WorldWideScience

Sample records for patents impeding medical

  1. Do patents impede the provision of genetic tests in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Dianne; Liddicoat, John

    2013-06-01

    Health policy and law reform agencies lack a sound evidence base of the impacts of patents on innovation and access to healthcare to assist them in their deliberations. This paper reports the results of a survey of managers of Australian genetic testing laboratories that asked a series of questions relating to the tests they perform, whether they pay to access patented inventions and whether they have received notifications from patent holders about patents associated with particular tests. Some diagnostics facilities are exposed to patent costs, but they are all located in the private sector. No public hospitals reported paying licence fees or royalties beyond those included in the price of commercial test kits. Some respondents reported having received enforcement notices from patent holders, but almost all related to the widely known breast cancer-associated patents. Respondents were also asked for their views on the most effective mechanisms to protect their ability to provide genetic tests now and in the future. Going to the media, paying licence fees, ignoring patent rights and relying on the government to take action were widely seen as most effective. Litigation and applications for compulsory licences were seen as some of the least effective mechanisms. These results provide an evidence base for development of health policy and law reform. What is known about the topic? The impact of patents on the delivery of genetic testing services remains unclear in Australia. What does this paper add? The survey reported in this paper suggests that, aside from well-known enforcement actions relating to the breast cancer associated patents, there is little evidence that providers of genetic testing services are being exposed to aggressive patent-enforcement practices. What are the implications for practitioners? Although patent-enforcement actions may increase in the future, a range of strategies are available to providers of testing services to protect them against

  2. Medical treatment methods, medical indication claims and patentability: A quest into the rationale of the exclusion and patentability in the context of the future of personalised medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bostyn, S.J.R.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution discusses the thorny issue of the rationale of the exclusion from patentability of medical treatment methods and the patentability of medical indications. This quest is the consequence of our earlier findings that medical indication patents present a real life risk for many players

  3. Patenting of university and non-university public research organisations in Germany: evidence from patent applications for medical research results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tinnemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patents are one of the most important forms of intellectual property. They grant a time-limited exclusivity on the use of an invention allowing the recuperation of research costs. The use of patents is fiercely debated for medical innovation and especially controversial for publicly funded research, where the patent holder is an institution accountable to public interest. Despite this controversy, for the situation in Germany almost no empirical information exists. The purpose of this study is to examine the amount, types and trends of patent applications for health products submitted by German public research organisations. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic search for patent documents using the publicly accessible database search interface of the German Patent and Trademark Office. We defined keywords and search criteria and developed search patterns for the database request. We retrieved documents with application date between 1988 and 2006 and processed the collected data stepwise to compile the most relevant documents in patent families for further analysis. We developed a rationale and present individual steps of a systematic method to request and process patent data from a publicly accessible database. We retrieved and processed 10194 patent documents. Out of these, we identified 1772 relevant patent families, applied for by 193 different universities and non-university public research organisations. 827 (47% of these patent families contained granted patents. The number of patent applications submitted by universities and university-affiliated institutions more than tripled since the introduction of legal reforms in 2002, constituting almost half of all patent applications and accounting for most of the post-reform increase. Patenting of most non-university public research organisations remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: We search, process and analyse patent applications from publicly accessible databases

  4. 'Recharge my exhausted batteries': Overbeck's Rejuvenator, Patenting, and Public Medical Consumers, 1924-37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, James F

    2014-10-01

    Although historians have shown that there has been a complex and multi-layered relationship between the body, medicine and the force of electricity, many avenues remain to be explored. One of the most prominent of these is the way in which electrotherapy technologies were marketed to a wide variety of different end users and intermediaries. This paper offers the first historical analysis of one such device - the Overbeck Rejuvenator - a 1920s electrotherapy machine designed for use by the general public. Its inventor, Otto Overbeck, was not a medical man and this enabled him to use aggressive strategies of newspaper advertising, using testimonials to market his product alongside appeals to his own scientific authority. He commissioned the prestigious Ediswan Company to manufacture the Rejuvenator on a large scale, and took out patents in eleven countries to persuade users of the efficacy of the device. In response to Overbeck's activities, the British Medical Association enlisted an electrical engineer to examine the Rejuvenator, contacted practitioners whose endorsements were being used in publicity material, and denied Overbeck permission to advertise in the British Medical Journal. Despite this, the Rejuvenator brought its inventor wealth and notoriety, and helped redefine the concept of 'rejuvenation', even if the professional reception of such a device was almost universally hostile. This paper shows how the marketing, patenting and publishing of Overbeck combined to persuade members of the laity to try the Rejuvenator as an alternative form of therapy, bypassing the medical profession in the process.

  5. [Preliminary study on general safe medication regularity of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines based on adverse reaction/event literature analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-guang; Shi, Xin-yuan; Jin, Rui; Li, Hong-yan; Kong, Xiang-wen; Qiao, Yan-jiang

    2015-03-01

    Chinese patent orthopedic medicines feature complex components, mainly including desperate and toxic herbal pieces, narrow safety window, more clinical contraindications and frequent adverse drug reaction/events (ADR/ADE). To study the general safe medication regularity of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines, define key points in the medication education and ensure rational clinical medication, the authors took 80 types of commonly used Chinese patent orthopedic medicines as the study objects, collect 237 cases from 164 ADR/ADE documents through a system retrieval strategy, make a multidimensional literature analysis to determine the common risk factors for safe and rational medication of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines and establish an ADR/ADE prevention regularity. First, in the aspect of clinical symptoms, skin allergy is the most common ADR/ADE and closely related to the toxic ingredients, particularly accumulated liver or kidney damage caused by some drugs. Second, there are three time nodes in the ADR/ADE occurrence; The ADR/ADE occurred in 30 minutes is closely related to the idiosyncrasy; the ADR/ADE occurred between several months and half a year is related to the drug-induced liver and kidney damages; The most common ADR/ADE was observed within 7 days and predictable according to the pharmacological actions; Third, toxicity is an important factor in the occurrence of ADR/ADE of Chinese patent orthopedic medicines. Fourth, emphasis shall be given to the special medication factors, such as the combination with western medicines and Chinese herbal decoctions, overdose and long-course medication and self-medical therapy. In conclusion, the general ADR/ADE prevention regularity for Chinese patent orthopedic medicines was summarized to provide supports for clinicians in safe and rational medication and give the guidance for pharmacist in medication education.

  6. Long-Term Outcomes of Patent Foramen Ovale Closure or Medical Therapy after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saver, Jeffrey L; Carroll, John D; Thaler, David E; Smalling, Richard W; MacDonald, Lee A; Marks, David S; Tirschwell, David L

    2017-09-14

    Whether closure of a patent foramen ovale reduces the risk of recurrence of ischemic stroke in patients who have had a cryptogenic ischemic stroke is unknown. In a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial, with blinded adjudication of end-point events, we randomly assigned patients 18 to 60 years of age who had a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and had had a cryptogenic ischemic stroke to undergo closure of the PFO (PFO closure group) or to receive medical therapy alone (aspirin, warfarin, clopidogrel, or aspirin combined with extended-release dipyridamole; medical-therapy group). The primary efficacy end point was a composite of recurrent nonfatal ischemic stroke, fatal ischemic stroke, or early death after randomization. The results of the analysis of the primary outcome from the original trial period have been reported previously; the current analysis of data from the extended follow-up period was considered to be exploratory. We enrolled 980 patients (mean age, 45.9 years) at 69 sites. Patients were followed for a median of 5.9 years. Treatment exposure in the two groups was unequal (3141 patient-years in the PFO closure group vs. 2669 patient-years in the medical-therapy group), owing to a higher dropout rate in the medical-therapy group. In the intention-to-treat population, recurrent ischemic stroke occurred in 18 patients in the PFO closure group and in 28 patients in the medical-therapy group, resulting in rates of 0.58 events per 100 patient-years and 1.07 events per 100 patient-years, respectively (hazard ratio with PFO closure vs. medical therapy, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31 to 0.999; P=0.046 by the log-rank test). Recurrent ischemic stroke of undetermined cause occurred in 10 patients in the PFO closure group and in 23 patients in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.79; P=0.007). Venous thromboembolism (which comprised events of pulmonary embolism and deep-vein thrombosis) was more common in the PFO closure group

  7. Are the Brookhill-Wilk patents impediments to market growth in cybersurgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, T R; Torrance, A W

    2008-03-01

    In the past, many surgeons could practise their craft with little or no knowledge of patent law. But in the world of robotic and computerized surgery, this is increasingly a myopic approach, because the principle means of protecting high-tech surgical instruments is through the application of patent law. The issue is: does the Brookhill-Wilk patent, which covers the performance of remote robotic surgery, impede the growth of cybersurgery? Review of the Brookhill-Wilk patent and relevant law. Patent law, which first took its form in the Middle Ages, attempts to balance the rewarding of innovation with the stifling of market growth. Using US patent law as a model, it would appear that the Brookhill-Wilk patent, a particular example of a medical process patent, could inhibit the growth of cybersurgery, as potential sums of money could be demanded by the patent holder from anyone who practises cybersurgery. However, two recent US Supreme Court cases appear to have seriously undermined the validity of a number of medical process patents, including the Brookhill-Wilk patent. Based on recent changes in patent law, it is not expected that Brookhill-Wilk patent will hinder the growth of cybersurgery.

  8. The 2014 Varsity Medical Ethics Debate: should we allow genetic information to be patented?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Kiloran H M; Worsley, Calum A; Swerner, Casey B; Sinha, Devan; Solanki, Ravi; Ravi, Krithi; Dattani, Raj S

    2015-05-20

    The 2014 Varsity Medical Ethics debate convened upon the motion: "This house believes that genetic information should not be commoditised". This annual debate between students from the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge, now in its sixth year, provided the starting point for arguments on the subject. The present article brings together and extends many of the arguments put forward during the debate. We explore the circumstances under which genetic material should be considered patentable, the possible effects of this on the research and development of novel therapeutics, and the need for clear guidelines within this rapidly developing field.The Varsity Medical Debate was first held in 2008 with the aim of allowing students to engage in discussion about ethics and policy within healthcare. Two Oxford medical students, Mahiben Maruthappu and Sanjay Budheo founded the event. The event is held annually and it is hoped that this will allow future leaders to voice a perspective on the arguments behind topics that will feature heavily in future healthcare and science policy. This year the Oxford University Medical Society at the Oxford Union hosted the debate.

  9. 3D-printed biological organs: medical potential and patenting opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung-Schik

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting has emerged as a new disruptive technology that may address the ever-increasing demand for organ transplants. 3D bioprinting offers many technical features that allow for building functional biological tissue constructs by dispensing the individual or group of cells into specific locations along with various types of bio-scaffold materials and extracellular matrices, and thus, may provide flexibility needed for on-demand individualized construction of biological organs. Several key classes of 3D bioprinting techniques are reviewed, including potential medical and industrial applications. Several unanswered engineering components for the ultimate creation of printed biological organs are also discussed. The complicated nature of the human organs, in addition to the legal and ethical requirements for safe implantation into the human body, would require significant research and development to produce marketable bioprinted organs. This also suggests the possibility for further patenting and licensing opportunities from different sectors of the economy.

  10. Early or Late Surgical Ligation of Medical Refractory Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chou Hsiao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal time to surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA in very-low-birth-weight ( 14 days groups. Basic clinical features, major morbidity of prematurity and mortality were compared. Clinical features and major outcomes were similar. The early ligation group had earlier onset of symptomatic PDA (5.7 ± 1.6 days vs. 8.1 ± 3.6 days, p = 0.024, and fewer days of total parenteral nutrition (TPN (39.6 ± 13.9 days vs. 60.4 ± 31.4 days, p = 0.025 and ventilator use (11.1 ± 6.7 days vs. 18.6 ± 10.5 days, p = 0.019. Early ligation of medical refractory PDA in very-low-birth-weight premature infants improves enteral feeding tolerance and reduces TPN and ventilator use, but long-term benefits need further investigation.

  11. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe: Applying the ‘medical methods exception’ to emerging technologies is based on the authors PhD dissertation, defended in March 2014, at the University of Copenhagen. The book debates restrictions on the patentability of medical methods in European Patent Law....... The main question addressed is whether it is viable and advisable the reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of Article 53 (c) EPC – a provision restricting the patenting of medical methods. The subject is approached by reference to emerging technologies, and using nanomedicine innovation...... as example and point of departure. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been challenging the patent system and exposing the need for re...

  12. Transcatheter Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale versus Medical Therapy after Cryptogenic Stroke: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmoch, Fahed; Al-Khadra, Yasser; Soud, Mohamad; Fanari, Zaher; Alraies, M Chadi

    2018-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) with atrial septal aneurysm is suggested as an important potential source for cryptogenic strokes. Percutaneous PFO closure to reduce the recurrence of stroke compared to medical therapy has been intensely debated. The aim of this study is to assess whether PFO closure in patients with cryptogenic stroke is safe and effective compared with medical therapy. A search of PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane Central Register from January 2000 through September 2017 for randomized controlled trails (RCT), which compared PFO closure to medical therapy in patients with cryptogenic stroke was conducted. We used the items "PFO or patent foramen ovale", "paradoxical embolism", "PFO closure" and "stroke". Data were pooled for the primary outcome measure using the random-effects model as pooled rate ratio (RR). The primary outcome was reduction in recurrent strokes. Among 282 studies, 5 were selected. Our analysis included 3,440 patients (mean age 45 years, 55% men, mean follow-up 2.9 years), 1,829 in the PFO closure group and 1,611 in the medical therapy group. The I2 heterogeneity test was found to be 48%. A random effects model combining the results of the included studies demonstrated a statistically significant risk reduction in risk of recurrent stroke in the PFO closure group when compared with medical therapy (RR 0.42; 95% CI 0.20-0.91, p = 0.03). Pooled data from 5 large RCTs showed that PFO closure in patients with cryptogenic stroke is safe and effective intervention for prevention of stroke recurrence compared with medical therapy. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Hippocratic obligation to shareholder profit? Medical treatment patents and the Australian High Court in Apotex Pty Ltd v Sanofi-Aventis Australia Pty Ltd [2013] HCA 50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vines, Tim

    2014-06-01

    The method of treatment of suffering in patients, including through surgery and the administration of therapeutic drugs, are essential features of medical professionalism. Few, if any practitioners committed to developing the core professional virtue of loyalty to relief of patient suffering through consistently implementing the basic principles of medical ethics, would consider that such beneficial methods of practice are, or should be, the subject of a patent--requiring the practitioner utilising them to pay a royalty or risk infringement proceedings. Indeed a formal opinion of the American Medical Association declares "the use of patents, trade secrets, confidentiality agreements, or other means to limit the availability of medical procedures places significant limitation on the dissemination of medical knowledge, and is therefore unethical". Yet this could be the direction in which Australian patent law is heading. The decision of the High Court of Australia in Apotex Pty Ltd v Sanofi-Aventis Australia Pty Ltd [2013] HCA 50, upholding a patent over a method of using a known drug to prevent or treat psoriasis, may ultimately force practitioners to re-consider whether their basic ethical obligations to patients are secondary to a requirement to maximise profit for shareholders in companies holding medical patents. This column reviews this decision and its possible implications for health practitioners. It places it in context of other recent court decisions that have expanded the intrusion of corporate-owned intellectual property monopolies into Australian medical practices, and how legislative restrictions upon them in the Patents Act 1990 (Cth) places practitioners and patients at risk of more costly, ineffective or restricted health care. This column concludes by cautioning that Australia's scope to address policy problems caused by this case may be limited should it sign up to the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement, particularly if that preferential trade

  14. Patent foramen ovale closure versus medical therapy after cryptogenic stroke: An updated meta-analysis of all randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheiri, Babikir; Abdalla, Ahmed; Osman, Mohammed; Ahmed, Sahar; Hassan, Mustafa; Bachuwa, Ghassan

    2018-03-07

    Cryptogenic strokes can be attributed to paradoxical emboli through patent foramen ovale (PFO). However, the effectiveness of PFO closure in preventing recurrent stroke is uncertain and the results of previous randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have been inconclusive. Hence, this study provides an updated meta-analysis of all RCTs comparing PFO closure with medical therapy for secondary prevention of cryptogenic stroke. All RCTs were identified by a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Collaboration Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, and Clinicaltrials.gov. The primary outcome was recurrent ischemic stroke and secondary outcomes were transient ischemic attack (TIA), all-cause mortality, new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF), serious adverse events, and major bleeding. 5 RCTs with 3440 participants were included in the present study (1829 patients underwent PFO closure and 1611 were treated medically). Pooled analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in the rate of recurrent stroke with PFO closure in comparison to medical therapy (OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.19-0.90; p = 0.03). However, there were no statistically significant reductions of recurrent TIAs (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.51-1.14; p = 0.19) or all-cause mortality (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.35-1.65; p = 0.48). The risk of developing new-onset AF was increased significantly with PFO closure (OR 4.74; 95% CI 2.33-9.61; p Patent foramen ovale closure in adults with recent cryptogenic stroke was associated with a lower rate of recurrent strokes in comparison with medical therapy alone.

  15. Medical closure of patent ductus arteriosus does not reduce mortality and development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Terek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA is associated with significant morbidity due to hemodynamic instability in preterm infants, the effect of ductus closure on mortality and morbidity is a controversial issue. The aim is to evaluate the efficacy of oral and intravenous (IV ibuprofen treatment on ductal closure and effects on mortality and bronchoplumonary dysplasia. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 292 premature infants treated at Ege University Neonatal Intensive Care Unit were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were classified into 3 groups as; No PDA, hemodynamically insignificant PDA (hiPDA and hemodynamically significant PDA (hsPDA according to the presence and hemodynamical significance of PDA by echocardiography. hsPDA group was treated with IV or oral ibuprofen. Results: Patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed by routine echocardiography in 145 patients, of whom 78 (53.7% had hsPDA. All 65 infants with hiPDA had spontaneous PDA closure. Echocardiographic measurements were similar to those patients treated with oral or IV ibuprofen, as in the response rate to treatment without serious adverse effects. The presence of respiratory distress syndrome, surfactant therapy, late sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD and mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with hsPDA. However, with stepwise logistic regression; 5th min Apgar score (odds ratio [OR], 1.321, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.063-1.641, P = 0.012 and gestational age (OR, 1.422, 95% CI, 1.212-1.662, P < 0.001 were the only significant variables associated with mortality. Gestational age (OR, 0.680, 95% CI, 0.531-0.871, P = 0.002 was the only significant variable associated with BPD shown with logistic regression. Conclusion: Ibuprofen treatment is effective for hsPDA closure with minimal side effects. HiPDA can close spontaneously; therefore treatment decision should be individualized. However, medical treatment of PDA does not reduce

  16. Medical closure of patent ductus arteriosus does not reduce mortality and development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terek, Demet; Yalaz, Mehmet; Ulger, Zulal; Koroglu, Ozge Altun; Kultursay, Nilgun

    2014-11-01

    Although, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is associated with significant morbidity due to hemodynamic instability in preterm infants, the effect of ductus closure on mortality and morbidity is a controversial issue. The aim is to evaluate the efficacy of oral and intravenous (IV) ibuprofen treatment on ductal closure and effects on mortality and bronchoplumonary dysplasia. The medical records of 292 premature infants treated at Ege University Neonatal Intensive Care Unit were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were classified into 3 groups as; No PDA, hemodynamically insignificant PDA (hiPDA) and hemodynamically significant PDA (hsPDA) according to the presence and hemodynamical significance of PDA by echocardiography. hsPDA group was treated with IV or oral ibuprofen. Patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed by routine echocardiography in 145 patients, of whom 78 (53.7%) had hsPDA. All 65 infants with hiPDA had spontaneous PDA closure. Echocardiographic measurements were similar to those patients treated with oral or IV ibuprofen, as in the response rate to treatment without serious adverse effects. The presence of respiratory distress syndrome, surfactant therapy, late sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and mortality rates were significantly higher in patients with hsPDA. However, with stepwise logistic regression; 5(th) min Apgar score (odds ratio [OR], 1.321, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.063-1.641, P = 0.012) and gestational age (OR, 1.422, 95% CI, 1.212-1.662, P closure with minimal side effects. HiPDA can close spontaneously; therefore treatment decision should be individualized. However, medical treatment of PDA does not reduce mortality and BPD.

  17. Google Patents: The global patent search engine

    OpenAIRE

    Noruzi, Alireza; Abdekhoda, Mohammadhiwa

    2014-01-01

    Google Patents (www.google.com/patents) includes over 8 million full-text patents. Google Patents works in the same way as the Google search engine. Google Patents is the global patent search engine that lets users search through patents from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office), EPO (European Patent Office), etc. This study begins with an overview of how to use Google Patent and identifies advanced search techniques not well-documented by Google Patent. It makes several sug...

  18. Controvérsias sobre a proteção patentária de segundo uso médico de compostos químicos conhecidos Controversies on the patent protection for second medical use of known chemical compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia Abranches da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides an overview of patent protection for second medical use of known chemical compounds, in Brazil and other countries, through the approach of the main controversies related to this theme. That issues encompass aspects related to the legality of the protection granted by the patent, the general requirements of patenteability, the ethic and social concepts and the politic and economic factors involved. This work also introduces the diverging views of the two Brazilian government agencies involved in the procedure for granting patent in the pharmaceutical area, INPI and ANVISA.

  19. Decoding Patent Information Using Patent Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chen-Yuan; Yang, James Chingyu

    2008-01-01

    Patent information is a derivative product from the legal patent system. This information, which includes patent applications, patent descriptions, patent gazettes, patent abstracts, and patent data, is prepared in exact compliance with the regulations and specifications of the patent acts. Patent information, different from other published circulating information, is legally well protected. For convenience, this study classifies patent information into bibliographic and numeric data to creat...

  20. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    This work addresses the question of determining whether reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of article 53 (c) of the European Patent Convention is viable and advisable. It does so by reference to novel or resurfacing interpretative concerns connected with emerging technologies exemplif......This work addresses the question of determining whether reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of article 53 (c) of the European Patent Convention is viable and advisable. It does so by reference to novel or resurfacing interpretative concerns connected with emerging technologies...... exemplified by nanomedicine, while considering known interpretative issues and traditional objections to this provision. The debate concerning the patentability of ‘medical methods’ is multi-layered and complex. The ‘medical methods exception’ is a public policy mechanism, intended to introduce flexibility...... in the patent system in order to allow for the protection of core ethical values of society. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been...

  1. Spreadsheet Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Holger Stadel; Kirkbro, Malthe Ettrup; Sestoft, Peter

    2018-01-01

    This technical report gives a list of US patents and patent applications related to spreadsheet implementation technology. It is intended as a companion to the monograph Spreadsheet Implementation Technology (Peter Sestoft, MIT Press 2014), and substantially extends and updates an appendix from...

  2. Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale versus Medical Therapy after Cryptogenic Stroke: Meta-Analysis of Five Randomized Controlled Trials with 3440 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros Oliveira; de Oliveira Neto, Luiz de Albuquerque Pereira; do Nascimento, Gabriella Caroline Sales; Vieira, Erik Everton da Silva; Martins, Gabriel Lopes; Rodrigues, Karine Coelho; Nascimento, Giulia Cioffi; de Menezes, Alexandre Motta; Lins, Ricardo Felipe de Albuquerque; Silva, Frederico Pires Vasconcelos; Lima, Ricardo Carvalho

    2018-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine whether patent foramen ovale closure reduces the risk of stroke, also assessing some safety outcomes. Introduction The clinical benefit of closing a patent foramen ovale after a cryptogenic stroke has been an open question for several decades, so that it is necessary to review the current state of published medical data in this regard. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LI-LACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for randomized controlled trials that reported any of the following outcomes: stroke, death, major bleeding or atrial fibrillation. Five studies fulfilled our eligibility criteria and included 3440 patients (1829 for patent foramen ovale closure and 1611 for medical therapy). Results The risk ratio (RR) for stroke in the "device closure" group compared with the "medical therapy" showed a statistically significant difference between the groups, favouring the "device closure" group (RR 0.400; 95% CI 0.183-0.873, P=0.021). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the safety outcomes death and major bleeding, but we observed an increase in the risk of atrial fibrillation in the "device closure group (RR 4.000; 95% CI 2.262-7.092, P<0.001). We also observed that the larger the proportion of effective closure, the lower the risk of stroke. Conclusion This meta-analysis found that stroke rates are lower with percutaneously implanted device closure than with medical therapy alone, being these rates modulated by the rates of effective closure. PMID:29617507

  3. Patent urachus repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair - series—Normal anatomy URL of this ...

  4. Patent ductus arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent ductus arteriosus URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  5. Patent urachus repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  6. Patent office governance and patent system quality

    OpenAIRE

    PICARD, Pierre M.; VAN POTTELSBERGHE DE LA POTTERIE, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The present paper discusses the role of quality in patent systems from the perspective of patent offices' behavior and organization. After documenting original stylized facts, the paper presents a model in which patent offices set patent fees and the quality level of their examination processes. Various objectives of patent offices' governors are considered. We show that the quality of the patent system is maximal for the patent offices that maximises either the social welfare or its own prof...

  7. Current Energy Patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Current Energy Patents (CEP) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of the international patent literature, including patent applications, that concerns any aspect of energy production, conservation, and utilization

  8. Impedance Scaling and Impedance Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, W.; Griffin, J.

    1997-06-01

    When a machine becomes really large, such as the Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC), of which the circumference could reach the order of megameters, beam instability could be an essential bottleneck. This paper studies the scaling of the instability threshold vs. machine size when the coupling impedance scales in a ''normal'' way. It is shown that the beam would be intrinsically unstable for the VLHC. As a possible solution to this problem, it is proposed to introduce local impedance inserts for controlling the machine impedance. In the longitudinal plane, this could be done by using a heavily detuned rf cavity (e.g., a biconical structure), which could provide large imaginary impedance with the right sign (i.e., inductive or capacitive) while keeping the real part small. In the transverse direction, a carefully designed variation of the cross section of a beam pipe could generate negative impedance that would partially compensate the transverse impedance in one plane

  9. Comparison of oral and intravenous Ibuprofen for medical closure of patent ductus arteriosus: which one is better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olukman, Ozgur; Calkavur, Sebnem; Ercan, Gulten; Atlihan, Fusun; Oner, Taliha; Tavli, Vedide; Kultursay, Nilgun

    2012-01-01

    Intravenous ibuprofen is an expensive drug that is being used currently for treating and preventing patent ductus arteriosus. Although oral ibuprofen is much cheaper, there is limited data published about its safety and efficacy. The aim of this study was to compare two forms of ibuprofen in terms of safety and efficacy in closure of patent ductus arteriosus. This is a single-center retrospective study. Data were collected from patients' files of preterm infants who were hospitalized at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Dr. Behcet Uz Children's Hospital between April 2009 and June 2010. Six hundred sixty infants were evaluated by echocardiography between 24 and 48 postnatal hours. Clinically and hemodynamically significant ductus arteriosus was defined in 66 infants with gestational age less than 32 weeks and birth weight less than 1500 g. Oral or intravenous ibuprofen (loading dose: 10 mg/kg on day 1, followed by maintenance dose: 5 mg/kg on days 2 and 3) was administered. Treatment success was defined as a completely closed duct without reopening on follow-up. Drug-associated renal, gastrointestinal, cerebral, hematological, and metabolic side effects were monitored and compared between treatment groups. Ductal closure rates were 100% and 97.6%, respectively, in the oral and intravenous groups. Hypernatremia was the remarkable side effect in the intravenous group, whereas bronchopulmonary dysplasia and septicemia were prominent in the oral group. No statistically significant difference could be demonstrated between the groups in terms of mortality rates. Oral ibuprofen therapy is as efficacious as intravenous ibuprofen with some concerns about increased sepsis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia incidence. However, comprehensive and large-scale pharmacokinetic studies are required in order to prove this efficacy. On the other hand, intravenous ibuprofen still remains to be the drug of choice for patent ductus arteriosus but only with meticulous control of serum

  10. Recent patents on flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta, Gokhale; Bansal, Y K; Sandhu, S S

    2013-12-01

    Flavonoids are substances which are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. They occur in considerable quantities in common food products, spices and beverages. Interest of researchers has been greatly enhanced towards therapeutic potential of flavonoids in last some years. This review summarizes important patents pertaining to recent biotechnological techniques applied for the production, analysis of biosynthetic pathways, effects and applications of different flavonoids. For systematic studies investigations which have been published in the form of patents, are classified in different sectors like biosynthesis, medical application, antimicrobial activity, alteration of flower color, industrial application, cosmetics, food and plant tissue culture. A number of activities have been observed in each sector with vast area of research on flavonoids.

  11. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  12. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  13. Long-term outcomes of patent foramen ovale closure or medical therapy after cryptogenic stroke: A meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Hesham K; Saad, Marwan; Abuomara, Hossamaldin Z; Nairooz, Ramez; Pothineni, Naga Venkata K; Madmani, Mohamed E; Roberts, David H; Mahmud, Ehtisham

    2018-05-04

    To examine long-term clinical outcomes with transcatheter patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure versus medical therapy alone in patients with cryptogenic stroke. A long-standing debate regarding the optimal approach for the management of patients with PFO after a cryptogenic stroke exists. An electronic search was performed for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) reporting clinical outcomes with PFO closure vs. medical therapy alone after stroke. Random effects DerSimonian-Laird risk ratios (RR) were calculated. The main outcome was recurrence of stroke. Other outcomes included transient ischemic attack (TIA), new-onset atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF/AFL), major bleeding, serious adverse events, and device-related complications. All-cause mortality was also examined. Five RCTs with a total of 3,440 patients were included. At a mean follow-up of 4.02 ± 1.57 years, PFO closure was associated with less recurrence of stroke (RR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.19-0.91; P = .027) compared with medical therapy alone. No difference was observed between both strategies for TIA (P = .21), major bleeding (P = .69), serious adverse events (P = .35), and all-cause death (P = .48). However, PFO closure, was associated with increased new-onset AF/AFL (P < .001), risk of pulmonary embolism (P = .04), and device-related complications (P < .001). On a subgroup analysis, stroke recurrence rate remained lower in PFO closure arm regardless of the type of closure device used (P interaction  = .50), or the presence of substantial shunt in the majority of study population (P interaction  = .13). Transcatheter PFO closure reduces the recurrence of stroke compared with medical therapy alone, with no significant safety concerns. Close follow-up of patients after PFO closure is recommended to detect new-onset atrial arrhythmias. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Is transcatheter closure better than medical therapy for cryptogenic stroke with patent foramen ovale? A meta-analysis of randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Vinayak; Raval, Jwalant; Eslick, Guy D; Burgess, David; Denniss, A Robert

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of patent foramen ovale among patients with cryptogenic stroke is higher than that in the general population. Closure with a percutaneous device is often recommended in such patients, but it is not known whether this intervention reduces the risk of recurrent stroke. A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Current Contents Connect, Cochrane library, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Web of Science. Original data were abstracted from each study and used to calculate a pooled event rate (ER), odd ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Only three randomised trials comprising 2303 patients met full criteria for analysis. Procedural success (ER: 94.20%, 95% CI: 87.6-97.4%) and effective closure (ER: 92.70%, 95% CI: 85.9-96.4%) of closure therapy were good. The odds ratio for stroke (OR: 0.654, 95% CI: 0.358-1.193) and transient ischaemic attack (OR: 0.768, 95% CI: 0.413-1.429) did not confer a benefit of PFO closure over medical therapy. Age {45 years (OR: 0.707, 95% CI: 0.27-1.856)}, gender {males (OR: 0.498, 95% CI: 0.247-1.004), females (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.597-2.255)}, substantial shunt size (OR: 0.354, 95% CI: 0.089-1.406) and the presence of atrial septal aneurysm (OR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.21-2.33) did not influence the treatment effect of PFO closure. However, the adverse events like major vascular complication (OR: 10.905, 95% CI: 1.997-59.562) and atrial fibrillation (OR: 3.297, 95% CI: 0.874-12.432) were significantly higher in the closure group. In patients with cryptogenic stroke or TIA who had a patent foramen ovale, closure with a device does not confer an advantage over medical therapy and is associated with adverse events like major vascular complication and atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2013 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.

  15. Patent Assessment Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Paul F.; Reitzig, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The increasing number of patent applications worldwide and the extension of patenting to the areas of software and business methods have triggered a debate on "patent quality". While patent quality may have various dimensions, this paper argues that consistency in the decision making on the side...... of the patent office is one important dimension, particularly in new patenting areas (emerging technologies). In order to understand whether patent offices appear capable of providing consistent assessments of a patent's technological quality in such novel industries from the beginning, we study the concordance...... of the European Patent Office's (EPO's) granting and opoposition decisions for individual patents. We use the historical example of biotech patens filed between 1978 until 1986, the early stage of the industry. Our results indicate that the EPO shows systematically different assessments of technological quality...

  16. Patents in INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheel, H.; Breitfeld, B.

    1983-01-01

    Proceeding from the INIS rules for collecting, characterizing, and making available patent documents, results of an analysis are presented, which concern timeliness, origin, and classification of patents according to the INIS subject categories and the International Patent Classification. GDR's capabilities for SDI services and retrospective searches are outlined taking into account patents. For a selected subject area (IPC G21) the coverage of patents announced by INIS was found to be about 30%

  17. Neonatologists can impede or support parents' participation in decision-making during medical rounds in neonatal intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelin, Anna; Outinen, Jyri; Lainema, Kirsi; Lehtonen, Liisa; Franck, Linda S

    2018-05-03

    We explored the dynamics of neonatologist-parent communication and decision-making during medical rounds in a level three neonatal intensive care unit. This was a qualitative study, with an ethnographic approach, that was conducted at Turku University Hospital, Finland, from 2013-2014. We recruited eight mothers and seven couples, their 11 singletons and four sets of twins and two neonatologists and observed and video recorded 15 medical rounds. The infants were born at 23+5 to 40+1 weeks and the parents were aged 24-47. The neonatologists and parents were interviewed separately after the rounds. Four patterns of interaction emerged. The collaborative pattern was most consistent, with the ideal of shared decision-making, as the parents' preferences were genuinely and visibly integrated into the treatment decisions. In the neonatologist-led interactional pattern, the decision-making process was only somewhat inclusive of the parents' observations and preferences. The remaining two patterns, emergency and disconnected, were characterised by a paternalistic decision-making model where the parents' observations and preferences had minimal to no influence on the communication or decision-making. The neonatologists played a central role in facilitating parental participation and their interaction during medical rounds were characterised by the level of parent participation in decision-making. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Argonne National Laboratory patent portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguelet, B.C.

    1976-01-01

    This booklet contains the abstracts of all active U. S. patents on technology items that originated at ANL, the applicability of which is not limited to nuclear reactors. Also listed are the titles of all ANL-originated nuclear-related U. S. patents that are still in force. Selected technology items for which patent applications have been filed and are available for licensing are included in several categories. Categories included in this booklet are as follows: atmospheric and earth sciences; biological and medical sciences; chemistry and chemical engineering; cryogenics and superconductivity; electronics and electrical engineering; energy conversion; measurements and controls; methods and devices; materials and fabrication; physics, accelerators and fusion; and selected nuclear-related technology

  19. A Systematic Content Analysis of Policy Barriers Impeding Access to Opioid Medication in Central and Eastern Europe: Results of ATOME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjow, Eugenia; Papavasiliou, Evangelia; Payne, Sheila; Scholten, Willem; Radbruch, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Reliable access to opioid medication is critical to delivering effective pain management, adequate treatment of opioid dependence, and quality palliative care. However, more than 80% of the world population is estimated to be inadequately treated for pain because of difficulties in accessing opioids. Although barriers to opioid access are primarily associated with restrictive laws, regulations, and licensing requirements, a key problem that significantly limits opioid access relates to policy constraints. To identify and explore policy barriers to opioid access in 12 Eastern and Central European countries involved in the Access to Opioid Medication in Europe project, funded by the European Community's Seventh Framework (FP7/2007-2013, no. 222994) Programme. A systematic content analysis of texts retrieved from documents (e.g., protocols of national problem analyses, strategic planning worksheets, and executive summaries) compiled, reviewed, approved, and submitted by either the Access to Opioid Medication in Europe consortium or the national country teams (comprising experts in pain management, harm reduction, and palliative care) between September 2011 and April 2014 was performed. Twenty-five policy barriers were identified (e.g., economic crisis, bureaucratic issues, lack of training initiatives, stigma, and discrimination), classified under four predetermined categories (financial/economic aspects and governmental support, formularies, education and training, and societal attitudes). Key barriers related to issues of funding allocation, affordability, knowledge, and fears associated with opioids. Reducing barriers and improving access to opioids require policy reform at the governmental level with a set of action plans being formulated and concurrently implemented and aimed at different levels of social, education, and economic policy change. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Managing the patent thicket and maximizing patent lifetime in vaccine technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertes, Maria M M; Stötter, Gerd

    2010-10-01

    Patents are exclusive rights for a limited period of time that are granted to provide an incentive for innovation and in exchange for the public disclosure of an invention. Patenting in the medical field, especially in the field of human vaccine technologies, is full of pitfalls, because the products that finally access the market are often covered by a multitude of exclusive IP rights. This commentary gives an overview on obstacles in vaccine patenting and how to overcome them, and intends to provide a patenting guideline for researchers.

  1. Patentability of inventions under the Nigeria's patents and designs act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patentability of inventions under the Nigeria's patents and designs act: an examination. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... The Nigerian Patent Registry refuses patent applications for Software or ...

  2. Litigation-proof patents: avoiding the most common patent mistakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldstein, Larry M

    2014-01-01

    "Litigation-Proof Patents: Avoiding the Most Common Patent Mistakes explains the principles of excellent patents, presents the ten most common errors in patents, and details a step-by-step method for avoiding these common errors...

  3. Modern evaluation of patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    The number of patents is not so important as the market value. The market value is especially important for licensing of patents, make-or-buy decisions for technology procurement, corporate finance. Patents can be used as collateral for financing. Patents and credit approvals: without patents only 46% and with patents 54%. The value share of knowledge-based components to industrial products already reached 50% and it is still rising. OECD called these developments under the slogan "knowledge economy”. German Norm-DIN 77100 provides a working method for monetary evaluation of a patent. The value of a patent arises from its use. A patent can be used to protect or to earn licensing revenues. An evaluation expertise is required in areas, such as marketing, finance, R & D and strategic planning. As an indicator of the value of a patent is often used the number of citations. The number of a patent citation refers to its meaning and value. Other indicators would be: size of the patent family, validity of the patent, result of objections against patent application, number and quality of claims. The analysis of 9.000 patents resulted that only 7.2% worth over 10 million euro and 68% below 1 million euro. The cost method: it is considered the cost that would be incurred for the development and patenting of a similar invention. The market method: are used the prices that have been achieved in comparable with recently transactions. The Income method: the potential reward is measured, which can arise from a patent. The evaluation will be in the following areas: legal status, technology, market conditions, finance and strategy. Each question relates to a different parameter of a value.

  4. An advanced search engine for patent analytics in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Teodoro, Douglas; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Vishnykova, Dina; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Patent collections contain an important amount of medical-related knowledge, but existing tools were reported to lack of useful functionalities. We present here the development of TWINC, an advanced search engine dedicated to patent retrieval in the domain of health and life sciences. Our tool embeds two search modes: an ad hoc search to retrieve relevant patents given a short query and a related patent search to retrieve similar patents given a patent. Both search modes rely on tuning experiments performed during several patent retrieval competitions. Moreover, TWINC is enhanced with interactive modules, such as chemical query expansion, which is of prior importance to cope with various ways of naming biomedical entities. While the related patent search showed promising performances, the ad-hoc search resulted in fairly contrasted results. Nonetheless, TWINC performed well during the Chemathlon task of the PatOlympics competition and experts appreciated its usability.

  5. Using Foreign Virtual Patients With Medical Students in Germany: Are Cultural Differences Evident and Do They Impede Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walldorf, Jens; Jähnert, Tina; Berman, Norman B; Fischer, Martin R

    2016-09-27

    Learning with virtual patients (VPs) is considered useful in medical education for fostering clinical reasoning. As the authoring of VPs is highly demanding, an international exchange of cases might be desirable. However, cultural differences in foreign VPs might hamper learning success. We investigated the need for support for using VPs from the United States at a German university, with respect to language and cultural differences. Our goal was to better understand potential implementation barriers of a intercultural VP exchange. Two VPs were presented to 30 German medical students featuring a cultural background different from German standards with respect to diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, ethical aspects, role models, and language (as identified by a cultural adaptation framework). Participants were assigned to two groups: 14 students were advised to complete the cases without further instructions (basic group), and 16 students received written explanatory supplemental information specifically with regard to cultural differences (supplement group). Using a 6-point scale (6=strongly agree), we analyzed the results of an integrated assessment of learning success as well as an evaluation of cases by the students on usefulness for learning and potential issues regarding the language and cultural background. The German students found it motivating to work with cases written in English (6-point scale, 4.5 points). The clinical relevance of the VPs was clearly recognized (6 points), and the foreign language was considered a minor problem in this context (3 points). The results of the integrated learning assessment were similar in both groups (basic 53% [SD 4] vs supplement 52% [SD 4] correct answers, P=.32). However, students using the supplemental material more readily realized culturally different diagnostic and therapeutic strategies (basic 4 vs supplement 5 points, P=.39) and were less affirmative when asked about the transferability of cases to a German

  6. Patent foramen ovale closure vs medical therapy for stroke prevention: meta-analysis of randomized trials and review of heterogeneity in meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udell, Jacob A; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Khairy, Paul; Silversides, Candice K; Gladstone, David J; O'Gara, Patrick T; Landzberg, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) might be a risk factor for unexplained ("cryptogenic") stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of transcatheter PFO closure compared with antithrombotic therapy for secondary prevention of cerebrovascular events among patients with cryptogenic stroke. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of MedLine and Embase (from inception to March 2013) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared transcatheter PFO closure with medical therapy in subjects with cryptogenic stroke. Data were independently extracted on trial conduct quality, baseline characteristics, efficacy, and safety events from published articles and appendices. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the composite of stroke or TIA, and adverse cardiovascular events including atrial fibrillation/flutter were constructed. Three RCTs of 2303 subjects with previous stroke, TIA, or systemic arterial embolism (mean age, 45.7 years; 47.3% women; mean follow-up, 2.6 years) were included. PFO closure did not significantly reduce the risk of recurrent stroke/TIA (3.7% vs 5.2%; RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.50-1.07; P = 0.10); however, an increased risk of incident atrial fibrillation/flutter was detected (3.8% vs 1.0%; RR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.95-6.89; P < 0.0001). No significant heterogeneity was detected for any end point among subgroups of patients stratified according to age, sex, index cardiovascular event, device type, interatrial shunt size, and presence of an atrial septal aneurysm (all P interactions ≥ 0.09). Meta-analysis of RCTs that assessed transcatheter PFO closure for secondary prevention of cerebrovascular events in subjects with cryptogenic stroke does not demonstrate benefit compared with antithrombotic therapy, and suggests potential risks. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A guide of patent map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    This book introduces application and characteristic of patent information, types of patent information data and research of patent information, arrangement of patent information and patent map, analysis of patent information, necessity, writing period arrangement way of patent map, cases of patent map on selection of task of research and development, system of research and development and application, examples of PM such as MAP by year, application, technique, Inventor, and claim point map and computerization like data arrangement of PM patent, collection of analysis range and item analysis of patent, cases and written reports on patent analysis.

  8. National Medical Care System May Impede Fostering of True Specialization of Radiation Oncologists: Study Based on Structure Survey in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numasaki, Hodaka [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Nishio, Masamichi [Department of Radiology, National Hospital Organization Hokkaido Cancer Center, Sapporo, Hokkaido (Japan); Ikeda, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Sakai Municipal Hospital, Sakai, Osaka (Japan); Sekiguchi, Kenji [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Luke' s International Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kamikonya, Norihiko [Department of Radiology, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Hyogo (Japan); Koizumi, Masahiko [Oncology Center, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Tago, Masao [Department of Radiology, Teikyo University School of Medicine University Hospital, Mizonokuchi, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Ando, Yutaka [Department of Medical Informatics, Heavy Ion Medical Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Tsukamoto, Nobuhiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Saitama (Japan); Terahara, Atsuro [Department of Radiology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Hospital at Beppu, Oita (Japan); Mitsumori, Michihide [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Nishimura, Tetsuo [Division of Radiation Oncology, Shizuoka Cancer Center, Shizuoka (Japan); Hareyama, Masato [Department of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University, Hokkaido (Japan); Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima@sahs.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the actual work environment of radiation oncologists (ROs) in Japan in terms of working pattern, patient load, and quality of cancer care based on the relative time spent on patient care. Methods and Materials: In 2008, the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology produced a questionnaire for a national structure survey of radiation oncology in 2007. Data for full-time ROs were crosschecked with data for part-time ROs by using their identification data. Data of 954 ROs were analyzed. The relative practice index for patients was calculated as the relative value of care time per patient on the basis of Japanese Blue Book guidelines (200 patients per RO). Results: The working patterns of RO varied widely among facility categories. ROs working mainly at university hospitals treated 189.2 patients per year on average, with those working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treating 249.1 and those working in university hospitals only treating 144.0 patients per year on average. The corresponding data were 256.6 for cancer centers and 176.6 for other facilities. Geographically, the mean annual number of patients per RO per quarter was significantly associated with population size, varying from 143.1 to 203.4 (p < 0.0001). There were also significant differences in the average practice index for patients by ROs working mainly in university hospitals between those in main and affiliated facilities (1.07 vs 0.71: p < 0.0001). Conclusions: ROs working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treated more patients than the other ROs. In terms of patient care time only, the quality of cancer care in affiliated facilities might be worse than that in university hospitals. Under the current national medical system, working patterns of ROs of academic facilities in Japan appear to be problematic for fostering true specialization of radiation oncologists.

  9. National medical care system may impede fostering of true specialization of radiation oncologists: study based on structure survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numasaki, Hodaka; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Nishio, Masamichi; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Kamikonya, Norihiko; Koizumi, Masahiko; Tago, Masao; Ando, Yutaka; Tsukamoto, Nobuhiro; Terahara, Atsuro; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Mitsumori, Michihide; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Hareyama, Masato; Teshima, Teruki

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the actual work environment of radiation oncologists (ROs) in Japan in terms of working pattern, patient load, and quality of cancer care based on the relative time spent on patient care. In 2008, the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology produced a questionnaire for a national structure survey of radiation oncology in 2007. Data for full-time ROs were crosschecked with data for part-time ROs by using their identification data. Data of 954 ROs were analyzed. The relative practice index for patients was calculated as the relative value of care time per patient on the basis of Japanese Blue Book guidelines (200 patients per RO). The working patterns of RO varied widely among facility categories. ROs working mainly at university hospitals treated 189.2 patients per year on average, with those working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treating 249.1 and those working in university hospitals only treating 144.0 patients per year on average. The corresponding data were 256.6 for cancer centers and 176.6 for other facilities. Geographically, the mean annual number of patients per RO per quarter was significantly associated with population size, varying from 143.1 to 203.4 (p working mainly in university hospitals between those in main and affiliated facilities (1.07 vs 0.71: p working in university hospitals and their affiliated facilities treated more patients than the other ROs. In terms of patient care time only, the quality of cancer care in affiliated facilities might be worse than that in university hospitals. Under the current national medical system, working patterns of ROs of academic facilities in Japan appear to be problematic for fostering true specialization of radiation oncologists. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Patents for Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    PATENTS FOR SOLDIERS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment...COVERED (From - To) AUG 2015 – JUNE 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Patents for Soldiers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...protection of an innovative idea; that is, a patent . A Soldier’s pursuit of patents provides the Army with tangible and intangible benefits. There are on

  11. Invention note and patent note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sung Su

    1997-09-01

    This book deals with origin of invention and term related patent and invention, making idea, brain storming, 10 laws of invention skill, attitude of inventors, invention order, making good inventions, patent system, preparation of application, procedure and method of patent, management of patent, patent and trademark office, patent lawyer, copyright, new intellectual property right, industrial property right, trademark, invasion of industrial property right, patent, Judgment, preparation of items, application of industrial property right and effect of inventor and related people.

  12. Advances In Impedance Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupakov, G.

    2009-01-01

    We review recent progress in the following areas of the impedance theory: calculation of impedance of tapers and small angle collimators; optical approximation and parabolic equation for the high-frequency impedance; impedance due to resistive inserts in a perfectly conducting pipe.

  13. Patent arterial duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Robin P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes. Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of

  14. Regimes internacionais e o contencioso das patentes para medicamentos: estratégias para países em desenvolvimento International regimes and the medical patent dispute: strategies for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Cepaluni

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra que não existe apenas uma única teoria sobre regimes internacionais, mas um conjunto de estudos teóricos e empíricos que, isoladamente ou em conjunto, não constituem uma "teoria geral" das relações internacionais. Três abordagens resumem os principais debates sobre os regimes: o realismo-estrutural, o neoliberalismo e o cognitivismo. A primeira perspectiva - a realista - considera que o poder é o principal conceito para explicar os regimes internacionais. O neoliberalismo considera que o interesse é a principal noção analítica para entender a criação e a manutenção dos regimes. Finalmente, o cognitivismo coloca as idéias e os valores no centro de suas explicações. Feitas essas considerações, analisa-se o contencioso das patentes farmacêuticas entre o Brasil e os Estados Unidos (1988-2001 utilizando insights fornecidos pelos estudos de regimes internacionais - privilegiando-se a abordagem neoliberal. A partir do conflito entre o Brasil e os Estados Unidos, também são desenhadas algumas estratégias que podem ser utilizadas pelos países em desenvolvimento para maximizar seus ganhos no cenário internacional.This article demonstrates that there is not one international regime theory, but a set of theoretical and empirical studies that, alone or together, do not constitute a "general theory" of International Relations. Three approaches summarise the main debates on regimes: structural realism, neoliberalism, and cognitivism. The first perspective - the realist - considers power as the main concept for explaining international regimes. Neoliberalism considers interest as the main analytical tool to understand the creation and maintenance of regimes. Finally, cognitivism places ideas and values at the center of its explanations. After establishing these perspectives, the pharmaceutical patents dispute between Brazil and the United States (1988-2001 is analyzed, utilizing insights gained by the study of

  15. Patents and nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, Raj

    2007-06-01

    Big pharma's business model, which relies on a few blockbusters to generate profits, is clearly broken. Patent expiration on numerous blockbusters in recent years is already altering the drug landscape. Drug companies are also facing other challenges that necessitate development and implementation of novel R&D strategies, including those that focus on nanotechnology and miniaturization. Clearly, there is enormous excitement and expectation regarding nanomedicine's potential impact. However, securing valid and defensible patent protection will be critical. Although early forecasts for nanomedicine commercialization are encouraging, there are numerous bottlenecks as well. One of the major hurdles is an emerging thicket of patent claims, resulting primarily from patent proliferation as well as continued issuance of surprisingly broad patents by the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). Adding to this confusion is the fact that the US National Nanotechnology Initiative's widely cited definition of nanotechnology is inaccurate and irrelevant from a nanomedicine perspective. It is also the cause of the inadequate patent classification system that was recently unveiled by the PTO. All of this is creating a chaotic, tangled patent landscape in various sectors of nanomedicine where the competing players are unsure of the validity and enforceability of numerous issued patents. If this trend continues, it could stifle competition and limit access to some inventions. Therefore, reforms are urgently needed at the PTO to address problems ranging from poor patent quality and questionable examination practices to inadequate search capabilities, rising attrition, poor employee morale and a skyrocketing patent application backlog. Only a robust patent system will stimulate the development of commercially viable nanomedicine products that can drastically improve a patient's quality of life and reduce healthcare costs.

  16. 75 FR 75678 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; STELARA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ..., animal drug product, medical device, food additive, or color additive) was subject to regulatory review... or systemic therapy. Subsequent to this approval, the Patent and Trademark Office received a patent...

  17. Performance of Patenting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non-patenting...... firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political...

  18. Data anonymization patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Pejić Bach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The omnipresent, unstoppable increase in digital data has led to a greater understanding of the importance of data privacy. Different approaches are used to implement data privacy. The goal of this paper is to develop a data anonymization patent landscape, by determining the following: (i the trend in data anonymization patenting, (ii the type of technical content protected in data anonymization, (iii the organizations and countries most active in patenting data anonymization know-how; and (iv the topics emerging most often in patent titles. Patents from the PatSeer database relating to data anonymization from 2001 to 2015 were analyzed. We used the longitudinal approach in combination with text mining techniques to develop a data anonymization patent landscape. The results indicated the following. The number of single patent families is growing with a high increase after 2010, thus indicating a positive trend in the area of patenting data anonymization solutions. The majority of patenting activities relate to the G Physics section. Organizations from the USA and Japan assigned the majority of patents related to data anonymization. The results of text mining indicate that the most often used word in titles of data anonymization patents are “anonym*, “method”, “data” and “system”. Several additional words that indicated the most frequent topics related to data anonymization were: “equipment”, “software”, “protection”, “identification”, or “encryption”, and specific topics such as “community”, “medical”, or “service”.

  19. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  20. Truth and falsity of patent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gum Jin

    2006-10-01

    This book describes the process of the effect to build the business of patent strongly in difficult situation. The titles of this contents are finally, lawsuit if formed, the task of patent application introduction of tasks of patent negotiation, negotiation with Fujitsu, Mitsubishi, Oki and NEC, amalgamation between LG semiconductor and Hyundai Electronic Industry, life in incorporated company, current condition of application for a patent, the method to process strategy patent, how to make strong patent and effective negotiation strategy for a patent and strategy of patent application.

  1. Searching bioremediation patents through Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    Patent classification systems have traditionally evolved independently at each patent jurisdiction to classify patents handled by their examiners to be able to search previous patents while dealing with new patent applications. As patent databases maintained by them went online for free access to public as also for global search of prior art by examiners, the need arose for a common platform and uniform structure of patent databases. The diversity of different classification, however, posed problems of integrating and searching relevant patents across patent jurisdictions. To address this problem of comparability of data from different sources and searching patents, WIPO in the recent past developed what is known as International Patent Classification (IPC) system which most countries readily adopted to code their patents with IPC codes along with their own codes. The Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) is the latest patent classification system based on IPC/European Classification (ECLA) system, developed by the European Patent Office (EPO) and the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) which is likely to become a global standard. This paper discusses this new classification system with reference to patents on bioremediation.

  2. Patent landscape of neglected tropical diseases: an analysis of worldwide patent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinsolu, Folahanmi Tomiwa; de Paiva, Vitor Nobre; Souza, Samuel Santos; Varga, Orsolya

    2017-11-14

    "Neglected Tropical Diseases" (NTDs) affect millions of people in Africa, Asia and South America. The two primary ways of strategic interventions are "preventive chemotherapy and transmission control" (PCT), and "innovative and intensified disease management" (IDM). In the last 5 years, phenomenal progress has been achieved. However, it is crucial to intensify research effort into NTDs, because of the emerging drug resistance. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the term NTDs covers 17 diseases, namely buruli ulcer, Chagas disease, dengue, dracunculiasis, echinococcosis, trematodiasis, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, rabies, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthes, taeniasis, trachoma, and yaws. The aim of this study is to map out research and development (R&D) landscape through patent analysis of these identified NTDs. To achieve this, analysis and evaluation have been conducted on patenting trends, current legal status of patent families, priority countries by earliest priority years and their assignee types, technological fields of patent families over time, and original and current patent assignees. Patent families were extracted from Patseer, an international database of patents from over 100 patent issuing authorities worldwide. Evaluation of the patents was carried out using the combination of different search terms related to each identified NTD. In this paper, a total number of 12,350 patent families were analyzed. The main countries with sources of inventions were identified to be the United States (US) and China. The main technological fields covered by NTDs patent landscape are pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, organic fine chemistry, analysis of biological materials, basic materials chemistry, and medical technology. Governmental institutions and universities are the primary original assignees. Among the NTDs, leishmaniasis, dengue, and rabies received the highest number of

  3. How Important are Noncorporate Patents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the innovative performances of noncorporate inventors using patent citations data from the European Patent Office. The results show that inventions patented outside an established corporate framework are on average less ‘important’ than corporate patents, but with large...... variations across technology classes. Patents applied for by independent inventors, start-ups and corporate firms are of comparable ‘quality’ in emerging technologies. The results also highlight that in these fields noncorporate patents are more ‘radical’ than corporate patents....

  4. Used, Blocking and Sleeping Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrisi, Salvatore; Gambardella, Alfonso; Giuri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    This paper employs data from a large-scale survey (InnoS&T) of inventors in Europe, the USA, and Japan who were listed in patent applications filed at the European Patent Office with priority years between 2003 and 2005. We provide evidence regarding the reasons for patenting and the ways in which...... patents are being utilized. A substantial share of patents is neither used internally nor for market transactions, which confirms the importance of strategic patenting and inefficiency in the management of intellectual property. We investigate different types of unused patents—unused blocking patents...... and sleeping patents. We also examine the association between used and unused patents and their characteristics such as family size, scope, generality and overlapping claims, technology area, type of applicant, and the competitive environment from where these patents originate. We discuss our results...

  5. Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Patent Ductus Arteriosus Figure A shows the interior of a normal heart and normal blood flow. ... PDA may shrink and go away. However, some children need treatment to close their PDAs. Some children ...

  6. DOE Patents Available for Licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuber, C.

    1981-01-01

    DOE Patents Available for Licensing (DOE PAL) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of the DOE patent literature, including patent applications, that concerns any apsect of energy production, conservation, and utilization. The citations are arranged by subject category. DOE is prepared to grant exclusive or nonexclusive, revocable licenses under DOE-owned US patents and patent applications in accordance with the provisions of 10CFR781

  7. Randomized clinical trial comparing percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO using the Amplatzer PFO Occluder with medical treatment in patients with cryptogenic embolism (PC-Trial: rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuler Gerhard

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown an association of cryptogenic stroke and embolism with patent foramen ovale (PFO, but the question how to prevent further events in such patients is unresolved. Options include antithrombotic treatment with warfarin or antiplatelet agents or surgical or endovascular closure of the PFO. The PC-Trial was set up to compare endovascular closure and best medical treatment for prevention of recurrent events. Methods The PC-Trial is a randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of percutaneous closure of the PFO using the Amplatzer PFO occluder with best medical treatment in patients with cryptogenic embolism, i.e. mostly cryptogenic stroke. Warfarin for 6 months followed by antiplatelet agents is recommended as medical treatment. Randomization is stratified according to patients age ( Discussion patients were randomized in 29 centers of Europe, Canada, and Australia. Randomization started February 2000. Enrollment of 414 patients was completed in February 2009. All patients will be followed-up longitudinally. Follow-up is maintained until the last enrolled patient is beyond 2.5 years of follow-up (expected in 2011. Trial Registration Trial listed in ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00166257 and sponsored by AGA Medical, Plymouth, MN, USA

  8. Patent protection strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent.

  9. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions General Information and Correspondence § 1.5 Identification of patent, patent... benefit of the date of deposit with the United States Postal Service. If the returned correspondence is...

  10. Interventional treatment of common congenital heart diseases: the common view of Chinese medical experts. Part Three; interventional treatment of patent ductus arteriosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Committee on Congenital Heart Diseases, Internal Medicine Branch of Cadiovascular Diseases of China Physicians' Association

    2011-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) represents 10%-20% of all congenital heart diseases. Percutaneous transcatheter device closure of PDA has been an effective alternative to surgical treatment and has been increasingly becoming the treatment of choice for most PDAs in children and adults. The indication for percutaneous closure of PDA has been further expanded with the development of domestic devices in China and almost all the patients with PDA can be cured by this therapy. This chapter will systematically describe the indications, contraindications for percutaneous PDA occlusion, how to close PDAs by using coils and umbrella devices, procedural complications and preventions. How to treat infant PDA, PDA with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension as well as the post-surgery residual shunt will be also discussed in detail in this chapter. (authors)

  11. The lifespan of semiconductor patents by assignee and patent characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shu-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the values of patents is critical for both managers and investors. Patent maintenance time is an ideal proxy indicator for evaluating commercial patent value. This study investigated the survival rates of patents in the semiconductor industry by using a survival analysis and incorporated a predictive model for patent maintenance times. The technical characteristics of the patents, the assignee factors, and the statuses of the patents were used as the predictive factors for patent maintenance time. The results revealed a small entity size and the number of assignees are the risk factors that increase the likelihood of the maintenance time of a patent decreasing. The litigation status of a patent and the number of its international patent classifications, claims, forward citations, and assignments were determined to be the protection factors that raise the likelihood of its maintenance time extending. Additionally, substantial differences were noted between small entities and nonsmall entities and between being litigated and not in their effects on the survival rates of patents. This study examined the factors that affect the survival rates of patents and provides a reference for the managers and investors of intellectual property rights to use when assessing technical and commercial patent values.

  12. Nonsynchronous Noncommensurate Impedance Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Kim, K

    2012-01-01

    Nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformers consist of a combination of two types of transmission lines: transmission lines with a characteristic impedance equal to the impedance of the source, and transmission lines with a characteristic impedance equal to the load. The practical...... advantage of such transformers is that they can be constructed using sections of transmission lines with a limited variety of characteristic impedances. These transformers also provide comparatively compact size in applications where a wide transformation ratio is required. This paper presents the data...... matrix approach and experimentally verified by synthesizing a 12-section nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformer. The measured characteristics of the transformer are compared to the characteristics of a conventional tapered line transformer....

  13. Test Collections for Patent-to-Patent Retrieval and Patent Map Generation in NTCIR-4 Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Atsushi; Iwayama, Makoto; Kando, Noriko

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the Patent Retrieval Task in the Fourth NTCIR Workshop, and the test collections produced in this task. We perform the invalidity search task, in which each participant group searches a patent collection for the patents that can invalidate the demand in an existing claim. We also perform the automatic patent map generation task, in which the patents associated with a specific topic are organized in a multi-dimensional matrix.

  14. Strategic management and utilization of patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyeong Go; Yun, Gwon Jun

    1993-11-01

    This book deals with why does management of patents need?, system of management of patents with function and site of management of patents and system and composition, what does management of patents department do?, task like technical development, management regulation, patent information, management of patents in small business with technical development of small business, how does business manage the patents in real, introduction of management of patents in the U.S, Europe, Japan, and Korea, and management of patents as strategic management.

  15. Comprehension and application of patent information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Nam

    2004-05-01

    This book gives descriptions of conception of patent information such as the meaning, characteristic, function, investigation and map of patent information, pro-patent period and patent strategy of the business. It also deals with comprehension of patent information like publication of nations, patent document, patent procedure in Korea, patent procedure in Japan, the U.S, and Europe, article and function of patent document, patent information survey such as writing of search keyword, procedure of the survey and search site of other countries, patent analysis and patent map.

  16. Randomized clinical trial comparing percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) using the Amplatzer PFO Occluder with medical treatment in patients with cryptogenic embolism (PC-Trial): rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ahmed A; Windecker, Stephan; Jüni, Peter; Hildick-Smith, David; Dudek, Dariusz; Andersen, Henning R; Ibrahim, Reda; Schuler, Gerhard; Walton, Antony S; Wahl, Andreas; Mattle, Heinrich P; Meier, Bernhard

    2011-02-28

    Several studies have shown an association of cryptogenic stroke and embolism with patent foramen ovale (PFO), but the question how to prevent further events in such patients is unresolved. Options include antithrombotic treatment with warfarin or antiplatelet agents or surgical or endovascular closure of the PFO. The PC-Trial was set up to compare endovascular closure and best medical treatment for prevention of recurrent events. The PC-Trial is a randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of percutaneous closure of the PFO using the Amplatzer PFO occluder with best medical treatment in patients with cryptogenic embolism, i.e. mostly cryptogenic stroke. Warfarin for 6 months followed by antiplatelet agents is recommended as medical treatment. Randomization is stratified according to patients age (Australia. Randomization started February 2000. Enrollment of 414 patients was completed in February 2009. All patients will be followed-up longitudinally. Follow-up is maintained until the last enrolled patient is beyond 2.5 years of follow-up (expected in 2011).

  17. Patenting human genes: Chinese academic articles' portrayal of gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li

    2018-04-24

    The patenting of human genes has been the subject of debate for decades. While China has gradually come to play an important role in the global genomics-based testing and treatment market, little is known about Chinese scholars' perspectives on patent protection for human genes. A content analysis of academic literature was conducted to identify Chinese scholars' concerns regarding gene patents, including benefits and risks of patenting human genes, attitudes that researchers hold towards gene patenting, and any legal and policy recommendations offered for the gene patent regime in China. 57.2% of articles were written by law professors, but scholars from health sciences, liberal arts, and ethics also participated in discussions on gene patent issues. While discussions of benefits and risks were relatively balanced in the articles, 63.5% of the articles favored gene patenting in general and, of the articles (n = 41) that explored gene patents in the Chinese context, 90.2% supported patent protections for human genes in China. The patentability of human genes was discussed in 33 articles, and 75.8% of these articles reached the conclusion that human genes are patentable. Chinese scholars view the patent regime as an important legal tool to protect the interests of inventors and inventions as well as the genetic resources of China. As such, many scholars support a gene patent system in China. These attitudes towards gene patents remain unchanged following the court ruling in the Myriad case in 2013, but arguments have been raised about the scope of gene patents, in particular that the increasing numbers of gene patents may negatively impact public health in China.

  18. Are biosimilars patentable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Damian; Parker, Jayson; Morgan, Max

    2016-08-01

    This paper explores whether, and under what circumstances, a biosimilar approved in the United States under the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act (hereafter 'BPCIA') can be patented. The possibility that a biosimilar product could have meaningful patent protection arises from specific requirements for biosimilarity under the BPCIA, which account for the fact that manufacturing processes of biologics are inherently imprecise. The requirements for biosimilar approval may provide sufficient leeway to a biosimilar applicant to patent structural or formulation differences that provide non-clinical but business-relevant advantages over the reference molecule, such as improved shelf-life or ease of manufacture, without compromising clinical biosimilarity. Examination of the BPCIA and related Acts, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance papers, case law, patent database searching, and relevant scholarly articles. Legislative and regulatory requirements for the approval of a biosimilar under the BPCIA are focused on clinical results and allow a degree of leeway for differences to exist between a biosimilar's structure and non-clinical components and those of the biosimilar's reference molecule. This leeway can be exploited to provide the biosimilar with potentially patentable business-relevant advantages over its reference product while maintaining clinical biosimilarity to the reference product.

  19. Impedance of a nanoantenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Laroche, Marine; Marquier, Francois

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a generalized definition of the impedance of a nanoantenna that can be applied to any system. We also introduce a definition of the impedance of a two level system. Using this framework, we establish a link between the electrical engineering and the quantum optics picture of light emission.

  20. RHIC injection kicker impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Zhang, W.

    1995-01-01

    The longitudinal impedance of the RHIC injection kicker is measured using the wire method up to a frequency of 3 GHz. The mismatch between the 50 ohm cable and the wire and pipe system is calibrated using the TRL calibration algorithm. Various methods of reducing the impedance, such as coated ceramic pipe and copper strips are investigated

  1. Propensity Score-Based Analysis of Percutaneous Closure Versus Medical Therapy in Patients With Cryptogenic Stroke and Patent Foramen Ovale: The IPSYS Registry (Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzini, Alessandro; Grassi, Mario; Lodigiani, Corrado; Patella, Rosalba; Gandolfo, Carlo; Zini, Andrea; DeLodovici, Maria Luisa; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Del Sette, Massimo; Toriello, Antonella; Musolino, Rossella; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Bovi, Paolo; Adami, Alessandro; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Sessa, Maria; Cavallini, Anna; Marcheselli, Simona; Marco Bonifati, Domenico; Checcarelli, Nicoletta; Tancredi, Lucia; Chiti, Alberto; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Tomelleri, Giampaolo; Spalloni, Alessandra; Giorli, Elisa; Costa, Paolo; Giacalone, Giacomo; Ferrazzi, Paola; Poli, Loris; Morotti, Andrea; Piras, Valeria; Rasura, Maurizia; Simone, Anna Maria; Gamba, Massimo; Cerrato, Paolo; Zedde, Maria Luisa; Micieli, Giuseppe; Melis, Maurizio; Massucco, Davide; Guido, Davide; De Giuli, Valeria; Bonaiti, Silvia; D'Amore, Cataldo; La Starza, Sara; Iacoviello, Licia; Padovani, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    We sought to compare the benefit of percutaneous closure to that of medical therapy alone for the secondary prevention of embolism in patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO) and otherwise unexplained ischemic stroke, in a propensity scored study. Between 2000 and 2012, we selected consecutive first-ever ischemic stroke patients aged 18 to 45 years with PFO and no other cause of brain ischemia, as part of the IPSYS registry (Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults), who underwent either percutaneous PFO closure or medical therapy for comparative analysis. Primary end point was a composite of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, or peripheral embolism. Secondary end point was brain ischemia. Five hundred and twenty-one patients qualified for the analysis. The primary end point occurred in 15 patients treated with percutaneous PFO closure (7.3%) versus 33 patients medically treated (10.5%; hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-1.32; P=0.285). The rates of the secondary end point brain ischemia were also similar in the 2 treatment groups (6.3% in the PFO closure group versus 10.2% in the medically treated group; hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-1.21; P=0.168). Closure provided a benefit in patients aged 18 to 36 years (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.81; P=0.026) and in those with a substantial right-to-left shunt size (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.68; P=0.011). PFO closure seems as effective as medical therapy for secondary prevention of cryptogenic ischemic stroke. Whether device treatment might be more effective in selected cases, such as in patients younger than 37 years and in those with a substantial right-to-left shunt size, deserves further investigation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  3. Annotating patents with Medline MeSH codes via citation mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Thomas D; Boyer, Stephen K; Councill, Isaac G

    2010-01-01

    Both patents and Medline are important document collections for discovering new relationships between chemicals and biology, searching for prior art for patent applications and retrieving background knowledge for current research activities. Finding relevance to a topic within patents is often made difficult by poor categorization, badly written descriptions, and even intentional obfuscation. Unlike patents, the Medline corpus has Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) keywords manually added to their articles, giving a medically relevant taxonomy to the 18 million article abstracts. Our work attempts to accurately recognize the citations made in patents to Medline-indexed articles, linking them to their corresponding PubMed ID and exploiting the associated MeSH to enhance patent search by annotating the referencing patents with their Medline citations' MeSH codes. The techniques, system features, and benefits are explained.

  4. The fallacy of Software Patents

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Software patents are usually used as argument for innovation but do they really promote innovation? Who really benefits from software patents? This talk attempts to show the problems with software patents and how they can actually harm innovation having little value for software users and our society in general.

  5. Patent Searching for Librarians and Inventors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Timothy Lee

    Information on patents is provided for librarians and laypersons requiring an understanding of the system and the processes involved. Chapter 1 discusses successful patents; terms and concepts; patent types; copyright; trademark; requirements; patent examiners; patent pending; expiration; patentee and assignee; and reissued patents. Chapter 2…

  6. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  7. Impedance and Collective Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Metral, E; Rumolo, R; Herr, W

    2013-01-01

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Accelerators and Colliders' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Chapter '4 Impedance and Collective Effects' with the content: 4 Impedance and Collective Effects Introduction 4.1 Space Charge 4.2 Wake Fields and Impedances 4.3 Coherent Instabilities 4.4 Landau Damping 4.5 Two-Stream Effects (Electron Cloud and Ions) 4.6 Beam-Beam Effects 4.7 Numerical Modelling

  8. METRICS DEVELOPMENT FOR PATENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    To develop a proposal for metrics for patents to be applied in assessing the postgraduate programs of Medicine III - Capes. From the reading and analysis of the 2013 area documents of all the 48 areas of Capes, a proposal for metrics for patents was developed to be applied in Medicine III programs. Except for the areas Biotechnology, Food Science, Biological Sciences III, Physical Education, Engineering I, III and IV and Interdisciplinary, most areas do not adopt a scoring system for patents. The proposal developed was based on the criteria of Biotechnology, with adaptations. In general, it will be valued, in ascending order, the deposit, the granting and licensing/production. It will also be assigned higher scores to patents registered abroad and whenever there is a participation of students. This proposal can be applied to the item Intellectual Production of the evaluation form, in subsection Technical Production/Patents. The percentage of 10% for academic programs and 40% for Masters Professionals should be maintained. The program will be scored as Very Good when it reaches 400 points or over; Good, between 200 and 399 points; Regular, between 71 and 199 points; Weak up to 70 points; Insufficient, no punctuation. Desenvolver uma proposta de métricas para patentes a serem aplicadas na avaliação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da Área Medicina III - Capes. A partir da leitura e análise dos documentos de área de 2013 de todas as 48 Áreas da Capes, desenvolveu-se uma proposta de métricas para patentes, a ser aplicada na avaliação dos programas da área. Constatou-se que, com exceção das áreas Biotecnologia, Ciência de Alimentos, Ciências Biológicas III, Educação Física, Engenharias I, III e IV e Interdisciplinar, a maioria não adota sistema de pontuação para patentes. A proposta desenvolvida baseou-se nos critérios da Biotecnologia, com adaptações. De uma forma geral, foi valorizado, em ordem crescente, o depósito, a concessão e o

  9. Electrical impedance tomography: topology optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Lenine Campos

    2013-01-01

    The Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a study of body parts who use electric current. Is studied through computers resistance or conductivity of these parts, producing an image used for medical diagnosis. A body is wrapped in a blanket placed with small electrodes and receivers of electric current, potential difference. Based on data obtained from a series of measurements at the electrodes, one by one, sending and receiving, you can perform a numerical phantom, where each 'voxel' of the image formed computationally represents the impedance of biological tissue. In Brazil, studies on electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has not yet started. Such equipment are measured tensions - potential difference - between each electrode / sensor one by one, as a way to Simple Combinatorial Analysis. The sequence and the way it is measured strains are in the final image quality. Finite Element Method Interactive, whose algorithm is based on Dialectical Method. We use an initial function with the objective of maximizing the data quantitatively, for better qualitative analysis. Topology Optimization methods are used to improve the image reconstruction. Currently the study is quite primitive related to the theory that shows how to power the new science studied. The high quality images requires a difficulty in obtaining. This work is not intended for detailed for analysis in any tissue or organ specific, but in general terms. And the formation of the 2D image. 3D need a reconstructor to part. (author)

  10. Electrical Impedance Tomography Technology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal for the Electrical Impedance Tomography Technology (EITT) project is to develop a reliable portable, lightweight device providing two-dimensional...

  11. Impedance and component heating

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E; Mounet, N; Pieloni, T; Salvant, B

    2015-01-01

    The impedance is a complex function of frequency, which represents, for the plane under consideration (longitudinal, horizontal or vertical), the force integrated over the length of an element, from a “source” to a “test” wave, normalized by their charges. In general, the impedance in a given plane is a nonlinear function of the test and source transverse coordinates, but it is most of the time sufficient to consider only the first few linear terms. Impedances can influence the motion of trailing particles, in the longitudinal and in one or both transverse directions, leading to energy loss, beam instabilities, or producing undesirable secondary effects such as excessive heating of sensitive components at or near the chamber wall, called beam-induced RF heating. The LHC performance limitations linked to impedances encountered during the 2010-2012 run are reviewed and the currently expected situation during the HL-LHC era is discussed.

  12. Decoding gene patents in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denley, Adam; Cherry, James

    2014-10-03

    Patents directed to naturally occurring genetic material, such as DNA, RNA, chromosomes, and genes, in an isolated or purified form have been granted in Australia for many years. This review provides scientists with a summary of the gene patent debate from an Australian perspective and specifically reviews how the various levels of the legal system as they apply to patents-the Australian Patent Office, Australian courts, and Australian government-have dealt with the issue of whether genetic material is proper subject matter for a patent. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. The LEP impedance model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotter, B [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-08-01

    This report describes a number of measurements and computations of the impedance of the Large Electron Positron collider LEP at CERN. The work has been performed over several years, together with D. Brandt, K. Cornelis, A. Hofmann, G. Sabbi and many others. The agreement between measurements of single bunch instabilities on the machine and computer simulations is in general excellent and gives confidence in the impedance model used. (author)

  14. Optimal patent policies: A survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys some of the patent literature, in particular, it focuses on optimal patent policies. We compare two situations. The first where the government only has a single policy tool to design the optimal patent policy, namely the optimal patent length. In the second situation......, the government uses two policy tools, the optimal breadth and length. We show that theoretical models give very different answers to what is the optimal patent policy. In particular, we show that the optimal patent policy depends among othet things on the price elasticity of demand, the intersectoral elasticity...... of research outputs as well as the degree of compettition in the R&D sector. The actual law on intellectual property, which advocates a unique patent length of 20 years is in general not supported by theoretical models....

  15. Patenting Human Genes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    In accordance with the concept of the book and the assigned scope of the contribution, this chapter describes the European law with respect to the patent-eligibility of isolated DNA sequences. This chapter will further include a brief comparison with recent developments from the US and Australia....... It will, however, not focus on the important debates regarding the patent-eligibility of other biological material, diagnostic methods patents (as data aggregators) or abstract ideas which will be addressed by other contributions. Moreover, the analysis will merely concentrate on patent-eligibility. Other...... patentability requirement will only be briefly touched upon in the discussion part. The paper starts out in section 1.5.2 by discussing the patent-eligibility of isolated human DNA sequences on the European national level and under the Biotechnology Directive. Then the patent-eligibility of isolated human DNA...

  16. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... for the years 1999-2002. The Danish workforce is split into "R&D workers", who hold a bachelor's or a master's degree in a technical field, and "non{R&D workers". We find that mobile R&D workers ("R&D joiners"') contribute more to patenting activity than immobile R&D workers. Furthermore, R&D workers who have...... previously been employed by a patenting firm ("patent exposed workers") have a larger effect on patenting activity than R&D workers without this experience. Patent exposed R&D joiners constitute the most productive group of workers: for firms that patented prior to 1999, one additional worker of this type...

  17. Lovely but dangerous: The impact of patent citations on patent duration

    OpenAIRE

    Maurseth, Per Botolf

    2001-01-01

    - What is the impact of patent citations on patent renewal behaviour? Patent citations are commonly used as an indicator of technology spillovers. For cited patents therefore, patent citations have a potentially ambiguous impact. On the one hand, patent citations may indicate a scientific breakthrough, a high value of the cited patent and therefore a long survival period. On the other hand, patent citations may indicate competing innovations that render the cited patent obsolete. By discri...

  18. How Patent Function Integration with R&D Influence the Value of Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Valentin, Finn

    Patent strategies are endogenous to firm appropriability. However, to what extent does firm’s R&D teams’ engagement with patent experts influence the value of patents? We estimate the relationship between firm’s R&D use of patent functions on patent value in Biotech firms. Controlling...... for characteristics of scientific team, firm effects, and other patent value indicators, we find that having a firm specific (in-house) internal patent function is a driver of patent value. In addition, we find that the way in which patent functions create patent value differs dependent on whether the firm has...... internal patent function or not. In-house patent functions create value through narrow patents, whereas, firms with no in-house patent function create valuable patents by the use of broader scoped patents. Our results point to a strong effect of firm specific patent functions, but also explain how firms...

  19. Science of invention patent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeong Taek; Park, Su Dong

    1999-02-01

    This book tells science of invention patent about new way of invention and creative solution for problems, basic conception of TRIZ, resolution of physical contradictory and technical contradictory, development of system and types of evolution, change of thinking for solving the problems, analysis of structure for problem solution, problem solution using scientific phenomenon and effect, use of standard solution and algorithm of creative problem solution.

  20. Do Military Personnel Patent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    following questions: In what fields are military personnel most likely to patent, and how do demographics, such as age, race, and gender , along with...technologies, which have transformed how the United States wages war. DARPA continues to develop new technologies and capabilities for the U.S. military today...build the European navies so it instead decided to utilize an innovative ship design to exploit a gap specific to the British Royal Navy. The six

  1. Automated Patent Categorization and Guided Patent Search using IPC as Inspired by MeSH and PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinger, Daniel; Tsatsaronis, George; Bundschus, Markus; Wieneke, Ulrich; Schroeder, Michael

    2013-04-15

    Document search on PubMed, the pre-eminent database for biomedical literature, relies on the annotation of its documents with relevant terms from the Medical Subject Headings ontology (MeSH) for improving recall through query expansion. Patent documents are another important information source, though they are considerably less accessible. One option to expand patent search beyond pure keywords is the inclusion of classification information: Since every patent is assigned at least one class code, it should be possible for these assignments to be automatically used in a similar way as the MeSH annotations in PubMed. In order to develop a system for this task, it is necessary to have a good understanding of the properties of both classification systems. This report describes our comparative analysis of MeSH and the main patent classification system, the International Patent Classification (IPC). We investigate the hierarchical structures as well as the properties of the terms/classes respectively, and we compare the assignment of IPC codes to patents with the annotation of PubMed documents with MeSH terms.Our analysis shows a strong structural similarity of the hierarchies, but significant differences of terms and annotations. The low number of IPC class assignments and the lack of occurrences of class labels in patent texts imply that current patent search is severely limited. To overcome these limits, we evaluate a method for the automated assignment of additional classes to patent documents, and we propose a system for guided patent search based on the use of class co-occurrence information and external resources.

  2. Effect of the economic crisis on the production of immunology patents managed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty agreement from 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Elena; Campos, Adolfo

    2015-07-01

    To determine the evolution of patents in immunology, as a result of research and innovation in the years 2004-2011. The search for patents published internationally in immunology was made by using the SCOPUSTM database. SCOPUS gives information about over 23 million patents. The extracted data from patents were: inventors and applicants; their nationalities; sections, classes and subclasses of the International Patent Classification. 89 countries. Data have been obtained from the database SCOPUS. It has been used for the international patent classification. Patents by country, Productive sectors, Productive areas. A total of 17,281 patents were applied for immunology during 2004-2011 of which 16,811 were from 30 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, and 5326 from 28 countries in the European Union. These patents were granted in 89 countries and 13,699 of them were submitted by researchers from only one country. Private entities applied for 62.45% of all patents, universities 17.48%, hospitals 3.40% and public research organisations and private applicants applied for the rest. The university that made more applications was the University of California with 315 and the company was Genentech Inc. (US) with 302. The reduction in the number of applications of international patents in all disciplines of science also affected the area of immunology. Collaboration in immunology between universities, companies and hospitals is hard because their interests are different. It is shown in patent applications that the majority of patents in immunology are applied for by only one entity. Patents in immunology are developed, mainly, in aspects such as medical preparations, peptides, mutation or genetic engineering, therapeutic activity of chemical compounds and analysing materials by determining their chemical or physical properties.

  3. Impeded Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Slatyer, Tracy R. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wang, Xiao-Ping [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Xue, Wei [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-12

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario “Impeded Dark Matter”. We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  4. Impeded Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xue, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario “Impeded Dark Matter”. We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  5. Electrical Impedance Tomography Technology (EITT) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    Development of a portable, lightweight device providing two-dimensional tomographic imaging of the human body using impedance mapping. This technology can be developed to evaluate health risks and provide appropriate medical care on the ISS, during space travel and on the ground.

  6. Conservative treatment for patent ductus arteriosus in the preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhaesebrouck, Sophie; Zonnenberg, Inge; Vandervoort, Piet; Bruneel, Els; van Hoestenberghe, Marie-Rose; Theyskens, Claire

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is common among preterms, and prophylactic medical treatment has been advocated as the first-line approach. Conservative treatment may result in similar outcome, but without exposure to the harmful side effects of medication. A retrospective analysis

  7. Ethical limitations in patenting biotechnological inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugagnani, V

    1999-01-01

    In order to connect ethical considerations with practical limits to patentability, the moral judgement should possibly move from the exploitation of the invention to the nature and/or objectives of Research and Development (R&D) projects which have produced it: in other words, it appears quite reasonable and logical that Society is not rewarding unethical R&D activities by granting intellectual property rights. As far as biotechnology R&D is concerned, ethical guidance can be derived from the 1996 Council of EuropeOs OConvention for the protection of human rights and dignity of the human being with regard to the application of biology and medicineO, whose Chapter V - Scientific research - provides guidelines on: i. protection of persons undergoing research (e.g. informed consent); ii. protection of persons not able to consent to research; iii. research on embryos in vitro. As far as the specific point of patenting biotechnology inventions is concerned, the four exclusions prescribed by Directive 98/44/EC (i.e. human cloning, human germ-line gene therapy, use of human embryos for commercial purposes, unjustified animal suffering for medical purposes) are all we have in Europe in terms of ethical guidance to patentability. In Italy, in particular, we certainly need far more comprehensive legislation, expressing SocietyOs demand to provide ethical control of modern biotechnology. However it is quite difficult to claim that ethical concerns are being raised by currently awarded biotechnology patents related to living organisms and material thereof; they largely deal with the results of genomic R&D, purposely and usefully oriented toward improving health-care and agri-food processes, products and services. ONo patents on lifeOO can be an appealing slogan of militants against modern biotechnology, but it is far too much of an over-simplified abstraction to become the Eleventh Commandment our Society.

  8. Impedance of accelerator components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.N.

    1996-05-01

    As demands for high luminosity and low emittance particle beams increase, an understanding of the electromagnetic interaction of these beams with their vacuum chamber environment becomes more important in order to maintain the quality of the beam. This interaction is described in terms of the wake field in time domain, and the beam impedance in frequency domain. These concepts are introduced, and related quantities such as the loss factor are presented. The broadband Q = 1 resonator impedance model is discussed. Perturbation and coaxial wire methods of measurement of real components are reviewed

  9. Superconducting active impedance converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginley, D.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.

    1993-01-01

    A transimpedance amplifier for use with high temperature superconducting, other superconducting, and conventional semiconductors allows for appropriate signal amplification and impedance matching to processing electronics. The amplifier incorporates the superconducting flux flow transistor into a differential amplifier configuration which allows for operation over a wide temperature range, and is characterized by high gain, relatively low noise, and response times less than 200 picoseconds over at least a 10-80 K. temperature range. The invention is particularly useful when a signal derived from either far-IR focal plane detectors or from Josephson junctions is to be processed by higher signal/higher impedance electronics, such as conventional semiconductor technology. 12 figures

  10. Decoding Gene Patents in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Denley, Adam; Cherry, James

    2015-01-01

    Patents directed to naturally occurring genetic material, such as DNA, RNA, chromosomes, and genes, in an isolated or purified form have been granted in Australia for many years. This review provides scientists with a summary of the gene patent debate from an Australian perspective and specifically reviews how the various levels of the legal system as they apply to patents—the Australian Patent Office, Australian courts, and Australian government—have dealt with the issue of whether genetic m...

  11. Patents: Recent Trends and Puzzles

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Griliches

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical data on patenting in the United States with special reference to the last 20 years and their potential relation, if any, to the recent productivity slowdown. Two Points are made: Patents are not a "constant-yardstick" indicator of either inventive input or output. Moreover, they are "produced" by a governmental agency which goes through its own budgetary and inefficiency cycles. The paper shows that the appearance of an absolute decline in patenting in the 19...

  12. Strategies for stem cell patent applications in the light of recent court cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, David E; Schlich, George W

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells offer the prospect of treatments for diseases and injuries that are currently beyond medical science. Although development of these potential medical marvels has been dogged by their controversial origin, technological developments and guidance from recent judicial decisions have answered and overcome many of these difficulties. In particular, the European Patent Office, United States Patent and Trademark Office, Japan Patent Office and State Intellectual Property Office of China have published guidelines covering patenting of stem cell technologies in the light of recent decisions. We now see a patent landscape where stem cell technologies and related therapies can, with very few exceptions, be protected via patents, provided the appropriate form of claim wording is used.

  13. The role of patent and non-patent databases in patent research in universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstaya, A. M.; Suslina, I. V.; Tolstaya, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    This studies deal with the description and systematization of the popular patent retrieval resources. The importance of the non-patent information when conducting patent research for the intellectual property created in educational and scientific activity of the university is highlighted. The differences in the patent and non-patent information are found out. Based on the databases` analysis the authors conducted the patent research on "Wireless endoscopic capsules" (development of the NRNU MEPhI). This study can be used to facilitate the university work on the new product development in order to improve the efficiency of the process of the commercialization of the intellectual activity results, including the entering the international market.

  14. How drug life-cycle management patent strategies may impact formulary management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jan; Dunn, Jeffrey D; Johnson, Margaret M; Karst, Kurt R; Shear, W Chad

    2016-10-01

    Drug manufacturers may employ various life-cycle management patent strategies, which may impact managed care decision making regarding formulary planning and management strategies when single-source, branded oral pharmaceutical products move to generic status. Passage of the Hatch-Waxman Act enabled more rapid access to generic medications through the abbreviated new drug application process. Patent expirations of small-molecule medications and approvals of generic versions have led to substantial cost savings for health plans, government programs, insurers, pharmacy benefits managers, and their customers. However, considering that the cost of developing a single medication is estimated at $2.6 billion (2013 dollars), pharmaceutical patent protection enables companies to recoup investments, creating an incentive for innovation. Under current law, patent protection holds for 20 years from time of patent filing, although much of this time is spent in product development and regulatory review, leaving an effective remaining patent life of 7 to 10 years at the time of approval. To extend the product life cycle, drug manufacturers may develop variations of originator products and file for patents on isomers, metabolites, prodrugs, new drug formulations (eg, extended-release versions), and fixed-dose combinations. These additional patents and the complexities surrounding the timing of generic availability create challenges for managed care stakeholders attempting to gauge when generics may enter the market. An understanding of pharmaceutical patents and how intellectual property protection may be extended would benefit managed care stakeholders and help inform decisions regarding benefit management.

  15. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivi?re, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely...

  16. Wacky Patents Meet Economic Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and citation lags, suggesting that these indicators should be interpreted...

  17. Online Patent Searching: The Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaback, Stuart M.

    1983-01-01

    Considers patent subject searching capabilities of major online databases, noting patent claims, "deep-indexed" files, test searches, retrieval of related references, multi-database searching, improvements needed in indexing of chemical structures, full text searching, improvements needed in handling numerical data, and augmenting a…

  18. Pesticides and the Patent Bargain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermann, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to enlarge the pool of knowledge available in the public domain, temporary exclusive rights (i.e. patents) are granted to innovators who are willing to fully disclose the information needed to reproduce their invention. After the 20-year patent protection period elapses, society should be

  19. Tapping mode microwave impedance microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, K.; Kundhikanjana, W.; Peng, H.; Cui, Y.; Kelly, M. A.; Shen, Z. X.

    2009-01-01

    We report tapping mode microwave impedance imaging based on atomic force microscope platforms. The shielded cantilever probe is critical to localize the tip-sample interaction near the tip apex. The modulated tip-sample impedance can be accurately

  20. SSC kicker impedances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colton, E.P.; Wang, T.F.

    1985-01-01

    The longitudinal and transverse complex impedances Z/sub l//n and Z/sub t/, respectively, have been calculated for both the SSC injection and abort kickers. The calculations assumed that no attempt was made to shield the beam from the kickers. We took the injection and abort kickers to be as specified. The injection kickers were ferrite with a single-turn design, and the abort kickers were of a ''window-frame design'' with tape wound cores

  1. A-Source Impedance Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede; Galigekere, Veda Prakash

    2016-01-01

    A novel A-source impedance network is proposed in this letter. The A-source impedance network uses an autotransformer for realizing converters for any application that demand a very high dc voltage gain. The network utilizes a minimal turns ratio compared to other Magnetically Coupled Impedance S...

  2. Impedance analysis of subwoofer systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.

    The electrical impedance of four low-frequency loudspeaker systems is analyzed. The expression for this impedance is obtained directly from the acoustical analogous circuit. Formulas are derived for calculating the small-signal parameters from the frequencies of impedance minima and maxima of two

  3. Acoustic impedances of ear canals measured by impedance tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciric, Dejan; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    During hearing sensitivity tests, the sound field is commonly generated by an earphone placed on a subject ear. One of the factors that can affect the sound transmission in the ear is the acoustic impedance of the ear canal. Its importance is related to the contribution of other elements involved...... in the transmission such as the earphone impedance. In order to determine the acoustic impedances of human ear canals, the standardized method for measurement of complex impedances used for the measurement of the audiometric earphone impedances is applied. It is based on the transfer function between two microphone...... locations in an impedance tube. The end of the tube representing the measurement plane is placed at the ear canal entrance. Thus, the impedance seen from the entrance inward is measured on 25 subjects. Most subjects participated in the previous measurement of the ratio between the pressures at the open...

  4. Patents and Publics: Engaging Museum Audiences with Issues of Ownership and Invention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F. Stark

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is all very well to note the hyperbole about patents and ‘intellectual property’ in the recent battles between technology companies such as Apple, Samsung and HTC. But how can museums productively use collection items marked with a patent beyond workaday tasks of identification and cataloguing? We argue that information on patents can enhance visitors’ critical engagement with museum displays; complex ownership claims and counter-claims in patent disputes can underpin lively narratives based around museum objects. Asking why some objects and not others were patented, and how historical consumers responded to that status of ‘patented’ enables us to look at these objects afresh. In particular we analyse the responses of public consultation groups to patenting in the medical trade, as well as the engagement of museum staff with these issues. Such consultation processes offer information that can be used to enhance museum displays with engaging narratives of ownership and invention.

  5. Observations involving broadband impedance modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, J S [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Results for single- and multi-bunch instabilities can be significantly affected by the precise model that is used for the broadband impedance. This paper discusses three aspects of broadband impedance modelling. The first is an observation of the effect that a seemingly minor change in an impedance model has on the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. The second is a successful attempt to construct a model for the high-frequency tails of an r.f. cavity. The last is a discussion of requirements for the mathematical form of an impedance which follow from the general properties of impedances. (author)

  6. Economic Justification of Patents and Exceptions to Patentability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The present article is the conclusion of a review of economic justifications for patent rights conducted with the objective of determining whether such arguments are per se capable of sustaining the existence of a different patentability regime for inventions of methods for treatment and diagnostic...... methods (art.53 (c) European Patent Convention). It starts by exploring the normative background and summarily describes the different types of claims allowed under the current legal framework and their differences. The following sections will describe and apply the main economic arguments sustaining...... patent rights inventions of methods for treatment and diagnostic methods. These reasoning will be later confronted with contra-arguments. This piece will finalize with the formulation of conclusions extracted from the previous debate, inter-alia that economic reasoning does not per se sustain...

  7. Technology Clusters Exploration for Patent Portfolio through Patent Abstract Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabjo Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores technology clusters through patent analysis. The aim of exploring technology clusters is to grasp competitors’ levels of sustainable research and development (R&D and establish a sustainable strategy for entering an industry. To achieve this, we first grouped the patent documents with similar technologies by applying affinity propagation (AP clustering, which is effective while grouping large amounts of data. Next, in order to define the technology clusters, we adopted the term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF weight, which lists the terms in order of importance. We collected the patent data of Korean electric car companies from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO to verify our proposed methodology. As a result, our proposed methodology presents more detailed information on the Korean electric car industry than previous studies.

  8. Patent protection for microbial technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkow, Jacob S

    2017-11-01

    Microbial technologies often serve as the basis of fundamental research tools in molecular biology. These present a variety of ethical, legal and social issues concerning their patenting. This commentary presents several case studies of these issues across three major microbiological tools: CRISPR, viral vectors and antimicrobial resistance drugs. It concludes that the development of these technologies-both scientifically and commercially-depend, in part, on the patent regime available for each, and researchers' willingness to enforce those patents against others. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Patenting Biotechnological Inventions in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Raspor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The patent system has been able to provide the protection for the achievements of different technologies and in that way it has supported further development and growth of the industry where those achievements were implemented. Modern technologies like information technology and biotechnology with genetic engineering that appeared in the 70s have overgrown the frames of the existing patent system because of their exponential development during the last thirty years. Industry that invests a huge amount of money in these technologies, especially in the field of biotechnology, where the results are very uncertain, has started to claim changes in the patent system.

  10. Developing a Systematic Patent Search Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to develop a systematic patent training program using patent analysis and citation analysis techniques applied to patents held by the University of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the target audience will be researchers in life sciences, and aggregated patent database searching and advanced search techniques should be…

  11. 78 FR 31885 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal...

  12. 78 FR 7759 - Patent Cooperation Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Patent Cooperation Treaty ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal...

  13. 75 FR 20561 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450...

  14. 76 FR 72000 - Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts AGENCY: U.S... Consultants, 1255 Roberts Boulevard NW., Suite 200, Kennesaw, GA 30144, on U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/133,666, and a divisional patent application to be filed shortly at the Patent and Trademark...

  15. LIA longitudinal coupling impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.

    1980-01-01

    The beam generated fields enter into the problems of waveform generation and longitudinal stability. In the former, provision must be made for the longitudinally defocusing forces due to the space charge and the beam loading effects on the accelerating voltage due to the current of a presumably known bunch. In the latter, the concern is for the growth of unintentional perturbations to unacceptably large values through the interaction of the charge and current fluctuations with the rest of the beam and the surrounding structures. These beam generated electric fields may be related to the beam current through a coupling impedance

  16. RF impedance measurement calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, P.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this note is not to explain all of the available calibration methods in detail. Instead, we will focus on the calibration methods of interest for RF impedance coupling measurements and attempt to explain: (1). The standards and measurements necessary for the various calibration techniques. (2). The advantages and disadvantages of each technique. (3). The mathematical manipulations that need to be applied to the measured standards and devices. (4). An outline of the steps needed for writing a calibration routine that operated from a remote computer. For further details of the various techniques presented in this note, the reader should consult the references

  17. Research method of nuclear patent information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Dan; Gao An'na; Sun Chenglin; Wang Lei; You Xinfeng

    2010-01-01

    When faced with a huge amount of nuclear patent information, the key to effective research include: (1) Choose convenient way to search, quick access to nuclear technology related patents; (2) To overcome the language barrier, analysis the technical content of patent information; (3) Organize the publication date of retrieved patent documents, analysis the status and trends of nuclear technology development; (4) Research the patented technology of main applicants; (5) Always pay attention to the legal status of patent information, free use the invalid patents, at the same time avoid the patent infringement. Summary, patent information is important to obtain the latest technical information source, and the research work of patent information is a comprehensive understanding and mastery way for advanced nuclear technology. (authors)

  18. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  19. Religious coalition opposes gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1995-05-19

    The biotechnology industry is concerned about a coalition of mainstream religious leaders, working with Jeremy Rifkin of the Foundation of Economic Trends, who oppose the patenting of human and animal life forms, body parts, and genes. The coalition called a press conference on May 18 to ask the government to prohibit the current patenting practices for genetic engineering. The biotechnology industry argues that patents indicate that a company's research tool has significant value, and encourages capitalists to invest their dollars in the development of new treatments for diseases. They also argue that the 29 biotech drugs that are on the market have been developed as a result of patents on genes. Although most business leaders are united in opposing restrictions, many scientists are divided, citing both religious and scientific reasons.

  20. Electrical impedance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Beatriz; Hermosa, Cecilia; Abella, Ana

    2018-01-01

    Continuous assessment of respiratory status is one of the cornerstones of modern intensive care unit (ICU) monitoring systems. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT), although with some constraints, may play the lead as a new diagnostic and guiding tool for an adequate optimization of mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients. EIT may assist in defining mechanical ventilation settings, assess distribution of tidal volume and of end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) and contribute to titrate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)/tidal volume combinations. It may also quantify gains (recruitment) and losses (overdistention or derecruitment), granting a more realistic evaluation of different ventilator modes or recruitment maneuvers, and helping in the identification of responders and non-responders to such maneuvers. Moreover, EIT also contributes to the management of life-threatening lung diseases such as pneumothorax, and aids in guiding fluid management in the critical care setting. Lastly, assessment of cardiac function and lung perfusion through electrical impedance is on the way. PMID:29430443

  1. Patent Law for Computer Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, Daniel; Gardiner, Alex; Giemsa, Falk; Machek, Jörg

    More than five centuries ago the first patent statute was passed by the Venetian senate. It already had most of the features of modern patent law, recognizing the public interest in innovation and granting exclusive right in exchange for a full disclosure. Some 350 years later the industrial revolution led to globalisation. The wish to protect intellectual property on a more international level evolved and supranational treaties were negotiated. Patent laws are still different in many countries, however, and inventors are sometimes at a loss to understand which basic requirements should be satisfied if an invention is to be granted a patent. This is particularly true for inventions implemented on a computer. While roughly a third of all applications (and granted patents) relate, in one way or another, to a computer, applications where the innovation mainly resides in software or in a business method are treated differently by the major patent offices. The procedures at the USPTO, JPO and EPO and, in particular, the differences in the treatment of applications centring on software are briefly explained. In later sections of this book, a wealth of examples will be presented. The methodology behind the treatment of these examples is explained.

  2. Electrical impedance spectroscopy and diagnosis of tendinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kisung; Lee, Kyeong Woo; Kim, Sang Beom; Lee, Jong Hwa; Han, Tai Ryoon; Jung, Dong Keun; Roh, Mee Sook

    2010-01-01

    There have been a number of studies that investigate the usefulness of bioelectric signals in diagnoses and treatment in the medical field. Tendinitis is a musculoskeletal disorder with a very high rate of occurrence. This study attempts to examine whether electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) can detect pathological changes in a tendon and find the exact location of the lesion. Experimental tendinitis was induced by injecting collagenase into one side of the patellar tendons in rabbits, while the other side was used as the control. After measuring the impedance in the tendinitis and intact tendon tissue, the dissipation factor was computed. The real component of impedance and the dissipation factor turned out to be lower in tendinitis than in intact tissues. Moreover, the tendinitis dissipation factor spectrum showed a clear difference from that of the intact tendon, indicating its usefulness as a tool for detecting the location of the lesion. Pathologic findings from the tissues that were obtained after measuring the impedance confirmed the presence of characteristics of tendinitis. In conclusion, EIS is a useful method for diagnosing tendinitis and detecting the lesion location in invasive treatment

  3. Constructing an Intelligent Patent Network Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chan Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Patent network analysis, an advanced method of patent analysis, is a useful tool for technology management. This method visually displays all the relationships among the patents and enables the analysts to intuitively comprehend the overview of a set of patents in the field of the technology being studied. Although patent network analysis possesses relative advantages different from traditional methods of patent analysis, it is subject to several crucial limitations. To overcome the drawbacks of the current method, this study proposes a novel patent analysis method, called the intelligent patent network analysis method, to make a visual network with great precision. Based on artificial intelligence techniques, the proposed method provides an automated procedure for searching patent documents, extracting patent keywords, and determining the weight of each patent keyword in order to generate a sophisticated visualization of the patent network. This study proposes a detailed procedure for generating an intelligent patent network that is helpful for improving the efficiency and quality of patent analysis. Furthermore, patents in the field of Carbon Nanotube Backlight Unit (CNT-BLU were analyzed to verify the utility of the proposed method.

  4. 77 FR 26290 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; KRYSTEXXA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ..., medical device, food additive, or color additive) was subject to regulatory review by FDA before the item... chronic gout in adult patients refractory to conventional therapy. Subsequent to this approval, the Patent...

  5. Microwave Impedance Measurement for Nanoelectronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Randus

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid progress in nanoelectronics showed an urgent need for microwave measurement of impedances extremely different from the 50Ω reference impedance of measurement instruments. In commonly used methods input impedance or admittance of a device under test (DUT is derived from measured value of its reflection coefficient causing serious accuracy problems for very high and very low impedances due to insufficient sensitivity of the reflection coefficient to impedance of the DUT. This paper brings theoretical description and experimental verification of a method developed especially for measurement of extreme impedances. The method can significantly improve measurement sensitivity and reduce errors caused by the VNA. It is based on subtraction (or addition of a reference reflection coefficient and the reflection coefficient of the DUT by a passive network, amplifying the resulting signal by an amplifier and measuring the amplified signal as a transmission coefficient by a common vector network analyzer (VNA. A suitable calibration technique is also presented.

  6. 37 CFR 1.710 - Patents subject to extension of the patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Patent Term Extension of Patent Term Due to Regulatory Review § 1.710 Patents subject to extension... primarily manufactured using recombinant DNA, recombinant RNA, hybridoma technology, or other processes...

  7. NOTE: Impedance magnetocardiogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandori, Akihiko; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Yokosawa, Koichi; Tsukada, Keiji

    2001-02-01

    We have developed an impedance magnetocardiogram (IMCG) system to detect the change of magnetic field corresponding to changes in blood volume in the heart. A low magnetic field from the electrical activity of the human heart - the so-called magnetocardiogram (MCG) - can be simultaneously detected by using this system. Because the mechanical and electrical functions in the heart can be monitored by non-invasive and non-contact measurements, it is easy to observe the cardiovascular functions from an accurate sensor position. This system uses a technique to demodulate induced current in a subject. A flux-locked circuit of a superconducting quantum interference device has a wide frequency range (above 1 MHz) because a constant current (40 kHz) is fed through the subject. It is shown for the first time that the system could measure IMCG signals at the same time as MCG signals.

  8. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Juan; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis. Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC) and the International Patent Classification (IPC), respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006-2012) and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year) and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006-2012) was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including "natural products and polymers" with nine key technical points, "fermentation industry" with twelve ones, "electrical medical equipment" with four ones, and "diagnosis, surgery" with four ones. The results of this study could provide guidance on the development direction of oncology, and also help researchers broaden innovative ideas and discover new

  9. Patents, Inducement Prizes, and Contestant Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Jerome; Davis, Lee N.

    2006-01-01

    Debate over the merits of patents versus inducement prizes has tended to ignore the signaling roles of patents, and totally ignores the impact of patent signaling on prize contests. This paper asks: How does patent signaling affect the strategic choices of firms considering entering prize contests......? First, we consider contests that do not allow patenting, then contests that do. If patenting is not allowed, we argue, patent-holders, both internal and external to the contest, can adversely impact prize contests by claiming prize winner violation of their patents, and suing for damages. The likelihood...... of such challenges being made can deter entry, particularly in contests requiring large sunk costs. Furthermore, the firm's decisionmaking process will discriminate against entering prize contests and favor R&D projects with patentable outcomes. Together, these problems may circumscribe any future wider role...

  10. 'Government Patent Use': A Legal Approach To Reducing Drug Spending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Amy; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2016-05-01

    The high cost of patent-protected brand-name drugs can strain budgets and curb the widespread use of new medicines. An example is the case of direct-acting antiviral drugs for the treatment of hepatitis C. While prices for these drugs have come down in recent months, they still create barriers to treatment. Additionally, prescribing restrictions imposed by insurers put patients at increased risk of medical complications and contribute to transmission of the hepatitis C virus. We propose that the federal government invoke its power under an existing "government patent use" law to reduce excessive prices for important patent-protected medicines. Using this law would permit the government to procure generic versions of patented drugs and in exchange pay the patent-holding companies reasonable royalties to compensate them for research and development. This would allow patients in federal programs, and perhaps beyond, to be treated with inexpensive generic medicines according to clinical need-meaning that many more patients could be reached for no more, and perhaps far less, money than is currently spent. Another benefit would be a reduction in the opportunity for companies to extract monopoly profits that far exceed their risk-adjusted costs of research and development. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Short-circuit impedance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2003-01-01

    Methods for estimating the short-circuit impedance in the power grid are investigated for various voltage levels and situations. The short-circuit impedance is measured, preferably from naturally occurring load changes in the grid, and it is shown that such a measurement system faces different...

  12. Impedance models in time domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.W.

    2005-01-01

    Necessary conditions for an impedance function are derived. Methods available in the literature are discussed. A format with recipe is proposed for an exact impedance condition in time domain on a time grid, based on the Helmholtz resonator model. An explicit solution is given of a pulse reflecting

  13. Intraesophageal impedance monitoring: clinical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conchillo Armendáriz, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Electrical impedance (Z) between two electrodes is the ratio between applied voltage (U) and resulting current (I). In electrical impedance monitoring the resistance to electrical flow in an alternating current circuit is measured. Multichannel esophageal monitoring can be measured by using an

  14. Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yushan; Abu-Rub, Haitham; Ge, Baoming

    Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters brings together state of the art knowledge and cutting edge techniques in various stages of research related to the ever more popular impedance source converters/inverters. Significant research efforts are underway to develop commercially viable...... and technically feasible, efficient and reliable power converters for renewable energy, electric transportation and for various industrial applications. This book provides a detailed understanding of the concepts, designs, controls, and application demonstrations of the impedance source converters/inverters. Key...... features: Comprehensive analysis of the impedance source converter/inverter topologies, including typical topologies and derived topologies. Fully explains the design and control techniques of impedance source converters/inverters, including hardware design and control parameter design for corresponding...

  15. Impedance source power electronic converters

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yushan; Ge, Baoming; Blaabjerg, Frede; Ellabban, Omar; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Impedance Source Power Electronic Converters brings together state of the art knowledge and cutting edge techniques in various stages of research related to the ever more popular impedance source converters/inverters. Significant research efforts are underway to develop commercially viable and technically feasible, efficient and reliable power converters for renewable energy, electric transportation and for various industrial applications. This book provides a detailed understanding of the concepts, designs, controls, and application demonstrations of the impedance source converters/inverters. Key features: Comprehensive analysis of the impedance source converter/inverter topologies, including typical topologies and derived topologies. Fully explains the design and control techniques of impedance source converters/inverters, including hardware design and control parameter design for corresponding control methods. Presents the latest power conversion solutions that aim to advance the role of pow...

  16. Technological Foresight Based on Citing and Cited Patents of Cellulose with Pharmaceutical Aplications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deysimar de Souza Carvalho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study intends to present the relevance of cellulose by means of the technological foresight study through citing and cited documents from a patent application (WO 9745131 A1 as indicators of innovation. The European database of patents (espacenet was used, combining keywords and IPC. The major applicants, countries of publication and uses were mapped. The patent requests collected are mainly distributed in the area of polymers to medical devices and therapeutic methods that utilize cellulose. The results obtained revealed that the US were the main country with studies directed to this technological area (18 patent applications and the major applicant was the company Micro Therapeutics Inc. Therefore, we can understand that this is a promising technology that may reflect in an increase of R&D activities and in the patent deposits in this area.

  17. Patent quality and incentives at the patent office

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuett, F.

    2013-01-01

    Patent examination is a problem of moral hazard followed by adverse selection: examiners must have incentives to exert effort, but also to truthfully reveal the evidence they find. I develop a theoretical model to study the design of incentives for examiners. The model can explain the puzzling

  18. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability. ...

  19. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability. ...

  20. Fundamentals of patenting and licensing for scientists and engineers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, M. Y. (Matthew Y.)

    2009-01-01

    ... ...28 3.2 Types of Patents...28 3.3 Patent Dates ...29 viiviii Fundamentals of Patenting and Licensing for Scientists and Engineers 3.4 Eligibility of Priority Date ...30 3.5 Patentability ...32...

  1. Enforcement costs: some humanitarian alternatives to stronger patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Diseases that cause comparatively few problems in developed countries kill millions of people in the Third World each year. In many cases, people die because they cannot afford the medication needed to save their lives. In others, there are simply no drugs available because there are no wealthy western patients to justify pharmaceutical companies investing in a cure. This reveals a deep-seated problem within the patent system and the pharmaceutical industry that emphasises markets and profits at the expense of health and global welfare. Global efforts have seen substantial improvements in access to medicines in isolated areas, but with international agreements driving towards stronger patent protection and the expiry date for the TRIPS grace period fast approaching, it is time to consider alternatives which will allow the patent system to work for the humanitarian cause rather than against it. This paper considers two such problems in the patent system and pharmaceutical industry - prohibitive pricing and misdirected incentives - to offer a mode of regulation and enforcement that will support both a viable pharmaceutical industry and the human right to health and medication.

  2. Foreign patent documentation and information research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tongsheng; Wu Xianfeng; Liu Jia; Cao Jifen; Song Tianbao; Feng Beiyuan; Zhang Baozhu

    2014-01-01

    Patent documentations are important scientific and technical documentations, which gather legal information, technical information and economic information together. According to WIPO forecasts, making full use of patent documentation can save 40% of research funding and 60% of the study period. Foreign patent documentations are the world's most valuable patent documentations, and many original technologies that have significant influence are first disclosed in foreign patent documentation. Studying and making use of foreign patent documentations can improve our starting point of scientific and technological innovation, and reduce the research investment. This paper analyzes foreign patent documentation and, combining with the actual development of nuclear technology in our country, makes specific recommendations for patent documentation research. (authors)

  3. Effect of firm variables on patent price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sreekumaran Nair

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, using singleton patent auction price data from Ocean Tomo, LLC, we analyse the effect of firm variables on patent price. Patents owned by small firms attract higher price than patents owned by large firms, if they engage in multi-country filings. The patents owned by small firms get cited more than the patents owned by large firms. The patents owned by individual inventors attract a higher price than the patents owned by organisations when multi-country filings are not included. We believe that the lack of resources is preventing individual inventors from engaging in multi-country filings and maximising the revenue from their invention. A larger representative data should be used to replicate the results before generalising it.

  4. Can this kind of idea be a patent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    2004-08-01

    This book mentions patent such as application, what is patents, patent law, procedure and patent attorney, which includes business idea is patent. Is internet domain name or name-brand? We can make a big money with others idea, the difference among patent, trademark, utility model rights and registration of design, priority system, new weapon in digital period, patent is a knife and a shield, the cost from application to registration, what is hunting of patent information, writing document for patent, patent examination and patent lawyer.

  5. Can this kind of idea be a patent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    2004-08-15

    This book mentions patent such as application, what is patents, patent law, procedure and patent attorney, which includes business idea is patent. Is internet domain name or name-brand? We can make a big money with others idea, the difference among patent, trademark, utility model rights and registration of design, priority system, new weapon in digital period, patent is a knife and a shield, the cost from application to registration, what is hunting of patent information, writing document for patent, patent examination and patent lawyer.

  6. A Batteryless Sensor ASIC for Implantable Bio-Impedance Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Saul; Ollmar, Stig; Waqar, Muhammad; Rusu, Ana

    2016-06-01

    The measurement of the biological tissue's electrical impedance is an active research field that has attracted a lot of attention during the last decades. Bio-impedances are closely related to a large variety of physiological conditions; therefore, they are useful for diagnosis and monitoring in many medical applications. Measuring living tissues, however, is a challenging task that poses countless technical and practical problems, in particular if the tissues need to be measured under the skin. This paper presents a bio-impedance sensor ASIC targeting a battery-free, miniature size, implantable device, which performs accurate 4-point complex impedance extraction in the frequency range from 2 kHz to 2 MHz. The ASIC is fabricated in 150 nm CMOS, has a size of 1.22 mm × 1.22 mm and consumes 165 μA from a 1.8 V power supply. The ASIC is embedded in a prototype which communicates with, and is powered by an external reader device through inductive coupling. The prototype is validated by measuring the impedances of different combinations of discrete components, measuring the electrochemical impedance of physiological solution, and performing ex vivo measurements on animal organs. The proposed ASIC is able to extract complex impedances with around 1 Ω resolution; therefore enabling accurate wireless tissue measurements.

  7. Increasing the Discovery and Use of Non-Patent Literature (NPL): Scientific Publications in Patent Examination

    OpenAIRE

    F. Loizides; B. Diallo; A. Pollard; A. Mavri

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present findings on non-patent literature use, and specifically scientific publications such as academic articles. We interview patent examiners and observe their prior art searching in order to provide insights into the perceived usage of non-patent literature and produce high level requirements for advancing non-patent literature search tools.

  8. 77 FR 4509 - Patent Public Advisory Committee Public Hearings on the Proposed Patent Fee Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... patent fees. The publication of that Notice will open a comment window through which the public may...-P-2012-0002] Patent Public Advisory Committee Public Hearings on the Proposed Patent Fee Schedule... Trademark Office (USPTO) may set or adjust by rule any patent or trademark fee established, authorized, or...

  9. Exploring gender differences in patenting in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Elba Mauleón; Cinzia Daraio; Maria Bordons

    2013-01-01

    The under-representation of women in science and technology is a matter of current great concern. Obtaining patent-based indicators by gender is crucial to analyse the situation of women in innovation, identify potential cases of gender inequalities, and support policy measures to promote gender balance. In this article we analyse men and women involvement in Spanish patents applied to the European Patent Office during 1990--2004. At least one female inventor is present in 18% of the patents;...

  10. Beyond Invention: Patent as Knowledge Law

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in Bilski v. Kappos, concerning the legal standard for determining patentable subject matter under the American Patent Act, is used as a starting point for a brief review of historical, philosophical, and cultural influences on subject matter questions in both patent and copyright law. The article suggests that patent and copyright law jurisprudence was constructed initially by the Court with explicit attention to the relationship between...

  11. 14 CFR 1260.28 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent rights. 1260.28 Section 1260.28... Provisions § 1260.28 Patent rights. Patent Rights May 2006 As stated at § 1260.136, this award is subject to... “Patent Rights (Small Business Firms and Nonprofit Organizations)” and the following: (a) Where the term...

  12. Percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale in cryptogenic embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Bernhard; Kalesan, Bindu; Mattle, Heinrich P; Khattab, Ahmed A; Hildick-Smith, David; Dudek, Dariusz; Andersen, Grethe; Ibrahim, Reda; Schuler, Gerhard; Walton, Antony S; Wahl, Andreas; Windecker, Stephan; Jüni, Peter

    2013-03-21

    The options for secondary prevention of cryptogenic embolism in patients with patent foramen ovale are administration of antithrombotic medications or percutaneous closure of the patent foramen ovale. We investigated whether closure is superior to medical therapy. We performed a multicenter, superiority trial in 29 centers in Europe, Canada, Brazil, and Australia in which the assessors of end points were unaware of the study-group assignments. Patients with a patent foramen ovale and ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or a peripheral thromboembolic event were randomly assigned to undergo closure of the patent foramen ovale with the Amplatzer PFO Occluder or to receive medical therapy. The primary end point was a composite of death, nonfatal stroke, TIA, or peripheral embolism. Analysis was performed on data for the intention-to-treat population. The mean duration of follow-up was 4.1 years in the closure group and 4.0 years in the medical-therapy group. The primary end point occurred in 7 of the 204 patients (3.4%) in the closure group and in 11 of the 210 patients (5.2%) in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio for closure vs. medical therapy, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24 to 1.62; P=0.34). Nonfatal stroke occurred in 1 patient (0.5%) in the closure group and 5 patients (2.4%) in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.02 to 1.72; P=0.14), and TIA occurred in 5 patients (2.5%) and 7 patients (3.3%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.23 to 2.24; P=0.56). Closure of a patent foramen ovale for secondary prevention of cryptogenic embolism did not result in a significant reduction in the risk of recurrent embolic events or death as compared with medical therapy. (Funded by St. Jude Medical; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00166257.).

  13. Patentability aspects of computational cancer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishchuk, Iryna

    2017-07-01

    Multiscale cancer models, implemented in silico, simulate tumor progression at various spatial and temporal scales. Having the innovative substance and possessing the potential of being applied as decision support tools in clinical practice, patenting and obtaining patent rights in cancer models seems prima facie possible. What legal hurdles the cancer models need to overcome for being patented we inquire from this paper.

  14. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands... LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully... and patent and shall state the statutory authority for such liens. The receipt shall be submitted to...

  15. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights. ...

  16. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights, see...

  17. Hybrid-Source Impedance Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ding; Gao, Feng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid-source impedance networks have attracted attention among researchers because of their flexibility in performing buck-boost energy conversion. To date, three distinct types of impedance networks can be summarized for implementing voltage-type inverters with another three types summarized...... for current-type inverters. These impedance networks can in principle be combined into two generic network entities, before multiple of them can further be connected together by applying any of the two proposed generalized cascading concepts. The resulting two-level and three-level inverters implemented using...

  18. Small Signal Loudspeaker Impedance Emulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Knott, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    Specifying the performance of audio amplifiers is typically done by playing sine waves into a pure ohmic load. However real loudspeaker impedances are not purely ohmic but characterized by the mechanical resonance between the mass of the diaphragm and the compliance of its suspension which vary...... from driver to driver. Therefore, a loudspeaker emulator capable of adjusting its impedance to that of a given driver is desired for measurement purposes. This paper proposes a loudspeaker emulator circuit for small signals. Simulations and experimental results are compared and show that it is possible...... to emulate the loudspeaker impedance with an electric circuit and that its resonance frequency can be changed by tuning two resistors....

  19. Exploration of Global Trend on Biomedical Application of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA): A Patent Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnaiah, Paulraj; Vnoothenei, Nagiah; Chandramohan, Muruganandham; Thevarkattil, Mohamed Javad Pazhayakath

    2018-01-30

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates are bio-based, biodegradable naturally occurring polymers produced by a wide range of organisms, from bacteria to higher mammals. The properties and biocompatibility of PHA make it possible for a wide spectrum of applications. In this context, we analyze the potential applications of PHA in biomedical science by exploring the global trend through the patent survey. The survey suggests that PHA is an attractive candidate in such a way that their applications are widely distributed in the medical industry, drug delivery system, dental material, tissue engineering, packaging material as well as other useful products. In our present study, we explored patents associated with various biomedical applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates. Patent databases of European Patent Office, United States Patent and Trademark Office and World Intellectual Property Organization were mined. We developed an intensive exploration approach to eliminate overlapping patents and sort out significant patents. We demarcated the keywords and search criterions and established search patterns for the database request. We retrieved documents within the recent 6 years, 2010 to 2016 and sort out the collected data stepwise to gather the most appropriate documents in patent families for further scrutiny. By this approach, we retrieved 23,368 patent documents from all the three databases and the patent titles were further analyzed for the relevance of polyhydroxyalkanoates in biomedical applications. This ensued in the documentation of approximately 226 significant patents associated with biomedical applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates and the information was classified into six major groups. Polyhydroxyalkanoates has been patented in such a way that their applications are widely distributed in the medical industry, drug delivery system, dental material, tissue engineering, packaging material as well as other useful products. There are many avenues through which PHA & PHB could be

  20. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term...

  1. Imitation, patent protection and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherjee, A.; Pennings, H.P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Once a new technology has been invented it is shown that the innovator has an incentive to postpone technology adoption when the cost of imitation is high and patent protection is strong. With the possibility of licensing it is shown that licensing oftechnology instead of delaying technology

  2. CLASSICS UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    From the profits, he became a very rich man and was able ... The Schedule referred to in these Letters Patent and making part of the same. TO ALL ... This is the real character and purpose of my invention; and in order to enable others ... kneading, it is rubbed through a hair, silk, or brass-wire sieve, (iron corrodes) and any.

  3. Patents - Overlooked Source of Information

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Ilavský, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2004), s. 473-476 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : patent * database * thermal spraying Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.068, year: 2004

  4. Cross-Border Patent Disputes: Unified Patent Court or International Commercial Arbitration?

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Betancourt, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the enforcement of a patent that is registered in several countries involves the risk of getting different and conflicting decisions from the national courts. In 2013, 25 European countries entered in an agreement that aims to homogenise the patent system by creating the European patent with unitary effect and a Unified Patent Court (UPC). This article focuses on the UPC, which aims to have a single court proceeding for cross-border patent conflicts. Does the UPC system represent a...

  5. Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature Neonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezu-Ndubuisi, Olachi J.; Agarwal, Ghanshyam; Raghavan, Aarti; Pham, Jennifer T.; Ohler, Kirsten H.; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2015-01-01

    Persistent patency of the ductus arteriosus is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in premature infants. In infants born prior to 28 weeks of gestation, a hemodynamically-significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can cause cardiovascular instability, exacerbate respiratory distress syndrome, prolong the need for assisted ventilation, and increase the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, renal dysfunction, intraventricular hemorrhage, cerebral palsy, and mortality. In this article, we review the pathophysiology, clinical features, and assessment of hemodynamic significance, and provide a rigorous appraisal of the quality of evidence to support current medical and surgical management of PDA of prematurity. Cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors such as indomethacin and ibuprofen remain the mainstay of medical therapy for PDA, and can be used both for prophylaxis as well as rescue therapy to achieve PDA closure. Surgical ligation is also effective and is used in infants who do not respond to medical management. Although both medical and surgical treatment have proven efficacy in closing the ductus, both modalities are associated with significant adverse effects. Because the ductus does undergo spontaneous closure in some premature infants, improved and early identification of infants most likely to develop a symptomatic PDA could help in directing treatment to the at-risk infants and allow others to receive expectant management. PMID:22564132

  6. Entrepreneurial patent management in pharmaceutical startups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgersson, Marcus; Phan, Tai; Hedner, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Startups fill an increasingly important role as innovators in the pharmaceutical industry, and patenting is typically central to their success. This article aims to explore patent management in pharmaceutical startups. The results show that startups need to deal with several challenges related to patenting and an 'entrepreneurial' approach to patent management is called for. Resource constraints, venture capital provision, exits and other conditions and events must be readily considered in the patent management process to build a successful pharmaceutical venture, something that could benefit the pharmaceutical industry as a whole. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Patent data mining method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyack, Kevin W.; Grafe, V. Gerald; Johnson, David K.; Wylie, Brian N.

    2002-01-01

    A method of data mining represents related patents in a multidimensional space. Distance between patents in the multidimensional space corresponds to the extent of relationship between the patents. The relationship between pairings of patents can be expressed based on weighted combinations of several predicates. The user can select portions of the space to perceive. The user also can interact with and control the communication of the space, focusing attention on aspects of the space of most interest. The multidimensional spatial representation allows more ready comprehension of the structure of the relationships among the patents.

  8. The Patentability of Stem Cells in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Jenny; Cowin, Prue

    2015-07-01

    The potential therapeutic applications of stem cells are unlimited. However, the ongoing political and social debate surrounding the intellectual property and patenting considerations of stem cell research has led to the implementation of strict legislative regulations. In Australia the patent landscape surrounding stem cells has evolved considerably over the past 20 years. The Australian Patents Act 1990 includes a specific exclusion to the patentability of human beings and of biological processes for their generation. However, this exclusion has received no judicial consideration to date, and so its scope and potential impact on stem cell patents is unclear. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of US patents on spacer grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Hong Seok; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Jeon, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Ki; Bang, Jae Keun; Oh, Seung Eun; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Jin Seok; Park, Seong Keun

    1997-06-01

    The total of 137 US patents on spacer grids patented from 1968 through 1993 are analyzed and summarized. Database is constituted with designing the appropriate fields by which each patent can be identified. The fields consist of patent number, inventor, assignee, date of patent, title and major foci of the patent. The major foci are again classified by detailed subjects such as the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related, the strength-related, the fabrication-related as for mechanical subjects, while the cooling performance-related and the pressure drop-related as for thermal-hydraulic one. The 92% of the patents analyzed were issued form nuclear companies of USA, France and Germany. Among the patents dealing with mechanical subjects, the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related is more than the pressure drop-related among the patents of thermal-hydraulic subjects. The number of patents issued from Japan ranks just after Germany i.e., the 4th country. It is thought that much concern as well as investment should be increased in this field, the patent of nuclear components. (author). 2 tabs., 5 figs

  10. Analysis of US patents on spacer grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Hong Seok; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Jeon, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Ki; Bang, Jae Keun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seung Eun; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Jin Seok; Park, Seong Keun [Korea Nuclear Fuel Company, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    The total of 137 US patents on spacer grids patented from 1968 through 1993 are analyzed and summarized. Database is constituted with designing the appropriate fields by which each patent can be identified. The fields consist of patent number, inventor, assignee, date of patent, title and major foci of the patent. The major foci are again classified by detailed subjects such as the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related, the strength-related, the fabrication-related as for mechanical subjects, while the cooling performance-related and the pressure drop-related as for thermal-hydraulic one. The 92% of the patents analyzed were issued form nuclear companies of USA, France and Germany. Among the patents dealing with mechanical subjects, the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related is more than the pressure drop-related among the patents of thermal-hydraulic subjects. The number of patents issued from Japan ranks just after Germany i.e., the 4th country. It is thought that much concern as well as investment should be increased in this field, the patent of nuclear components. (author). 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  11. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  12. Idea on patent ; It is high time to stress quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    This book deals with patent stressing on the quality, which includes from idea to technical business, It's simple to register the computer program, why do patent lawyer appoint the patent attorney's office? construction of patent right range, a good patent and a bad patent, strong patent and weak patent. It doesn't allow for Dus to use as we like, each patent has different value, Let's write technical specifications, advice on talking for invention with a patent attorney's office and what kind of task do intellectual property division do?

  13. Information Extraction From Chemical Patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bergmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new chemicals or pharmaceuticals is preceded by an indepth analysis of published patents in this field. This information retrieval is a costly and time inefficient step when done by a human reader, yet it is mandatory for potential success of an investment. The goal of the research project UIMA-HPC is to automate and hence speed-up the process of knowledge mining about patents. Multi-threaded analysis engines, developed according to UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture standards, process texts and images in thousands of documents in parallel. UNICORE (UNiform Interface to COmputing Resources workflow control structures make it possible to dynamically allocate resources for every given task to gain best cpu-time/realtime ratios in an HPC environment.

  14. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Alleged Early Radio Patent Thicket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    -examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means...... of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how the ‘overlapping’ patent rights were resolved by the courts and by the immunity of suppliers to the Government from patent infringement liability. We trace the cross-licensing agreements between the different radio...

  15. Patent first, ask questions later: morality and biotechnology in patent law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Margo A

    2003-12-01

    This Article explores the U.S. "patent first, ask questions later" approach to determining what subject matter should receive patent protection. Under this approach, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO or the Agency) issues patents on "anything under the sun made by man," and to the extent a patent's subject matter is sufficiently controversial, Congress acts retrospectively in assessing whether patents should issue on such interventions. This practice has important ramifications for morally controversial biotechnology patents specifically, and for American society generally. For many years a judicially created "moral utility" doctrine served as a type of gatekeeper of patent subject matter eligibility. The doctrine allowed both the USTPO and courts to deny patents on morally controversial subject matter under the fiction that such inventions were not "useful." The gate, however, is currently untended. A combination of the demise of the moral utility doctrine, along with expansive judicial interpretations of the scope of patent-eligible subject matter, has resulted in virtually no basis on which the USTPO or courts can deny patent protection to morally controversial, but otherwise patentable, subject matter. This is so despite position statements by the Agency to the contrary. Biotechnology is an area in which many morally controversial inventions are generated. Congress has been in react-mode following the issuance of a stream of morally controversial biotech patents, including patents on transgenic animals, surgical methods, and methods of cloning humans. With no statutory limits on patent eligibility, and with myriad concerns complicating congressional action following a patent's issuance, it is not Congress, the representative of the people, determining patent eligibility. Instead, it is patent applicants, scientific inventors, who are deciding matters of high public policy through the contents of the applications they file with the USTPO. This Article

  16. Patent and exclusivity status of essential medicines for non-communicable disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim K Mackey

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The threat of non-communicable diseases ("NCDs" is increasingly becoming a global health crisis and are pervasive in high, middle, and low-income populations resulting in an estimated 36 million deaths per year. There is a need to assess intellectual property rights ("IPRs" that may impede generic production and availability and affordability to essential NCD medicines. METHODS: Using the data sources listed below, the study design systematically eliminated NCD drugs that had no patent/exclusivity provisions on API, dosage, or administration route. The first step identified essential medicines that treat certain high disease burden NCDs. A second step examined the patent and exclusivity status of active ingredient, dosage and listed route of administration using exclusion criteria outlined in this study. MATERIALS: We examined the patent and exclusivity status of medicines listed in the World Health Organization's ("WHO" Model List of Essential Drugs (Medicines ("MLEM" and other WHO sources for drugs treating certain NCDs. i.e., cardiovascular and respiratory disease, cancers, and diabetes. We utilized the USA Food and Drug Administration Orange Book and the USA Patent and Trademark Office databases as references given the predominant number of medicines registered in the USA. RESULTS: Of the 359 MLEM medicines identified, 22% (79/359 address targeted NCDs. Of these 79, only eight required in-depth patent or exclusivity assessment. Upon further review, no NCD MLEM medicines had study patent or exclusivity protection for reviewed criteria. CONCLUSIONS: We find that ensuring availability and affordability of potential generic formulations of NCD MLEM medicines appears to be more complex than the presence of IPRs with API, dosage, or administration patent or exclusivity protection. Hence, more sophisticated analysis of NCD barriers to generic availability and affordability should be conducted in order to ensure equitable access to global

  17. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women’s rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women’s patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women—and in particular academic women—contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  18. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Sugimoto

    Full Text Available We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO. Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  19. Implementation of Research and Development Based on Patent Natural Ingredients and Potential Utilization of Tradition Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy Hendrix

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of research and development based on natural ingredients for traditional medicines become an interesting topic to discuss at this point; it’s shown from increasing number in utilization. The use of traditional medicine especially on natural ingredients at this moment becomes effective solution to increase the level of market acceptance in herbal extracts, including an affordable purchase from potential utilization of natural resources which are owned. By using Matheo Patent XE Ver 10.2 as methodology of searching, we can know potentials useful through strategy, research and development, patent analysis and patent collaboration among users in utilization of Natural Ingredient for Traditional Medicine. From the data result shows majority in the field of chemistry for human necessity related to Health; Amusement; Medical or Veterinary Science; Hygiene sectors with total patent 108, family 65. The use of patent analysis is a way to find how the development of technology and products that have been produced and how commercial processes connecting with technology users, especially in traditional medicine. From the data that exist in particular of patents, it is critical to identify the number of patents that has been registered through the innovation process development including technology dissemination is used.

  20. 76 FR 36548 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; METVIXIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... 1984 (Pub. L. 98-417) and the Generic Animal Drug and Patent Term Restoration Act (Pub. L. 100-670... (human drug product, animal drug product, medical device, food additive, or color additive) was subject... physician's office when other therapies are considered medically less appropriate. Subsequent to this...

  1. Study design of the CLOSURE I Trial: a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the STARFlex septal closure system versus best medical therapy in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack due to presumed paradoxical embolism through a patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Anthony J; Reisman, Mark; Massaro, Joseph; Mauri, Laura; Adams, Harold; Albers, Gregory W; Felberg, Robert; Herrmann, Howard; Kar, Saibal; Landzberg, Michael; Raizner, Albert; Wechsler, Lawrence

    2010-12-01

    Some strokes of unknown etiology may be the result of a paradoxical embolism traversing through a nonfused foramen ovale (patent foramen ovale [PFO]). The utility of percutaneously placed devices for treatment of patients with cryptogenic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and PFO is unknown. In addition, there are no clear data about the utility of medical interventions or other surgical procedures in this situation. Despite limited data, many patients are being treated with PFO closure devices. Thus, there is a strong need for clinical trials that test the potential efficacy of PFO occlusive devices in this situation. To address this gap in medical knowledge, we designed the CLOSURE I trial, a randomized, clinical trial comparing the use of a percutaneously placed PFO occlusive device and best medical therapy versus best medical therapy alone for prevention of recurrent ischemic neurologic symptoms among persons with TIA or ischemic stroke. This prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial has finished enrollment. Two-year follow-up for all 910 patients is required. The primary end point is the 2-year incidence of stroke or TIA, all-cause mortality for the first 30 days, and neurologic mortality from ≥ 31 days of follow-up, as adjudicated by a panel of physicians who are unaware of treatment allocation. This article describes the rationale and study design of CLOSURE I. This trial should provide information as to whether the STARFlex septal closure system is safe and more effective than best medical therapy alone in preventing recurrent stroke/TIA and mortality in patients with PFO and whether the STARFlex septal closure device can demonstrate superiority compared with best medical therapy alone. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00201461.

  2. Y-Source Impedance Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    This letter introduces a new versatile Y-shaped impedance network for realizing converters that demand a very high-voltage gain, while using a small duty ratio. To achieve that, the proposed network uses a tightly coupled transformer with three windings, whose obtained gain is presently not matched...... by existing networks operated at the same duty ratio. The proposed impedance network also has more degrees of freedom for varying its gain, and hence, more design freedom for meeting requirements demanded from it. This capability has been demonstrated by mathematical derivation, and proven in experiment...

  3. US patent interferences vs. international first-to-file patent systems, and current GATT problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhurst, R.W.; Serbinowski, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Simultaneous superconductivity research activities by different entities have resulted in numerous US patent applications, some of which may claim identical inventions and thus likely will be involved in interference proceedings in the US Patent and Trademark Office to determine which inventors are entitled to priority of invention and the resulting US patent. The determination in an interference proceeding of what inventors were the first-to-invent a patentable invention is contrasted with the patent systems in the rest of the world where the first inventor to file his patent application automatically gains priority. This issue and other aspects of US patent law are the subjects of criticism of US patent law and practice in the current Uruguay round of talks on the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT). Interesting aspects of each of these subjects will be discussed

  4. Alienation from the Objectives of the Patent System: How to Remedy the Situation of Biotechnology Patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li

    2018-03-12

    Some fundamental biotechnologies hold unprecedented potential to eradicate many incurable diseases. However, in absence of regulations, the power of patent makes the future use of some important biotechnology in few institution's hands. The excessive patents restrict researcher access to the fundamental technologies. It generates concerns and complaints of deteriorating the public health and social welfare. Furthermore, intellectual curiosities, funding, respect among colleagues etc., rather than patents, are the real motivations driving a major ground-breaking discoveries in biotechnology. These phenomena reveal that some biotechnology patents are alienated from the purpose of patent system. Therefore, it is necessary to take some approaches to stop over-patenting these fundamental biotechnology inventions. This article proposes a model regulatory framework for controlling biotechnology patent alienating from the purpose of patent system.

  5. 37 CFR 1.81 - Drawings required in patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawings required in patent..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The Drawings § 1.81 Drawings required in patent application. (a) The applicant for a patent is required to furnish...

  6. 37 CFR 1.41 - Applicant for patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant for patent. 1.41 Section 1.41 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply for A...

  7. 37 CFR 1.14 - Patent applications preserved in confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent applications preserved in confidence. 1.14 Section 1.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions...

  8. 37 CFR 1.314 - Issuance of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of patent. 1.314 Section 1.314 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of...

  9. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE...

  10. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent application publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Publication...

  11. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of...

  12. Patents - Superconductor materials, processes and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test, A.

    1987-01-01

    A patent is a grant by a country to an inventor or his assignee of the right to exclude others for a limited period of time from making, using or selling the patented invention within its territory. It is reported that basic patents have been filed by IBM and the University of Houston to protect a broad range of warm superconducting materials or compounds. It is believed that other researchers are seeking patents to protect related or improved materials, processes and apparatus. Because of the importance of this field and to speed up the patent process, the United States Patent Office is giving, upon request, special expedited status to these patent applications. A survey of Japanese companies shows that more than 1500 patents have been applied for in Japan relating to superconducting materials, compositions, apparatus using superconductors and improvements. It appears that the goal of the Japanese companies is to obtain a patent position in Japan so that they can trade with companies wishing to do business in Japan for rights in other parts of the world

  13. Performance of Patenting Firms in Danish Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non-patenting...... firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political...

  14. The History of Patenting Genetic Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkow, Jacob S; Greely, Henry T

    2015-01-01

    The US Supreme Court's recent decision in Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc. declared, for the first time, that isolated human genes cannot be patented. Many have wondered how genes were ever the subjects of patents. The answer lies in a nuanced understanding of both legal and scientific history. Since the early twentieth century, "products of nature" were not eligible to be patented unless they were "isolated and purified" from their surrounding environment. As molecular biology advanced, and the capability to isolate genes both physically and by sequence came to fruition, researchers (and patent offices) began to apply patent-law logic to genes themselves. These patents, along with other biological patents, generated substantial social and political criticism. Myriad Genetics, a company with patents on BRCA1 and BRCA2, two genes critical to assessing early-onset breast and ovarian cancer risk, and with a particularly controversial business approach, became the antagonist in an ultimately successful campaign to overturn gene patents in court. Despite Myriad's defeat, some questions concerning the rights to monopolize genetic information remain. The history leading to that defeat may be relevant to these future issues.

  15. Patents and Innovation: Friends or Foes?

    OpenAIRE

    Lévêque, François

    2007-01-01

    Over 2 million patents are currently in force in the EU and in the USA. Do they testify innovation is blockaded for they restrict freedom in research or do they give evidence innovation is flourishing for patent law provides incentives to invent new products and processes? In other terms do patents freeze or spur innovation? The question arises for massive anecdotal evidence shows the patent system may have turned on its head, e.g., USPTO and EPO examiners spend less than 30 hours pe...

  16. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  17. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric'' and the subclasses Photoelectric,'' Testing,'' and Applications.'' The search also located patents that contained the words photovoltaic(s)'' or solar cell(s)'' and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  18. Interactive overlay maps for US Patent (USPTO) data based on International Patent Classifications (IPC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Kushnir, D.; Rafols, I.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of an interface to the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) that allows for the mapping of patent portfolios as overlays to basemaps constructed from citation relations among all patents contained in this database during the period 1976-2011. Both the interface and the

  19. Using Patent Classification to Discover Chemical Information in a Free Patent Database: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha¨rtinger, Stefan; Clarke, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Developing skills for searching the patent literature is an essential element of chemical information literacy programs at the university level. The present article creates awareness of patents as a rich source of chemical information. Patent classification is introduced as a key-component in comprehensive search strategies. The free Espacenet…

  20. Discrimination against foreigners in the patent system : evidence from standard-essential patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rassenfosse, G.; Raiteri, E.; Bekkers, R.N.A.

    This paper tests for traces of discrimination against foreign firms in the patent prosecution process. It focuses on the case of China and looks specifically at patent applications declared as essential to a technological standard. The choice of standard-essential patents (SEPs) is particularly

  1. Discrimination in the patent system: evidence from standard-essential patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rassenfosse, G.; Raiteri, E.; Bekkers, R.N.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper tests for traces of discrimination against foreigners in the patent prosecution process. It focuses on the case of China and looks specifically at patent applications declared as essential to a technological standard, so called standard-essential patents. The identification strategy

  2. 78 FR 51177 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC, a revocable...

  3. 78 FR 72872 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC, a revocable...

  4. Current treatment options for the management of patent ductus arteriosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeuchi K

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Koh Takeuchi,1 Atsushi Hirota,2 Sachito Minegishi,1 Jotaro Kobayashi,1 Keiji Tsuchiya3 1Division of Cardiovascular Surgery, 2Department of Neonatology, 3Department of Pediatrics, Japanese Red Cross Medical Center, Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan Abstract: Pharmacological and/or surgical closure of a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA in the very premature infant has been the standard of care over the past few decades. However, the rationale for closure of PDA has recently been challenged. In this article, three ways of approaching the closure of PDA including pharmacological treatment, catheter intervention, and surgical intervention, are reviewed in detail. In addition, the different treatment strategies applied in clinical care are evaluated with a focus on the discussion of the available evidence of PDA treatment in the literature. Keywords: patent ductus arteriosus, premature infant, treatment option

  5. Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)

  6. NREL Patents Method for Continuous Monitoring of Materials During

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing | News | NREL NREL Patents Method for Continuous Monitoring of Materials During Manufacturing News Release: NREL Patents Method for Continuous Monitoring of Materials During Manufacturing NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF). More information, including the published patent, can

  7. Pre-empted Patents, Infringed Patents and Firms’ Participation in Markets for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk their patent applications to be pre-empted or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...... patents on firms’ engagement in in- and cross-licensing. Based on a sample of more than 1100 German manufacturing firms our results show that firms engage in in-licensing as a reaction to pre-empted patents and in cross-licensing if their protected IP was infringed upon. However, these effects vary...

  8. Impedance cardiography – optimization and efficacy evaluation of antihypertensive treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Panasiuk-Kamińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background . Hypertension is a civilization disease which currently affects about 10.5 m people in Poland. The number of patients with diagnosed, untreated hypertension amounts to 18%, and as many as 45% of patients are treated ineffectively whereas only 26% are treated effectively. Impedance cardiography (IC is an important tool both in diagnostics and the treatment of hypertensive patients, particularly in the case of antihypertensive treatment resistance. This method allows for the individualized treatment of each patient on the basis of hemodynamic parameters, monitoring of hypertensive patients in the outpatient care setting, and the assessment of cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives . The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of hypotensive medications in patients with hypertension using impedance cardiography. Material and methods. The study involved 60 hypertensive patients, treated with antihypertensives, who failed to achieve the required blood pressure values. The modification of hypertension therapy was based on EBM (evidence-based medicine and on hemodynamic parameters obtained using impedance cardiography. Results . It was found that high blood pressure therapy based on impedance cardiography parameters has a significant influence on blood pressure reduction compared to EM B-based therapy: below 140/90: 66.8 vs. 55.1% and below 130/80: 23.5 vs. 18.9%. Conclusions . On the basis of this study it was confirmed that impedance cardiography allows for a significant reduction of hypertension and the selection of the most effective therapeutic strategy, providing for the optimization and efficacy of hypertension treatment.

  9. The Unified Patent Court (UPC) in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The new common judiciary for European patents (UPC) will play a crucial role in the future European patent system. The UPC will be a very specialised court that i.a. recruits judges from specialists’ circles and has as part of its mission to develop a coherent and autonomous body of case law...

  10. Patentability of methods of human enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for hum...... future evolution and the corresponding public policy choices. This article seeks to provide prospective patentees with guidance and awareness concerning the patentability of methods for human enhancement.......This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for human...... enhancement. Patents will be instrumental for companies to protect investment in innovation and tap into this potentially valuable market. The European patent system contains, in Article 53(c) EPC, an exception from patentability for methods for treatment and diagnostic methods. Such rule was created...

  11. Disclosure rules and declared essential patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.N.A.; Catalini, C.; Martinelli, Arianna; Righi, C.; Simcoe, T.

    Many standard setting organizations (SSOs) require participants to disclose patents that might be infringed by implementing a proposed standard, and commit to license their “essential” patents on terms that are at least fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory (FRAND). Data from these SSO

  12. Patent protection and licensing in microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisen, Ali K; Volpatti, Lisa R

    2014-07-07

    Microfluidic devices offer control over low-volume samples in order to achieve high-throughput analysis, and reduce turnaround time and costs. Their efficient commercialisation has implications for biomedical sciences, veterinary medicine, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. In particular, market diffusion of microfluidic laboratory and point-of-care diagnostic devices can contribute to the improvement of global health. In their commercialisation, consultancy and patent protection are essential elements that complement academic publishing. The awareness of knowledge transfer strategies can help academics to create value for their research. The aim of this article is to provide a guidance to (1) overview the terminology in patent law, (2) elucidate the process of filing a patent in the US, EU, Japan and internationally, (3) discuss strategies to licence a patent, and (4) explain tactics to defend a patent in a potential infringement. Awareness of the patent law and rights allows obtaining optimised, valid and valuable patents, while accelerating implementation to market route. Striking a balance between academic publishing, consultancy to industry and patent protection can increase commercial potential, enhance economic growth and create social impact.

  13. DOE patents available for licensing: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoeming, G.H.

    1982-06-01

    Abstracts and indexes are provided for 1344 DOE patents or patent applications concerning any aspect of energy production, conservation, and utilization. The entries are arranged by subject category as shown in the table of contents. The bibliography covers the period from January 1974 through December 1980

  14. When patents matter: The impact of competition and patent age on the performance contribution of intellectual property rights protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maresch, Daniela; Fink, Matthias; Harms, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The question whether patenting impacts patenting firms' subsequent financial performance is important for technology-oriented companies. However, relevant research has led to contradictory results. We strive to overcome this impasse by introducing innovation competition and patent age as moderators

  15. Herbal drug patenting in India: IP potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Niharika; Manchikanti, Padmavati; Dey, Satya Hari

    2011-09-01

    Herbal drugs are gaining worldwide prominence due to their distinct advantages. Developing countries have started exploring the ethnopharmacological approach of drug discovery and have begun to file patents on herbal drugs. The expansion of R&D in Indian herbal research organizations and presence of manufacturing units at non-Indian sites is an indication of the capability to develop new products and processes. The present study attempts to identify innovations in the Indian herbal drug sector by analyzing the patenting trends in India, US and EU. Based on key word and IPC based search at the IPO, USPTO, Esp@cenet and WIPO databases, patent applications and grant in herbal drugs by Indian applicants/assignees was collected for the last ten years (from 1st January 2001 to 31st October 2010). From this collection patents related to human therapeutic use only were selected. Analysis was performed to identify filing trends, major applicants/assignees, disease area and major plant species used for various treatments. There is a gradual increase in patent filing through the years. In India, individual inventors have maximum applications and grants. CSIR, among research organizations and Hindustan Unilever, Avesthagen, Piramal Life Science, Sahajanand Biotech and Indus Biotech among the companies have the maximum granted patents in India, US and EU respectively. Diabetes, cancer and inflammatory disorders are the major areas for patenting in India and abroad. Recent patents are on new herbal formulations for treatment of AIDS, hepatitis, skin disorders and gastrointestinal disorders. A majority of the herbal patents applications and grants in India are with individual inventors. Claim analysis indicates that these patents include novel multi-herb compositions with synergistic action. Indian research organizations are more active than companies in filing for patents. CSIR has maximum numbers of applications not only in India but also in the US and EU. Patents by research

  16. On Sharks, Trolls, and Other Patent Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzig, Markus; Henkel, Joachim; Heath, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Patent trolls (or sharks) are small patent holding individuals or firms who trap R&D intense manufacturers in patent infringement situations in order to receive damage awards for the illegitimate use of their technology. While of great concern to management, their existence and impact for both...... corporate decision makers and policy makers remains to be fully analyzed from an academic standpoint. In this paper we show why patent sharks can operate profitably, why they are of growing concern, how manufacturers can forearm themselves against them, and which issues policy makers need to address. To do...... so, we map international indemnification rules with strategic rationales of small patent-holding firms within a game-theoretical model. Our central finding is that the courts’ unrealistic consideration of the trade-offs faced by inadvertent infringers is a central condition for sharks to operate...

  17. Simultaneous invention and the patent law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    inventions they often find this to challenge the idea that patent law (which rewards only the first inventor with exclusive rights) is needed to encourage invention and innovation. We review the empirical evidence alleged to show that simultaneous invention is prevalent for important inventions. In general...... is typical of important pioneer inventions in both survey evidence and alleged illustrative cases of simultaneous invention. We show this in the cases of Edison, the Wright brothers, the Selden automobile patent vis a vis Ford, Watt and the steam engine. We then point out that patent law inherently ensures...... that patent protection is not extended to near simultaneous inventions. There remain a number of simultaneous inventions discovered through interference proceedings but we find the number too small to mount a serious challenge to the general operation of patent law....

  18. Are Patents used to Suppress Useful Technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2006-01-01

    of innovation, other than in the trivial sense of excluding third parties from the right to develop the technology covered by the patent? There are many references to this possibility in the management, economic and legal literatures, but two highly-cited papers stand out for grounding their claims of corporate......This article examines the evidence behind claims that innovation is hindered or blocked (termed technology suppression) by corporations' use of patents. In other words, are there ways in which the exploitation of the exclusive development right of the patent can be shown to retard the process...... and the difference between economic monopoly and an exclusive right. It is argued here that what is at issue in this work is the proper function of the patent institution. It is shown early in this paper that the understanding of the patent institution as a system of development prospects makes better sense...

  19. The Patent Literature As A Shortcut To Identify Knowledge Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    patents which decreases the time span between a patent is filed and its value can be evaluated when searching the patent literature. A potential benefit thereof could be that the patent literature could become relevant in order to identify potential knowledge suppliers.......The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating...

  20. Section for Standard and Patents - Standardization and Patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtowicz, S.; Trechcinski, R.; Rybka, M.; Ryszkowska, A.; Wardaszko, J.

    1997-01-01

    Standardization; cooperation with the Patent Office Republic of Poland in the areas of inventiveness and patents. (author)

  1. Tapping mode microwave impedance microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, K.

    2009-01-01

    We report tapping mode microwave impedance imaging based on atomic force microscope platforms. The shielded cantilever probe is critical to localize the tip-sample interaction near the tip apex. The modulated tip-sample impedance can be accurately simulated by the finite-element analysis and the result agrees quantitatively to the experimental data on a series of thin-film dielectric samples. The tapping mode microwave imaging is also superior to the contact mode in that the thermal drift in a long time scale is totally eliminated and an absolute measurement on the dielectric properties is possible. We demonstrated tapping images on working nanodevices, and the data are consistent with the transport results. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  2. Impedance-matched Marx generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Stygar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We have conceived a new class of prime-power sources for pulsed-power accelerators: impedance-matched Marx generators (IMGs. The fundamental building block of an IMG is a brick, which consists of two capacitors connected electrically in series with a single switch. An IMG comprises a single stage or several stages distributed axially and connected in series. Each stage is powered by a single brick or several bricks distributed azimuthally within the stage and connected in parallel. The stages of a multistage IMG drive an impedance-matched coaxial transmission line with a conical center conductor. When the stages are triggered sequentially to launch a coherent traveling wave along the coaxial line, the IMG achieves electromagnetic-power amplification by triggered emission of radiation. Hence a multistage IMG is a pulsed-power analogue of a laser. To illustrate the IMG approach to prime power, we have developed conceptual designs of two ten-stage IMGs with LC time constants on the order of 100 ns. One design includes 20 bricks per stage, and delivers a peak electrical power of 1.05 TW to a matched-impedance 1.22-Ω load. The design generates 113 kV per stage and has a maximum energy efficiency of 89%. The other design includes a single brick per stage, delivers 68 GW to a matched-impedance 19-Ω load, generates 113 kV per stage, and has a maximum energy efficiency of 90%. For a given electrical-power-output time history, an IMG is less expensive and slightly more efficient than a linear transformer driver, since an IMG does not use ferromagnetic cores.

  3. Impedance-matched Marx generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stygar, W. A.; LeChien, K. R.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Savage, M. E.; Stoltzfus, B. S.; Austin, K. N.; Breden, E. W.; Cuneo, M. E.; Hutsel, B. T.; Lewis, S. A.; McKee, G. R.; Moore, J. K.; Mulville, T. D.; Muron, D. J.; Reisman, D. B.; Sceiford, M. E.; Wisher, M. L.

    2017-04-01

    We have conceived a new class of prime-power sources for pulsed-power accelerators: impedance-matched Marx generators (IMGs). The fundamental building block of an IMG is a brick, which consists of two capacitors connected electrically in series with a single switch. An IMG comprises a single stage or several stages distributed axially and connected in series. Each stage is powered by a single brick or several bricks distributed azimuthally within the stage and connected in parallel. The stages of a multistage IMG drive an impedance-matched coaxial transmission line with a conical center conductor. When the stages are triggered sequentially to launch a coherent traveling wave along the coaxial line, the IMG achieves electromagnetic-power amplification by triggered emission of radiation. Hence a multistage IMG is a pulsed-power analogue of a laser. To illustrate the IMG approach to prime power, we have developed conceptual designs of two ten-stage IMGs with L C time constants on the order of 100 ns. One design includes 20 bricks per stage, and delivers a peak electrical power of 1.05 TW to a matched-impedance 1.22 -Ω load. The design generates 113 kV per stage and has a maximum energy efficiency of 89%. The other design includes a single brick per stage, delivers 68 GW to a matched-impedance 19 -Ω load, generates 113 kV per stage, and has a maximum energy efficiency of 90%. For a given electrical-power-output time history, an IMG is less expensive and slightly more efficient than a linear transformer driver, since an IMG does not use ferromagnetic cores.

  4. Cascaded impedance networks for NPC inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ding; Gao, Feng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2010-01-01

    they are subject to the renewable sources. To date, three distinct types of impedance networks can be summarized for implementing a hybrid source impedance network, which can in principle be combined and cascaded before connected to a NPC inverter by proposed two ways. The resulting cascaded impedance network NPC...

  5. Impedance analysis of acupuncture points and pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teplan, Michal; Kukucka, Marek; Ondrejkovicová, Alena

    2011-01-01

    Investigation of impedance characteristics of acupuncture points from acoustic to radio frequency range is addressed. Discernment and localization of acupuncture points in initial single subject study was unsuccessfully attempted by impedance map technique. Vector impedance analyses determined possible resonant zones in MHz region.

  6. Journal bearing impedance descriptions for rotordynamic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Childs, D.W.; Moes, H.; Leeuwen, van H.J.

    1977-01-01

    Bearing impedance vectors are introduced for plain journal bearings which define the bearing reaction force components as a function of the bearing motion. Impedance descriptions are developed directly for the approximate Ocvirk (short) and Sommerfeld (long) bearing solutions. The impedance vector

  7. Relating patenting and peer-review publications: an extended perspective on the vascular health and risk management literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucke, Hermann A M

    2011-01-01

    This investigation identifies patent applications published under the international Patent Convention Treaty between July 2010 and January 2011 in three significant fields of vascular risk management (arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, and aneurysms) and investigates whether the inventors have also published peer reviewed papers directly describing their claimed invention. Out of only 48 patent documents that specifically addressed at least one of the above-mentioned fields, 15 had immediate companion papers of which 13 were published earlier than the corresponding patent applications; the majority of these papers were published by noncorporate patentees. Although the majority of patent applications (30 documents) had at least one corporate assignee, 18 came from academic environments. As expected, medical devices dominated in the aneurysm segment while pharmacology dominated hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although information related to hypertension, atherosclerosis, or aneurysms that was claimed in international patent applications reached the public quicker through the corresponding peer review document if one was published, more than two-thirds of the patent applications had no such companion paper in a scientific journal. The patent literature, which is freely available online as full text, offers information to scientists and developers in the fields of vascular risk management that is not available from the peer reviewed literature.

  8. Vitamin E derivatives: a patent review (2010 - 2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koufaki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The vitamin E family consists of four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. α-Tocopherol is the most studied member of this family for its antioxidant and non-antioxidant properties, while tocotrienols have attracted recent research interest. The structural motifs of the vitamin E family and specifically the chroman moiety, are amenable to various modifications in order to improve their bioactivities towards numerous therapeutic targets. This review includes the patent literature from 2010 - 2015 related to vitamin E derivatives and it is focused on 2-, 5- or 6-substituted chroman analogues. The patent search was performed using Reaxys® and esp@cenet. The chroman moiety of vitamin E is a privileged structure and an essential pharmacophore which inspired organic chemists to synthesize new analogues with improved bioactivities. Modifications at the 2- and 5- positions of the chroman ring resulted in very interesting active compounds in cellular and animal models of diseases related to oxidative stress. More recent publications and patents reported 6-substituted chromans as anticancer agents in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, an emerging interest is observed towards the use of vitamin E analogues incorporated in drug delivery systems and for medical imaging as contrast agents or fluorescent probes.

  9. Patent Keyword Extraction for Sustainable Technology Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongchan Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, sustainable growth and development has become an important issue for governments and corporations. However, maintaining sustainable development is very difficult. These difficulties can be attributed to sociocultural and political backgrounds that change over time [1]. Because of these changes, the technologies for sustainability also change, so governments and companies attempt to predict and manage technology using patent analyses, but it is very difficult to predict the rapidly changing technology markets. The best way to achieve insight into technology management in this rapidly changing market is to build a technology management direction and strategy that is flexible and adaptable to the volatile market environment through continuous monitoring and analysis. Quantitative patent analysis using text mining is an effective method for sustainable technology management. There have been many studies that have used text mining and word-based patent analyses to extract keywords and remove noise words. Because the extracted keywords are considered to have a significant effect on the further analysis, researchers need to carefully check out whether they are valid or not. However, most prior studies assume that the extracted keywords are appropriate, without evaluating their validity. Therefore, the criteria used to extract keywords needs to change. Until now, these criteria have focused on how well a patent can be classified according to its technical characteristics in the collected patent data set, typically using term frequency–inverse document frequency weights that are calculated by comparing the words in patents. However, this is not suitable when analyzing a single patent. Therefore, we need keyword selection criteria and an extraction method capable of representing the technical characteristics of a single patent without comparing them with other patents. In this study, we proposed a methodology to extract valid keywords from

  10. Teaching Chemistry Students How To Use Patent Databases and Glean Patent Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Margy; Shaw, Lawton

    2008-07-01

    Patent literature is an important source of chemical information that is often neglected by chemical educators. This paper describes an effort to teach chemistry students how to use patent databases to search for information on applied chemical technology related to the manufacture of industrial and specialty chemicals. Students in a second-year-level organic chemistry class were shown how to search patent literature as part of a group research paper assignment that involved determining the feasibility of starting an industrial chemical operation to manufacture a given industrial chemical. Students who were assigned high value or specialty chemicals were most likely to cite patent literature in their final papers. Students who were assigned plastics or bulk commodity chemicals were less likely to cite patents. It is suggested that students made choices about the usefulness of patent literature and that patents were most useful when current patents existed and provided the patent owner a competitive advantage. For plastics or commodity chemicals, manufacturing technologies tend to be mature and are well described by more accessible information sources. Suggestions are made for effective introduction of patent literature instruction into upper-level chemistry courses.

  11. AVC/H.264 patent portfolio license

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalis, Dean A.

    2006-08-01

    MPEG LA, LLC offers a joint patent license for the AVC (a/k/a H.264) Standard (ISO/IEC IS 14496-10:2004). Like MPEG LA's other licenses, the AVC Patent Portfolio License is offered for the convenience of the marketplace as an alternative enabling users to access essential intellectual property owned by many patent holders under a single license rather than negotiating licenses with each of them individually. The AVC Patent Portfolio License includes essential patents owned by DAEWOO Electronics Corporation; Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI); France Telecom, societe anonyme; Fujitsu Limited; Hitachi, Ltd.; Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.; LG Electronics Inc.; Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.; Microsoft Corporation; Mitsubishi Electric Corporation; Robert Bosch GmbH; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.; Sedna Patent Services, LLC; Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha; Siemens AG; Sony Corporation; The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York; Toshiba Corporation; UB Video Inc.; and Victor Company of Japan, Limited. Another is expected also to join as of August 1, 2006. MPEG LA's objective is to provide worldwide access to as much AVC essential intellectual property as possible for the benefit of AVC users. Therefore, any party that believes it has essential patents is welcome to submit them for evaluation of their essentiality and inclusion in the License if found essential.

  12. The Transformation of Science Into Patented Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested. The fin......This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety......, which can be mobilized by patent experts with both an in-depth understanding of the scientific discovery, due to their educational background in the life sciences, and capabilities within the legal framework for patenting. More specifically, the findings reveal previously unreported aspects...

  13. Transcatheter Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale: Devices and Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Transcatheter closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) reduces the risk of recurrent cryptogenic stroke compared with medical therapy. PFO closure is a prophylactic procedure, and will not provide the patient with symptomatic improvement, except in cases of hypoxemia due to right-to-left shunt or possibly migraine headaches. Therefore, appropriate patient selection is critical, and procedural safety is paramount. Herein, we review key characteristics of the devices currently available for transcatheter PFO closure within the United States, and highlight key technical aspects of the PFO closure procedure that will maximize procedural success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring Contextual Models in Chemical Patent Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Jay; Frieder, Ophir

    We explore the development of probabilistic retrieval models for integrating term statistics with entity search using multiple levels of document context to improve the performance of chemical patent search. A distributed indexing model was developed to enable efficient named entity search and aggregation of term statistics at multiple levels of patent structure including individual words, sentences, claims, descriptions, abstracts, and titles. The system can be scaled to an arbitrary number of compute instances in a cloud computing environment to support concurrent indexing and query processing operations on large patent collections.

  15. Quinoxaline derivatives: a patent review (2006--present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Mercedes; Cerecetto, Hugo

    2012-11-01

    Quinoxaline scaffold is included in a large number of therapeutic agents because of its physicochemical properties that make the difference between them and the carbono analogue, naphthalene. This review of patented products presents the quinoxaline heterocycle as part of the structural patent claims from a medicinal chemistry perspective. We centred our discussion in the various drug patent applications of the quinoxaline and its derivatives. The applications are based firstly in the specific enzyme target with very low development in the disease treatment. Only for cancer and antimicrobial agents they were specifically determined but little is mentioned in order to insight in the last development activities.

  16. Patent border wars: defining the boundary between scientific discoveries and patentable inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Christopher M

    2007-12-01

    Drawing an appropriate boundary between unpatentable natural phenomena and patentable inventions is crucial in preventing the patent laws from unduly restricting access to fundamental scientific discoveries. Some would argue that, particularly in the U.S., patents are being issued that purport to claim a novel product or process but that, in effect, encompass any practical application of a fundamental biological principle. Examples include gene patents, which Congress is considering banning, and patents relating to biological correlations and pathways, such as the patents at issue in the headline-grabbing LabCorp v. Metabolite and Ariad v. Eli Lilly litigations. In view of the mounting concern, it seems likely that Congress and/or the courts will address the issue, and perhaps substantially shift the boundary.

  17. Observations involving broadband impedance modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.S.

    1995-08-01

    Results for single- and multi-bunch instabilities can be significantly affected by the precise model that is used for the broadband impendance. This paper discusses three aspects of broadband impendance modeling. The first is an observation of the effect that a seemingly minor change in an impedance model has on the single-bunch mode coupling threshold. The second is a successful attempt to construct a model for the high-frequency tails of an r.f cavity. The last is a discussion of requirements for the mathematical form of an impendance which follow from the general properties of impendances

  18. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information

  19. Valuing patents on cost-reducing technology: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Triest, S.P.; van de Vis, Wim

    2007-01-01

    We present an approach for valuing patents on production process improvements. Specifically, we focus on valuing a patent on cost-reducing process improvements from the viewpoint of the patent holding firm. We do this by considering the relevant cash flows that result from owning the patent. The

  20. 78 FR 62367 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    ... Office 37 CFR Parts 1, 3 and 11 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (PLTIA) amends...

  1. 78 FR 21787 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 3 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Proposed Rule #0;#0...-0007] RIN 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties...

  2. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright infringement liability. 1327.201 Section 1327.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and...

  3. The European Patent System: Dealing with emerging technologies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa; Groenendijk, Nico

    2011-01-01

    In light of recent controversial patent decisions in biotechnology, this article argues that the current European patent examination and opposition procedures do not suffice to balance the patent system These procedures do not provide sufficient guidance for patent examiners to deal effectively with

  4. 48 CFR 970.2702-3 - Patent indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent indemnity. 970.2702... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2702-3 Patent indemnity. (a) Contracting officers must use the clause at 970.5227-6, Patent Indemnity—Subcontracts to...

  5. 14 CFR 1214.112 - Patent, data and information matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent, data and information matters. 1214... Customers § 1214.112 Patent, data and information matters. (a) Patent and data rights. NASA will not acquire rights to inventions, patents or proprietary data which may be used in, or arise from, activities for...

  6. 77 FR 269 - Matters Related to Patent Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Matters Related to Patent Appeals ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office... Matters Related to Patent Appeals comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K. Fawcett...

  7. 48 CFR 31.205-30 - Patent costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent costs. 31.205-30....205-30 Patent costs. (a) The following patent costs are allowable to the extent that they are incurred... patent application where title or royalty-free license is to be conveyed to the Government. (b) General...

  8. 76 FR 53885 - Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and... ``Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K...

  9. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2... FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National Science... adopted the following statement of NSF patent policy. (a) In accordance with the Bayh-Dole Act and the...

  10. A Database of EPO-Patenting Firms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    1998-01-01

    The first section gives a brief introduction of the basic stages to be observed by the patent applicant from idea to the patent is granted. Section two presents three examples of how patents are registered in the online patent database INPADOC. Section three accounts for the initial analysis...... of the existing patent stock issued to firms with domicile in Denmark. Sections four and five report the basic characteristics of the EPO-patent sample and the procedures for linking the patent statistics to accounting data at the firm level, and finally they present the basic properties of the resulting database...

  11. 76 FR 15322 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; VPRIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ..., medical device, food additive, or color additive) was subject to regulatory review by FDA before the item... therapy for pediatric and adult patients with type 1 Gaucher Disease. Subsequent to this approval, the...,138,262) from Shire Human Genetic Therapies, Inc., and the Patent and Trademark Office requested FDA's...

  12. Revising the Complex Economics of Patent Scope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    Merges and Nelson claim to have provided an empirically grounded argument that pioneer patents of 'broad' scope are used to block technological development. It is widely understood in both law and economics that they have, as they claim, faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents, a theory...... that a function of patents is to enable the coordinated development of novel technical ideas. This article is a critical review of Merges and Nelson's historical empirical evidence. I find that, first, 'broad' scope is only implicated in one of the examples cited by Merges and Nelson as supportive evidence...... - the Wright brothers' warped-wing patent; second, that strict development block, defined as the prevention, or retardation of the development of technology understood to be capable of useful development, was not illustrated by any of their examples. Therefore I conclude that their general thesis...

  13. Turning Technology into Business Using University Patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, L.

    2014-01-01

    We present an education paradigm that stimulates innovation and entrepreneurship through a master's-level university course: "Turning Technology into Business". The course was specifically designed to connect technological research with education using patented technologies developed at the research

  14. Internet: A place for patent retrieval

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-05-16

    May 16, 2006 ... Key words: Biotechnology, intellectual property rights, Patents, Internet application. INTRODUCTION. The principle objective of biotechnology is to produce ... Finland. France. Germany. Greek. Georgian. Hong Kong. Hungarian. Irsish. Italian. Japan. Korean. Luxemberg. Lithuania. Malaysian. Moldova.

  15. Patent documentation - comparison of two MT strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on two matters: A comparison of how two different MT strategies manage translating the text type of patent documentation and a survey of what is needed to transform a MT research prototype system to a translation application for patent texts. The two MT strategies is represented....... The distinctive text type of patents pose special demands for machine translation and these aspects are discussed based on linguistic observations with focus on the users point of view. Two main demands are automatic pre processing of the documents and implementation of a module which in a flexible and user......-friendly manner offers the opportunity to extend the lexical coverage of the system. These demands and the comparison of the two MT strategies are discussed on the basis of proofread patents....

  16. Improved system for identifying biological tissue temperature using electrical impedance tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korolyuk Evgeniy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a cheap and compact medical system that determines the temperature of an object using broadband impedance tomography. This system can be used in medicine to visualize ice structure in tissue during cryosurgical operations, as well as for fault diagnosis and location in studied industrial objects. These effects are achieved by measuring electrical impedance between electrode pairs in the measuring chamber. The assembled prototype is compact, consumes little power, and allows to non-invasively determine the impedance of a target object in real time. The research included experimental studies to determine the dependence of the impedance spectrum of saline water and muscle tissue on temperature in broad band spectrum, which allowed to obtain the dependence of total electrical impedance of target objects on temperature.

  17. Spheromak Impedance and Current Amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T K; Hua, D D; Stallard, B W

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that high current amplification can be achieved only by injecting helicity on the timescale for reconnection, τ REC , which determines the effective impedance of the spheromak. An approximate equation for current amplification is: dI TOR 2 /dt ∼ I 2 /τ REC - I TOR 2 /τ closed where I is the gun current, I TOR is the spheromak toroidal current and τ CLOSED is the ohmic decay time of the spheromak. Achieving high current amplification, I TOR >> I, requires τ REC CLOSED . For resistive reconnection, this requires reconnection in a cold zone feeding helicity into a hot zone. Here we propose an impedance model based on these ideas in a form that can be implemented in the Corsica-based helicity transport code. The most important feature of the model is the possibility that τ REC actually increases as the spheromak temperature increases, perhaps accounting for the ''voltage sag'' observed in some experiments, and a tendency toward a constant ratio of field to current, B ∝ I, or I TOR ∼ I. Program implications are discussed

  18. The patent activity of the Czech R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kučera Zdeněk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective knowledge transfer between research institutions and industry is a significant bottleneck in the national innovation system. CR adopted in recent years a series of systemic measures aimed to stimulate the orientation of the R&D organizations towards the generation of knowledge directly applicable in the innovation process and more generally to improve the collaboration of the R&D establishment with the industry. In the majority of programs supporting the applied research patents and industrial designs and utility models are among the anticipated results. The Methodology of the evaluation of R&D organizations implemented in the second half of the last decade brought financial bonuses for the creation of the results in the category of industrial property. Despite of this stimulus CR lags behind the technologically advanced EU countries in the patent activities. The topic of this article is a comparison of the protection of the industrial property rights in the Czech higher education institutions and governmental R&D institutions with selected EU countries. We make use of a couple of quantitative indicators to assess the quality and the technological and the commercial potential of the produced industrial property. Despite a dynamic growth of the patent applications in the CR the number of patent applications relative to the country size is far below the EU-15 average. The Czech research organizations contribute to a higher extent to the number of patent applications then do the analogous institutions in EU-15 countries where the majority of patent applications come from the industrial sphere. The Czech research organizations mainly limit the patent rights to the Czech Republic whereas in the EU-15 countries the opposite is preponderant and only a small fraction of patent applications remains limited to the national environment. Thus the majority of the Czech patents created by research organizations cannot be commercialized on the

  19. Patent portfolio structure for single technology companies

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwell, Ian P.

    2004-01-01

    Single technology companies (STCs) are defined in this thesis as companies that (a) have the fundamental rights to a new technology, (b) have development of that technology as their core competence, (c) seek to exploit that technology primarily by licensing the patent rights, and (d) are driven primarily by 'technology push'. These factors often result in much of the value of the STC residing in its patent portfolio. This in turn may place significant - and often conflicting - ...

  20. Competition policy in patent cases and antitrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The article that follows examines the competition policy reflected in the decisions of the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in its patent cases. The court's views on this subject have been manifested most plainly in decisions that have transformed the law concerning infringement under the doctrine of equivalents and claim construction. In both categories, the court narrowed patent scope by reason of its desire to protect competitors. The article argues that the court's premise in prescribing narrower claim scope reflected an incomplete view of competition policy. The court's analysis overlooked the benefits to competition provided by patents, which stimulate inventions and their development. The article traces the development of antitrust jurisprudence and demonstrates how respect for the contribution of patents to competition and skepticism of free-riding has evolved, particularly beginning in the 1970s. The article draws a parallel between the Court's reasoning about competition policy, on the one hand, and the rejected views of Justices Hugo Black and William O. Douglas and abandoned patent-antitrust jurisprudence, on the other. The Federal Circuit's decision in Festo Corp. v. Shoketsu Kinzoku Kogyo Kabushiki Co., Ltd., 234 F.3d 558 (Fed. Cir. 2000), on the subject of equivalents is considered in the paper. In that decision, the majority adopted a new rule that completely barred infringement under the doctrine of equivalents of any claim limitation where, in prosecution, there had been a narrowing amendment relating to patentability. In the past, prosecution estoppel foreclosing equivalents had been subject to a "flexible bar," which, in some circumstances, allowed for equivalence notwithstanding such an amendment. The article points out that because almost all patents are amended during prosecution, the effect would be to allow widespread copying of patented inventions by trivial modifications of any narrowed claim limitation. The incentive to innovate

  1. Patent business guide in a domestic and foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This book explains general things on industrial property right, which includes description of industrial property right, types, qualification for application of patent, application guide, on-line application, useful procedure of application, writing methods and samples for application of patents such as design patent and trademarks patent, writing skill and examples for registration, writing ways and examples related examination and writing tips and samples on international application of patent.

  2. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Yan; Zhang, Yulei; Fan, Li; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991?2008 have been examined using the ?title?abstract? keyword search on esp@cenet ?worldwide? database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People?s Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the larges...

  3. Patent Value: A Business Perspective for Technology Startups

    OpenAIRE

    Angela de Wilton

    2011-01-01

    In the last year, news headlines have highlighted record patent infringement settlements, multibillion dollar auctions of large corporate patent portfolios, and ongoing patent battles between key technology industry players. Despite this acknowledgment of the significant value of patents for large corporations, many small technology companies are understandably more focused on the near-term costs of obtaining a patent rather than future value. Costs may seem prohibitive to an early stage tech...

  4. Pumping slots: impedances and power losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1996-08-01

    Contributions of pumping slots to the beam coupling impedances and power losses in a B-factory ring are considered. While their leading contribution is to the inductive impedance, for high-intensity machines with short bunches like e{sup +}e{sup -} B-factories the real part of the impedance and related loss factors are also important. Using an analytical approach we calculate the coupling impedances and loss factors due to slots in a ring with an arbitrary cross section of the vacuum chamber. Effects of the slot tilt on the beam impedance are also considered, and restrictions on the tilt angle are derived from limitations on the impedance increase. The power leakage through the slots is discussed briefly. The results are applied to the KEK B-factory. (author)

  5. MVAC Submarine cable, impedance measurements and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentsen, Martin Trolle; Expethit, Adrian; Pedersen, Morten Virklund

    2017-01-01

    influence the losses. Secondly, cable parameters such as component impedances, positive-, zero-sequence impedances and losses are measured for varying currents and frequencies. Zero sequence is measured for two setups, one with armour grounded, and with armour open to match CIGREs formula assumption......-sequence impedance is found between the measurements and the CIGRÉ formulas. It is concluded that the formulas are not accurate for the specific cable under test....

  6. A compact broadband nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Kim, Kseniya; Narenda, Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformers consist of a combination of high‐ and low‐impedance transmission lines. High‐impedance lines have narrow tracks in strip and microstrip technology, which allows for high flexibility and miniaturization of the layout in comparison...... to the traditional tapered line transformers. This flexibility of the broadband nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformers is experimentally demonstrated in this article allowing the length reduction by almost three times. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 54:1832–1835, 2012; View...

  7. On Impedance Spectroscopy of Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchaikin, V. V.; Sibatov, R. T.; Ambrozevich, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    Supercapacitors are often characterized by responses measured by methods of impedance spectroscopy. In the frequency domain these responses have the form of power-law functions or their linear combinations. The inverse Fourier transform leads to relaxation equations with integro-differential operators of fractional order under assumption that the frequency response is independent of the working voltage. To compare long-term relaxation kinetics predicted by these equations with the observed one, charging-discharging of supercapacitors (with nominal capacitances of 0.22, 0.47, and 1.0 F) have been studied by means of registration of the current response to a step voltage signal. It is established that the reaction of devices under study to variations of the charging regime disagrees with the model of a homogeneous linear response. It is demonstrated that relaxation is well described by a fractional stretched exponent.

  8. Electrical impedance tomography of electrolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Meir

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this study is to explore the hypothesis that changes in pH during electrolysis can be detected with Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT. The study has relevance to real time control of minimally invasive surgery with electrolytic ablation. To investigate the hypothesis, we compare EIT reconstructed images to optical images acquired using pH-sensitive dyes embedded in a physiological saline agar gel phantom treated with electrolysis. We further demonstrate the biological relevance of our work using a bacterial E.Coli model, grown on the phantom. The results demonstrate the ability of EIT to image pH changes in a physiological saline phantom and show that these changes correlate with cell death in the E.coli model. The results are promising, and invite further experimental explorations.

  9. Patent Foramen Ovale as a Risk Factor for Altitude Decompression Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Medical Issues in Hypo-and Hyperbaric Conditions [les Questions medicales a caractere oprationel liees aux conditions hypobares ou hyperbares ] To order the...on "Operational Medical Issues in Hypo- and Hyperbaric Conditions ", held in Toronto, Canada, 16-19 October 2000, and published in RTO MP-062. 3-2...Space Environ Med 1996; 67: 1092-6. Powell MR, Norfleet WT, Kumar KV, Butler BD. Patent foramen ovale and hypobaric decompression. Aviat Space Environ

  10. Published patent applications and patents from the promoted R + D area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeckel, G.; Zierl, I.

    1977-09-01

    The Ministry for Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany has sponsored technological R + D for industrial innovations since 1969. The following compilation includes the published patent applications and patents from all projects which were sponsored up to and including 1973. (orig.) [de

  11. Can patents prohibit research? On the social epistemology of patenting and licensing in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Justin B

    2014-03-01

    A topic of growing importance within philosophy of science is the epistemic implications of the organization of research. This paper identifies a promising approach to social epistemology--nonideal systems design--and uses it to examine one important aspect of the organization of research, namely the system of patenting and licensing and its role in structuring the production and dissemination of knowledge. The primary justification of patenting in science and technology is consequentialist in nature. Patenting should incentivize research and thereby promote the development of knowledge, which in turn facilitates social progress. Some have disputed this argument, maintaining that patenting actually inhibits knowledge production. In this paper, I make a stronger argument; in some areas of research in the US--in particular, research on GM seeds--patents and patent licenses can be, and are in fact being, used to prohibit some research. I discuss three potential solutions to this problem: voluntary agreements, eliminating patents, and a research exemption. I argue against eliminating patents, and I show that while voluntary agreements and a research exemption could be helpful, they do not sufficiently address the problems of access that are discussed here. More extensive changes in the organization of research are necessary.

  12. The diffusion of patented oil and gas technology with environmental uses: A forward patent citation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duch-Brown, Néstor; Costa-Campi, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Relevant advances in the mitigation of environmental impact could be obtained by the appropriate diffusion of existing environmental technologies. In this paper, we look at the diffusion of knowledge related to environmental technologies developed within the oil and gas industry. To assess knowledge spillovers from oil and gas inventions as a measure of technology diffusion, we rely on forward patent citations methodology. Results show that there is a strong likelihood that the citing patent will be eventually linked to environmental technologies if the original oil and gas invention has already environmental uses. Moreover, both intra and intersectoral spillovers produce a “turnabout” effect, meaning that citing patents show the opposite quality level of the cited patent. Our results support the idea that more sector-specific environmental policies, with an emphasis on diffusion, would significantly improve the use of environmental technologies developed within the oil and gas industry. -- Highlights: •Knowledge spillovers from oil and gas inventions are of an intrasectoral nature. •Environmental uses in original patents diffuse to patents with environmental uses. •The “turnabout” effect converts low quality patents into high quality citing patents. •Diffusion of oil and gas inventions need more ad hoc instruments

  13. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights and…

  14. Biological diversity in the patent system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Oldham

    Full Text Available Biological diversity in the patent system is an enduring focus of controversy but empirical analysis of the presence of biodiversity in the patent system has been limited. To address this problem we text mined 11 million patent documents for 6 million Latin species names from the Global Names Index (GNI established by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF and Encyclopedia of Life (EOL. We identified 76,274 full Latin species names from 23,882 genera in 767,955 patent documents. 25,595 species appeared in the claims section of 136,880 patent documents. This reveals that human innovative activity involving biodiversity in the patent system focuses on approximately 4% of taxonomically described species and between 0.8-1% of predicted global species. In this article we identify the major features of the patent landscape for biological diversity by focusing on key areas including pharmaceuticals, neglected diseases, traditional medicines, genetic engineering, foods, biocides, marine genetic resources and Antarctica. We conclude that the narrow focus of human innovative activity and ownership of genetic resources is unlikely to be in the long term interest of humanity. We argue that a broader spectrum of biodiversity needs to be opened up to research and development based on the principles of equitable benefit-sharing, respect for the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, human rights and ethics. Finally, we argue that alternative models of innovation, such as open source and commons models, are required to open up biodiversity for research that addresses actual and neglected areas of human need. The research aims to inform the implementation of the 2010 Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization and international debates directed to the governance of genetic resources. Our research also aims to inform debates under the Intergovernmental Committee on

  15. Technology Trends Analysis Using Patent Landscaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vsevolodovich Kortov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis and the choice of the priorities in technology development and, particularly, to the use of patent landscaping as a tool for the study of technology trends. Currently, patent activity indicators are often used for technology foresight and for competitive intelligence as well. Nevertheless, causal relationship between these indicators, on the one hand, and strategic and tactical decisions in the sphere of technological development on meso- and microeconomic level, on the other hand, are not adequately investigated to solve practical tasks. The goal of the work is to systemize the challenges of technology trends analysis, which could be effectively solved on the base of patent landscape analysis. The article analyses the patent landscaping methodology and tools, as well as their use for evaluating the current competitive environment and technology foresight. The authors formulated the generalized classification for the criteria of promising technologies for a selected region. To assess the compliance of a technology with these criteria, we propose a system of corresponding indicators of patenting activity. Using the proposed methodology, we have analysed the patent landscape to select promising technologies for the Sverdlovsk region. The research confirmed the hypothesis of the patent landscapes performance in evaluating such technology indicators as stages of the life cycle stage, universality (applicability in different industries, pace of worldwide development, innovations and science availability in the region and potential possibilities for scientific collaboration with international research institutions and universities. The results of the research may be useful to the wide audience, including representatives small and medium enterprises, large companies and regional authorities for the tasks concerned with the technology trends analysis and technology strategy design

  16. The ethics of patenting human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-09-01

    Just as human embryonic stem cell research has generated controversy about the uses of human embryos for research and therapeutic applications, human embryonic stem cell patents raise fundamental ethical issues. The United States Patent and Trademark Office has granted foundational patents, including a composition of matter (or product) patent to the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), the University of Wisconsin-Madison's intellectual property office. In contrast, the European Patent Office rejected the same WARF patent application for ethical reasons. This article assesses the appropriateness of these patents placing the discussion in the context of the deontological and consequentialist ethical issues related to human embryonic stem cell patenting. It advocates for a patent system that explicitly takes ethical factors into account and explores options for new types of intellectual property arrangements consistent with ethical concerns.

  17. A study of fuel cell patenting activity in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.Y.; Sajewycz, M.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' A patent application is generally filed shortly after completion of research and development; therefore, patent filing statistics provide insight into the state of innovation of a technology. A study has been conducted on fuel cell patenting activity in Canada. This study examines fuel cell patenting trends between 1989-2003 and specific activity in 2001, identifies the major players in the Canadian fuel cell industry, and examines the patent landscape by fuel cell technology. Our results show that historically, Canadians have been leaders at home and abroad in fuel cell innovation. However, Canadians have recently fallen behind in protecting their patent rights at home, and now rank fourth behind German, American and Japanese fuel cell patent filers in the Canadian patent office. However, our data also shows that a significant number of new Canadian entities have emerged and have been very active filing new patent applications. These new entities as well as established Canadian companies are examined in detail. (author)

  18. Analysis of Patent Databases Using VxInsight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYACK,KEVIN W.; WYLIE,BRIAN N.; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.; JOHNSON,DAVID K.

    2000-12-12

    We present the application of a new knowledge visualization tool, VxInsight, to the mapping and analysis of patent databases. Patent data are mined and placed in a database, relationships between the patents are identified, primarily using the citation and classification structures, then the patents are clustered using a proprietary force-directed placement algorithm. Related patents cluster together to produce a 3-D landscape view of the tens of thousands of patents. The user can navigate the landscape by zooming into or out of regions of interest. Querying the underlying database places a colored marker on each patent matching the query. Automatically generated labels, showing landscape content, update continually upon zooming. Optionally, citation links between patents may be shown on the landscape. The combination of these features enables powerful analyses of patent databases.

  19. The Seductive-Plausibility of Patent Hold-Up Myths — A Flawed Historiography of Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D

    In previous work we have shown that a flawed historiography of patents continues to be the basis for patent policy advocacy. We set out objective standards of evidence that allegations of development block due to assertion of patents must meet. We show the extent of the errors in the historical...... record in the aircraft, automobile, radio and incandescent lamp technologies. We then evaluate how they measure against the objective standards. We find many simple errors and that an absence of indicia of development block characterise scholarship alleging that assertion of patents blocked development...... of multiple case studies subjected to such standards justifies the rebuttable presumption that “pioneer patents have never blocked development”....

  20. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Yan; Zhang Yulei; Fan Li; Chen Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991-2008 have been examined using the 'title-abstract' keyword search on esp-cenet 'worldwide' database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People's Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the largest number of nanotechnology patent applications, and experienced significant but different growth rates after 2000. In most repositories, the largest numbers of nanotechnology patent applications originated from their own countries/regions, indicating a significant 'home advantage.' The top applicant institutions are from different sectors in different countries (e.g., from industry in the US and Canada patent offices, and from academe or government agencies at the PRC office). As compared to 2000, the year before the establishment of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), numerous new invention topics appeared in 2008, in all 15 patent repositories. This is more pronounced in the USA and PRC. Patent families have increased among the 15 patent offices, particularly after 2005. Overlapping patent applications increased from none in 1991 to about 4% in 2000 and to about 27% in 2008. The largest share of equivalent nanotechnology patent applications (1,258) between two repositories was identified between the US and Japan patent offices.

  1. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yan; Zhang, Yulei; Fan, Li; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2010-03-01

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991-2008 have been examined using the "title-abstract" keyword search on esp@cenet "worldwide" database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People's Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the largest number of nanotechnology patent applications, and experienced significant but different growth rates after 2000. In most repositories, the largest numbers of nanotechnology patent applications originated from their own countries/regions, indicating a significant "home advantage." The top applicant institutions are from different sectors in different countries (e.g., from industry in the US and Canada patent offices, and from academe or government agencies at the PRC office). As compared to 2000, the year before the establishment of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), numerous new invention topics appeared in 2008, in all 15 patent repositories. This is more pronounced in the USA and PRC. Patent families have increased among the 15 patent offices, particularly after 2005. Overlapping patent applications increased from none in 1991 to about 4% in 2000 and to about 27% in 2008. The largest share of equivalent nanotechnology patent applications (1,258) between two repositories was identified between the US and Japan patent offices.

  2. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang Yan, E-mail: ydang@email.arizona.edu; Zhang Yulei, E-mail: ylzhang@email.arizona.edu; Fan Li, E-mail: fanli@email.arizona.edu; Chen Hsinchun, E-mail: hchen@eller.arizona.ed [University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems, Eller College of Management (United States); Roco, Mihail C., E-mail: mroco@nsf.go [National Science Foundation (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991-2008 have been examined using the 'title-abstract' keyword search on esp-cenet 'worldwide' database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People's Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the largest number of nanotechnology patent applications, and experienced significant but different growth rates after 2000. In most repositories, the largest numbers of nanotechnology patent applications originated from their own countries/regions, indicating a significant 'home advantage.' The top applicant institutions are from different sectors in different countries (e.g., from industry in the US and Canada patent offices, and from academe or government agencies at the PRC office). As compared to 2000, the year before the establishment of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), numerous new invention topics appeared in 2008, in all 15 patent repositories. This is more pronounced in the USA and PRC. Patent families have increased among the 15 patent offices, particularly after 2005. Overlapping patent applications increased from none in 1991 to about 4% in 2000 and to about 27% in 2008. The largest share of equivalent nanotechnology patent applications (1,258) between two repositories was identified between the US and Japan patent offices.

  3. Research and Development Strategy in Biological Technologies: A Patent Data Analysis of Japanese Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemichi Fujii

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological technology allows us to invent new medical approaches, create effective food production methods and reserves and develop new materials for industrial production. There is a diversity of biological technology types, and different technologies have different priorities for invention. This study examines the factors that are important for the invention of biology-related technologies in Japan using patent application data and a decomposition analysis framework. As the results show, patent applications related to biochemistry and biotechnology increased until 1995 because of the expanded scale of R&D activities and the high priority assigned to biological technology. However, the number of patent applications stagnated after 1995, because the importance of biochemistry, especially waste-gas treatment technologies, decreased. Additionally, patent applications for medicines and disease-related technologies increased rapidly from 1971 to 1995. The primary determinant of rapid growth is an increase in research priority, especially among firms in the chemical industry whose technologies are related to supplemental foods and foods with health-promoting benefits. Finally, patent applications involving foodstuff- and agriculture-related technologies increased from 1971 to 1995 due to increased R&D and the increased priority of biological technology.

  4. Does ibuprofen treatment in patent ductus arteriosus alter oxygen free radicals in premature infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akar, Melek; Yildirim, Tulin G; Sandal, Gonca; Bozdag, Senol; Erdeve, Omer; Altug, Nahide; Uras, Nurdan; Oguz, Serife S; Dilmen, Ugur

    2017-04-01

    Introduction Ibuprofen is used widely to close patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants. The anti-inflammatory activity of ibuprofen may also be partly due to its ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. We evaluated the interaction between oxidative status and the medical treatment of patent ductus arteriosus with two forms of ibuprofen. Materials and methods This study enrolled newborns of gestational age ⩽32 weeks, birth weight ⩽1500 g, and postnatal age 48-96 hours, who received either intravenous or oral ibuprofen to treat patent ductus arteriosus. Venous blood was sampled before ibuprofen treatment from each patient to determine antioxidant and oxidant concentrations. Secondary samples were collected 24 hours after the end of the treatment. Total oxidant status and total antioxidant capacity were measured using Erel's method. This prospective randomised study enrolled 102 preterm infants with patent ductus arteriosus. The patent ductus arteriosus closure rate was significantly higher in the oral ibuprofen group (84.6 versus 62%) after the first course of treatment (p=0.011). No significant difference was found between the pre- and post-treatment total oxidant status and total antioxidant capacity in the groups. Discussion Ibuprofen treatment does not change the total oxidant status or total antioxidant capacity. We believe that the effect of ibuprofen treatment in inducing ischaemia overcomes the scavenging effect of ibuprofen.

  5. PREFACE: XV International Conference on Electrical Bio-Impedance (ICEBI) & XIV Conference on Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliquett, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    Over recent years advanced measurement methods have facilitated outstanding achievements not only in medical instrumentation but also in biotechnology. Impedance measurement is a simple and innocuous way to characterize materials. For more than 40 years biological materials, most of them based on cells, have been characterized by means of electrical impedance for quality control of agricultural products, monitoring of biotechnological or food processes or in health care. Although the list of possible applications is long, very few applications successfully entered the market before the turn of the century. This was, on the one hand, due to the low specificity of electrical impedance with respect to other material properties because it is influenced by multiple factors. On the other hand, equipment and methods for many potential applications were not available. With the appearance of microcontrollers that could be easily integrated in applications at the beginning of the 1980s, impedance measurement advanced as a valuable tool in process optimization and lab automation. However, established methods and data processing were mostly used in a new environment. This has changed significantly during the last 10 years with a dramatic growth of the market for medical instrumentation and also for biotechnological applications. Today, advanced process monitoring and control require fast and highly parallel electrical characterization which in turn yields incredible data volumes that must be handled in real time. Many newer developments require miniaturized but precise sensing methods which is one of the main parts of Lab-on-Chip technology. Moreover, biosensors increasingly use impedometric transducers, which are not compatible with the large expensive measurement devices that are common in the laboratory environment. Following the achievements in the field of bioimpedance measurement, we will now witness a dramatic development of new electrode structures and electronics

  6. El Sistema de patentes en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viana Barceló

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se realiza un análisis económico del Sistema de Patentes de Colombia. Para ello, se establece el efecto que tienen las patentes concedidas a los inventores foráneos sobre la Inversión Extranjera Directa y el Producto Interno Bruto Nacional, a través de la técnica de regresión de data panel. De igual manera, se identifican los sectores económicos que registran mayores tasas de innovación por parte de los inventores nacionales y extranjeros. Se muestra que el sistema nacional de propiedad intelectual tiene un grado de fortaleza acorde con el resto de países latinoamericanos; para ello, se construye un índice de grado de fortalecimiento de sistema de patente nacional que luego será comparado con el de otros países latinos.Palabras Clave: Sistema de Patentes; Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual; Inversión Directa extranjera; Producto Interno Bruto e innovación tecnológica. The system of patents in ColombiaAbstractIn this document an economic analysis of the System of Patents of Colombia is made. For it, the effect that has the patents granted to the foreign inventors on the Direct Foreign Investment and the Internal Product Gross National, through the technique of regression of data settles down panel. Of equal way, the economic sectors are identified that register greater rates of innovation on the part of the national and foreign inventors.Sample that the national system of intellectual property has a degree of agreed strength with the rest of Latin American countries; for it, an index of degree of fortification of system of national patent is constructed that soon will be compared with the one of other Latin countries.Keywords: System Patent; Rights of Intellectual Property; Foreign Direct Investment; Gross Domestic Product and Technology Innovation.

  7. Impedance matching wireless power transmission system for biomedical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Kin Yun; Lindén, Maria; Tan, Tian Swee

    2015-01-01

    For medical application, the efficiency and transmission distance of the wireless power transfer (WPT) are always the main concern. Research has been showing that the impedance matching is one of the critical factors for dealing with the problem. However, there is not much work performed taking both the source and load sides into consideration. Both sides matching is crucial in achieving an optimum overall performance, and the present work proposes a circuit model analysis for design and implementation. The proposed technique was validated against experiment and software simulation. Result was showing an improvement in transmission distance up to 6 times, and efficiency at this transmission distance had been improved up to 7 times as compared to the impedance mismatch system. The system had demonstrated a near-constant transfer efficiency for an operating range of 2cm-12cm.

  8. In-depth research of domestic nuclear patent information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Dan; Gao Anna; Li Dongbin; Lu Yanjia; Ren Chao

    2014-01-01

    Based on the domestic patent information, combined with examples, this article makes an in-depth discussion on the domestic nuclear patent information. The author puts forward for the patent information research, the appropriate retrieval of patent documents is the basis,and the correct quantitative statistical analysis of patent documents is the key, and in-depth qualitative analysis of patent documents is the core. It is expected to provide information support and guarantee for the technical innovation and scientific research personnel in the nuclear field through in-depth study of domestic nuclear information. (authors)

  9. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan C. Cucoranu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Materials and Methods: Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO database (www.uspto.gov (through January 2014 were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA. Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI, image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands. Results: A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18% were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82% included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12% patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75% more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus, quality (z-stacks, management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files, and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI

  10. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucoranu, Ioan C; Parwani, Anil V; Vepa, Suryanarayana; Weinstein, Ronald S; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-01-01

    Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (www.uspto.gov) (through January 2014) were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA). Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI), image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands). A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18%) were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82%) included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12%) patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75%) more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies) applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus), quality (z-stacks), management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files), and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI), workflow, slide navigation and remote control). An

  11. Quantification of coating aging using impedance measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westing, E.P.M. van; Weijde, D.H. van der; Vreijling, M.P.W.; Ferrari, G.M.; Wit, J.H.W. de

    1998-01-01

    This chapter shows the application results of a novel approach to quantify the ageing of organic coatings using impedance measurements. The ageing quantification is based on the typical impedance behaviour of barrier coatings in immersion. This immersion behaviour is used to determine the limiting

  12. High temperature impedance spectroscopy of barium stannate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis and Fourier transform infrared techniques. Electrical properties were studied using a.c. impedance spectroscopy technique in the temperature range of 50–650 °C and frequency range of 10 Hz–13 MHz. The complex impedance plots at temperature ≥ 300 °C show ...

  13. Impedance of a slotted-pipe kicker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Feng [Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics

    1996-08-01

    This paper introduces the principle of a new slotted kicker simply, which is made by using vacuum pipe itself with proper slits as current conductors, and then, presents a rough estimation of its longitudinal and transverse impedance, respectively. Calculation shows that its impedance is reduced significantly compared to our present air-coil kicker. (author)

  14. impedance calculations of induction machine rotor conductors.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    computed. The parallel R-L network shown in figure 3 is used in the modeling of the rotor bars. The network total impedance is given by,. (19). Where,. 5. simulation Results. MATLAB m-file for the calculation of the total impedance of the rectangular and trapezoidal rotor bars is developed [10]. The parameters of the bars.

  15. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan Christian

    2005-01-01

    is discussed. Based on the Green's function for a stratified half-space, the impedance of a surface footing with arbitrary shape is computed. A wind turbine foundation is analysed in the frequency range 0 to 3 Hz. Analyses show that soil stratification may lead to a significant changes in the impedance related...

  16. Impedance of Surface Footings on Layered Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars; Clausen, Johan

    2008-01-01

    is discussed. Based on the Green's function for a stratified half-space, the impedance of a surface footing with arbitrary shape is computed. A wind turbine foundation is analysed in the frequency range 0-3 Hz. Analyses show that soil stratification may lead to significant changes in the impedance related...

  17. Quadratic Boost A-Source Impedance Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chub, Andrii

    2016-01-01

    A novel quadratic boost A-source impedance network is proposed to realize converters that demand very high voltage gain. To satisfy the requirement, the network uses an autotransformer where the obtained gain is quadratically dependent on the duty ratio and is unmatched by any existing impedance...

  18. Impedance interactions in bidirectional cascaded converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Yanjun; Loh, Poh Chiang; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    A cascaded converter is built by connecting one elementary converter to another. Output impedance of one converter will therefore interact with input impedance of the other converter. This interaction will change when power flow reverses. To compare this difference, an investigation is performed...

  19. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. In this paper it is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods.

  20. Possibilities of electrical impedance tomography in gynecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trokhanova O V; Chijova Y A; Okhapkin M B; Korjenevsky A V; Tuykin T S

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes results of comprehensive EIT diagnostics of mammary glands and cervix. The data were obtained from examinations of 170 patients by EIT system MEM (multi-frequency electrical impedance mammograph) and EIT system GIT (gynecological impedance tomograph). Mutual dependence is discussed.

  1. Fractional Order Element Based Impedance Matching

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa

    2014-06-24

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to fractional order element based impedance matching. In one embodiment, a method includes aligning a traditional Smith chart (|.alpha.|=1) with a fractional order Smith chart (|.alpha.|.noteq.1). A load impedance is located on the traditional Smith chart and projected onto the fractional order Smith chart. A fractional order matching element is determined by transitioning along a matching circle of the fractional order Smith chart based at least in part upon characteristic line impedance. In another embodiment, a system includes a fractional order impedance matching application executed in a computing device. The fractional order impedance matching application includes logic that obtains a first set of Smith chart coordinates at a first order, determines a second set of Smith chart coordinates at a second order, and determines a fractional order matching element from the second set of Smith chart coordinates.

  2. Impedance of finite length resistive cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krinsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor of radius a, length g, and conductivity σ attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency (k≫1/a. In the equilibrium regime, ka^{2}≪g, the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity σ. In the transient regime, ka^{2}≫g, where the contribution of transition radiation arising from the discontinuity in conductivity is important, we derive an analytic expression for the impedance and compute the short-range wakefield. The analytic results are shown to agree with numerical evaluation of the impedance.

  3. [The patents game. Generic and biosimilar drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamañán, E; González, D; Armada, E; Ruano, M; Álvarez-Sala, R; Herrero, A

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by patents on medicines has a limited duration. The expiry of patents expiration allows copies of the drugs to be released, competing with original. At first, they were identical to the original, known as generic drugs, but in recent years, due to the marketing of biological therapies and the expiry of many of their patents, biosimilar drugs have also emerged. These are not exact copies of the original, but, like generic drugs, biosimilar drugs have to demonstrate equivalence to the reference drugs in quality, safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, despite their importance and contribution to sustainability of health system, doctors are sometimes unaware of differences between them, and their impact in terms of clinical and economic effects. An attempt is made to review and clarify certain aspects often unknown by physicians, despite their involvement in their use. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship.

  5. Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created.

  6. Patent portfolio management: literature review and a proposed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conegundes De Jesus, Camila Kiyomi; Salerno, Mario Sergio

    2018-05-09

    Patents and patent portfolios are gaining attention in the last decades, from the called 'pro-patent era' to the recent billionaire transactions involving patent portfolios. The field is growing in importance, both theoretically and practically and despite having substantial literature on new product development portfolio management, we have not found an article relating this theory to patent portfolios. Areas covered: The paper develops a systematic literature review on patent portfolio management to organize the evolution and tendencies of patent portfolio management, highlighting distinctive features of patent portfolio management. Interview with IP manager of three life sciences companies, including a leading multinational group provided relevant information about patent portfolio management. Expert opinion: Based on the systematic literature review on portfolio management, more specifically, on new product development portfolio theory, and interview the paper proposes the paper proposes a reference model to manage patent portfolios. The model comprises four stages aligned with the three goals of the NPD portfolio management: 1 - Linking strategy of the Company's NPD Portfolio to Patent Portfolio; 2 - Balancing the portfolio in buckets; 3 - Patent Valuation (maximizing valuation); 4 - Regularly reviewing the patent portfolio.

  7. Cross-Border Patent Disputes: Unified Patent Court or International Commercial Arbitration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alba Betancourt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the enforcement of a patent that is registered in several countries involves the risk of getting different and conflicting decisions from the national courts. In 2013, 25 European countries entered in an agreement that aims to homogenise the patent system by creating the European patent with unitary effect and a Unified Patent Court (UPC. This article focuses on the UPC, which aims to have a single court proceeding for cross-border patent conflicts. Does the UPC system represent an advantage compared to the current litigation system? The paper argues that it does and explores what it considers to be the two main advantages of a UPC over the current system of cross-border litigation of patents: the ability to drag several conflicts to a single procedure and the neutrality of the decision makers. These advantages are consequently compared to the characteristics of arbitration. Then, an explanation is provided with regards to how the UPC system is going to work in terms of jurisdiction, preliminary injunctions, the choice of law and enforcement of decisions, comparing those same procedural aspects to arbitration. The article finds that arbitration involves many of the same advantages (as compared to the UPC and that the procedural issues studied in both means are, so too, similar. Therefore, arbitration represents a viable alternative to the UPC when it comes to reducing the risks in solving cross-border patent conflicts.

  8. Patent Keyword Extraction Algorithm Based on Distributed Representation for Patent Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many text mining tasks such as text retrieval, text summarization, and text comparisons depend on the extraction of representative keywords from the main text. Most existing keyword extraction algorithms are based on discrete bag-of-words type of word representation of the text. In this paper, we propose a patent keyword extraction algorithm (PKEA based on the distributed Skip-gram model for patent classification. We also develop a set of quantitative performance measures for keyword extraction evaluation based on information gain and cross-validation, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM classification, which are valuable when human-annotated keywords are not available. We used a standard benchmark dataset and a homemade patent dataset to evaluate the performance of PKEA. Our patent dataset includes 2500 patents from five distinct technological fields related to autonomous cars (GPS systems, lidar systems, object recognition systems, radar systems, and vehicle control systems. We compared our method with Frequency, Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF, TextRank and Rapid Automatic Keyword Extraction (RAKE. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm provides a promising way to extract keywords from patent texts for patent classification.

  9. The governance of the European patent system:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    2006-01-01

    at the formal and informal dimensions of interactions in economic systems. This is further developed into an analytical framework which is then used in the assessment of the structural features of the current European patent system, one of the most advanced, complex, and contested economic systems in Europe....... The conclusions elaborate on the normative implications regarding the current weaknesses of the European patent system, and examine the general theoretical implications of the findings, particularly looking at the effectiveness and legitimacy of technically complex governance systems....

  10. Ghosts of inventions: Patent law's digital mediations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyo Yoon

    2018-04-01

    This article examines the shifts in the material ordering of inventions in patent law organization and their effects on the meaning and scope of inventions as intellectual property. Formats and media are constitutive of the establishment and stabilization of inventions as objects of intellectual property. Modern patent law's materiality had been dominated by paper documents but ever more consists of digital images, files, and networked data. The article traces and analyzes such effects of digital media on the meaning of intellectual/intangible property and argues that inventions increasingly matter as digital data in the legal realm.

  11. Mapping patent classifications: Portfolio and statistical analysis, and the comparison of strengths and weaknesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Kogler, D.F.; Yan, B.

    The Cooperative Patent Classifications (CPC) recently developed cooperatively by the European and US Patent Offices provide a new basis for mapping patents and portfolio analysis. CPC replaces International Patent Classifications (IPC) of the World Intellectual Property Organization. In this study,

  12. Transferability and Commercialization of Patent Rights: Economic and Practical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haim V. Levy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of innovation into commercial value depends primarily on appropriate protection of the intellectual property, usually by patents, and efficient pathway(s of its transferability as well as the transfer of the protected knowledge. The key features of patents, from an economic perspective, are that they encompass new knowledge and confer monopoly rights to the owner. The exclusiveness of patent rights is generally conceived as a necessary mechanism to ensure further innovation, stimulate advanced research and facilitate efficient market transactions with patent rights. The patent holder can transfer the technology embodied by way of granting to others a license to use the patented invention in return for a share of the revenues, usually royalties. Patent rights transferability has been proven to be efficient and profitable to the industry as well as beneficial to the welfare of society. The economic and practical perspectives of the transferability and commercialization of patent rights are discussed.

  13. Constructing a unitary title regime for the European Patent System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2011-01-01

    The European Patent System without any unitary title allows Member States to retain institutional arrangements within their borders and to prevent any moves to delegate responsibility outside the national sphere. This intergovernmental patent regime suffers from fragmentation due to national

  14. Intellectual property rights in china: patents and economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intellectual property rights in china: patents and economic development. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... there are still patents and other IP related rights infringement and enforcement issues.

  15. The availability of Misoprostol in pharmacies and patent medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The availability of Misoprostol in pharmacies and patent medicine stores in two Nigerian ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... pharmacists or vendors of pharmaceutical and patent medicine outlets in two ...

  16. Patent medicine vendors are major providers antimalaria treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of malaria by this informal sector of healthcare delivery is however ... Methods: Fifty-five patent medicine vendors selected through a multistage sampling ... training of the patent medicine vendors, the overall appropriate treatment ...

  17. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements. ...

  18. Tracking of electrochemical impedance of batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piret, H.; Granjon, P.; Guillet, N.; Cattin, V.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary battery impedance estimation method, which can be easily embedded in vehicles or nomad devices. The proposed method not only allows an accurate frequency impedance estimation, but also a tracking of its temporal evolution contrary to classical electrochemical impedance spectroscopy methods. Taking into account constraints of cost and complexity, we propose to use the existing electronics of current control to perform a frequency evolutionary estimation of the electrochemical impedance. The developed method uses a simple wideband input signal, and relies on a recursive local average of Fourier transforms. The averaging is controlled by a single parameter, managing a trade-off between tracking and estimation performance. This normalized parameter allows to correctly adapt the behavior of the proposed estimator to the variations of the impedance. The advantage of the proposed method is twofold: the method is easy to embed into a simple electronic circuit, and the battery impedance estimator is evolutionary. The ability of the method to monitor the impedance over time is demonstrated on a simulator, and on a real Lithium ion battery, on which a repeatability study is carried out. The experiments reveal good tracking results, and estimation performance as accurate as the usual laboratory approaches.

  19. "Environmental Technology Strengths: International Rankings Based on US Patent Data"

    OpenAIRE

    Dora Marinova; Michael McAleer

    2003-01-01

    Patent information has been used by economists and researchers in the field of innovation to analyse current and forecast future technological directions. The recent surge in patenting activities in developed countries reaffirms the strong position of the patent system in a globalised world dominated by market mechanisms. This paper analyses the technological position of the top twelve foreign patenting countries in the USA, namely Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, the ...

  20. Wearable impedance monitoring system for dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, S; Bourgerette, A; Gharbi, S; Rubeck, C; Arkouche, W; Massot, B; McAdams, E; Montalibet, A; Jallon, P

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes the development and the validation of a prototype wearable miniaturized impedance monitoring system for remote monitoring in home-based dialysis patients. This device is intended to assess the hydration status of dialysis patients using calf impedance measurements. The system is based on the low-power AD8302 component. The impedance calibration procedure is described together with the Cole parameter estimation and the hydric volume estimation. Results are given on a test cell to validate the design and on preliminary calf measurements showing Cole parameter variations during hemodialysis.

  1. Identification of irradiated potatoes by impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rita; Singh, Antaryami; Wadhawan, A.K.

    1997-01-01

    The electrical impedance of potatoes irradiated at 60, 90, 150 and 1000 Gy was measured using various frequencies of alternating current. The impedance of the irradiated potatoes was higher than the unirradiated potatoes particularly in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 kHz. The ratio of the impedance at 5 kHz to that at 50 Hz (Z5k/Z50) was found to be the best indicator for detection of radiation treatment. (author). 4 refs., 2 figs

  2. Electrical Impedance Measurements of PZT Nanofiber Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Galos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical impedance measurements of PZT nanofiber sensors were performed using a variety of methods over a frequency spectrum ranging from DC to 1.8 GHz. The nanofibers formed by electrospinning with diameters ranging from 10 to 150 nm were collected and integrated into sensors using microfabrication techniques. Special matching circuits with ultrahigh input impedance were fabricated to produce low noise, measurable sensor outputs. Material properties including resistivity and dielectric constant are derived from the impedance measurements. The resulting material properties are also compared with those of individual nanofibers being tested using conductive AFM and Scanning Conductive Microscopy.

  3. Small-signal Loudspeaker Impedance Emulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Iversen, Niels Elkjær

    2014-01-01

    Specifying the performance of audio ampliers is typically done by playing sine waves into a pure ohmic load. However real loudspeaker impedances are not purely ohmic but characterised by the mechanical resonance between the mass of the diaphragm and the compliance of its' suspension which vary from...... driver to driver. Therefore a loudspeaker emulator capable of adjusting its' impedance to a given driver is in need for measurement purposes. This paper proposes a loudspeaker emulator circuit for small signals. Simulations and experimental results are compared and show that it is possible to emulate...... the loudspeaker impedance with an electric circuit and that its' resonance frequency can be changed by tuning two resistors....

  4. RHIC ABORT KICKER WITH REDUCED COUPLING IMPEDANCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAHN, H.; DAVINO, D.

    2002-01-01

    Kicker magnets typically represent the most important contributors to the transverse impedance budget of accelerators and storage rings. Methods of reducing the impedance value of the SNS extraction kicker presently under construction and, in view of a future performance upgrade, that of the RHIC abort kicker have been thoroughly studied at this laboratory. In this paper, the investigation of a potential improvement from using ferrite different from the BNL standard CMD5005 is reported. Permeability measurements of several ferrite types have been performed. Measurements on two kicker magnets using CMD5005 and C2050 suggest that the impedance of a magnet without external resistive damping, such as the RHIC abort kicker, would benefit

  5. SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF PEDOZEMS MECHANICAL IMPEDANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov A.V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied the spatial variability of pedozem mechanical impedance in ResearchRemediation Center of the Dnipropetrovsk State Agrarian University in Ordzhonikidze. Thestatistical distribution of the soil mechanical impedance within the studied area is characterized by deviation from the normal law in 0–10 and 30–50 cm layers from the surface. 2D and 3D modeling shows the structural design of the soil as locations of high mechanical impedance which found in the soils with less hardness.

  6. Sound Propagation An impedance Based Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yang-Hann

    2010-01-01

    In Sound Propagation: An Impedance Based Approach , Professor Yang-Hann Kim introduces acoustics and sound fields by using the concept of impedance. Kim starts with vibrations and waves, demonstrating how vibration can be envisaged as a kind of wave, mathematically and physically. One-dimensional waves are used to convey the fundamental concepts. Readers can then understand wave propagation in terms of characteristic and driving point impedance. The essential measures for acoustic waves, such as dB scale, octave scale, acoustic pressure, energy, and intensity, are explained. These measures are

  7. Annotated chemical patent corpus: a gold standard for text mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber A Akhondi

    Full Text Available Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org.

  8. Why do firms give away their patents for free?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziegler, Nicole; Gassmann, Oliver; Friesike, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Within the trend of increasing patent commercialisation and open innovation, a recent phenomenon where firms give away their patents free of charge can be observed. This seems contradictory to the original intention of the patent system (enabling firms to create temporary monopolies to appropriate

  9. Languages, Fees and the International Scope of Patenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin; Van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Pottelsberghe, 2006; von Graevenitz et al., 2013) and on potential implications of their behaviour for the effectiveness of the patent system. Lately, a number of researchers have started to explore the design of the patent system itself, i.e. the role of fees and costs of patenting (Archontopoulos et al., 2007...

  10. Analysis of patents on extinguishing agent for sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Jeong, K. C.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.

    2002-02-01

    This report relates to the extinction of sodium fires, particularly where the burning sodium is in liquid form. The total of 14 patents on extinguishing agents for sodium fires patented from 1969 to 1997 are analyzed and summarized. All of the patents analyzed were issued from USA, France and Japan

  11. Analysis of patents on extinguishing agent for sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Jeong, K C; Kim, B H; Kim, T J; Choi, J H

    2002-02-01

    This report relates to the extinction of sodium fires, particularly where the burning sodium is in liquid form. The total of 14 patents on extinguishing agents for sodium fires patented from 1969 to 1997 are analyzed and summarized. All of the patents analyzed were issued from USA, France and Japan.

  12. Essential patents in industry standards : the case of UMTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.N.A.; Bongard, R.; Nuvolari, A.

    2009-01-01

    We study the determinants of essential patents in industry standards. In particular, we assess the role of two main factors: the significance of the technological solution contained in the patent and the involvement of the applicant of the patent in the standardization process. To this end, we

  13. Reforming South Africa's procedures for granting patents to improve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    requires SA to grant 20 years of patent protection on products and processes ... 2010 in SA. However, secondary, evergreening patents prevented generic versions from being brought to the market at a 30% price reduction when the initial patent expired. ... and new uses (new clinical uses of medicines other than those for.

  14. 78 FR 70294 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License... interest the Air Force has in: U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/354,522, filed on June 14, 2010... Anish Tuteja et al.; U.S. Non-provisional Patent Application No. 13/159,950, filed on June 14, 2011...

  15. 48 CFR 2527.7002 - NSF patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NSF patent policy. 2527... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights in Inventions 2527.7002 NSF patent policy. As authorized by the National Science Board at its 230th meeting, October 15-16, 1981, the...

  16. 25 CFR 152.5 - Issuance of patent in fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of patent in fee. 152.5 Section 152.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee...

  17. 77 FR 38771 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of prospective grant of exclusive patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance... embodied in U.S. Patent Application No. 13/346,999 titled ``Chirped-Pulse Terahertz Spectroscopy for...

  18. 9 CFR 124.20 - Patent term extension calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent term extension calculation. 124... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PATENT TERM RESTORATION Regulatory Review Period § 124.20 Patent term extension calculation. (a) As provided in 37 CFR 1...

  19. 77 FR 40345 - Intent to Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Intent to Grant an Exclusive Patent License... William V. Stoecker, Hernan F. Gomez, Jonathan A. Green, and David L. McGlasson; U.S. Patent Number 7,927... David L. McGlasson; U.S. Patent Application Number Serial No. 12/756,875, filed on April 8, 2010...

  20. 76 FR 57720 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License... in: U.S. Patent Application No. 12/932,341, filed on February 23, 2011, entitled ``Resin-Based... INFORMATION CONTACT: An exclusive license for the invention described in this patent application will be...

  1. 77 FR 65673 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of prospective grant of exclusive patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e.... Patent Application No. 61/625,511 titled ``UV-Assisted Alcohol Sensing with Zinc Oxide Functionalized...

  2. 77 FR 48130 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of prospective grant of exclusive patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e... Provisional Application for Patent Application No. 61,638,362 titled ``Flow Cytometer Systems and Associated...

  3. Use of Patent Information : Empirical Evidence from Innovative SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masurel, Enno

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of patent information by innovative SMEs. The standard literature tends to focus on obtaining patents; studies of using patent information for different purposes are underrepresented in the innovation literature. Studying the case of SMEs is especially interesting,

  4. 25 CFR 152.4 - Application for patent in fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for patent in fee. 152.4 Section 152.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee...

  5. Biotechnological Patents Applications of the Deuterium Oxide in Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da S Mariano, Reysla M; Bila, Wendell C; Trindade, Maria Jaciara F; Lamounier, Joel A; Galdino, Alexsandro S

    2017-01-01

    Deuterium oxide is a molecule that has been used for decades in several studies related to human health. Currently, studies on D2O have mobilized a "Race for Patenting" worldwide. Several patents have been registered from biomedical and technological studies of D2O showing the potential of this stable isotope in industry and health care ecosystems. Most of the patents related to the applications of the deuterium oxide in human health have been summarized in this review. The following patents databases were consulted: European Patent Office (Espacenet), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the United States Latin America Patents (LATIPAT), Patent scope -Search International and National Patent Collections (WIPO), Google Patents and Free Patents Online. With this review, the information was collected on recent publications including 22 patents related to deuterium oxide and its applications in different areas. This review showed that deuterium oxide is a promising component in different areas, including biotechnology, chemistry and medicine. In addition, the knowledge of this compound was covered, reinforcing its importance in the field of biotechnology and human health. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. 76 FR 40339 - Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... any of the following methods: E-mail: [email protected] . Include ``0651- 0058 comment... Singapore (IPOS), German Patent and Trade Mark Office (DPMA), National Board of Patents and Registration of... being planned with the USPTO: CIPO, SIPO, and the Nordic Patent Institute (NPI). II. Method of...

  7. Study of the dopamine effect into cell solutions by impedance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivana, G.; Apostolou, T.; Kaltsas, G.; Kintzios, S.

    2017-11-01

    Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has become a technique that is frequently used for biological assays. Impedance is defined as a complex - valued generalization of resistance and varies depending on its use per application field. In health sciences, bioimpedance is widely used as non-invasive and low cost alternative in many medical areas that provides valuable information about health status. This work focuses on assessing the effects of a bioactive substance applied to immobilized cells. Dopamine was used as a stimulant in order to implement impedance analysis with a specific type of cells. Dopamine constitutes one of the most important catecholamine neurotransmitters in both the mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems. The main purpose is to extract calibration curves at different frequencies with known dopamine concentrations in order to describe the behavior of cells applied to dopamine using an impedance measurement device. For comparison purposes, non-immobilized cells were tested for the same dopamine concentrations.

  8. 78 FR 64925 - Request for Comments on Proposed Elimination of Patents Search Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...] Request for Comments on Proposed Elimination of Patents Search Templates AGENCY: United States Patent and... Patents Search Templates from the USPTO Web site. In 2006, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) implemented Patents Search Templates, which are United States Patent Classification (USPC...

  9. The backlog issue in patents: A look at the European case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2010-01-01

    Backlogs can be caused by an increase in the number of patent applications and patent size. A large number of patents granted could be explained by patent examiners' bonuses, legal and cultural contexts, claim forms, the geographical origin of patents, a firm's experience in patenting, the number of

  10. Multiple biopsy probe sampling enabled minimally invasive electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shini, Mohanad; Rubinsky, Boris

    2008-01-01

    Biopsies are a reliable method for examining tissues and organs inside the body, in particular for detection of tumors. However, a single biopsy produces only limited information on the site from which it is taken. Therefore, tumor detection now employs multiple biopsy samplings to examine larger volumes of tissue. Nevertheless, even with multiple biopsies, the information remains discrete, while the costs of biopsy increase. Here we propose and evaluate the feasibility of using minimally invasive medical imaging as a means to overcome the limitations of discrete biopsy sampling. The minimally invasive medical imaging technique employs the biopsy probe as electrodes for measurements of electrical impedance tomography relevant data during each biopsy sampling. The data from multiple samplings are combined and used to produce an EIT image of the tissue. Two- and three-dimensional mathematical simulations confirm that the minimally invasive medical imaging technique can produce electrical impedance tomography images of the tissues between the biopsy probe insertion sites. We show that these images can detect tumors that would be missed with multiple biopsy samplings only, and that the technique may facilitate the detection of tumors with fewer biopsies, thereby reducing the cost of cancer detection

  11. Update on Brazil's pharma patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosain, Rana

    2016-09-01

    Brazil's Pharma market is a dynamic and promising one. It ranks within the top ten market. There are peculiar hurdles that patentees have to overcome, such as, a two-tier examination, a serious backlog at the Brazilian Patent and Trademark Office. Several measures to accelerate examination have been adopted given the meager number of Examiners.

  12. Savannah River Site Patented Technologies Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabold, D.E.

    1995-07-18

    This information represents SRS`s contribution of the DOE technology information network, an internet service coordinated out of Los Alamos. The information provided is strictly DOE-SR-titled and-issued patented technologies including environmental remediation, robotics, sensors, materials science, biomedical applications, hydrogen, and consumer products.

  13. Patent, Nanotechnology, and the Role of University

    OpenAIRE

    Sardjono, Agus

    2011-01-01

    University has significant contribution tot the development of nanotechnology, The role of university can be implemented through the TTLO, particulary in an effort to build a bridge for bottom-up nanotechnology for commercial purposes. There will be an increasingly significant link betweent the patent system on the university role in the development of nanotechnology.

  14. Careers in Patent Law for Physics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    An important question that many undergraduate physics students ask is, "What can one do with a physics degree?" Of course there are many answers to this question. Often a general reference to becoming a lawyer is given as a possible answer. This paper is intended to explain the field of patent law and how a physics degree can lead to an…

  15. Patent ductus arteriosus and brain volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmers, Petra M A; Benders, Manon J N L; D'Ascenzo, Rita; Zethof, Jorine; Alderliesten, Thomas; Kersbergen, Karina J; Isgum, Ivana; de Vries, Linda S; Groenendaal, Floris; van Bel, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can compromise perfusion and oxygenation of the preterm brain. Reports suggest that PDA is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. We hypothesize that long-standing low cerebral oxygenation due to PDA

  16. Discounting the duration of bolus exposure in impedance testing underestimates acid reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikneswaran, Namasivayam; Murray, Joseph A

    2016-06-08

    Combined impedance-pH testing (MII) allows for detection of reflux episodes regardless of pH. However impedance-based diagnosis of reflux may not routinely account for duration of the reflux episode. We hypothesize that impedance testing may be less sensitive than pH-testing in detecting acid reflux off therapy as a result of discounting duration of exposure. Baseline characteristics and reflux parameters of MII studies performed off-anti-secretory medications were analyzed. Studies on acid suppressive medication and those with recording times less than 20 h or low baseline impedance were excluded. A total of 73 consecutive MII studies were analyzed of which 31 MII studies had elevated acid exposure while 16 were abnormal by impedance criteria. MII testing off-therapy was more likely to be abnormal by pH criteria (percent time pH reflux):[42 vs 22 % (p =0.02)]. Acid exposure (percent time pH acid reflux episodes [42 vs 34 % (p acid clearance time (pH-detected) was significantly longer than median bolus clearance time (impedance-detected) in the total [98.7 s vs 12.6 s (p acid clearance time (pH-detected) and the median bolus clearance time (impedance-detected) was significantly higher in the recumbent position compared to the upright position [11. vs 5.3 (p = 0.01)]. Ambulatory impedance testing underestimates acid reflux compared to esophageal acid exposure by discounting the prolonged period of mucosal contact with each acid reflux episode, particularly in the recumbent position.

  17. A Patent Analysis for Sustainable Technology Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyeog Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology analysis (TA is an important issue in the management of technology. Most R&D (Research & Development policies have depended on diverse TA results. Traditional TA results have been obtained through qualitative approaches such as the Delphi expert survey, scenario analysis, or technology road mapping. Although they are representative methods for TA, they are not stable because their results are dependent on the experts’ knowledge and subjective experience. To solve this problem, recently many studies on TA have been focused on quantitative approaches, such as patent analysis. A patent document has diverse information of developed technologies, and thus, patent is one form of objective data for TA. In addition, sustainable technology has been a big issue in the TA fields, because most companies have their technological competitiveness through the sustainable technology. Sustainable technology is a technology keeping the technological superiority of a company. So a country as well as a company should consider sustainable technology for technological competition and continuous economic growth. Also it is important to manage sustainable technology in a given technology domain. In this paper, we propose a new patent analysis approach based on statistical analysis for the management of sustainable technology (MOST. Our proposed methodology for the MOST is to extract a technological structure and relationship for knowing the sustainable technology. To do this, we develop a hierarchical diagram of technology for finding the causal relationships among technological keywords of a given domain. The aim of the paper is to select the sustainable technology and to create the hierarchical technology paths to sustainable technology for the MOST. This contributes to planning R&D strategy for the sustainability of a company. To show how the methodology can be applied to real problem, we perform a case study using retrieved patent documents related to

  18. Theory for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shweta Dhillon

    generalize phenomenological theory for the Randles-Ershler admittance at the electrode with double layer capacitance ..... impedance (equation 12) curves accounting for the elec- ..... R.K. thanks University of Delhi for the financial support.

  19. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Impedance spectroscopy; grid connection; battery converter; state of charge; health monitoring ... The converter is grid connected and controlled to operate at unity power factor. Additional ... Sadhana. Current Issue : Vol. 43, Issue 6.

  20. Impedance and collective effects in the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gareyte, J [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-08-01

    After a review of the main LHC parameters, and a brief description of the RF and vacuum systems, the coupling impedances of the main machine elements are given, as well as the resulting thresholds for instabilities. (author)

  1. Electrochemical Impedance Studies of SOFC Cathodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm, Johan; Søgaard, Martin; Wandel, Marie

    2007-01-01

    Mixed ion- and electron-conducting composite electrodes consisting of doped ceria and perovskite have been studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) at different temperatures and oxygen partial pressures. This paper aims to describe the different contributions to the polarisation...

  2. Loudspeaker impedance emulator for multi resonant systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    Specifying the performance of audio amplifiers is typically done by playing sine waves into a pure ohmic load. However real loudspeaker impedances are not purely ohmic but characterised by its electrical, mechanical and acoustical properties. Therefore a loudspeaker emulator capable of adjusting...... its impedance to that of a given loudspeaker is desired for measurement purposes. An adjustable RLC based emulator is implemented with switch controlled capacitors, air gap controlled inductors and potentiometers. Calculations and experimental results are compared and show that it is possible...... to emulate the loudspeaker impedance infinite baffle-, closed box- and the multi resonant vented box-loudspeaker by tuning the component values in the proposed circuit. Future work is outlined and encourage that the proposed impedance emulator is used as part of a control circuit in a switch-mode based...

  3. Modeling degradation in SOEC impedance spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Hauch, Anne; Knibbe, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Solid oxide cell (SOC) performance is limited by various processes. One way to investigate these processes is by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In order to quantify and characterize the processes, an equivalent circuit can be used to model the SOC impedance spectra (IS). Unfortunately......, the optimal equivalent circuit is often unknown and to complicate matters further, several processes contribute to the SOC impedance - making detailed process characterization difficult. In this work we analyze and model a series of IS measured during steam electrolysis operation of an SOC. During testing......, degradation is only observed in the Ni/YSZ electrode and not in the electrolyte or the LSM/YSZ electrode. A batch fit of the differences between the IS shows that a modified Gerischer element provides a better fit to the Ni/YSZ electrode impedance than the frequently used RQ element - albeit neither...

  4. Estimating the short-circuit impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1997-01-01

    A method for establishing a complex value of the short-circuit impedance from naturally occurring variations in voltage and current is discussed. It is the symmetrical three phase impedance at the fundamental grid frequency there is looked for. The positive sequence components in voltage...... and current are derived each period, and the short-circuit impedance is estimated from variations in these components created by load changes in the grid. Due to the noisy and dynamic grid with high harmonic distortion it is necessary to threat the calculated values statistical. This is done recursively...... through a RLS-algorithm. The algorithms have been tested and implemented on a PC at a 132 kV substation supplying a rolling mill. Knowing the short-circuit impedance gives the rolling mill an opportunity to adjust the arc furnace operation to keep flicker below a certain level. Therefore, the PC performs...

  5. New Magnetically Coupled Impedance (Z-) Source Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    Various Magnetically Coupled Impedance Source (MCIS) networks have been proposed in the literature for increasing voltage gain and modulation index simultaneously, while reducing the number of passive components used in the converter. However, applications of such networks have been limited...

  6. Fractional Order Element Based Impedance Matching

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed Gomaa; Salama, Khaled N.; Shamim, Atif

    2014-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments of methods and systems related to fractional order element based impedance matching. In one embodiment, a method includes aligning a traditional Smith chart (|.alpha.|=1) with a fractional order Smith chart (|.alpha

  7. Applications of Nonlinear Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (NLEIS)

    KAUST Repository

    Adler, S. B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the use of nonlinear electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (NLEIS) in the analysis of SOFC electrode reactions. By combining EIS and NLEIS, as well as other independent information about an electrode material, it becomes possible

  8. Uniform interpretation of european patent law with a special view on the creation of a common patent court

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luginbühl, SL

    2009-01-01

    The European Patent Convention (EPC) provides for a common application and examination procedure for European patents. Therefore, European patents are granted on the basis of uniform European law which is applied and interpreted by the EPO, as well as by a great number of national judges and members

  9. 75 FR 34749 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... and FDA-2008-E-0267] Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent Nos. 5,759,580 and 6,545,040 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... determination because of the submission of applications to the Director of Patents and Trademarks, Department of...

  10. Evaluating patent portfolios by means of multicriteria analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of intangible assets is a complex topic where traditional methodologies are not always successful. Nevertheless, intangible assets, like patents, have become of great importance to companies, as their value is considered to be relevant economic and strategic information, so it is necessary to evaluate firms’ patent portfolios. The present research introduces an extended goal programming model to calculate the relative importance of the patents of companies in a patent pool. This information may be useful for patent valuation as well as for management purposes. The proposed multicriteria methodology has been applied to the 19 companies in the MPEG2 patent pool, with a total of 770 valid patents, using 7 criteria to obtain a composite measure of the relative position of the firms in the patent pool.RESUMENLa valoración de activos intangibles constituye un área compleja donde los métodos tradicionales no siempre obtienen buenos resultados. Sin embargo, los activos intangibles, entre ellos las patentes, han ganado importancia en las empresas, de forma que el cálculo de su valor se ha convertido en una cuestión estratégica en muchos casos. Este hecho requiere que las empresas valoren la cartera de patentes en su conjunto. La presente investigación presenta un modelo extendido de programación por metas y su aplicación para el cálculo de la importancia relativa de las patentes. Este modelo puede resultar importante tanto para la valoración de las patentes como para la gestión empresarial. La metodología multicriterio propuesta ha sido aplicado a 19 empresas en el sector de las patentes del formato MPEG2, con un total de 770 patentes válidas, y utilizando 7 criterios con el objetivo de obtener una medida compuesta de la posición relativa de las empresas en el conjunto de patentes.

  11. CSR Impedance for Non-Ultrarelativistic Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Rui; Tsai, Cheng Y.

    2015-09-01

    For the analysis of the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR)-induced microbunching gain in the low energy regime, such as when a high-brightness electron beam is transported through a low-energy merger in an energy-recovery linac (ERL) design, it is necessary to extend the CSR impedance expression in the ultrarelativistic limit to the non-ultrarelativistic regime. This paper presents our analysis of CSR impedance for general beam energies.

  12. Patent Medicine Sellers: How Can They Help Control Childhood Malaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamund M. Akuse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Roll Back Malaria Initiative encourages participation of private health providers in malaria control because mothers seek care for sick children from them. This study investigated Patent Medicine Sellers (PMS management of presumptive malaria in children in order to identify how they can assist malaria control. A cross-sectional survey of 491 PMS in Kaduna, Nigeria, was done using interviews and observation of shop activities. Most (80% customers bought drugs without prescriptions. Only 29.5% were given instructions about doses. Between 40–100% doses of recommended antimalarials were incorrect. Some (22% PMS did not ask questions about illness for which they were consulted. Most children treated in shops received injections. PMS facilitate homecare but have deficiencies in knowledge and practice. Interventions must focus on training them to accurately determine doses, give advice about drug administration, use oral medication, and ask about illness. Training should be made a prerequisite for registering and reregistering shops.

  13. Patent Ductus Arteriosus Ligation and Adverse Outcomes: Causality or Bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, Dany E.; McNamara, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Observational studies have associated patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation in preterm infants with increased chronic lung disease (CLD), retinopathy of prematurity, and neurodevelopmental impairment at long-term follow-up. Although the biological rationale for this association is incompletely understood, there is an emerging secular trend toward a permissive approach to the PDA. However, insufficient adjustment for postnatal, pre-ligation confounders, such as intraventricular hemorrhage and the duration and intensity of mechanical ventilation, suggests the presence of residual bias due to confounding by indication, and obliges caution in interpreting the ligation-morbidity relationship. A period of conservative management after failure of medical PDA closure may be considered to reduce the number of infants treated with surgery. Increased mortality and CLD in infants with persistent symptomatic PDA suggests that surgical ligation remains an important treatment modality for preterm infants. PMID:25024972

  14. Compensating for evanescent modes and estimating characteristic impedance in waveguide acoustic impedance measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Kren Rahbek; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2017-01-01

    The ear-canal acoustic impedance and reflectance are useful for assessing conductive hearing disorders and calibrating stimulus levels in situ. However, such probe-based measurements are affected by errors due to the presence of evanescent modes and incorrect estimates or assumptions regarding...... characteristic impedance. This paper proposes a method to compensate for evanescent modes in measurements of acoustic impedance, reflectance, and sound pressure in waveguides, as well as estimating the characteristic impedance immediately in front of the probe. This is achieved by adjusting the characteristic...... impedance and subtracting an acoustic inertance from the measured impedance such that the non-causality in the reflectance is minimized in the frequency domain using the Hilbert transform. The method is thus capable of estimating plane-wave quantities of the sought-for parameters by supplying only...

  15. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D.

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  16. Inventing around Edison’s incandescent lamp patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  17. Patent analysis for competitive technical intelligence and innovative thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Dou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Patents are a very useful source of technical information. The public availability of patents over the Internet, with for some databases (eg. Espacenet the assurance of a constant format, allows the development of high value added products using this information source and provides an easy way to analyze patent information. This simple and powerful tool facilitates the use of patents in academic research, in SMEs and in developing countries providing a way to use patents as a ideas resource thus improving technological innovation.

  18. To succeed using patent and invention which are brillant idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    1999-07-01

    This book deals with what invention is, how we can be a inventor, how we apply inventions to intellectual property office, and other useful advice and lesson on patent. These are the titles of each part : trouble stories on success to invent, everybody can be a inventor, this is a invention. There is a problem when the idea is same or similar, preceding patent, where does it hide? database on patent, patent information, Let's go to Korean intellectual property office, patient application which we misses in our dream, and instructions of patent including various sides.

  19. Development and tuning of an original search engine for patent libraries in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Kreim, Olivier; Oezdemir-Zaech, Fatma; Vachon, Therese; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The large increase in the size of patent collections has led to the need of efficient search strategies. But the development of advanced text-mining applications dedicated to patents of the biomedical field remains rare, in particular to address the needs of the pharmaceutical & biotech industry, which intensively uses patent libraries for competitive intelligence and drug development. We describe here the development of an advanced retrieval engine to search information in patent collections in the field of medicinal chemistry. We investigate and combine different strategies and evaluate their respective impact on the performance of the search engine applied to various search tasks, which covers the putatively most frequent search behaviours of intellectual property officers in medical chemistry: 1) a prior art search task; 2) a technical survey task; and 3) a variant of the technical survey task, sometimes called known-item search task, where a single patent is targeted. The optimal tuning of our engine resulted in a top-precision of 6.76% for the prior art search task, 23.28% for the technical survey task and 46.02% for the variant of the technical survey task. We observed that co-citation boosting was an appropriate strategy to improve prior art search tasks, while IPC classification of queries was improving retrieval effectiveness for technical survey tasks. Surprisingly, the use of the full body of the patent was always detrimental for search effectiveness. It was also observed that normalizing biomedical entities using curated dictionaries had simply no impact on the search tasks we evaluate. The search engine was finally implemented as a web-application within Novartis Pharma. The application is briefly described in the report. We have presented the development of a search engine dedicated to patent search, based on state of the art methods applied to patent corpora. We have shown that a proper tuning of the system to adapt to the various search tasks

  20. Impedance Based Analysis and Design of Harmonic Resonant Controller for a Wide Range of Grid Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of grid impedance variation on harmonic resonant current controllers for gridconnected voltage source converters by means of impedance-based analysis. It reveals that the negative harmonic resistances tend to be derived from harmonic resonant controllers...... in the closed-loop output admittance of converter. Such negative resistances may interact with the grid impedance resulting in steady state error or unstable harmonic compensation. To deal with this problem, a design guideline for harmonic resonant controllers under a wide range of grid impedance is proposed...

  1. Patent Value: A Business Perspective for Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela de Wilton

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last year, news headlines have highlighted record patent infringement settlements, multibillion dollar auctions of large corporate patent portfolios, and ongoing patent battles between key technology industry players. Despite this acknowledgment of the significant value of patents for large corporations, many small technology companies are understandably more focused on the near-term costs of obtaining a patent rather than future value. Costs may seem prohibitive to an early stage technology startup. Some software startups question whether patents are relevant to their business. In practice, effective intellectual property (IP strategy and management is dependent on many factors, such as technology or industry sector, size and maturity of the business, technology lifecycle, and the business and market environment. IP strategy must be aligned to business strategy from the outset. By considering IP in the broader context of the overall business plan and the competitive environment, opportunities for generating increased return on R&D investment and added business value through patents or other forms of IP can be recognized early on. This approach ensures that a decision about whether or not to patent is driven by business reasons rather than budget constraints. This article examines the costs and benefits of patents from the perspective of early-stage technology startups and growing businesses, and it provides some general guidance on best practices for developing an IP and patent activity plan and for building a patent portfolio that appropriately supports business objectives.

  2. Intellectual Property Strategies of Multinational Companies Patenting in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Schuster, Gerd; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    While global intellectual property trends show a stable rate of worldwide patent applications during the last five years, patent applications in emerging economies strongly increased within the same period. Unless the increasing number of applications in emerging economies, the indigenous legal...... archetypes of the world’s largest patent applicants using the case of China as an empirical context. Using Questel’s professional patent search application Orbit, we build a unique data set of the world’s top patent applicants combining data from the World Intellectual Property Organization and the State...... Intellectual Property Office of China comprising data of about 620.000 patents. Referring to the study of Keupp et al. (2012), we extend previous qualitative studies on patenting strategy archetypes by adding quantitative evidence from a data set of the world’s largest intellectual property owners. Model based...

  3. The shadow of inequitable conduct in the US patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bao-Chi; Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2016-05-03

    Inequitable conduct regarding any single claim can render the entire patent unenforceable and further damage other related patents and applications in the assignee's patent portfolio. The adverse impact of inequitable conduct significantly became a litigation strategy. The US Federal Circuit (CAFC) observed that inequitable conduct as a patent litigation strategy had become a plague and thus tightened the standard for finding inequitable conduct in a case with full court judges. However, under the shadow of previous adverse impact of inequitable conduct, patent applicants may still submit many marginal related references. This study demonstrates that an applicant even prepared an information disclosure statement (IDS) as many as 50 pages. Actually, under the new standard, inequitable conduct would not further produce significant impact in the US patent system. Thus, a patent applicant need not submit marginal references but should distinguish the prior art from the current application, especially for those listed in the IDS, to avoid the novelty rejection.

  4. The impact of effective patents on future innovations in nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosetti, Rita; Vereeck, Lode

    2012-03-01

    The success of nanomedicine is dependent upon an effective protection of IP rights. Unfortunately, the US nanomedicine patent system is dysfunctional because long R&D procedures as well as the patent pendency are insufficiently taken into account. This could be solved by changing the patent-protection starting point and increasing the capacity of the US PTO. The nanotechnology industry also suffers from overlapping patents. This could be avoided by improving the expertise of the PTO, using a more accurate definition of nanotechnology and devising a generally accepted nomenclature that enhances prior-art searches. To avoid disputes, inference practices and strategic patenting can be used. In the case of a dispute, parties can fall back on re-examination, cross-licensing and patent litigation. Cross-licensing agreements are recommended since they allows parties to access technology, create synergies and exclude third-party competitors. Solving the patent problems in the nanotechnology industry is a necessary step for future success.

  5. Advances in CO2 capture technology: A patent review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bingyun; Duan, Yuhua; Luebke, David; Morreale, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Timely updates on carbon capture technologies: More than 1000 patents on solvent, sorbent, and membrane. ► More patents on solvent and sorbent compared to membrane. ► Environmental and health concerns exist regarding carbon capture technologies. -- Abstract: Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions are believed to be a major contributor to global warming. As a consequence, large anthropogenic CO 2 sources worldwide will eventually be required to implement CO 2 capture and storage technologies to control CO 2 emissions. In order to guide the establishment of policies for CO 2 removal, we reviewed the current status of CO 2 capture patents and technologies based on the Espacenet patent database and found that more than 1000 patents have been published on sorbent, solvent, and membrane. More than 60% of these patents were published since the year 2000, and a sharp increase in patent numbers was seen in the last several years; ∼25% patents were published in the last 2 years. Substantially more patents on CO 2 removal and separation technologies are expected in the coming years. Meanwhile, the top four major types of patents, which consist of more than 2/3 of these patents, were patents granted by Japan (JP), United States (US), World Intellectual Property Organization (WO), and China (CN), and approximately half of the patents were JP and US patents. Unfortunately, no current technologies for removing CO 2 from large sources like coal-based power plants exist which satisfy the needs of safety, efficiency, and economy; further enhancement and innovation are much needed.

  6. Patenting and the gender gap: should women be encouraged to patent more?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo-Martín, Inmaculada

    2013-06-01

    The commercialization of academic science has come to be understood as economically desirable for institutions, individual researchers, and the public. Not surprisingly, commercial activity, particularly that which results from patenting, appears to be producing changes in the standards used to evaluate scientists' performance and contributions. In this context, concerns about a gender gap in patenting activity have arisen and some have argued for the need to encourage women to seek more patents. They believe that because academic advancement is mainly dependent on productivity (Stuart and Ding in American Journal of Sociology 112:97-144, 2006; Azoulay et al. in Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 63:599-623, 2007), differences in research output have the power to negatively impact women's careers. Moreover, in the case of patenting activity, they claim that the gender gap also has the potential to negatively affect society. This is so because scientific and technological advancement and innovation play a crucial role in contemporary societies. Thus, women's more limited involvement in the commercialization of science and technology can also be detrimental to innovation itself. Nevertheless, calls to encourage women to patent on grounds that such activity is likely to play a significant role in the betterment of both women's careers and society seem to be based on two problematic assumptions: (1) that the methods to determine women's productivity in patenting activities are an appropriate way to measure their research efforts and the impact of their work, and (2) that patenting, particularly in academia, benefits society. The purpose of this paper is to call into question these two assumptions.

  7. Patent Medicine VendorsAND#8217; Clients: Medicine Use Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa Auta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate some medicine use behaviour of Patent Medicine Vendors’ (PMVs clients including self medication practice and medication sharing behaviour. METHOD: A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted in July 2011, on 361 undergraduate students of the University of Jos, Nigeria who visited PMVs within a month preceding the study. A pretested questionnaire was administered to participating students. Participants responded to questions on demography, and medicine use behaviour. Data were entered into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 16 to generate descriptive statistics which were represented in percentages. RESULTS: The results showed that majority of the respondents (91.7% visited the PMVs for self-medication with the common classes of medicines procured by PMVs clients including analgesics (38.4%, antimalarials (22.2% and nutrition/blood preparations (14.1%. About 78.5% of the medicines sold to PMVs clients were in their original package and only 45.9% of clients reported checking the expiry date of their procured medicine prior to use. Medication sharing behaviour was common (60.2% among respondents. Although most respondents (70.2% said they had read a medicine information leaflet in the past, majority of them depended on unreliable sources such as friends/relatives (23.2%, media (10.8% and the internet (9.9% for medicine information. CONCLUSION: The study therefore demonstrated that PMV clients are those on self-medication practices and medication sharing behaviour is high among them. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(6.000: 681-686

  8. Text mining patents for biomedical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Bundschus, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Biomedical text mining of scientific knowledge bases, such as Medline, has received much attention in recent years. Given that text mining is able to automatically extract biomedical facts that revolve around entities such as genes, proteins, and drugs, from unstructured text sources, it is seen as a major enabler to foster biomedical research and drug discovery. In contrast to the biomedical literature, research into the mining of biomedical patents has not reached the same level of maturity. Here, we review existing work and highlight the associated technical challenges that emerge from automatically extracting facts from patents. We conclude by outlining potential future directions in this domain that could help drive biomedical research and drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Eastern European patenting activities in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinova, D. [Murdoch University, Perth, WA (Australia). Inst. of Sustainability & Technological Policy

    2001-09-01

    The patenting activities of the former centrally planned economies in the US between 1976 and 1999 are examined. The technological performance of Eastern Europe is assessed and compared with that of the OECD countries. A sharp decline is observed as a consequence of the economic changes undergone by these countries in recent years. The study reveals some common technological strengths, such as in the areas of petroleum, coal, chemicals and other related products, and country-specific advantages, such as in mining in the former USSR, Poland and Bulgaria, textiles, clothing, footwear and leather in the former Czechoslovakia, printing, publishing and recorded media in the former East Germany, health in the former Yugoslavia, energy in Romania and design in Slovenia. Recommendations are made for the future use of foreign patents.

  10. Intellectual property rights and challenges for development of affordable human papillomavirus, rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines: Patent landscaping and perspectives of developing country vaccine manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Amin, Tahir; Kim, Joyce; Furrer, Eliane; Matterson, Anna-Carin; Schwalbe, Nina; Nguyen, Aurélia

    2015-11-17

    The success of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance depends on the vaccine markets providing appropriate, affordable vaccines at sufficient and reliable quantities. Gavi's current supplier base for new and underutilized vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV), rotavirus, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is very small. There is growing concern that following globalization of laws on intellectual property rights (IPRs) through trade agreements, IPRs are impeding new manufacturers from entering the market with competing vaccines. This article examines the extent to which IPRs, specifically patents, can create such obstacles, in particular for developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). Through building patent landscapes in Brazil, China, and India and interviews with manufacturers and experts in the field, we found intense patenting activity for the HPV and pneumococcal vaccines that could potentially delay the entry of new manufacturers. Increased transparency around patenting of vaccine technologies, stricter patentability criteria suited for local development needs and strengthening of IPRs management capabilities where relevant, may help reduce impediments to market entry for new manufacturers and ensure a competitive supplier base for quality vaccines at sustainably low prices. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Acousto-electrical speckle pattern in Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Destrempes, François; Cloutier, Guy; Mari, Jean-Martial; Souchon, Rémi; Catheline, Stefan; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound speckle is a granular texture pattern appearing in ultrasound imaging. It can be used to distinguish tissues and identify pathologies. Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography is an ultrasound-based medical imaging technique of the tissue electrical conductivity. It is based on the application of an ultrasound wave in a medium placed in a magnetic field and on the measurement of the induced electric current due to Lorentz force. Similarly to ultrasound imaging, we hypothesized that a speckle could be observed with Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography imaging. In this study, we first assessed the theoretical similarity between the measured signals in Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography and in ultrasound imaging modalities. We then compared experimentally the signal measured in both methods using an acoustic and electrical impedance interface. Finally, a bovine muscle sample was imaged using the two methods. Similar speckle patterns were observed. This indicates the existence of an ‘acousto-electrical speckle’ in the Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography with spatial characteristics driven by the acoustic parameters but due to electrical impedance inhomogeneities instead of acoustic ones as is the case of ultrasound imaging. (paper)

  12. Acousto-electrical speckle pattern in Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol; Destrempes, François; Mari, Jean-Martial; Souchon, Rémi; Catheline, Stefan; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lafon, Cyril; Cloutier, Guy

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasound speckle is a granular texture pattern appearing in ultrasound imaging. It can be used to distinguish tissues and identify pathologies. Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography is an ultrasound-based medical imaging technique of the tissue electrical conductivity. It is based on the application of an ultrasound wave in a medium placed in a magnetic field and on the measurement of the induced electric current due to Lorentz force. Similarly to ultrasound imaging, we hypothesized that a speckle could be observed with Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography imaging. In this study, we first assessed the theoretical similarity between the measured signals in Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography and in ultrasound imaging modalities. We then compared experimentally the signal measured in both methods using an acoustic and electrical impedance interface. Finally, a bovine muscle sample was imaged using the two methods. Similar speckle patterns were observed. This indicates the existence of an ‘acousto-electrical speckle’ in the Lorentz force electrical impedance tomography with spatial characteristics driven by the acoustic parameters but due to electrical impedance inhomogeneities instead of acoustic ones as is the case of ultrasound imaging.

  13. The story of global patent inventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yeun Jung

    1996-11-01

    This book introduces the global patent inventions, which are soap floating on the water, computer, radar, zipper, fuel cell, a raincoat, a pencil, a ball point pen, vitamin, an ice saw, a subway, post it, endoscope, ultrasonic detector, machine to pierce the hall, hair-restorer, a refrigerator, tricycle tractor of Benz steam engine of watt, carburettor, aluminum smelting process, video game, ice cream freezer, lead powder, piling system, burner using infrared rays, small projector, blender for recycling of resource, and artificial silk.

  14. The story of global patent inventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yeun Jung

    1996-11-15

    This book introduces the global patent inventions, which are soap floating on the water, computer, radar, zipper, fuel cell, a raincoat, a pencil, a ball point pen, vitamin, an ice saw, a subway, post it, endoscope, ultrasonic detector, machine to pierce the hall, hair-restorer, a refrigerator, tricycle tractor of Benz steam engine of watt, carburettor, aluminum smelting process, video game, ice cream freezer, lead powder, piling system, burner using infrared rays, small projector, blender for recycling of resource, and artificial silk.

  15. Bioethics commission to review gene patenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothenburg, L.

    1995-12-01

    In October, in an unexpected development, U.S. President Bill Clinton created a national ethics advisory board, the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC, Washington, DC), to study both research ethics and the management and use of genetic information. Of particular interest to biotechnology companies and researchers is the fact that the commission`s brief encompasses issues about human gene patenting, a subject not contained in earlier proposals for the commission.

  16. Mammography. [Patent750AIX-08)293916

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-01

    This patent reveals a method and instrument for the detection and registration of breast cancer with the aid of X-radiation, i.e. mammography. The breast is irradiated with soft X-rays whereby the radiation beam is scanned with a moving 'stripform' screen and whereby the picture from the 'stripform' screen is recorded by a television camera that moves simultaneously with the strip. The image is then projected on a monitor.

  17. VISUALIZATION OF BIOLOGICAL TISSUE IMPEDANCE PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Bankov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Investigation the opportunity for measurement of biological tissue impedance to visualize its parameters.Materials and methods. Studies were undertook on the experimental facility, consists of registrating measuring cell, constructed from flat inductors system, formed in oscillatory circuit, herewith investigated biological tissue is the part of this oscillatory circuit. An excitation of oscillatory circuit fulfilled by means of exciter inductor which forms impulse complex modulated electromagnetic field (ICM EMF. The measurement process and visualizations provided by set of certificated instruments: a digital oscillograph AKTAKOM ADS-2221MV, a digital generator АКТАКОМ AWG-4150 (both with software and a gauge RLC E7-22. Comparative dynamic studies of fixed volume and weight pig’s blood, adipose tissue, muscular tissue impedance were conducted by contact versus contactless methods. Contactless method in contrast to contact method gives opportunity to obtain the real morphological visualization of biological tissue irrespective of their nature.Results. Comparison of contact and contactless methods of impedance measurement shows that the inductance to capacitance ratio X(L / X(C was equal: 17 – for muscular tissue, 4 – for blood, 1 – for adipose tissue. It demonstrates the technical correspondence of both impedance registration methods. If propose the base relevance of X (L and X (C parameters for biological tissue impedance so contactless measurement method for sure shows insulating properties of adipose tissue and high conductivity for blood and muscular tissue in fixed volume-weight parameters. Registration of biological tissue impedance complex parameters by contactless method with the help of induced ICM EMF in fixed volume of biological tissue uncovers the most important informative volumes to characterize morphofunctional condition of biological tissue namely X (L / X (C.Conclusion. Contactless method of biological

  18. Laboratory scale tests of electrical impedence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binley, A; Daily, W; LaBredcque, D; Ramirez, A.

    1998-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomographs (magnitude and phase) of known, laboratory-scale targets are reported. Three methods are used to invert electrical impedance data and their tomographs compared. The first method uses an electrical resistance tomography (ERT) algonthm (designed for DC resistivity inversion) to perform impedance magnitude inversion and a linearized perturbation approach (PA) to invert the imaginary part. The second approximate method compares ERT magnitude inversions at two frequencies and uses the frequency effect (FE) to compute phase tomographs. The third approach, electrrcal impedance tomography (EIT), employs fully complex algebra to account for the real and imaginary components of electrical impedance data. The EIT approach provided useful magnitude and phase images for the frequency range of 0.0625 to 64 Hz; images for higher frequencies were not reliable. Comparisons of the ERT and EIT magnitude images show that both methods provided equivalent results for the water blank, copper rod and PVC rod targets. The EIT magnitude images showed better spatial resolutron for a sand-lead mixture target. Phase images located anomalies of both high and low contrast IP and provided better spatial resolution than the magnitude images. When IP was absent from the data, the EIT algorithm reconstructed phase values consistent with the data noise levels

  19. Broadband impedance of the NESTOR storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.P.; Gladkikh, P.I.; Gvozd, A.M.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    2011-01-01

    The contributions from lossy and inductive vacuum chamber components to the broadband impedance of the NESTOR storage ring are obtained by using both low-frequency analytical approaches and computer simulations. As was expected considering the small ring circumference (15.44m), the main contributions both to the longitudinal impedance Z || /n and the loss factor k loss come from the RF-cavity. Cavity impedance was also estimated with CST Microwave Studio (CST Studio Suite TM 2006) by simulating coaxial wire method commonly used for impedance measurements. Both estimates agree well. Finally, we performed the simulations of a number of inductive elements with CST Particle Studio 2010 by using wake field solver. We have also evaluated the bunch length in NESTOR taking the conservative estimate of 3 Ohm for the ring broadband impedance and have found that the bunch length s z = 0.5 cm could be obtained in steady state operation mode for the designed bunch current of 10 mA and RF-voltage of 250 kV.

  20. Impedance Spectroscopy of Dielectrics and Electronic Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanos, Nikolaos; Pissis, Polycarpos; Macdonald, J. Ross

    2013-01-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is used for the characterization of materials, such as electroceramics, solid and liquid electrochemical cells, dielectrics and also fully integrated devices, such as fuel cells. It consists of measuring the electrical impedance - or a closely related property, such as admi......Impedance spectroscopy is used for the characterization of materials, such as electroceramics, solid and liquid electrochemical cells, dielectrics and also fully integrated devices, such as fuel cells. It consists of measuring the electrical impedance - or a closely related property......, such as admittance or dielectric constant - as a function of frequency and comparing the results with expectations based on physical, chemical, and microstructural models. This article reviews the principles and practical aspects of the technique, the representations of the results, the analysis of data......, and procedures for the correction of measurement errors. The applications of impedance spectroscopy are illustrated with examples from electroceramics and polymer-based dielectric systems. The way in which the technique is applied to the two classes of materials is compared with reference to the different models...

  1. Evaluation of Brazilian biotechnology patent activity from 1975 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F; Delfim, F; Drummond, I; Carmo, A O; Barroca, T M; Horta, C C; Kalapothakis, E

    2012-08-01

    The analysis of patent activity is one methodology used for technological monitoring. In this paper, the activity of biotechnology-related patents in Brazil were analyzed through 30 International Patent Classification (IPC) codes published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). We developed a program to analyse the dynamics of the major patent applicants, countries and IPC codes extracted from the Brazilian Patent Office (INPI) database. We also identified Brazilian patent applicants who tried to expand protection abroad via the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). We had access to all patents published online at the INPI from 1975 to July 2010, including 9,791 biotechnology patent applications in Brazil, and 163 PCTs published online at World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) from 1997 to December 2010. To our knowledge, there are no other online reports of biotechnology patents previous to the years analyzed here. Most of the biotechnology patents filed in the INPI (10.9%) concerned measuring or testing processes involving nucleic acids. The second and third places belonged to patents involving agro-technologies (recombinant DNA technology for plant cells and new flowering plants, i.e. angiosperms, or processes for obtaining them, and reproduction of flowering plants by tissue culture techniques). The majority of patents (87.2%) were filed by nonresidents, with USA being responsible for 51.7% of all biotechnology patents deposited in Brazil. Analyzing the resident applicants per region, we found a hub in the southeast region of Brazil. Among the resident applicants for biotechnology patents filed in the INPI, 43.5% were from São Paulo, 18.3% were from Rio de Janeiro, and 9.7% were from Minas Gerais. Pfizer, Novartis, and Sanofi were the largest applicants in Brazil, with 339, 288, and 245 biotechnology patents filed, respectively. For residents, the largest applicant was the governmental institution FIOCRUZ (Oswaldo Cruz

  2. Patents Assessed through Sectoral Operational Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula – Angela VIDRAȘCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the International Accounting Standards – IAS 38 „Intangible assets”; these assets are identifiable non-monetary assets under construction were considered without physical substance. Lack actual physical form must not be understood that an intangible asset would have no material support, because the presence of any intangible asset can be demonstrated only by a support material form. Exmple: frequently encounter compact-disc (in case a software, legal documentation (in the case of licences, trade marks and patents of invention, contracts, permits and licences, technical documentation or films. Nowadays we are constantly subjected to the changing flow of information that is found in a perpetual technological change which started the emergence of a new stage in the society development that which carries the name of knowledge. The object of my research is the patent for the structural funds reimbursable project submitted in the "Operational Program, Economic Competitiveness" Operation 2.3.1. "Support for start-ups and innovative spin-offs. Patent is an official document certifying the inventor, the exclusive right to produce a certain good or product or use a particular process. Remember that evaluation of intangible assets is the most complex and systematic procedure.

  3. Why Is Hard To Patent An Invention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When employed by a company, in almost all the cases a new employee has to sign an agreement giving the company exclusive rights to any intellectual property developed as part of their work assignments. This agreement could extend beyond a change of jobs and cause conflict of interests in new employment situations. A patent is a government-granted monopoly given to an inventor as both a reward for the intellectual and financial investment, and a stimulus to innovate. As a monopoly, the patent has legal power to exclude others from exploiting the invention in any way for a period of 20 years from the time the patent application has been filed. A trademark provides instant recognition of a product or company; a service mark provides instant recognition of a service. They both have unlimited lifetime. But the owner must renew or confirm continuous use at the end of five years, and every 10 years thereafter. A trade secret is information keep secret by the owner to give him advantage over competitors. Since it is secret, a trade secret protection has unlimited lifetime.

  4. Rf Discharge Impedance Measurements Using a New Method to Determine the Stray Impedances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.P.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Hoog, de F.J.

    1999-01-01

    The impedance of a capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge in a tubular fluorescent lamp filled with neon and mercury is measured. The stray impedances in the electrical network are determined using a new method that requires no extra instruments. The reflection of power is used to determine

  5. Elimination of the Respiratory Effect on the Thoracic Impedance Signal with Whole-body Impedance Cardiography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Vondra, Vlastimil; Viščor, Ivo; Lipoldová, J.; Plachý, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 37, - (2010), s. 1051-1054 ISSN 0276-6574 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200650801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : respiratory effect * thoracic impedance signal * impedance cardiography Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering http://cinc.mit.edu/archives/2010/pdf/1051.pdf

  6. The problem and solution of enterprise patent application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dabo; Yang Xiaoqing

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the situation of Chinese patent application is pleasant, but there are still some hiding disquiets. For the most enterprises, the passion of current patent application may not be derived from the internal motility but mainly derived by the government policy. Because of the shortage of related knowledge on patent, there are still some problems for our enterprises, such as blurring the scope of patent application and failing the organization of the documents of patent application which causing the patent cannot be applied timely. In some cases, the patent cannot obtain the effective protection even if it has been applied and obtained the authorization successfully. For such problems, we should enhance the cooperation between enterprises and agency organizations and build a patent engineer group which should participate in the whole R and D process and can prepare the documents of the patent application effectively and timely. What's more, we should inhibit the phenomena of infringement of patent rights and use 'existing technique' effectively by the methods of document retrieval. (authors)

  7. Patents associated with high-cost drugs in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F Christie

    Full Text Available Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by "evergreening" blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent register to identify all the granted patents that cover the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the high-cost drugs. Then, we classify the patents by type, and identify their owners. We find a mean of 49 patents associated with each drug. Three-quarters of these patents are owned by companies other than the drug's originator. Surprisingly, the majority of all patents are owned by companies that do not have a record of developing top-selling drugs. Our findings show that a multitude of players seek monopoly control over innovations to blockbuster drugs. Consequently, attempts to control drug costs by mitigating misuse of the patent system are likely to miss the mark if they focus only on the patenting activities of originators.

  8. Patent Foramen Ovale: Is Stroke Due to Paradoxical Embolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranoux, D.; Cohen, A.; Cabanes, L.; Amarenco, P.; Bousser, M. G.; Mas, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Background and Purpose: A patent foramen ovale has been reported to be significantly more frequent in young stroke patients than in matched control subjects, and paradoxical embolism has been suggested as the main mechanism of stroke in-this situation. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis. Methods: Sixty-eight consecutive patients under 55 years of age presenting with an ischemic stroke had an extensive workup, including transesophageal echocardiography with contrast. We compared the prevalence of criteria for the diagnosis of paradoxical embolism in patients with and without a patent foramen ovale. Results: A patent foramen ovale was found in 32 patients (47%). A Valsalva-provoking activity was present at stroke onset in six patients with a patent foramen ovale and in eight patients with no patent foramen ovale (X(sup 2)=0.1, nonsignificant). Clinical/radiological features suggestive of an embolic mechanism were not more frequent in patients with a patent foramen ovale. Clinical evidence of deep vein thrombosis was present in one patient with a patent foramen ovale and in none of the others. No occult venous thrombosis was found in a subgroup of patients with a patent foramen ovale and no definite cause for stroke who underwent venography (n=13). Conclusions. Our results do not support the hypothesis that paradoxical embolism is the primary mechanism of stroke in patients with a patent foramen ovale. (Stroke 1993;24:31-34) KEY WORDS e cerebral ischemia e embolism foramen ovale, patent

  9. Scientific Prediction and Prophetic Patenting in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Stephen H; Schneiderman, Anne M

    2015-01-01

    Pharmaceutical patenting involves writing claims based on both discoveries already made, and on prophesy of future developments in an ongoing project. This is necessitated by the very different timelines involved in the drug discovery and product development process on the one hand, and successful patenting on the other. If patents are sought too early there is a risk that patent examiners will disallow claims because of lack of enablement. If patenting is delayed, claims are at risk of being denied on the basis of existence of prior art, because the body of relevant known science will have developed significantly while the project was being pursued. This review examines the role of prophetic patenting in relation to the essential predictability of many aspects of drug discovery science, promoting the concepts of discipline-related and project-related prediction. This is especially directed towards patenting activities supporting commercialization of academia-based discoveries, where long project timelines occur, and where experience, and resources to pay for patenting, are limited. The need for improved collaborative understanding among project scientists, technology transfer professionals in, for example, universities, patent attorneys, and patent examiners is emphasized.

  10. Patents associated with high-cost drugs in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew F; Dent, Chris; McIntyre, Peter; Wilson, Lachlan; Studdert, David M

    2013-01-01

    Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by "evergreening" blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent register to identify all the granted patents that cover the active pharmaceutical ingredient of the high-cost drugs. Then, we classify the patents by type, and identify their owners. We find a mean of 49 patents associated with each drug. Three-quarters of these patents are owned by companies other than the drug's originator. Surprisingly, the majority of all patents are owned by companies that do not have a record of developing top-selling drugs. Our findings show that a multitude of players seek monopoly control over innovations to blockbuster drugs. Consequently, attempts to control drug costs by mitigating misuse of the patent system are likely to miss the mark if they focus only on the patenting activities of originators.

  11. Impedance measurements of components for the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.N.; Rimmer, R.A.

    1993-05-01

    The high current and short bunch length of the ALS beam make the machine susceptible to beam instabilities over a frequency range extending to 13 GHz and beyond. All components of the storage ring have been carefully designed to minimize the impedance presented to the beam, and assemblies have been laid out to avoid resonant enclosures between components. Novel bellows shields allowing considerable mechanical movement while maintaining a low impedance are described. Results are presented of impedance measurements of ALS components and assemblies of components, using a precision coaxial wire technique in frequency domain, extending to frequencies beyond cut-off. All measurements were performed at the Lambertson Beam Electrodynamics Laboratory of the Center for Beam Physics at LBL

  12. Bunch length and impedance measurements in SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Donald, M.; Hofmann, A.; Jowett, J.; Lockman, W.; Morton, P.; Stege, R.; Spence, W.; Wilson, P.

    1988-05-01

    Subsequent to an extensive smoothing of the vacuum chamber a comprehensive study of the SPEAR impedance was undertaken. Bunch length, synchrotron quadrupole mode frequency, and parasitic mode loss were measured as functions of beam current. The results showed that, although the gross longitudinal impedance had indeed been reduced, the 'capacitive' component had also decreased relative to the 'inductive'--to the extent that previously compensated potential well distortion now induced bunch lengthening at low currents, and the turbulent threshold had actually been lowered. A specially designed multi-cell disc-loaded 'capacitor' cavity was shown to be capable of removing this effect by restoring the original compensation. A model of the new SPEAR impedance is also obtained. 7 refs., 6 figs

  13. Bunch length and impedance measurements in SPEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.; Donald, M.; Morton, P.; Stege, R.; Spence, W.; Wilson, P.; Hofmann, A.; Jowett, J.; Lockman, W.

    1988-01-01

    Subsequent to an extensive smoothing of the vacuum chamber a comprehensive study of the SPEAR impedance was undertaken. Bunch length, synchrotron quadrupole mode frequency, and parasitic mode loss were measured as functions of beam current. This paper shows that although the gross longitudinal impedance had indeed been reduced, the capacitive component had also decreased relative to the inductive - to the extent that previously compensated potential well distortion now induced bunch lengthening at low currents, and the turbulent threshold had actually been lowered. A specially designed multi-cell disc-loaded capacitor cavity was shown to be capable of removing this effect by restoring the original compensation. A model of the new SPEAR impedance is also obtained

  14. Wavelet analysis of the impedance cardiogram waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podtaev, S.; Stepanov, R.; Dumler, A.; Chugainov, S.; Tziberkin, K.

    2012-12-01

    Impedance cardiography has been used for diagnosing atrial and ventricular dysfunctions, valve disorders, aortic stenosis, and vascular diseases. Almost all the applications of impedance cardiography require determination of some of the characteristic points of the ICG waveform. The ICG waveform has a set of characteristic points known as A, B, E ((dZ/dt)max) X, Y, O and Z. These points are related to distinct physiological events in the cardiac cycle. Objective of this work is an approbation of a new method of processing and interpretation of the impedance cardiogram waveforms using wavelet analysis. A method of computer thoracic tetrapolar polyrheocardiography is used for hemodynamic registrations. Use of original wavelet differentiation algorithm allows combining filtration and calculation of the derivatives of rheocardiogram. The proposed approach can be used in clinical practice for early diagnostics of cardiovascular system remodelling in the course of different pathologies.

  15. Wavelet analysis of the impedance cardiogram waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podtaev, S; Stepanov, R; Dumler, A; Chugainov, S; Tziberkin, K

    2012-01-01

    Impedance cardiography has been used for diagnosing atrial and ventricular dysfunctions, valve disorders, aortic stenosis, and vascular diseases. Almost all the applications of impedance cardiography require determination of some of the characteristic points of the ICG waveform. The ICG waveform has a set of characteristic points known as A, B, E ((dZ/dt) max ) X, Y, O and Z. These points are related to distinct physiological events in the cardiac cycle. Objective of this work is an approbation of a new method of processing and interpretation of the impedance cardiogram waveforms using wavelet analysis. A method of computer thoracic tetrapolar polyrheocardiography is used for hemodynamic registrations. Use of original wavelet differentiation algorithm allows combining filtration and calculation of the derivatives of rheocardiogram. The proposed approach can be used in clinical practice for early diagnostics of cardiovascular system remodelling in the course of different pathologies.

  16. Coupling slots without shunt impedance drop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balleyguier, P.

    1996-01-01

    It is well known that coupling slots between adjacent cells in a π-mode structure reduce shunt impedance per unit length with respect to single cell cavities. To design optimized coupling slots, one has to answer the following question: for a given coupling factor, what shape, dimension, position and number of slots lead to the lowest shunt impedance drop? A numerical study using the 3D code MAFIA has been carried out. The aim was to design the 352 MHz cavities for the high intensity proton accelerator of the TRISPAL project. The result is an unexpected set of four 'petal' slots. Such slots should lead to a quasi-negligible drop in shunt impedance: about -1% on average, for particle velocity from 0.4 c to 0.8 c. (author)

  17. Confidential patent application with an example of preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrad T. Čabarkapa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order that the invention solving a technical problem receives a patent protection, it is necessary to file a patent application. For the protection of confidential inventions which are important for defense and national security, a confidential patent application[1] must be filed. A confidential patent application is an important and complex document, the parts of which are,  in principle, exposed in an established order. For the preparation of patent applications, it is necessary to engage experts with higher education, primarily in the technical field the invention relates to. The contents of the patent application is a basis for examining whether the application meets the requirements for patentability and whether the right to patent protection is achieved. Besides theoretical discussions on patent application, the paper gives a short version of an example of an application regarding a protected confidential invention. Introduction The basic condition for the exercise of patent protection is filing a patent application, the test procedure and, eventually, depending on the test results - the recognition or rejection of the patent. The paper gives a description of all parts of the patent application on an example of a confidential invention already patented. The content of the confidential patent application The confidential patent application for confidential invention protection consists of the following parts: The application for a patent; description of the invention; the claims (indication of what is new and what is required to be protected by patenting; abstract (short summary of the invention  and a draft of the invention (to which the description and the claims are referred. The application for a patent The application for patent is filed on Form P-1 and a request for the petty patent on Form MP-1. The data entered in the file is, for example: the applicant; the lawyer; the name of the invention in Serbian and English; the inventor

  18. 505 Effective Medicated Abdomen Wrapper Best External Care for Lingering Diseases Unconventional Product for Vigorous Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    505 Effective Medicated Abdomen Wrapper,a national patent product(patent num-ber 90202386.1),together with its serial products,has filled in the gaps in the field ofChina’s medical science and health care products.The development of the product wasbrought into line with the State Spark Programme by the State Commission for Science

  19. Traditional Knowledge and Patent Protection: Conflicting Views On International Patent Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Andrzejewski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As diseases continue to spread around the globe, pharmaceutical and biotech companies continue to search for new and better drugs to treat them. Most of these companies have realised that useful compounds for these purposes may be found in the natural resources that indigenous and local communities use. And yet, even though the importance of these biological resources to global health and economic livelihood is well recognised, the legal ownership and control of this traditional knowledge is still very controversial. This article undertakes a comparative analysis of American and European, as well as international legal regulations on patent law and traditional knowledge. Key questions include: What is traditional knowledge? How have the national patent laws of these countries treated the protection of plant variety and plant genetic resources? What are the existing international standards for patents, and what implications do they have for protecting traditional knowledge? And finally, what protection systems are emerging for the future?

  20. "To patent or not to patent? the case of Novartis' cancer drug Glivec in India".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabble, Ravinder; Kohler, Jillian Clare

    2014-01-06

    Glivec (imatinib mesylate), produced by the pharmaceutical company Novartis, is prescribed in the case of chronic myeloid leukemia, one of the most common blood cancers in eastern countries. After more than a decade of legal battles surrounding its patentability, the Supreme Court of India gave its final decision on April 1st of 2013, rejecting the appeal of the Swiss giant drug manufacturer. In 2006, the Indian Patent Office first refused Glivec's patent under Section 3(d) of the Indian Patent Act arguing that it was only a modified version of an existing drug, Imatinib, and therefore that the drug was not innovative. Novartis replied filing legal challenges against the Indian government but the final verdict in April of 2013 ends the battle. Indeed, the Supreme Court stated that even if the bioavailability of the drug was improved, it did not demonstrate enhanced efficacy and that Glivec was not patentable. The research primarily focused on journal, newspaper and magazine articles relevant to the time frame of the lawsuit (from 1994 to 2013) as well as news searches through Google, Factiva, ProQuest, PubMed, and YouTube where press articles from court verdicts were obtained by using the following keywords: "India", "Novartis", "Glivec", "Patent", "Novartis Case", and "Supreme Court of India". The data sources were interpreted and analyzed according to the authors' own prior knowledge and understanding of the exigencies of the TRIPS Agreement. This case illuminates how India is interpreting international law to fit domestic public health needs. The Novartis case arguably sets an important precedent for the global pharmaceutical industry and ideally will help improve access to lifesaving medicines in the developing world by demanding that patient health needs supersede commercial interests. The Supreme Court of India's decision may affect the interpretation of the article of the TRIPS Agreement, which states members shall be free to determine the appropriate method

  1. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Of Metal Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdowell, L. G.; Calle, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes use of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) to investigate resistances of 19 alloys to corrosion under conditions similar to those of corrosive, chloride-laden seaside environment of Space Transportation System launch site. Alloys investigated: Hastelloy C-4, C-22, C-276, and B-2; Inconel(R) 600, 625, and 825; Inco(R) G-3; Monel 400; Zirconium 702; Stainless Steel 304L, 304LN, 316L, 317L, and 904L; 20Cb-3; 7Mo+N; ES2205; and Ferralium 255. Results suggest electrochemical impedance spectroscopy used to predict corrosion performances of metal alloys.

  2. Study of Body Composition by Impedance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, J. L.; Vargas-Luna, M.; Sosa-Aquino, M.; Bernal-Alvarado, J.; Gutiérrez-Juárez, G.; Huerta-Franco, R.; Sanchis-Sabater, A.

    2002-08-01

    This work presents a set of impedance measurements and preliminary results on the analysis of body composition using impedance spectroscopy. This study is made using a pork meat sample and spectra from fat and flesh region were independently obtained using the same electrodes array. From these measurements, and theoretical considerations, it is possible to explain the behavior of the composite sample flesh-fat-flesh and, fitting the electrical parameters of the model, it shows the plausibility of a physical and quantitative application to human corporal composition.

  3. Real-Time Thevenin Impedance Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Stefan Horst; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur

    2013-01-01

    operating state, and strict time constraints are difficult to adhere to as the complexity of the grid increases. Several suggested approaches for real-time stability assessment require Thevenin impedances to be determined for the observed system conditions. By combining matrix factorization, graph reduction......, and parallelization, we develop an algorithm for computing Thevenin impedances an order of magnitude faster than previous approaches. We test the factor-and-solve algorithm with data from several power grids of varying complexity, and we show how the algorithm allows realtime stability assessment of complex power...

  4. Plant biotechnology patents: applications in agriculture and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferon, Kathleen

    2010-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have enabled the field of plant biology to move forward in great leaps and bounds. In particular, recent breakthroughs in molecular biology, plant genomics and crop science have brought about a paradigm shift of thought regarding the manner by which plants can be utilized both in agriculture and in medicine. Besides the more well known improvements in agronomic traits of crops such as disease resistance and drought tolerance, plants can now be associated with topics as diverse as biofuel production, phytoremediation, the improvement of nutritional qualities in edible plants, the identification of compounds for medicinal purposes in plants and the use of plants as therapeutic protein production platforms. This diversification of plant science has been accompanied by the great abundance of new patents issued in these fields and, as many of these inventions approach commercial realization, the subsequent increase in agriculturally-based industries. While this review chapter is written primarily for plant scientists who have great interest in the new directions being taken with respect to applications in agricultural biotechnology, those in other disciplines, such as medical researchers, environmental scientists and engineers, may find significant value in reading this article as well. The review attempts to provide an overview of the most recent patents issued for plant biotechnology with respect to both agriculture and medicine. The chapter concludes with the proposal that the combined driving forces of climate change, as well as the ever increasing needs for clean energy and food security will play a pivotal role in leading the direction for applied plant biotechnology research in the future.

  5. Hegemonic structure of basic, clinical and patented knowledge on Ebola research: a US army reductionist initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, David; Ortega-Sánchez-de-Tagle, José; Castaño, Victor M

    2015-04-19

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (Ebola) is still a highly lethal infectious disease long affecting mainly neglected populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, this disease is now considered a potential worldwide threat. In this paper, we present an approach to understand how the basic, clinical and patent knowledge on Ebola is organized and intercommunicated and what leading factor could be shaping the evolution of the knowledge translation process for this disease. A combination of citation network analysis; analysis of Medical heading Subject (MeSH) and Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and quantitative content analysis for patents and scientific literature, aimed to map the organization of Ebola research was carried out. We found six putative research fronts (i.e. clusters of high interconnected papers). Three research fronts are basic research on Ebola virus structural proteins: glycoprotein, VP40 and VP35, respectively. There is a fourth research front of basic research papers on pathogenesis, which is the organizing hub of Ebola research. A fifth research front is pre-clinical research focused on vaccines and glycoproteins. Finally, a clinical-epidemiology research front related to the disease outbreaks was identified. The network structure of patent families shows that the dominant design is the use of Ebola virus proteins as targets of vaccines and other immunological treatments. Therefore, patents network organization resembles the organization of the scientific literature. Specifically, the knowledge on Ebola would flow from higher (clinical-epidemiology) to intermediated (cellular-tissular pathogenesis) to lower (molecular interactions) levels of organization. Our results suggest a strong reductionist approach for Ebola research probably influenced by the lethality of the disease. On the other hand, the ownership profile of the patent families network and the main researches relationship with the United State Army suggest a strong involvement of this military

  6. Commentary on patents: Don`t dismiss Rifkin`s damning of gene patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, R.

    1995-07-01

    Biotech may have less to fear from Rifkin than from its own inclination to dismiss the fact that the evolution of ethics and patent laws applying to patenting genes has been haphazard. Perhaps it is time for the biotechnology industry to get behind the establishment of an effective forum for opening much-needed dialogue. Perhaps a Senate proposal to establish a bioethics commission, which reportedly has bogged down in partisan politics, is just such a venue for the government and private sector to begin to hash out the ethical and legal dilemmas that are indisputably at the heart of the biotechnology industry, and its future success.

  7. [INDENA SPA company's patent portfolio of Ginkgo biloba preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Guo, Kai; Cheng, Xin-min; Liu, Wei

    2015-10-01

    INDENA SPA Company in Italy is a multi-national company that produces and sells plant extracts. Based on its own re- search advantages in the field of Ginkgo biloba preparation, the company protects its own products market effectively through building patent portfolio around the patents of its opponent. Based on the multi-angle analysis for patent portfolio of G. biloba preparation from the aspects of application time, legal status, technical development route, and patent portfolio layout, this article provides technical reference on research and development of G. biloba preparation, and the author suggest that Chinese applicants learn techniques and layout experiences of other patents fully to enhance the level of research and patent protection level.

  8. Japan's patent issues relating to life science therapeutic inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessensohn, John A

    2014-09-01

    Japan has made 'innovation in science and technology' as one of its central pillars to ensure high growth in its next stage of economic development and its life sciences market which hosts regenerative medicine was proclaimed to be 'the best market in the world right now.' Although life science therapeutic inventions are patentable subject matter under Japanese patent law, there are nuanced obviousness and enablement challenges under Japanese patent law that can be surmounted in view of some encouraging Japanese court developments in fostering a pro-patent applicant environment in the life sciences therapeutic patent field. Nevertheless, great care must be taken when drafting and prosecuting such patent applications in the world's second most important life sciences therapeutic market.

  9. What is the Destiny of Patents of Brazilian Universities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz de Souza Querido

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The power of patent is expressed when the innovative product or process goes to market, and the exclusive right that patent ensures generates the market power, and the holder possibility to obtain competitive advantage over competitors. Thus, it becomes compelling the discussions on the universities need for transformation of patent applications efforts into granted patents, which could be negotiated with a higher degree of juridical certainty and, consequently, higher value added. To establish an Index of Patents Granting, and understand the importance of Technological Innovation Nuclei for the increase of this index, it was developed a survey on the number of patents granted to Brazilian universities and evaluated the structure of Technological Innovation Nuclei of these universities. From the survey on the granting cases, it was verified that the universities presenting, among other characteristics, better structured Technological Innovation Nuclei stood out.

  10. How are pharmaceutical patent term extensions justified? Australia's evolving scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Charles

    2013-12-01

    This article examines the evolving patent term extension schemes under the Patents Act 1903 (Cth), the Patents Act 1952 (Cth) and the Patents Act 1990 (Cth). The analysis traces the change from "inadequate remuneration" to a scheme directed specifically at certain pharmaceuticals. An examination of the policy justification shows there are legitimate questions about the desirability of any extension. The article concludes that key information provisions in the Patents Act 1990 (Cth) that might assist a better policy analysis are presently not working and that any justification needs evidence demonstrating that the benefits of patent term extensions to the community as a whole outweigh the costs and that the objectives of extensions can only be achieved by restricting competition.

  11. Nanotechnology strength indicators: international rankings based on US patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Dora; McAleer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Technological strength indicators (TSIs) based on patent statistics for 1975-2000 are used to analyse patenting of nanotechnology in the USA, and to compile international rankings for the top 12 foreign patenting countries (namely Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Taiwan). As the indicators are not directly observable, various proxy variables are used, namely the technological specialization index for national priorities, patent shares for international presence, citation rate for the contribution of patents to knowledge development and rate of assigned patents for potential commercial benefits. The best performing country is France, followed by Japan and Canada. It is shown that expertise and strength in nanotechnology are not evenly distributed among the technologically advanced countries, with the TSIs revealing different emphases in the development of nanotechnology.

  12. Patent holdings of US biotherapeutic companies in major markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Teena E; Yerram, Chandra Bindu; Saberwal, Gayatri

    2009-05-01

    In previous studies we examined the (United States, US) patent holdings of 109 largely North American biotech companies developing therapeutics that, in particular, have an interest in discovery stage science. There appears little correlation between the number of patents and the number of products of individual companies. Here we quantified and compared the 103 US-headquartered companies' patent holdings in Australia, Canada, Europe, Japan and the US. The companies demonstrate variable and surprising patterns of patent holdings across these countries or regions. For most companies, patent holdings are not in proportion to the importance of the country as a biotech or pharma market. These results have implications for the patenting strategies of small biotech companies involved in drug discovery.

  13. The Battle for Patent Rights in Plant Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the occurrence and extent of oppositions initiated against plant biotechnology patents granted by the European Patent Office (EPO). The opposition mechanism is a legal procedure that allows any third party to challenge the validity of patents awarded by the EPO....... Results indicate that the opposition rate is far greater in plant biotechnology than in other emerging industries. Consistent with theoretical predictions, the empirical findings suggest that opposed patents are disproportionately those that score high on features that proxy for their “value” or “quality......”. In contrast to previous findings, however, the results show that large-volume applicants are more likely to be opposed. Because the boundaries of plant biotech patents are ill-defined, large patent portfolios do not promote cooperative behavior such as licensing or settlements. The analysis rejects...

  14. To succeed with invention and patent which are my own idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    1999-07-01

    This book introduces how to invent through various way such as successful story about the effect to invent, conception like everyone can be a inventor and this is invention. This book also explains all of process of patent such as application of patent, patent in Korea, Japan, the U.S and other countries, what is patent information, how to hunt patent, intellectual property right, priority system, international patent application is possible in Korea, other common sense on patent application, patent as a great power and questions and answers on patent.

  15. Identification and Analysis of Technology Emergence Using Patent Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    and legal time and capital. The desired payoff for this investment is monopolistic control of a section of the technology space, allowed by present...the claims of their application based on either the prior art cited by the patent examiner or economic reali- ties surrounding the markets for...have been developed, the claims of the patents have been tuned and tested at the respective patent office, and market -driven commercial realities may

  16. Patent foramen ovale and migraine attacks: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lip, Philomena Z Y; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2014-05-01

    Migraine headache and the presence of a patent foramen ovale have been associated with each other, although the precise pathophysiological mechanism(s) are uncertain. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the extent of patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs and to determine whether closure of a patent foramen ovale would improve migraine headache. An electronic literature search was performed to select studies between January 1980 and February 2013 that were relevant to the prevalence of patent foramen ovale and migraine, and the effects of intervention(s) on migraine attacks. Of the initial 368 articles presented by the initial search, 20 satisfied the inclusion criteria assessing patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs and 21 presented data on patent foramen ovale closure. In case series and cohort studies, patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs ranged from 14.6% to 66.5%. Case-control studies reported a prevalence ranging from 16.0% to 25.7% in controls, compared with 26.8% to 96.0% for migraine with aura. The extent of improvement or resolution of migraine headache attack symptoms was variable. In case series, intervention ameliorated migraine headache attack in 13.6% to 92.3% of cases. One single randomized trial did not show any benefit from patent foramen ovale closure. The data overall do not exclude the possibility of a placebo effect for resolving migraine following patent foramen ovale closure. This systematic review demonstrates firstly that migraine headache attack is associated with a higher prevalence of patent foramen ovale than among the general population. Observational data suggest that some improvement of migraine would be observed if the patent foramen ovale were to be closed. A proper assessment of any interventions for patent foramen ovale closure would require further large randomized trials to be conducted given uncertainties from existing trial data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Patents Associated with High-Cost Drugs in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Christie, Andrew F.; Dent, Chris; McIntyre, Peter; Wilson, Lachlan; Studdert, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Australia, like most countries, faces high and rapidly-rising drug costs. There are longstanding concerns about pharmaceutical companies inappropriately extending their monopoly position by "evergreening" blockbuster drugs, through misuse of the patent system. There is, however, very little empirical information about this behaviour. We fill the gap by analysing all of the patents associated with 15 of the costliest drugs in Australia over the last 20 years. Specifically, we search the patent...

  18. 37 CFR 1.730 - Applicant for extension of patent term; signature requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant for extension of patent term; signature requirements. 1.730 Section 1.730 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... for extension of patent term; signature requirements. (a) Any application for extension of a patent...

  19. 37 CFR 1.720 - Conditions for extension of patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditions for extension of patent term. 1.720 Section 1.720 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of...

  20. 37 CFR 11.10 - Restrictions on practice in patent matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restrictions on practice in patent matters. 11.10 Section 11.10 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND...

  1. 37 CFR 1.17 - Patent application and reexamination processing fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent application and reexamination processing fees. 1.17 Section 1.17 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions Fees...

  2. 37 CFR 1.501 - Citation of prior art in patent files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of prior art in patent files. 1.501 Section 1.501 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Ex Parte Reexamination of...

  3. 37 CFR 1.770 - Express withdrawal of application for extension of patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term Extension of Patent Term Due to Regulatory Review § 1.770 Express... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Express withdrawal of application for extension of patent term. 1.770 Section 1.770 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED...

  4. 37 CFR 1.178 - Original patent; continuing duty of applicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Original patent; continuing... Provisions Reissues § 1.178 Original patent; continuing duty of applicant. (a) The application for reissue of... upon reissue of the patent. Until a reissue application is granted, the original patent shall remain in...

  5. Bioterrorism Countermeasure Development: Issues in Patents and Homeland Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schacht, Wendy H; Thomas, John R

    2006-01-01

    ... potential biological threats. These bills proposed reforms to current policies and practices associated with intellectual property, particularly patents, and the marketing of pharmaceuticals and related products...

  6. Prevailing impact trends in patenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

      Patents are at the heart of science and public policy. Getting European patent policy right is a daunting task and involves listening to numerous voices. Part of this process must entail a full understanding of emerging trends that challenge the present system. The challenges are fluid and vary...... from sector to sector. This paper identifies and evaluates key recent developments in patenting which impact upon the European patent system, whichever way it looks. An analysis of these and the underlying causes means we are in a much better position to build an effective policy rearguard.    ...

  7. Nano/micro-electro mechanical systems: a patent view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Guangyuan, E-mail: hu.guangyuan@mail.shufe.edu.cn, E-mail: hu.guangyuan@shufe.edu.cn [Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, School of Public Economics and Administration (China); Liu, Weishu [Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Antai College of Economics and Management (China)

    2015-12-15

    Combining both bibliometrics and citation network analysis, this research evaluates the global development of micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) research based on the Derwent Innovations Index database. We found that worldwide, the growth trajectory of MEMS patents demonstrates an approximate S shape, with United States, Japan, China, and Korea leading the global MEMS race. Evidenced by Derwent class codes, the technology structure of global MEMS patents remains steady over time. Yet there does exist a national competitiveness component among the top country players. The latecomer China has become the second most prolific country filing MEMS patents, but its patent quality still lags behind the global average.

  8. R&D, patents and innovation: a differential game approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, H.-M.

    2016-01-01

    A patent race is a technological competition among firms and the firm making a first-hand innovation takes advantages of patenting. Firms strategically invest in R&D and produce knowledge in order to innovate. Instead of growing model of R&D, I use a differential game approach to investigate firms interaction of R&D behavior in a patent race. In general, knowledge is an intangible good that gives a special feature of a patent race. Whether knowledge is substitutable to the existing knowledge ...

  9. Patents and Downstream Innovation Suppresion - Facts or Fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    of development as aircraft, the car, radio and electric lighting. Merges and Nelson quite logically use their work to question the value of Kitch's prospect theory of patents,[2] a theory that emphasises that the social value of patents is that they enable the coordination of technological development...... and R. Nelson, "On the Complex Economics of Patent Scope," Columbia Law Review 90, no. 4 (1990), R. Merges and R. Nelson, "On Limiting or Encouraging Rivalry in Technical Progress: The Effect of Patent Scope Decisions," Journal of Economic Behavior and Organisation 25 (1994). [2] Merges and Nelson, "On...

  10. 7 CFR 1150.184 - Patents, copyrights, inventions and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM... the rental, sale, leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or...

  11. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit of...

  12. Oficina española de patentes y marcas. Video

    OpenAIRE

    Vila Riudavets, Blanca

    2011-01-01

    Por qué utilizar las patentes como fuente de información tecnológica. Ventajas de las patentes: extensa colección de información técnica, información completa, novedosa, a veces única, en distintos idiomas, clasificada y en muchos casos de dominio público. Cómo localizar información sobre patentes. Información gratuita en Internet en la web de la OEPM: Boletines de Vigilancia Tecnológica, e-learning, etc. Bases de datos de patentes de oficinas internacionales gratuitas: esp@cenet, Register...

  13. Nano/micro-electro mechanical systems: a patent view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Guangyuan; Liu, Weishu

    2015-01-01

    Combining both bibliometrics and citation network analysis, this research evaluates the global development of micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) research based on the Derwent Innovations Index database. We found that worldwide, the growth trajectory of MEMS patents demonstrates an approximate S shape, with United States, Japan, China, and Korea leading the global MEMS race. Evidenced by Derwent class codes, the technology structure of global MEMS patents remains steady over time. Yet there does exist a national competitiveness component among the top country players. The latecomer China has become the second most prolific country filing MEMS patents, but its patent quality still lags behind the global average

  14. Applying patent information to tracking a specific technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yuan Liu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Patents in general contain much novel technological information. This paper demonstrates that the usage of patent analysis can facilitate a unique scheme for tracking technology development. In this paper, the walking technique of the Japanese biped robot is tracked as an example. The searching method of the FI (file index and F-term classification system developed by JPO (Japan Patent Office was employed in this study, where all the related patent data were searched from the IPDL (Intellectual Property Digital Library. This study investigated an important technique applied to the humanoid biped robot that imitates the walking behavior of the human beings on two legs. By analyzing the patent information obtained, the relative research capabilities, technical strengths, and patent citation conditions among patent competitors were compared. Furthermore, a formulated technical matrix of patent map is established in this paper to indicate that the ZMP (Zero Moment Point control means is the main technology to achieve stabilized walking control of the humanoid biped robot. This study also incorporates relevant academic journal findings and industrial information. Results presented herein demonstrate that patents can function not only as a map for tracking a technology trajectory, but also as a guide to the main development of a new technology in years to come.

  15. The Scope of Gene Patent Protection and the TRIPS Agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Tine

    2007-01-01

    The Scope of Gene Patent Protection and the TRIPS Agreement - An Exclusively Nondiscriminatory Approach?   Gene patenting in Europe has provoked much debate both before and since the adoption of Directive 98/44/EC on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions. Some of the major points...... of discussion have been focused on the scope of protection (e.g. purpose-bound protection) and gene patents being subject to a specific DNA regime on patent rights. The Directive can be interpreted as favouring such a solution, but so far the European Commission has decided neither to support nor reject...

  16. Transcatheter closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus through only venous route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Abdul Malik; Duke, Abdul Karim; Sattar, Hina

    2018-03-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus is a common congenital cardiac defect comprising 5-10% of all these defects in term neonates. Although open chest and video-assisted interruption are still in use, transcatheter occlusion has rapidly become the first choice for patent ductus arteriosus closure in the appropriate patient. Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus is widely done by transvenous approach guided by aortic access. We present the case of a 2 year old girl who underwent patent ductus arteriosus device occlusion with transvenous access only.

  17. Impedance analysis on organic ultrathin layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bom, Sidhant; Wagner, Veit [Jacobs University Bremen, School of Engineering and Science, Campus Ring 8, 28759 Bremen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Impedance spectroscopy is a standard technique for thin film analysis to obtain important information as thicknesses, diffusion properties of mobile ions and leakage currents. The measured electrical impedance of a sample is modeled by a physical equivalent circuit of resistors and capacitors. In the present work this information is obtained as a function of frequency also for ultrathin organic layers in the monolayer regime. A series of semiconducting and insulating polymers (regioregular poly-3-hexylthiophene (rr-P3HT), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)) and self assembled monolayers (octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS), hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), thiolated phospholipids) were deposited either on highly n-doped silicon wafers or on gold surfaces. E.g. ultrathin layers were obtained by dip coating a silicon wafer in rr-P3HT solution in chloroform. The thickness of 2 nm determined for this system by impedance measurement agrees well with the atomic force microscopy analysis and corresponds to a single layer of polymer chains. The leakage current is seen as an ohmic contribution at low frequencies and allows a systematic optimization of process parameters. In summary, impedance spectroscopy allows very fast and convenient analysis of thin organic layers even down to the monolayer regime.

  18. Impedances in lossy elliptical vacuum chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piwinski, A.

    1994-04-01

    The wake fields of a bunched beam caused by the resistivity of the chamber walls are investigated for a vacuum chamber with elliptical cross section. The longitudinal and transverse impedances are calculated for arbitrary energies and for an arbitrary position of the beam in the chamber. (orig.)

  19. Magnetically Coupled Impedance-Source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    input-to-output gain and the presence of an impedance network. The former means a high dc-link voltage, which can stress the semiconductor switches unnecessarily. The latter leads to increases in cost and size, which similarly are undesirable. To lessen these concerns, an interesting approach is to use...

  20. Impedance and collective effects in the KEKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Yongho [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Oide, Katsunobu

    1996-08-01

    This paper focuses on beam instabilities due to single-beam collective effects, impedances from various beamline elements, ion trapping, photo-electrons, and other issues in the KEKB. We will also discuss the power deposition generated by a beam in the form of the Higher-Order-Mode (HOM) losses by interacting with its surroundings. (author)

  1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis--part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyle, Ursula G; Bosaeus, Ingvar; De Lorenzo, Antonio D

    2004-01-01

    The use of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is widespread both in healthy subjects and patients, but suffers from a lack of standardized method and quality control procedures. BIA allows the determination of the fat-free mass (FFM) and total body water (TBW) in subjects without significant...

  2. Battery impedance spectroscopy using bidirectional grid connected ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shimul Kumar Dam

    Keywords. Impedance spectroscopy; grid connection; battery converter; state of charge; health monitoring. 1. Introduction .... the load should be within the safe range of operation specified by the ... A split capacitor damping scheme is adopted here as shown in ...... spectroscopy testing on the Advanced Technology Devel-.

  3. Introduction to impedance for short relativistic bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, P.L.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of impedance to calculate the wake field forces left behind by a short bunch which travels at relativistic speed through a structure with discontinuities. We will try to be as intuitive as possible and leave the more rigorous derivations to the second paper on this subject by J. Wang

  4. Impedance Control of a Redundant Parallel Manipulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Méndez, Juan de Dios Flores; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design of Impedance Control to a redundantly actuated Parallel Kinematic Manipulator. The proposed control is based on treating each limb as a single system and their connection through the internal interaction forces. The controller introduces a stiffness and damping...

  5. Microwave transmission-line impedance data

    CERN Document Server

    Gunston, M A R

    1996-01-01

    A compendium of data for computing the characteristic impedance of transmission lines based on physical dimensions. Covers both conventional structures and unusual geometries, including coaxial, eccentric and elliptic coaxial, twin-wire, wire-above-ground, microstrip and derivatives, stripline, slabline and trough line. Also details numerous configurations of coupled lines.

  6. Generalized impedances and wakes in asymmetric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, S.; Wagner, A.; Zotter, B.

    1998-01-01

    In rotationally structures, the dominant m = 0 longitudinal impedance does not depend on the offsets of either the leading or the trailing particles, while the dominant m = 1 transverse impedance is proportional to the offset of the leading particles, while it is still independent of the offsets of the trailing ones. This behavior is no longer true in rotationally non-symmetric structures, where in general all impedances depend on the offsets of both the leading and the trailing particles. The same behavior is shown by wake functions and wake potentials. The concept of generalized impedances or generalized wake functions must be used to calculate the effect of leading particles on trailing ones with different offsets, each described by two transverse coordinates. This dependence of wake potentials on four additional parameters (two for each offset) would make their use very cumbersome. Fortunately, it was found that the transverse wake potentials can be separated into superpositions of dipolar components, which are proportional to the offset of the leading bunch, and quadrupolar components, which are proportional to the offset of the trailing particles. Higher multipole components are much smaller, and can be neglected for most structures without rotational symmetry. In this report, the authors derive analytical expressions for these multipolar components, which permits estimates of the size of the neglected terms. In particular, when structures have one or two transverse symmetry planes, the expressions simplify and explain the behavior of wake potentials which had been computed for rotationally non-symmetric structures

  7. Detection of irradiated potatoes by impedance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Todoriki, S.; Otobe, K.; Sugiyama, J.

    1996-01-01

    Potato is one of the major food items to be treated with ionising radiation and potatoes are irradiated on a large scale in several countries. Every year around 15,000 t of potatoes are irradiated at doses of 60 to 150 Gy (average dose is about 100 Gy) in Japan. Although various methods to detect irradiated potatoes have been investigated, no established method has been reported. Measuring electrical conductivity or impedance of potatoes has been reported as a promising method for the detection of irradiated potatoes. In previous studies it has been found that the ratio of impedance magnitude at 50 kHz to that at 5 kHz, measured immediately after puncturing a potato tuber, is dependent upon the dose applied to the tuber, independent of storage temperature and stable during storage after irradiation. The aim of this study was to establish the optimum conditions for impedance measurement and to examine the applicability of the impedance measuring method to various cultivars (cv.) of potatoes. (author)

  8. 22 CFR 92.72 - Services in connection with patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... depends on who is making the application, the type of invention, and the circumstances of the case... this section regarding authentication of the authority of a foreign official. A notary or other... United States Patent Office.) (c) Authentication of authority of foreign official—(1) Necessity for...

  9. Does it matter where patent citations come from? : inventor versus examiner citations in European patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspagen, B.; Criscuolo, P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the distinction between patent citations added by the inventor or the examiner is relevant for the issue of geographical concentration of knowledge flows (as embodied in citations). The distinction between inventor and examiner citations enables us to work with a more

  10. Academic patenting and the professor's privilege

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissoni, Francesco; Lotz, Peter; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2009-01-01

    Siden 2000 har danske universiteter m.v. som følge af en særlig lov haft retten til de ansattes opfindelser. I artiklen undersøges på baggrund af en statistisk analyse af universitetsansattes bidrag som opfindere konsekvenserne af loven. Det påviser bl.a., at antallet af universitetsgenerede pate...... patenter ikke er forøget særligt som følge af loven, og at tredjemands ejerskab fortsat er særdeles vigtigt. Dette harmonerer med tendensen i øvrige europæiske lande....

  11. Patent Remedies: Online Management of IP Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Gordon

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper was inspired by work currently in progress under a DTI (Department of Trade and Industry funded KTP (Knowledge Transfer Partnership Project between Kennedy’s Patent and Glasgow Caledonian University. The project offers a unique opportunity to study the interplay between the firm's business exigencies, and the constantly evolving legal and procedural framework within which the firm operates. The particular focus of the paper is the issues raised by the provision of online legal/quasi-legal services in an ‘e-government’ context.

  12. Absorptive routines and international patent performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando E. García-Muiña

    2017-04-01

    We enrich the treatment of the absorptive capacity phases including the moderating effects between routines associated to the traditional potential-realized absorptive capacities. Taking into account external knowledge search strategies, the deeper external relationships, the better transference and appropriation of specific external knowledge. Nevertheless, when the moderating role of assimilation is included, cooperation agreements appear as the most efficient source of external knowledge. Finally, we show that technological tools let firms store and structure the information making easier its use for international patenting. This positive effect is reinforced in the presence of exploitation routines, since technological knowledge will better fit to the industry's key factors of success.

  13. Electrical impedance spectroscopy for measuring the impedance response of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer composite laminates

    KAUST Repository

    Almuhammadi, Khaled; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    impedance spectroscopy response at various frequencies of laminates chosen to be representative of classical layups employed in composite structures. We clarify the relationship between the frequency of the electrical current, the conductivity of the surface

  14. Beam measurements of the LHC impedance and validation of the impedance model

    CERN Document Server

    Esteban Müller, J F; Bohl, T; Mounet, N; Shaposhnikova, E; Timko, H

    2014-01-01

    Different measurements of the longitudinal impedance of the LHC done with single bunches with various intensities and longitudinal emittances during measurement sessions in 2011-2012 are compared with particle simulations based on the existing LHC impedance model. The very low reactive impedance of the LHC, with Im Z=n = 0.08, is not easy to measure. The most sensitive observation is the loss of Landau damping, which shows at which energy bunches become unstable depending on their parameters. In addition, the synchrotron frequency shift due to the reactive impedance was estimated following two methods. Firstly, it was obtained from the peak-detected Schottky spectrum. Secondly, a sine modulation in the RF phase was applied to the bunches of different intensities and the modulation frequency was scanned. In both cases, the synchrotron frequency shift was of the order of the measurement precision.

  15. Numerical calculation of beam coupling impedances in synchrotron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenichen, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Beams of charged particles are of interest in various fields of research including particle and nuclear physics, material and medical science and many more. In synchrotron accelerators the accelerating section is passed periodically. A closed loop trajectory is enforced, by increasing the frequency of the accelerating electric field and the magnitude of the dipolar magnetic guide field synchronously. A synchrotron therefore consists of a circular assembly of various beamline elements which serve the purposes of accelerating and guiding the particle beam. For the flawless operation of such a machine it has to be assured that the particles perform a controlled motion along predefined trajectories. Amongst others, the fulfillment of the corresponding stability criteria is in close conjuction with the so-called beam coupling impedances which are an important figure of merit for collective effects in synchrotron accelerators. This work focuses on analytical and numerical methods for the calculation of beam coupling impedances. One of the primary objectives is to gain a better understanding of the electrodynamics related to charged particle beams, furthermore to recapitulate the mathematical description of charged particle beams in both time and frequency domain and finally establish the links between actual physics and numerical modeling. Analytical methods are usually restricted to symmetrical geometry and may solely serve for the approximate determination of the field distribution in real geometries or to validate certain numerical methods. More accurate prognosis is only possible with three-dimensional simulation models. Numerical simulation techniques have been established in the second half of the last century accompanying the evolution of many particle accelerators. Classical time domain codes were the prevailing simulation tools where the actual process of the particle motion sequence is reproduced. For the present case of a heavy ion synchrotron accelerator

  16. Numerical calculation of beam coupling impedances in synchrotron accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenichen, Lukas

    2016-07-01

    Beams of charged particles are of interest in various fields of research including particle and nuclear physics, material and medical science and many more. In synchrotron accelerators the accelerating section is passed periodically. A closed loop trajectory is enforced, by increasing the frequency of the accelerating electric field and the magnitude of the dipolar magnetic guide field synchronously. A synchrotron therefore consists of a circular assembly of various beamline elements which serve the purposes of accelerating and guiding the particle beam. For the flawless operation of such a machine it has to be assured that the particles perform a controlled motion along predefined trajectories. Amongst others, the fulfillment of the corresponding stability criteria is in close conjuction with the so-called beam coupling impedances which are an important figure of merit for collective effects in synchrotron accelerators. This work focuses on analytical and numerical methods for the calculation of beam coupling impedances. One of the primary objectives is to gain a better understanding of the electrodynamics related to charged particle beams, furthermore to recapitulate the mathematical description of charged particle beams in both time and frequency domain and finally establish the links between actual physics and numerical modeling. Analytical methods are usually restricted to symmetrical geometry and may solely serve for the approximate determination of the field distribution in real geometries or to validate certain numerical methods. More accurate prognosis is only possible with three-dimensional simulation models. Numerical simulation techniques have been established in the second half of the last century accompanying the evolution of many particle accelerators. Classical time domain codes were the prevailing simulation tools where the actual process of the particle motion sequence is reproduced. For the present case of a heavy ion synchrotron accelerator

  17. Patent challenges for standard-setting in the global economy : lessons from information and communication industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maskus, K.; Merrill, S.A.; Bekkers, R.N.A.; Sandy Block, Marc; Contreras, Jorge; Gilbert, Richard; Goodman, David; Marasco, Amy; Simcoe, Tim; Smoot, Oliver; Suttmeier, Richard; Updegrove, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Patent Challenges for Standard-Setting in the Global Economy: Lessons from Information and Communication Technology examines how leading national and multinational standard-setting organizations (SSOs) address patent disclosures, licensing terms, transfers of patent ownership, and other issues that

  18. 75 FR 77878 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; FREESTYLE NAVIGATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    .... Patent No. 5,262,035) from Abbott Diabetes Care Inc., and the Patent and Trademark Office requested FDA's... diabetes mellitus for the purpose of improving diabetes management. Subsequent to this approval, the Patent...

  19. Measurement errors in multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analyzers with and without impedance electrode mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogónez-Franco, P; Nescolarde, L; Bragós, R; Rosell-Ferrer, J; Yandiola, I

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare measurement errors in two commercially available multi-frequency bioimpedance analyzers, a Xitron 4000B and an ImpediMed SFB7, including electrode impedance mismatch. The comparison was made using resistive electrical models and in ten human volunteers. We used three different electrical models simulating three different body segments: the right-side, leg and thorax. In the electrical models, we tested the effect of the capacitive coupling of the patient to ground and the skin–electrode impedance mismatch. Results showed that both sets of equipment are optimized for right-side measurements and for moderate skin–electrode impedance mismatch. In right-side measurements with mismatch electrode, 4000B is more accurate than SFB7. When an electrode impedance mismatch was simulated, errors increased in both bioimpedance analyzers and the effect of the mismatch in the voltage detection leads was greater than that in current injection leads. For segments with lower impedance as the leg and thorax, SFB7 is more accurate than 4000B and also shows less dependence on electrode mismatch. In both devices, impedance measurements were not significantly affected (p > 0.05) by the capacitive coupling to ground

  20. Patents for critical pharmaceuticals: the AZT case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackiron, E

    1991-01-01

    Patents and other statutory types of market protections are used in the United States to promote scientific research and innovation. This incentive is especially important in research intensive fields such as the pharmaceutical industry. Unfortunately, these same protections often result in higher monopoly pricing once a successful product is brought to market. Usually this consequence is viewed as the necessary evil of an incentive system that encourages costly research and development by promising large rewards to the successful inventor. However, in the case of the AIDS drug Zidovudine (AZT), the high prices charged by the pharmaceutical company owning the drug have led to public outcry and a re-examination of government incentive systems. This Note traces the evolution of these incentive programs--the patent system, and, to a lesser extent, the orphan drug program--and details the conflicting interests involved in their development. It then demonstrates how the AZT problem brings the interest of providing inventors with incentives for risky innovative efforts into a sharp collision with the ultimate goal of such systems: ensuring that the public has access to the resulting products at a reasonable price. Finally, the Note describes how Congress and the courts have attempted to resolve these problems in the past, and how they might best try to solve the AZT problem in the near future.