    2016-09-01

    The process of choosing medical specialty and residency programs is multifaceted. Today's generation of medical students may have an increased interest in work-life balance and time with their families. In considering this factor, medical students may be influenced by policy regarding maternity, paternity, and adoption leave during residency and fellowship training. Current policy among orthopaedic programs regarding maternity, paternity, and adoption leave is not well described. To understand the influence these policies may have on the choices that medical students make in choosing their specialty, the policies must first be better understood. (1) What proportion of orthopaedic programs have formal or unwritten policies regarding maternity, paternity, and adoptive leave? (2) What are the provisions for time away, allotment of time, and makeup options for trainees who take leave? (3) What proportion of orthopaedic programs report utilization of leave, and what proportions of leave are for maternity, paternity, or adoptive reasons? Accredited programs in orthopaedic surgery were identified through the Council of Orthopedic Residency Directors within the American Orthopaedic Association. Current program directors of these accredited programs were surveyed. The survey was emailed to 144 program directors, of which 141 emails were delivered. Responses were received from 45 program directors, representing 31% of programs. The survey focused on maternity, paternity, and adoptive leave, and it consisted of questions designed to explore program policies (formal, unwritten, no policy, or in development), time considerations (amount allowed, allocation of time away, and makeup requirements), and utilization (trainees who took leave and type of leave used). Most respondents have maternity leave policy (formal: 36 of 45 [80%]; unwritten: 17 of 45 [38%]). Sixteen programs (16 of 45 [36%]) reported having both a formal and an unwritten maternity leave policy. Less than half of

  7. Paternal inheritance of plastid-encoded transgenes in Petunia hybrida in the greenhouse and under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Horn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As already demonstrated in greenhouse trials, outcrossing of transgenic plants can be drastically reduced via transgene integration into the plastid. We verified this result in the field with Petunia, for which the highest paternal leakage has been observed. The variety white 115 (W115 served as recipient and Pink Wave (PW and the transplastomic variant PW T16, encoding the uidA reporter gene, as pollen donor. While manual pollination in the greenhouse led to over 90% hybrids for both crossings, the transgenic donor resulted only in 2% hybrids in the field. Nevertheless paternal leakage was detected in one case which proves that paternal inheritance of plastid-located transgenes is possible under artificial conditions. In the greenhouse, paternal leakage occurred in a frequency comparable to published results. As expected natural pollination reduced the hybrid formation in the field from 90 to 7.6% and the transgenic donor did not result in any hybrid. Keywords: Paternal plastid inheritance, Transgene confinement, Greenhouse, Field trial, Pollen mediated gene flow

  8. Paternal kin recognition in the high frequency / ultrasonic range in a solitary foraging mammal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessler Sharon E

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kin selection is a driving force in the evolution of mammalian social complexity. Recognition of paternal kin using vocalizations occurs in taxa with cohesive, complex social groups. This is the first investigation of paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in a small-brained, solitary foraging mammal, the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, a frequent model for ancestral primates. We analyzed the high frequency/ultrasonic male advertisement (courtship call and alarm call. Results Multi-parametric analyses of the calls’ acoustic parameters and discriminant function analyses showed that advertisement calls, but not alarm calls, contain patrilineal signatures. Playback experiments controlling for familiarity showed that females paid more attention to advertisement calls from unrelated males than from their fathers. Reactions to alarm calls from unrelated males and fathers did not differ. Conclusions 1 Findings provide the first evidence of paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in a small-brained, solitarily foraging mammal. 2 High predation, small body size, and dispersed social systems may select for acoustic paternal kin recognition in the high frequency/ultrasonic ranges, thus limiting risks of inbreeding and eavesdropping by predators or conspecific competitors. 3 Paternal kin recognition via vocalizations in mammals is not dependent upon a large brain and high social complexity, but may already have been an integral part of the dispersed social networks from which more complex, kin-based sociality emerged.

  9. Paternal investment and status-related child outcomes: timing of father's death affects offspring success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Mary K; Scelza, Brooke A

    2012-09-01

    Recent work in human behavioural ecology has suggested that analyses focusing on early childhood may underestimate the importance of paternal investment to child outcomes since such investment may not become crucial until adolescence or beyond. This may be especially important in societies with a heritable component to status, as later investment by fathers may be more strongly related to a child's adult status than early forms of parental investment that affect child survival and child health. In such circumstances, the death or absence of a father may have profoundly negative effects on the adult outcomes of his children that cannot be easily compensated for by the investment of mothers or other relatives. This proposition is tested using a multigenerational dataset from Bangalore, India, containing information on paternal mortality as well as several child outcomes dependent on parental investment during adolescence and young adulthood. The paper examines the effects of paternal death, and the timing of paternal death, on a child's education, adult income, age at marriage and the amount spent on his or her marriage, along with similar characteristics of spouses. Results indicate that a father's death has a negative impact on child outcomes, and that, in contrast to some findings in the literature on father absence, the effects of paternal death are strongest for children who lose their father in late childhood or adolescence.

  10. Meta-analysis of paternal age and schizophrenia risk in male versus female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian; Messias, Erick; Miettunen, Jouko; Alaräisänen, Antti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riita; Koponen, Hannu; Räsänen, Pirkko; Isohanni, Matti; Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2011-09-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) is a reported risk factor for schizophrenia in the offspring. We performed a meta-analysis of this association, considering the effect of gender and study design. We identified articles by searching Pub Med, PsychInfo, ISI, and EMBASE, and the reference lists of identified studies. Previously unpublished data from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (NFBC 1966) study were also included. There were 6 cohort studies and 6 case-control studies that met the inclusion criteria. In both study designs, there was a significant increase in risk of schizophrenia in the offspring of older fathers (≥30) compared to a reference paternal age of 25-29, with no gender differences. The relative risk (RR) in the oldest fathers (≥50) was 1.66 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.46-1.89, P APA (≥30) and younger paternal age (<25) increase the risk of schizophrenia; younger paternal age may be associated with an increased risk in males but not females. This risk factor increases the risk of schizophrenia as much as any single candidate gene of risk. The mechanism of these associations is not known and may differ for older and younger fathers.

  11. Paternal stress prior to conception alters DNA methylation and behaviour of developing rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mychasiuk, R; Harker, A; Ilnytskyy, S; Gibb, R

    2013-06-25

    Although there has been an abundance of research focused on offspring outcomes associated with maternal experiences, there has been limited examination of the relationship between paternal experiences and offspring brain development. As spermatogenesis is a continuous process, experiences that have the ability to alter epigenetic regulation in fathers may actually change developmental trajectories of offspring. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of paternal stress prior to conception on behaviour and the epigenome of both male and female developing rat offspring. Male Long-Evans rats were stressed for 27 consecutive days and then mated with control female rats. Early behaviour was tested in offspring using the negative geotaxis task and the open field. At P21 offspring were sacrificed and global DNA methylation levels in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were analysed. Paternal stress prior to conception altered behaviour of all offspring on the negative geotaxis task, delaying acquisition of the task. In addition, male offspring demonstrated a reduction in stress reactivity in the open field paradigm spending more time than expected in the centre of the open field. Paternal stress also altered DNA methylation patterns in offspring at P21, global methylation was reduced in the frontal cortex of female offspring, but increased in the hippocampus of both male and female offspring. The results from this study clearly demonstrate that paternal stress during spermatogenesis can influence offspring behaviour and DNA methylation patterns, and these affects occur in a sex-dependent manner. Development takes place in the centre of a complex interaction between maternal, paternal, and environmental influences, which combine to produce the various phenotypes and individual differences that we perceive. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Securing Paternity by Mutilating Female Genitalia in Spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouginot, Pierick; Prügel, Josepha; Thom, Ulrike; Steinhoff, Philip O M; Kupryjanowicz, Janusz; Uhl, Gabriele

    2015-11-16

    Competition between males and their sperm over access to females and their eggs has resulted in manifold ways by which males try to secure paternity, ranging from physically guarding the female after mating to reducing her receptivity or her attractiveness to subsequent males by transferring manipulative substances or by mechanically sealing the female reproductive tract with a copulatory plug. Copulations may also result in internal damage of the female genitalia; however, this is not considered as a direct adaptation against sperm competition but as a collateral effect. Here, we present a drastic and direct mechanism for securing paternity: the removal of coupling structures on female genitalia by males. In the orb-weaving spider Larinia jeskovi males remove the scapus, a crucial coupling device on the female external genital region. Reconstruction of the coupling mechanism using micro-CT-scanned mating pairs revealed that several sclerites of the male genitalia interact to break off the scapus. Once it is removed, remating cannot occur due to mechanical coupling difficulties. In the field, male-inflicted genital damage is very prevalent since all female L. jeskovi were found to be mutilated at the end of the mating season. External genital mutilation is an overlooked but widely spread phenomenon since 80 additional spider species were found for which male genital manipulation can be suspected. Interlocking genitalia provide an evolutionary platform for the rapid evolution of this highly effective mechanism to secure paternity, and we suspect that other animal groups with interlocking genital structures might reveal similarly drastic male adaptations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The DNA sequence, annotation and analysis of human chromosome 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muzny, D.M.; Bolund, Lars; As part of the Chinese Human Genome Sequencing Consortium, E.T.A.L.

    2006-01-01

    as numerous loci involved in multiple human cancers such as the gene encoding FHIT, which contains the most common constitutive fragile site in the genome, FRA3B. Using genomic sequence from chimpanzee and rhesus macaque, we were able to characterize the breakpoints defining a large pericentric inversion...

  14. No evidence of extra-pair paternity in a colonial seabird, the common tern (Sterna hirundo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griggio, M.; Matessi, Giuliano; Marin, G.

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of extra-pair paternity and egg dumping was investigated in a colony of common terns (Sterna hirundo), a colonial seabird, in the Venetian lagoon. Ten families were sampled and multilocus DNA fingerprinting analysis was performed. No indication of extra-pair paternity or egg dumping...

  15. Paternal smoking and spontaneous abortion: a population-based retrospective cohort study among non-smoking women aged 20-49 years in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Yang, Ying; Liu, Fangchao; Yang, Aimin; Xu, Qin; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Yan, Donghai; Peng, Zuoqi; He, Yuan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jihong; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhang, Ya; Dai, Qiaoyun; Ma, Xu

    2018-06-11

    To comprehensively evaluate the association of paternal smoking and spontaneous abortion. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study among 5 770 691 non-smoking rural Chinese women, along with their husbands, participating in the National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project, regarding outcome events that occurred in 2010-2016. The main outcome was spontaneous abortion (SA). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate OR and 95% CI, and restricted cubic spline was used to estimate the non-linear relationship. The multivariable-adjusted OR of exposure to paternal smoking for SA was 1.17 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.19), compared with women without exposure to paternal smoking; and corresponding OR of exposure to preconception paternal smoking for SA was 1.11 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.14), compared with women without exposure to preconception paternal smoking. The ORs of preconception paternal smoking also increased with increases in paternal smoking (p nonlinear 0.05). In addition, periconception paternal smoking cessation was associated with an 18% (15%-22%) lower risk of SA. Paternal smoking was associated with SA. The importance of tobacco control, specifically pertaining to paternal smoking, should be emphasised during preconception and pregnancy counselling. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Canine Paternity Testing--Using Personal Experiences To Teach Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascati, Ralph J.

    2002-01-01

    Outlines how an example from the field of animal husbandry is used in a DNA Technology course to motivate students to take a deeper interest in the material. Focuses on paternity testing in dogs. (DDR)

  17. Preconception maternal and paternal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and birth size: the LIFE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Candace A; Yeung, Edwina; Mendola, Pauline; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Maisog, Jose; Sweeney, Anne M; Barr, Dana Boyd; Louis, Germaine M Buck

    2015-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are developmental toxicants, but the impact of both maternal and paternal exposures on offspring birth size is largely unexplored. We examined associations between maternal and paternal serum concentrations of 63 POPs, comprising five major classes of pollutants, with birth size measures. Parental serum concentrations of 9 organochlorine pesticides, 1 polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), 7 perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs), 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and 36 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured before conception for 234 couples. Differences in birth weight, length, head circumference, and ponderal index were estimated using multiple linear regression per 1-SD increase in natural log-transformed (ln-transformed) chemicals. Models were estimated separately for each parent and adjusted for maternal age, maternal prepregnancy body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) and other confounders, and all models included an interaction term between infant sex and each chemical. Among girls (n = 117), birth weight was significantly lower (range, 84-195 g) in association with a 1-SD increase in ln-transformed maternal serum concentrations of DDT, PBDE congeners 28 and 183, and paternal serum concentrations of PBDE-183 and PCB-167. Among boys (n = 113), maternal (PCBs 138, 153, 167, 170, 195, and 209 and perfluorooctane sulfonamide) and paternal (PCBs 172 and 195) serum concentrations of several POPs were statistically associated with lower birth weight (range, 98-170 g), whereas paternal concentrations of PBDEs (66, 99) were associated with higher birth weight. Differences in offspring head circumference, length, and ponderal index were also associated with parental exposures. Preconceptional maternal and paternal concentrations of several POPs were associated with statistically significant differences in birth size among offspring.

  18. Advanced paternal age is associated with impaired neurocognitive outcomes during infancy and childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Saha

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Advanced paternal age (APA is associated with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, as well as with dyslexia and reduced intelligence. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between paternal age and performance on neurocognitive measures during infancy and childhood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A sample of singleton children (n = 33,437 was drawn from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project. The outcome measures were assessed at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test. The main analyses examined the relationship between neurocognitive measures and paternal or maternal age when adjusted for potential confounding factors. Advanced paternal age showed significant associations with poorer scores on all of the neurocognitive measures apart from the Bayley Motor score. The findings were broadly consistent in direction and effect size at all three ages. In contrast, advanced maternal age was generally associated with better scores on these same measures. CONCLUSIONS: The offspring of older fathers show subtle impairments on tests of neurocognitive ability during infancy and childhood. In light of secular trends related to delayed fatherhood, the clinical implications and the mechanisms underlying these findings warrant closer scrutiny.

  19. Maternal and Paternal Parenting Styles in Adolescents: Associations with Self-Esteem, Depression and Life-Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milevsky, Avidan; Schlechter, Melissa; Netter, Sarah; Keehn, Danielle

    2007-01-01

    Our study examined variations in adolescent adjustment as a function of maternal and paternal parenting styles. Participants included 272 students in grades 9 and 11 from a public high school in a metropolitan area of the Northeastern US. Participants completed measures of maternal and paternal parenting styles and indices of psychological…

  20. Fathers, Mothers, Marriages, and Children: Toward a Contextual Model of Positive Paternal Influence

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Ariel

    2000-01-01

    This research explored positive paternal involvement in the lives of children within the broader familial context of marital dynamics and positive maternal involvement. The National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH) was used to obtain a longitudinal subsample of 582 first-married couples, as well as the wide range of variables necessary to explore this broader context of paternal influence. Three research questions guided the study: (I) What is the unique contribution of positive pater...

  1. The Impact of Paternal and Maternal Smoking on Semen Quality of Adolescent Men.

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Jonatan; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Silfver, Karl Ågren; Stenqvist, Amelie; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal smoking during pregnancy has been reported to negatively impact sperm counts of the sons. Sufficient data on the effect of paternal smoking is lacking. Objectives We wished to elucidate the impact of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy and current own smoking on reproductive function of the male offspring. Methods Semen parameters including sperm DNA integrity were analyzed in 295 adolescents from the general population close to Malm?, Sweden, recruited for the ...

  2. Influences of maternal and paternal PTSD on epigenetic regulation of the glucocorticoid receptor gene in Holocaust survivor offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehuda, Rachel; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Lehrner, Amy; Desarnaud, Frank; Bader, Heather N; Makotkine, Iouri; Flory, Janine D; Bierer, Linda M; Meaney, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Differential effects of maternal and paternal posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been observed in adult offspring of Holocaust survivors in both glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity and vulnerability to psychiatric disorder. The authors examined the relative influences of maternal and paternal PTSD on DNA methylation of the exon 1F promoter of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR-1F) gene (NR3C1) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and its relationship to glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity in Holocaust offspring. Adult offspring with at least one Holocaust survivor parent (N=80) and demographically similar participants without parental Holocaust exposure or parental PTSD (N=15) completed clinical interviews, self-report measures, and biological procedures. Blood samples were collected for analysis of GR-1F promoter methylation and of cortisol levels in response to low-dose dexamethasone, and two-way analysis of covariance was performed using maternal and paternal PTSD as main effects. Hierarchical clustering analysis was used to permit visualization of maternal compared with paternal PTSD effects on clinical variables and GR-1F promoter methylation. A significant interaction demonstrated that in the absence of maternal PTSD, offspring with paternal PTSD showed higher GR-1F promoter methylation, whereas offspring with both maternal and paternal PTSD showed lower methylation. Lower GR-1F promoter methylation was significantly associated with greater postdexamethasone cortisol suppression. The clustering analysis revealed that maternal and paternal PTSD effects were differentially associated with clinical indicators and GR-1F promoter methylation. This is the first study to demonstrate alterations of GR-1F promoter methylation in relation to parental PTSD and neuroendocrine outcomes. The moderation of paternal PTSD effects by maternal PTSD suggests different mechanisms for the intergenerational transmission of trauma-related vulnerabilities.

  3. Chromosomal mosaicism in mouse two-cell embryos after paternal exposure to acrylamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, Francesco; Bishop, Jack; Lowe, Xiu; Wyrobek, Andrew J

    2008-10-14

    Chromosomal mosaicism in human preimplantation embryos is a common cause ofspontaneous abortions, however, our knowledge of its etiology is limited. We used multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) painting to investigate whether paternally-transmitted chromosomal aberrations result in mosaicism in mouse 2-cell embryos. Paternal exposure to acrylamide, an important industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke and generated during the cooking process of starchy foods, produced significant increases in chromosomally defective 2-cell embryos, however, the effects were transient primarily affecting the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. Comparisons with our previous study of zygotes demonstrated similar frequencies of chromosomally abnormal zygotes and 2-cell embryos suggesting that there was no apparent selection against numerical or structural chromosomal aberrations. However, the majority of affected 2-cell embryos were mosaics showing different chromosomal abnormalities in the two blastomeric metaphases. Analyses of chromosomal aberrations in zygotes and 2-cell embryos showed a tendency for loss of acentric fragments during the first mitotic division ofembryogenesis, while both dicentrics and translocations apparently underwent propersegregation. These results suggest that embryonic development can proceed up to the end of the second cell cycle of development in the presence of abnormal paternal chromosomes and that even dicentrics can persist through cell division. The high incidence of chromosomally mosaic 2-cell embryos suggests that the first mitotic division of embryogenesis is prone to missegregation errors and that paternally-transmitted chromosomal abnromalities increase the risk of missegregation leading to embryonic mosaicism.

  4. Paternity Cases within a Medicolegal Context: a Case Study of Heteropaternal Superfecundation in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan K. Mahmood

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of paternity was referred to the Medical-Legal Directorate( MLD/ Baghdad in August 2011 .The family who were concerned was the  Father (41 years old ,mother (23 years old and 2 sons non identical twin (1.5year old . Paternity test includes Conventional Blood Group Markers, DNA and Y chromosome STR Typing were investigated . The DNA and Y chromosome STR Typing were tested  for the referred trios father and twins first , the results revealed an absolute exclusion of fatherhood relationship to both . , surprisingly the Y Chromosomeprofiles  revealed obviously that the two non identical twins were from different fathers or paternal descent. Maternity test was ought to be examined  for the assumed mother to rule out the possibility of switch of both babies in the hospital during their delivery and to prove their brotherhood relationship from mother side. The mother was referred and maternity was confirmed later using DNA Typing . Combined Maternity Index (CPI was calculated for twins ,The probability of Maternity were 99.98% and 99.95% for the1st and 2nd twin respectively. Key words : hetero paternal Superfecundation ,Non Identical twin,DNA Typing ,Y Chromosome STR Polymorphysim

  5. Low paternity skew and the influence of maternal kin in an egalitarian, patrilocal primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, Karen B; Chaves, Paulo B; Mendes, Sérgio L; Fagundes, Valéria; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2011-11-22

    Levels of reproductive skew vary in wild primates living in multimale groups depending on the degree to which high-ranking males monopolize access to females. Still, the factors affecting paternity in egalitarian societies remain unexplored. We combine unique behavioral, life history, and genetic data to evaluate the distribution of paternity in the northern muriqui (Brachyteles hypoxanthus), a species known for its affiliative, nonhierarchical relationships. We genotyped 67 individuals (22 infants born over a 3-y period, their 21 mothers, and all 24 possible sires) at 17 microsatellite marker loci and assigned paternity to all infants. None of the 13 fathers were close maternal relatives of females with which they sired infants, and the most successful male sired a much lower percentage of infants (18%) than reported for the most successful males in other species. Our findings of inbreeding avoidance and low male reproductive skew are consistent with the muriqui's observed social and sexual behavior, but the long delay (≥2.08 y) between the onset of male sexual behavior and the age at which males first sire young is unexpected. The allocation of paternity implicates individual male life histories and access to maternal kin as key factors influencing variation in paternal--and grandmaternal--fitness. The apparent importance of lifelong maternal investment in coresident sons resonates with other recent examinations of maternal influences on offspring reproduction. This importance also extends the implications of the "grandmother hypothesis" in human evolution to include the possible influence of mothers and other maternal kin on male reproductive success in patrilocal societies.

  6. Paternal education status significantly influences infants' measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Anu; Awofeso, Niyi; Fernandez, Renae C

    2012-05-08

    Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent's age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school) schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  7. [Paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and sex ratio of the offspring: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Shu-Hui; Liu, Yi-Ting; Liu, Yang

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the association between paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and the sex ratio of the offspring. We searched various databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, OVID, Bioscience Information Service (BIOSIS), China National Knowledge Infrastructure, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals and Wanfang Database, for the literature relevant to the association of paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation with the sex ratio of the offspring. We conducted a meta-analysis on their correlation using Stata 11.0. There was no statistically significant difference in the sex ratio between the offspring with paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation and those without (pooled OR = 1.00 [95% CI: 0.95 -1.05], P = 0.875). Subgroup analysis of both case-control and cohort studies revealed no significant difference (pooled OR = 1.03 [95% CI: 0.99 -1.08], P = 0.104 and pooled OR = 0.98 [95% CI: 0.99 -1.08], P = 0.186, respectively). Paternal exposure to occupational electromagnetic radiation is not correlated with the sex ratio of the offspring.

  8. Cancer, obesity, and legitimation of suggested lifestyles: a libertarian paternalism approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniolo, Giovanni; Rebba, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We know that around 30% of all cancers are preventable. We also know that there is clear evidence of the causal relations between obesity and cancer. This means that there could be lifestyles that could prevent obesity and, thus, cancer. Yet, who legitimises these lifestyles and on which ground? Should citizens be free to accept or not to accept policies concerning them? This is a problem faced within what has been named libertarian paternalism. We discuss it, also proposing a version that we call deliberative libertarian paternalism, showing how important this problem is for a proper framing of the lifestyle policies concerning obesity and, thus, cancer prevention.

  9. Comparative AFLP reveals paternal sex ratio chromosome specific DNA sequences in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Pruijssers, A.; Verbaarschot, P.G.H.; Stouthamer, R.; Jong, de H.

    2009-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai with a haplo-diploid sex determination has a B chromosome called the paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome that confers paternal genome loss during early embryogenesis, resulting in male offspring. So far, it is not well known whether the PSR chromosome has

  10. Paternal breed effects on expression of IGF-II, BAK1 and BCL2-L1 in bovine preimplantation embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valleh, Mehdi Vafaye; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Joupari, Morteza Daliri

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the effects of the paternal breed on the early embryonic development and relative expression of the maternally imprinted gene, IGF-II, and the apoptosis-related genes BAK1 and BCL2-L1 in in vitro produced (IVP) bovine embryos derived from two unrelated paternal breeds (Holstein......Summary The effects of the paternal breed on early embryo and later pre- and postnatal development are well documented. Several recent studies have suggested that such paternal effects may be mediated by the paternally induced epigenetic modifications during early embryogenesis. The objective...... and Brown Swiss). The degree of correlation of IGF-II expression pattern with embryo developmental competence and apoptosis-related genes was also investigated. The relative abundance of IGF-II, BCL2-L1 and BAK1 transcripts in day 8 embryos was measured by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain...

  11. The association between perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology and depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasing, Sanne P. A.; Creemers, Daan H. M.; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to parental depression and anxiety is known to heighten the risk of internalizing symptoms and disorders in children and adolescents. Ample research has focused on the influence of maternal depression and anxiety, but the contribution of psychopathology in fathers remains unclear. We studied the relationships of perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology with adolescents’ depression and anxiety symptoms in a general population sample of 862 adolescent girls (age M = 12.39, SD = 0.79). Assessments included adolescents’ self-reports of their own depression and anxiety as well as their reports of maternal and paternal psychopathology. We found that perceived maternal and paternal psychopathology were both related to depression and anxiety symptoms in adolescent girls. A combination of higher maternal and paternal psychopathology was related to even higher levels of depression and anxiety in adolescent girls. Our findings showed that adolescents’ perceptions of their parents’ psychopathology are significantly related to their own emotional problems. PMID:26257664

  12. Paternal inheritance of plastid-encoded transgenes in Petunia hybrida in the greenhouse and under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Patricia; Nausch, Henrik; Baars, Susanne; Schmidtke, Jörg; Schmidt, Kerstin; Schneider, Anja; Leister, Dario; Broer, Inge

    2017-12-01

    As already demonstrated in greenhouse trials, outcrossing of transgenic plants can be drastically reduced via transgene integration into the plastid. We verified this result in the field with Petunia , for which the highest paternal leakage has been observed. The variety white 115 (W115) served as recipient and Pink Wave (PW) and the transplastomic variant PW T16, encoding the uid A reporter gene, as pollen donor. While manual pollination in the greenhouse led to over 90% hybrids for both crossings, the transgenic donor resulted only in 2% hybrids in the field. Nevertheless paternal leakage was detected in one case which proves that paternal inheritance of plastid-located transgenes is possible under artificial conditions. In the greenhouse, paternal leakage occurred in a frequency comparable to published results. As expected natural pollination reduced the hybrid formation in the field from 90 to 7.6% and the transgenic donor did not result in any hybrid.

  13. Maternal KIR in combination with paternal HLA-C2 regulate human birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiby, Susan E; Apps, Richard; Chazara, Olympe; Farrell, Lydia E; Magnus, Per; Trogstad, Lill; Gjessing, Håkon K; Carrington, Mary; Moffett, Ashley

    2014-06-01

    Human birth weight is subject to stabilizing selection; babies born too small or too large are less likely to survive. Particular combinations of maternal/fetal immune system genes are associated with pregnancies where the babies are ≤ 5th birth weight centile, specifically an inhibitory maternal KIR AA genotype with a paternally derived fetal HLA-C2 ligand. We have now analyzed maternal KIR and fetal HLA-C combinations at the opposite end of the birth weight spectrum. Mother/baby pairs (n = 1316) were genotyped for maternal KIR as well as fetal and maternal HLA-C. Presence of a maternal-activating KIR2DS1 gene was associated with increased birth weight in linear or logistic regression analyses of all pregnancies >5th centile (p = 0.005, n = 1316). Effect of KIR2DS1 was most significant in pregnancies where its ligand, HLA-C2, was paternally but not maternally inherited by a fetus (p = 0.005, odds ratio = 2.65). Thus, maternal KIR are more frequently inhibitory with small babies but activating with big babies. At both extremes of birth weight, the KIR associations occur when their HLA-C2 ligand is paternally inherited by a fetus. We conclude that the two polymorphic immune gene systems, KIR and HLA-C, contribute to successful reproduction by maintaining birth weight between two extremes with a clear role for paternal HLA.

  14. ["Paternity leave"? Retrospective view on a delayed reform of maternity leave in Austria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munz, R

    1984-01-01

    Only 1 of 3 Austrian fathers involves himself daily in child rearing, and the younger the children, the less likely he is to be involved. Austria is among those European countries with the greatest pregnancy benefits. New mothers may take up to 1 year of paid maternity leave without fear of losing their jobs. This article uses 1982 Institute of Demography survey data to determine support for similar paternity leave for fathers. In the last few years, both Social Democrat and Conservative women have worked for this leave, although the movement has also found opposition by women in trade unions, as well as from conservative groups. Survey results show that 46% of married Austrian women, under age 40, favor paternity leave; 1 or 4 women can imagine their husbands taking such leave. Among husbands, 34% favored the leave option, and 1 of 4 could imagine taking the leave for a least part of the baby's first year. The study attempts to identify those husbands most likely to take advantage of paternity leave. At present, most men will not choose to stay with their children at the expense of earnings reduction. Compensation reforms for both mothers and fathers must first occur before men and women in a position to make real decisions on maternity and paternity leave.

  15. Maternal Depression, Paternal Psychopathology, and Toddlers' Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J.; Jennings, Kay Donahue; Kelley, Sue A.; Marshal, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article examined the effects of maternal depression during the postpartum period (Time 1) on the later behavior problems of toddlers (Time 3) and tested if this relationship was moderated by paternal psychopathology during toddlers' lives and/or mediated by maternal parenting behavior observed during mother-child interaction (Time 2). Of the…

  16. Brief Report: Phenotypic Differences and Their Relationship to Paternal Age and Gender in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierck, Esther; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2015-01-01

    Two modes of inheritance have been proposed in autism spectrum disorder, transmission though pre-existing variants and de novo mutations. Different modes may lead to different symptom expressions in affected individuals. De novo mutations become more likely with advancing paternal age suggesting that paternal age may predict phenotypic…

  17. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammohan Anu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  18. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school) schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively. PMID:22568861

  19. Paternal history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension affects the prevalence and phenotype of PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Zhang, Haolin; Zhao, Yue; Li, Rong; Qiao, Jie

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine if paternal or maternal history of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension (HT) contributes to the prevalence and phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We performed an epidemiologic study about PCOS from four districts in Beijing, China, between 2008 and 2009. Parental histories of DM and HT were collected, and the basic characteristics and serum indices of 123 PCOS patients and 718 non-PCOS controls were tested. The prevalence of a parental history of DM and HT was significantly higher in PCOS patients than non-PCOS women (17.1 % vs. 9.2 % and 42.3 % vs. 26.0 %, P PCOS and non-PCOS patients (odds ratio (OR) = 3.42, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.69-6.91; OR = 2.50, 95 % CI = 1.58-3.93, respectively). A paternal history of both DM and HT was significantly associated with sex hormone-binding globulin, fasting plasma glucose, and fasting insulin levels, the free androgen index, and the homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance in PCOS patients (P PCOS. PCOS patients with a positive paternal history of both DM and HT have an adverse endocrine and metabolic profile. A paternal history of DM and HT poses a risk to PCOS.

  20. Child gender influences paternal behavior, language, and brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Jennifer S; Rentscher, Kelly E; Hackett, Patrick D; Mehl, Matthias R; Rilling, James K

    2017-06-01

    Multiple lines of research indicate that fathers often treat boys and girls differently in ways that impact child outcomes. The complex picture that has emerged, however, is obscured by methodological challenges inherent to the study of parental caregiving, and no studies to date have examined the possibility that gender differences in observed real-world paternal behavior are related to differential paternal brain responses to male and female children. Here we compare fathers of daughters and fathers of sons in terms of naturalistically observed everyday caregiving behavior and neural responses to child picture stimuli. Compared with fathers of sons, fathers of daughters were more attentively engaged with their daughters, sang more to their daughters, used more analytical language and language related to sadness and the body with their daughters, and had a stronger neural response to their daughter's happy facial expressions in areas of the brain important for reward and emotion regulation (medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]). In contrast, fathers of sons engaged in more rough and tumble play (RTP), used more achievement language with their sons, and had a stronger neural response to their son's neutral facial expressions in the medial OFC (mOFC). Whereas the mOFC response to happy faces was negatively related to RTP, the mOFC response to neutral faces was positively related to RTP, specifically for fathers of boys. These results indicate that real-world paternal behavior and brain function differ as a function of child gender. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Father Involvement: The Importance of Paternal Solo Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Katherine R.; Prior, Margot R.

    2010-01-01

    Paternal time spent caring for children alone is qualitatively different from time together mediated by the presence of the mother and may be particularly relevant to father-child relations. Many fathers spend minimal time alone with their children. Indeed, it is still commonly referred to as "babysitting". We explored the concept of Solo Care as…

  2. Histone variant H3.3-mediated chromatin remodeling is essential for paternal genome activation in mouse preimplantation embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingran; Banaszynski, Laura A; Geng, Fuqiang; Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Jiaming; Zhang, Heng; O'Neill, Claire L; Yan, Peidong; Liu, Zhonghua; Shido, Koji; Palermo, Gianpiero D; Allis, C David; Rafii, Shahin; Rosenwaks, Zev; Wen, Duancheng

    2018-03-09

    Derepression of chromatin-mediated transcriptional repression of paternal and maternal genomes is considered the first major step that initiates zygotic gene expression after fertilization. The histone variant H3.3 is present in both male and female gametes and is thought to be important for remodeling the paternal and maternal genomes for activation during both fertilization and embryogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using our H3.3B-HA-tagged mouse model, engineered to report H3.3 expression in live animals and to distinguish different sources of H3.3 protein in embryos, we show here that sperm-derived H3.3 (sH3.3) protein is removed from the sperm genome shortly after fertilization and extruded from the zygotes via the second polar bodies (PBII) during embryogenesis. We also found that the maternal H3.3 (mH3.3) protein is incorporated into the paternal genome as early as 2 h postfertilization and is detectable in the paternal genome until the morula stage. Knockdown of maternal H3.3 resulted in compromised embryonic development both of fertilized embryos and of androgenetic haploid embryos. Furthermore, we report that mH3.3 depletion in oocytes impairs both activation of the Oct4 pluripotency marker gene and global de novo transcription from the paternal genome important for early embryonic development. Our results suggest that H3.3-mediated paternal chromatin remodeling is essential for the development of preimplantation embryos and the activation of the paternal genome during embryogenesis. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. "Nudge" in the clinical consultation--an acceptable form of medical paternalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Ajay; Davies, Joanna; Sullivan, Richard

    2014-04-17

    Libertarian paternalism is a concept derived from cognitive psychology and behavioural science. It is behind policies that frame information in such a way as to encourage individuals to make choices which are in their best interests, while maintaining their freedom of choice. Clinicians may view their clinical consultations as far removed from the realms of cognitive psychology but on closer examination there are a number of striking similarities. Evidence has shown that decision making is prone to bias and not necessarily rational or logical, particularly during ill health. Clinicians will usually have an opinion about what course of action represents the patient's best interests and thus may "frame" information in a way which "nudges" patients into making choices which are considered likely to maximise their welfare. This may be viewed as interfering with patient autonomy and constitute medical paternalism and appear in direct opposition to the tenets of modern practice. However, we argue that clinicians have a responsibility to try and correct "reasoning failure" in patients. Some compromise between patient autonomy and medical paternalism is justified on these grounds and transparency of how these techniques may be used should be promoted. Overall the extremes of autonomy and paternalism are not compatible in a responsive, responsible and moral health care environment, and thus some compromise of these values is unavoidable. Nudge techniques are widely used in policy making and we demonstrate how they can be applied in shared medical decision making. Whether or not this is ethically sound is a matter of continued debate but health care professionals cannot avoid the fact they are likely to be using nudge within clinical consultations. Acknowledgment of this will lead to greater self-awareness, reflection and provide further avenues for debate on the art and science of clinical communication.

  4. Soft Paternalism and Nudging - Critique of the Behavioral Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Pasche, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This brief note rises doubts on the argument that nudging will help people to behave more rational in terms of their own preferences. This justification of soft paternalism overlooks some methodological problems of expected utility theory which are one of the roots of behavioral economics.

  5. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  6. Advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending: a sibling-comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Pawitan, Yudi; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Långström, Niklas; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2012-08-01

    Children born to older fathers are at higher risk to develop severe psychopathology (e.g., schizophrenia and bipolar disorder), possibly because of increased de novo mutations during spermatogenesis with older paternal age. Because severe psychopathology is correlated with antisocial behavior, we examined possible associations between advancing paternal age and offspring violent offending. Interlinked Swedish national registers provided information on fathers' age at childbirth and violent criminal convictions in all offspring born from 1958 to 1979 (N = 2,359,921). We used ever committing a violent crime and number of violent crimes as indices of violent offending. The data included information on multiple levels; we compared differentially exposed siblings in within-family analyses to rigorously test causal influences. In the entire population, advancing paternal age predicted offspring violent crime according to both indices. Congruent with a causal effect, this association remained for rates of violent crime in within-family analyses. However, in within-family analyses, we found no association with ever committing a violent crime, suggesting that factors shared by siblings (genes and environment) confounded this association. Life-course persistent criminality has been proposed to have a partly biological etiology; our results agree with a stronger biological effect (i.e., de novo mutations) on persistent violent offending.

  7. Influence of postzygotic reproductive isolation on the interspecific transmission of the paternal sex ratio chromosome in Trichogramma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeong, G.S.; Stouthamer, R.

    2006-01-01

    The paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome is a supernumerary chromosome that causes the destruction of the paternal chromosome set in the first mitosis in a fertilized egg. It is known from parasitoid wasps in the genera Nasonia and Trichogramma (Hymenoptera). In these haplodiploids, the egg

  8. The origin of a selfish B chromosome triggering paternal sex ratio in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Stouthamer, R.

    2009-01-01

    This study uses molecular and cytogenetic methods to determine the origin of a B chromosome in some males of the wasp Trichogramma kaykai. This so-called paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome transmits only through sperm and shortly after fertilization triggers degeneration of the paternal genome,

  9. Effects of paternal deprivation on cocaine-induced behavioral response and hypothalamic oxytocin immunoreactivity and serum oxytocin level in female mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianli; Fang, Qianqian; Yang, Chenxi

    2017-09-15

    Early paternal behavior plays a critical role in behavioral development in monogamous species. The vast majority of laboratory studies investigating the influence of parental behavior on cocaine vulnerability focus on the effects of early maternal separation. However, comparable studies on whether early paternal deprivation influences cocaine-induced behavioral response are substantially lacking. Mandarin vole (Microtus mandarinus) is a monogamous rodent with high levels of paternal care. After mandarin vole pups were subjected to early paternal deprivation, acute cocaine- induced locomotion, anxiety- like behavior and social behavior were examined in 45day old female pups, while hypothalamic oxytocin immunoreactivity and serum oxytocin level were also assessed. We found that cocaine increased locomotion and decreased social investigation, contact behavior and serum oxytocin level regardless of paternal care. Cocaine increased anxiety levels and decreased oxytocin immunoreactive neurons of the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei in the bi-parental care group, whilst there were no specific effects in the paternal deprivation group. These results indicate that paternal deprivation results in different behavioral response to acute cocaine exposure in adolescents, which may be in part associated with the alterations in oxytocin immunoreactivity and peripheral OT level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of fathers' socioeconomic status and paternity leave on breastfeeding duration: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flacking, Renée; Dykes, Fiona; Ewald, Uwe

    2010-06-01

    The propensity to breastfeed is a matter of public concern because of the favourable effects for infants. However, very few studies have described the influence of paternal variables upon duration of breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to describe the effects of fathers' socioeconomic status and their use of paternity leave on breastfeeding duration for infants up to 1 year of age. A prospective population-based cohort study was undertaken. Data on breastfeeding, registered in databases in two Swedish counties for 1993-2001, were matched with data on socioeconomic status and paternity leave obtained from Statistics Sweden. Fathers of 51,671 infants were identified and included. Infants whose fathers had a lower level of education, were receiving unemployment benefit and/or had a lower equivalent disposable household income were significantly less likely to be breastfed at 2, 4, 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Infants whose fathers did not take paternity leave during the infant's first year were significantly less likely to be breastfed at 2 (p paternity leave, may have beneficial effects on breastfeeding up to 6 months of age. A more systematic approach to supporting fathers' involvement may be particularly valuable to those infants whose fathers have a lower socioeconomic status.

  11. The influences of parental divorce and maternal-versus-paternal alcohol abuse on offspring lifetime suicide attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ronald G; Alonzo, Dana; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-05-01

    Research indicates that parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increase likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. However, when experienced together, only parental alcohol abuse significantly increased odds of suicide attempt. It is unclear to what extent differences in the effect of maternal versus paternal alcohol use exist on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt risk. This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt. The sample consisted of participants from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The simultaneous effect of childhood or adolescent parental divorce and maternal and paternal history of alcohol problems on offspring lifetime suicide attempt was estimated using a logistic regression model with an interaction term for demographics and parental history of other emotional and behavioural problems. Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems nearly doubled the likelihood of suicide attempt. Divorce and history of alcohol problems for both parents tripled the likelihood. Individuals who experienced parental divorce as children or adolescents and who have a parent who abuses alcohol are at elevated risk for lifetime suicide attempt. These problem areas should become a routine part of assessment to better identify those at risk for lifetime suicide attempt and to implement early and targeted intervention to decrease such risk. [Thompson RG Jr,Alonzo D, Hu M-C, Hasin DS. The influences of parental divorce and maternal-versus-paternal alcohol abuse on offspringlifetime suicide attempt. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:408-414]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. Relational conceptions of paternalism: a way to rebut nanny-state accusations and evaluate public health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S M; Entwistle, V A; Little, M

    2015-08-01

    'Nanny-state' accusations can function as powerful rhetorical weapons against interventions intended to promote public health. Public health advocates often lack effective rebuttals to these criticisms. Nanny-state accusations are largely accusations of paternalism. They conjure up emotive concern about undue governmental interference undermining peoples' autonomy. But autonomy can be understood in various ways. We outline three main conceptions of autonomy, argue that these that can underpin three different conceptions of paternalism, and consider implications for responses to nanny-state accusations and the assessment of public health interventions. Detailed conceptual analysis. The conceptions of paternalism implicit in nanny-state accusations generally depend on libertarian conceptions of autonomy. These reflect unrealistic views of personal independence and do not discriminate sufficiently between trivial and important freedoms. Decisional conceptions of paternalism, like their underlying decisional conceptions of autonomy, have limited applicability in public health contexts. Relational conceptions of paternalism incorporate relational conceptions of autonomy, so recognize that personal autonomy depends on socially shaped skills, self-identities and self-evaluations as well as externally structured opportunities. They encourage attention to the various ways that social interactions and relationships, including disrespect, stigmatization and oppression, can undermine potential for autonomy. While nanny-state accusations target any interference with negative freedom, however trivial, relational conceptions direct concerns to those infringements of negative freedom, or absences of positive freedom, serious enough to undermine self-determination, self-governance and/or self-authorization. Relational conceptions of autonomy and paternalism offer public health policymakers and practitioners a means for rebutting nanny-state accusations, and can support more nuanced

  13. Paternal Age Explains a Major Portion of De Novo Germline Mutation Rate Variability in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon L Girard

    Full Text Available De novo mutations (DNM are an important source of rare variants and are increasingly being linked to the development of many diseases. Recently, the paternal age effect has been the focus of a number of studies that attempt to explain the observation that increasing paternal age increases the risk for a number of diseases. Using disease-free familial quartets we show that there is a strong positive correlation between paternal age and germline DNM in healthy subjects. We also observed that germline CNVs do not follow the same trend, suggesting a different mechanism. Finally, we observed that DNM were not evenly distributed across the genome, which adds support to the existence of DNM hotspots.

  14. Paternal Postnatal and Subsequent Mental Health Symptoms and Child Socio-Emotional and Behavioural Problems at School Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hannah R.; Eryigit-Madzwamuse, Suna; Barnes, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Research on the effect of paternal mental health problems, particularly on young children, is based predominantly on clinical levels of depression. Furthermore, potential mediators such as marital discord have often been overlooked. This longitudinal community study assessed the association between paternal mental health symptoms in a community…

  15. Paternal masculinities in early fatherhood: dominant and counter narratives by Finnish first-time fathers

    OpenAIRE

    Eerola, Petteri; Mykkänen, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we seek to extend understanding of the role of gender in early fatherhood by examining narratives of paternal masculinities, that is, the social and cultural constructions of gendered practices and conventions produced by men on their roles as male parents. The data comprised interviews with 44 Finnish first-time fathers (aged 20-42 years) living in a heterosexual relationship. The narrative of the “decent father,” was identified as the dominant narrative of paternal masculin...

  16. Hubungan Kejadian Penyakit Autistik pada Anak dengan Usia Maternal dan Paternal di Kota Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Stefani

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by serious impairments in social interaction and language development. In Indonesia, cases of autism are approximately 7000 cases. In Medan, estimated there are 250 kids with autism born per year and has increased dramatically in recent years. One of the factors that could cause this disorder is paternal and maternal age. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between paternal and maternal age with Autism in children. Th...

  17. Factor VIII (F8) inversions in severe hemophilia A: Male germ cell origin and diagnosis with RT-PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonarakis, S.E. [Geneva Medical School (Switzerland)]|[Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Rossiter, J.P. [Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Young, M. [Geneva Medical School (Switzerland)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The Factor VIII (F8) gene, which is defective in hemophilia A, is located in the most telomeric megabase of Xq. Inversions due to intrachromosomal homologous recombination between mispaired copies of gene A located within intron 22 of the gene and about 500 kb telomeric to it account for nearly half of the cases of severe hemophilia A. We hypothesized that pairing of Xq with its homolog inhibits the inversion process, and that therefore the event originates predominantly in male germ cells. In all 21 informative cases in which the inversion originated in a maternal grandparent, DNA polymorphism analysis using markers within or very closely linked to F8, determined that it occurred in the male germline. In addition, all but one of 56 mothers of sporadic cases due to inversions were carriers. The data indicate that the F8 gene inversions leading to severe hemophilia A occur almost exclusively in male germ cells. The mean age of maternal grandfathers at the birth of their carrier daughters was 29.9 years (13 cases), i.e. not different from the mean paternal age in the general population, supporting the hypothesis that the inversions occur in meiosis. The inversions can be diagnosed by Southern blot analysis. For more rapid diagnosis we have used RT-PCR of RNA ectopically expressed in blood. Oligonucleotides were used to PCR amplify, after the initial RT reaction of RNA samples using random hexamers, either the normal transcript (F8 exons 21 to 24;312 bp product) or the novel abnormal transcript that is generated after the inversion. Both type 1 and 2 inversions can be recognized in affecteds and carriers by the presence of the diagnostic PcR product of 248 bp. Correct diagnoses were made in samples from 6 patients and 2 carriers with type 1 inversions, 2 patients and 2 carriers with type 2 inversions and 5 normal controls.

  18. Paternal Involvement with Children: The Influence of Gender Ideologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanda, Ronald E.

    2004-01-01

    Although prior social science research has established the ability of gender ideologies to influence the domestic division of labor, it has neglected to disentangle their potentially unique influence on paternal involvement with children. Past research examining the influence of gender ideology on parenting behaviors does not acknowledge potential…

  19. Consequences Paternity Leave on Allocation of Childcare and Domestic Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of parental leave policies aimed exclusively at fathers is to promote gender equality in the productive and reproductive spheres. The aim of this study is to examine whether the use of paternity leave fosters greater involvement of fathers in the division of tasks within the reproductive sphere, specifi cally child care and housework. Based on data from the survey, ?Social use of parental leave in Spain, 2012?, we have created multivariate models using ordinary least squares regression. The sample used in the analysis consists of 600 fathers who have had at least one child since 2007. The results suggest that paternity leave does encourage greater involvement by fathers in childcare, but the effect is limited, as it is only found for fathers after the birth of their fi rst child.

  20. Age- and tactic-related paternity success in male African elephants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Barner; Okello, J. B. A.; Wittemyer, G.

    2008-01-01

    on age- and tactic-specific paternity success in male African elephants are the first from a free-ranging population and demonstrate that paternity success increases dramatically with age, with the small number of older bulls in the competitive state of musth being the most successful sires. However......, nonmusth males sired 20% of genotyped calves, and 60% of mature bulls (>20 years old) were estimated to have sired offspring during the 5-year study period. The 3 most successful males sired less than 20% of the genotyped offspring. Hence, contrary to prediction from behavior and life-history traits......, reproduction was not heavily skewed compared with many other mammalian systems with a similar breeding system. Nevertheless, these results indicate that trophy hunting and ivory poaching, both of which target older bulls, may have substantial behavioral and genetic effects on elephant populations. In addition...

  1. Reduced IFN-γ and IL-10 responses to paternal antigens during and after pregnancy in allergic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Marie; Ekerfelt, Christina; Ernerudh, Jan; Matthiesen, Leif; Abelius, Martina Sandberg; Jonsson, Yvonne; Berg, Göran; Jenmalm, Maria C

    2012-09-01

    Normal pregnancy and allergy are both characterized by a T helper (Th) 2 deviation. In the current study, we hypothesized that paternal antigen-induced cytokine responses during pregnancy would be deviated toward Th2 and an anti-inflammatory profile, and that the Th2 deviation would be more pronounced in allergic pregnant women. Blood samples were collected longitudinally on three occasions during pregnancy and two occasions post partum (pp). Of the 86 women initially included, 54 women had a normal pregnancy and completed the sampling procedures. Twelve women fulfilled the criteria for allergy (allergic symptoms and circulating immunoglobulin [Ig] E antibodies to inhalant allergens) and 20 were non-allergic (nonsensitized without symptoms). The levels of Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines and chemokines, the Th17 cytokine IL-17 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 of the groups were compared. Paternal antigen-induced IL-4 and IL-10 responses increased between the first and the third trimester. Allergy was associated with decreased paternal antigen-induced IFN-γ and CXCL10 secretion in the nonpregnant state (one year pp) and also decreased IFN-γ/IL-4 and IFN-γ/IL-13 ratios during pregnancy. We also observed a decreased paternal antigen-induced IL-10 response in allergic compared with non-allergic women during pregnancy, along with a decreased IL-10/IL-13 ratio. In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis of lower Th1 responses toward paternal antigens in allergic than in non-allergic women, but also indicate that allergy is associated with a lower capacity to induce anti-inflammatory IL-10 responses after paternal antigen stimulation during pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Negative effects of paternal age on children's neurocognitive outcomes can be explained by maternal education and number of siblings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Edwards

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest advanced paternal age may be associated with impaired child outcomes, in particular, neurocognitive skills. Such patterns are worrisome given relatively universal trends in advanced countries toward delayed nuptiality and fertility. But nature and nurture are both important for child outcomes, and it is important to control for both when drawing inferences about either pathway.We examined cross-sectional patterns in six developmental outcome measures among children in the U.S. Collaborative Perinatal Project (n = 31,346. Many of these outcomes at 8 mo, 4 y, and 7 y of age (Bayley scales, Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale, Graham-Ernhart Block Sort Test, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Wide Range Achievement Test are negatively correlated with paternal age when important family characteristics such as maternal education and number of siblings are not included as covariates. But controlling for family characteristics in general and mother's education in particular renders the effect of paternal age statistically insignificant for most developmental measures.Assortative mating produces interesting relationships between maternal and paternal characteristics that can inject spurious correlation into observational studies via omitted variable bias. Controlling for both nature and nurture reveals little residual evidence of a link between child neurocognitive outcomes and paternal age in these data. Results suggest that benefits associated with the upward trend in maternal education may offset any negative effects of advancing paternal age.

  3. Genetic analysis of maternal and paternal lineages in Kabardian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high mitochondrial and also remarkable paternal diversity of the Kabardian horse is caused by its long history with a widely spread maternal origin and the introduction of Arabian as well as Thoroughbred influenced stallions for improvement. This high genetic diversity provides a good situation for the ongoing breed ...

  4. Falling Behind? Children's Early Grade Retention after Paternal Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Haskins, Anna R.

    2014-01-01

    A growing literature documents the myriad penalties for children of incarcerated fathers, but relatively little is known about how paternal incarceration contributes to educational outcomes in early and middle childhood. In this article, we use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to provide the first estimates of the…

  5. Preconception paternal bisphenol A exposure induces sex-specific anxiety and depression behaviors in adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Fan

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA, an environmental endocrine-disrupting compound, has drawn a great attention for its adverse effect on behavioral development. Maternal exposure to this compound has been reported to induce anxiety and depression in offspring, but the effect of its paternal exposure is rarely discussed. This study investigated whether preconception paternal BPA exposure can affect the emotions of male rats and their offspring. Eighteen adult male rats (F0 received either a vehicle or 50 μg/kg/day BPA diet for 21 weeks and were then mated with non-exposed females to produce offspring (F1. The affective behaviors of F0 and F1 rats were evaluated in the open-field test, the elevated-plus maze and the forced swimming test, and their serum corticosterone were then examined. BPA exposure induced increased anxiety behaviors along with increased serum corticosterone in F0 rats. This paternal exposure also led to increased anxiety behaviors in F1 females and aggravated depression behaviors in both sexes of F1 rats. Furthermore, only F1 females exhibited increased serum corticosterone. Overall, these data indicate that preconception paternal exposure to a low dose of BPA may induce transgenerational sex-specific impairments in the affection of adult rats.

  6. “just hanging out with you in my back yard”: Mark Zuckerberg and Mediated Paternalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Little Ben

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In a video that showcases a new Facebook feature, Mark Zuckerberg chats to his users, telling them that he’s “just hanging out with you in my backyard.” In this video-which is on his Facebook page-Zuckerberg discloses the domestic space of his backyard, revealing his interaction with family and friends. Depicted hosting a barbeque while watching the electoral debate, Zuckerberg performs an affective white postfeminist paternity (Hamad, 2014 by talking about hunting, eating meat, and being a father. This video is key in explaining how Zuckerberg affectively models patriarchal power. We argue that this PR exercise (for both him and Facebook which are portrayed as inextricably linked functions to represent Facebook as enabling an empowered “community,” rather than being just an instrument of data accumulation. In particular, Zuckerberg’s affective paternalism is also a means to recoup and obfuscate patriarchal power structures. Zuckerberg’s Facebook page constructs an intimate paternalism in relation to his domestic sphere, but also to his followers, and this works to legitimate his corporate and global paternalism. The ways in which he is portrayed through signifiers of an emotional fatherhood work to gloss his power as the third richest man in the world.

  7. Postnatal paternal involvement and maternal emotional disturbances: The effect of maternal employment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wan-Chien; Chang, Shin-Yow; Chen, Yi-Ting; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Chen, Yi-Hua

    2017-09-01

    Recently, studies have begun emphasizing paternal involvement during the perinatal period and its impact on maternal health. However, most studies have assessed maternal perception and focused on adolescents or minority groups in Western countries. Therefore, the current study investigated the association between paternal involvement and maternal postnatal depression and anxiety, along with the effects of maternal job status in the Asian society of Taiwan. This study recruited pregnant women in the first trimester of pregnancy as well as their partners on prenatal visits from July 2011 to September 2013 at four selected hospitals in metropolitan areas of Taipei, Taiwan. In total, 593 parental pairs completed the first interview and responded to the follow-up questionnaires until 6 months postpartum. Self-reported data were collected, and multiple logistic regression models were used for analyses. Lower paternal childcare and nursing frequency was independently associated with an increased risk of maternal postpartum depression (adjusted odds ratio (OR) =4.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.34-13.98), particularly among unemployed mothers. Furthermore, among unemployed mothers, the risk of postnatal anxiety was 3.14 times higher in couples with fathers spending less time with the child, compared with couples with fathers spending more time (95% CI=1.10-8.98). However, no significant findings were obtained for employed mothers. The high prevalence of maternal postnatal emotional disturbances warrants continual consideration. Higher paternal involvement in childcare arrangements should be emphasized to aid in ameliorating these maternal emotional disturbances, particularly among unemployed mothers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple Mating, Paternity and Complex Fertilisation Patterns in the Chokka Squid Loligo reynaudii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Jose Naud

    Full Text Available Polyandry is widespread and influences patterns of sexual selection, with implications for sexual conflict over mating. Assessing sperm precedence patterns is a first step towards understanding sperm competition within a female and elucidating the roles of male- and female-controlled factors. In this study behavioural field data and genetic data were combined to investigate polyandry in the chokka squid Loligo reynaudii. Microsatellite DNA-based paternity analysis revealed multiple paternity to be the norm, with 79% of broods sired by at least two males. Genetic data also determined that the male who was guarding the female at the moment of sampling was a sire in 81% of the families tested, highlighting mate guarding as a successful male tactic with postcopulatory benefits linked to sperm deposition site giving privileged access to extruded egg strings. As females lay multiple eggs in capsules (egg strings wherein their position is not altered during maturation it is possible to describe the spatial / temporal sequence of fertilisation / sperm precedence There were four different patterns of fertilisation found among the tested egg strings: 1 unique sire; 2 dominant sire, with one or more rare sires; 3 randomly mixed paternity (two or more sires; and 4 a distinct switch in paternity occurring along the egg string. The latter pattern cannot be explained by a random use of stored sperm, and suggests postcopulatory female sperm choice. Collectively the data indicate multiple levels of male- and female-controlled influences on sperm precedence, and highlights squid as interesting models to study the interplay between sexual and natural selection.

  9. Mating success and sexual selection in a pelagic copepod, Temora longicornis: Evidence from paternity analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sichlau, Mie Hylstofte; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about mating patterns is essential for understanding and explaining rates of reproduction and genetic potential of copepods populations. The aim of this study was to examine (1) the occurrence of multiple paternity in Temora longicornis, (2) the effect of multiple paternity (if present......) on the females reproductive output, and (3) whether mating is random or some individuals have a higher than average chance of fertilizing or being fertilized (super individuals). We show that multiple paternity is common in this copepod species, that females benefit from multiple matings by increased offspring...... production, and that a relatively small fraction of the males and females in a population account for most of the offspring production. In both males and females, mating is nonrandom. Superior individuals with a higher than average matings success were identified both among females and among males....

  10. Nature v. Nurture: Children Left Fatherless and Family-Less When Nature Prevails in Paternity Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Niccol Kording

    2004-01-01

    Those words describe the feeling many parents get from parenthood and from being part of a family, regardless of whether the child is their biological offspring, stepchild, surrogate child, or adopted child. All these families and children born of biological connections or traditional families enjoy some protection under statutory or common law paternity or parentage laws. The Uniform Parentage Act and similar paternity laws protect traditional families under the marital or legitimacy presump...

  11. Reinvestigations of six unusual paternity cases by typing of autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2012-01-01

    and published as case work examples in forensic journals. Here, the cases were reinvestigated by typing the samples for 49 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using the SNPforID multiplex assay. RESULTS: Three cases were solved by the SNP investigation without the need for any additional testing....... In two cases, the SNP results supported the conclusions based on STRs. In the last case, the SNP results spoke in favor of paternity, and the combined paternity index based on autosomal STRs and SNPs was 12.3 billion. Nevertheless, the alleged father was excluded by X-chromosome typing. CONCLUSION...

  12. Combined association of maternal and paternal family history of diabetes with plasma leptin and adiponectin in overweight Hispanic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebnick, C; Kelly, L A; Lane, C J; Roberts, C K; Shaibi, G Q; Toledo-Corral, C M; Davis, J N; Weigensberg, M J; Goran, M I

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the importance of a maternal and paternal family history of Type 2 diabetes and their combined association with plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in overweight Latino children with a family history of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This cross-sectional study investigated the combined association of a maternal and paternal family history of T2DM with leptin and adiponectin in 175 overweight Latino children (age 11.1 +/- 1.7 years). All subjects had a family history of T2DM. Plasma adiponectin and leptin levels, body fat measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, Tanner stage, age and insulin sensitivity were assessed. After adjustment for age, gestational diabetes, insulin sensitivity and body fat, a combined maternal and paternal family history of T2DM was associated with higher leptin concentrations (P = 0.004) compared with a maternal or paternal family history alone. This association was most pronounced at Tanner stage 1 (P for interaction family history x tanner stage = 0.022). The presence of a combined maternal and paternal family history of T2DM accounted for 4% (P = 0.003) of the variation in leptin concentrations. No such combined association was observed for adiponectin levels. Maternal and paternal family history of T2DM may have an additive impact on leptin, but not on adiponectin levels independent of adiposity and insulin sensitivity in overweight Latino children. This may contribute to a further clinically relevant deterioration of metabolic health in this population.

  13. Racial discrepancies in the association between paternal vs. maternal educational level and risk of low birthweight in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidis, Christina; Ko, Cynthia W; Saha, Somnath; Koepsell, Thomas D

    2004-06-17

    BACKGROUND: The role of paternal factors in determining the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes has received less attention than maternal factors. Similarly, the interaction between the effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on pregnancy outcomes is not well known. Our objective was to assess the relative importance of paternal vs. maternal education in relation to risk of low birth weight (LBW) across different racial groups. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using Washington state birth certificate data from 1992 to 1996 (n = 264,789). We assessed the associations between maternal or paternal education and LBW, adjusting for demographic variables, health services factors, and maternal behavioral and obstetrical factors. RESULTS: Paternal educational level was independently associated with LBW after adjustment for race, maternal education, demographic characteristics, health services factors; and other maternal factors. We found an interaction between the race and maternal education on risk of LBW. In whites, maternal education was independently associated with LBW. However, in the remainder of the sample, maternal education had a minimal effect on LBW. CONCLUSIONS: The degree of association between maternal education and LBW delivery was different in whites than in members of other racial groups. Paternal education was associated with LBW in both whites and non-whites. Further studies are needed to understand why maternal education may impact pregnancy outcomes differently depending on race and why paternal education may play a more important role than maternal education in some racial categories.

  14. Racial discrepancies in the association between paternal vs. maternal educational level and risk of low birthweight in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Cynthia W

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of paternal factors in determining the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes has received less attention than maternal factors. Similarly, the interaction between the effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES on pregnancy outcomes is not well known. Our objective was to assess the relative importance of paternal vs. maternal education in relation to risk of low birth weight (LBW across different racial groups. Methods We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using Washington state birth certificate data from 1992 to 1996 (n = 264,789. We assessed the associations between maternal or paternal education and LBW, adjusting for demographic variables, health services factors, and maternal behavioral and obstetrical factors. Results Paternal educational level was independently associated with LBW after adjustment for race, maternal education, demographic characteristics, health services factors; and other maternal factors. We found an interaction between the race and maternal education on risk of LBW. In whites, maternal education was independently associated with LBW. However, in the remainder of the sample, maternal education had a minimal effect on LBW. Conclusions The degree of association between maternal education and LBW delivery was different in whites than in members of other racial groups. Paternal education was associated with LBW in both whites and non-whites. Further studies are needed to understand why maternal education may impact pregnancy outcomes differently depending on race and why paternal education may play a more important role than maternal education in some racial categories.

  15. To eat or not to eat : egg-based assessment of paternity triggers fine-tuned decisions about filial cannibalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehlis, Marion; Bakker, Theo C. M.; Engqvist, Leif; Frommen, Joachim G.

    2010-01-01

    Filial cannibalism occurs in many animal species ranging from insects to mammals, and is especially well described in teleost fishes. Numerous causes may lead to this behaviour, e. g. certainty of paternity. However, the cues males use to assess their paternity often remain unknown. One possible way

  16. Father Involvement, Paternal Sensitivity, and Father-Child Attachment Security in the First Three Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geoffrey L.; Mangelsdorf, Sarah C.; Neff, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    To reach a greater understanding of the early father-child attachment relationship, this study examined concurrent and longitudinal associations among father involvement, paternal sensitivity, and father-child attachment security at 13 months and 3 years of age. Analyses revealed few associations among these variables at 13 months of age, but involvement and sensitivity independently predicted father-child attachment security at age 3. Moreover, sensitivity moderated the association between involvement and attachment security at 3 years. Specifically, involvement was unrelated to attachment security when fathers were highly sensitive, but positively related to attachment security when fathers were relatively less sensitive. Father involvement was also moderately stable across the two timepoints, but paternal sensitivity was not. Furthermore, there was significant stability in father-child attachment security from 13 months to 3 years. Secure attachment at 13 months also predicted greater levels of paternal sensitivity at 3 years, with sensitivity at age 3 mediating the association between 13 month and 3 year attachment security. In sum, a secure father-child attachment relationship a) was related to both quantity and quality of fathering behavior, b) remained relatively stable across early childhood, and c) predicted increased paternal sensitivity over time. These findings further our understanding of the correlates of early father-child attachment, and underscore the need to consider multiple domains of fathers’ parenting and reciprocal relations between fathering behavior and father-child attachment security. PMID:22468691

  17. [Fathers of first infants--preparatory courses about delivery, experience of delivery and paternity leave].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, J; Dueholm, M; Nielsen, K T; Wiese, J; Strand, J E; Jangaard, J K

    1989-05-22

    In the Central Hospital in Randers, 233 fathers of first infants replied to a questionnaire which illustrated their attitudes to the preparatory courses about delivery, experience of delivery and attitudes to paternity leave. 65% of the fathers participated in the course and 74% stated that they considered that this had been profitable. Where 77% of the men were concerned, these considered that participation in delivery had been a positive experience. 73% of the men had planned paternity leave around the time of delivery, which emphasizes the need for this arrangement.

  18. Paternalism, Public Health Ethics, and Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Søren Flinch

    2015-01-01

    . The consequence is deep inequalities in health. The state, to the extent it is part of its role to prevent harm and to reduce inequality, appears obliged to try to influence people’s health choices in the interest of their own health and general well-being. However, the state acting to prevent people from harming...... of the problem of paternalism than their proponents are inclined to think. More familiar measures aiming to make the health-endangering behavior more expensive and/or difficult or outright prohibiting it stand a good chance of reducing inequalities, whilst not being more controversial than nudging policies...

  19. Personal and couple level risk factors: Maternal and paternal parent-child aggression risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Meagan C; Rodriguez, Christina M; Baker, Levi R

    2017-07-01

    Previous literature examining parent-child aggression (PCA) risk has relied heavily upon mothers, limiting our understanding of paternal risk factors. Moreover, the extent to which factors in the couple relationship work in tandem with personal vulnerabilities to impact PCA risk is unclear. The current study examined whether personal stress and distress predicted PCA risk (child abuse potential, over-reactive discipline style, harsh discipline practices) for fathers as well as mothers and whether couple functioning mediated versus moderated the relation between personal stress and PCA risk in a sample of 81 couples. Additionally, the potential for risk factors in one partner to cross over and affect their partner's PCA risk was considered. Findings indicated higher personal stress predicted elevated maternal and paternal PCA risk. Better couple functioning did not moderate this relationship but partially mediated stress and PCA risk for both mothers and fathers. In addition, maternal stress evidenced a cross-over effect, wherein mothers' personal stress linked to fathers' couple functioning. Findings support the role of stress and couple functioning in maternal and paternal PCA risk, including potential cross-over effects that warrant further inquiry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Paternal overprotection in obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression with obsessive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takafumi; Taga, Chiaki; Matsumoto, Yoshitake; Fukui, Kenji

    2005-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that a parental rearing style showing a low level of care on the parental bonding instrument (PBI) is a risk factor for depression, and that there is a relationship between the overprotective rearing style on the PBI and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, there is no study on the parental rearing attitudes in depressive patients divided into two groups based on their obsessive traits. In this study, we evaluated the parental rearing attitudes and examined the differences among four groups: depressive patients with severe obsessive traits, depressive patients with mild obsessive traits, OCD patients, and healthy volunteers. We divided the depressive patients into severe and mild groups based on their obsessive traits on the Mausdley Obsessional-Compulsive Inventory (MOCI). We compared PBI scores among four groups of 50 subjects matched for age and sex: depressive patients with severe obsessive traits, depressive patients with mild obsessive traits, OCD patients, and healthy volunteers. The paternal protection scores in the depressive patients with severely obsessive traits and the OCD patients were significantly higher than those in the depressive patients with mildly obsessive traits and healthy volunteers. This study indicated that the depressive patients with severe obsessive traits and the OCD patients have similar paternal controlling and interfering rearing attitudes. We conclude that the paternal controlling and interfering rearing attitudes are linked to the development of OCD and depression with obsessive traits, and are not linked to the development of depression itself.

  1. Maternal and paternal genomes differentially affect myofibre characteristics and muscle weights of bovine fetuses at midgestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ruidong; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Johns, William H; Eindorf, Tanja; Rutley, David L; Kruk, Zbigniew A; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J; Thomsen, Dana A; Roberts, Claire T; Burns, Brian M; Anderson, Gail I; Greenwood, Paul L; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term) of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80-96%) and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82-89% and 56-93%, respectively). Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (Pmaternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, Pmaternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, Pmaternal weight effect (5-6%, Ppaternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, Pinteraction between maternal and paternal genomes (Pmaternal weight (Pmaternal and paternal genomes on fetal muscle.

  2. Does paternity leave affect mothers’ sickness absence

    OpenAIRE

    Bratberg, Espen; Naz, Ghazala

    2009-01-01

    Female labour force participation is high in Norway but sickness absence rates are higher for women than for men. This may be partly a result of unequal sharing of childcare in the family. In this paper, we consider the effect of paternity leave on sickness absence among women who have recently given birth. We draw on a six-year panel taken from full population data from administrative sources. We find that in the 6% of families where fathers take out leave more than the standard quota (gende...

  3. Those They Leave behind: Paternal Incarceration and Maternal Instrumental Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Schnittker, Jason; Wildeman, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    As the American imprisonment rate has risen, researchers have become increasingly concerned about the implications of mass imprisonment for family life. The authors extend this research by examining how paternal incarceration is linked to perceived instrumental support among the mothers of inmates' children. Results from the Fragile Families and…

  4. The association of parental education with childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries: comparing the role of paternal and maternal education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Sebastian; Bommer, Christian; Krishna, Aditi; Harttgen, Kenneth; Subramanian, S V

    2017-02-01

    Most existing research on the association of parental education with childhood undernutrition focuses on maternal education and often ignores paternal education. We systematically investigate differences in maternal and paternal education and their association with childhood undernutrition. One hundred and eighty Demographic and Health Surveys from 62 countries performed between 1990 and 2014 were analysed. We used linear-probability models to predict childhood undernutrition prevalences, measured as stunting, underweight and wasting, for all combinations of maternal and paternal attainment in school. Models were adjusted for demographic and socio-economic covariates for the child, mother and household, country-level fixed effects and clustering. Additional specifications adjust for local area characteristics instead of country fixed effects. Both higher maternal and paternal education levels are associated with lower childhood undernutrition. In regressions adjusted for child age and sex as well as country-level fixed effects, the association is stronger for maternal education than for paternal education when their combined level of education is held constant. In the fully adjusted models, the observed differences in predicted undernutrition prevalences are strongly attenuated, suggesting a similar importance of maternal and paternal education. These findings are confirmed by the analysis of composite schooling indicators. We find that paternal education is similarly important for reducing childhood undernutrition as maternal education and should therefore receive increased attention in the literature. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  5. Will male advertisement be a reliable indicator of paternal care, if offspring survival depends on male care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Natasha B; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2009-09-07

    Existing theory predicts that male signalling can be an unreliable indicator of paternal care, but assumes that males with high levels of mating success can have high current reproductive success, without providing any parental care. As a result, this theory does not hold for the many species where offspring survival depends on male parental care. We modelled male allocation of resources between advertisement and care for species with male care where males vary in quality, and the effect of care and advertisement on male fitness is multiplicative rather than additive. Our model predicts that males will allocate proportionally more of their resources to whichever trait (advertisement or paternal care) is more fitness limiting. In contrast to previous theory, we find that male advertisement is always a reliable indicator of paternal care and male phenotypic quality (e.g. males with higher levels of advertisement never allocate less to care than males with lower levels of advertisement). Our model shows that the predicted pattern of male allocation and the reliability of male signalling depend very strongly on whether paternal care is assumed to be necessary for offspring survival and how male care affects offspring survival and male fitness.

  6. Paternal Pregnancy Intention and Breastfeeding Duration: Findings from the National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenborn, Jordyn T; Masho, Saba W; Ratliff, Scott

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Despite the benefits of breastfeeding, less than a fifth of American mothers breastfeed for the recommended duration. Paternal support plays a major role in maternal and child health outcomes; however, the influence of paternal pregnancy intention on breastfeeding duration is under investigated. This study examines the relationship between fathers' pregnancy intention and breastfeeding duration. Methods Data from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth were analyzed using cross-sectional methodology. Women who were pregnant, never received medical help to become pregnant, whose partner was aged 18-49 years, and who responded to questions related to paternal pregnancy intention and breastfeeding were included in the analysis (N = 2089). Multinomial logistic regression, odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated. There was a statistically significant interaction between father's age and father's pregnancy intention (P = 0.0385) and all models were stratified by paternal age. Results Fathers aged 18-24 years with a mistimed pregnancy were 2.3 times more likely to have a child who was never breastfed, (AOR 2.27, 95 % CI 1.39-3.70) and 1.7 times more likely to have a child who was breastfed 6 months or less (AOR 1.69, 95 % CI 1.28-2.23) compared to fathers with an intended pregnancy. No statistically significant association was observed among fathers aged 25-49 years. Conclusion Findings from this study show a relationship between mistimed pregnancies and breastfeeding duration among younger fathers. Healthcare professionals should develop breastfeeding interventions targeting fathers and young families.

  7. Paternal epigenetic effects of population density on locust phase-related characteristics associated with heat-shock protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing; Li, Shaoqin; Ren, Qiang; Tong, Xiwen; Zhang, Xia; Kang, Le

    2015-02-01

    Many species exhibit transgenerational plasticity by which environmental cues experienced by either parent can be transmitted to their offspring, resulting in phenotypic variants in offspring to match ancestral environments. However, the manner by which paternal experiences affect offspring plasticity through epigenetic inheritance in animals generally remains unclear. In this study, we examined the transgenerational effects of population density on phase-related traits in the migratory locust Locusta migratoria. Using an experimental design that explicitly controls genetic background, we found that the effects of crowd or isolation rearing on phase plasticity could be inherited to the offspring. The isolation of gregarious locusts resulted in reduced weight in offspring eggs and altered morphometric traits in hatchlings, whereas crowding of solitarious locusts exhibited opposite effects. The consequences of density changes were transmitted by both maternal and paternal inheritance, although the expression of paternal effects was not as pronounced as that of maternal effects. Prominent expression of heat-shock proteins (Hsps), such as Hsp90, Hsp70 and Hsp20.6, could be triggered by density changes. Hsps were significantly upregulated upon crowding but downregulated upon isolation. The variation in parental Hsp expression was also transmitted to the offspring, in which the pattern of inheritance was consistent with that of phase characteristics. These results revealed a paternal effect on phase polyphenism and Hsp expression induced by population density, and defined a model system that could be used to study the paternal epigenetic inheritance of environmental changes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Paid maternity and paternity leave: rights and choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Claire

    2007-01-01

    From April 2007 onwards, maternity leave will be raised to nine months Paid maternity leave is associated with significant health benefits for babies, including reduced infant mortality The Government proposes to increase paid maternity leave to one year and introduce additional paternity leave by around 2009 The U.K's provision for maternity leave and child care is more generous than the U.S.A. or Australia but less than in the Scandinavian countries

  9. A New "Shield of the Weak": Continued Paternalism of Domestic Violence Services in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Allison

    2018-03-01

    Drawing on ethnographic and historical research, this article illuminates the limitations of the Uruguayan domestic violence services system. In spite of how advocates in Uruguay successfully used a human rights platform to secure legislation and services, this system now faces significant critique. Using Iris Marion Young's work on the "logic of masculinist protection" and historical parallels in Uruguay's welfare system, I discuss how a paternalistic approach may be to blame. I highlight how this paternalism contributes to the paternalism that problematically underlies gendered violence-reinforcing rather than addressing oppressive ideologies and structures that impede improving conditions for women.

  10. Early maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and adult psychopathic personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Raine, A.; Chan, F.; Venables, P. H.; Mednick, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant gap in the literature on risk factors for psychopathy is the relative lack of research on parental bonding. Method This study examines the cross-sectional relationship between maternal and paternal bonding, childhood physical abuse and psychopathic personality at age 28 years in a community sample of 333 males and females. It also assesses prospectively whether children separated from their parents in the first 3 years of life are more likely to have a psychopathic-like personality 25 years later. Results Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that: (1) poor parental bonding (lack of maternal care and low paternal overprotection) and childhood physical abuse were both associated with a psychopathic personality; (2) parental bonding was significantly associated with psychopathic personality after taking into account sex, social adversity, ethnicity and abuse; (3) those separated from parents in the first 3 years of life were particularly characterized by low parental bonding and a psychopathic personality in adulthood; and (4) the deviant behavior factor of psychopathy was more related to lack of maternal care whereas the emotional detachment factor was related to both lack of maternal care and paternal overprotection. Conclusions Findings draw attention to the importance of different components of early bonding in relation to adult psychopathy, and may have potential implications for early intervention and prevention of psychopathy. PMID:20441692

  11. “Nudge” in the clinical consultation – an acceptable form of medical paternalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Libertarian paternalism is a concept derived from cognitive psychology and behavioural science. It is behind policies that frame information in such a way as to encourage individuals to make choices which are in their best interests, while maintaining their freedom of choice. Clinicians may view their clinical consultations as far removed from the realms of cognitive psychology but on closer examination there are a number of striking similarities. Discussion Evidence has shown that decision making is prone to bias and not necessarily rational or logical, particularly during ill health. Clinicians will usually have an opinion about what course of action represents the patient’s best interests and thus may “frame” information in a way which “nudges” patients into making choices which are considered likely to maximise their welfare. This may be viewed as interfering with patient autonomy and constitute medical paternalism and appear in direct opposition to the tenets of modern practice. However, we argue that clinicians have a responsibility to try and correct “reasoning failure” in patients. Some compromise between patient autonomy and medical paternalism is justified on these grounds and transparency of how these techniques may be used should be promoted. Summary Overall the extremes of autonomy and paternalism are not compatible in a responsive, responsible and moral health care environment, and thus some compromise of these values is unavoidable. Nudge techniques are widely used in policy making and we demonstrate how they can be applied in shared medical decision making. Whether or not this is ethically sound is a matter of continued debate but health care professionals cannot avoid the fact they are likely to be using nudge within clinical consultations. Acknowledgment of this will lead to greater self-awareness, reflection and provide further avenues for debate on the art and science of clinical communication. PMID:24742113

  12. A Comparison of Perceived and Measured Paternal Weight and BMI, and Relationship to Weight and BMI of his Children

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, RF

    2018-02-01

    Nineteen percent of 9 years old Irish children are overweight; seven percent are obese. Our aims were: to examine whether differences exist between paternal self-reported and measured height, weight and BMI in a population representative sample; and to explore paternal perceptions of their own weight status.\\r\

  13. Angelman syndrome with uniparental disomy due to paternal meiosis II nondisjunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyftodimou, J; Karadima, G; Pandelia, E; Vassilopoulos, D; Petersen, M B

    1999-06-01

    We report a case of Angelman syndrome (AS) with paternal uniparental disomy (pUPD) of chromosome 15. This 6-year-old girl with overgrowth had frequent, but only provoked laughter, was mildly ataxic with limb hypertonia, and had no intelligible speech. She had deep-set eyes, protruding tongue, and prominent chin. The karyotype was normal. DNA analysis with microsatellites from chromosome 15 showed no inheritance of maternal alleles both within and outside the AS critical region. Proximal markers showed reduction to homozygosity of paternal alleles, intermediate markers showed nonreduction, and distal markers reduction, thus suggesting a meiosis II nondisjunction event in the father with two crossovers. This is, to our knowledge, the first reported case of AS due to meiosis II nondisjunction. We present detailed physical measurements in this patient, adding to the clinical description of the milder phenotype in AS due to pUPD.

  14. Independent origins of Indian caste and tribal paternal lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordaux, Richard; Aunger, Robert; Bentley, Gillian; Nasidze, Ivane; Sirajuddin, S M; Stoneking, Mark

    2004-02-03

    The origins of the nearly one billion people inhabiting the Indian subcontinent and following the customs of the Hindu caste system are controversial: are they largely derived from Indian local populations (i.e. tribal groups) or from recent immigrants to India? Archaeological and linguistic evidence support the latter hypothesis, whereas recent genetic data seem to favor the former hypothesis. Here, we analyze the most extensive dataset of Indian caste and tribal Y chromosomes to date. We find that caste and tribal groups differ significantly in their haplogroup frequency distributions; caste groups are homogeneous for Y chromosome variation and more closely related to each other and to central Asian groups than to Indian tribal or any other Eurasian groups. We conclude that paternal lineages of Indian caste groups are primarily descended from Indo-European speakers who migrated from central Asia approximately 3,500 years ago. Conversely, paternal lineages of tribal groups are predominantly derived from the original Indian gene pool. We also provide evidence for bidirectional male gene flow between caste and tribal groups. In comparison, caste and tribal groups are homogeneous with respect to mitochondrial DNA variation, which may reflect the sociocultural characteristics of the Indian caste society.

  15. Risk of Adverse Pregnancy Outcome After Paternal Exposure to Methotrexate Within 90 Days Before Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eck, Lasse Karlsen; Jensen, Thomas Bo; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between paternal exposure to methotrexate within the 90-day period before pregnancy and congenital malformations and stillbirth in the offspring. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide register study. Our cohort consisted of all live births in Denmark between 1997...... group and no increased risk of preterm birth (adjusted OR 1.31, 95% CI 0.66-2.59) among the children from exposed fathers. CONCLUSION: We found no association between paternal exposure to methotrexate within 90 days before pregnancy and congenital malformations, stillbirths, or preterm birth. Available...

  16. Paternal care in a fish: epigenetics and fitness enhancing effects on offspring anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhee, Katie E; Bell, Alison M

    2014-11-07

    In many animals, including humans, interactions with caring parents can have long-lasting effects on offspring sensitivity to stressors. However, whether these parental effects impact offspring fitness in nature is often unclear. In addition, despite evidence that maternal care can influence offspring behaviour via epigenetic alterations to the genome, it remains unclear whether paternal care has similar effects. Here, we show in three-spined sticklebacks, a fish in which fathers are the sole provider of offspring care, that the direct care provided by fathers affects offspring anxiety and the potential for epigenetic alterations to the offspring genome. We find that families are differentially vulnerable to early stress and fathers can compensate for this differential sensitivity with the quality of their care. This variation in paternal care is also linked to the expression in offspring brains of a DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt3a) responsible for de novo methylation. We show that these paternal effects are potentially adaptive and anxious offspring are unlikely to survive an encounter with a predator. By supplying offspring care, fathers reduce offspring anxiety thereby increasing the survival of their offspring-not in the traditional sense through resource provisioning but through an epigenetic effect on offspring behavioural development. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Patterns of paternity skew among polyandrous social insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; den Boer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Monogamy results in high genetic relatedness among offspring and thus it is generally assumed to be favored by kin selection. Female multiple mating (polyandry) has nevertheless evolved several times in the social Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps), and a substantial amount of work has been cond...... the potential for postcopulatory sexual selection to influence patterns of paternity in social insects, and suggest that sexual selection may have played a key, yet overlooked role in social evolution....

  18. Behavioral economics and the ‘new’ paternalism1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostislav Kapeliushnikov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a critical appraisal of the normative program of behavioral economics known as ‘new paternalism’. First, it explores the theoretical foundations of behavioral economics, describes major behavioral anomalies associated with bounded rationality of economic agents and discusses its normative principles and political implications. It then discusses the main empirical and conceptual drawbacks of new paternalism and provides arguments for the alternative non-welfarist normative tradition based on the idea of freedom.

  19. Results of the 2009 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Susanne Lunøe; Hallenberg, Charlotte; Simonsen, Bo Thisted

    2009-01-01

    Here we present the results of the 2009 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics. The exercise included paternity testing of blood samples from a mother, a child and two alleged fathers. The laboratories were encouraged...

  20. Paternity testing with VNTR DNA systems. II. Evaluation of 271 cases of disputed paternity with the VNTR systems D2S44, D5S43, D7S21, D7S22, and D12S11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanna Elsebeth; Morling, N

    1993-01-01

    Paternity testing was carried out in 271 cases of disputed paternity using the 5 VNTR systems D2S44 (YNH24), D5S43 (MS8), D7S21 (MS31), D7S22 (g3), and D12S11 (MS43a), and 10-15 conventional marker systems including the HLA-A,B system. By means of the matching criteria for the VNTR systems...

  1. Widespread differential maternal and paternal genome effects on fetal bone phenotype at mid-gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ruidong; Lee, Alice M C; Eindorf, Tanja; Javadmanesh, Ali; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Gugger, Madeleine; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J; Kruk, Zbigniew A; Pitchford, Wayne S; Leviton, Alison J; Thomsen, Dana A; Beckman, Ian; Anderson, Gail I; Burns, Brian M; Rutley, David L; Xian, Cory J; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    Parent-of-origin-dependent (epi)genetic factors are important determinants of prenatal development that program adult phenotype. However, data on magnitude and specificity of maternal and paternal genome effects on fetal bone are lacking. We used an outbred bovine model to dissect and quantify effects of parental genomes, fetal sex, and nongenetic maternal effects on the fetal skeleton and analyzed phenotypic and molecular relationships between fetal muscle and bone. Analysis of 51 bone morphometric and weight parameters from 72 fetuses recovered at day 153 gestation (54% term) identified six principal components (PC1-6) that explained 80% of the variation in skeletal parameters. Parental genomes accounted for most of the variation in bone wet weight (PC1, 72.1%), limb ossification (PC2, 99.8%), flat bone size (PC4, 99.7%), and axial skeletal growth (PC5, 96.9%). Limb length showed lesser effects of parental genomes (PC3, 40.8%) and a significant nongenetic maternal effect (gestational weight gain, 29%). Fetal sex affected bone wet weight (PC1, p maternal genome effects on bone wet weight (74.1%, p paternal genome controlled limb ossification (95.1%, p maternal genome effects on growth plate height (98.6%, p maternal genome effects on fetal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (96.9%, p paternal genome effects on alkaline phosphatase (90.0%, p maternally controlled bone wet weight and paternally controlled limb ossification, respectively. Bone wet weight and flat bone size correlated positively with muscle weight (r = 0.84 and 0.77, p maternally expressed H19 regulates growth factors by miRNA interference, this suggests muscle-bone interaction via epigenetic factors. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  2. Paternal responsiveness is associated with, but not mediated by reduced neophobia in male California mice (Peromyscus californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauke, Miyetani; de Jong, Trynke R; Garland, Theodore; Saltzman, Wendy

    2012-08-20

    Hormones associated with pregnancy and parturition have been implicated in facilitating the onset of maternal behavior via reductions in neophobia, anxiety, and stress responsiveness. To determine whether the onset of paternal behavior has similar associations in biparental male California mice (Peromyscus californicus), we compared paternal responsiveness, neophobia (novel-object test), and anxiety-like behavior (elevated plus maze, EPM) in isolated virgins (housed alone), paired virgins (housed with another male), expectant fathers (housed with pregnant pairmate), and new fathers (housed with pairmate and pups). Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and Fos immunoreactivity (IR) were quantified in brain tissues following exposure to a predator-odor stressor or under baseline conditions. New fathers showed lower anxiety-like behavior than expectant fathers and isolated virgins in EPM tests. In all housing conditions, stress elevated Fos-IR in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Social isolation reduced overall (baseline and stress-induced) Fos- and colocalized Fos/CRH-IR, and increased overall CRH-IR, in the PVN. In the central nucleus of the amygdala, social isolation increased stress-induced CRH-IR and decreased stress-induced activation of CRH neurons. Across all housing conditions, paternally behaving males displayed more anxiety-related behavior than nonpaternal males in the EPM, but showed no differences in CRH- or Fos-IR. Finally, the latency to engage in paternal behavior was positively correlated with the latency to approach a novel object. These results suggest that being a new father does not reduce anxiety, neophobia, or neural stress responsiveness. Low levels of neophobia, however, were associated with, but not necessary for paternal responsiveness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytogenetic analysis in 61 couples with spontaneous abortions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江静; 傅曼芬; 王德芬

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between spontaneous abortion and chromosomal abnormalities. Methods Couples who had one or more consecutive spontaneous abortions and had normal genitals were enrolled for cytogenetic karyotype analysis. Results In the 61 couples, the detected incidence was 11.5%, with five Robertsonian translocations, one reciprocal translocation, and one pericentric inversion of chromosome 7. Conclusion Chromosomal abnormalities may play an important role in fetal wastage.

  4. Karyotype Evolution in Birds: from Conventional Staining to Chromosome Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm

    2018-01-01

    In this work we performed comparative chromosome painting using probes from Gallus gallus (GGA) Linnaeus, 1758 and Leucopternis albicollis (LAL) Latham, 1790 in Synallaxis frontalis Pelzeln, 1859 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae), an exclusively Neotropical species, in order to analyze whether the complex pattern of intrachromosomal rearrangements (paracentric and pericentric inversions) proposed for Oscines and Suboscines is shared with more basal species. S. frontalis has 82 chromosomes, similar...

  5. Results of the 2007 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallenberg, C.; Langkjær, Rikke B.; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of the 2007 Paternity Testing Workshop of the English Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics. The exercise included paternity testing of blood samples from a mother, a child and an alleged father. The laboratories were encouraged to answer...

  6. Paternal mtDNA and maleness are co-inherited but not causally linked in mytilid mussels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen L Kenchington

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In marine mussels of the genus Mytilus there are two mitochondrial genomes. One is transmitted through the female parent, which is the normal transmission route in animals, and the other is transmitted through the male parent which is an unusual phenomenon. In males the germ cell line is dominated by the paternal mitochondrial genome and the somatic cell line by the maternal. Research to date has not allowed a clear answer to the question of whether inheritance of the paternal genome is causally related to maleness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present results from hybrid crosses, from triploid mussels and from observations of sperm mitochondria in fertilized eggs which clearly show that maleness and presence of the paternal mitochondrial genome can be decoupled. These same results show that the female mussel has exclusive control of whether her progeny will inherit the mitochondrial genome of the male parent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings are important in our efforts to understand the mechanistic basis of this unusual mode of mitochondrial DNA inheritance that is common among bivalves.

  7. A molecular analysis of African lion (Panthera leo) mating structure and extra-group paternity in Etosha National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyke, M M; Dubach, J; Briggs, M B

    2013-05-01

    The recent incorporation of molecular methods into analyses of social and mating systems has provided evidence that mating patterns often differ from those predicted by group social organization. Based on field studies and paternity analyses at a limited number of sites, African lions are predicted to exhibit a strict within-pride mating system. Extra-group paternity has not been previously reported in African lions; however, observations of extra-group associations among lions inhabiting Etosha National Park in Namibia suggest deviation from the predicted within-pride mating pattern. We analysed variation in 14 microsatellite loci in a population of 164 African lions in Etosha National Park. Genetic analysis was coupled with demographic and observational data to examine pride structure, relatedness and extra-group paternity (EGP). EGP was found to occur in 57% of prides where paternity was analysed (n = 7), and the overall rate of EGP in this population was 41% (n = 34). Group sex ratio had a significant effect on the occurrence of EGP (P African lion mating systems and provide evidence that social structure may not reflect breeding structure in some social mammals. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Paternity analysis based on NGM SElect system in the Medical and Forensic Genetics Laboratory, Department of Forensic Medicine, Medical University of Lodz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Markiewicz-Knyziak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the NGM SElect multiplex kit for paternity testing in the population of central Poland, and compare it with the IDENTIFILER system. The study material consisted of buccal swabs taken from individuals who reported to the Medical and Forensic Genetics Laboratory in Lodz. Samples from 450 trio cases of disputed paternity carried out in 2010–2014 were investigated. Genomic DNA was extracted from buccal swabs collected from 1,350 individuals using the Swab kit (A&A Biotechnology according to the manufacturer’s protocol. DNA amplification was performed using the AmpFℓSTR ® NGM Select TM PCR Amplification Kit (Life Technologies. PCR products were separated by capillary electrophoresis using HID 3500 Genetic Analyzer. In the analyzed cases with paternity confirmation in the NGM SElect system, the maximum value of PI was 3.9 × 10 12 , which corresponds to the probability of paternity W = 99.9999999999%. It was thus significantly higher than analogical parameters obtained in the IDENTIFILER system (PI = 6.0 × 10 10 , W = 99.99999999%. The NGM SElect kit was unable to resolve just one case out of 450, which represents only 0.2% of all analyzed disputed paternity cases. The study showed the SE33 (ACTBP2 locus to have the highest evidence value in paternity analysis out of all investigated autosomal STRs.

  9. Paternity of subordinates raises cooperative effort in cichlids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Bruintjes

    Full Text Available In cooperative breeders, subordinates generally help a dominant breeding pair to raise offspring. Parentage studies have shown that in several species subordinates can participate in reproduction. This suggests an important role of direct fitness benefits for cooperation, particularly where groups contain unrelated subordinates. In this situation parentage should influence levels of cooperation. Here we combine parentage analyses and detailed behavioural observations in the field to study whether in the highly social cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher subordinates participate in reproduction and if so, whether and how this affects their cooperative care, controlling for the effect of kinship.We show that: (i male subordinates gained paternity in 27.8% of all clutches and (ii if they participated in reproduction, they sired on average 11.8% of young. Subordinate males sharing in reproduction showed more defence against experimentally presented egg predators compared to subordinates not participating in reproduction, and they tended to stay closer to the breeding shelter. No effects of relatedness between subordinates and dominants (to mid-parent, dominant female or dominant male were detected on parentage and on helping behaviour.This is the first evidence in a cooperatively breeding fish species that the helping effort of male subordinates may depend on obtained paternity, which stresses the need to consider direct fitness benefits in evolutionary studies of helping behaviour.

  10. Design and Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of a Paternal Adaptation Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Narges; Simbar, Masoumeh; Vadadhir, AbouAli; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza

    2016-07-25

    The present study aimed to design and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Paternal Adaptation Questionnaire (PAQ). The study was a mixed (qualitative and quantitative) sequential exploratory study. In the qualitative phase, a preliminary questionnaire with 210 items emerged from in-depth interviews with 17 fathers and 15 key informants. In the quantitative phase, psychometric properties of the PAQ were assessed. Considering cutoff points as 1.5 for item impact, 0.49 for content validity ratio (CVR), and 0.7 for content validity index (CVI), items of the questionnaire were reduced from 210 to 132. Assessment of the content validity of the questionnaire demonstrated S-CVR = 0.68 and S-CVI = 0.92. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in the development of a PAQ with 38 items classified under five factors (ability in performing the roles and responsibilities; perceiving the parental development; stabilization in paternal position; spiritual stability and internal satisfaction; and challenges and concerns), which explained 52.19% of cumulative variance. Measurement of internal consistency reported a Cronbach's α of .89 for PAQ (.61-.86 for subscales), and stability assessment of the PAQ through the test-retest demonstrated Spearman's correlation coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficient of .96 (.81-.97 for subscales). It was identified that the PAQ is a valid and reliable instrument that could be used to assess fatherhood adaptation with the paternal roles and fathers' needs, as well as to design appropriate interventions and to evaluate their effectiveness. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Paternal involvement in Multisystemic Therapy: Effects on adolescent outcomes and maternal depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gervan, S.; Granic, I.; Solomon, T.; Blokland, K.; Ferguson, B.

    2012-01-01

    The association between paternal involvement in therapy, adolescent outcomes and maternal depression was examined within the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an empirically supported, family- and community-based treatment for antisocial adolescents. Ninety-nine families were recruited from

  12. Perceived childhood paternal acceptance-rejection among adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, S.; Alvi, T.; Zeeshan, A.; Nadeem, S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the childhood perceptual difference of paternal acceptance-rejection between those having psychological disorders and non-clinical population during adulthood. Study Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Karwan-e-Hayat, Psychiatric Care and Rehabilitation Centre, Keamari, Karachi, Pakistan, from January to August 2011. Methodology: To test our hypotheses, 69 participants were selected from Karwan-e-Hayat Psychiatric Care and Rehabilitation Centre, Karachi on the basis of purposive sampling technique and 79 from Karachi city on the basis of convenient sampling technique. To measure their perceived paternal acceptance-rejection during childhood, Adult Parental acceptance-rejection questionnaire (PARQ)/control: father-short form (Urdu translation) was administered. The statistical analysis of data was done with the predictive analytics software (PASW). Results: One hundred and forty eight (78 males and 70 females) participants with mean age of 31.28 +- 9.54 years were included. Out of them 69 (40 males and 29 females) were clinical cases of depression, mania and psychosis with mean age of 33.26 +- 9.51 years. Seventy nine (38 males and 41 females) were normal individuals with mean age of 29.54 +- 9.29 years of the demographics corresponding to the clinical population. Independent t-test revealed a significant difference in perceived childhood father acceptance-rejection between clinical and non-clinical population (p < 0.05) and significant gender difference (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The studied clinical population and male participants perceived to be more rejected by their father during their childhood than non-clinical population and female participants. (author)

  13. Paternal psychopathology and maternal depressive symptom trajectory during the first year postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randal G. Ross

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding parental psychopathology interaction is important in preventing negative family outcomes. This study investigated the effect of paternal psychiatric history on maternal depressive symptom trajectory from birth to 12 months postpartum. Maternal Edinburgh Postpartum Depression screens were collected at 1, 6 and 12 months and fathers’ psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV from 64 families. There was not a significant difference in the trajectory of maternal depressive symptoms between mothers with partners with history of or a current psychiatric condition or those without a condition. However, mothers with partners with substance abuse history had higher levels of depressive symptoms relative to those affected by mood/anxiety disorders or those without a disorder. Our results call for a closer look at paternal history of substance abuse when treating postpartum maternal depression.

  14. Paternal psychopathology and maternal depressive symptom trajectory during the first year postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L; Zerbe, Gary O; Hunter, Sharon K; Ross, Randal G

    2013-02-11

    Understanding parental psychopathology interaction is important in preventing negative family outcomes. This study investigated the effect of paternal psychiatric history on maternal depressive symptom trajectory from birth to 12 months postpartum. Maternal Edinburgh Postpartum Depression screens were collected at 1, 6 and 12 months and fathers' psychiatric diagnoses were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV from 64 families. There was not a significant difference in the trajectory of maternal depressive symptoms between mothers with partners with history of or a current psychiatric condition or those without a condition. However, mothers with partners with substance abuse history had higher levels of depressive symptoms relative to those affected by mood/anxiety disorders or those without a disorder. Our results call for a closer look at paternal history of substance abuse when treating postpartum maternal depression.

  15. Paternal care decreases foraging activity and body condition, but does not impose survival costs to caring males in a Neotropical arachnid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Gustavo S; Buzatto, Bruno A; Martins, Eduardo G; Machado, Glauco

    2012-01-01

    Exclusive paternal care is the rarest form of parental investment in nature and theory predicts that the maintenance of this behavior depends on the balance between costs and benefits to males. Our goal was to assess costs of paternal care in the harvestman Iporangaia pustulosa, for which the benefits of this behavior in terms of egg survival have already been demonstrated. We evaluated energetic costs and mortality risks associated to paternal egg-guarding in the field. We quantified foraging activity of males and estimated how their body condition is influenced by the duration of the caring period. Additionally, we conducted a one-year capture-mark-recapture study and estimated apparent survival probabilities of caring and non-caring males to assess potential survival costs of paternal care. Our results indicate that caring males forage less frequently than non-caring individuals (males and females) and that their body condition deteriorates over the course of the caring period. Thus, males willing to guard eggs may provide to females a fitness-enhancing gift of cost-free care of their offspring. Caring males, however, did not show lower survival probabilities when compared to both non-caring males and females. Reduction in mortality risks as a result of remaining stationary, combined with the benefits of improving egg survival, may have played an important and previously unsuspected role favoring the evolution of paternal care. Moreover, males exhibiting paternal care could also provide an honest signal of their quality as offspring defenders, and thus female preference for caring males could be responsible for maintaining the trait.

  16. Paternal care decreases foraging activity and body condition, but does not impose survival costs to caring males in a Neotropical arachnid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo S Requena

    Full Text Available Exclusive paternal care is the rarest form of parental investment in nature and theory predicts that the maintenance of this behavior depends on the balance between costs and benefits to males. Our goal was to assess costs of paternal care in the harvestman Iporangaia pustulosa, for which the benefits of this behavior in terms of egg survival have already been demonstrated. We evaluated energetic costs and mortality risks associated to paternal egg-guarding in the field. We quantified foraging activity of males and estimated how their body condition is influenced by the duration of the caring period. Additionally, we conducted a one-year capture-mark-recapture study and estimated apparent survival probabilities of caring and non-caring males to assess potential survival costs of paternal care. Our results indicate that caring males forage less frequently than non-caring individuals (males and females and that their body condition deteriorates over the course of the caring period. Thus, males willing to guard eggs may provide to females a fitness-enhancing gift of cost-free care of their offspring. Caring males, however, did not show lower survival probabilities when compared to both non-caring males and females. Reduction in mortality risks as a result of remaining stationary, combined with the benefits of improving egg survival, may have played an important and previously unsuspected role favoring the evolution of paternal care. Moreover, males exhibiting paternal care could also provide an honest signal of their quality as offspring defenders, and thus female preference for caring males could be responsible for maintaining the trait.

  17. Round Spermatid Injection Rescues Female Lethality of a Paternally Inherited Xist Deletion in Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Federici

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In mouse female preimplantation embryos, the paternal X chromosome (Xp is silenced by imprinted X chromosome inactivation (iXCI. This requires production of the noncoding Xist RNA in cis, from the Xp. The Xist locus on the maternally inherited X chromosome (Xm is refractory to activation due to the presence of an imprint. Paternal inheritance of an Xist deletion (XpΔXist is embryonic lethal to female embryos, due to iXCI abolishment. Here, we circumvented the histone-to-protamine and protamine-to-histone transitions of the paternal genome, by fertilization of oocytes via injection of round spermatids (ROSI. This did not affect initiation of XCI in wild type female embryos. Surprisingly, ROSI using ΔXist round spermatids allowed survival of female embryos. This was accompanied by activation of the intact maternal Xist gene, initiated with delayed kinetics, around the morula stage, resulting in Xm silencing. Maternal Xist gene activation was not observed in ROSI-derived males. In addition, no Xist expression was detected in male and female morulas that developed from oocytes fertilized with mature ΔXist sperm. Finally, the expression of the X-encoded XCI-activator RNF12 was enhanced in both male (wild type and female (wild type as well as XpΔXist ROSI derived embryos, compared to in vivo fertilized embryos. Thus, high RNF12 levels may contribute to the specific activation of maternal Xist in XpΔXist female ROSI embryos, but upregulation of additional Xp derived factors and/or the specific epigenetic constitution of the round spermatid-derived Xp are expected to be more critical. These results illustrate the profound impact of a dysregulated paternal epigenome on embryo development, and we propose that mouse ROSI can be used as a model to study the effects of intergenerational inheritance of epigenetic marks.

  18. Paternal effects on the human sex ratio at birth: evidence from interracial crosses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, M J; Erickson, J D; James, L M

    1984-01-01

    The effects of interracial crossing on the human sex ratio at birth were investigated using United States birth-certificate data for 1972-1979. The sex ratio was 1.059 for approximately 14 million singleton infants born to white couples, 1.033 for 2 million born to black couples, and 1.024 for 64,000 born to American Indian couples. Paternal and maternal race influences on the observed racial differences in sex ratio were analyzed using additional data on approximately 97,000 singleton infants born to white-black couples and 60,000 born to white-Indian couples. After adjustment for mother's race, white fathers had significantly more male offspring than did black fathers (ratio of sex ratios [RSR] = 1.027) and Indian fathers (RSR = 1.022). On the other hand, after adjustment for father's race, white mothers did not have more male offspring than did black mothers (RSR = 0.998) or Indian mothers (RSR = 1.009). The paternal-race effect persisted after adjustment for parental ages, education, birth order, and maternal marital status. The study shows that the observed racial differences in the sex ratio at birth are due to the effects of father's race and not the mother's. The study points to paternal determinants of the human sex ratio at fertilization and/or of the prenatal differential sex survival. PMID:6496474

  19. Public Service Motivation and Paternalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Pedersen, Lene; Qvistgaard, Lars

    holds a potential to improve public service provision (Belle, 2013, Andersen et al., 2014), it also has dark sides (Van Loon et al., 2015, forthcoming). The aim of this paper is to analyze and discuss how one type of public service motivated individuals (paternalistic knights) and constitute a problem...... of democratic accountability. The setting of this discussion is unusual for the PSM literature, and takes PSM into the analysis and discussion of motivation and paternalism in trade unions. This setting is relevant and interesting as the election of representatives is based on elections, and hence trade unions...... variables are two dimensions of the PSM construct; namely self-sacrifice and commitment to the public interest, whereas the central independent variable is paternalistic orientation. All three variables are measured with survey constructs in a cross sectional survey design. The survey is made among...

  20. How do masculinity, paternity leave, and mortality associate? -A study of fathers in the Swedish parental & child cohort of 1988/89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Lundin, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    One of the proposed causes for the gender gap in longevity is the attitudes and practices culturally prescribed for men, often conceptualised as 'masculinity'. It has also been suggested that paternity leave, indicating a change from breadwinning to caring, could benefit men's lifetime health. In this study, the objective was to examine associations between 'masculinity' (assessed at the age of 18-19 years), paternity leave (1988-1990), and mortality patterns (1991-2008) based on a population of Swedish men who had a child in 1988/89 (N=72,569). 'Masculinity' was measured during the compulsory military conscription process by a psychologist based on leisure and occupational interests, and paternity leave was measured in fulltime days by registry data. The main finding was that low 'masculinity' ranking increased the risk of all-cause mortality, and mortality from alcohol and violent causes, while taking paternity leave between 30 and 135 days decreased the risk of all-cause mortality. However, the weak association found between 'masculinity' and paternity leave indicates that entering a caring role as a father is not predicted by 'masculinity' assessed in late adolescence, and that the studied phenomena influence male mortality independently of each other. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Paternal spatial training enhances offspring's cognitive performance and synaptic plasticity in wild-type but not improve memory deficit in Alzheimer's mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujuan; Li, Xiaoguang; Wang, Zhouyi; Liu, Yanchao; Gao, Yuan; Tan, Lu; Liu, Enjie; Zhou, Qiuzhi; Xu, Cheng; Wang, Xin; Liu, Gongping; Chen, Haote; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2017-05-08

    Recent studies suggest that spatial training can maintain associative memory capacity in Tg2576 mice, but it is not known whether the beneficial effects can be inherited from the trained fathers to their offspring. Here, we exposed male wild-type and male 3XTg Alzheimer disease (AD) mice (3-m old) respectively to spatial training for one week and assessed the transgenerational effects in the F1 offspring when they were grown to 7-m old. We found that the paternal spatial training significantly enhanced progeny's spatial cognitive performance and synaptic transmission in wild-type mice. Among several synapse- or memory-associated proteins, we observed that the expression level of synaptotagmin 1 (SYT1) was significantly increased in the hippocampus of the paternally trained-offspring. Paternal training increased histone acetylation at the promoter of SYT1 in both fathers' and the offspring's hippocampus, and as well as in the fathers' sperm. Finally, paternal spatial training for one week did not improve memory and synaptic plasticity in 3XTg AD F1 offspring. Our findings suggest paternal spatial training for one week benefits the offspring's cognitive performance in wild-type mice with the mechanisms involving an enhanced transgenerational histone acetylation at SYT1 promoter.

  2. Who's My Daddy? Considerations for the influence of sexual selection on multiple paternity in elasmobranch mating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kady; Chabot, Chris L; Mull, Christopher G; Paterson Holder, Corinne N; Lowe, Christopher G

    2017-08-01

    Polyandry resulting in multiply-sired litters has been documented in the majority of elasmobranch species examined to date. Although commonly observed, reasons for this mating system remain relatively obscure, especially in batoids. The round stingray ( Urobatis halleri ) is an abundant, well-studied elasmobranch distributed throughout the northeastern Pacific that we used to explore hypotheses regarding multiple paternity in elasmobranchs. Twenty mid- to late-term pregnant females were sampled off the coast of southern California and their litters analyzed for the occurrence of multiple paternity using five nuclear microsatellite loci. In addition, embryo sizes and their position within the female reproductive system (i.e., right or left uterus) were recorded and used to make inferences for patterns of ovulation. Multiple paternity was observed in 90% of litters and male reproductive success within litters was relatively even among sires. High variability in testes mass was observed suggesting that sperm competition is high in this species, although male reproductive success per litter appeared to be relatively even. Using embryo size as a proxy for fertilization, females were found to exhibit a variety of ovulation patterns that could function to limit a male's access to eggs and possibly promote high rates of multiple paternity. Our study highlights that elasmobranch mating systems may be more varied and complex than presumed and further investigation is warranted.

  3. Paternal Work Stress and Latent Profiles of Father-Infant Parenting Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, W. Benjamin; Crouter, Ann C.; Lanza, Stephanie T.; Cox, Martha J.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine the implications of fathers' experiences of work stress for paternal behaviors with infants across multiple dimensions of parenting in a sample of fathers living in nonmetropolitan communities (N = 492). LPA revealed five classes of fathers based on levels of social-affective…

  4. The Effects of Paternalism Upon an Industrial Community's Participation in Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Cheryl T.

    The influence of paternalism upon a community's school district participation is discussed in this historical case study. Interviews and historical research explore the impact of the "welfare capitalism" of the Endicott Shoe Corporation and International Business Machines on Harrison City, New York, from 1890 through the present. An analysis of…

  5. Paternal lineage early onset hereditary ovarian cancers: A Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin H Eng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Given prior evidence that an affected woman conveys a higher risk of ovarian cancer to her sister than to her mother, we hypothesized that there exists an X-linked variant evidenced by transmission to a woman from her paternal grandmother via her father. We ascertained 3,499 grandmother/granddaughter pairs from the Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute observing 892 informative pairs with 157 affected granddaughters. We performed germline X-chromosome exome sequencing on 186 women with ovarian cancer from the registry. The rate of cancers was 28.4% in paternal grandmother/granddaughter pairs and 13.9% in maternal pairs consistent with an X-linked dominant model (Chi-square test X2 = 0.02, p = 0.89 and inconsistent with an autosomal dominant model (X2 = 20.4, p<0.001. Paternal grandmother cases had an earlier age-of-onset versus maternal cases (hazard ratio HR = 1.59, 95%CI: 1.12-2.25 independent of BRCA1/2 status. Reinforcing the X-linked hypothesis, we observed an association between prostate cancer in men and ovarian cancer in his mother and daughters (odds ratio, OR = 2.34, p = 0.034. Unaffected mothers with affected daughters produced significantly more daughters than sons (ratio = 1.96, p<0.005. We performed exome sequencing in reported BRCA negative cases from the registry. Considering age-of-onset, one missense variant (rs176026 in MAGEC3 reached chromosome-wide significance (Hazard ratio HR = 2.85, 95%CI: 1.75-4.65 advancing the age of onset by 6.7 years. In addition to the well-known contribution of BRCA, we demonstrate that a genetic locus on the X-chromosome contributes to ovarian cancer risk. An X-linked pattern of inheritance has implications for genetic risk stratification. Women with an affected paternal grandmother and sisters of affected women are at increased risk for ovarian cancer. Further work is required to validate this variant and to characterize carrier families.

  6. Maternal and paternal genomes differentially affect myofibre characteristics and muscle weights of bovine fetuses at midgestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruidong Xiang

    Full Text Available Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80-96% and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82-89% and 56-93%, respectively. Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (P<0.05 explained most genetic variation in cross sectional area (CSA of fast myotubes (68%, while maternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, P<0.01. Furthermore, maternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, P<0.0001 or in combination (M. supraspinatus, 82%; M. longissimus dorsi, 93%; M. quadriceps femoris, 86% with nested maternal weight effect (5-6%, P<0.05, was the predominant source of variation for absolute muscle weights. Effects of paternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, P<0.0001 or most (M. longissimus dorsi, 69%, P<0.0001; M. quadriceps femoris, 54%, P<0.001 genetic variation in relative weights. An interaction between maternal and paternal genomes (P<0.01 and effects of maternal weight (P<0.05 on expression of H19, a master regulator of an imprinted gene network, and negative correlations between H19 expression and fetal muscle mass (P

  7. Neonatal paternal deprivation impairs social recognition and alters levels of oxytocin and estrogen receptor α mRNA expression in the MeA and NAcc, and serum oxytocin in mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Wu, Ruiyong; Tai, Fadao; Zhang, Xia; Yu, Peng; An, Xiaolei; Qiao, Xufeng; Hao, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Paternal care is necessary for the healthy development of social behavior in monogamous rodents and social recognition underpins social behavior in these animals. The effects of paternal care on the development of social recognition and underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms, especially the involvement of oxytocin and estrogen pathways, remain poorly understood. We investigated the effects of paternal deprivation (PD: father was removed from neonatal pups and mother alone raised the offspring) on social recognition in mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus), a socially monogamous rodent. Paternal deprivation was found to inhibit the development of social recognition in female and male offspring according to a habituation-dishabituation paradigm. Paternal deprivation resulted in increased inactivity and reduced investigation during new encounters with other animals. Paternal deprivation reduced oxytocin receptor (OTR) and estrogen receptor α (ERα) mRNA expression in the medial amygdala and nucleus accumbens. Paternal deprivation reduced serum oxytocin (OT) concentration in females, but had no effect on males. Our results provide substantial evidence that paternal deprivation inhibits the development of social recognition in female and male mandarin voles and alters social behavior later in life. This is possibly the result of altered expression of central OTR and ERα and serum OT levels caused by paternal deprivation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Relationship of Paternal Acceptance and Control to College Females' Personality Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, John M.; Fleck, J. Roland

    1983-01-01

    Examined the relationship between father acceptance, father control, and personality adjustment of 72 college women. As expected, both paternal behavior dimensions were positively related to the daughters' level of personality adjustment, suggesting authoritarian fathers have daughters who rate themselves as better adjusted. (JAC)

  9. Inverse photoemission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki

    1994-01-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is regarded as the most powerful means since it can measure almost perfectly the occupied electron state. On the other hand, inverse photoelectron spectroscopy is the technique for measuring unoccupied electron state by using the inverse process of photoelectron spectroscopy, and in principle, the similar experiment to photoelectron spectroscopy becomes feasible. The development of the experimental technology for inverse photoelectron spectroscopy has been carried out energetically by many research groups so far. At present, the heightening of resolution of inverse photoelectron spectroscopy, the development of inverse photoelectron spectroscope in which light energy is variable and so on are carried out. But the inverse photoelectron spectroscope for vacuum ultraviolet region is not on the market. In this report, the principle of inverse photoelectron spectroscopy and the present state of the spectroscope are described, and the direction of the development hereafter is groped. As the experimental equipment, electron guns, light detectors and so on are explained. As the examples of the experiment, the inverse photoelectron spectroscopy of semimagnetic semiconductors and resonance inverse photoelectron spectroscopy are reported. (K.I.)

  10. Advanced paternal age effects in neurodevelopmental disorders-review of potential underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecka, M; Mill, J; Basson, M A; Goriely, A; Spiers, H; Reichenberg, A; Schalkwyk, L; Fernandes, C

    2017-01-31

    Multiple epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between advanced paternal age (APA) at conception and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring, particularly with regard to increased risk for autism and schizophrenia. Conclusive evidence about how age-related changes in paternal gametes, or age-independent behavioral traits affect neural development is still lacking. Recent evidence suggests that the origins of APA effects are likely to be multidimensional, involving both inherited predisposition and de novo events. Here we provide a review of the epidemiological and molecular findings to date. Focusing on the latter, we present the evidence for genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underpinning the association between late fatherhood and disorder in offspring. We also discuss the limitations of the APA literature. We propose that different hypotheses relating to the origins of the APA effects are not mutually exclusive. Instead, multiple mechanisms likely contribute, reflecting the etiological complexity of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  11. Paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity: ethical perspectives in encounters with patients in psychiatric in-patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto-Piri, Veikko; Engström, Karin; Engström, Ingemar

    2013-12-06

    Psychiatric staff members have the power to decide the options that frame encounters with patients. Intentional as well as unintentional framing can have a crucial impact on patients' opportunities to be heard and participate in the process. We identified three dominant ethical perspectives in the normative medical ethics literature concerning how doctors and other staff members should frame interactions in relation to patients; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. The aim of this study was to describe and analyse statements describing real work situations and ethical reflections made by staff members in relation to three central perspectives in medical ethics; paternalism, autonomy and reciprocity. All staff members involved with patients in seven adult psychiatric and six child and adolescent psychiatric clinics were given the opportunity to freely describe ethical considerations in their work by keeping an ethical diary over the course of one week and 173 persons handed in their diaries. Qualitative theory-guided content analysis was used to provide a description of staff encounters with patients and in what way these encounters were consistent with, or contrary to, the three perspectives. The majority of the statements could be attributed to the perspective of paternalism and several to autonomy. Only a few statements could be attributed to reciprocity, most of which concerned staff members acting contrary to the perspective. The result is presented as three perspectives containing eight values.•Paternalism; 1) promoting and restoring the health of the patient, 2) providing good care and 3) assuming responsibility.•Autonomy; 1) respecting the patient's right to self-determination and information, 2) respecting the patient's integrity and 3) protecting human rights.•Reciprocity; 1) involving patients in the planning and implementation of their care and 2) building trust between staff and patients. Paternalism clearly appeared to be the dominant

  12. Paternal age effect: Replication in schizophrenia with intriguing dissociation between bipolar with and without psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Douglas S; Pato, Michele T; Nahhas, Ramzi W; Miller, Brian R; Malaspina, Dolores; Buckley, Peter F; Sobell, Janet L; Walsh-Messinger, Julie; Genomic Psychiatry Cohort Consortium; Pato, Carlos N

    2016-06-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) is a risk factor for schizophrenia (Sz) and bipolar disorder (BP). Putative mechanisms include heritable genetic factors, de novo mutations, and epigenetic mechanisms. Few studies have explored phenotypic features associated with APA. The Genomic Psychiatry Cohort established a clinically characterized repository of genomic samples from subjects with a Sz-BP diagnosis or unaffected controls, 12,975 with parental age information. We estimated relative risk ratios for Sz, schizoaffective depressed and bipolar types (SA-D, SA-B), and BP with and without history of psychotic features (PF) relative to the control group, comparing each paternal age group to the reference group 20-24 years. All tests were two-sided with adjustment for multiple comparisons. Subjects with fathers age 45+ had significantly higher risk for all diagnoses except for BP w/o PF. APA also bore no significant relation to family psychiatric history. In conclusion, we replicated APA as a risk factor for Sz. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of APA in a BP sample stratified by psychosis history, extending this association only in BP w/PF. This suggests that phenotypic expression of the APA effect in Sz-BP spectrum is psychosis, per se, rather than other aspects of these complex disorders. The lack of a significant relationship between paternal age and familial disease patterns suggests that underlying mechanisms of the paternal age effect may involve a complex interaction of heritable and non-heritable factors. The authors discuss implications and testable hypotheses, starting with a focus on genetic mechanisms and endophenotypic expressions of dopaminergic function. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Family Economic Stress, Quality of Paternal Relationship, and Depressive Symptoms among African American Adolescent Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tenah K. A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Assari, Shervin

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between perceived family economic stress, quality of father-son relationships, and depressive symptoms among African American adolescent fathers. Data were collected during pregnancy from 65 African American adolescents who were first-time fathers, ages 14-19. Results from multiple regression analyses indicated that higher paternal relationship satisfaction was associated with fewer depressive symptoms among adolescent fathers. Additionally, depressive symptoms were higher among adolescent fathers who reported experiencing higher levels of conflict with their fathers. Further, paternal conflict moderated the effect of perceived family economic stress on depressive symptoms. That is, among adolescent fathers experiencing low levels of conflict with their fathers, high perceived family economic stress was associated with more depressive symptoms. Study findings suggest that the risk for depressive symptoms is highest among adolescent fathers experiencing low family economic stress and highly conflictual relations with their fathers. These results highlight the complexities of paternal relationships and perceived economic stressors on depressive symptoms during pregnancy for African American adolescent fathers. The importance of expanding research on influential familial relationships and economic stressors on adolescent African American fathers is discussed. PMID:26617454

  14. Effects of Paternal Predation Risk and Rearing Environment on Maternal Investment and Development of Defensive Responses in the Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Detecting past experiences with predators of a potential mate informs a female about prevailing ecological threats, in addition to stress-induced phenotypes that may be disseminated to offspring. We examined whether prior exposure of a male rat to a predator (cat) odor influences the attraction of a female toward a male, subsequent mother–infant interactions and the development of defensive (emotional) responses in the offspring. Females displayed less interest in males that had experienced predator odor. Mothers that reared young in larger, seminaturalistic housing provided more licking and grooming and active arched back-nursing behavior toward their offspring compared with dams housed in standard housing, although some effects interacted with paternal experience. Paternal predation risk and maternal rearing environment revealed sex-dependent differences in offspring wean weight, juvenile social interactions, and anxiety-like behavior in adolescence. Additionally, paternal predator experience and maternal housing independently affected variations in crf gene promoter acetylation and crf gene expression in response to an acute stressor in offspring. Our results show for the first time in mammals that variation among males in their predator encounters may contribute to stable behavioral variation among females in preference for mates and maternal care, even when the females are not directly exposed to predator threat. Furthermore, when offspring were exposed to the same threat experienced by the father, hypothalamic crf gene regulation was influenced by paternal olfactory experience and early housing. These results, together with our previous findings, suggest that paternal stress exposure and maternal rearing conditions can influence maternal behavior and the development of defensive responses in offspring. PMID:27896313

  15. Paternal inheritance of classic X-linked bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Burkhard S; Kurzbuch, Katrin; Chang, Bernard S; Pauli, Elisabeth; Hamer, Hajo M; Winkler, Jürgen; Hehr, Ute

    2013-06-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) is a developmental disorder of the central nervous system, characterized by heterotopic nodules of gray matter resulting from disturbed neuronal migration. The most common form of bilateral PNH is X-linked dominant inherited, caused by mutations in the Filamin A gene (FLNA) and associated with a wide variety of other clinical findings including congenital heart disease. The typical patient with FLNA-associated PNH is female and presents with difficult to treat seizures. In contrast, hemizygous FLNA loss of function mutations in males are reported to be perinatally lethal. In X-linked dominant traits like FLNA-associated PNH the causal mutation is commonly inherited from the mother. Here, we present an exceptional family with paternal transmission of classic bilateral FLNA-associated PNH from a mildly affected father with somatic and germline mosaicism for a c.5686G>A FLNA splice mutation to both daughters with strikingly variable clinical manifestation and PNH extent in cerebral MR imaging. Our observations emphasize the importance to consider in genetic counseling and risk assessment the rare genetic constellation of paternal transmission for families with X-linked dominant inherited FLNA-associated PNH. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Paternal Involvement in Multisystemic Therapy: Effects on Adolescent Outcomes and Maternal Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervan, Shannon; Granic, Isabela; Solomon, Tracy; Blokland, Kirsten; Ferguson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The association between paternal involvement in therapy, adolescent outcomes and maternal depression was examined within the context of Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an empirically supported, family- and community-based treatment for antisocial adolescents. Ninety-nine families were recruited from five mental health agencies providing MST. We…

  17. Parenting with style: Altruism and paternalism in intergenerational preference transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    We develop a theory of intergenerational transmission of preferences that rationalizes the choice between alternative parenting styles (as set out in Baumrind 1967). Parents maximize an objective function that combines Beckerian altruism and paternalism towards children. They can affect their children's choices via two channels: either by influencing children's preferences or by imposing direct restrictions on their choice sets. Different parenting styles (authoritarian, authoritative, and pe...

  18. Genomic patterns associated with paternal/maternal distribution of transposable elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurka, Jerzy

    2003-03-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are specialized DNA or RNA fragments capable of surviving in intragenomic niches. They are commonly, perhaps unjustifiably referred to as "selfish" or "parasitic" elements. TEs can be divided in two major classes: retroelements and DNA transposons. The former include non-LTR retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements, using reverse transriptase for their reproduction prior to integration into host DNA. The latter depend mostly on host DNA replication, with possible exception of rolling-circle transposons recently discovered by our team. I will review basic information on TEs, with emphasis on human Alu and L1 retroelements discussed in the context of genomic organization. TEs are non-randomly distributed in chromosomal DNA. In particular, human Alu elements tend to prefer GC-rich regions, whereas L1 accumulate in AT-rich regions. Current explanations of this phenomenon focus on the so called "target effects" and post-insertional selection. However, the proposed models appear to be unsatisfactory and alternative explanations invoking "channeling" to different chromosomal regions will be a major focus of my presentation. Transposable elements (TEs) can be expressed and integrated into host DNA in the male or female germlines, or both. Different models of expression and integration imply different proportions of TEs on sex chromosomes and autosomes. The density of recently retroposed human Alu elements is around three times higher on chromosome Y than on chromosome X, and over two times higher than the average density for all human autosomes. This implies Alu activity in paternal germlines. Analogous inter-chromosomal proportions for other repeat families should determine their compatibility with one of the three basic models describing the inheritance of TEs. Published evidence indicates that maternally and paternally imprinted genes roughly correspond to GC-rich and AT-rich DNA. This may explain the observed chromosomal distribution of

  19. Tolerant Paternalism: Pro-ethical Design as a Resolution of the Dilemma of Toleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floridi, Luciano

    2016-12-01

    Toleration is one of the fundamental principles that inform the design of a democratic and liberal society. Unfortunately, its adoption seems inconsistent with the adoption of paternalistically benevolent policies, which represent a valuable mechanism to improve individuals' well-being. In this paper, I refer to this tension as the dilemma of toleration. The dilemma is not new. It arises when an agent A would like to be tolerant and respectful towards another agent B's choices but, at the same time, A is altruistically concerned that a particular course of action would harm, or at least not improve, B's well-being, so A would also like to be helpful and seeks to ensure that B does not pursue such course of action, for B's sake and even against B's consent. In the article, I clarify the specific nature of the dilemma and show that several forms of paternalism, including those based on ethics by design and structural nudging, may not be suitable to resolve it. I then argue that one form of paternalism, based on pro-ethical design, can be compatible with toleration and hence with the respect for B's choices, by operating only at the informational and not at the structural level of a choice architecture. This provides a successful resolution of the dilemma, showing that tolerant paternalism is not an oxymoron but a viable approach to the design of a democratic and liberal society.

  20. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents' Risky Sexual Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A; Allen, Joseph P; Hafen, Christopher A; Hessel, Elenda T; Szwedo, David E; Spilker, Ann

    2014-05-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior.

  1. Maternal and Paternal Psychological Control as Moderators of the Link between Peer Attitudes and Adolescents’ Risky Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudekerk, Barbara A.; Allen, Joseph P.; Hafen, Christopher A.; Hessel, Elenda T.; Szwedo, David E.; Spilker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Maternal and paternal psychological control, peer attitudes, and the interaction of psychological control and peer attitudes at age 13 were examined as predictors of risky sexual behavior before age 16 in a community sample of 181 youth followed from age 13 to 16. Maternal psychological control moderated the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. Peer acceptance of early sex predicted greater risky sexual behaviors, but only for teens whose mothers engaged in high levels of psychological control. Paternal psychological control demonstrated the same moderating effect for girls; for boys, however, high levels of paternal control predicted risky sex regardless of peer attitudes. Results are consistent with the theory that peer influences do not replace parental influences with regard to adolescent sexual behavior; rather, parental practices continue to serve an important role either directly forecasting sexual behavior or moderating the link between peer attitudes and sexual behavior. PMID:25328265

  2. Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from trivial as theory requires infinite time and offset recording. Furthermore regularization issues arise during inversion. We perform the inversion by minimizing the least-squares norm of the misfit function by constraining the $ell_1$ norm of the solution, being the inverse data space. In this way a sparse inversion approach is obtained. We show results on field data with an application to surface multiple removal.

  3. Advanced paternal age and mortality of offspring under 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urhoj, S K; Jespersen, Louise Norman; Nissen, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Study question: Do children born to fathers of advanced age have an increased risk of dying before the age of 5 years? Summary answer: Children born to fathers aged 40 years or more have an increased risk of dying in early childhood due to an excess risk of fatal congenital anomalies, malignancies...... and external causes. What is known already: Advanced paternal age has previously been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes and some long term health problems in the offspring. This is possibly due to specific point mutations, a condition known to increase in the sperm with increasing paternal age....... Study design, size, duration: A Danish population-based register study, designed as a prospective cohort study, of 1 575 521 live born children born from 1978 to 2004. The age of the child (in days) was used as the underlying time and the children entered the cohort the day they were born and were...

  4. New Perspectives on Rodent Models of Advanced Paternal Age: Relevance to Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Foldi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Offspring of older fathers have an increased risk of various adverse health outcomes, including autism and schizophrenia. With respect to biological mechanisms for this association, there are many more germline cell divisions in the life history of a sperm relative to that of an oocyte. This leads to more opportunities for copy error mutations in germ cells from older fathers. Evidence also suggests that epigenetic patterning in the sperm from older men is altered. Rodent models provide an experimental platform to examine the association between paternal age and brain development. Several rodent models of advanced paternal age (APA have been published with relevance to intermediate phenotypes related to autism. All four published APA models vary in key features creating a lack of consistency with respect to behavioural phenotypes. A consideration of common phenotypes that emerge from these APA-related mouse models may be informative in the exploration of the molecular and neurobiological correlates of APA.

  5. Paternal and maternal influences on the psychological well-being of Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, D T

    1999-08-01

    Adolescents' (N = 378) perceptions of and satisfaction with parenting styles, perceived parent-adolescent conflict, perceived frequency of parent-adolescent communication and related feelings, perceived parent-adolescent relationship, and mental health were assessed with rating scales and structured interviews on 2 occasions separated by 1 year. Results showed that the questionnaire and interview measures at each time could be grouped into 2 stable factors: Paternal Parenthood Qualities (PPQ) and Maternal Parenthood Qualities (MPQ). Although both factors generally had significant concurrent and longitudinal correlations with adolescents' mental health, PPQ at Time 1-predicted changes in adolescent life satisfaction, hopelessness, self-esteem, purpose in life, and general psychiatric morbidity at Time 2, whereas MPQ at Time 1 did not predict those changes. Adolescents' mental health at Time 1 was found to predict changes in MPQ but not PPQ at Time 2. Relative to maternal qualities, paternal qualities were generally found to exert a stronger impact on adolescent psychological well-being.

  6. Academic Stressors and Anxiety in Children: The Role of Paternal Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Grace S. M.; Yeung, K. C.; Wong, Daniel F. K.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the role of paternal support in the relation between academic stress and the mental health of primary school children in Hong Kong. The participants of this cross-sectional study were 1,171 fifth and sixth graders. The results indicated that academic stress was a risk factor that heightened student anxiety levels and that parental…

  7. SCHIZOPHRENIA AND BIRTHPLACE OF PATERNAL AND MATERNAL GRANDFATHER IN THE JERUSALEM PERINATAL COHORT PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlap, S; Perrin, M C; Deutsch, L; Kleinhaus, K; Fennig, S; Nahon, D; Teitelbaum, A; Friedlander, Y; Malaspina, D

    2009-01-01

    Some forms of epigenetic abnormalities transmitted to offspring are manifest in differences in disease incidence that depend on parent-of-origin. To explore whether such phenomena might operate in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, we estimated the relative incidence of these conditions in relation to parent-of-origin by considering the two grandfathers' countries of birth. In a prospective cohort of 88,829 offspring, born in Jerusalem in 1964–76 we identified 637 cases through Israel's psychiatric registry. Relative risks (RR) were estimated for paternal and maternal grandfathers' countries of birth using proportional hazards methods, controlling for parents' ages, low social class and duration of marriage. After adjusting for multiple observations, we found no significant differences between descendants of maternal or paternal grandfathers born in Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Yemen, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya/Egypt, Poland, USSR, Czechoslovakia, Germany or the USA. Those with paternal grandfathers from Romania (RR=1.9, 95% CI=1.3–2.8) or Hungary (1.6, 1.0–2.6) showed an increased incidence; however, those with maternal grandfathers from these countries experienced reduced incidence (RR=0.5, 0.3–0.8 and 0.4, 0.2–0.8). In post-hoc analyses we found that results were similar whether the comparison groups were restricted to descendants of other Europeans or included those from Western Asia and North Africa; and effects of paternal grandfathers from Romania/Hungary were more pronounced in females, while effects of maternal grandfathers from these countries were similar in males and females. These post-hoc “hypothesis-generating” findings lead one to question whether some families with ancestors in Romania or Hungary might carry a variant or mutation at a parentally imprinted locus that is altering susceptibility to schizophrenia. Such a locus, if it exists, might involve the X chromosome. PMID:19361958

  8. Schizophrenia and birthplace of paternal and maternal grandfather in the Jerusalem perinatal cohort prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlap, S; Perrin, M C; Deutsch, L; Kleinhaus, K; Fennig, S; Nahon, D; Teitelbaum, A; Friedlander, Y; Malaspina, D

    2009-06-01

    Some forms of epigenetic abnormalities transmitted to offspring are manifested in differences in disease incidence that depend on parent-of-origin. To explore whether such phenomena might operate in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, we estimated the relative incidence of these conditions in relation to parent-of-origin by considering the two grandfathers' countries of birth. In a prospective cohort of 88,829 offspring, born in Jerusalem in 1964-76 we identified 637 cases through Israel's psychiatric registry. Relative risks (RR) were estimated for paternal and maternal grandfathers' countries of birth using proportional hazards methods, controlling for parents' ages, low social class and duration of marriage. After adjusting for multiple observations, we found no significant differences between descendants of maternal or paternal grandfathers born in Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, Yemen, Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya/Egypt, Poland, USSR, Czechoslovakia, Germany or the USA. Those with paternal grandfathers from Romania (RR=1.9, 95% CI=1.3-2.8) or Hungary (1.6, 1.0-2.6) showed an increased incidence; however, those with maternal grandfathers from these countries experienced reduced incidence (RR=0.5, 0.3-0.8 and 0.4, 0.2-0.8). In post-hoc analyses we found that results were similar whether the comparison groups were restricted to descendants of other Europeans or included those from Western Asia and North Africa; and effects of paternal grandfathers from Romania/Hungary were more pronounced in females, while effects of maternal grandfathers from these countries were similar in males and females. These post-hoc "hypothesis-generating" findings lead one to question whether some families with ancestors in Romania or Hungary might carry a variant or mutation at a parentally imprinted locus that is altering susceptibility to schizophrenia. Such a locus, if it exists, might involve the X chromosome.

  9. Karyotypic Evolution in Malagasy Flying Foxes (Pteropodidae, Chiroptera) and Their Hipposiderid Relatives as Determined by Comparative Chromosome Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Leigh R; Rambau, Ramugondo V; Goodman, Steven M; Taylor, Peter J; Schoeman, M Corrie; Yang, Fengtang; Lamb, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    Pteropodidae and Hipposideridae are 2 of the 9 chiropteran families that occur on Madagascar. Despite major advancements in the systematic study of the island's bat fauna, few karyotypic data exist for endemic species. We utilized G- and C-banding in combination with chromosome painting with Myotismyotis probes to establish a genome-wide homology among Malagasy species belonging to the families Pteropodidae (Pteropus rufus 2n = 38; Rousettus madagascariensis, 2n = 36), Hipposideridae (Hipposideros commersoni s.s., 2n = 52), and a single South African representative of the Rhinolophidae (Rhinolophus clivosus, 2n = 58). Painting probes of M. myotis detected 26, 28, 28, and 29 regions of homology in R. madagascariensis, P. rufus, H. commersoni s.s, and R. clivosus, respectively. Translocations, pericentric inversions, and heterochromatin additions were responsible for karyotypic differences amongst the Malagasy pteropodids. Comparative chromosome painting revealed a novel pericentric inversion on P. rufus chromosome 4. Chromosomal characters suggest a close evolutionary relationship between Rousettus and Pteropus. H. commersoni s.s. shared several chromosomal characters with extralimital congeners but did not exhibit 2 chromosomal synapomorphies proposed for Hipposideridae. This study provides further insight into the ancestral karyotypes of pteropodid and hipposiderid bats and corroborates certain molecular phylogenetic hypotheses. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Paternal preconception ethanol exposure blunts hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsivity and stress-induced excessive fluid intake in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rompala, Gregory R; Finegersh, Andrey; Homanics, Gregg E

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of environmental insults have been shown to induce epigenetic effects that persist across generations. For instance, paternal preconception exposures to ethanol or stress have independently been shown to exert such intergenerational effects. Since ethanol exposure is a physiological stressor that activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, we hypothesized that paternal ethanol exposure would impact stress responsivity of offspring. Adult male mice were exposed to chronic intermittent vapor ethanol or control conditions for 5 weeks before being mated with ethanol-naïve females to produce ethanol (E)- and control (C)-sired offspring. Adult male and female offspring were tested for plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels following acute restraint stress and the male offspring were further examined for stress-evoked 2-bottle choice ethanol-drinking. Paternal ethanol exposure blunted plasma CORT levels following acute restraint stress selectively in male offspring; females were unaffected. In a stress-evoked ethanol-drinking assay, there was no effect of stress on ethanol consumption. However, C-sired males exhibited increased total fluid intake (polydipsia) in response to stress while E-sired males were resistant to this stress-induced phenotype. Taken together, these data suggest that paternal ethanol exposure imparts stress hyporesponsivity to male offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Advanced paternal age is a risk factor for schizophrenia in Iranians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokri Bahareh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1958 many, but not all studies have demonstrated that paternal age is a risk factor for schizophrenia. There may be many different explanations for differences between studies, including study design, sample size, collection criteria, heterogeneity and the confounding effects of environmental factors that can for example perturb epigenetic programming and lead to an increase in disease risk. The small number of children in Western families makes risk comparisons between siblings born at different paternal ages difficult. In contrast, more Eastern families have children both at early and later periods of life. In the present study, a cross-sectional population study in an Iranian population was performed to compare frequency of schizophrenia in younger offspring (that is, older paternal age versus older offspring. Methods A total of 220 patients with the diagnosis of schizophrenia (cases from both psychiatric hospitals and private clinics and 220 individuals from other hospital wards (controls, matched for sex and age were recruited for this study. Patients with neurological problem, substance abuse, mental retardation and mood disorder were excluded from both groups. Results Birth rank comparisons revealed that 35% vs 24% of the cases vs the controls were in the third or upper birth rank (P = 0.01. Also, the mean age of fathers at birth in case group (30 ± 6.26 years was significantly more than the control group (26.45 ± 5.64 years; P = 0.0001. The age of 76 fathers at birth in case group was over 32 versus 33 fathers in control group. Individuals whose fathers' age was more than 32 (at birth were at higher risk (2.77 times for schizophrenia versus others (P P = 0.02. Logistic regression analysis suggests that maternal age is less likely to be involved in the higher risk of schizophrenia than advanced parental age. Discussion This study demonstrates a relationship between paternal age and schizophrenia in large

  12. Racial discrepancies in the association between paternal vs. maternal educational level and risk of low birthweight in Washington State

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolaidis, Christina; Ko, Cynthia W; Saha, Somnath; Koepsell, Thomas D

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background The role of paternal factors in determining the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes has received less attention than maternal factors. Similarly, the interaction between the effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on pregnancy outcomes is not well known. Our objective was to assess the relative importance of paternal vs. maternal education in relation to risk of low birth weight (LBW) across different racial groups. Methods We conducted a retrospective population-bas...

  13. Histone H3 Methylated at Arginine 17 Is Essential for Reprogramming the Paternal Genome in Zygotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Hatanaka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At fertilization, the paternal genome undergoes extensive reprogramming through protamine-histone exchange and active DNA demethylation, but only a few maternal factors have been defined in these processes. We identified maternal Mettl23 as a protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT, which most likely catalyzes the asymmetric dimethylation of histone H3R17 (H3R17me2a, as indicated by in vitro assays and treatment with TBBD, an H3R17 PRMT inhibitor. Maternal histone H3.3, which is essential for paternal nucleosomal assembly, is unable to be incorporated into the male pronucleus when it lacks R17me2a. Mettl23 interacts with Tet3, a 5mC-oxidizing enzyme responsible for active DNA demethylation, by binding to another maternal factor, GSE (gonad-specific expression. Depletion of Mettl23 from oocytes resulted in impaired accumulation of GSE, Tet3, and 5hmC in the male pronucleus, suggesting that Mettl23 may recruit GSE-Tet3 to chromatin. Our findings establish H3R17me2a and its catalyzing enzyme Mettl23 as key regulators of paternal genome reprogramming.

  14. An XXX male resulting from paternal X-Y interchange and maternal X-X nondisjunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerén, G; Andersson, M; Page, D C; Brown, L G; Berg, M; Läckgren, G; Gustavson, K H; de la Chapelle, A

    1987-01-01

    A 2-year-old boy was found to have a 47,XXX karyotype. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism analysis showed that, of his three X chromosomes, one is of paternal and two are of maternal origin. The results of Y-DNA hybridization were reminiscent of those in XX males in two respects. First, hybridization to Southern transfers revealed the presence in this XXX male of sequences derived from the Y-chromosomal short arm. Second, in situ hybridization showed that this Y DNA was located on the tip of the X-chromosomal short arm. We conclude that this XXX male resulted from the coincidence of X-X nondisjunction during maternal meiosis and aberrant X-Y interchange either during or prior to paternal meiosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2889356

  15. Paternal B vitamin intake is a determinant of growth, hepatic lipid metabolism and intestinal tumor volume in female Apc1638N mouse offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The importance of maternal nutrition to offspring health and risk of disease is well established. Emerging evidence suggests paternal diet may affect offspring health as well. Objective: In the current study we sought to determine whether modulating pre-conception paternal B vitamin inta...

  16. Paternal irradiation perturbs the expression of circadian genes in offspring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Andre M.G.F.; Barber, Ruth C.; Dubrova, Yuri E., E-mail: yed2@le.ac.uk

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • We have analysed gene expression in the offspring of irradiated male mice. • CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice were used in our study. • The pattern of gene expression was established in four tissues. • Expression of genes in involved in rhythmic process/circadian rhythm is compromised. • Our data may explain the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. - Abstract: The circadian system represents a complex network which influences the timing of many biological processes. Recent studies have established that circadian alterations play an important role in the susceptibility to many human diseases, including cancer. Here we report that paternal irradiation in mice significantly affects the expression of genes involved in rhythmic processes in their first-generation offspring. Using microarrays, the patterns of gene expression were established for brain, kidney, liver and spleen samples from the non-exposed offspring of irradiated CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice. The most over-represented categories among the genes differentially expressed in the offspring of control and irradiated males were those involved in rhythmic process, circadian rhythm and DNA-dependent regulation of transcription. The results of our study therefore provide a plausible explanation for the transgenerational effects of paternal irradiation, including increased transgenerational carcinogenesis described in other studies.

  17. Paternal irradiation perturbs the expression of circadian genes in offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, Andre M.G.F.; Barber, Ruth C.; Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We have analysed gene expression in the offspring of irradiated male mice. • CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice were used in our study. • The pattern of gene expression was established in four tissues. • Expression of genes in involved in rhythmic process/circadian rhythm is compromised. • Our data may explain the phenomenon of transgenerational genomic instability. - Abstract: The circadian system represents a complex network which influences the timing of many biological processes. Recent studies have established that circadian alterations play an important role in the susceptibility to many human diseases, including cancer. Here we report that paternal irradiation in mice significantly affects the expression of genes involved in rhythmic processes in their first-generation offspring. Using microarrays, the patterns of gene expression were established for brain, kidney, liver and spleen samples from the non-exposed offspring of irradiated CBA/Ca and BALB/c male mice. The most over-represented categories among the genes differentially expressed in the offspring of control and irradiated males were those involved in rhythmic process, circadian rhythm and DNA-dependent regulation of transcription. The results of our study therefore provide a plausible explanation for the transgenerational effects of paternal irradiation, including increased transgenerational carcinogenesis described in other studies

  18. Parasitic spawning in sand gobies: an experimental assessment of nest-opening size, sneaker male cues, paternity, and filial cannibalism

    OpenAIRE

    Ola Svensson; Charlotta Kvarnemo

    2007-01-01

    Sneaking is common in nest-building fish with paternal care, but the role of nest-opening size in protecting against entry by sneaker males has never been tested before. Using the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a fish with exclusive paternal care, experimental manipulations of nest openings provided no support for the hypothesis that nest openings serve as physical or visual defense or that sneaker males prefer to parasitize nests with wide openings. Female mating preference was also not...

  19. Effects of paternal age and offspring cognitive ability in early adulthood on the risk of schizophrenia and related disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Pedersen, Carsten B; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-01-01

    Advanced paternal age (APA) and intelligence quotient (IQ) are both associated with the risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in young adult offspring. We hypothesized that the offspring SSD risk gradient associated with paternal age is mediated by offspring IQ. We investigated joint...... the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of SSD. During the follow-up, 528 men developed SSD (incidence rate [IR] 5.2 and 8.6 per 10,000 person-years in the first and second cohorts, respectively). APA was associated with higher risk of SSD (IRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.10-1.60 per a ten-year increase in paternal age). A higher...... IQ was associated with lower SSD risk (IRR, 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-0.74 per one SD increase). The IR of SSD was higher among persons who were draft-exempt for health reasons (APA-related SSD (individuals...

  20. Early Determinants of Maternal and Paternal Harsh Discipline: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Pauline W.; Raat, Hein; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J.; van IJzendoorn, M. H.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Research described risk factors for maternal use of harsh discipline, but knowledge about determinants of paternal harsh discipline is lacking. This study aimed to identify determinants of harsh discipline and whether this differed between mothers and fathers. Harsh disciplining practices were self-reported by Dutch parents of 3-year-old children.…

  1. Paternal B Vitamin Intake Is a Determinant of Growth, Hepatic Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal Tumor Volume in Female Apc1638N Mouse Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Sabet

    Full Text Available The importance of maternal nutrition to offspring health and risk of disease is well established. Emerging evidence suggests paternal diet may affect offspring health as well.In the current study we sought to determine whether modulating pre-conception paternal B vitamin intake alters intestinal tumor formation in offspring. Additionally, we sought to identify potential mechanisms for the observed weight differential among offspring by profiling hepatic gene expression and lipid content.Male Apc1638N mice (prone to intestinal tumor formation were fed diets containing replete (control, CTRL, mildly deficient (DEF, or supplemental (SUPP quantities of vitamins B2, B6, B12, and folate for 8 weeks before mating with control-fed wild type females. Wild type offspring were euthanized at weaning and hepatic gene expression profiled. Apc1638N offspring were fed a replete diet and euthanized at 28 weeks of age to assess tumor burden.No differences in intestinal tumor incidence or burden were found between male Apc1638N offspring of different paternal diet groups. Although in female Apc1638N offspring there were no differences in tumor incidence or multiplicity, a stepwise increase in tumor volume with increasing paternal B vitamin intake was observed. Interestingly, female offspring of SUPP and DEF fathers had a significantly lower body weight than those of CTRL fed fathers. Moreover, hepatic trigylcerides and cholesterol were elevated 3-fold in adult female offspring of SUPP fathers. Weanling offspring of the same fathers displayed altered expression of several key lipid-metabolism genes. Hundreds of differentially methylated regions were identified in the paternal sperm in response to DEF and SUPP diets. Aside from a few genes including Igf2, there was a striking lack of overlap between these genes differentially methylated in sperm and differentially expressed in offspring.In this animal model, modulation of paternal B vitamin intake prior to mating

  2. X-linked gene expression in the Virginia opossum: differences between the paternally derived Gpd and Pgk-A loci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samollow, P.B.; Ford, A.L.; VandeBerg, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Expression of X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and phosphoglycerate kinase-A (PGK-A) in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) was studied electrophoretically in animals from natural populations and those produced through controlled laboratory crosses. Blood from most of the wild animals exhibited a common single-banded phenotype for both enzymes. Rare variant animals, regardless of sex, exhibited single-banded phenotypes different in mobility from the common mobility class of the respective enzyme. The laboratory crosses confirmed the allelic basis for the common and rare phenotypes. Transmission of PGK-A phenotypes followed the pattern of determinate (nonrandom) inactivation of the paternally derived Pgk-A allele, and transmission of G6PD also was consistent with this pattern. A survey of tissue-specific expression of G6PD phenotypes of heterozygous females revealed, in almost all tissues, three-banded patterns skewed in favor of the allele that was expressed in blood cells. Three-banded patterns were never observed in males or in putatively homozygous females. These patterns suggest simultaneous, but unequal, expression of the maternally and paternally derived Gpd alleles within individual cells. The absence of such partial expression was noted in a parallel survey of females heterozygous at the Pgd-A locus. Thus, it appears that Gpd and Pgk-A are X-linked in D. virginiana and subject to preferential paternal allele inactivation, but that dosage compensation may not be complete for all paternally derived X-linked genes.

  3. Paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 in association with a maternal supernumerary marker chromosome (6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R.S.; Crolla, J.A.; Sitch, F.L. [Salisbury District Hospital, Wiltshire (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Uniparental disomy may arise by a number of different mechanisms of aneuploidy correction. A population that has been identified as being at increased risk of aneuploidy are those individuals bearing supernumerary marker chromosomes (SMCs). There have been a number of cases reported of trisomy 21 in association with bi-satellited marker chromosomes have described two individuals with small inv dup (15) markers. One had paternal isodisomy of chromosome 15 and Angelman syndrome. The other had maternal heterodisomy (15) and Prader-Willi syndrome. At the Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory we have conducted a search for uniparental disomy of the normal homologues of the chromosomes from which SMCs originated. Our study population consists of 39 probands with SMCs originating from a number of different autosomes, including 17 with SMCs of chromosome 15 origin. Using PCR amplification of microsatellite repeat sequences located distal to the regions included in the SMCs we have determined the parental origin of the two normal homologues in each case. We have identified paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 in a female child with a supernumerary marker ring chromosome 6 in approximately 70% of peripheral blood lymphocytes. The marker was found to be of maternal origin. This is the second case of paternal isodisomy of chromosome 6 to be reported, and the first in association with a SMC resulting in a partial trisomy for a portion of the short arm of chromosome 6. In spite of this, the patient appears to be functioning appropriately for her age.

  4. Paternal cocaine taking elicits epigenetic remodeling and memory deficits in male progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, M E; Briand, L A; Fant, B; Guercio, L A; Arreola, A C; Schmidt, H D; Sidoli, S; Han, Y; Garcia, B A; Pierce, R C

    2017-11-01

    Paternal environmental perturbations including exposure to drugs of abuse can produce profound effects on the physiology and behavior of offspring via epigenetic modifications. Here we show that adult drug-naive male offspring of cocaine-exposed sires have memory formation deficits and associated reductions in NMDA receptor-mediated hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Reduced levels of the endogenous NMDA receptor co-agonist d-serine were accompanied by increased expression of the d-serine degrading enzyme d-amino acid oxidase (Dao1) in the hippocampus of cocaine-sired male progeny. Increased Dao1 transcription was associated with enrichment of permissive epigenetic marks on histone proteins in the hippocampus of male cocaine-sired progeny, some of which were enhanced near the Dao1 locus. Finally, hippocampal administration of d-serine reversed both the memory formation and synaptic plasticity deficits. Collectively, these results demonstrate that paternal cocaine exposure produces epigenetic remodeling in the hippocampus leading to NMDA receptor-dependent memory formation and synaptic plasticity impairments only in male progeny, which has significant implications for the male descendants of chronic cocaine users.

  5. Suboptimal maternal and paternal mental health are associated with child bullying perpetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetgiri, Rashmi; Lin, Hua; Flores, Glenn

    2015-06-01

    This study examines associations between maternal and paternal mental health and child bullying perpetration among school-age children, and whether having one or both parents with suboptimal mental health is associated with bullying. The 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a nationally-representative, random-digit-dial survey, was analyzed, using a parent-reported bullying measure. Suboptimal mental health was defined as fair/poor (vs. good/very good/excellent) parental self-reported mental and emotional health. Of the 61,613 parents surveyed, more than half were parents of boys and were white, 20% were Latino, 15% African American, and 7% other race/ethnicity. Suboptimal maternal (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.8) and paternal (OR 1.5; 95% CI 1.1-2.2) mental health are associated with bullying. Compared with children with no parents with suboptimal mental health, children with only one or both parents with suboptimal mental health have higher bullying odds. Addressing the mental health of both parents may prove beneficial in preventing bullying.

  6. Psychopathology in 7-year-old children: Differences in maternal and paternal ratings and the genetic epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseldijk, Laura W; Fedko, Iryna O; Bartels, Meike; Nivard, Michel G; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Middeldorp, Christel M

    2017-04-01

    The assessment of children's psychopathology is often based on parental report. Earlier studies have suggested that rater bias can affect the estimates of genetic, shared environmental and unique environmental influences on differences between children. The availability of a large dataset of maternal as well as paternal ratings of psychopathology in 7-year old children enabled (i) the analysis of informant effects on these assessments, and (ii) to obtain more reliable estimates of the genetic and non-genetic effects. DSM-oriented measures of affective, anxiety, somatic, attention-deficit/hyperactivity, oppositional-defiant, conduct, and obsessive-compulsive problems were rated for 12,310 twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Register by mothers (N = 12,085) and fathers (N = 8,516). The effects of genetic and non-genetic effects were estimated on the common and rater-specific variance. For all scales, mean scores on maternal ratings exceeded paternal ratings. Parents largely agreed on the ranking of their child's problems (r 0.60-0.75). The heritability was estimated over 55% for maternal and paternal ratings for all scales, except for conduct problems (44-46%). Unbiased shared environmental influences, i.e., on the common variance, were significant for affective (13%), oppositional (13%), and conduct problems (37%). In clinical settings, different cutoffs for (sub)clinical scores could be applied to paternal and maternal ratings of their child's psychopathology. Only for conduct problems, shared environmental and genetic influences explain an equal amount in differences between children. For the other scales, genetic factors explain the majority of the variance, especially for the common part that is free of rater bias. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley

  7. A Decade of Exploring the Mammalian Sperm Epigenome: Paternal Epigenetic and Transgenerational Inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Champroux

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has seen a tremendous increase in interest and progress in the field of sperm epigenetics. Studies have shown that chromatin regulation during male germline development is multiple and complex, and that the spermatozoon possesses a unique epigenome. Its DNA methylation profile, DNA-associated proteins, nucleo-protamine distribution pattern and non-coding RNA set up a unique epigenetic landscape which is delivered, along with its haploid genome, to the oocyte upon fertilization, and therefore can contribute to embryogenesis and to the offspring health. An emerging body of compelling data demonstrates that environmental exposures and paternal lifestyle can change the sperm epigenome and, consequently, may affect both the embryonic developmental program and the health of future generations. This short review will attempt to provide an overview of what is currently known about sperm epigenome and the existence of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of paternally acquired traits that may contribute to the offspring phenotype.

  8. The age-related patterns of preterm birth among urban African-American and non-Latina White mothers: The effect of paternal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Shayna D; Rankin, Kristin M; DeSisto, Carla; Collins, James W

    2018-05-30

    Few studies have examined contributions of paternal factors to birth outcomes. Weathering is a pattern of increasing rates of adverse birth outcome with increasing maternal age. This study evaluates for an association between paternal involvement and weathering in the context of preterm birth (PTB, poverty. Using the Illinois transgenerational dataset with appended US census income information of infants (1989-1991) and their mothers (1956-1976), we compared infants of women by degree of paternal involvement: married, unmarried with father named on birth certificate, and unnamed father. Data were stratified by maternal residence in higher or lower income neighborhoods at both the time of mothers' birth and infants' birth, estimating maternal lifelong economic context. We computed race-specific PTB rates according to maternal age, lifelong neighborhood income, and paternal involvement. We calculated Mantel-Haenszel chi-square tests of linear trend from contingency tables to evaluate weathering. Among African-Americans (n = 39,991) with unnamed fathers and lifelong residence in lower income neighborhoods, PTB rate was lowest among teens at 18.8%, compared to 21.5% for 30-35 year-old mothers (p for linear trend rate among teens was 16%, compared to 25% for 30-35 year-old mothers (p = 0.21). Among married African-Americans with lifelong residence in lower income neighborhoods, PTB rate among teens was 16.4%, compared to 12.5% for 30-35 year-old mothers (p = 0.79). Among married African-Americans with lifelong residence in higher income neighborhoods, PTB rate among teens was 20%, compared to 11.4% for 30-35 year-old mothers (p = 0.40). White mothers (n = 31,981) did not demonstrate weathering, regardless of paternal involvement and neighborhood poverty. We conclude that weathering was not seen among married African-Americans, independent of neighborhood income, suggesting a potentially protective mechanism associated with paternal involvement

  9. Trans-generational parasite protection associated with paternal diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Eleanore D; de Roode, Jacobus C; Hunter, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Multiple generations of hosts are often exposed to the same pathogens, favouring the evolution of trans-generational defences. Because females have more opportunities to transfer protective molecules to offspring, many studies have focused on maternally derived protection. However, males of many species can transfer compounds along with sperm, including chemicals that could provide protection. Here, we assess maternally and paternally derived protection in a monarch butterfly-protozoan parasite system where parasite resistance is heavily influenced by secondary plant chemicals, known as cardenolides, present in the larval diet of milkweed plants. We reared monarch butterflies on medicinal and non-medicinal milkweed species and then measured resistance of their offspring to infection. We also measured cardenolide content in adult monarchs reared on the two species, and in the eggs that they produced. We found that offspring were more resistant to infection when their fathers were reared on medicinal milkweed, while maternal diet had less of an effect. We also found that eggs contained the highest levels of cardenolides when both parents were reared on the medicinal species. Moreover, females reared on non-medicinal milkweed produced eggs with significantly higher levels of cardenolides if they mated with males reared on the medicinal milkweed species. However, we found an equivocal relationship between the cardenolides present in eggs and parasite resistance in the offspring. Our results demonstrate that males reared on medicinal plants can transfer protection to their offspring, but the exact mechanism remains unresolved. This suggests that paternal protection from parasitism might be important, particularly when there are environmental sources of parasite resistance and when males transfer spermatophores during mating. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  10. Paternity protection can provide a kick-start for the evolution of male-only parental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Andrew T; Schwanz, Lisa E; Kokko, Hanna

    2013-08-01

    Sperm competition and uncertainty of paternity hamper the evolution of male parental care. Thus, maternal care predominates in most taxa. What if males can, however, limit cuckoldry by guarding the eggs postmating? Here, we show that this provides a reason to reconsider an old and nowadays rather discredited hypothesis: that external fertilization is associated with male care because the parent who releases its gametes first can depart leaving the other in a "cruel bind," having to care for the offspring. In our model, protection of paternity provides an additional incentive for the male to stay associated with its young. When we then assume that offspring survive better if guarded, paternity protection proves enough to kick-start the evolution of male-only parental care from a scenario with no care. This fits with data from fishes, where male-only care is associated with external fertilization, whereas female-only care almost always evolves after an initial transition to internal fertilization. Our model unifies disparate hypotheses regarding parental care roles and provides support for the idea that care roles can be influenced by sex differences in selection to be physically close to the offspring, including selection that is initially not based on offspring survival. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Resentment of paternalism as system change sentiment: hostile sexism toward men and actual behavior in the 2008 U.S. presidential election.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Charlotte Chuck

    2014-01-01

    Taking inspiration from Glick and colleagues (2004), this study tested the idea that resentment of paternalism (which is part of the hostile sexism toward men construct) might approximate desire for system change by correlating this variable with actual behavior associated with system change in a single culture. Specifically, voting behavior in the 2008 U.S. presidential election was predicted from political party affiliation, measures of hostile and benevolent sexism toward both women and men, and egalitarian racial attitudes using a U.S. college student sample. Results indicated that the only significant predictors of voting behavior were political party affiliation, resentment of paternalism, and egalitarian racial attitudes. Higher levels of resentment of paternalism were in fact associated with voting for the ticket that represented system change-holding the other predictors constant.

  12. Maternal and paternal infant representations: A comparison between parents of term and preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tooten, A.; Hall, R.A.S.; Hoffenkamp, H.N.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; Bakel, van H.J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Research on parental attachment representations after preterm birth is limited and inconclusive. The present study is the first in which maternal and paternal attachment representations after term, moderately and very preterm birth are compared. In addition, special attention was directed

  13. Maternal and paternal infant representations : A comparison between parents of term and preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tooten, A.; Hall, R.A.S.; Hoffenkamp, H.N.; Braeken, J.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.; van Bakel, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research on parental attachment representations after preterm birth is limited and inconclusive. The present study is the first in which maternal and paternal attachment representations after term, moderately and very preterm birth are compared. In addition, special attention was directed

  14. Early-Onset Paternal Smoking and Offspring Adiposity: Further Investigation of a Potential Intergenerational Effect Using the HUNT Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carslake

    Full Text Available Recently it has been suggested that rearing conditions during preadolescence in one generation may affect health outcomes in subsequent generations. Such parental effects, potentially induced by epigenetic modifications in the germ line, have attracted considerable attention because of their implications for public health and social policies. Yet, to date, evidence in humans has been rare due to data limitations and much further investigation in large studies is required. The aim of this paper is to reproduce and extend a recent study which found that paternal smoking before age 11 was associated with elevated body mass index (BMI among male offspring in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC. Using the Nord-Trøndelag Health (HUNT Study, we find that paternal smoking during pre-adolescence (45,000 offspring, we cannot rule out a weaker association, perhaps common to sons and daughters, which would be consistent with the ALSPAC study. Alternatively, we discuss whether confounding, chance in parallel tests, or sample selection effects might explain the observed associations of early paternal smoking with offspring BMI.

  15. Angle-domain inverse scattering migration/inversion in isotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wuqun; Mao, Weijian; Li, Xuelei; Ouyang, Wei; Liang, Quan

    2018-07-01

    The classical seismic asymptotic inversion can be transformed into a problem of inversion of generalized Radon transform (GRT). In such methods, the combined parameters are linearly attached to the scattered wave-field by Born approximation and recovered by applying an inverse GRT operator to the scattered wave-field data. Typical GRT-style true-amplitude inversion procedure contains an amplitude compensation process after the weighted migration via dividing an illumination associated matrix whose elements are integrals of scattering angles. It is intuitional to some extent that performs the generalized linear inversion and the inversion of GRT together by this process for direct inversion. However, it is imprecise to carry out such operation when the illumination at the image point is limited, which easily leads to the inaccuracy and instability of the matrix. This paper formulates the GRT true-amplitude inversion framework in an angle-domain version, which naturally degrades the external integral term related to the illumination in the conventional case. We solve the linearized integral equation for combined parameters of different fixed scattering angle values. With this step, we obtain high-quality angle-domain common-image gathers (CIGs) in the migration loop which provide correct amplitude-versus-angle (AVA) behavior and reasonable illumination range for subsurface image points. Then we deal with the over-determined problem to solve each parameter in the combination by a standard optimization operation. The angle-domain GRT inversion method keeps away from calculating the inaccurate and unstable illumination matrix. Compared with the conventional method, the angle-domain method can obtain more accurate amplitude information and wider amplitude-preserved range. Several model tests demonstrate the effectiveness and practicability.

  16. Both paternal exercise and healthy diet are required to protect offspring from high fat diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes risk in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Paternal eating and physical activity behaviors peri-conception may influence offspring obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. A recent study showed that paternal exercise increased offspring susceptibility to obesity when the offspring consumed a high fat (HF) diet. However, it is not y...

  17. Juridical-Criminal Paternalism, Autonomy and Vulnerability: Legitimation Criteria of Paternalistic Interventions on Individual Autonomy in Criminal Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heráclito Mota Barreto Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper has as objective questioning the legitimacy of state's paternalistic interventions on individual autonomy by using institutional-criminal instruments. In this path, the paper aims to understand in which cases the State is allowed to interfere in private individual lives under the justification of being promoting a well or avoiding a harm and, as well, in which cases such interference is abusive of individuals self-determination. Into this analysis, the work will study the current concepts of paternalism, the theoretical classifications on paternalistic interventions which will be useful to demonstrate admissible and inadmissible species of paternalism and Joel Feinberg and Gerald Dworkin's anti- paternalistic theories. Following, this subject will be analyzed in association with the implications of juridical-criminal goods involved in conflicts between autonomy, human vulnerabilities and paternalism, specially regarding to the (unavailability of those goods. In the end, the work intends to define legitimation criteria for paternalistic interventions inserted in criminal laws, which superimpose themselves on the individual autonomy, in order to harmonize constitutional values of respect for autonomy, protection of vulnerable individuals and the Criminal Law functions of exclusive protection of juridical goods.

  18. Paternal experience during the child’s first year of life: integrative review of qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Ferreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social transformations have raised reflection about the paternal role and pointed to new fatherhoods, characterized by more effective involvement of the father in the family routine and in childcare. The present integrative review of qualitative studies aimed to synthetize the literature evidence about fatherhood experience throughout the first year of the child’s life, attentive to gender questions. Twenty three studies integrated this review. It was observed that fathers had positive experience with their babies and, still, craved for more time and space to dedicate to the family. However, inequality between genders, continuous requirement of financial provision at home and their inaptitude for breastfeeding moment impeded more paternal involvement. We concluded that new fatherhoods movement is present in the father experience and contemporary gender tendencies are challenges for parenting support.

  19. Polyandry in dragon lizards: inbred paternal genotypes sire fewer offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frère, Celine H; Chandrasoma, Dani; Whiting, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Multiple mating in female animals is something of a paradox because it can either be risky (e.g., higher probability of disease transmission, social costs) or provide substantial fitness benefits (e.g., genetic bet hedging whereby the likelihood of reproductive failure is lowered). The genetic relatedness of parental units, particularly in lizards, has rarely been studied in the wild. Here, we examined levels of multiple paternity in Australia's largest agamid lizard, the eastern water dragon (Intellagama lesueurii), and determined whether male reproductive success is best explained by its heterozygosity coefficient or the extent to which it is related to the mother. Female polyandry was the norm: 2/22 clutches (9.2%) were sired by three or more fathers, 17/22 (77.2%) were sired by two fathers, and only 3/22 (13.6%) clutches were sired by one father. Moreover, we reconstructed the paternal genotypes for 18 known mother–offspring clutches and found no evidence that females were favoring less related males or that less related males had higher fitness. However, males with greater heterozygosity sired more offspring. While the postcopulatory mechanisms underlying this pattern are not understood, female water dragons likely represent another example of reproduction through cryptic means (sperm selection/sperm competition) in a lizard, and through which they may ameliorate the effects of male-driven precopulatory sexual selection. PMID:25937911

  20. Applying strategies from libertarian paternalism to decision making for prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David C; Szymanski, Konrad M; Black, Amanda; Nelson, David E

    2011-04-21

    Despite the recent publication of results from two randomized clinical trials, prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer remains a controversial issue. There is lack of agreement across studies that PSA screening significantly reduces prostate cancer mortality. In spite of these facts, the widespread use of PSA testing in the United States leads to overdetection and overtreatment of clinically indolent prostate cancer, and its associated harms of incontinence and impotence. Given the inconclusive results from clinical trials and incongruent PSA screening guidelines, the decision to screen for prostate cancer with PSA testing is an uncertain one for patients and health care providers. Screening guidelines from some health organizations recommend an informed decision making (IDM) or shared decision making (SDM) approach for deciding on PSA screening. These approaches aim to empower patients to choose among the available options by making them active participants in the decision making process. By increasing involvement of patients in the clinical decision-making process, IDM/SDM places more of the responsibility for a complex decision on the patient. Research suggests, however, that patients are not well-informed of the harms and benefits associated with prostate cancer screening and are also subject to an assortment of biases, emotion, fears, and irrational thought that interferes with making an informed decision. In response, the IDM/SDM approaches can be augmented with strategies from the philosophy of libertarian paternalism (LP) to improve decision making. LP uses the insights of behavioural economics to help people better make better choices. Some of the main strategies of LP applicable to PSA decision making are a default decision rule, framing of decision aids, and timing of the decision. In this paper, we propose that applying strategies from libertarian paternalism can help with PSA screening decision-making. Our proposal to augment IDM

  1. Infant Mortality Risk and Paternity Certainty Are Associated with Postnatal Maternal Behavior toward Adult Male Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Stacy; Hirwa, Jean Paul; Silk, Joan B.; Vigilant, Linda; Stoinski, Tara S.

    2016-01-01

    Sexually selected infanticide is an important source of infant mortality in many mammalian species. In species with long-term male-female associations, females may benefit from male protection against infanticidal outsiders. We tested whether mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) mothers in single and multi-male groups monitored by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund’s Karisoke Research Center actively facilitated interactions between their infants and a potentially protective male. We also evaluated the criteria mothers in multi-male groups used to choose a preferred male social partner. In single male groups, where infanticide risk and paternity certainty are high, females with infants <1 year old spent more time near and affiliated more with males than females without young infants. In multi-male groups, where infanticide rates and paternity certainty are lower, mothers with new infants exhibited few behavioral changes toward males. The sole notable change was that females with young infants proportionally increased their time near males they previously spent little time near when compared to males they had previously preferred, perhaps to encourage paternity uncertainty and deter aggression. Rank was a much better predictor of females’ social partner choice than paternity. Older infants (2–3 years) in multi-male groups mirrored their mothers’ preferences for individual male social partners; 89% spent the most time in close proximity to the male their mother had spent the most time near when they were <1 year old. Observed discrepancies between female behavior in single and multi-male groups likely reflect different levels of postpartum intersexual conflict; in groups where paternity certainty and infanticide risk are both high, male-female interests align and females behave accordingly. This highlights the importance of considering individual and group-level variation when evaluating intersexual conflict across the reproductive cycle. PMID:26863300

  2. Infant Mortality Risk and Paternity Certainty Are Associated with Postnatal Maternal Behavior toward Adult Male Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Rosenbaum

    Full Text Available Sexually selected infanticide is an important source of infant mortality in many mammalian species. In species with long-term male-female associations, females may benefit from male protection against infanticidal outsiders. We tested whether mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei mothers in single and multi-male groups monitored by the Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund's Karisoke Research Center actively facilitated interactions between their infants and a potentially protective male. We also evaluated the criteria mothers in multi-male groups used to choose a preferred male social partner. In single male groups, where infanticide risk and paternity certainty are high, females with infants <1 year old spent more time near and affiliated more with males than females without young infants. In multi-male groups, where infanticide rates and paternity certainty are lower, mothers with new infants exhibited few behavioral changes toward males. The sole notable change was that females with young infants proportionally increased their time near males they previously spent little time near when compared to males they had previously preferred, perhaps to encourage paternity uncertainty and deter aggression. Rank was a much better predictor of females' social partner choice than paternity. Older infants (2-3 years in multi-male groups mirrored their mothers' preferences for individual male social partners; 89% spent the most time in close proximity to the male their mother had spent the most time near when they were <1 year old. Observed discrepancies between female behavior in single and multi-male groups likely reflect different levels of postpartum intersexual conflict; in groups where paternity certainty and infanticide risk are both high, male-female interests align and females behave accordingly. This highlights the importance of considering individual and group-level variation when evaluating intersexual conflict across the reproductive cycle.

  3. Paternalism and the paradox of work-life balance: Discourse and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan-Rankin, S

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on Lewis et al’s (2007) critical treatment of ‘work-life balance’ (WLB) as a western, neo-liberal discourse with problematic assumptions of gender and culture neutrality; this study examines the ways in which WLB discourse(s) are translated and adopted within transnational call centres in India. Discursive understandings suggest that work-life balance negotiations are filtered through two dominant discourses: neo-liberalism/individualism and collectivism-paternalism. The contradiction...

  4. Quantitative Genetics Identifies Cryptic Genetic Variation Involved in the Paternal Regulation of Seed Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pires, Nuno D.; Bemer, Marian; Müller, Lena M.; Baroux, Célia; Spillane, Charles; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    Embryonic development requires a correct balancing of maternal and paternal genetic information. This balance is mediated by genomic imprinting, an epigenetic mechanism that leads to parent-of-origin-dependent gene expression. The parental conflict (or kinship) theory proposes that imprinting can

  5. Polygyny and extra-pair paternity enhance the opportunity for sexual selection in blue tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, Oscar; Komdeur, Jan; van der Velde, Marco; Schut, Elske; Magrath, Michael J. L.

    Polygyny and extra-pair paternity are generally thought to enhance sexual selection. However, the extent to which these phenomena increase variance in male reproductive success will depend on the covariance between success at these two strategies. We analysed these patterns over four breeding

  6. Mate guarding in the Seychelles warbler is energetically costly and adjusted to paternity risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Males may increase their fitness through extra-pair copulations (copulations outside the pair bond) that result in extra-pair fertilizations, but also risk lost paternity when they leave their own mate unguarded. The fitness costs of cuckoldry for Seychelles warblers (Acrocephalus sechellensis) are

  7. Paternal/Maternal Attachment, Peer Support, Social Expectations of Peer Interaction, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yih-Lan

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how paternal and maternal attachment might relate to adolescents' peer support, social expectations of peer interaction, and depressive symptoms; 1,144 8th graders in Taiwan participated in the study. The relationships were examined through a structural equating modeling. Consistent with theoretical…

  8. Estimating the relative contributions of maternal genetic, paternal genetic and intrauterine factors to offspring birth weight and head circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Frances; Thapar, Anita

    2010-07-01

    Genetic factors and the prenatal environment contribute to birth weight. However, very few types of study design can disentangle their relative contribution. To examine maternal genetic and intrauterine contributions to offspring birth weight and head circumference. To compare the contribution of maternal and paternal genetic effects. Mothers and fathers were either genetically related or unrelated to their offspring who had been conceived by in vitro fertilization. 423 singleton full term offspring, of whom 262 were conceived via homologous IVF (both parents related), 66 via sperm donation (mother only related) and 95 via egg donation (father only related). Maternal weight at antenatal booking, current weight and maternal height. Paternal current weight and height were all predictors. Infant birth weight and head circumference were outcomes. Genetic relatedness was the main contributing factor between measures of parental weight and offspring birth weight as correlations were only significant when the parent was related to the child. However, there was a contribution of the intrauterine environment to the association between maternal height and both infant birth weight and infant head circumference as these were significant even when mothers were unrelated to their child. Both maternal and paternal genes made contributions to infant birth weight. Maternal height appeared to index a contribution of the intrauterine environment to infant growth and gestational age. Results suggested a possible biological interaction between the intrauterine environment and maternal inherited characteristics which suppresses the influence of paternal genes. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Beyond the Consent Dilemma in Libertarian Paternalism, a Normative Void

    OpenAIRE

    Baujard, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    CNRS : NR; AERES: NR; International audience; I am convinced by Alain Marciano’s argument (Marciano 2015). He remarks that consent to the condition of choice is considered by neoclassicaleconomics to be an external issue. And although it does remain an issue as far as the theory of rational choice is concerned, there too it is notunjustified to consider it as an external one. For libertarian paternalism, though, it becomes an internal issue as soon as the suppositions ofrationality and perfec...

  10. Y-chromosome variation in Altaian Kazakhs reveals a common paternal gene pool for Kazakhs and the influence of Mongolian expansions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulik, Matthew C; Osipova, Ludmila P; Schurr, Theodore G

    2011-03-11

    Kazakh populations have traditionally lived as nomadic pastoralists that seasonally migrate across the steppe and surrounding mountain ranges in Kazakhstan and southern Siberia. To clarify their population history from a paternal perspective, we analyzed the non-recombining portion of the Y-chromosome from Kazakh populations living in southern Altai Republic, Russia, using a high-resolution analysis of 60 biallelic markers and 17 STRs. We noted distinct differences in the patterns of genetic variation between maternal and paternal genetic systems in the Altaian Kazakhs. While they possess a variety of East and West Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups, only three East Eurasian paternal haplogroups appear at significant frequencies (C3*, C3c and O3a3c*). In addition, the Y-STR data revealed low genetic diversity within these lineages. Analysis of the combined biallelic and STR data also demonstrated genetic differences among Kazakh populations from across Central Asia. The observed differences between Altaian Kazakhs and indigenous Kazakhs were not the result of admixture between Altaian Kazakhs and indigenous Altaians. Overall, the shared paternal ancestry of Kazakhs differentiates them from other Central Asian populations. In addition, all of them showed evidence of genetic influence by the 13(th) century CE Mongol Empire. Ultimately, the social and cultural traditions of the Kazakhs shaped their current pattern of genetic variation.

  11. Y-chromosome variation in Altaian Kazakhs reveals a common paternal gene pool for Kazakhs and the influence of Mongolian expansions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Dulik

    Full Text Available Kazakh populations have traditionally lived as nomadic pastoralists that seasonally migrate across the steppe and surrounding mountain ranges in Kazakhstan and southern Siberia. To clarify their population history from a paternal perspective, we analyzed the non-recombining portion of the Y-chromosome from Kazakh populations living in southern Altai Republic, Russia, using a high-resolution analysis of 60 biallelic markers and 17 STRs. We noted distinct differences in the patterns of genetic variation between maternal and paternal genetic systems in the Altaian Kazakhs. While they possess a variety of East and West Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups, only three East Eurasian paternal haplogroups appear at significant frequencies (C3*, C3c and O3a3c*. In addition, the Y-STR data revealed low genetic diversity within these lineages. Analysis of the combined biallelic and STR data also demonstrated genetic differences among Kazakh populations from across Central Asia. The observed differences between Altaian Kazakhs and indigenous Kazakhs were not the result of admixture between Altaian Kazakhs and indigenous Altaians. Overall, the shared paternal ancestry of Kazakhs differentiates them from other Central Asian populations. In addition, all of them showed evidence of genetic influence by the 13(th century CE Mongol Empire. Ultimately, the social and cultural traditions of the Kazakhs shaped their current pattern of genetic variation.

  12. Consecutive five-year analysis of paternal and maternal gene flow and contributions of gametic heterogeneities to overall genetic composition of dispersed seeds of Pinus densiflora (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaizumi, Masakazu G; Takahashi, Makoto; Isoda, Keiya; Austerlitz, Frédéric

    2013-09-01

    Genetic variability in monoecious woody plant populations results from the assemblage of individuals issued from asymmetrical male and female reproductive functions, produced during spatially and temporarily heterogeneous reproductive and dispersal events. Here we investigated the dispersal patterns and levels of genetic diversity and differentiation of both paternal and maternal gametes in a natural population of Pinus densiflora at the multiple-year scale as long as five consecutive years. • We analyzed the paternity and maternity for 1576 seeds and 454 candidate adult trees using nuclear DNA polymorphisms of diploid biparental embryos and haploid maternal megagametophytes at eight microsatellite loci. • Despite the low levels of genetic differentiation among gamete groups, a two-way AMOVA analysis showed that the parental origin (paternal vs. maternal gametes), the year of gamete production and their interaction had significant effects on the genetic composition of the seeds. While maternal gamete groups showed a significant FST value across the 5 years, this was not true for their paternal counterparts. Within the population, we found that the relative reproductive contributions of the paternal vs. the maternal parent differed among adult trees, the maternal contributions showing a larger year-to-year fluctuation. • The overall genetic variability of dispersed seeds appeared to result from two sources of heterogeneity: the difference between paternal and maternal patterns of reproduction and gamete dispersal and year-to-year heterogeneity of reproduction of adult trees, especially in their maternal reproduction.

  13. Prenatal exposure to maternal and paternal depressive symptoms and white matter microstructure in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Zou, Runyu; Muetzel, Ryan L; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning

    2018-04-01

    Prenatal maternal depression has been associated with multiple problems in offspring involving affect, cognition, and neuroendocrine functioning. This suggests that prenatal depression influences neurodevelopment. However, the underlying neurodevelopmental mechanism remains unclear. We prospectively assessed whether maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and at the child's age 3 years are related to white matter microstructure in 690 children. The association of paternal depressive symptoms with childhood white matter microstructure was assessed to evaluate genetic or familial confounding. Parental depressive symptoms were measured using the Brief Symptom Inventory. In children aged 6-9 years, we used diffusion tensor imaging to assess white matter microstructure characteristics including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). Exposure to maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy was associated with higher MD in the uncinate fasciculus and to lower FA and higher MD in the cingulum bundle. No associations of maternal depressive symptoms at the child's age of 3 years with white matter characteristics were observed. Paternal depressive symptoms also showed a trend toward significance for a lower FA in the cingulum bundle. Prenatal maternal depressive symptoms were associated with higher MD in the uncinate fasciculus and the cingulum bundle. These structures are part of the limbic system, which is involved in motivation, emotion, learning, and memory. As paternal depressive symptoms were also related to lower FA in the cingulum, the observed effect may partly reflect a genetic predisposition and shared environmental family factors and to a lesser extent a specific intrauterine effect. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Paternal Aging Affects Behavior in Pax6 Mutant Mice: A Gene/Environment Interaction in Understanding Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, Kaichi; Furuse, Tamio; Kimura, Ryuichi; Tucci, Valter; Kaneda, Hideki; Wakana, Shigeharu; Osumi, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have increased over the last few decades. These neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by a complex etiology, which involves multiple genes and gene-environmental interactions. Various genes that control specific properties of neural development exert pivotal roles in the occurrence and severity of phenotypes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Moreover, paternal aging has been reported as one of the factors that contribute to the risk of ASD and ADHD. Here we report, for the first time, that paternal aging has profound effects on the onset of behavioral abnormalities in mice carrying a mutation of Pax6, a gene with neurodevelopmental regulatory functions. We adopted an in vitro fertilization approach to restrict the influence of additional factors. Comprehensive behavioral analyses were performed in Sey/+ mice (i.e., Pax6 mutant heterozygotes) born from in vitro fertilization of sperm taken from young or aged Sey/+ fathers. No body weight changes were found in the four groups, i.e., Sey/+ and wild type (WT) mice born to young or aged father. However, we found important differences in maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations of Sey/+ mice born from young father and in the level of hyperactivity of Sey/+ mice born from aged fathers in the open-field test, respectively, compared to WT littermates. Phenotypes of anxiety were observed in both genotypes born from aged fathers compared with those born from young fathers. No significant difference was found in social behavior and sensorimotor gating among the four groups. These results indicate that mice with a single genetic risk factor can develop different phenotypes depending on the paternal age. Our study advocates for serious considerations on the role of paternal aging in breeding strategies for animal studies.

  15. Paternal Aging Affects Behavior in Pax6 Mutant Mice: A Gene/Environment Interaction in Understanding Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaichi Yoshizaki

    Full Text Available Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD have increased over the last few decades. These neurodevelopmental disorders are characterized by a complex etiology, which involves multiple genes and gene-environmental interactions. Various genes that control specific properties of neural development exert pivotal roles in the occurrence and severity of phenotypes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Moreover, paternal aging has been reported as one of the factors that contribute to the risk of ASD and ADHD. Here we report, for the first time, that paternal aging has profound effects on the onset of behavioral abnormalities in mice carrying a mutation of Pax6, a gene with neurodevelopmental regulatory functions. We adopted an in vitro fertilization approach to restrict the influence of additional factors. Comprehensive behavioral analyses were performed in Sey/+ mice (i.e., Pax6 mutant heterozygotes born from in vitro fertilization of sperm taken from young or aged Sey/+ fathers. No body weight changes were found in the four groups, i.e., Sey/+ and wild type (WT mice born to young or aged father. However, we found important differences in maternal separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations of Sey/+ mice born from young father and in the level of hyperactivity of Sey/+ mice born from aged fathers in the open-field test, respectively, compared to WT littermates. Phenotypes of anxiety were observed in both genotypes born from aged fathers compared with those born from young fathers. No significant difference was found in social behavior and sensorimotor gating among the four groups. These results indicate that mice with a single genetic risk factor can develop different phenotypes depending on the paternal age. Our study advocates for serious considerations on the role of paternal aging in breeding strategies for animal studies.

  16. Longer Duration and Earlier Age of Onset of Paternal Betel Chewing and Smoking Increase Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Human Offspring, Independently, in a Community-Based Screening Program in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Boucher, Barbara J; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2016-08-02

    Transgenerational effects of paternal Areca catechu nut chewing on offspring metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk in humans, on obesity and diabetes mellitus experimentally, and of paternal smoking on offspring obesity, are reported, likely attributable to genetic and epigenetic effects previously reported in betel-associated disease. We aimed to determine the effects of paternal smoking, and betel chewing, on the risks of early MetS in human offspring. The 13 179 parent-child trios identified from 238 364 Taiwanese aged ≥20 years screened at 2 community-based integrated screening sessions were tested for the effects of paternal smoking, areca nut chewing, and their duration prefatherhood on age of detecting offspring MetS at screen by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Offspring MetS risks increased with prefatherhood paternal areca nutusage (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-2.53) versus nonchewing fathers (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.28; 95% CI, 1.67-6.43) with >10 years paternal betel chewing, 1.62 (95% CI, 0.88-2.96) for 5 to 9 years, and 1.42 (95% CI, 0.80-2.54) for betel usage prefatherhood (Ptrend=0.0002), with increased risk (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.26-3.04) for paternal areca nut usage from 20 to 29 years of age, versus from >30 years of age (adjusted hazard ratio,1.61; 95% CI, 0.22-11.69). MetS offspring risk for paternal smoking increased dosewise (Ptrendbetel quid chewing and smoking, prefatherhood, independently predicted early occurrence of incident MetS in offspring, corroborating previously reported transgenerational effects of these habits, and supporting the need for habit-cessation program provision. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Different cytotypes in fishes of the genus Hypostomus Lcépède, 1803, (Siluriformes: Loricariidae from Xingu river (Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Milhomem

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the karyotypes of three specimens of fishes of the genus Hypostomus Lacepede, 1803 (Loricaridae from Xingu River (Amazon region. We used conventional staining techniques, including C-banding, Ag-NOR staining, CMA3- and DAPI-banding. Each specimen had a different cytotype: Hypostomus sp. Xingu-1 had 2n=64 (32M/SM, 32ST/A; Hypostomus sp. Xingu-2 has 2n=66 (32M/SM, 34ST/A, and Hypostomus sp. Xingu-3 had 2n=65 (38M/SM, 26ST/A + 1 B. The three cytotypes showed similar C-, CMA3- and DAPI-banding patterns. The nucleolus organizing regions were located in the short arm of chromosome pair 25 of Hypostomus sp. Xingu-1 and pair 29 of Hypostomus sp. Xingu-2, and in the long arm of pair 30 of Hypostomus sp. Xingu-3, probably because of a pericentric inversion. A fusion/fission rearrangement explains the difference in the diploid number and number of M/SM and ST/A chromosomes between the 2n= 64 and 2n=66 cytotypes. The B chromosome most probably explains the difference between the 2n=64 and 2n=65 cytotypes. The cytotype with 2n=65 had a significantly larger number of M/SM chromosomes, probably because of pericentric inversions. These three cytotypes may represent different species.

  18. Perceptions of barriers to paternal presence and contribution during childbirth: an exploratory study from Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushaikha, Lubna; Massah, Rana

    2013-03-01

    The barriers that face fathers during childbirth are an understudied phenomenon. The objective of our study was to explore Syrian parents' perceptions of barriers to paternal presence and contribution during childbirth. A descriptive phenomenological qualitative approach based on Colaizzi's method was used with a purposive sample of 23 mothers and 14 fathers recruited from a major public maternity hospital in Syria. In our study, four themes on barriers to paternal presence and contribution during childbirth were found: 1) sociocultural influences and rigidity; 2) being unprepared; 3) unsupportive policies and attitudes; and 4) unfavorable reactions and circumstances. Common and current sociocultural norms in Syria do not encourage fathers to be present or contribute during childbirth. Therefore, establishing culturally sensitive supportive policies and practices is a vital step toward overcoming these barriers. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Paternal and maternal factors in preimplantation embryogenesis: interaction with the biochemical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménézo, Yves J R

    2006-05-01

    Paternal effect on embryonic development occurs as early as fertilization. Incorrect formation of the spermatozoon due to centrosome defects and abnormal concentrations of any components involved in the activation process lead to failure immediately or in the subsequent cell cycles. Sperm chromosomal abnormalities result in early embryo developmental arrests. Generally poor spermatozoa lead to poor blastocyst formation. Sperm DNA fragmentation may impair even late post-implantation development. The DNA repair capacity of the oocytes is of major importance. Early preimplantation development, i.e. until maternal to zygotic transition, is maternally driven. Maternal mRNAs and proteins are of major importance, as there is an unavoidable turnover of these reserves. Polyadenylation of these mRNAs is precisely controlled, in order to avoid too early or too late transcription and translation of the housekeeping genes. An important set of maternal regulations, such as DNA stability, transcriptional regulation and protection against oxidative stress, are impaired by age. The embryo biochemical endogenous pool is very important and may depend upon the environment, i.e. the culture medium. Paternal, maternal and environmental factors are unavoidable parameters; they become evident when age impairs oocyte quality.

  20. Reconstruction of major maternal and paternal lineages of the Cape Muslim population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafieka Isaacs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The earliest Cape Muslims were brought to the Cape (Cape Town -South Africa from Africa and Asia from 1652 to 1834. They were part of an involuntary migration of slaves, political prisoners and convicts, and they contributed to the ethnic diversity of the present Cape Muslim population of South Africa. The history of the Cape Muslims has been well documented and researched however no in-depth genetic studies have been undertaken. The aim of the present study was to determine the respective African, Asian and European contributions to the mtDNA (maternal and Y-chromosomal (paternal gene pool of the Cape Muslim population, by analyzing DNA samples of 100 unrelated Muslim males born in the Cape Metropolitan area. A panel of six mtDNA and eight Y-chromosome SNP markers were screened using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (PCR-RFLP. Overall admixture estimates for the maternal line indicated Asian (0.4168 and African mtDNA (0.4005 as the main contributors. The admixture estimates for the paternal line, however, showed a predominance of the Asian contribution (0.7852. The findings are in accordance with historical data on the origins of the early Cape Muslims.

  1. Who takes paternity leave? A cohort study on prior social and health characteristics among fathers in Stockholm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Månsdotter, Anna; Fredlund, Peeter; Hallqvist, Johan; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2010-09-01

    Progress towards gender equality involves changes in the traditional parental division - female caring and male breadwinning. One aspect is increased parental leave for fathers, which may benefit the health of mothers, children, and fathers themselves. We examined how social and health characteristics (2002) were associated with paternity leave in excess of the 'father quota' of 60 days (2003-2006) in the Stockholm Public Health Cohort. Generally, fathers with stable social position, fit lifestyles, and good health had increased chances of paternity leave uptake. Our findings may contribute to identifying target groups for parental leave strategies among fathers; they indicate also that research on gender equality and public health must carefully address the problems of confounding and health-related selection.

  2. Cryptic species? Patterns of maternal and paternal gene flow in eight neotropical bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L Clare

    Full Text Available Levels of sequence divergence at mitochondrial loci are frequently used in phylogeographic analysis and species delimitation though single marker systems cannot assess bi-parental gene flow. In this investigation I compare the phylogeographic patterns revealed through the maternally inherited mitochondrial COI region and the paternally inherited 7(th intron region of the Dby gene on the Y-chromosome in eight common Neotropical bat species. These species are diverse and include members of two families from the feeding guilds of sanguivores, nectarivores, frugivores, carnivores and insectivores. In each case, the currently recognized taxon is comprised of distinct, substantially divergent intraspecific mitochondrial lineages suggesting cryptic species complexes. In Chrotopterus auritus, and Saccopteryx bilineata I observed congruent patterns of divergence in both genetic regions suggesting a cessation of gene flow between intraspecific groups. This evidence supports the existence of cryptic species complexes which meet the criteria of the genetic species concept. In Glossophaga soricina two intraspecific groups with largely sympatric South American ranges show evidence for incomplete lineage sorting or frequent hybridization while a third group with a Central American distribution appears to diverge congruently at both loci suggesting speciation. Within Desmodus rotundus and Trachops cirrhosus the paternally inherited region was monomorphic and thus does not support or refute the potential for cryptic speciation. In Uroderma bilobatum, Micronycteris megalotis and Platyrrhinus helleri the gene regions show conflicting patterns of divergence and I cannot exclude ongoing gene flow between intraspecific groups. This analysis provides a comprehensive comparison across taxa and employs both maternally and paternally inherited gene regions to validate patterns of gene flow. I present evidence for previously unrecognized species meeting the criteria of

  3. Maternal and paternal transmission of type 2 diabetes : influence of diet, lifestyle and adiposity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, A.; Corpeleijn, E.; van der Schouw, Y. T.; Stolk, R. P.; Spijkerman, A. M. W.; van der A, D. L.; Navis, G.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Beulens, J. W. J.; van, der A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Transmission of family history of type 2 diabetes to the next generation is stronger for maternal than paternal diabetes in some populations. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether this difference is explained by diet, lifestyle factors and/or adiposity. Methods. We

  4. Transitional paternalism: how shared normative powers give rise to the asymmetry of adolescent consent and refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Neil C

    2015-02-01

    In many jurisdictions, adolescents acquire the right to consent to treatment; but in some cases their refusals - e.g. of life-saving treatment - may not be respected. This asymmetry of adolescent consent and refusal seems puzzling, even incoherent. The aim here is to offer an original explanation, and a justification, of this asymmetry. Rather than trying to explain the asymmetry in terms of a variable standard of competence - where the adolescent is competent to consent to, but not refuse, certain interventions - the account offered here focuses more closely on the normative power to render actions permissible. Where normative powers are shared they can readily give rise to an asymmetry between consent and refusal. We then turn to why it is justifiable that normative powers be shared in adolescence. Transitional paternalism holds that the acquisition of normative powers by competent adolescents should not be an instant one, achieved in a single step, but that there should be a transitional period where paternalistic protection is rolled back, but not entirely withdrawn until a later date. Transitional paternalism could be implemented without generating the asymmetry between consent and refusal but, it is argued, the asymmetric version of transitional paternalism is to be preferred insofar as it offers a greater respect for the adolescent's decisions than the symmetrical alternative. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mutations in fibroblast growth-factor receptor 3 in sporadic cases of achondroplasia occur exclusively on the paternally derived chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkin, D J; Szabo, J K; Cameron, R; Henderson, S; Bellus, G A; Mack, M L; Kaitila, I; Loughlin, J; Munnich, A; Sykes, B; Bonaventure, J; Francomano, C A

    1998-01-01

    More than 97% of achondroplasia cases are caused by one of two mutations (G1138A and G1138C) in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene, which results in a specific amino acid substitution, G380R. Sporadic cases of achondroplasia have been associated with advanced paternal age, suggesting that these mutations occur preferentially during spermatogenesis. We have determined the parental origin of the achondroplasia mutation in 40 sporadic cases. Three distinct 1-bp polymorphisms were identified in the FGFR3 gene, within close proximity to the achondroplasia mutation site. Ninety-nine families, each with a sporadic case of achondroplasia in a child, were analyzed in this study. In this population, the achondroplasia mutation occurred on the paternal chromosome in all 40 cases in which parental origin was unambiguous. This observation is consistent with the clinical observation of advanced paternal age resulting in new cases of achondroplasia and suggests that factors influencing DNA replication or repair during spermatogenesis, but not during oogenesis, may predispose to the occurrence of the G1138 FGFR3 mutations. PMID:9718331

  6. Paternity-parasitism trade-offs: a model and test of host-parasite cooperation in an avian conspecific brood parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Bruce E; Hochachka, Wesley M; Eadie, John M

    2002-06-01

    Efforts to evaluate the evolutionary and ecological dynamics of conspecific brood parasitism in birds and other animals have focused on the fitness costs of parasitism to hosts and fitness benefits to parasites. However, it has been speculated recently that, in species with biparental care, host males might cooperate with parasitic females by allowing access to the host nest in exchange for copulations. We develop a cost-benefit model to explore the conditions under which such host-parasite cooperation might occur. When the brood parasite does not have a nest of her own, the only benefit to the host male is siring some of the parasitic eggs (quasi-parasitism). Cooperation with the parasite is favored when the ratio of host male paternity of his own eggs relative to his paternity of parasitic eggs exceeds the cost of parasitism. When the brood parasite has a nest of her own, a host male can gain additional, potentially more important benefits by siring the high-value, low-cost eggs laid by the parasite in her own nest. Under these conditions, host males should be even more likely to accept parasitic eggs in return for copulations with the parasitic female. We tested these predictions for American coots (Fulica americana), a species with a high frequency of conspecific brood parasitism. Multilocus DNA profiling indicated that host males did not sire any of the parasitic eggs laid in host nests, nor did they sire eggs laid by the parasite in her own nest. We used field estimates of the model parameters from a four-year study of coots to predict the minimum levels of paternity required for the costs of parasitism to be offset by the benefits of mating with brood parasites. Observed levels of paternity were significantly lower than those predicted under a variety of assumptions, and we reject the hypothesis that host males cooperated with parasitic females. Our model clarifies the specific costs and benefits that influence host-parasite cooperation and, more generally

  7. Stronger influence of maternal than paternal obesity on infant and early childhood body mass index: the Fels Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linabery, A M; Nahhas, R W; Johnson, W; Choh, A C; Towne, B; Odegaard, A O; Czerwinski, S A; Demerath, E W

    2013-06-01

    Excessive early childhood adiposity is a prevalent and increasing concern in many parts of the world. Parental obesity is one of the several factors previously associated with infant and early childhood weight, length and adiposity. Parental obesity represents a surrogate marker of the complex interplay among genetic, epigenetic and shared environmental factors, and is potentially modifiable. The relative contributions of maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI) to infant and early childhood growth, as well as the timing of such effects, have not been firmly established. Utilizing serial infant measurements and growth curve modelling, this is the largest study to fully characterize and formally compare associations between maternal and paternal BMI and offspring growth across the entire infancy and early childhood period. Maternal obesity is a stronger determinant of offspring BMI than paternal obesity at birth and from 2 to 3 years of age, suggesting that prevention efforts focused particularly on maternal lifestyle and BMI may be important in reducing excess infant BMI. The observation that maternal BMI effects are not constant, but rather present at birth, wane and re-emerge during late infancy, suggests that there is a window of opportunity in early infancy when targeted interventions on children of obese mothers may be most effective. Parental obesity influences infant body size. To fully characterize their relative effects on infant adiposity, associations between maternal and paternal body mass index (BMI) category (normal: ≤25 kg m(-2) , overweight: 25 - obese: ≥30 kg m(-2) ) and infant BMI were compared in Fels Longitudinal Study participants. A median of 9 serial weight and length measures from birth to 3.5 years were obtained from 912 European American children born in 1928-2008. Using multivariable mixed effects regression, contributions of maternal vs. paternal BMI status to infant BMI growth curves were evaluated. Cubic spline models

  8. Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Inversions are fascinating phenomena. They are reversals of the normal or expected order. They occur across a wide variety of contexts. What do inversions have to do with learning spaces? The author suggests that they are a useful metaphor for the process that is unfolding in higher education with respect to education. On the basis of…

  9. Effects of paternal phenotype and environmental variability on age and size at maturity in a male dimorphic mite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallegange, Isabel M.

    2011-04-01

    Investigating how the environment affects age and size at maturity of individuals is crucial to understanding how changes in the environment affect population dynamics through the biology of a species. Paternal phenotype, maternal, and offspring environment may crucially influence these traits, but to my knowledge, their combined effects have not yet been tested. Here, I found that in bulb mites ( Rhizoglyphus robini), maternal nutrition, offspring nutrition, and paternal phenotype (males are fighters, able to kill other mites, or benign scramblers) interactively affected offspring age and size at maturity. The largest effect occurred when both maternal and offspring nutrition was poor: in that case offspring from fighter sires required a significantly longer development time than offspring from scrambler sires. Investigating parental effects on the relationship between age and size at maturity revealed no paternal effects, and only for females was its shape influenced by maternal nutrition. Overall, this reaction norm was nonlinear. These non-genetic intergenerational effects may play a complex, yet unexplored role in influencing population fluctuations—possibly explaining why results from field studies often do not match theoretical predictions on maternal effects on population dynamics.

  10. Temperature, paternity and asynchronous hatching influence early developmental characteristics of larval Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Politis, Sebastian Nikitas; Dahlke, Flemming T.; Butts, Ian A.E.

    2014-01-01

    Offspring, especially during early development, are influenced by both intrinsic properties endowed to them by their parents, extrinsic environmental factors as well as the interplay between genes and the environment. We investigated the effects of paternity (P), temperature (T), and asynchronous...

  11. Paternal age at birth and the risk of obesity in young adulthood: a register-based birth cohort study of Norwegian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Willy; Sundet, Jon M; Tambs, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between paternal age at birth and the risk of obesity in young adulthood. Data from the medical birth register of Norway were linked with register data from the Norwegian National Conscript Service and the national statistics agency, Statistics Norway. This study used the data on 346,609 registered males who were born at term in single birth without physical anomalies during 1967-1984 and who were examined at the time of the mandatory military conscription (age 18-20 years). The relationship between paternal age at birth and the occurrence of obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2) ) at conscription was examined using a multinomial logistic regression analysis with BMI birth but did not increase (P = 0.52) with maternal age at birth. Men born when their fathers were 50 years or older had a 55% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14%, 110%) higher relative risk of obesity than men born when their fathers were younger than 20 years of age, after adjustment for age at conscription, birth order, birth year, maternal age at birth, the mother's total number of children, and maternal and paternal education levels. The risk of obesity in young Norwegian men increases with advancing paternal age at birth but does not increase with advancing maternal age at birth. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Molecular evidence for extra-pair paternity and intraspecific brood parasitism in the Black-headed Gull

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ležalová-Piálková, Radka

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 152, č. 2 (2011), s. 291-295 ISSN 0021-8375 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Black-headed Gull * genetic mating system * extra-pair paternity * intraspecific brood parasitism Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.636, year: 2011

  13. Infant sleep and paternal involvement in infant caregiving during the first 6 months of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikotzky, Liat; Sadeh, Avi; Glickman-Gavrieli, Tamar

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were to assess: (a) the involvement of fathers and mothers in overall and nighttime infant caregiving; (b) the links between paternal involvement in infant care and infant sleep patterns during the first 6 months. Fifty-six couples recruited during their first pregnancy, participated in the study. After delivery (1 and 6 months), both parents completed a questionnaire assessing the involvement of fathers relative to mothers in infant caregiving. Infant sleep was assessed using actigraphy and sleep diaries. Mothers were significantly more involved than fathers in daytime and nighttime caregiving. A higher involvement of fathers in overall infant care predicted and was associated with fewer infant night-wakings and with shorter total sleep time after controlling for breastfeeding. The findings highlight the importance of including fathers in developmental sleep research. Future studies should explore mechanisms underlying the relations between paternal involvement and infant sleep.

  14. Paternal and maternal obesity but not gestational weight gain is associated with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnus, Maria C; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Granstrom, Charlotta

    2018-01-01

    100 000 person-years in MoBa and 28.5 per 100 000 person-years in DNBC. Both maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.41 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.89] and paternal obesity, adjusted HR 1.51 (95% CI: 1.11, 2.04), were associated with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes......Background: Our objective was to examine the associations of parental body mass index (BMI) and maternal gestational weight gain with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes. Comparing the associations of maternal and paternal BMI with type 1 diabetes in the offspring will provide further insight...... included parental BMI and maternal gestational weight gain obtained by maternal report. We used Cox-proportional hazards regression to examine the risk of type 1 diabetes (n=499 cases), which was ascertained by national childhood diabetes registers. Results: The incidence of type 1 diabetes was 32.7 per...

  15. Trajectories of growth in body mass index across childhood: Associations with maternal and paternal employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W

    2013-10-01

    Research links mothers' employment to higher body mass index (BMI), a measure of weight-for-height, among their children. However, how maternal employment patterns relate to their children's BMI trajectories, and the role that fathers' employment plays in when and at what rate children grow, remain unclear. With data on children from 2 to 15 years of age living in two-parent families from the U.S. NICHD's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1107), individual growth models are used to describe American children's BMI trajectories as predicted by maternal and paternal employment characteristics. Results indicate that, by age 15, children's BMIs are, on average, nearly one-half of a standard deviation above recommended levels, and the majority of growth occurs during the preschool period. The duration of maternal employment, and combined measures of maternal and paternal employment duration, are both associated with higher child BMI across childhood. Associations are small but cumulative. Notably, the association between the duration of time children lived in dual-earner families and child BMI is larger than that between maternal employment duration alone and children's BMI, which is strongest during the preschool period. Combined measures of maternal and paternal employment intensity, defined as the number of periods both parents worked 35 or more hours per week, are associated with higher child BMI during the preschool period only. Findings highlight the importance of taking into account both parents' employment characteristics in investigating children's physical development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Comparison of Maternal and Paternal Experiences of Becoming Parents of a Very Preterm Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzi, Livio; Barello, Serena; Fumagalli, Monica; Graffigna, Guendalina; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Savarese, Mariarosaria; Montirosso, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    To compare maternal and paternal experiences of very preterm (VPT) birth (gestational age < 32 weeks) and the NICU stay. Qualitative study. Data collection took place at parents' homes 3 to 6 months after NICU discharge. Ten parental couples participated in the study (20 parents). All VPT infants were healthy, without any neonatal or postnatal complications or injuries. Computer-assisted content analysis was used to highlight thematic clusters from parents' narratives, which were labeled through qualitative interpretation. Two main dimensions (Adjustment Process to Preterm Birth and Parental Role Assumption) and three main thematic clusters (Facing the Unexpected, Learning to Parent, and Finally Back Home) described the parental experience. Mothers focused mostly on the Finally Back Home cluster, which was characterized by moderate levels of adjustment to preterm birth and by awareness of their own maternal roles. Fathers focused mostly on the Learning to Parent cluster, which was characterized by low to moderate levels of adjustment to preterm birth and by a limited assumption of paternal role. To our knowledge, this study is unique in that we compared mothers and fathers who experienced the VPT births of their infants and described their experiences of the NICU stay. We found that the VPT birth experience for parents involves a dynamic adjustment. Differences in maternal and paternal experiences may indicate the need for tailored supportive interventions in the NICU. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Does father know best? A formal model of the paternal influence on childhood social anxiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.M.; Perotti, E.C.

    2011-01-01

    We explore paternal social anxiety as a specific risk factor for childhood social anxiety in a rational optimization model. In the course of human evolution, fathers specialized in external protection (e.g., confronting the external world) while mothers specialized in internal protection (e.g.,

  18. A study of the efficacy of fathers’ attachment training on paternal-fetal attachment and parental anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Setodeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background . Attachment behaviors play an important role in accepting the identity of the fathers, the pleasant outcome of pregnancy and the child’s growth and development in the future. Objectives . This study aimed to investigate the effect of father’s attachment training (awaiting a child on paternal-fetal attachment and parental anxiety. Material and methods . This clinical trial was conducted on 150 spouses of eligible pregnant women. In the intervention group, four 90-minute training sessions were designed on maternal-fetal attachment, while the control group received routine prenatal care. The questionnaire of paternal-fetal attachment was completed both before and after intervention in both cases and control groups. Data analysis was done in SPSS software using a paired t-test and independent t-test (the significant level was 0.05. Results . The mean score of attachment was reported as 56.61 ± 6.05 and 64.53 ± 6.94 both before and after intervention, respectively. According to the paired t-test, there was a significant difference in the attachment score after intervention (p < 0.001. According to the independent t-test applied a month after intervention, the comparison of fathers’ anxiety scores before and after intervention showed a significant difference between the control and intervention groups (p < 0.001. Conclusions . Training fathers about attachment skills leads to increased paternal-fetal attachment and a lower anxiety score. Therefore, it seems necessary to include education of fathers in prenatal care.

  19. Paternal care and male mate-attraction effort in the European starling is adjusted to clutch size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komdeur, Jan; Wiersma, Popko; Magrath, Michael

    2002-06-22

    In facultative polygynous birds with biparental care, a trade-off may occur between male parental care and attraction of additional mates. If there is a cost associated with reduced male parental care, the relative benefit of mate attraction may be predicted to decrease as the size of a male's clutch or brood increases. We tested this prediction in monogamous pairs of facultatively polygynous European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). The larger the clutch, the more time the male spent incubating and the less time he spent attracting an additional female (i.e. singing near and carrying green nesting material into adjacent empty nest-boxes). Reduced paternal incubation resulted in lower overall incubation (the female did not compensate) and lower hatching success. Immediately after experimental reduction of clutches, males spent significantly less time incubating and more time singing and carrying greenery, and vice versa for experimentally enlarged clutches. Males with experimentally reduced clutches attracted a second female more often than males with experimentally enlarged clutches. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to provide experimental evidence for an adjustment of paternal care and male mate-attraction effort to clutch size. However, a trade-off between paternal nestling provisioning and mate attraction was not revealed, probably due to the absence of unpaired females by that time in the breeding season. Experiments showed that the relative contribution of the male and female to nestling provisioning was unrelated to brood size.

  20. Single cell analysis demonstrating somatic mosaicism involving 11p in a patient with paternal isodisomy and Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, F.Z.; McCaskill, C.; Subramanian, S. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) is characterized by numerous growth abnormalities including exomphalos, macroglossia, gigantism, and hemihypertrophy or hemihyperplasia. The {open_quotes}BWS gene{close_quotes} appears to be maternally repressed and is suspected to function as a growth factor or regulator of somatic growth, since activation of this gene through a variety of mechanisms appears to result in somatic overgrowth and tumor development. Mosaic paternal isodisomy of 11p has been observed previously by others in patients with BWS by Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA. The interpretation of these results was primarily based on the intensities of the hybridization signals for the different alleles. In our study, we demonstrate somatic mosaicism directly through PCR and single cell analysis. Peripheral blood was obtained from a patient with BWS and initial genomic DNA analysis by PCR was suggestive of somatic mosaicism for paternal isodisomy of 11p. Through micromanipulation, single cells were isolated and subjected to primer extention preamplification. Locus-specific microsatellite marker analyses by PCR were performed to determine the chromosome 11 origins in the preamplified individual cells. Two populations of cells were detected, a population of cells with normal biparental inheritance and a population of cells with paternal isodisomy of 11p and biparental disomy of 11q. Using the powerful approach of single cell analysis, the detected somatic mosaicism provides evidence for a mitotic recombinational event that has resulted in loss of the maternal 11p region and gain of a second copy of paternal 11p in some cells. The direct demonstration of mosaicism may explain the variable phenotypes and hemihypertrophy often observed in BWS.

  1. Father-child and mother-child interaction in families with a child feeding disorder: The role of paternal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzaba-Poria, Naama; Meiri, Gal; Millikovsky, Maaian; Barkai, Anat; Dunaevsky-Idan, Maayan; Yerushalmi, Baruch

    2010-11-01

    To date, research about feeding disorder (FD) has focused almost exclusively on the mother-child dyad, ignoring fathers' roles. The current study investigated father-child interactions with children having FD. The sample consisted of 67 children (1-3 years old) and their mothers and fathers. Thirty-four children, diagnosed with a nonorganic-based FD (FD group) and 33 children without an FD (control group) were matched for age, gender, birth order, and maternal education. Data were collected during home visits. Mothers were interviewed about their and the father's involvement in childcare. In addition, mother-child and father-child interactions were videotaped during play and feeding. Both mothers and fathers from the FD group experienced less positive parent-child interactions than did parents in the control group. Furthermore, mothers in the FD group reported greater maternal versus paternal childcare involvement than did control group mothers. Finally, FD group mothers exhibited more parental sensitivity than did fathers during feeing interactions; however, this difference was observed only when coupled with low paternal involvement. In families where fathers were highly involved, no difference was evident in paternal and maternal sensitivity. These findings highlight the importance of fathers' involvement, especially in families with children exhibiting an FD. Copyright © 2010 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  2. Generalized inverses theory and computations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Guorong; Qiao, Sanzheng

    2018-01-01

    This book begins with the fundamentals of the generalized inverses, then moves to more advanced topics. It presents a theoretical study of the generalization of Cramer's rule, determinant representations of the generalized inverses, reverse order law of the generalized inverses of a matrix product, structures of the generalized inverses of structured matrices, parallel computation of the generalized inverses, perturbation analysis of the generalized inverses, an algorithmic study of the computational methods for the full-rank factorization of a generalized inverse, generalized singular value decomposition, imbedding method, finite method, generalized inverses of polynomial matrices, and generalized inverses of linear operators. This book is intended for researchers, postdocs, and graduate students in the area of the generalized inverses with an undergraduate-level understanding of linear algebra.

  3. Associations between maternal and paternal parenting behaviors, anxiety and its precursors in early childhood: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Möller, E.L.; Nikolić, M.; Majdandžić, M.; Bögels, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this meta-analysis we investigated differential associations between maternal and paternal parenting behaviors (overcontrol, overprotection, overinvolvement, autonomy granting, challenging parenting) and anxiety and its precursors (fearful temperament, behavioral inhibition, shyness) in children

  4. Beneficência e paternalismo médico Beneficence and medical paternalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Batista e Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor discute a relação médico-paciente, considerando que na sociedade contemporânea e secularizada as aplicações decorrentes das pesquisas biomédicas trazem dilemas ao exercício profissional. Discorre sobre o atendimento, analisando o paternalismo e a autonomia do paciente na perspectiva dos princípios da beneficência e da autonomia. A beneficência se constitui em uma das prerrogativas do exercício da Medicina dizendo respeito a agir no melhor interesse do paciente. Para a reflexão bioética sua aplicação importa em distinguir a beneficência geral da específica quando da tomada de decisão médica. Desconsiderar a opinião do paciente plenamente capaz constitui conduta unilateral, o paternalismo médico, que pode ser eticamente justificado, e por vezes necessário, apenas quando existe limitação na autodeterminação do paciente, momentânea ou definitiva. Torna-se necessário, portanto, entender que as ações beneficentes no atendimento clínico são inerentes à relação médico-paciente e quanto melhor essa relação é construída, tanto melhor será a decisão médica, que não cause dano ao paciente e possa agir em seu benefício, respeitando sua autonomia. Para compatibilizar beneficência e paternalismo o médico precisa manter sua autoridade, preservando seus conhecimentos e responsabilizando-se pela tomada da decisão, e o paciente participar do processo de escolha de acordo com seus valores morais e pessoais.The author addresses the relevant issue of the relationship between doctor and patient, considering that biomedical research applications could raise dilemmas to the medical profession's practice in a contemporary and secular society. In this context, he seeks to discuss the medical attendance and analyses aspects concerned with paternalism and the prerogatives of patient's autonomy in perspective of the beneficence and autonomy principles. The beneficence constitutes one of the prerogatives in Medicine

  5. Genetic analysis of maternal and paternal lineages in Kabardian horses by uniparental molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliy-bek D. Khaudov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA as well as the non-recombining part of the Y chromosome help to understand the origin and distribution of maternal and paternal lineages. The Kabardian horse from Northern Caucasia which is well-known for strength, stamina and endurance in distance riding has a large gap in its breeding documentation especially in the recent past. A 309 bp fragment of the mitochondrial D-loop (156 Kabardian horses and six mutations in Y chromosome (49 Kabardian stallions, respectively, were analyzed to get a better insight into breeding history, phylogenetic relationship to related breeds, maternal and paternal diversity and genetic structure. We found a high mitochondrial diversity represented by 64 D-loop haplotypes out of 14 haplogroups. The most frequent haplogroups were G (19.5%, L (12.3%, Q (11.7%, and B (11.0%. Although these four haplogroups are also frequently found in Asian riding horses (e.g. Buryat, Kirghiz, Mongolian, Transbaikalian, Tuvinian the percentage of the particular haplogroups varies sometimes remarkable. In contrast, the obtained haplogroup pattern from Kabardian horse was more similar to that of breeds reared in the Middle East. No specific haplotype cluster was observed in the phylogenetic tree for Kabardian horses. On Kabardian Y chromosome, two mutations were found leading to three haplotypes with a percentage of 36.7% (haplotype HT1, 38.8% (haplotype HT2 and 24.5% (haplotype HT3, respectively. The high mitochondrial and also remarkable paternal diversity of the Kabardian horse is caused by its long history with a widely spread maternal origin and the introduction of Arabian as well as Thoroughbred influenced stallions for improvement. This high genetic diversity provides a good situation for the ongoing breed development and performance selection as well as avoiding inbreeding.

  6. Detection of new paternal dystrophin gene mutations in isolated cases of dystrophinopathy in females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegoraro, E.; Wessel, H.B.; Schwartz, L.; Hoffman, E.P. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Schimke, R.N. (Kansas Univ. Medical Center, Kansas City (United States)); Arahata, Kiichi; Hayashi, Yukiko (National Institute of Neurosciences, Tokyo (Japan)); Stern, H. (Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States)); Marks, H. (A.I. duPont Institute, Wilmington (United States)); Glasberg, M.R. (Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI (United States)) (and others)

    1994-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is one of the most common lethal monogenic disorders and is caused by dystrophin deficiency. The disease is transmitted as an X-linked recessive trait; however, recent biochemical and clinical studies have shown that many girls and women with a primary myopathy have an underlying dystrophinopathy, despite a negative family history for Duchenne dystrophy. These isolated female dystrophinopathy patients carried ambiguous diagnoses with presumed autosomal recessive inheritance (limb-girdle muscular dystrophy) prior to biochemical detection of dystrophin abnormalities in their muscle biopsy. It has been assumed that these female dystrophinopathy patients are heterozygous carries who show preferential inactivation of the X chromosome harboring the normal dystrophin gene, although this has been shown for only a few X:autosome translocations and for two cases of discordant monozygotic twin female carriers. Here the authors study X-inactivation patterns of 13 female dystrophinopathy patients - 10 isolated cases and 3 cases with a positive family history for Duchenne dystrophy in males. They show that all cases have skewed X-inactivation patterns in peripheral blood DNA. Of the nine isolated cases informative in the assay, eight showed inheritance of the dystrophin gene mutation from the paternal germ line. Only a single case showed maternal inheritance. The 10-fold higher incidence of paternal transmission of dystrophin gene mutations in these cases is at 30-fold variance with Bayesian predictions and gene mutation rates. Thus, the results suggest some mechanistic interaction between new dystrophin gene mutations, paternal inheritance, and skewed X inactivation. The results provide both empirical risk data and a molecular diagnostic test method, which permit genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis of this new category of patients. 58 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Autism and increased paternal age related changes in global levels of gene expression regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Alter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A causal role of mutations in multiple general transcription factors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism suggested that alterations in global levels of gene expression regulation might also relate to disease risk in sporadic cases of autism. This premise can be tested by evaluating for changes in the overall distribution of gene expression levels. For instance, in mice, variability in hippocampal-dependent behaviors was associated with variability in the pattern of the overall distribution of gene expression levels, as assessed by variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that a similar change in variance might be found in children with autism. Gene expression microarrays covering greater than 47,000 unique RNA transcripts were done on RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of children with autism (n = 82 and controls (n = 64. Variance in the distribution of gene expression levels from each microarray was compared between groups of children. Also tested was whether a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age, was associated with variance. A decrease in the variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in PBL was associated with the diagnosis of autism and a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age. Traditional approaches to microarray analysis of gene expression suggested a possible mechanism for decreased variance in gene expression. Gene expression pathways involved in transcriptional regulation were down-regulated in the blood of children with autism and children of older fathers. Thus, results from global and gene specific approaches to studying microarray data were complimentary and supported the hypothesis that alterations at the global level of gene expression regulation are related to autism and increased paternal age. Global regulation of transcription, thus, represents a possible point of convergence for multiple etiologies of autism and other

  8. STR typing of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) aborted foetal tissue in criminal paternity cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshef, Ayeleth; Barash, Mark; Voskoboinik, Lev; Brauner, Paul; Gafny, Roni

    2011-03-01

    Sexual assault or rape cases occasionally result in unwanted pregnancies. In almost all such cases the foetus is aborted. A forensic laboratory may receive the foetus, the placenta, or paraffin embedded abortion material for paternity testing. Obtaining a foetal profile DNA from a foetus or placenta may not be successful due to the age or condition of the tissue. Moreover, maternal contamination of placental material will invariably result in a mixed DNA profile. However, the use of properly screened abortion material from paraffin blocks will almost always result in obtaining a foetal DNA profile. Furthermore, foetal tissue fixed in paraffin blocks does not require special conditions for submission and storage as required to preserve fresh foetal or placental tissue. As hospitals routinely prepare foetal tissue in paraffin blocks, which should be readily obtainable by forensic laboratories, these samples would appear to be the preferred choice for paternity testing. 2010 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Some results on inverse scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    A review of some of the author's results in the area of inverse scattering is given. The following topics are discussed: (1) Property C and applications, (2) Stable inversion of fixed-energy 3D scattering data and its error estimate, (3) Inverse scattering with 'incomplete' data, (4) Inverse scattering for inhomogeneous Schroedinger equation, (5) Krein's inverse scattering method, (6) Invertibility of the steps in Gel'fand-Levitan, Marchenko, and Krein inversion methods, (7) The Newton-Sabatier and Cox-Thompson procedures are not inversion methods, (8) Resonances: existence, location, perturbation theory, (9) Born inversion as an ill-posed problem, (10) Inverse obstacle scattering with fixed-frequency data, (11) Inverse scattering with data at a fixed energy and a fixed incident direction, (12) Creating materials with a desired refraction coefficient and wave-focusing properties. (author)

  10. Offspring sex ratio is related to paternal train elaboration and yolk corticosterone in peafowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Thomas W; Petrie, Marion

    2005-06-22

    Several recent experimental studies have provided strong evidence for the ability of birds to manipulate the sex ratio of their offspring prior to laying. Using a captive population of peafowl (Pavo cristatus), we tested experimentally the effects of paternal attractiveness on offspring sex ratio, and related sex ratio deviations to egg-yolk concentrations of testosterone, 17beta-estradiol and corticosterone. When females were mated to males whose attractiveness had been experimentally reduced by removing prominent eyespot feathers from their trains, they produced significantly more female offspring, had significantly higher yolk corticosterone concentrations and tended to have lower levels of yolk testosterone than when mated to the same males with their full complement of feathers. Concentrations of 17beta-estradiol did not vary consistently with sex ratio biases. These findings add to the small number of studies providing experimental evidence that female birds can control the primary sex ratio of their offspring in response to paternal attractiveness, and highlight the possibility that corticosterone and perhaps testosterone are involved in the sex manipulation process in birds.

  11. A Joint Method of Envelope Inversion Combined with Hybrid-domain Full Waveform Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    CUI, C.; Hou, W.

    2017-12-01

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) aims to construct high-precision subsurface models by fully using the information in seismic records, including amplitude, travel time, phase and so on. However, high non-linearity and the absence of low frequency information in seismic data lead to the well-known cycle skipping problem and make inversion easily fall into local minima. In addition, those 3D inversion methods that are based on acoustic approximation ignore the elastic effects in real seismic field, and make inversion harder. As a result, the accuracy of final inversion results highly relies on the quality of initial model. In order to improve stability and quality of inversion results, multi-scale inversion that reconstructs subsurface model from low to high frequency are applied. But, the absence of very low frequencies (time domain and inversion in the frequency domain. To accelerate the inversion, we adopt CPU/GPU heterogeneous computing techniques. There were two levels of parallelism. In the first level, the inversion tasks are decomposed and assigned to each computation node by shot number. In the second level, GPU multithreaded programming is used for the computation tasks in each node, including forward modeling, envelope extraction, DFT (discrete Fourier transform) calculation and gradients calculation. Numerical tests demonstrated that the combined envelope inversion + hybrid-domain FWI could obtain much faithful and accurate result than conventional hybrid-domain FWI. The CPU/GPU heterogeneous parallel computation could improve the performance speed.

  12. Processo da paternidade na adolescência Proceso de paternidad en la adolescencia Paternity process in the adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Hecker Luz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo qualitativo teve por objetivo conhecer a concepção masculina de paternidade e compreender as estratégias masculinas de enfrentamento face às pressões afetivas, sociais e legais desse processo. A coleta de informações foi por entrevista semi-estruturada com oito adolescentes de Porto Alegre - RS, Brasil, com idade entre 15 e 19 anos, que vivenciavam a paternidade. A interpretação e a análise basearam-se na análise de conteúdo. Da análise dos relatos desses jovens emergiram as categorias - Relacionamento dos Adolescentes; Paternidade e Gênero; e, Significado de ser Pai. Do olhar atento sobre a paternidade na adolescência, traz-se à luz a compreensão de questões relativas à exclusão masculina nas vivências objetivas de vida marcadas no compromisso com a paternidade.Este estudio cualitativo tubo por objectivo conocer el concepto masculino de paternidad y comprender las estratégias masculinas de confrontación faz las presiones afectivas, sociales y legales de este proceso. La colecta de informaciones se hizo por entrevista semi estructurada con ocho adolescentes de Porto Alegre- RS, Brasil, con edad entre 15 y 19 años, que vivenciarón la paternidad. La interpretación y el análisis se basearón en el análisis del contenido. De la análisis de los relatos de estos jovenes emergierón las categorias - Relacionamiento de los Adolescentes; Paternidad y Género; y el Significado de ser Padre. De la mirada atenta sobre la paternidad en la adolescencia , traemos la comprensión de cuestiónes relativas a la exclusión masculina en las vivencias objetivas de la vida marcada en el compromiso con la paternidad.This qualitative study aimed at learning the masculine conception of paternity and understanding the masculine strategies to cope the legal, social and affective pressures of this process. The collection of information was done through semi-structured interview with eight adolescents from Porto Alegre - RS, Brasil

  13. Calculation of the inverse data space via sparse inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos; Doulgeris, Panagiotis C.; Verschuur, Dirk Jacob Eric

    2011-01-01

    The inverse data space provides a natural separation of primaries and surface-related multiples, as the surface multiples map onto the area around the origin while the primaries map elsewhere. However, the calculation of the inverse data is far from

  14. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  15. Inverse problems of geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanovskaya, T.B.

    2003-07-01

    This report gives an overview and the mathematical formulation of geophysical inverse problems. General principles of statistical estimation are explained. The maximum likelihood and least square fit methods, the Backus-Gilbert method and general approaches for solving inverse problems are discussed. General formulations of linearized inverse problems, singular value decomposition and properties of pseudo-inverse solutions are given

  16. Acute puerperal uterine inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Liaquat, N.; Noorani, K.; Bhutta, S.Z; Jabeen, T.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency, causes, clinical presentations, management and maternal mortality associated with acute puerperal inversion of the uterus. Materials and Methods: All the patients who developed acute puerperal inversion of the uterus either in or outside the JPMC were included in the study. Patients of chronic uterine inversion were not included in the present study. Abdominal and vaginal examination was done to confirm and classify inversion into first, second or third degrees. Results: 57036 deliveries and 36 acute uterine inversions occurred during the study period, so the frequency of uterine inversion was 1 in 1584 deliveries. Mismanagement of third stage of labour was responsible for uterine inversion in 75% of patients. Majority of the patients presented with shock, either hypovolemic (69%) or neurogenic (13%) in origin. Manual replacement of the uterus under general anaesthesia with 2% halothane was successfully done in 35 patients (97.5%). Abdominal hysterectomy was done in only one patient. There were three maternal deaths due to inversion. Conclusion: Proper education and training regarding placental delivery, diagnosis and management of uterine inversion must be imparted to the maternity care providers especially to traditional birth attendants and family physicians to prevent this potentially life-threatening condition. (author)

  17. Paternal Depression and Risk for Child Neglect in Father-Involved Families of Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Bellamy, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of paternal depression with risk for parental neglect of young children. Study design: The sample was derived from a birth cohort study of 1,089 families in which both biological parents resided in the home when the target child was 3- and 5-years old. Prospective analyses examined the contribution of paternal…

  18. Paternal sperm DNA methylation associated with early signs of autism risk in an autism-enriched cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Jason I; Bakulski, Kelly M; Jaffe, Andrew E; Tryggvadottir, Rakel; Brown, Shannon C; Goldman, Lynn R; Croen, Lisa A; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Newschaffer, Craig J; Fallin, M Daniele; Feinberg, Andrew P

    2015-08-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms such as altered DNA methylation have been suggested to play a role in autism, beginning with the classical association of Prader-Willi syndrome, an imprinting disorder, with autistic features. Here we tested for the relationship of paternal sperm DNA methylation with autism risk in offspring, examining an enriched-risk cohort of fathers of autistic children. We examined genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) in paternal semen biosamples obtained from an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) enriched-risk pregnancy cohort, the Early Autism Risk Longitudinal Investigation (EARLI) cohort, to estimate associations between sperm DNAm and prospective ASD development, using a 12-month ASD symptoms assessment, the Autism Observation Scale for Infants (AOSI). We analysed methylation data from 44 sperm samples run on the CHARM 3.0 array, which contains over 4 million probes (over 7 million CpG sites), including 30 samples also run on the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 (450K) BeadChip platform (∼485 000 CpG sites). We also examined associated regions in an independent sample of post-mortem human brain ASD and control samples for which Illumina 450K DNA methylation data were available. Using region-based statistical approaches, we identified 193 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in paternal sperm with a family-wise empirical P-value [family-wise error rate (FWER)] Autism Observational Scale for Infants (AOSI) at 12 months of age in offspring. The DMRs clustered near genes involved in developmental processes, including many genes in the SNORD family, within the Prader-Willi syndrome gene cluster. These results were consistent among the 75 probes on the Illumina 450K array that cover AOSI-associated DMRs from CHARM. Further, 18 of 75 (24%) 450K array probes showed consistent differences in the cerebellums of autistic individuals compared with controls. These data suggest that epigenetic differences in paternal sperm may contribute to autism risk in

  19. Maternal care and paternal protection influence response to psychotherapy treatment for adult depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Jeanette M; Carter, Janet D; Luty, Suzanne E; Mulder, Roger T; Frampton, Christopher M; Joyce, Peter R

    2013-07-01

    Adverse childhood experiences of neglect, overprotection and abuse, well-recognized risk factors for the development of adult psychopathology, were examined as predictors of response to psychotherapy treatment for adults with depression. Outpatients in a randomized clinical trial of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) completed the parental bonding instrument (PBI) at baseline to establish levels of care and protection. Childhood abuse was asked about using clinical interviews. The PBI variables were examined in tertiles while the abuse variables were categorized as "none," "some," and "severe." Associations between these childhood adversities and treatment response were examined in those who completed the trial. Of 177 outpatients with depression who were randomized, 159 completed an adequate trial of therapy. Within these 159 patients, 57% were categorized as responders to treatment. The mean percentage improvement on the MADRS was 57.7% (±31.4). Across both treatments, patients reporting intermediate levels of maternal care had the best response to treatment. Also across both treatments, the interaction effects of maternal care and paternal protection by treatment were statistically significant. Examining the two therapies independently, maternal care and paternal protection were associated with a differential response to IPT but not CBT. Reports of abuse, whether physical, emotional or sexual, did not impact treatment response. This study examined patients who completed treatment, which may have attenuated the findings. Two categories of childhood adversity were measured although a range of other adverse childhood experiences exist. The results were from exploratory analyses and require replication. Maternal care, demonstrating a robust main effect across treatments, appears to be the childhood variable most strongly associated with response to psychotherapy in this sample. In addition, maternal care and paternal protection

  20. Preconception paternal occupational radiation exposure and the risk of childhood leukaemia: a paradox within an enigma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, R.J. [Westlakes Research Institute, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    1995-02-01

    A brief review is given of the evidence leading to the theory that preconception paternal occupational radiation exposure is a factor involved in the incidence of childhood leukaemia near nuclear facilities. Evidence is also presented which casts doubt on this theory (UK).

  1. High resolution melt-curve analysis to fine map a locus controlling the paternal sorting of mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondria are required for normal growth and development and play an important role in programmed cell death and aging. The mitochondrial DNA is maternally transmitted in the vast majority of eukaryotes. One exception is cucumber (Cucumis sativus), whose mitochondrial DNA is paternally transmit...

  2. Maternal and paternal beliefs, support and parenting as determinants of sport participation of adolescents with asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, D.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Schayck, C.P. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Sluijs, E.M.F. van

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Few studies have examined determinants of physical activity in patients with chronic illnesses, like asthma. The aim of this study was to examine whether baseline maternal and paternal beliefs, support and parenting were associated with changes in sport participation of adolescents with

  3. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    199–209. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Inverse feasibility problems of the inverse maximum flow problems. ADRIAN DEACONU. ∗ and ELEONOR CIUREA. Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics, Transilvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Iuliu Maniu st. 50,. Romania.

  4. How consistent are associations between maternal and paternal education and child growth and development outcomes across 39 low-income and middle-income countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joshua; Kim, Rockli; Subramanian, S V

    2018-05-01

    Maternal and paternal education are associated with improved early child outcomes. However, less is known about how these relative associations compare for preschool children's growth versus development outcomes; and across country contexts. We analysed data from 89 663 children aged 36 to 59 months in 39 low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We used linear regression models with country fixed effects to estimate the joint associations between maternal and paternal education and children's growth and development outcomes. Additionally, we examined the variability in these relationships by each country and within subgroups of countries. In the pooled sample, maternal and paternal education were independently associated with 0.37 (95% CI 0.33 to 0.41) and 0.20 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.24) higher height-for-age z-scores, and 0.31 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.34) and 0.16 (95% CI 0.14 to 0.18) higher Early Childhood Development Index z-scores, respectively (comparing secondary or higher to no education). Associations were stronger for maternal education than paternal education but comparable between child outcomes. In country-specific regressions, we found the most heterogeneity in the associations between maternal education and children's growth; and between paternal education and children's development. Subgroup analyses suggested that these associations may be systematically patterned by country-level adult illiteracy, infant mortality and food insecurity. Our findings highlight variability in the statistical significance and magnitude of the associations between caregivers' education and children's outcomes. Further research is needed to understand the sources of variation that may promote or constrain the benefits of caregivers' education for children's early health and development in LMICs. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  5. Paternal engagement during childbirth depending on the manner of their preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioma-Markowska, Urszula; Poręba, Ryszard; Machura, Mariola; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the forms of paternal activity depending on the manner of their preparation, including stages of labor. A prospective survey-based study involved 250 fathers who participated in their child's birth. The fathers included in the study were present during all stages of family-assisted natural labor. The study was conducted one day after childbirth with the use of a survey prepared by the authors. Statistical calculations were conducted using the Statistica PL software. The frequency of individual qualitative features (non-measurable) was assessed by means of a non-parametric χ² (chi-squared) test. The statistical significance level was p fathers included in the study (52.4%) participated in childbirth with no prior preparation. The dominant form of preparation involved self-education from books, magazines and the Internet (24%). 23.6% of fathers participated in ante-natal classes. The study demonstrated that fathers prepared for childbirth in ante-natal classes more often engaged in the supportive role, provided nursing care and carried out instrumental monitoring during each stage of childbirth. The fathers prepared for childbirth in ante-natal classes more often engage in the supportive role, provide nursing care and carry out instrumental control during each stage of childbirth. Ante-natal classes should be promoted as an optimal form of preparation for active participation in childbirth. Moreover, other forms of paternal ante-natal education as well as continued education in a delivery room should be developed.

  6. Maladaptive Behavior Differences in Prader-Willi Syndrome Due to Paternal Deletion versus Maternal Uniparental Disomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; King, Bryan H.; Cassidy, Suzanne B.

    1999-01-01

    This study compared maladaptive behavior in 23 people with Prader-Willi syndrome due to paternal deletion and in 23 age- and gender-matched subjects with maternal uniparental disomy. Controlling for IQs, the deletion cases showed significantly higher maladaptive ratings, more symptom-related distress, and more behavior problems. Findings suggest a…

  7. Intergenerational Influence of Paternal Obesity on Metabolic and Reproductive Health Parameters of the Offspring: Male-Preferential Impact and Involvement of Kiss1-Mediated Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Garrido, Miguel Angel; Ruiz-Pino, Francisco; Velasco, Inmaculada; Barroso, Alexia; Fernandois, Daniela; Heras, Violeta; Manfredi-Lozano, Maria; Vazquez, Maria Jesus; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Roa, Juan; Pinilla, Leonor; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    Obesity and its comorbidities are reaching epidemic proportions worldwide. Maternal obesity is known to predispose the offspring to metabolic disorders, independently of genetic inheritance. This intergenerational transmission has also been suggested for paternal obesity, with a potential negative impact on the metabolic and, eventually, reproductive health of the offspring, likely via epigenetic changes in spermatozoa. However, the neuroendocrine component of such phenomenon and whether paternal obesity sensitizes the offspring to the disturbances induced by high-fat diet (HFD) remain poorly defined. We report in this work the metabolic and reproductive impact of HFD in the offspring from obese fathers, with attention to potential sex differences and alterations of hypothalamic Kiss1 system. Lean and obese male rats were mated with lean virgin female rats; male and female offspring were fed HFD from weaning onward and analyzed at adulthood. The increases in body weight and leptin levels, but not glucose intolerance, induced by HFD were significantly augmented in the male, but not female, offspring from obese fathers. Paternal obesity caused a decrease in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels and exacerbated the drop in circulating testosterone and gene expression of its key biosynthetic enzymes caused by HFD in the male offspring. LH responses to central kisspeptin-10 administration were also suppressed in HFD males from obese fathers. In contrast, paternal obesity did not significantly alter gonadotropin levels in the female offspring fed HFD, although these females displayed reduced LH responses to kisspeptin-10. Our findings suggest that HFD-induced metabolic and reproductive disturbances are exacerbated by paternal obesity preferentially in males, whereas kisspeptin effects are affected in both sexes. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  8. Male rhesus macaques use vocalizations to distinguish female maternal, but not paternal, kin from non-kin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferle, Dana; Ruiz-Lambides, Angelina V; Widdig, Anja

    Recognizing close kin and adjusting one's behavior accordingly (i.e., favor kin in social interactions, but avoid mating with them) would be an important skill that can increase an animals' inclusive fitness. Previous studies showed that philopatric female rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) bias their social behavior toward maternal and paternal kin. Benefits gained from selecting kin should, however, not only apply to the philopatric sex, for which the enduring spatial proximity facilitates kin discrimination. Given that dispersal is costly, the dispersing sex may benefit from migrating together with their kin or into groups containing kin. In male rhesus macaques, natal migrants bias their spatial proximity toward familiar male kin rather than familiar non-kin. Here, we set up playback experiments to test if males use the acoustic modality to discriminate familiar female kin from non-kin in a non-sexual context. Males responded differently to the presentation of "coo" calls of related and unrelated females, with their reaction depending on the interaction between kin-line (maternal vs paternal kin) and degree of relatedness ( r  = 0.5, 0.25). Specifically, males were more likely to respond to close kin compared to more distant kin or unrelated females, with this effect being significant in the maternal, but not paternal kin-line. The present study adds to our knowledge of kin recognition abilities of the dispersing sex, suggesting that male rhesus macaques are also able to identify kin using the acoustic modality. We discuss that the probability of response might be affected by the potential benefit of the social partner.

  9. Displays of paternal mouse pup retrieval following communicative interaction with maternal mates

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Lopatina, Olga; Higashida, Chiharu; Fujimoto, Hiroko; Akther, Shirin; Inzhutova, Alena; Liang, Mingkun; Zhong, Jing; Tsuji, Takahiro; Yoshihara, Toru; Sumi, Kohei; Ishiyama, Mizuho; Ma, Wen-Jie; Ozaki, Mitsunori; Yagitani, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Compared with the knowledge of maternal care, much less is known about the factors required for paternal parental care. Here we report that new sires of laboratory mice, though not spontaneously parental, can be induced to show maternal-like parental care (pup retrieval) using signals from dams separated from their pups. During this interaction, the maternal mates emit 38-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations to their male partners, which are equivalent to vocalizations that occur following pheromone ...

  10. African American and Puerto Rican American Parenting Styles, Paternal Involvement, and Head Start Children's Social Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay

    2000-01-01

    Examined similarities and differences in parenting styles and paternal involvement within and between African American and Puerto Rican American parent groups and the relationship between parenting styles, child care involvement, and Head Start children's social competence. Found a significant relationship between high levels of parental…

  11. [Analysis of allele dropout at TH01 locus in paternity testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Li; Shen, Xiao-li; Xue, Shi-jie; Hu, Jie

    2013-10-01

    To analyze allele dropout at TH01 locus in paternity testing in order to determine the accurate genotype. To use a two STR loci genotyping system to verify an abnormal genotype for the TH01 locus with PCR using specific primers, cloning and DNA sequencing. A rare allele at TH01 locus named 5.2, which was undetectable with PowerPlex 21 system, was detected with an Identifiler system. Genetic variations may result in rare alleles and loci loss. To avoid misjudgment, laboratories should have a variety of methods for detecting loci loss.

  12. Degree of protandry reflects level of extrapair paternity in migratory songbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppack, Timothy; Tøttrup, Anders Peter; Spottiswoode, Claire

    2006-01-01

    Males of most migratory organisms, including many birds, precede female conspecifics on their journey to the breeding areas. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the evolution of protandrous migration, yet they have rarely been tested at the interspecific level. Here, we provide...... that the time-lag in spring passage between males and females of five Palearctic migratory songbird species is positively associated with levels of extrapair paternity available from the literature. This suggests that males arrive relatively more in advance of females in species with high sperm competition...

  13. Maternal and paternal parenting practices and their influence on children's adiposity, screen-time, diet and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Adam B; Lubans, David R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J

    2014-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine a range of potential behavioral and maternal/paternal correlates of adiposity in children. Secondary aims were to examine (a) correlates of screen-time, diet and physical activity and (b) if there were differences in maternal and paternal physical activity- and dietary-related parenting practices. Cross-sectional analysis was conducted using 70 families with children (59% boys (41/70), mean age 8.4 (±2.4) years). Parenting practices were measured using the Parenting Strategies for Eating and Activity Scale. Children's outcomes included: 7-day pedometry (physical activity), screen-time, percent energy from core foods (Food frequency questionnaire) and BMI z-score. Multiple regression models were generated to examine the associations between maternal and paternal parenting practices and children's variables. In the regression analyses, fathers' BMI (p parenting practices [limit setting (p = .01), reinforcement (p = .02)] and child screen-time (p = .02) were significantly associated with intake of core foods. Despite some similarities within families, three out of five parenting constructs were significantly different between mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers have different parental influences on their children's weight status and lifestyle behaviors and both should be included in lifestyle interventions targeting children. A focus on maternal parenting specifically relating to screen-time and diet, and father's physical activity parenting and weight status may support their children in developing more healthy behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Autonomy and paternalism in medical e-commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Roger Lee

    2015-08-01

    One of the overriding interests of the literature on health care economics is to discover where personal choice in market economies end and corrective government intervention should begin. Our study addresses this question in the context of John Stuart Mill's utilitarian principle of harm. Our primary objective is to determine whether public policy interventions concerning more than 35,000 online pharmacies worldwide are necessary and efficient compared to traditional market-oriented approaches. Secondly, we seek to determine whether government interference could enhance personal  utility maximization, despite its direct and indirect (unintended) costs on medical e-commerce. This study finds that containing the negative externalities of medical e-commerce provides the most compelling raison d'etre of government interference. It asserts that autonomy and paternalism need not be mutually exclusive, despite their direct and indirect consequences on individual choice and decision-making processes. Valuable insights derived from Mill's principle should enrich theory-building in health care economics and policy.

  15. Short-limb dwarfism and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a patient with paternal isodisomy 14: 45,XYidic(14)(p11)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, C.A.; Moore, C.M.; Kaye, C.I. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-11-11

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) has been shown to result in specific disorders either due to imprinting and/or homozygosity of mutant alleles. Here we present the findings in a child with paternal UPD14. Ultrasound evaluation was performed at 30 weeks of gestation because of abnormally large uterine size. Pertinent ultrasound findings included polyhydramnios, short limbs, abnormal position of hands, small thorax, and nonvisualization of the fetal stomach. Postnatally the infant was found to have a low birth weight, short birth length, contractures, short limbs, and a small thorax with upslanting ribs. Assisted ventilation and gastrostomy were required. At age 6 months, the infant required hospitalization for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy which responded to Atenolol{reg_sign}. Initial cytogenetic studies demonstrated an apparently balanced de novo Robertsonian translocation involving chromosomes 14 and a karyotype designation of 45,XY,t(14q14q). No indication of mosaicism for trisomy 14 was observed in metaphase spreads prepared from peripheral blood lymphocytes or skin-derived fibroblasts. C-band and fluorescence in situ hybridization results demonstrated that the chromosome was dicentric. DNA analyses showed paternal uniparental isodisomy for chromosome 14. Based on the cytogenetic and DNA results a final karyotype designation of 45,XY,idic(14)(p11) was assigned to this infant with paternal isodisomy of chromosome 14. 41 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital hallux varus deformity associated with pericentric inversion of chromosome 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürel, Sebahat Atar

    2015-04-01

    Congenital hallux varus is a rare deformity of the great toe characterized by adduction of the hallux and medial displacement of the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital hallux varus is presented herein. A 32-year-old woman was referred to our unit due to significant deviation of the fetal right great toe at 22(+2) weeks of pregnancy. Ultrasound examination revealed a thick and short great toe, which was significantly angulated medially on the right side. Amniocentesis was performed and the result was reported as inv(9) (p11;q12). After delivery, the clinical examination confirmed the prenatal diagnosis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported prenatal diagnosis of an isolated congenital hallux varus. Congenital hallux varus can be diagnosed easily in the prenatal period by 2-D and 4-D ultrasonography. Prenatal karyotyping should be taken into consideration, especially in the presence of associated anomalies, such as polydactyly and clubfoot. © 2014 The Author. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Paternal occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and risk of adverse pregnancy outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoen, Geir; Saetre, Dag Ottar; Lie, Rolv T.; Tynes, Tore; Blaasaas, Karl Gerhard; Hannevik, Merete; Irgens, Lorentz M.

    2006-01-01

    Background:During the last decades, public concern that radiofrequency radiation (RFR) may be related to adverse reproductive outcomes has been emerging. Our objective was to assess associations between paternal occupational exposure to RFR and adverse pregnancy outcomes including birth defects using population-based data from Norway.Methods:Data on reproductive outcomes derived from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway were linked with data on paternal occupation derived from the general population censuses. An expert panel categorized occupations according to exposure. Using logistic regression, we analyzed 24 categories of birth defects as well as other adverse outcomes.Results:In the offspring of fathers most likely to have been exposed, increased risk was observed for preterm birth (odds ratio (OR): 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.15). In this group we also observed a decreased risk of cleft lip (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.97). In the medium exposed group, we observed increased risk for a category of ,other defects' (OR: 2.40, 95% CI: 1.22, 4.70), and a decreased risk for a category of ,other syndromes' (OR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.99) and upper gastrointestinal defects (OR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.40, 0.93).Conclusion:The study is partly reassuring for occupationally exposed fathers

  18. Disruption of AP3B1 by a chromosome 5 inversion: a new disease mechanism in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Matthew L; Murden, Sherina L; Brooks, Claire; Maloney, Viv; Manning, Richard A; Gilmour, Kimberly C; Bharadwaj, Vandana; de la Fuente, Josu; Chakravorty, Subarna; Mumford, Andrew D

    2013-04-04

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 2 (HPS2; OMIM #608233) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by loss-of-function genetic variations affecting AP3B1, which encodes the β3A subunit of the adaptor-related protein complex 3 (AP3). Phenotypic characteristics include reduced pigmentation, absent platelet dense granule secretion, neutropenia and reduced cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cell function. To date HPS2 has been associated with non-synonymous, stop-gain or deletion-insertion nucleotide variations within the coding region of AP3B1. We describe a consanguineous female infant with reduced pigmentation, neutropenia and recurrent infections. Platelets displayed reduced aggregation and absent ATP secretion in response to collagen and ADP, indicating a platelet dense granule defect. There was increased basal surface expression of CD107a (lysosome-associated membrane protein 1(LAMP-1)) on NK cells and CTLs from the study subject and a smaller increase in the percentage of CD107a positive cells after stimulation compared to most healthy controls. Immunoblotting of protein extracts from EBV-transformed lymphoblasts from the index case showed absent expression of full-length AP-3 β3A subunit protein, confirming a phenotypic diagnosis of HPS2.The index case displayed a homozygous pericentric inv(5)(p15.1q14.1), which was also detected as a heterozygous defect in both parents of the index case. No loss of genetic material was demonstrated by microarray comparative genome hybridisation at 60kb resolution. Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation using the 189.6kb probe RP11-422I12, which maps to 5q14.1, demonstrated dual hybridisation to both 5q14.1 and 5p15.1 regions of the inverted Chr5. The RP11-422I12 probe maps from intron 1 to intron 16 of AP3B1, thus localising the 5q inversion breakpoint to within AP3B1. The probe RP11-211K15, which corresponds to an intergenic region on 5p also showed dual hybridisation, enabling localisation of the 5p inversion

  19. Maternity and paternity leave and career progression of black African women in dual-career couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky L. Motaung

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The study focused on examining the perceptions of dual-career couples at a stateowned company about the influence of taking maternity and paternity leave on the career progression of black African women in middle management and leadership occupations. Research purpose: The primary purpose of the study was to identify core barriers in relation to maternity and paternity leave that contribute negatively in the career progression of black African women in dual-career couples. Motivation for the study: To obtain insight into the underrepresentation and progression of black African women within dual-career couples, in middle management and leadership occupations. Research design, approach and method: This study was qualitative, comprising a sample of 10 black African women and 10 black African men, with data collected through in-depth semistructured interviews. Thematic analysis was utilised to analyse the interview dialogues. Main findings: The findings established that taking maternity leave has a negative influence on the career progression of black African women in dual-career couples at the state-owned company. The participants further confirmed that involuntary time off work and productiveness were principal influencing barriers of taking maternity leave, leading to other undesirable consequences, such as unproductiveness and reliability. Practical and managerial implications: The state-owned company should review its current talent management and recruitment and selection policies, in order to positively contribute to increasing the representation and facilitating career progression of black African women within dual-career couples, in middle management and leadership occupations. Contributions or value-add: Insights were provided on the influences of taking maternity and paternity leave in the underrepresentation and progression of black African women within dual-career couples, in middle management and leadership occupations.

  20. ADHD and DAT1: Further evidence of paternal over-transmission of risk alleles and haplotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawi, Z.; Kent, L.; Hill, M.; Anney, R.J.; Brookes, K. J.; Barry, E.; Franke, B.; Banaschewski, T.; Buitelaar, J.; Ebstein, R.; Miranda, A.; Oades, R.D.; Roeyers, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Sonuga-Barke, E.; Steinhausen, H.C.; Faraone, S.V.; Asherson, P.; Gill, M.

    2009-01-01

    We [Hawi et al. (2005); Am J Hum Genet 77:958-965] reported paternal over-transmission of risk alleles in some ADHD-associated genes. This was particularly clear in the case of the DAT1 30-UTR VNTR. In the current investigation, we analyzed three new sample comprising of 1,248 ADHD nuclear families

  1. ADHD and DAT1: further evidence of paternal over-transmission of risk alleles and haplotype.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawi, Z.; Kent, L.; Hill, M.; Anney, R.J.; Brookes, K.J.; Barry, E.; Franke, B.; Banaschewski, T.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Ebstein, R.; Miranda, A.; Oades, R.D.; Roeyers, H.; Rothenberger, A.; Sergeant, J.A.; Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S.; Steinhausen, H.C.; Faraone, S.V.; Asherson, P.; Gill, M.

    2010-01-01

    We [Hawi et al. (2005); Am J Hum Genet 77:958-965] reported paternal over-transmission of risk alleles in some ADHD-associated genes. This was particularly clear in the case of the DAT1 3'-UTR VNTR. In the current investigation, we analyzed three new sample comprising of 1,248 ADHD nuclear families

  2. Unintended Consequences: Effects of Paternal Incarceration on Child School Readiness and Later Special Education Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Anna R

    2014-04-01

    Though sociologists have examined how mass incarceration affects stratification, remarkably little is known about how it shapes educational disparities. Analyzing the Fragile Families Study and its rich paternal incarceration data, I ask whether black and white children with fathers who have been incarcerated are less prepared for school both cognitively and non-cognitively as a result, and whether racial and gendered disparities in incarceration help explain the persistence of similar gaps in educational outcomes and trajectories. Using a variety of estimation strategies, I show that experiencing paternal incarceration by age five is associated with lower non-cognitive school readiness. While the main effect of incarceration does not vary by race, boys with incarcerated fathers have substantially worse non-cognitive skills at school entry, impacting the likelihood of special education placement at age nine. Mass incarceration facilitates the intergenerational transmission of male behavioral disadvantage, and because of the higher exposure of black children to incarceration, it also plays a role in explaining the persistently low achievement of black boys.

  3. Unintended Consequences: Effects of Paternal Incarceration on Child School Readiness and Later Special Education Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Haskins

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Though sociologists have examined how mass incarceration affects stratification, remarkably little is known about how it shapes educational disparities. Analyzing the Fragile Families Study and its rich paternal incarceration data, I ask whether black and white children with fathers who have been incarcerated are less prepared for school both cognitively and non-cognitively as a result, and whether racial and gendered disparities in incarceration help explain the persistence of similar gaps in educational outcomes and trajectories. Using a variety of estimation strategies, I show that experiencing paternal incarceration by age five is associated with lower non-cognitive school readiness. While the main effect of incarceration does not vary by race, boys with incarcerated fathers have substantially worse non-cognitive skills at school entry, impacting the likelihood of special education placement at age nine. Mass incarceration facilitates the intergenerational transmission of male behavioral disadvantage, and because of the higher exposure of black children to incarceration, it also plays a role in explaining the persistently low achievement of black boys.

  4. Paternal and maternal transition to parenthood: the risk of postpartum depression and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stella Epifanio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Transition to parenthood represents an important life event increasing vulnerability to psychological disorders. Postpartum depression and parenting distress are the most common psychological disturbances and a growing scientific evidence suggests that both mothers and fathers are involved in this developmental crisis. This paper aims to explore maternal and paternal experience of transition to parenthood in terms of parenting distress and risk of postpartum depression. Seventy-five couples of first-time parents were invited to compile the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form in the first month of children life. Study sample reported very high levels of parenting distress and a risk of postpartum depression in 20.8% of mothers and 5.7% of fathers. No significant correlation between parenting distress and the risk of postpartum depression emerged, both in mothers than in fathers group while maternal distress levels are related to paternal one. The first month after partum represents a critical phase of parents life and it could be considered a developmental crisis characterized by anxiety, stress and mood alterations that could have important repercussions on the child psycho-physical development.

  5. The nasty neighbour in the striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio steals paternity and elicits aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Carola

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Territoriality functions to monopolize access to resources including mates, but is costly in terms of energy and time investment. Some species reduce these costs by being less aggressive towards their neighbours than towards unfamiliar strangers, the so called dear enemy phenomenon. However, in other species individuals are more, not less aggressive towards their neighbours. It has been hypothesised that this is due to the fact that neighbours can impose a greater threat than strangers, but this has not been tested previously. Results We tested aggression in wild group-living male striped mice in a neutral test arena and demonstrate that breeders are more aggressive than non-breeding philopatrics, and that more aggression occurs during the breeding than during the non-breeding season. Male breeders were significantly more aggressive towards their neighbours than towards strangers, leading to the prediction that neighbours are the most important competitors for paternity. Using a molecular parentage analysis we show that 28% of offspring are sired by neighbouring males and only 7% by strangers. Conclusions We conclude that in male striped mice the main function of male aggression is defending paternity against their territorial neighbours.

  6. The nasty neighbour in the striped mouse (Rhabdomys pumilio) steals paternity and elicits aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schradin, Carsten; Schneider, Carola; Lindholm, Anna K

    2010-06-23

    Territoriality functions to monopolize access to resources including mates, but is costly in terms of energy and time investment. Some species reduce these costs by being less aggressive towards their neighbours than towards unfamiliar strangers, the so called dear enemy phenomenon. However, in other species individuals are more, not less aggressive towards their neighbours. It has been hypothesised that this is due to the fact that neighbours can impose a greater threat than strangers, but this has not been tested previously. We tested aggression in wild group-living male striped mice in a neutral test arena and demonstrate that breeders are more aggressive than non-breeding philopatrics, and that more aggression occurs during the breeding than during the non-breeding season. Male breeders were significantly more aggressive towards their neighbours than towards strangers, leading to the prediction that neighbours are the most important competitors for paternity. Using a molecular parentage analysis we show that 28% of offspring are sired by neighbouring males and only 7% by strangers. We conclude that in male striped mice the main function of male aggression is defending paternity against their territorial neighbours.

  7. Maternal and paternal age, birth order and interpregnancy interval evaluation for cleft lip-palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa; Cruz, Kaliany Wanessa da; Barros, Letízia Monteiro de; Silveira, Marise Fernandes; Swerts, Mário Sérgio Oliveira; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio

    2010-01-01

    Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) are the most common congenital craniofacial anomalies. To evaluate environmental risk factors for non-syndromic CL/P in a reference care center in Minas Gerais. we carried out a case-controlled study, assessing 100 children with clefts and 100 children without clinical alterations. The analysis dimensions (age, skin color, gender, fissure classification, maternal and paternal age, birth order and interpregnancy interval), obtained from a questionnaire; and later we build a data base and the analyses were carried out by the SPSS 17.0 software. The results were analyzed with the relative risk for each variable, in order to estimate the odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval, followed by a bivariate and multivariate analysis. among 200 children, 54% were males and 46% were females. As far as skin color is concerned most were brown, white and black, respectively. Cleft palates were the most common fissures found (54%), followed by lip cleft (30%) and palate cleft (16%). although with a limited sample, we noticed an association between maternal age and an increased risk for cleft lip and palate; however, paternal age, pregnancy order and interpregnancy interval were not significant.

  8. A report of the 2000 and 2001 paternity testing workshops of the English speaking working group of the international society for forensic genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallenberg, Charlotte; Morling, Niels

    2002-01-01

    During the last 10 years, the English Speaking Working Group (ESWG) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) has once a year arranged a Paternity Testing Workshop in which blood samples as well as a questionnaire concerning laboratory strategies were distributed to the participat......During the last 10 years, the English Speaking Working Group (ESWG) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) has once a year arranged a Paternity Testing Workshop in which blood samples as well as a questionnaire concerning laboratory strategies were distributed...

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of recurrent autosomal dominant osteogenesis imperfecta associated with unaffected parents and paternal gonadal mosaicism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Recurrent autosomal dominant OI may occur in the offspring of unaffected parents with parental gonadal mosaicism. Genetic counseling of recurrent autosomal dominant OI should include a thorough mutational analysis of the family members, and mutational analysis of the sperm may detect paternal gonadal mosaicism for the mutation.

  10. Paternal care in a fish: epigenetics and fitness enhancing effects on offspring anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    McGhee, Katie E.; Bell, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    In many animals, including humans, interactions with caring parents can have long-lasting effects on offspring sensitivity to stressors. However, whether these parental effects impact offspring fitness in nature is often unclear. In addition, despite evidence that maternal care can influence offspring behaviour via epigenetic alterations to the genome, it remains unclear whether paternal care has similar effects. Here, we show in three-spined sticklebacks, a fish in which fathers are the sole...

  11. “Nudge” in the clinical consultation – an acceptable form of medical paternalism?

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Ajay; Davies, Joanna; Sullivan, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background Libertarian paternalism is a concept derived from cognitive psychology and behavioural science. It is behind policies that frame information in such a way as to encourage individuals to make choices which are in their best interests, while maintaining their freedom of choice. Clinicians may view their clinical consultations as far removed from the realms of cognitive psychology but on closer examination there are a number of striking similarities. Discussion Evidence has shown that...

  12. Large-scale parent–child comparison confirms a strong paternal influence on telomere length

    OpenAIRE

    Nordfjäll, Katarina; Svenson, Ulrika; Norrback, Karl-Fredrik; Adolfsson, Rolf; Roos, Göran

    2009-01-01

    Telomere length is documented to have a hereditary component, and both paternal and X-linked inheritance have been proposed. We investigated blood cell telomere length in 962 individuals with an age range between 0 and 102 years. Telomere length correlations were analyzed between parent–child pairs in different age groups and between grandparent–grandchild pairs. A highly significant correlation between the father's and the child's telomere length was observed (r=0.454, P

  13. Time-reversal and Bayesian inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    Probabilistic inversion technique is superior to the classical optimization-based approach in all but one aspects. It requires quite exhaustive computations which prohibit its use in huge size inverse problems like global seismic tomography or waveform inversion to name a few. The advantages of the approach are, however, so appealing that there is an ongoing continuous afford to make the large inverse task as mentioned above manageable with the probabilistic inverse approach. One of the perspective possibility to achieve this goal relays on exploring the internal symmetry of the seismological modeling problems in hand - a time reversal and reciprocity invariance. This two basic properties of the elastic wave equation when incorporating into the probabilistic inversion schemata open a new horizons for Bayesian inversion. In this presentation we discuss the time reversal symmetry property, its mathematical aspects and propose how to combine it with the probabilistic inverse theory into a compact, fast inversion algorithm. We illustrate the proposed idea with the newly developed location algorithm TRMLOC and discuss its efficiency when applied to mining induced seismic data.

  14. Paternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 11p15.5 within the pancreas causes isolated hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Flanagan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundLoss of function mutations in the genes encoding the pancreatic β-cell ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channel are identified in approximately 80% of patients with diazoxide-unresponsive hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemia (HH. For a small number of patients HH can occur as part of a multisystem disease such as Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS. In approximately 20% of patients, BWS results from chromosome 11 paternal uniparental disomy (UPD, which causes dysregulation of imprinted growth regulation genes at 11p15.5. There is a considerable range in the clinical features and phenotypic severity associated with BWS which is likely to be due to somatic mosaicism. The cause of HH in these patients is not known.Research Design and methodsWe undertook microsatellite analysis of 12 markers spanning chromosome 11p in two patients with severe HH and diffuse disease requiring a pancreatectomy. In both patients mutations in the KATP channel genes had not been identified. ResultsWe identified segmental paternal UPD in DNA extracted from pancreatic tissue in both patients. UPD was not observed in DNA extracted from the patient’s leukocytes or buccal samples. In both cases the UPD encompassed the differentially methylated region at chromosome 11p15.5. Despite this neither patient had any further features of BWS.ConclusionsPaternal UPD of the chromosome 11p15.5 differentially methylated region limited to the pancreatic tissue may represent a novel cause of isolated diazoxide unresponsive HH. Loss of heterozygosity studies should therefore be considered in all patients with severe HH who have undergone pancreatic surgery when KATP channel mutation(s have not been identified.

  15. Chronic variable stress in fathers alters paternal and social behavior but not pup development in the biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Breanna N; de Jong, Trynke R; Yang, Vanessa; Saltzman, Wendy

    2013-11-01

    Stress and chronically elevated glucocorticoid levels have been shown to disrupt parental behavior in mothers; however, almost no studies have investigated corresponding effects in fathers. The present experiment tested the hypothesis that chronic variable stress inhibits paternal behavior and consequently alters pup development in the monogamous, biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus). First-time fathers were assigned to one of three experimental groups: chronic variable stress (CVS, n=8), separation control (SC, n=7), or unmanipulated control (UC, n=8). The CVS paradigm (3 stressors per day for 7 days) successfully stressed mice, as evidenced by increased baseline plasma corticosterone concentrations, increased adrenal mass, decreased thymus mass, and a decrease in body mass over time. CVS altered paternal and social behavior of fathers, but major differences were observed only on day 6 of the 7-day paradigm. At that time point, CVS fathers spent less time with their pairmate and pups, and more time autogrooming, as compared to UC fathers; SC fathers spent more time behaving paternally and grooming the female mate than CVS and UC fathers. Thus, CVS blocked the separation-induced increase in social behaviors observed in the SC fathers. Nonetheless, chronic stress in fathers did not appear to alter survival or development of their offspring: pups from the three experimental conditions did not differ in body mass gain over time, in the day of eye opening, or in basal or post-stress corticosterone levels. These results demonstrate that chronic stress can transiently disrupt paternal and social behavior in P. californicus fathers, but does not alter pup development or survival under controlled, non-challenging laboratory conditions. © 2013.

  16. Male ornamentation and within-pair paternity are not associated with male provisioning rates in scarlet rosefinches Carpodacus erythrinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schnitzer, J.; Exnerová, A.; Poláková, Radka; Vinkler, Michal; Tomášek, Oldřich; Munclinger, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2014), s. 89-97 ISSN 0873-9749 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Carotenoid-based ornamentation * Extra-pair paternity * Feeding effort * Parental care Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  17. Transgenerational propagation and quantitative maintenance of paternal centromeres depends on Cid/Cenp-A presence in Drosophila sperm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitika Raychaudhuri

    Full Text Available In Drosophila melanogaster, as in many animal and plant species, centromere identity is specified epigenetically. In proliferating cells, a centromere-specific histone H3 variant (CenH3, named Cid in Drosophila and Cenp-A in humans, is a crucial component of the epigenetic centromere mark. Hence, maintenance of the amount and chromosomal location of CenH3 during mitotic proliferation is important. Interestingly, CenH3 may have different roles during meiosis and the onset of embryogenesis. In gametes of Caenorhabditis elegans, and possibly in plants, centromere marking is independent of CenH3. Moreover, male gamete differentiation in animals often includes global nucleosome for protamine exchange that potentially could remove CenH3 nucleosomes. Here we demonstrate that the control of Cid loading during male meiosis is distinct from the regulation observed during the mitotic cycles of early embryogenesis. But Cid is present in mature sperm. After strong Cid depletion in sperm, paternal centromeres fail to integrate into the gonomeric spindle of the first mitosis, resulting in gynogenetic haploid embryos. Furthermore, after moderate depletion, paternal centromeres are unable to re-acquire normal Cid levels in the next generation. We conclude that Cid in sperm is an essential component of the epigenetic centromere mark on paternal chromosomes and it exerts quantitative control over centromeric Cid levels throughout development. Hence, the amount of Cid that is loaded during each cell cycle appears to be determined primarily by the preexisting centromeric Cid, with little flexibility for compensation of accidental losses.

  18. Paternal and Maternal Mind-Mindedness and Preschoolers' Theory of Mind: The Mediating Role of Interactional Attunement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Brenda L.

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation explored (1) fathers' contributions to children's theory of mind (ToM) development, (2) the similarity between maternal and paternal mind-mindedness (MM) in relation to children's ToM, and (3) the relative predictive strength of two concurrently administered measures of MM (an online and an interview assessment) in…

  19. Intrachromosomal rearrangements in two representatives of the genus Saltator (Thraupidae, Passeriformes) and the occurrence of heteromorphic Z chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Michelly da Silva; Kretschmer, Rafael; Silva, Fabio Augusto Oliveira; Ledesma, Mario Angel; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ferguson-Smith, Malcolm A; Del Valle Garnero, Analía; de Oliveira, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa; Gunski, Ricardo José

    2015-10-01

    Saltator is a genus within family Thraupidae, the second largest family of Passeriformes, with more than 370 species found exclusively in the New World. Despite this, only a few species have had their karyotypes analyzed, most of them only with conventional staining. The diploid number is close to 80, and chromosome morphology is similar to the usual avian karyotype. Recent studies using cross-species chromosome painting have shown that, although the chromosomal morphology and number are similar to many species of birds, Passeriformes exhibit a complex pattern of paracentric and pericentric inversions in the chromosome homologous to GGA1q in two different suborders, Oscines and Suboscines. Hence, considering the importance and species richness of Thraupidae, this study aims to analyze two species of genus Saltator, the golden-billed saltator (S. aurantiirostris) and the green-winged saltator (S. similis) by means of classical cytogenetics and cross-species chromosome painting using Gallus gallus and Leucopternis albicollis probes, and also 5S and 18S rDNA and telomeric sequences. The results show that the karyotypes of these species are similar to other species of Passeriformes. Interestingly, the Z chromosome appears heteromorphic in S. similis, varying in morphology from acrocentric to metacentric. 5S and 18S probes hybridize to one pair of microchromosomes each, and telomeric sequences produce signals only in the terminal regions of chromosomes. FISH results are very similar to the Passeriformes already analyzed by means of molecular cytogenetics (Turdus species and Elaenia spectabilis). However, the paracentric and pericentric inversions observed in Saltator are different from those detected in these species, an observation that helps to explain the probable sequence of rearrangements. As these rearrangements are found in both suborders of Passeriformes (Oscines and Suboscines), we propose that the fission of GGA1 and inversions in GGA1q have occurred very

  20. Gravity inversion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1979-01-01

    The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables