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Sample records for patent foramen ovale

  1. Patent Foramen Ovale: Is Stroke Due to Paradoxical Embolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranoux, D.; Cohen, A.; Cabanes, L.; Amarenco, P.; Bousser, M. G.; Mas, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Background and Purpose: A patent foramen ovale has been reported to be significantly more frequent in young stroke patients than in matched control subjects, and paradoxical embolism has been suggested as the main mechanism of stroke in-this situation. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis. Methods: Sixty-eight consecutive patients under 55 years of age presenting with an ischemic stroke had an extensive workup, including transesophageal echocardiography with contrast. We compared the prevalence of criteria for the diagnosis of paradoxical embolism in patients with and without a patent foramen ovale. Results: A patent foramen ovale was found in 32 patients (47%). A Valsalva-provoking activity was present at stroke onset in six patients with a patent foramen ovale and in eight patients with no patent foramen ovale (X(sup 2)=0.1, nonsignificant). Clinical/radiological features suggestive of an embolic mechanism were not more frequent in patients with a patent foramen ovale. Clinical evidence of deep vein thrombosis was present in one patient with a patent foramen ovale and in none of the others. No occult venous thrombosis was found in a subgroup of patients with a patent foramen ovale and no definite cause for stroke who underwent venography (n=13). Conclusions. Our results do not support the hypothesis that paradoxical embolism is the primary mechanism of stroke in patients with a patent foramen ovale. (Stroke 1993;24:31-34) KEY WORDS e cerebral ischemia e embolism foramen ovale, patent

  2. Patent foramen ovale and migraine attacks: a systematic review.

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    Lip, Philomena Z Y; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2014-05-01

    Migraine headache and the presence of a patent foramen ovale have been associated with each other, although the precise pathophysiological mechanism(s) are uncertain. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify the extent of patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs and to determine whether closure of a patent foramen ovale would improve migraine headache. An electronic literature search was performed to select studies between January 1980 and February 2013 that were relevant to the prevalence of patent foramen ovale and migraine, and the effects of intervention(s) on migraine attacks. Of the initial 368 articles presented by the initial search, 20 satisfied the inclusion criteria assessing patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs and 21 presented data on patent foramen ovale closure. In case series and cohort studies, patent foramen ovale prevalence in migraineurs ranged from 14.6% to 66.5%. Case-control studies reported a prevalence ranging from 16.0% to 25.7% in controls, compared with 26.8% to 96.0% for migraine with aura. The extent of improvement or resolution of migraine headache attack symptoms was variable. In case series, intervention ameliorated migraine headache attack in 13.6% to 92.3% of cases. One single randomized trial did not show any benefit from patent foramen ovale closure. The data overall do not exclude the possibility of a placebo effect for resolving migraine following patent foramen ovale closure. This systematic review demonstrates firstly that migraine headache attack is associated with a higher prevalence of patent foramen ovale than among the general population. Observational data suggest that some improvement of migraine would be observed if the patent foramen ovale were to be closed. A proper assessment of any interventions for patent foramen ovale closure would require further large randomized trials to be conducted given uncertainties from existing trial data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Symptomatic Patent Foramen Ovale with Hemidiaphragm Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspnea accounts for more than one-fourth of the hospital admissions from Emergency Department. Chronic conditions such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Congestive Heart Failure, and Asthma are being common etiologies. Less common etiologies include conditions such as valvular heart disease, pulmonary embolism, and right-to-left shunt (RLS from patent foramen ovale (PFO. PFO is present in estimated 20–30% of the population, mostly a benign condition. RLS via PFO usually occurs when right atrium pressure exceeds left atrium pressure. RLS can also occur in absence of higher right atrium pressure. We report one such case that highlights the importance of high clinical suspicion, thorough evaluation, and percutaneous closure of the PFO leading to significant improvement in the symptoms.

  4. Surgical Treatment for Thrombus Straddling a Patent Foramen Ovale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Barboza de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a case of a 41-year-old female with deep vein thrombosis after abdominal surgery. The patient quickly developed severe pulmonary embolism and stroke representative of paradoxical embolism. Echocardiography showed a thrombus straddling a patent foramen ovale, which was confirmed intraoperatively. An accurate diagnosis and rapid treatment decisions are crucial for preventing patient deterioration in the form of new pulmonary embolisms or stroke.

  5. Percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale in cryptogenic embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Bernhard; Kalesan, Bindu; Mattle, Heinrich P; Khattab, Ahmed A; Hildick-Smith, David; Dudek, Dariusz; Andersen, Grethe; Ibrahim, Reda; Schuler, Gerhard; Walton, Antony S; Wahl, Andreas; Windecker, Stephan; Jüni, Peter

    2013-03-21

    The options for secondary prevention of cryptogenic embolism in patients with patent foramen ovale are administration of antithrombotic medications or percutaneous closure of the patent foramen ovale. We investigated whether closure is superior to medical therapy. We performed a multicenter, superiority trial in 29 centers in Europe, Canada, Brazil, and Australia in which the assessors of end points were unaware of the study-group assignments. Patients with a patent foramen ovale and ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or a peripheral thromboembolic event were randomly assigned to undergo closure of the patent foramen ovale with the Amplatzer PFO Occluder or to receive medical therapy. The primary end point was a composite of death, nonfatal stroke, TIA, or peripheral embolism. Analysis was performed on data for the intention-to-treat population. The mean duration of follow-up was 4.1 years in the closure group and 4.0 years in the medical-therapy group. The primary end point occurred in 7 of the 204 patients (3.4%) in the closure group and in 11 of the 210 patients (5.2%) in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio for closure vs. medical therapy, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24 to 1.62; P=0.34). Nonfatal stroke occurred in 1 patient (0.5%) in the closure group and 5 patients (2.4%) in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.02 to 1.72; P=0.14), and TIA occurred in 5 patients (2.5%) and 7 patients (3.3%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.23 to 2.24; P=0.56). Closure of a patent foramen ovale for secondary prevention of cryptogenic embolism did not result in a significant reduction in the risk of recurrent embolic events or death as compared with medical therapy. (Funded by St. Jude Medical; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00166257.).

  6. Transcatheter Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale: Devices and Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Transcatheter closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) reduces the risk of recurrent cryptogenic stroke compared with medical therapy. PFO closure is a prophylactic procedure, and will not provide the patient with symptomatic improvement, except in cases of hypoxemia due to right-to-left shunt or possibly migraine headaches. Therefore, appropriate patient selection is critical, and procedural safety is paramount. Herein, we review key characteristics of the devices currently available for transcatheter PFO closure within the United States, and highlight key technical aspects of the PFO closure procedure that will maximize procedural success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A thrombus in transit through a patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibebuogu, Uzoma N; Khouzam, Rami N; Sharma, Gyanendra; Thornton, John W; Robati, Roshanak; Silverman, David

    2014-10-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a congenital heart defect that may first be diagnosed in adulthood and has a prevalence of 25% to 30%. Although many patients with PFO are asymptomatic and do not require treatment, paradoxical embolism can cause stroke or myocardial infarction. The authors report an unusual case of PFO with a transversing thrombus in an 80-year-old man. The patient's initial presentation appeared clinically as acute coronary syndrome, but he was subsequently diagnosed with a massive thrombus in transit via a PFO and pulmonary embolus leading to right-sided heart failure.

  8. Echocardiographic Follow-Up of Patent Foramen Ovale and the Factors Affecting Spontaneous Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ali; Aydin, Alperen; Demir, Tevfik; Aydin, Fatma; Ucar, Birsen; Kilic, Zubeyir

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the echocardiographic follow-up of patent foramen ovale, which is considered a potential etiological factor in various diseases, and to determine the factors affecting spontaneous closure. Between January 2000 and June 2012, records of 918 patients with patent foramen ovale were retrospectively reviewed. Patency of less than 3 mm around the fossa ovalis is called patent foramen ovale. Patients with cyanotic congenital heart diseases, severe heart valve disorders and severe hemodynamic left to right shunts were excluded from the study. The patients were divided into three groups based on age; 1 day-1 month in group 1, 1 month-12 months in group 2, and more than 12 months in group 3. Of the 918 patients, 564 (61.4%) had spontaneous closure, 328 (35.8%) had patent foramen ovale continued, 15 (1.6%) patients had patent foramen ovale enlarged to 3-5 mm, 6 patients were enlarged to 5-8 mm, and in one patient patent foramen ovale reached to more than 8 mm size. Defect was spontaneously closed in 65.9% of the patients in group 1, 66.7% of the patients in group 2, and 52.3% of the patients in group 3. There was a negative correlation between the age of diagnosis and spontaneous closure (p patent ductus arteriosus and atrial septal aneurysm did not have any effect on spontaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (p > 0.05). However, ventricular septal defect and spontaneous closure of patent foramen ovale had a positive correlation (p closure rate of patent foramen ovale is high. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between spontaneous closure of patent foramen ovale with early diagnosis and small defect size.

  9. Patent Foramen Ovale Closure or Antiplatelet Therapy for Cryptogenic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Lars; Kasner, Scott E; Rhodes, John F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy of closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) in the prevention of recurrent stroke after cryptogenic stroke is uncertain. We investigated the effect of PFO closure combined with antiplatelet therapy versus antiplatelet therapy alone on the risks of recurrent stroke and new...... brain infarctions. METHODS: In this multinational trial involving patients with a PFO who had had a cryptogenic stroke, we randomly assigned patients, in a 2:1 ratio, to undergo PFO closure plus antiplatelet therapy (PFO closure group) or to receive antiplatelet therapy alone (antiplatelet-only group......). Imaging of the brain was performed at the baseline screening and at 24 months. The coprimary end points were freedom from clinical evidence of ischemic stroke (reported here as the percentage of patients who had a recurrence of stroke) through at least 24 months after randomization and the 24-month...

  10. Sex differences in cryptogenic stroke with patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeltchev, Krassen; Wiedmer, Sebastian; Schwerzmann, Markus; Windecker, Stephan; Haefeli, Tobias; Meier, Bernhard; Mattle, Heinrich P; Arnold, Marcel

    2008-09-01

    Sex differences in patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO) and cryptogenic stroke have not been systematically analyzed. We aimed to determine sex influences on demographics, vascular risk factors, clinical manifestations, stroke location, and clinical outcome. One thousand two hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were admitted to a single stroke center. All patients underwent a complete stroke workup including clinical examination, standard blood tests, cerebral and vascular imaging, transesophageal echocardiography, and 24-hour electrocardiography. In 500 patients, no definite etiology could be established (cryptogenic stroke/TIA). Of them, 167 patients (107 men and 60 women, mean age 52 +/- 13 years) had an PFO. The prevalence of PFO in patients with cryptogenic stroke or TIA was higher in men than in women (38% vs 28%, P = .014). Stroke severity and the prevalence of risk factors did not differ between the 2 sexes. There was an independent association between male sex and stroke location in the posterior cerebral circulation (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.4-6.5, P = .006). Men and women did not differ in respect to PFO grade, prevalence of right-to-left shunt at rest, or coexistence of atrial septal aneurysm. Clinical outcome at 3 months was similar in both sexes. Patent foramen ovale was more prevalent in men than in women with cryptogenic stroke. There were no sex influences on age, risk factors, echocardiographic characteristics of PFO, or clinical outcome. Male sex was independently associated with stroke in the posterior cerebral circulation.

  11. Establishment of a porcine model of patent foramen ovale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Weijian; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of developing an animal model of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in piglets by percutaneous atrial septal puncture and balloon dilation. Methods: A standardized percutaneous atrial trans-septal puncture and balloon dilation was conducted in eleven healthy piglets under general anesthesia. A Rups-100 system inserted through a femoral vein was used for the trans-septal puncture, and subsequent balloon dilatation was performed at the puncture site to imitate a PFO. Euthanasia and autopsy were performed on day-1 in 1 piglet (early autopsy), and on day-21 in the remaining 10 piglets (late autopsy). Results: Artificial PFO was successfully created in all piglets and verified by fluoroscopy. No major technical difficulty or complication was encountered except in one which developed mild hemopericardium. In the piglet which had early autopsy, the artificial foramen was measured 0.8 cm x 0.7 cm in cross-section and aggregates of erythrocytes were revealed over its rim under light microscopy. In the late autopsy group (n=10), 7 piglets had the created foramens healed and sealed off; while the other 3 showed relatively small residual lumens measuring 0.1 cm x 0.2 cm, 0.2 cm x 0.2 cm and 0.1 cm x 0.3 cm in cross-section respectively. Histological examination of specimens from the late autopsy group showed variable neointima hyperplasia, loss of neointima, infiltration of lymphocytes, focal hydropic degeneration of cardiac muscle, and focal fibrosis of interstitium at the immediate vicinity of regardless of the course of healing. Conclusion: Artificial creation of PFO in piglets is feasible by percutaneous atrial septal puncture and balloon dilation. This protocol may serve as a research model for PFO-related stroke in human. (authors)

  12. Paradoxical embolization via a patent foramen ovale following acute pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.V.; Bynevelt, V.; Price, R.

    2005-01-01

    The foramen ovale is usually obliterated following establishment of the adult circulation but remains patent in 25% of individuals. This potential communication between the venous and arterial circulations can allow thromboembolic material to bypass the lungs and enter the systemic circulation. We report two cases of paradoxical embolization through a patent foramen ovale following acute large pulmonary embolism (PE) and discuss the factors that predispose to paradoxical embolization following PE Copyright (2005) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  13. Anatomy of the patent foramen ovale for the interventionalist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Jeff A; Edwards, William D; Hagler, Donald J

    2009-05-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an interatrial communication whose management is controversial. Several manufacturers have submitted protocols for Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of their PFO closure device. The purpose of this study was to define anatomy relevant to percutaneous PFO closure, validate the clinical observation that most PFOs contain little tissue rim at the aorta, comment on proposed closure guidelines, and to discuss approaches to PFO closure. From the Mayo Clinic Tissue Registry, five normal hearts with PFO were selected from each sex from the first 10 decades of life (n = 100). Measurements (mm) included PFO length, diameter, and distance from FO-superior vena cava (SVC) and FO-aortic annulus (AoAn). Patient age, weight, and height were obtained from autopsy reports, and body surface area (BSA) was calculated. PFO length and diameter increased with age (P = 0.029 and 0.001, respectively), and FO-SVC and FO-AoAn increased with BSA (P women than men (P = 0.028). Using current sizing guidelines, 66% (CI = 56-75%) of the 100 patients would have been excluded from device closure, and only 31% could have received the smallest (18 mm) device. Our results suggest that the proposed device closure guidelines may result in inappropriate device sizing. In addition to excluding suitable candidates, strict application of the guidelines could also result in incomplete closure or device embolization. Suggestions for modification of the guidelines and options for device closure are discussed.

  14. Effectiveness of percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale for hypoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenster, Brett E; Nguyen, Bryant H; Buckner, J Kern; Freeman, Andrew M; Carroll, John D

    2013-10-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure to improve systemic hypoxemia. Although PFO-mediated right-to-left shunt (RTLS) is associated with hypoxemia, the ability of percutaneous closure to ameliorate hypoxemia is unknown. Between 2004 and 2009, 97 patients who underwent PFO closure for systemic hypoxemia and dyspnea that was disproportionate to underlying lung disease were included for evaluation. All patients exhibited PFO-mediated RTLS as determined by agitated saline echocardiography. Procedural success was defined as implantation of a device without major complications and mild or no residual shunt at 6 months. Clinical success was defined as a composite of an improvement in New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, reduction of dyspnea symptoms, or decreased oxygen requirement. Procedural success was achieved in 96 of 97 (99%), and clinical success was achieved in 68 of 97 (70%). The presence of any moderate or severe interatrial shunt by agitated saline study (odds ratio [OR] = 4.7; p gender (OR = 0.30; p <0.017) decreased the likelihood of success. In conclusion, based on the largest single-center experience of patients referred for PFO closure for systemic hypoxemia, PFO closure was a mechanically effective procedure with an associated improvement in echocardiographic evidence of RTLS, NYHA functional class, and oxygen requirement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Patent foramen ovale: detection with nongated multidetector CT.

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    Revel, Marie-Pierre; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Letourneau, Thierry; Henon, Hilde; Leys, Didier; Delannoy-Deken, Valérie; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Remy, Jacques

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate nongated multidetector computed tomography (CT) in the detection of patent foramen ovale (PFO) and atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) in comparison with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). The study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. One hundred five patients (57 men, 48 women; mean age, 53 years) with a recent stroke underwent TEE and multidetector CT on the same day. After injection of a diluted iodinated contrast material, a series of 2.4-mm-thick transverse images centered on the fossa ovalis were acquired in conjunction with release of the Valsalva maneuver. Two independent radiologists considered PFO present if left atrial enhancement was detected visually before enhancement of the pulmonary veins or if an early peak of left atrial enhancement was found at time-attenuation curve analysis. PFO was detected with 98% specificity (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.91, 0.99). Overall sensitivity was 55% (95% CI: 0.38, 0.70), ranging from 28% for shunts classified as grade 1 at TEE to 91% for those classified as grade 4 at TEE. Interreader agreement was good (kappa = 0.81). Visual assessment was better than time-attenuation curve analysis, which enabled detection of only 15 of the 40 cases of PFO. Multidetector CT depicted only 22% of cases of ASA. The mean effective radiation dose was 2.3 mSv. Nongated multidetector CT can be used to diagnose high-grade shunts through a PFO, with 91% sensitivity and 98% specificity. Thus, PFO detection, in addition to routine CT evaluation of the lungs, could be indicated in patients with unexplained hypoxemia. (c) RSNA, 2008.

  16. Imaging of patent foramen ovale with 64-section multidetector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Farhood; Channual, Stephanie; Raney, Aidan; Gurudevan, Swaminatha V; Narula, Jagat; Fowler, Steven; Abolhoda, Amir; Milliken, Jeffrey C

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the feasibility of 64-section multidetector computed tomography (CT) by using CT angiography (a) to demonstrate anatomic detail of the interatrial septum pertinent to the patent foramen ovale (PFO), and (b) to visually detect left-to-right PFO shunts and compare these findings in patients who also underwent transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). In this institutional review board-approved HIPAA-compliant study, electrocardiographically gated coronary CT angiograms in 264 patients (159 men, 105 women; mean age, 60 years) were reviewed for PFO morphologic features. The length and diameter of the opening of the PFO tunnel, presence of atrial septal aneurysm (ASA), and PFO shunts were evaluated. A left-to-right shunt was assigned a grade according to length of contrast agent jet (grade 1, 1 cm to 2 cm; grade 3, >2 cm). In addition, 23 patients who underwent both modalities were compared (Student t test and linear regression analysis). A difference with P patent at the entry into the right atrium (PFO) in 62 patients (61.4% of patients with flap valve, 23.5% of total patients). A left-to-right shunt was detected in 44 (16.7% of total) patients (grade 1, 61.4%; grade 2, 34.1%; grade 3, 4.5%). No shunt was seen in patients without a flap valve. Mean length of PFO tunnel was 7.1 mm in 44 patients with a shunt and 12.1 mm in 57 patients with a flap valve without a shunt (P < .0001). In patients with a tunnel length of 6 mm or shorter, 92.6% of the shunts were seen. ASA was seen in 11 (4.2%) patients; of these patients, a shunt was seen in seven (63.6%). In 23 patients who underwent CT angiography and TEE, both modalities showed a PFO shunt in seven. Multidetector CT provides detailed anatomic information about size, morphologic features, and shunt grade of the PFO. Shorter tunnel length and septal aneurysms are frequently associated with left-to-right shunts in patients with PFO. (c) RSNA, 2008.

  17. Clinical impact of patent foramen ovale diagnosis with transcranial Doppler.

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    Anzola, Gian Paolo

    2002-11-01

    The role of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in cryptogenic stroke is still debated, but from recent follow-up studies it seems that the amount of right-to-left shunt (RLS) and the association with atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) are major determinants of stroke recurrence. PFO and RLS through the atrial chambers have been recently studied in a number of conditions not or marginally related to cerebrovascular disease. Historically the first studies addressed the presence of RLS in scuba divers as a possible abnormality related to decompression sickness (DS) of unknown aetiology. Despite initial debate there is now robust evidence to claim that patency of foramen ovale increases the risk of developing DS by two and half to four times. Patients with PFO-related DS tend to have early occurrence of symptoms after surfacing and a clinical presentation that indicates brain or upper cervical spinal cord involvement. Recent reports suggest that divers with hemodynamically significant RLS may have an increased risk of developing clinically asymptomatic multiple brain lesions. PFO has been found in patients suffering from migraine with aura with approximately the same frequency as that encountered in cryptogenic stroke patients. This finding has prompted speculations on the possible role of RLS in increasing the stroke risk in migraineurs and in the pathophysiology of the aura. Recent reports showing that migraine with aura is dramatically improved after transcatheter closure of PFO suggest that migraine with aura may indeed be triggered by humoral factors that reach the brain by escaping the pulmonary filter. A RLS is involved in a rare condition known as platypnea-orthodeoxia and perhaps underlies an increased risk of cerebral complications after major orthopedic surgery. Valsalva-like activities often precede the occurrence of attacks of transient global amnesia (TGA) and abnormalities consistent with hypoperfusion of deep limbic structures have been reported during a typical TGA

  18. Adult brain abscess associated with patent foramen ovale: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stathopoulos Georgios T

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brain abscess results from local or metastatic septic spread to the brain. The primary infectious site is often undetected, more commonly so when it is distant. Unlike pediatric congenital heart disease, minor intracardiac right-to-left shunting due to patent foramen ovale has not been appreciated as a cause of brain abscess in adults. Here we present a case of brain abscess associated with a patent foramen ovale in a 53-year old man with dental-gingival sepsis treated in the intensive care unit. Based on this case and the relevant literature we suggest a link between a silent patent foramen ovale, paradoxic pathogen dissemination to the brain, and development of brain abscess.

  19. Patent Foramen Ovale as a Risk Factor for Altitude Decompression Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    Medical Issues in Hypo-and Hyperbaric Conditions [les Questions medicales a caractere oprationel liees aux conditions hypobares ou hyperbares ] To order the...on "Operational Medical Issues in Hypo- and Hyperbaric Conditions ", held in Toronto, Canada, 16-19 October 2000, and published in RTO MP-062. 3-2...Space Environ Med 1996; 67: 1092-6. Powell MR, Norfleet WT, Kumar KV, Butler BD. Patent foramen ovale and hypobaric decompression. Aviat Space Environ

  20. Retrieval of Embolized Amplatzer Patent Foramen Ovale Occlusion Device: Issues Related to Late Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan J. Davies

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Embolization of a percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO closure device is a rare but serious complication. While early, periprocedural device embolization can normally be managed with snare and percutaneous retrieval, late embolization requires a different management strategy due to inability of the device to deform to allow passage into a large caliber sheath. We present a case of asymptomatic device embolization recognized six months following implantation and discuss the challenges encountered in successfully retrieving the device.

  1. Patent foramen ovale influences the presentation of decompression illness in SCUBA divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Kevin; Wolfers, Darren; Turner, Robert; Bennett, Michael; Allan, Roger; Jepson, Nigel; Cranney, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Few have examined the influence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) on the phenotype of decompression illness (DCI) in affected divers. A retrospective review of our database was performed for 75 SCUBA divers over a 10-year period. Overall 4,945 bubble studies were performed at our institution during the study period. Divers with DCI were more likely to have positive bubble studies than other indications (pAustralia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Can patent foramen ovale affect rehabilitation? The uncommon association of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallerini, S; Calchetti, B; Cianchi, C; Di Troia, A M; Madonna, R; Cresti, A; Mancuso, M

    2011-06-01

    Platypnea-orthodeoxia is a rare syndrome characterized by dyspnea and deoxygenation induced by a change to a sitting or standing from a recumbent position. It is the result of posturally accentuated intracardiac or pulmonary right-to-left shunt leading to arterial oxygen desaturation. Only few cases of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome are reported in the literature and the association between stroke and platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome with evidence of patent foramen ovale is extremely rare. We describe the case of a 67-year-old female admitted to our Rehabilitation Unit for disabling basilar stroke due to paradoxical embolism from patent foramen ovale that during the first days of rehabilitation showed signs and symptoms of platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome. To remove a life-threatening condition for the patient and in order to develop the normal rehabilitation project, that was stopped by the platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome, the patient fastly underwent to percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale. The stabilization of oxygen arterial saturation with postural changes and the disappearance of symptoms of POS allowed to develop the rehabilitation project with progressive neurological improvement.

  3. Patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke. Echocardiography role and state of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo U, Mario H

    2008-01-01

    The causes of ischemic stroke in young patients are difficult to find, in spite of systematic investigations directed to rule out heart etiology, alterations in coagulation or any other type of vascular disease; hence the cryptogenic definition. There have been speculations regarding the potential role of right-to-left intracardiac shunts as a path for paradoxical embolisms that result in ischemic cerebral disease. Transesophagic echocardiography with peripheral venous injection of saline contrast has shown to be the preferred method for the diagnosis of patent foramen ovale and right-to-left shunt. Prospective studies using acetylsalicylic acid or warfarin have not shown significant reduction of recurrent strokes. Even though both surgical and percutaneous closure of the patent foramen ovale have shown to decrease the rate of subsequent embolic episodes, their indication remains under discussion, at least until the appearance of randomized clinical trials, now under development. However, the cases of recurrent paradoxical embolism and those in professional scuba divers, both with intra-atrial septum aneurysm and an associated patent foramen ovale, are the only unequivocal indications for percutaneous closure. Successful closure, defined by transesophagic echocardiography, seems to predict lack of recurrent embolic events. As the complication rate of device implantation may decrease and these devices become technologically simple, percutaneous closure will prevail over surgical closure

  4. Patent foramen ovale and the risk of ischemic stroke in a multiethnic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tullio, Marco R; Sacco, Ralph L; Sciacca, Robert R; Jin, Zhezhen; Homma, Shunichi

    2007-02-20

    We sought to assess the risk of ischemic stroke from a patent foramen ovale (PFO) in the multiethnic prospective cohort of northern Manhattan. Patent foramen ovale has been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, mainly in case-control studies. The actual PFO-related stroke risk in the general population is unclear. The presence of PFO was assessed at baseline by using transthoracic 2-dimensional echocardiography with contrast injection in 1,100 stroke-free subjects older than 39 years of age (mean age 68.7 +/- 10.0 years) from the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS). The presence of atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) also was recorded. Subjects were followed annually for outcomes. We assessed PFO/ASA-related stroke risk after adjusting for established stroke risk factors. We detected PFO in 164 subjects (14.9%); ASA was present in 27 subjects (2.5%) and associated with PFO in 19 subjects. During a mean follow-up of 79.7 +/- 28.0 months, an ischemic stroke occurred in 68 subjects (6.2%). After adjustment for demographics and risk factors, PFO was not found to be significantly associated with stroke (hazard ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87 to 3.09). The same trend was observed in all age, gender, and race-ethnic subgroups. The coexistence of PFO and ASA did not increase the stroke risk (adjusted hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 0.17 to 9.24). Isolated ASA was associated with elevated stroke incidence (2 of 8, or 25%; adjusted hazard ratio 3.66, 95% CI 0.88 to 15.30). Patent foramen ovale, alone or together with ASA, was not associated with an increased stroke risk in this multiethnic cohort. The independent role of ASA needs further assessment in appositely designed and powered studies.

  5. Correlation or causation: untangling the relationship between patent foramen ovale and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Eric; Love, Barry; Giovannone, Steve; Volpicelli, Frank; Goldman, Martin E

    2007-03-01

    Observational evidence from the literature has shown an association between migraine headaches and patent foramen ovale (PFO). This observation has led to hypotheses that could explain the etiology of migraines in those with a PFO, including right-to-left shunting of venous agents such as serotonin that are normally broken down in the pulmonary circulation. Further evidence suggests that closure of a PFO may improve migraine symptoms and serve as an effective treatment modality for migraines. Several randomized controlled double-blinded studies are underway that will more definitively establish the role of specific devices in PFO closure in those suffering from migraines.

  6. Spectral Doppler interrogation of the patent foramen ovale-a window to left heart hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Bahaa M; Husain, Aysha; Bakarman, Hatem; Dahdouh, Ziad; Salvo, Giovanni Di; Mohty, Dania

    2015-02-01

    Spectral Doppler interrogation of flow across a patent foramen ovale (PFO) allows recording of the instantaneous pressure gradient between left and right atrium (RA). The assessment of RA pressure using the size and collapsibility of the inferior vena cava would thus allow estimation of left atrial (LA) pressure. In this article, we illustrate the value of spectral Doppler interrogation of flow across the PFO by transthoracic echocardiography as a novel and simple tool for the assessment of LA pressure and left cardiac hemodynamics in addition to the conventional noninvasive parameters. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Non-obstructive carotid atherosclerosis and patent foramen ovale in young adults with cryptogenic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffre, A; Guidolin, B; Ruidavets, J-B; Nasr, N; Larrue, V

    2017-05-01

    Up to 50% of ischaemic strokes in young adults are classified as cryptogenic despite extensive work-up. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of non-obstructive carotid atherosclerosis (NOCA) and its association with patent foramen ovale (PFO) in young adults with cryptogenic stroke (CS). Patients aged 18-54 years, consecutively treated for first-ever CS in an academic stroke service, were included. NOCA was assessed using carotid ultrasound examination and was defined as carotid plaque with young adults with CS. NOCA is negatively associated with PFO. Detecting NOCA is an important component of stroke investigation in young adults. © 2017 EAN.

  8. A 51-year-old man with intramedullary spinal cord abscess having a patent foramen ovale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Kanako; Ishihara, Hiroyuki; Okuda, Shiho; Kanda, Fumio

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 51-year-old man with intramedullary spinal cord abscess (ISCA) having a patent foramen ovale (PFO). He developed fever and tetraplegia after a recent dental treatment. MRI showed ISCA with longitudinal swelling from the upper cervical to the lumbar spinal cord. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis indicated bacterial meningitis, and the culture of CSF revealed Streptococcus viridans. Transoesophageal echocardiography revealed the existence of a PFO. We suspected another possibility other than systemic bacteraemia, that paradoxical bacteric embolisation through PFO after the dental treatment caused ISCA. While several reports of brain abscess with PFO are available, this is the first report of ISCA with PFO. PMID:22696715

  9. Isolated brain metastases of osteosarcoma in a patient presenting with a patent foramen ovale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menassa, L.; Haddad, S.; Aoun, N.; Slaba, S.; Atallah, N.

    1997-01-01

    We report the case of a patient in whom brain MR imaging was requested for initial symptoms of intracranial hypertension. The presence of multiple intracranial hemorrhagic lesions suggested brain metastases. Body screening showed periosteal osteosarcoma of the left fibula with no lung metastases, but with a patent foramen ovale which probably allowed neoplastic cells to reach the brain without being filtered through the lungs. The conclusion of this study was that a left-right cardiac communication is to be considered in cases of isolated brain metastases from osteosarcoma. (orig.). With 3 figs

  10. To Be or Not to Be Patent: The Relationship Between Migraine and Patent Foramen Ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahya Eren, Nihan; Bülbül, Nazlı G; Yakar Tülüce, Selcen; Nazlı, Cem; Beckmann, Yeşim

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is a common neurological disorder with an uncertain pathogenesis. A pathophysiological link has been proposed between the migraine headache and patent foramen ovale (PFO). However, the data about the association of migraine with the presence of PFO are conflicting. The study aims to prospectively investigate the prevalence of PFO in patients with migraine compared with that of control subjects. A total of 203 migraineous patients and 212 control subjects with similar demographic characteristics to that of case subjects regarding age and gender were included in the study. Transthoracic echocardiography with agitated saline injection was used to evaluate the presence of PFO. PFO was judged to be present if any microbubble was seen in the left cardiac chambers within the first 5 cardiac cycles from the maximum right atrial opacification at rest or after provocative maneuvers. Mean age of the patients was 37.2 ± 9.8 years and 93% were female. Migraine with aura was present in 32% (n = 65) of the patients. The prevalence of PFO was similar in patients with migraine and the control subjects (42% vs 44%; odds ratio 0.90, 95% confidence interval 0.61-1.33, P = .61). Likewise, the prevalence of PFO was similar in migraineurs patients with or without aura (41% vs 42%; odds ratio 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.51-1.76, P = .87). This study suggest that PFO is not more common in patients with migraine compared with healthy subjects. Therefore, our findings suggest that the relationship between migraine headache and the presence of PFO is questionable. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  11. Effect of a patent foramen ovale in humans on thermal responses to passive cooling and heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James T; Hay, Madeline W; Hardin, Alyssa M; White, Matthew D; Lovering, Andrew T

    2017-12-01

    Humans with a patent foramen ovale (PFO) have a higher esophageal temperature (T esoph ) than humans without a PFO (PFO-). Thus the presence of a PFO might also be associated with differences in thermal responsiveness to passive cooling and heating such as shivering and hyperpnea, respectively. The purpose of this study was to determine whether thermal responses to passive cooling and heating are different between PFO- subjects and subjects with a PFO (PFO+). We hypothesized that compared with PFO- subjects PFO+ subjects would cool down more rapidly and heat up slower and that PFO+ subjects who experienced thermal hyperpnea would have a blunted increase in ventilation. Twenty-seven men (13 PFO+) completed two trials separated by >48 h: 1 ) 60 min of cold water immersion (19.5 ± 0.9°C) and 2 ) 30 min of hot water immersion (40.5 ± 0.2°C). PFO+ subjects had a higher T esoph before and during cold water and hot water immersion ( P heating. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is found in ~25-40% of the population. The presence of a PFO appears to be associated with a greater core body temperature and blunted ventilatory responses during passive heating. The reason for this blunted ventilatory response to passive heating is unknown but may suggest differences in thermal sensitivity in PFO+ subjects compared with PFO- subjects. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Prevalence of patent foramen ovale with right-to-left shunting in dogs with pulmonic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Y; Nishimoto, Y; Sunahara, H; Takano, H; Aoki, T

    2012-01-01

    Right-to-left (R-L) shunt caused by patent foramen ovale (PFO) concurrent with pulmonic stenosis (PS) is considered common, although there is a lack of published evidence. To investigate the prevalence of R-L shunt caused by a PFO in dogs with PS. Thirty-one client-owned dogs with PS, without obvious extracardiac disease detected on the clinical examinations. Case control study: R-L shunt probably caused by PFO was diagnosed when IV injected microbubbles appeared at the left atrial level with an intact atrial septum on echocardiography (bubble-positive dogs). The severity of PS concurrent tricuspid regurgitation (TR), relative thickness of the right ventricle, and relative right atrial area were compared between bubble-positive and bubble-negative dogs. The prevalence of R-L shunts caused by PFO was 39% (12 of 31 cases). The instantaneous pressure gradient (PG) across the pulmonic valve and relative thickness of the right ventricle were significantly increased in bubble-positive compared with those in bubble-negative dogs. None of the dogs with mild or moderate PS (pressure gradient dogs was significantly higher than that in bubble-negative dogs. DISCUSSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Patent foramen ovale PFO with R-L shunt was more common in dogs with very severe PS and absent in dogs with mild PS. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Long-term follow up after transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect and patent foramen ovale in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jure Dolenc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of our study was to define long-term electrocardiographic and echocardiographic changes and complications after transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect and patent foramen ovale in adults.Methods: The clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic follow-up of 137 consecutive patients that underwent transcatheter closure of atrial septal defect (51 patients or patent foramen ovale (86 patients in a 10-year period was analyzed retrospectively.Results: In the patent foramen ovale group, we observed no significant postprocedural changes. There were no changes in heart rate, heart rhythm and PR or QRS duration in both groups. In the atrial septal defect group, we observed a leftward shift in the heart axis (p = 0.017, a decrease in the estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (p = 0.024, decreased tricuspid early diastolic flow velocity (p = 0.002, a decrease in the right chamber dimensions (p = 0.0004 and interventricular septal movement normalization (p < 0.0001. Most of the complications were mild and occurred early after the procedure. Three early serious complications were documented.Conclusions: No electrocardiographic or echocardiographic changes occurred after patent foramen ovale closure. Atrial septal defect closure is related to significant early morphological and hemodynamic improvement. Postprocedural complications are usually early and mild but serious late complications can occur. For that reason, long-term follow up is recommended in these patients.

  14. Multidetector Row CT Detection of a Patent Foramen Ovale Causing Neurologic Deficits in an Adolescent: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Bin [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hun; Oh, Jae Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hye Sun [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Suk, Eun Ha [Dept. of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a persisting fetal circulation structural abnormality that can cause neurologic deficits such as migraine and cryptogenic stroke. Here we report a case of PFO diagnosed by cardiac multidetector row CT in an adolescent male with chronic migraine and stroke.

  15. Multidetector Row CT Detection of a Patent Foramen Ovale Causing Neurologic Deficits in an Adolescent: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Bin; Kim, Dong Hun; Oh, Jae Hee; Seo, Hye Sun; Suk, Eun Ha

    2012-01-01

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a persisting fetal circulation structural abnormality that can cause neurologic deficits such as migraine and cryptogenic stroke. Here we report a case of PFO diagnosed by cardiac multidetector row CT in an adolescent male with chronic migraine and stroke.

  16. [Migraine with aura and patent foramen ovale. A different clinical entity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Moreno, J M; Casado-Naranjo, I; Gómez, M; Portilla, Jc; Caballero, M; Serrano, A; Ojalvo, M J; Falcón, A; Tena-Mora, D; Calle, M

    2008-10-01

    This work has aimed to evaluate the prevalence of patent foramen ovale in subjects with migraine with aura by transcranial contrast doppler and to describe the clinical and risk profile of these patients. We performed a transcranial contrast doppler in 94 consecutive out-patients with migraine with aura (MWA) in a neurology outpatient clinic. They were divided into two groups according to the presence of patent foramen ovale: MWA_RLsh (with right-to-left shunt) and MWA_RLNsh (without right-to-left shunt). Differences between the groups were analyzed according to endpoints of age, gender, clinical severity, aura type and attacks frequency, comorbility, cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs), neuroimaging findings, severity of shunt and treatment. n=94; MWA_RLsh: 47 (54%). MWA_RLNsh: 40 (46%). Age: 33.13; standard desviation (SD): 10.8 vs 33.496; SD: 11.2; p=0.728. Female: 66 vs 72.5%; p=0.511. Visual aura: 73.9% vs 78.9%; p=0.921. There were no significant differences in regards to the risk factors studied or to the comorbid diseases that are associated to migraine. The patients with patent foramen ovale have an odds ratio (OR) of ischemic stroke: 1.189 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.226 to 6.248; p=0.840), OR for subclinical brain lesions in cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): 0.589 (95% CI: 0.193 to 1.799; p=0.35) and OR for combined previous ischemic stroke and subclinical brain lesions: 0.745 (95% CI: 0.261 to 2.129; p=0.58). Migraine attack frequency >1 per month: 27.9 vs 36.4; p=0.464. Need for prophylaxis therapy: 44.7 vs 57.7%; p=0.284. Both groups are similar regarding their clinical profile. We did not find a greater prevalence of stroke or silent brain lesions in the group with positive shunt..

  17. Multidisciplinary Assessment in Optimising Results of Percutaneous Patent Foramen Ovale Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Allan; Ekmejian, Avedis; Collins, Nicholas; Bhagwandeen, Rohan

    2017-03-01

    Percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure is a therapeutic option to prevent recurrent cerebral ischaemia in patients with cryptogenic stroke and transient cerebral ischaemia (TIA). The apparent lack of benefit seen in previous randomised trials has, in part, reflected inclusion of patients with alternate mechanisms of stroke. The role of formal neurology involvement in accurately delineating the likely aetiology of stroke or TIA is crucial in appropriate identification of patients for device closure. Furthermore, as the benefits of device closure may accrue over time, long-term follow-up is essential to define the role of device closure in management of presumed cryptogenic stroke. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with percutaneous PFO device closure since 2005. All subjects who underwent PFO closure at John Hunter and Lake Macquarie Private Hospitals were included in the study. All patients referred for device closure following cryptogenic stroke or TIA had first undergone formal neurology review with appropriate imaging and exclusion of paroxysmal atrial arrhythmia. Patients with a history of transient ischaemic attack (TIA) are frequently referred to a specialised clinic, aimed to identify patients with conditions not referable to cerebral ischaemia, with investigations initiated by the specialist clinic to elucidate an underlying aetiology. Outcome data was derived from the Hunter New England Area Local Health District Cardiac and Stroke Outcomes Unit, in addition to review of the medical record. The Cardiac and Stroke Outcomes Unit prospectively identified all patients presenting with stroke, TIA and atrial fibrillation. One hundred and twelve consecutive patients undergoing percutaneous patent foramen ovale closure between 2005 and 2015 were identified. The average age was 42.7 years and 57 (50.9%) patients were male. Cryptogenic stroke (68.8%) and transient cerebral ischaemia (23.2%) were the most common indications for PFO closure, with the

  18. Association of a patent foramen ovale with myocardial infarction and pulmonary emboli in a peripartum woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramineni, Rajesh; Daniel, George K

    2010-10-01

    Peripartum myocardial infarction is uncommon but devastating in young women. Although it is generally associated with arterial dissection, pregnancy-induced hypercoagulable state can also be a major contributor. Association of patent foramen ovale (PFO) adds to this potential risk. A 29-year-old postpartum female presented with worsening chest pressure, shortness of breath and syncope. She was hypotensive and tachycardic. A ventilation perfusion imaging displayed high probability for pulmonary emboli. With elevated cardiac enzymes and echocardiogram showing wall motion abnormalities, patient underwent percutaneous coronary angioplasty for a midvessel thrombus in the left anterior descending artery. Further workup showed a thrombus straddling into the left atrium via a PFO and a deep venous thrombus in the right iliac vein. Hormonal changes in pregnancy are noted to place young women in a hypercoagulable state. Screening for PFO in this group of patients with timely intervention might prevent a major systemic event caused by paradoxical embolus.

  19. [Cryptogenic stroke - patent foramen ovale - migraine with aura: incidental triad or significant relationship? Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik, Maria; Kozubski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    In the second part of the paper, we discuss the relationship between migraine with aura and either patent foramen ovale (PFO) or stroke. The results of the studies suggest that PFO with right-to-left shunt is more prevalent among patients suffering from migraine with aura. Moreover, migraine with aura is a risk factor for ischaemic stroke in women and the risk increases when they have additional vascular risk factors such as taking oral contraception and smoking. However, the pathophysiology of these phenomena remains hypothetical. The most frequently reported theory suggests paradoxical embolism as a mechanism of the above-mentioned pathologies. In this paper we compare the pros and cons of the general theories. We discuss the percutaneous closure of PFO in patients with migraine, regarding the benefit/risk ratio.

  20. PREVALENCE OF PATENT FORAMEN OVALE IN YOUNG PATIENTS WITH CRYPTOGENIC ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    BACKGROUND: Patent foramen ovale (PFO is the most commonly persistent abnormality of fetal origin. PFO has long been recognized as a potential risk factor for ischemic stroke. This study has shown the prevalence of PFO among young patients with cryptogenic stroke.    METHODS: In our case-control study we had 32 patients, 18 to 55 years old with cryptogenic stroke and 64 participants among normal population with matched age and sex in control group. We studied them for stroke risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia and then election of PFO by contrast trans-thoracic echocardiography. Data entered in SPSS11 and analyzed by Chi-Square and logistic regression. P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.    RESULTS: We found that 37.5 % of patients in case group and 7.7 % of patients in controls had PFO and this difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001. They had no significant difference in other atherosclerosis risk factors. In control group we saw small shunt but in stroke group large shunt was more prevalence (P < 0.05.     CONCLUSION: Our findings supported this idea that PFO is a predisposing factor for stroke and it had a higher prevalence among patients with cryptogenic stroke. Besides, large shunt was more concomitant with ischemic attack. Then we suggest any patient with undefined cause of stroke must be evaluated for PFO.      Keywords: Patent foramen ovale, Stroke, Young.  

  1. Tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo asociado a foramen oval permeable High-risk massive pulmonary thromboembolism associated with patent foramen ovale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miranda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La alta mortalidad de los pacientes con tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo amerita un enfoque terapéutico enérgico e invasivo que incluya la embolectomía pulmonar quirúrgica en aquellos pacientes con contraindicación para trombolisis o trombolisis fallida. Describimos un caso de tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo que recibió tratamiento quirúrgico en vez de trombolisis debido a que al momento del diagnóstico presentaba un trombo móvil a través de un foramen oval permeable con altísima posibilidad de embolismo paradójico arterial.High mortality rate associated with massive pulmonary embolism requires an aggressive invasive approach including surgical pulmonary embolectomy when thrombolytic therapy has failed or is contraindicated. We describe a case of high-risk massive pulmonary embolism who underwent surgical treatment due to the presence of a mobile intracardiac clot in a patent foramen ovale, and the possible risk of paradoxical arterial embolism.

  2. Hemodynamic and respiratory factors that influence the opening of patent foramen ovale in mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavlitou, A; Minas, G; Zannetos, S; Kyprianou, T; Tsagourias, M; Matamis, D

    2016-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an anatomic variant that may lead to several pathological conditions, notably right to left shunt, paradoxical embolism, hypoxemia, and cerebral fat embolism. Mechanical positive pressure ventilation may increase the prevalence of PFO opening in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients; however, the respiratory and hemodynamic determinants of PFO opening have been poorly investigated. Contrast-enhanced transesophageal echocardiogram (ce-TEE) is considered the gold standard for PFO detection. We prospectively performed a multicenter study using ce-TEE in order to determine the respiratory and hemodynamic factors that may lead to PFO opening. One hundred and eight consecutive ICU adult patients under mechanical ventilation from three tertiary care hospitals, were included in the study. A standard multiplane ce-TEE was performed, and the dimensions and function of the right and left ventricle were studied. In each patient, the right ventricle (RV) end-diastolic area, RV end-systolic area, left ventricle (LV) end-diastolic area, and LV ejection fraction were measured using the modified Simpson's rule and the four-chamber view. At least three bubble tests were performed to detect PFO opening. Ventilatory parameters such as tidal volume, plateau pressure, static lung compliance, and positive end-expiratory pressure were recorded during the bubble test. Data for 81 men and 27 women were analyzed. PFO was detected in 27 % of the study population. Statistical significance was found between the presence of PFO and plateau pressure (odds ratio 3.421, 95 % CI: 1.2-9.4, p =0.017). Additionally, the presence of right ventricular dilatation (RV>LV) was strongly associated with PFO opening (odds ratio 3.163, 95 % CI: 1.2-8.075, p =0.018). In this group of mechanically ventilated, critically ill adult patients, right ventricular dilatation and plateau pressure above 26 mmHg were significantly associated with foramen ovale opening. Hippokratia 2016, 20

  3. Patent Foramen Ovale Closure for Secondary Prevention of Cryptogenic Stroke: Updated Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Qamar, Arman; Gupta, Ankur; Bajaj, Navkaranbir; Golwala, Harsh B; Pandey, Ambarish; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2018-05-01

    Patent foramen ovale closure represents a potential secondary prevention strategy for cryptogenic stroke, but available trials have varied by size, device studied, and follow-up. We conducted a systematic search of published randomized clinical trials evaluating patent foramen ovale closure versus medical therapy in patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack using PubMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane through September 2017. Weighting was by random effects models. Of 480 studies screened, we included 5 randomized clinical trials in the meta-analysis in which 3440 patients were randomized to patent foramen ovale closure (n = 1829) or medical therapy (n = 1611) and followed for an average of 2.0 to 5.9 years. Index stroke/transient ischemic attack occurred within 6 to 9 months of randomization. The primary end point was composite stroke/transient ischemic attack and death (in 3 trials) or stroke alone (in 2 trials). Patent foramen ovale closure reduced the primary end point (0.70 vs 1.48 events per 100 patient-years; risk ratio [RR], 0.52 [0.29-0.91]; I 2  = 55.0%) and stroke/transient ischemic attack (1.04 vs 2.00 events per 100 patient-years; RR, 0.55 [0.37-0.82]; I 2  = 42.2%) with modest heterogeneity compared with medical therapy. Procedural bleeding was not different between study arms (1.8% vs 1.8%; RR, 0.94 [0.49-1.83]; I 2  = 29.2%), but new-onset atrial fibrillation/flutter was increased with patent foramen ovale closure (6.6% vs 0.7%; RR, 4.69 [2.17-10.12]; I 2  = 29.3%). In patients with recent cryptogenic stroke, patent foramen ovale closure reduces recurrent stroke/transient ischemic attack compared with medical therapy, but is associated with a higher risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation/flutter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Long-Term Outcomes of Patent Foramen Ovale Closure or Medical Therapy after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saver, Jeffrey L; Carroll, John D; Thaler, David E; Smalling, Richard W; MacDonald, Lee A; Marks, David S; Tirschwell, David L

    2017-09-14

    Whether closure of a patent foramen ovale reduces the risk of recurrence of ischemic stroke in patients who have had a cryptogenic ischemic stroke is unknown. In a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial, with blinded adjudication of end-point events, we randomly assigned patients 18 to 60 years of age who had a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and had had a cryptogenic ischemic stroke to undergo closure of the PFO (PFO closure group) or to receive medical therapy alone (aspirin, warfarin, clopidogrel, or aspirin combined with extended-release dipyridamole; medical-therapy group). The primary efficacy end point was a composite of recurrent nonfatal ischemic stroke, fatal ischemic stroke, or early death after randomization. The results of the analysis of the primary outcome from the original trial period have been reported previously; the current analysis of data from the extended follow-up period was considered to be exploratory. We enrolled 980 patients (mean age, 45.9 years) at 69 sites. Patients were followed for a median of 5.9 years. Treatment exposure in the two groups was unequal (3141 patient-years in the PFO closure group vs. 2669 patient-years in the medical-therapy group), owing to a higher dropout rate in the medical-therapy group. In the intention-to-treat population, recurrent ischemic stroke occurred in 18 patients in the PFO closure group and in 28 patients in the medical-therapy group, resulting in rates of 0.58 events per 100 patient-years and 1.07 events per 100 patient-years, respectively (hazard ratio with PFO closure vs. medical therapy, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.31 to 0.999; P=0.046 by the log-rank test). Recurrent ischemic stroke of undetermined cause occurred in 10 patients in the PFO closure group and in 23 patients in the medical-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.79; P=0.007). Venous thromboembolism (which comprised events of pulmonary embolism and deep-vein thrombosis) was more common in the PFO closure group

  5. Patent foramen ovale and atrial septal aneurysm can cause ischemic stroke in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasutaka; Ueno, Yuji; Miyamoto, Nobukazu; Shimada, Yoshiaki; Tanaka, Ryota; Hattori, Nobutaka; Urabe, Takao

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the contributions of embolic etiologies, patent foramen ovale (PFO) and atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) to the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). We performed transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) examination for consecutive stroke patients who had been diagnosed with APS (APS group) to detect potential embolic sources. APS was diagnosed based on the modified Sapporo criteria. The control stroke group comprised age- and sex-matched cryptogenic stroke patients undergoing TEE. We assessed and compared the clinical characteristics and TEE findings between stroke patients with APS and control stroke groups. Among 582 patients, nine patients (nine women; mean age, 50 ± 18 years) were classified into the APS group. In 137 patients undergoing TEE, 41 age-matched female stroke patients were recruited to the control stroke group. Prevalences of PFO and ASA were significantly higher in the APS group than in the control stroke group (89 vs. 41 %, p = 0.027; 67 vs. 20 %, p = 0.015, respectively). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that PFO (odds ratio (OR), 13.71; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.01-185.62; p = 0.049) and ASA (OR, 8.06; 95 % CI, 1.17-55.59; p = 0.034) were independently associated with the APS group. PFO and ASA were strongly associated with the APS group, and could thus represent potential embolic sources in ischemic stroke patients with APS.

  6. [Periprocedural and late complications after percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale: a single centre experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Węglarz, Przemysław; Konarska Kuszewska, Ewa; Spisak Borowska, Katarzyna; Machowski, Jerzy; Drzewiecka-Gerber, Agnieszka; Kuszewski, Piotr; Jackson, Christopher L; Opala, Grzegorz; Trusz Gluza, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a potential risk factor for ischaemic stroke in young individuals. An interventional method of secondary stroke prevention in PFO patients is its percutaneous closure. To assess safety and effectiveness (i.e. lack of residual shunt) of percutaneous PFO closure in patients with history of cryptogenic cerebrovascular event. 149 patients (56 men/93 women), aged 39 ± 12 years, underwent percutaneous PFO closure. The implantation was performed under local anaesthesia, guided by trans-oesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and fluoroscopy. Follow-up trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE) was performed at 1 month and follow-up TEE at 6-months. In cases of residual shunt, additional TEE was performed after ensuing 6 months. Effective PFO closure (no residual shunt) was achieved in 91.3% patients at 6 months and 95.3% patients at 12 months. In 2 patients transient atrial fibrillation was observed during the procedure. In 2 patients, a puncture site haematoma developed and in 1 patient superficial thrombophlebitis was noted. In 1 patient a small pericardial effusion was observed, which resolved at day 3 post-procedurally, after administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Percutaneous PFO closure seems to be a safe procedure when performed in a centre with adequate expertise with regard to these procedures.

  7. Mean platelet volume is elevated in patients with patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Bulent; Caglar, Ilker Murat; Ungan, Ismail; Ugurlucan, Murat; Tureli, Hande Oktay; Karakaya, Osman

    2013-12-30

    Platelets play a major role in thromboembolic events. Increased mean platelet volume (MPV) indicates higher platelet reactivity and also a tendency to thrombosis. Patent foramen ovale (PFO), persistence of the fetal anatomic shunt between right and left atria, is strongly associated with cryptogenic stroke. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between MPV and PFO and if such an association exists, whether higher MPV levels may require antiplatelet therapy before a thromboembolic event happens, together with a literature review. Thirty patients (15 women, 15 men), free of any cerebrovascular events, were diagnosed with PFO by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), enrolled as the study group. Thirty consecutive patients (16 women and 14 men), who were diagnosed as normal in TEE, were enrolled as the control group. These two groups were compared according to MPV and anatomical features of the right atrium. There was no significant difference between study and control groups in clinical features and also no difference was observed in platelet counts; however, MPV in the PFO group was significantly higher than the control group (8.38 ±0.93 fl and 7.45 ±0.68 fl respectively). Our results indicate that elevated MPV may be detected in patients with PFO. This might be one of the explanations for the relationship between PFO and cryptogenic stroke; however, larger cohorts are warranted in order to define further mechanisms.

  8. Concomitant coronary and pulmonary embolism associated with patent foramen ovale: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongxiu; Li, Chen; Li, Yajiao; Tang, Hong; Rao, Li; Wang, Mian

    2017-12-01

    The differential diagnosis of acute chest pain is very important, and can sometimes be challenging. Related diseases share a number of risk factors, and occasionally, 1 condition causes another disease to develop. We described a 59-year-old man who presented to emergency department complaining of chest pain. He was suffered acute myocardial infarction (MI) and pulmonary embolism (PE) simultaneously. Dual antiplatelet therapy, statin, and low molecular weight heparin were administrated during his stay. The searches for cancers, autoimmune diseases, and hematologic diseases were unremarkable, ruling out a hypercoagulable state. Subsequent ultrasound scan revealed a thrombus in a vein of the lower left extremity. Thus, paradoxical embolism was highly suspected. Paradoxical embolism is a rare cause of acute MI, which may have occurred in our patient. This was evidenced by a previously unrecognized patent foramen ovale (PFO) with a right-to-left atrial shunt detected using contrast transesophageal echocardiography. Acute MI complicated with PE is not common in the clinical setting. The fatal condition is difficult to diagnose because of the similar symptoms and confusing causes. Paradoxical embolism can cause this phenomenon, and physicians should be highly vigilant in the search for a PFO in cases of paradoxical embolism. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Case of Shunting Postoperative Patent Foramen Ovale Under Mechanical Ventilation Controlled by Different Ventilator Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragliola, Claudio; Di Michele, Sara; Galzerano, Domenico

    2017-06-07

    A 56-year old male with ischemic heart disease and an unremarkable preoperative echocardiogram underwent surgical coronary revascularization. An intraoperative post pump trans-esophageal echocardiogram (TOE) performed while the patient was being ventilated at a positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 8 cm H 2 O demonstrated a right to left interatrial shunt across a patent foramen ovale (PFO). Whereas oxygen saturation was normal, a reduction of the PEEP to 3 cm H 2 O led to the complete resolution of the shunt with no change in arterial blood gases. Attempts to increase the PEEP level above 3 mmHg resulted in recurrence of the interatrial shunt. The remaining of the TEE was unremarkable. Mechanical ventilation, particularly with PEEP, causes an increase in intrathoracic pressure. The resulting rise in right atrial pressure, mostly during inspiration, may unveil and pop open an unrecognized PFO, thus provoking a right to left shunt across a seemingly intact interatrial septum. This phenomenon increases the risk of paradoxical embolism and can lead to hypoxemia. The immediate management would be to adjust the ventilatory settings to a lower PEEP level. A routine search for a PFO should be performed in ventilated patients who undergo a TEE.

  10. Systematic Review of Treatment for Trapped Thrombus in Patent Foramen Ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Won-Woo; Kim, Sung Eun; Park, Myung-Soo; Lee, Jun-Hee; Park, Dae-Gyun; Han, Kyoo-Rok; Oh, Dong-Jin

    2017-09-01

    Trapped thrombus in patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a rare complication of pulmonary embolism that may lead to tragic clinical events. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal treatment for different clinical situations in patients with trapped thrombus in a PFO by conducting a literature review. A PubMed database search was conducted from 1991 through 2015, and 194 patients (185 articles) with trapped thrombus in a PFO were identified. Patient characteristics, paradoxical embolic events, and factors affecting 60-day mortality were analyzed retrospectively. Among all patients, 112 (57.7%) were treated with surgery, 28 with thrombolysis, and 54 with anticoagulation alone. Dyspnea (79.4%), chest pain (33.0%), and syncope (17.5%) were the most common presenting symptoms. Pretreatment embolism was found in 37.6% of cases, and stroke (24.7%) was the most common event. Surgery was associated with fewer post-treatment embolic events than were other treatment options (p=0.044). In the multivariate analysis, initial shock or arrest, and thrombolysis were independent predictors of 60-day mortality. Thrombolysis was related with higher 60-day mortality compared with surgery in patients who had no initial shock or arrest. This systematic review showed that surgery was associated with a lower overall incidence of post-treatment embolic events and a lower 60-day mortality in patients with trapped thrombus in a PFO. In patients without initial shock or arrest, thrombolysis was related with a higher 60-day mortality compared with surgery.

  11. A case of shunting postoperative patent foramen ovale under mechanical ventilation controlled by different ventilator settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pragliola

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year old male with ischemic heart disease and an unremarkable preoperative echocardiogram underwent surgical coronary revascularization. An intraoperative post pump trans-esophageal echocardiogram (TOE performed while the patient was being ventilated at a positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP of 8 cm H2O demonstrated a right to left interatrial shunt across a patent foramen ovale (PFO. Whereas oxygen saturation was normal, a reduction of the PEEP to 3 cm H2O led to the complete resolution of the shunt with no change in arterial blood gases. Attempts to increase the PEEP level above 3 mmHg resulted in recurrence of the interatrial shunt. The remaining of the TEE was unremarkable. Mechanical ventilation, particularly with PEEP, causes an increase in intrathoracic pressure. The resulting rise in right atrial pressure, mostly during inspiration, may unveil and pop open an unrecognized PFO, thus provoking a right to left shunt across a seemingly intact interatrial septum. This phenomenon increases the risk of paradoxical embolism and can lead to hypoxemia. The immediate management would be to adjust the ventilatory settings to a lower PEEP level. A routine search for a PFO should be performed in ventilated patients who undergo a TEE.

  12. Catheter closure of patent foramen ovale in patients with cryptogenic cerebrovascular accidents: initial experiences in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Yasufumi; Akagi, Teiji; Nakagawa, Koji; Taniguchi, Manabu; Ueoka, Akira; Deguchi, Kentaro; Toh, Norihisa; Oe, Hiroki; Kusano, Kengo; Sano, Shunji; Ito, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Although numerous studies have shown an association between a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and cryptogenic cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), there has been no definitive control study that demonstrated the benefit of percutaneous device closure of a PFO compared to medical therapy in patients with CVA. Additionally, few clinical data exist for Japanese patients in this field. We demonstrate the initial experiences in catheter closure of a PFO as secondary prevention of CVA in Japan. Catheter closure of a PFO was attempted in 7 patients who were diagnosed with cryptogenic CVA. Mean age at the procedure was 54 ± 19 years. The presence of spontaneous interatrial right-to-left shunts was demonstrated by transesophageal contrast echocardiography without Valsalva maneuver in all of the patients. Amplatzer Cribriform device (n = 4) or Amplatzer PFO Occluder (n = 3) was used for the procedure and was successfully deployed. Device-related complications were not observed at the time of the procedure or during the follow-up period (mean period of 16 ± 9 months). Catheter closure of a PFO could be safely performed with Amplatzer Cribriform or Amplatzer PFO Occluder. This procedure may contribute to prevention of recurrent cryptogenic CVA in Japanese patients.

  13. Increased Incidence of Interatrial Block in Younger Adults with Cryptogenic Stroke and Patent Foramen Ovale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.E. Cotter

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke is often unexplained in younger adults, although it is often associated with a patent foramen ovale (PFO. The reason for the association is not fully explained, and mechanisms other than paradoxical embolism may be involved. Young stroke patients with PFO have more atrial vulnerability than those without PFO. It is plausible that stretching of the interatrial septum may disrupt the interatrial conduction pathways causing interatrial block (IAB. IAB is associated with atrial fibrillation, dysfunctional left atria and stroke. Methods: Electrocardiogram (ECG characteristics of prospectively recruited young patients (≤55 years of age with unexplained stroke (TOAST and A-S-C-O were compared with control data. All stroke cases underwent bubble contrast transthoracic and transoesophageal echography. IAB was defined as a P-wave duration of ≧110 ms. ECG data were converted to electronic format and analysed in a blind manner. Results: Fifty-five patients and 23 datasets were analysed. Patients with unexplained stroke had longer P-wave duration (p = 0.013 and a greater prevalence of IAB (p = 0.02 than healthy controls. Case status was an independent predictor of P-wave duration in a significant multivariate model. There was a significant increase in the proportion of cases with a PFO with IAB compared with cases without PFO and with controls (p = 0.005. Conclusions: Young patients with unexplained stroke, particularly those with PFO, exhibit abnormal atrial electrical characteristics suggesting atrial arrhythmia or atrial dysfunction as a possible mechanism of stroke.

  14. Patent Foramen Ovale and Cryptogenic Strokes in the Stroke in Young Fabry Patients Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Roman; Grittner, Ulrike; Weidemann, Frank; Thijs, Vincent; Tanislav, Christian; Enzinger, Christian; Fazekas, Franz; Wolf, Markus; Hennerici, Michael G; McCabe, Dominick J H; Putaala, Jukaa; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Kessler, Christoph; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Martus, Peter; Kolodny, Edwin; Norrving, Bo; Rolfs, Arndt

    2017-01-01

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is disproportionately prevalent in patients with cryptogenic stroke. Without alternative explanations, it is frequently considered to be causative. A detailed stratification of these patients may improve the identification of incidental PFO. We investigated the PFO prevalence in 3497 transient ischemic attack and ischemic stroke patients aged 18 to 55 years in the prospective multicenter SIFAP1 study (Stroke in Young Fabry Patients 1) using the ASCO classification. Patients without an obvious cause for transient ischemic attack/stroke (ASCO 0) were divided into subgroups with and without vascular risk factors (ASCO 0+ and 0-). In addition, we looked for PFO-related magnetic resonance imaging lesion patterns. PFO was identified in 25% of patients. Twenty percent of patients with a definite or probable cause of transient ischemic attack/stroke (≥1 grade 1 or 2 ASCO criterion; n=1769) had a PFO compared with 29% of cryptogenic stroke patients (ASCO 0 and 3; n=1728; Pstrokes revealed a PFO in 24% of 978 ASCO 3 patients (n.s. versus ASCO 1 and 2) and a higher prevalence of 36% in 750 ASCO 0 cases (Pstroke patients demonstrate a heterogeneous PFO prevalence. Even in case of less conclusive diseases like nonstenotic arteriosclerosis, patients should preferentially be considered to have a non-PFO-mediated stroke. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00414583. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Evidence that Patent Foramen Ovale is not a Risk Factor for Cerebral Ischemia in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth F.; Calafiore, Paul; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Tonkin, Andrew M.

    1994-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) may be a risk factor for ischemic stroke in young patients. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of PFO in subjects with a wider age range using patient-control methodology. Transesophageal contrast echocardiography and carotid imaging were performed in 220 consecutive patients with cerebral ischemia (mean age 66 +/- 13 years) and in 202 community-based control subjects (mean age 64 +/- 11 years). Of patients with stroke, 35 (16%) had PFO compared with 31 control subjects (15%) (p = 0.98). Analysis of PFO prevalence by age did not show a significant difference between patients and control subjects in the age groups or equal to 70 years (12% vs 17%; p = 0.43). However, the group aged 450 years was relatively small (26 cases, 19 controls). No significant difference in PFO prevalence was detected between patients with cryptogenic stroke (20%), noncryptogenic stroke (14%), and control subjects (15%). These results suggest that PFO is not a risk factor for cerebral ischemia in subjects aged >50 years, which would have major implications for the investigation and management of stroke patients in this age group. Longitudinal studies are now required to assess the incidence of stroke in symptom free patients with PFO.

  16. Ischemic stroke and patent foramen ovale: risk factors and genetic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Maria; Sjöstrand, Christina; Kostulas, Konstantinos

    2013-08-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is considered to be a risk factor for ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD), especially in young people. However, the potential pathophysiological relevance in ischemic stroke is controversial and in need of further investigation. In this study, we examined the conventional risk factors and the distribution of 100 polymorphisms in 47 suspected susceptibility genes for ICVD in stroke patients with or without a PFO. In the South Stockholm Ischemic Stroke Study, 928 ICVD patients and 602 controls were genotyped for 100 different gene polymorphisms. The stroke patients also underwent relevant investigation and standardized blood tests. Patients who underwent transeosophageal echocardiography as part of their investigation were divided into groups that either had or did not have a PFO. There were no significant differences in the 2 groups with regard to conventional risk factors or blood analyses. Three different polymorphisms located in the prothrombin, F2 (20210G/A), and apolipoprotein-C3 (-641A/C and -455T/A) genes were significantly associated with ICVD and PFO. The strongest association was found for F2 (P = .0049; odds ratio 26.4). We found that F2, which previously has been described as being a possible link between PFO and ICVD, was significantly associated with ICVD and PFO. There was also a trend toward an association between 2 other polymorphisms in the APO-CIII gene and PFO and ICVD. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in cryptogenic stroke patients under 60 years with patent foramen ovale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutet, Claire, E-mail: claire.boutet@chu-st-etienne.fr [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Rouffiange-Leclair, Laure, E-mail: laurerouffiange@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Garnier, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.garnier@chu-st-etienne.fr [Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Quenet, Sara, E-mail: sara.quenet@chu-st-etienne.fr [Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Delsart, Daphné, E-mail: daphne.delsart@hotmail.fr [Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Department of Therapeutic Medicine, CHU Saint-Etienne, Hôpital Nord, Saint-Etienne (France); Inserm, CIE3, F-42055 Saint-Etienne (France); Varvat, Jérôme, E-mail: jvarvat@9online.fr [Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Epinat, Magali, E-mail: magali.epinat@chu-st-etienne.fr [Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Schneider, Fabien, E-mail: fabien.schneider@univ-st-etienne.fr [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Thrombosis Research Group EA 3065, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); Antoine, Jean-Christophe, E-mail: j.christophe.antoine@chu-st-etienne.fr [Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Saint-Etienne (France); Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, INSERM U1028 – CNRS UMR5292 (France); EA 4338, Jean Monnet University, Saint-Etienne (France); and others

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain feature in cryptogenic stroke patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO), cryptogenic stroke patients without PFO and patients with cardioembolic stroke. Materials and methods: The ethics committee required neither institutional review board approval nor informed patient consent for retrospective analyses of the patients’ medical records and imaging data. The patients’ medical files were retrospectively reviewed in accordance with human subject research protocols. Ninety-two patients under 60 years of age were included: 15 with cardioembolic stroke, 32 with cryptogenic stroke with PFO and 45 with cryptogenic stroke without PFO. Diffusion-weighted imaging of brain MRI was performed by a radiologist blinded to clinical data. Univariate, Fischer's exact test for qualitative data and non-parametric Wilcoxon test for quantitative data were used. Results: There was no statistically significant difference found between MRI features of patients with PFO and those with cardioembolic stroke (p < .05). Patients without PFO present more corticosubcortical single lesions (p < .05) than patients with PFO. Patients with PFO have more often subcortical single lesions larger than 15 mm, involvement of posterior cerebral arterial territory and intracranial occlusion (p < .05) than patients with cryptogenic stroke without PFO. Conclusion: Our study suggests a cardioembolic mechanism in ischemic stroke with PFO.

  18. Prevalence of patent foramen ovale and usefulness of percutaneous closure device in carcinoid heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansencal, Nicolas; Mitry, Emmanuel; Pillière, Rémy; Lepère, Céline; Gérardin, Benoît; Petit, Jérôme; Gandjbakhch, Iradj; Rougier, Philippe; Dubourg, Olivier

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess (1) the incidence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in carcinoid syndrome (CS) and (2) the feasibility of percutaneous closure procedure in selected patients with CS. One hundred eight patients were prospectively studied: 54 with CS and an age- and gender-matched control group. All patients underwent conventional and contrast echocardiography. Patients with clinical signs of dyspnea (New York Heart Association class > or =III), cyanosis, carcinoid heart disease (CHD), and severe PFO were referred for the percutaneous closure of PFO. The prevalence of PFO was 41% in patients with CS and 22% in the control group (p = 0.03) and was significantly higher in patients with CHD (59%, p = 0.009). Four patients (14% of those with CHD) were referred for the percutaneous closure of PFO, and 3 patients ultimately underwent PFO closure (using Amplatzer septal occluders). At 6-month follow-up, New York Heart Association class was improved in all patients, as well as arterial blood gas results (p = 0.04) and 6-minute walking distance (p = 0.03), but all patients presented residual right-to-left shunts. In conclusion, this prospective study demonstrates that in patients with CHD, the prevalence of PFO is high and that percutaneous closure of PFO is feasible, with a reduction in symptoms but with residual shunting.

  19. Impact of social characteristics on the treatment of patients with ischaemic events and patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurter, David; Braun, Julia; Jenni, Rolf; Van Der Loo, Bernd

    2012-02-01

    Percutaneous closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a technically simple and safe procedure. PFO is a common finding present in up to one third of the population. Although several conditions such as stroke, migraine, and sleep apnoea have been associated with a PFO, as underlined by observational studies, no causal relationship has been documented so far. As this setting may potentially leave more space for the involved physicians for the choice of treatment, we hypothesized that social characteristics of the patient with a PFO might play a role. We retrospectively analysed the data of 153 patients with a cerebrovascular and/or peripheral ischaemic event with the diagnosis of a PFO as documented in echocardiography from 2000 until 2005 at the University Hospital in Zurich, Switzerland. Forty-four patients (= 23%) underwent catheter-based PFO closure. There was no significant difference with respect to age ( or =60 years: P= 0.234, ns), gender (P = 0.356, ns) and insurance status (<40 years: P= 0.15, ns; 40-59 years: P= 0.37, ns; 60 years: P = 0.26, ns) between those who underwent percutaneous PFO closure and those who did not. We conclude from this single-centre experience that social characteristics of patients only have a marginal impact on the indication of percutaneous closure of a PFO, if at all.

  20. Patent foramen ovale and asymptomatic brain lesions in military fighter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung Wook; Kim, Joon-Tae; Choi, Won-Ho; Park, Won-Ju; Shin, Young Ho; Choi, Kang-Ho

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have reported higher incidence of white matter lesions (WMLs) in military pilots. The anti-gravity straining maneuver, which fighter military pilots perform numerously during a flight is identical to the valsalva maneuver. We sought to investigate the prevalence of right-to-left shunt (RLS) associated with WMLs in military pilots. A prospective study was performed involving military pilots who visited the Airomedical Center. The pilots underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan and transcranial Doppler (TCD) with intravenous injection of agitated saline solution for the detection of RLS. Periventricular WMLs (PVWMLs) on MRI were graded using Fazeka's scale, and deep WMLs (DWMLs) were graded using Scheltens's scale. This study included 81 military pilots. RLS on TCD was observed less frequently in non-fighter pilots than in fighter pilots (35.5% vs. 64.5%, p=0.011). Fighter pilot was an independently associated factor with RLS on the TCD. DWMLs were independently associated with RLSs through a patent foramen ovale (PFO) (OR 3.507, 95% CI 1.223-10.055, p=0.02). The results suggest that DWMLs in military pilots may significantly be associated with RLS via PFO. Additional investigations are warranted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stent placement for palliation of cor triatriatum dexter in a dog with suspected patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barncord, Kristin; Stauthammer, Christopher; Moen, Sean L; Hanson, Melissa; Gruenstein, Daniel H

    2016-03-01

    An 11 month old spayed, female dog presented with exercise intolerance and cyanosis upon exertion. Echocardiography revealed an imperforate cor triatriatum dexter with mild tricuspid valve dysplasia, an underfilled right ventricle and significant right to left shunting across a presumptive patent foramen ovale. Balloon dilation of the abnormal atrial membrane was initially successful in creating a communication between the right atrial chambers, but stenosis of the original perforation and persistent clinical signs prompted a second intervention. A balloon expandable biliary stent was placed across the abnormal partition, improving caudal venous return to the right ventricle and reducing the right to left shunt. Three months after stent placement, resting oxygen saturation had normalized. Six months after stent placement, exercise tolerance had improved and exertional cyanosis had resolved. Long term follow up will be necessary to assess for remodeling of the right ventricle with improved venous return. Stent placement can be considered as a palliative treatment option for cor triatriatum dexter, especially for stenosis post-balloon dilation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Seven-year follow-up of percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzada, Naqibullah; Ladenvall, Per; Hansson, Per-Olof; Johansson, Magnus Carl; Furenäs, Eva; Eriksson, Peter; Dellborg, Mikael

    2013-12-01

    Observational studies favor percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) over medical treatment to reduce recurrent stroke while randomized trials fail to demonstrate significant superiority of percutaneous PFO closure. Few long-term studies are available post PFO closure. This study reports long-term clinical outcomes after percutaneous PFO closure. Between 1997 and 2006, 86 consecutive eligible patients with cerebrovascular events, presumably related to PFO, underwent percutaneous PFO closure. All 86 patients were invited to a long-term follow-up, which was carried out during 2011 and 2012. Percutaneous PFO closure was successfully performed in 85 of 86 patients. The follow-up rate was 100%. No cardiovascular or cerebrovascular deaths occurred. Two patients (both women) died from lung cancer during follow-up. Follow-up visits were conducted for 64 patients and the remaining 20 patients were followed up by phone. The mean follow-up time was 7.3 years (5 to 12.4 years). Mean age at PFO closure was 49 years. One patient had a minor stroke one month after PFO closure and a transient ischemic attack (TIA) two years afterwards. One other patient suffered from a TIA six years after closure. No long-term device-related complications were observed. Percutaneous PFO closure was associated with very low risk of recurrent stroke and is suitable in most patients. We observed no mortality and no long-term device-related complications related to PFO closure, indicating that percutaneous PFO closure is a safe and efficient treatment even in the long term.

  3. [Irritable bowel syndrome and cardiac right-to-left shunt through a patent foramen ovale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Fernández, Onofre; Alvarez-Fernández, Jesús-Andrés; Baudet, Juan-Salvador; Pérez-Quintero, Raquel; Sánchez-Del Río, Antonio; Borja-Gutiérrez, Elisa; Borque-Barrera, Pilar

    2008-05-31

    Both irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and patent foramen ovale (PFO) have a similar prevalence in the general population, affect more commonly women and are related to comorbidities such as migraine. In IBS there are alterations in the metabolism of certain substances like serotonin. In the presence of PFO with a right- to left-shunt (RLS), a percentage of venous blood bypasses the lung filter and may increase these substances in blood. A phone interview was done to determine the presence of IBS in patients previously attended for detection of RLS with transcranial Doppler ultrasound. The presence and grade of RLS was analyzed and compared with subjects without gastrointestinal symptoms (NoGI). Rome II criteria were used to diagnose IBS or other functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGD) and Venice 1999 consensus were used for the diagnosis of RLS. Thirthy-three (18.3%) of 180 interviewed patients had IBS and 62 (34.4%) other FGD. RLS was found in 41% of NoGI patients, 64% of patients with IBS and 68% of patients with other FGD (odds ratio [OR] = 2.56; p < 0.05 for SII, and OR = 3.06; p < 0.01 for other FGD). RLS with a massive pattern was registered in en 27% of NoGI patients, 39% of patients with IBS and 45% of patients with other FGD (OR = 1.73; p = 1 for IBS, and OR = 2.21; p < 0.05 for other FGD). We found a higher prevalence of cardiac RLS through a PFO in patients with IBS and other FGD. A possible etiopathogenic relationship must be considered in future studies.

  4. Sustained long-term benefit of patent foramen ovale closure on migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabattoni, Daniela; Fabbiocchi, Franco; Montorsi, Piero; Galli, Stefano; Teruzzi, Giovanni; Grancini, Luca; Gatto, Pamela; Bartorelli, Antonio L

    2011-03-01

    This single-center, observational, prospective study evaluated the impact of patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure on migraine attacks over time. PFO closure may reduce the frequency and severity of migraine headaches in patients with significant right-to-left shunts. Between May 2000 and September 2009, 305 consecutive patients (mean age, 43 ± 12 years; 54.5% women) with a prior embolic cerebrovascular event underwent PFO closure with the Amplatzer PFO occluder for recurrence prevention. All patients had right-to-left shunts; the shunts were associated with migraine symptoms in 77 (25%), either alone (n = 64, 83%) or with aura (n = 13, 17%). Septal aneurysm was present in 15 (19.5%) migraine patients, and 43 (56%) had a previous transient brain ischemic attack. All migraine patients had a computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging, indicating a previous brain ischemic lesion. All 305 patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography with clinical follow-up at 24 hr, at 3, 6, and 12 months, and then yearly. An acute migraine attack occurred 24-48 hr after PFO closure in 28 (36.4%) of 77 patients. There was a significant reduction (>50%) in the number and intensity of attacks in 46 (60.5%) of 77 patients at the 3-month follow-up. At the 12-month follow-up, migraine had ceased in 23 (46%) patients, and 20 (40%) had a reduction in the migraine recurrence rate and disabling symptoms. These results were maintained at follow-up (mean, 28 ± 27 months). There was overall improvement in migraine in 89% of the treated patients. Percutaneous PFO closure in migraineurs may provide beneficial mid-term and long-term results, with significant reduction in the intensity and frequency of headache symptoms. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Permanent right-to-left shunt is the key factor in managing patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatelli, Gianluca; Dell'Avvocata, Fabio; Cardaioli, Paolo; Giordan, Massimo; Braggion, Gabriele; Aggio, Silvio; Chinaglia, Mauro; Mandapaka, Sangeeta; Kuruvilla, John; Chen, Jack P; Nanjundappa, Aravinda

    2011-11-15

    We sought to prospectively evaluate risk of stroke and impact of transcatheter patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure in patients with permanent right-to left shunt compared with those with Valsalva maneuver-induced right-to-left shunt. Pathophysiology and properly management of PFO still remain far from being fully clarified: in particular, the contribution of permanent right-to-left shunt remains unknown. Between March 2006 and October 2010, we enrolled 180 (mean age 44 ± 10.9 years, 98 women) of 320 consecutive patients referred to our center for transcatheter PFO closure, who had spontaneous permanent right-to-left shunt on transcranial Doppler and transthoracic/transesophageal echocardiography. All patients fulfilled the standard current indications for transcatheter closure and underwent preoperative transesophageal echocardiography and brain magnetic resonance imaging, with subsequent intracardiac echocardiographic-guided transcatheter PFO closure. We compared the clinical echocardiographic characteristics of these patients (Permanent Group) with the rest of 140 patients with right-to-left shunt only during Valsalva maneuver (Valsalva Group). Compared with the Valsalva Group patients, patients of the Permanent Group had increased frequency of multiple ischemic brain lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, previous recurrent stroke, previous peripheral arteries embolism, migraine with aura, and-more frequently-atrial septal aneurysm and prominent Eustachian valve. The presence of permanent shunt confers the highest risk of recurrent stroke (odds ratio: 5.9, 95% confidence interval: 2.0 to 12, p < 0.001). No differences were recorded between the 2 groups with regard to recurrence of ischemic events after the closure procedure. Despite its small-sample nature, our study suggests that patients with permanent right-to-left shunt have potentially a higher risk of paradoxical embolism compared with those without. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology

  6. Patent foramen ovale: diagnosis with multidetector CT--comparison with transesophageal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jin; Hur, Jin; Shim, Chi-Young; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Ha, Jong-Won; Choe, Kyu Ok; Heo, Ji Hoe; Choi, Eui-Young; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical feasibility and accuracy of 64-section multidetector computed tomography (CT) compared with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for diagnosis of a patent foramen ovale (PFO). Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study. The study included 152 consecutive stroke patients (mean age, 61.7 years; 98 men, 54 women) who underwent both cardiac multidetector CT and TEE. Electrocardiographically gated cardiac CT was performed with a 64-section CT scanner by using a saline-chaser contrast agent injection technique. A contrast agent jet from the contrast agent-filled left atrium (LA) to the saline-filled right atrium (RA) and channel-like appearance of the interatrial septum (IAS) were evaluated on axial and oblique sagittal CT images. Two-dimensional and Doppler TEE were performed to detect PFO. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of CT were obtained with TEE as the reference standard. A PFO was present in 26 patients at TEE. On CT images, a left-to-right contrast agent jet toward the inferior vena cava was noted in 21 patients (sensitivity, 73.1%; specificity, 98.4%; PPV, 90.5%; NPV, 94.7%). Channel-like appearance of the IAS was detected in 38 patients (sensitivity, 76.9%; specificity, 85.7%; PPV, 52.6%; NPV, 94.7%). Channel-like appearance of the IAS was noted in all patients who had a contrast agent jet. A contrast agent jet from LA to RA toward the inferior vena cava with channel-like appearance of the IAS on CT images confirms the presence of a PFO. (c) RSNA, 2008.

  7. Patent foramen ovale is not associated with an increased risk of stroke recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurer, R; Sadikovic, S; Sepp, D; Esposito, L; Schleef, M; Bockelbrink, A; Schwarze, J; Hemmer, B; Sander, D; Poppert, H

    2010-11-01

    Despite numerous studies suggesting a relationship between paradoxical embolism from a patent foramen ovale (PFO) and stroke, the role of PFO as a risk factor for cerebral ischaemia remains controversial. We therefore sought to determine the association between a RLS detected by contrast-enhanced transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (c-TCD) and recurrent stroke in an unselected population sample. We analyzed the records of 763 patients with diagnosis of cerebral ischaemia at our institution. All patients had undergone TCD-based detection of RLS. Embolic signals have been measured both under resting conditions and after performing a Valsalva maneuver. For follow-up, all patients were contacted by mail, which included a standardized questionnaire. Endpoints of follow-up were defined as recurrence of cerebral ischaemia, occurrence of myocardial infarction or death from any cause. Follow-up data were available in 639 patients (83.7%). At baseline, a RLS was detected in 140 (28%) men and in 114 (42%) women. Ten shunt-carriers (1.6%) and 32 patients (5.0%) without RLS had suffered a recurrent stroke. After adjustment for age, sex, and atrial fibrillation, the hazard ratio of RLS for stroke recurrence was 0.86 (95% CI 0.41-1.79). The condition of RLS at rest adjusted for age, sex, stroke subtype, and cardiovascular risk factors was not found to increase the risk of stroke substantially (HR 1.16 [95% CI 0.41-3.29]) Our data suggest that the risk of recurrent stroke in subjects with PFO is not significantly increased in comparison with subject without it. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 EFNS.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of transesophageal echocardiogram for the detection of patent foramen ovale: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojadidi, Mohammad Khalid; Bogush, Nikolay; Caceres, Jose Diego; Msaouel, Pavlos; Tobis, Jonathan M

    2014-07-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a remnant of the fetal circulation present in 20% of the population. Right-to-left shunting (RLS) through a PFO has been linked to the pathophysiology of stroke, migraine with aura, and hypoxemia. While different imaging modalities including transcranial Doppler, intra-cardiac echo, and transthoracic echo (TTE) have often been used to detect RLS, transesophageal echo (TEE) bubble study remains the gold standard for diagnosing PFO. The aim of this study was to determine the relative accuracy of TEE in the detection of PFO. A systematic review of Medline, using a standard approach for meta-analysis, was performed for all prospective studies assessing accuracy of TEE in the detection of PFO using confirmation by autopsy, cardiac surgery, and/or catheterization as the reference. Search results revealed 3105 studies; 4 met inclusion criteria. A total of 164 patients were included. TEE had a weighted sensitivity of 89.2% (95% CI: 81.1-94.7%) and specificity of 91.4% (95% CI: 82.3-96.8%) to detect PFO. The overall positive likelihood ratio (LR+) was 5.93 (95% CI: 1.30-27.09) and the overall negative likelihood ratio (LR-) was 0.22 (95% CI: 0.08-0.56). While TEE bubble study is considered to be the gold standard modality for diagnosing PFO, some PFOs may still be missed or misdiagnosed. It is important to understand the limitations of TEE and perhaps use other highly sensitive screening tests, such as transcranial doppler (TCD), in conjunction with TEE before scheduling a patient for transcatheter PFO closure. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Percutaneous patent foramen ovale closure: the Paradoxical Cerebral Embolism Prevention Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Luís; Dinis, Paulo; Providência, Rui; Costa, Marco; Margalho, Susana; Goncalves, Lino

    2015-03-01

    The natural history and therapeutic interventions for secondary prevention after a cerebrovascular event in patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO) are not yet established. This study aims to assess the safety and efficacy of percutaneous PFO closure in a population of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease of unknown etiology. This prospective observational study included patients with a history of cryptogenic transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke who underwent percutaneous PFO closure. The effectiveness of the device for the secondary prevention of TIA or stroke was assessed by comparing observed events in the sample with expected events for this clinical setting. The sample included 193 cases of percutaneous PFO closure (age 46.4 ± 13.1 years, 62.2% female) with a mean follow-up of 4.3 ± 2.2 years, corresponding to a total exposure to ischemic events of 542 patient-years. The high-risk characteristics of the PFO were assessed prior to device implantation. There were seven primary endpoint events during follow-up (1.3 per 100 patient-years), corresponding to a relative risk reduction of 68.2% in recurrent TIA or stroke compared to medical therapy alone. The procedure was associated with a low rate of device- or intervention-related complications (1.5%). In this long-term registry, percutaneous PFO closure was shown to be a safe and effective therapy for the secondary prevention of cryptogenic stroke or TIA. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Patent foramen ovale: comparison among diagnostic strategies in cryptogenic stroke and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Concetta; Dattilo, Giuseppe; Oreto, Giuseppe; Di Bella, Gianluca; Lamari, Annalisa; Iudicello, Raffaella; Trio, Olimpia; Caracciolo, Giuseppe; Coglitore, Sebastiano; Arrigo, Francesco; Carerj, Scipione

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in order to define the best clinical approach to patent foramen ovale (PFO) detection. In total, 72 consecutive patients (33 men) with a mean age of 49 +/- 13 years were prospectively enrolled. The TEE indication was cryptogenic stroke (36 patients) or migraine (36 patients, 22 with aura). All patients underwent standard TTE, TCD, and TEE examination. For any study, a contrast test was carried on using an agitated saline solution mixed with urea-linked gelatine (Haemaccel), injected as a rapid bolus via a right antecubital vein. A prolonged Valsalva maneuver was performed to improve test sensitivity. TEE identified a PFO in 65% of the whole population: 56.5% in the migraine cohort and 43.5% in the cryptogenic stroke cohort. TTE was able to detect a PFO in 55% of patients positive at TEE (54% negative predictive value, 100% positive predictive value, 55% sensitivity, and 100% specificity). TCD was able to identify a PFO in 97% of patients positive at TEE (89% negative predictive value, 98% positive predictive value, 94% sensitivity, and 96% specificity). In patients with cryptogenic stroke and migraine, there is a fair concordance (k = 0.89) between TCD and TEE in PFO recognition. Accordingly, TCD should be recommended as a simple, noninvasive, and reliable technique, whereas TEE indication should be restricted to selected patients. TTE is a very specific technique, whose major advantage is the ability to detect a large right-to-left shunt, particularly if associated with an atrial septal aneurysm.

  11. Migraine with aura and silent brain infarcts lack of mediation of patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calviere, L; Tall, P; Massabuau, P; Bonneville, F; Larrue, V

    2013-12-01

    Population-based studies have shown a heightened prevalence of clinically silent brain infarcts in subjects who have migraine with aura (MA). We sought to determine whether this association could be confirmed in young patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke, and explored the role of patent foramen ovale (PFO) as a potential underlying mechanism. Patients were selected from a registry of young patients consecutively treated for ischemic stroke in a tertiary university hospital among those without definite cause of stroke. Patients with PFO were matched for age and gender with patients with normal atrial septum. Migraine and MA were evaluated after patient selection and matching. Silent brain infarcts were independently evaluated on MRI. We included 100 patients [60 men; mean age (SD), 44.8 years (8.3)], 50 patients with PFO. We found silent brain infarcts in 36 patients and MA in 13 patients. MA was more frequent in patients with silent brain infarcts than in patients without silent brain infarcts (25.0% vs. 6.3%; OR, 5; 95% CI, 1.4-17.6; P = 0.01). Traditional cardiovascular risk factors were not associated with silent brain infarcts. PFO was neither associated with MA (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.5-5.3) nor silent brain infarcts (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.3-1.5). The association of MA with silent brain infarcts was not altered after adjustment for PFO. Findings suggest that silent brain infarcts in young patients with cryptogenic stroke is associated with MA. We found no evidence for a mediating effect of PFO on this association. © 2013 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2013 EFNS.

  12. Mutations in the NKX2-5 gene in patients with stroke and patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvís, Robert; Tizzano, Eduardo F; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Leta, Rubén G; Baena, Manel; Carreras, Francesc; Pons-Lladó, Guillem; Baiget, Montserrat; Martí-Vilalta, Josep Lluis

    2009-09-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been related to stroke but its existence has not been explained to date. NKX2-5 is the most implicated gene in fetal atrial septation. We studied NKX2-5 with respect to the presence or absence of PFO in stroke patients. A prospective analysis of NKX2-5 regarding age, gender, PFO, right-to-left shunt (RLS) size and atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) was performed in consecutive stroke patients and in 50 controls. The entire coding region and intron-exon boundaries of NKX2-5 gene were analyzed by PCR and sequencing of DNA from peripheral lymphocytes. One hundred patients participated in the study (mean age 56.5+/-12.4 years, 58% males) and PFO was diagnosed in 34% of them by transesophageal echocardiography. RLS was small (12%), moderate (2%) and large (20%). ASA was present in four patients. DNA revealed a novel c.2357G>A change in one PFO patient with cryptogenic stroke. Furthermore, c.182C>T, a mutation previously described in patients with cardiac defects, was detected in two non-PFO women with cryptogenic stroke. None of these changes were detected in our controls. The c.172A>G polymorphism was found in 21% of controls. It appeared more frequently in ASA patients (p=0.084), in cryptogenic PFO stroke patients (p=0.097) and in patients with known causes of stroke (p=0.037). The c.2850C>A polymorphism was also detected in our series with no differences in PFO, RLS size or ASA. Despite the fact that the NKX2-5 could account for the persistence of PFO, mutations of this gene in peripheral blood DNA were barely detected in our study.

  13. Closure of patent foramen ovale for cryptogenic stroke patients: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xuan; Ou-Yang, Guang; Yan, Peng-Fei; Huang, Shu-Lan; Zhang, Zhen-Tao; Zhang, Zhao-Hui

    2018-06-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to investigate the efficacy and safety of transcatheter device closure (TDC) plus anti-thrombotic drugs over medical management alone for patients with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen oval. PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library database were searched for randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs). The primary endpoint is the composite of stroke and transient ischemic attack. The secondary endpoints are all-cause mortality, total serious adverse events, atrial fibrillation and bleeding. Five RCTs with a total of 3440 participants were included. TDC significantly decreased the risk of primary endpoint when compared to medical therapy alone (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.43-0.69). Further subgroup analyses showed that patients with male gender and with substantial shunt size of foramen ovale significantly benefited from TDC as compared to those with female gender and with no substantial shunt size of foramen oval separately. Moreover, TDC was superior to medical therapy with anti-platelet drug alone (not with anti-coagulation). On the other hand, the incidence of atrial fibrillation was higher in TDC group (RR 4.49, 95% CI 2.02-9.97), with the risk of other adverse events equivalent between the two groups. TDC plus anti-thrombotic drugs is superior than medical therapy alone for secondary prevention of stroke, especially for those with male gender and with substantial shunt size of foramen ovale. Though it may increase the risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation, it would not bring higher risk of all-cause mortality, total adverse events and bleeding.

  14. Patent foramen ovale in patients with pulmonary embolism: A prognostic factor on CT pulmonary angiography?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Tan, Stephanie; Patel, Vishal; Zalta, Benjamin A; Shmukler, Anna; Levsky, Jeffrey M; Jain, Vineet R; Shaban, Nada M; Haramati, Linda B

    2017-12-02

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) in patients with acute pulmonary embolism (PE) represents a risk factor for mortality, but this has not been evaluated for CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationship between PFO and mortality in patients with acute PE diagnosed on CTPA. This retrospective study included 268 adults [173 women, mean age 61 (range 22-98) years] diagnosed with acute PE on non-ECG-gated 64-slice CTPA in 2012 at our medical center. The images were reviewed for PFO by a panel of cardiothoracic radiologists with an average of 11 years of experience (range 1-25 years). CT signs of right heart strain and PE level were noted. Transthoracic echocardiograms (TTE), when available (n = 207), were reviewed for PFO by a cardiologist with subspecialty training in advanced imaging and with 3 years of experience. The main outcome was 30-day mortality. Fischer's exact test was utilized to compare mortality. PFO prevalence on CTPA was 22% (58/268) and 4% (9/207) on TTE. Overall 30-day mortality was 6% (16/268), 9% (5/58) for patients with PFO and 5% (11/210) for those without (p = 0.35). CT signs of right heart strain trended with higher mortality, but statistically significant only for hepatic vein contrast reflux [14% (6/44) vs 4% (10/224), p = 0.03]; right ventricular (RV) to left ventricular (LV) diameter ratio >1 [8% (13/156) vs RV:LV ≤ 1 3% (3/112), p = 0.07], septal bowing [10% (4/42) vs without 5% (12/226), p = 0.30]. PFO was demonstrated on CTPA in a proportion similar to the known population prevalence, while routine TTE was less sensitive. Mortality was non-significantly higher in patients with acute PE and PFO in this moderate-sized study. A larger study to answer this clinically important question is worthwhile. Copyright © 2017 Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography. All rights reserved.

  15. Patent foramen ovale and migraine: a cross-sectional study from the Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundek, Tatjana; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Di Tullio, Marco R; Carrera, Emmanuel; Jin, Zhezhen; Sacco, Ralph L; Homma, Shunichi

    2008-09-30

    A causal relationship between patent foramen ovale (PFO) and migraine has been hypothesized, and improvement of migraine frequency and severity after percutaneous PFO closure has been reported. Population-based data on the relationship between PFO and migraine are sparse, however. The objective of this study was to examine the association between PFO and migraine among stroke-free individuals in an urban, population-based, multiethnic cohort. As a part of the ongoing Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS), 1101 stroke-free subjects were assessed for self-reported history of migraine. The presence of PFO was assessed by transthoracic echocardiography. The mean age of the group was 69+/-10 years; 58% were women. Forty-eight percent were Caribbean Hispanic, 24% were white, 26% were black, and 2% were another race/ethnicity. The prevalence of self-reported migraine was 16% (13% migraine with aura). The prevalence of PFO was 15%. Migraine was significantly more frequent among younger subjects, women, and Hispanics. The prevalence of PFO was not significantly different between subjects who had migraine (26/178, or 14.6%) and those who did not (138/923, or 15.0%; P=0.9). In an adjusted multivariate logistic regression model, the presence of PFO was not associated with increased prevalence of migraine (odds ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.63 to 1.61). Increasing age was associated with lower prevalence of migraine in both subjects with a PFO (odds ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 0.99 per year) and those without PFO (odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.95 to 0.99 per year). The observed lack of association between PFO and migraine (with or without aura) was not modified by diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cigarette smoking, or dyslipidemia. In this multiethnic, elderly, population-based cohort, PFO detected with transthoracic echocardiography and agitated saline was not associated with self-reported migraine. The causal relationship between PFO and

  16. Percutaneous Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale in Patients With Migraine: The PREMIUM Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobis, Jonathan M; Charles, Andrew; Silberstein, Stephen D; Sorensen, Sherman; Maini, Brijeshwar; Horwitz, Phillip A; Gurley, John C

    2017-12-05

    Migraine is a prevalent and disabling disorder. Patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been associated with migraine, but its role in the disorder remains poorly understood. This study examined the efficacy of percutaneous PFO closure as a therapy for migraine with or without aura. The PREMIUM (Prospective, Randomized Investigation to Evaluate Incidence of Headache Reduction in Subjects With Migraine and PFO Using the AMPLATZER PFO Occluder to Medical Management) was a double-blind study investigating migraine characteristics over 1 year in subjects randomized to medical therapy with a sham procedure (right heart catheterization) versus medical therapy and PFO closure with the Amplatzer PFO Occluder device (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, Minnesota). Subjects had 6 to 14 days of migraine per month, had failed at least 3 migraine preventive medications, and had significant right-to-left shunt defined by transcranial Doppler. Primary endpoints were responder rate defined as 50% reduction in migraine attacks and adverse events. Secondary endpoints included reduction in migraine days and efficacy in patients with versus without aura. Of 1,653 subjects consented, 230 were enrolled. There was no difference in responder rate in the PFO closure (45 of 117) versus control (33 of 103) groups. One serious adverse event (transient atrial fibrillation) occurred in 205 subjects who underwent PFO closure. Subjects in the PFO closure group had a significantly greater reduction in headache days (-3.4 vs. -2.0 days/month, p = 0.025). Complete migraine remission for 1 year occurred in 10 patients (8.5%) in the treatment group versus 1 (1%) in the control group (p = 0.01). PFO closure did not meet the primary endpoint of reduction in responder rate in patients with frequent migraine. (Prospective, Randomized Investigation to Evaluate Incidence of Headache Reduction in Subjects With Migraine and PFO Using the AMPLATZER PFO Occluder to Medical Management [PREMIUM]; NCT00355056). Copyright

  17. Atrial Septal Aneurysm and Patent Foramen Ovale as Risk Factors for Cryptogenic Stroke in Patients Less Than 55 Years of Age: A Study using Transesophageal Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanes, L.; Mas, J. L.; Cohen, A.; Amarenco, P.; Cabanes, P. A.; Oubary, P.; Chedru, F.; Guerin, F.; Bousser, M. G.; deRecondo, J.

    1993-01-01

    Background and Purpose: An association between atrial septal aneurysm and embolic events has been suggested. Atrial septal aneurysm has been shown to be associated with patent foramen ovale and,.in some reports, with mitral valve prolapse. These two latter cardiac disorder; have been identified as potential risk factors for ischemic stroke. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the role of atrial septal aneurysm as an independent risk factor for stroke, especially for cryptogenic stroke. Methods: We studied the prevalence of atrial septal aneurysm, patent foramen ovale, and mitral valve prolapse in 100 consecutive patients ischemic stroke who underwent extensive etiological investigations. We compared these results with those in a control group of 50 consecutive patients. The diagnosis of atrial septal aneurysm and patent foramen ovale relied on transesophageal echocardiography with a contrast study and that of mitral valve prolapse, on two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography. Results: Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that atrial septal aneurysm (odds ratio, 4.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.3 to 14.6; P=.01) and patent foramen ovale (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 10; P=.003) but not mitral valve prolapse were significantly associated with the diagnosis of cryptogenic stroke. The stroke odds of a patient with both atrial septal aneurysm and patent foramen ovale were 33.3 times (95% confidence interval, 4.1 to 270) the stroke odds of a patient with neither of these cardiac disorders. For a patient with atrial septal aneurysm of >lo-mm excursion, the stroke odds were approximately 8 times the stroke odds of a patient with atrial septal aneurysm of stroke and that their association has a marked synergistic effect. Atrial septal aneurysms of >lo-mm excursion are associated with a higher risk of stroke. (Stroke. 1993;24:1865-1873.) KEY WORDS aneurysm echocardiography foramen ovale, patent mitral valve prolapse o young adults

  18. When to use femoral vein injection for diagnosis of patent foramen ovale-Effect of a persistent eustachian valve on right atrial flow patterns during contrast transesophageal echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Tat W

    2017-05-01

    Contrast echocardiography using agitated saline injected into the antecubital vein is the most common method used for the diagnosis of patent foramen ovale. We describe a case whereby the presence of a persistent eustachian valve and a "negative contrast sign" during contrast transesophageal echocardiography raised suspicion of a false-negative result. Femoral vein injection of contrast successfully demonstrated a patent foramen ovale. Femoral vein injection should be considered if this scenario is recognized because the eustachian valve directs blood preferentially from the inferior vena cava toward the interatrial septum and this route may prove to be more reliable. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Clinical differentiation of patent foramen ovale and secundum atrial septal defect: a survey of pediatric cardiologists in Dallas, Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerle, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Public health birth defect surveillance registries rely on health care provider diagnosis and definition of congenital anomalies. Major anomalies are likely to have consistent diagnoses across providers; however, definition of some more common, often minor, defects can be problematic. Of particular frustration are the transient neonatal heart findings: patent ductus arteriosus, patent foramen ovale, and pulmonary artery branch stenosis. Under certain circumstances these findings may be considered true anomalies-patent foramen ovale (PFO) as a clinical finding overlaps significantly with atrial septal defect (ASD) of secundum type, the latter being considered a true congenital malformation. Some criteria must be established to separate these conditions in case ascertainment. It is therefore helpful to understand the clinical definitions of patent foramen ovale and secundum atrial septal defect. Pediatric cardiologists in the greater Dallas, Texas metropolitan area were surveyed by telephone, fax, and/or email and asked what criteria they use to distinguish a PFO from a secundum ASD. This was an open-ended question. No baseline parameters were suggested or introduced by the interviewer. Pediatric cardiology fellowship training was identified for each physician to examine the hypothesis that graduates of a given program would use the same diagnostic criteria. Responses were obtained from 22 of 23 pediatric cardiologists. Four measurement criteria were identified: size of the opening, presence or absence of a flap of septal tissue, appearance of the defect on echocardiogram and presence/absence/amount of blood shunting across through the opening. Though there was overlap, diagnostic criteria differentiating PFO and secundum ASD varied among pediatric cardiologists. Two fellowship programs were well represented by the respondent population. Eight respondents were trained at Fellowship 1 and 5 at Fellowship 2. Place of fellowship training was not a strong indicator of

  20. Patent foramen ovale closure versus medical therapy after cryptogenic stroke: An updated meta-analysis of all randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheiri, Babikir; Abdalla, Ahmed; Osman, Mohammed; Ahmed, Sahar; Hassan, Mustafa; Bachuwa, Ghassan

    2018-03-07

    Cryptogenic strokes can be attributed to paradoxical emboli through patent foramen ovale (PFO). However, the effectiveness of PFO closure in preventing recurrent stroke is uncertain and the results of previous randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have been inconclusive. Hence, this study provides an updated meta-analysis of all RCTs comparing PFO closure with medical therapy for secondary prevention of cryptogenic stroke. All RCTs were identified by a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Collaboration Central Register of Controlled Trials, Scopus, and Clinicaltrials.gov. The primary outcome was recurrent ischemic stroke and secondary outcomes were transient ischemic attack (TIA), all-cause mortality, new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF), serious adverse events, and major bleeding. 5 RCTs with 3440 participants were included in the present study (1829 patients underwent PFO closure and 1611 were treated medically). Pooled analysis showed a statistically significant reduction in the rate of recurrent stroke with PFO closure in comparison to medical therapy (OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.19-0.90; p = 0.03). However, there were no statistically significant reductions of recurrent TIAs (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.51-1.14; p = 0.19) or all-cause mortality (OR 0.76; 95% CI 0.35-1.65; p = 0.48). The risk of developing new-onset AF was increased significantly with PFO closure (OR 4.74; 95% CI 2.33-9.61; p Patent foramen ovale closure in adults with recent cryptogenic stroke was associated with a lower rate of recurrent strokes in comparison with medical therapy alone.

  1. Transcatheter Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale versus Medical Therapy after Cryptogenic Stroke: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmoch, Fahed; Al-Khadra, Yasser; Soud, Mohamad; Fanari, Zaher; Alraies, M Chadi

    2018-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) with atrial septal aneurysm is suggested as an important potential source for cryptogenic strokes. Percutaneous PFO closure to reduce the recurrence of stroke compared to medical therapy has been intensely debated. The aim of this study is to assess whether PFO closure in patients with cryptogenic stroke is safe and effective compared with medical therapy. A search of PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane Central Register from January 2000 through September 2017 for randomized controlled trails (RCT), which compared PFO closure to medical therapy in patients with cryptogenic stroke was conducted. We used the items "PFO or patent foramen ovale", "paradoxical embolism", "PFO closure" and "stroke". Data were pooled for the primary outcome measure using the random-effects model as pooled rate ratio (RR). The primary outcome was reduction in recurrent strokes. Among 282 studies, 5 were selected. Our analysis included 3,440 patients (mean age 45 years, 55% men, mean follow-up 2.9 years), 1,829 in the PFO closure group and 1,611 in the medical therapy group. The I2 heterogeneity test was found to be 48%. A random effects model combining the results of the included studies demonstrated a statistically significant risk reduction in risk of recurrent stroke in the PFO closure group when compared with medical therapy (RR 0.42; 95% CI 0.20-0.91, p = 0.03). Pooled data from 5 large RCTs showed that PFO closure in patients with cryptogenic stroke is safe and effective intervention for prevention of stroke recurrence compared with medical therapy. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Cryptogenic transient ischemic attack after nose blowing: association of huge atrial septal aneurysm with patent foramen ovale as potential cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotze U

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ulrich Lotze,1 Uwe Kirsch,1 Marc-Alexander Ohlow,2 Thorsten Scholle,3 Jochen Leonhardi,3 Bernward Lauer,2 Gerhard Oltmanns,4 Hendrik Schmidt5,6 1Department of Internal Medicine, DRK Krankenhaus Sondershausen, Sondershausen, Germany; 2Department of Cardiology, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Bad Berka, Germany; 3Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Germany; 4Department of Internal Medicine, DRK Krankenhaus Sömmerda; Sömmerda, Germany; 5Department of Cardiology and Diabetology, Klinikum Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; 6Department of Internal Medicine III, Martin-Luther-Univeristy Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany Abstract: Association of atrial septal aneurysm (ASA with patent foramen ovale (PFO is considered an important risk factor for cardioembolism frequently forwarding paradoxical embolism in patients with cryptogenic or unexplained cerebral ischemic events. We herein describe the case of a 69-year-old male patient reporting uncontrolled movements of the right arm due to a muscle weakness, slurred speech, and paresthesia in the oral region some seconds after he had blown his nose. These neurological symptoms had improved dramatically within a few minutes and were completely regressive at admission to our hospital about two hours later. On transesophageal echocardiography (TEE a huge ASA associated with PFO was detected. Diagnosis of the large-sized ASA was also confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Due to the early complete recovery from his neurological symptoms, the patient was diagnosed with a transient ischemic attack (TIA. After nine days he was discharged in a good clinical condition under the treatment with oral anticoagulation. It is concluded that in cryptogenic or unexplained stroke or TIA TEE should always be performed to rule out ASA and PFO as potential sources for paradoxical embolism in those inconclusive clinical situations. Keywords: congenital cardiac abnormality, atrial septal

  3. Foramen ovale permeable y ataque criptogénico: Papel de la ecocardiografía y estado del arte Patent foramen ovale and cryptogenic stroke: Echocardiography role and state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario H Jaramillo U

    2008-08-01

    have been speculations regarding the potential role of right-to-left intracardiac shunts as a path for paradoxical embolisms that result in ischemic cerebral disease. Transesophagic echocardiography with peripheral venous injection of saline contrast has shown to be the preferred method for the diagnosis of patent foramen ovale and right-to-left shunt. Prospective studies using acetylsalicylic acid or warfarin have not shown significant reduction of recurrent strokes. Even though both surgical and percutaneous closure of the patent foramen ovale have shown to decrease the rate of subsequent embolic episodes, their indication remains under discussion, at least until the appearance of randomized clinical trials, now under development. However, the cases of recurrent paradoxical embolism and those in professional scuba divers, both with intra-atrial septum aneurysm and an associated patent foramen ovale, are the only unequivocal indications for percutaneous closure. Successful closure, defined by transesophagic echocardiography, seems to predict lack of recurrent embolic events. As the complication rate of device implantation may decrease and these devices become technologically simple, percutaneous closure will prevail over surgical closure.

  4. Incremental Value of Three-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography over the Two-Dimensional Technique in the Assessment of a Thrombus in Transit through a Patent Foramen Ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thind, Munveer; Ahmed, Mustafa I; Gok, Gulay; Joson, Marisa; Elsayed, Mahmoud; Tuck, Benjamin C; Townsley, Matthew M; Klas, Berthold; McGiffin, David C; Nanda, Navin C

    2015-05-01

    We report a case of a right atrial thrombus traversing a patent foramen ovale into the left atrium, where three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography provided considerable incremental value over two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in its assessment. As well as allowing us to better spatially characterize the thrombus, three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography provided a more quantitative assessment through estimation of total thrombus burden. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Embolismo paradójico inminente evidenciado por ecocardiografía en pacientes con foramen ovale persistente Imminent paradoxical embolism evidenced by echocardiography in patients with patent foramen ovale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E Mayorga

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Paciente de género masculino, de 72 años de edad, con antecedente de trombo-embolismo pulmonar, quien ingresó por evento cerebro-vascular isquémico y en quien en el ecocardiograma trans-torácico y luego en el trans-esofágico, se encontró una masa móvil que sugería un trombo que traspasaba el foramen ovale permeable. Ante el diagnóstico de embolismo paradójico inminente, se consideró realizar trombectomía quirúrgica, la cual se difirió por infección y se inició anticoagulación con heparina de bajo peso molecular. Se realizó un ecocardiograma de control y se observó que la masa había desaparecido por completo. Se dio de alta con anticoagulación oral.A 72 years old male patient with previous history of pulmonary thrombosis was admitted with an ischemic stroke. In a transtoraxic echocardiogram, as well as in a posterior transesophagic one, a mobile mass suggesting a thrombus going through a patent foramen ovale, was found. Facing an imminent paradoxical embolism, surgical thrombectomy was considered that could no be realized due to infection. Anticoagulation with low molecular weight heparin was initiated. A control echocardiogram showed complete disappearance of the mass. The patient was discharged with oral anticoagulation.

  6. Novel percutaneous suture-mediated patent foramen ovale closure technique. Early results of the NobleStitch EL Italian Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspardone, Achille; De Marco, Federico; Sgueglia, Gregory A; De Santis, Antonella; Iamele, Maria; D'Ascoli, Emanuela; Tusa, Maurizio; Corciu, Anca; Mullen, Michael; Nobles, Anthony; Carminati, Mario; Bedogni, Francesco

    2018-04-03

    To assess the efficacy of a novel percutaneous "device-less" suture mediated patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure system. Between June 2016 and October 2017, a prospective registry aimed at assessing the safety and efficacy of the NobleStitch EL (HeartStitch, Fountain Valley, CA) suture-based PFO closure system was carried out at 12 sites in Italy. Among 200 consecutive evaluated patients, 192 were considered suitable for suture-mediated PFO closure (44±13 years, 114 women). Suture of the septum with the NobleStitch EL system was carried out successfully in 186 (96%) patients. Median fluoroscopy time was 16.1 (13.0-22.5) minutes and contrast volume 200 (150-270) ml. At 206±130 days follow-up, microbubbles transthoracic echocardiography with Valsalva maneuver revealed no RLS (grade 0) in 139 (75%) patients and RLS grade ≤1 in 166 (89%) patients. Significant RLS was present in 20 (11%) patients (grade 2 and 3 in 11 and 9 patients, respectively). There were no device-related complications. The early results of this first Italian Registry indicates that the suture mediated "deviceless" closure of PFO is feasible in the majority of septal anatomies, provides an effective closure of PFO comparable to traditional devices with an excellent safety profile at medium term follow-up.

  7. Endocardial Device Leads in Patients with Patent Foramen Ovale: Echocardiographic Correlates of Stroke/TIA and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponamgi, Shiva P; Vaidya, Vaibhav R; Desimone, Christopher V; Noheria, Amit; Hodge, David O; Slusser, Joshua P; Ammash, Naser M; Bruce, Charles J; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Friedman, Paul A; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2017-03-01

    Echocardiographically detected patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been associated with stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). We sought to evaluate the relationship between echocardiographic characteristics and risk of stroke/TIA and mortality in CIED patients with PFO. In 6,086 device patients, PFO was detected in 319 patients. A baseline echocardiogram was present in 250 patients, with 186 having a follow-up echocardiogram. Of 250 patients with a baseline echocardiogram, 9.6% (n = 24) had a stroke/TIA during mean follow-up of 5.3 ± 3.1 years; and 42% (n = 105) died over 7.1 ± 3.7 years. Atrial septal aneurysm, prominent Eustachian valve, visible shunting across PFO, baseline or change in estimated right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP)/tricuspid regurgitation (TR), or maximum RVSP were not associated with postimplant stroke/TIA (P > 0.05). An exploratory multivariate analysis using time-dependent Cox models showed increased hazard of death in patients with increase in TR ≥2 grades (hazard ratio [HR] 1.780, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.447-2.189, P 10 mm Hg (HR 2.018, 95% CI 1.593-2.556, P TIA. However, a significantly higher TR or RVSP was associated with higher mortality. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Assessment of Hypercoagulation State in Patients with Embolic Cerebrovascular or Transient Ischemic Attack and Patent Foramen Ovale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Nikfarjam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patent foramen ovale (PFO causes a right-to-left shunt in about a quarter of normal population. Hypercoagulation may be a risk factor for embolic cerebrovascular accidents (CVA in these patients by paradoxical emboli. In this study, we checked hypercoagulation states in the embolic CVA patients with PFO. Methods: In a cross- sectional study, 40 patients with CVA or transient ischemic attack ( TIA and PFO participated in the study. Serum level of Homocystein, lupus anticoagulant screening test, Factor V leiden, Anti Cardiolipin Antibody (ACLA (IgG, IgM , Anti- thrombin III, protein C, protein S,Anti B2 glycoprotein1 and platelet count were checked in all patients. The data were analyzed using the statistical package for social science series (SPSS 15.0 and descriptive statistical method.Results: The mean age was 42.4± 12.1. Seventeen (42.5% patients were females. Twenty- two (55% cases were diagnosed as having CVA and the others as TIA. Three (7.5% of the patients were diabetic and 8 (20% had a history of different stages of hypertension. Hyperlipidemia was detected in 6 (15% patients and according to the laboratory data none had any signs of hypercoagulation.Conclusion: According to the present study, hypercoagulation as a cofactor in CVA patients with PFO did not seem to be a direct risk factor for embolic CVA at least any higher than for normal population.

  9. Patent foramen ovale does not have a negative impact on early outcomes in patients undergoing liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, Ana Carolina; Verocai Flaman, F; Granton, J; Delgado, D H

    2011-01-01

    To identify the impact of the presence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in patients undergoing liver transplantation. Twenty-seven pre-liver transplant patients who had a PFO (PFO group) were identified and compared with 61 patients without PFO (NoPFO group). Patients were matched according to age, gender and cause of liver disease. The diagnosis of PFO was made by transthoracic echocardiography prior to liver transplantation. Patient baseline characteristics and complications during the early post-transplant period were analyzed. The mean age in the PFO group was 47 ± 14 (range 18-68) yr and 50 ± 11 (range 12-65) yr in the NoPFO group. The PFO group had a mean model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of 15 ± 10 whereas in the NoPFO group the MELD score was 19 ± 10 (p = 0.08). There were non-significant differences in echocardiographic parameters between groups. Duration of mechanical ventilation and the incidence of neurological complications were similar. Thirty-day mortality rate was similar in both groups; only one patient in the NoPFO group died within the first 30 days post-transplantation. The presence of PFO in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation does not appear to affect patient outcomes during the peri-operative period. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Patent foramen ovale in a large population of ischemic stroke patients: diagnosis, age distribution, gender, and race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vishal; Yesilbursa, Dilek; Huang, Wen Ying; Aggarwal, Kul; Gupta, Vijaya; Gomez, Camilo; Patel, Vinod; Miller, Andrew P; Nanda, Navin C

    2008-02-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a well-recognized risk factor for ischemic strokes. The true prevalence of PFO among stroke patients is still under debate. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the "gold standard" in diagnosing PFO but the physiology requires right-to-left atrial shunting. In this report, we evaluate the prevalence of PFO in a diverse group of ischemic stroke patients studied by TEE. TEE of 1,663 ischemic stroke patients were reviewed for cardiac source of embolism, including PFO and atrial septal aneurysm (ASA). Agitated saline bubble injection was performed to look for right to left atrial shunting. Success of maneuvers to elevate right atrial pressure (RAP) was noted by looking at the atrial septal bulge. Among 1,435 ischemic stroke patients analyzed, the presence or absence of PFO could not be determined in 32.1% because bulging of the septum could not be demonstrated in patients with negative contrast study despite aggressive maneuvers to elevate RAP. Of the remaining 974 patients, 294 patients (30.2%) had a PFO. The mean age was 61.5 years in both groups, with a bimodal distribution of PFO and the highest prevalence occurring in gender or racial difference in the prevalence of PFO, but there was a bimodal distribution in prevalence with age.

  11. Patent Foramen Ovale in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease and Stroke: Case Presentations and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Razdan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD are at increased risk for stroke, the underlying pathophysiology is incompletely understood. Intracardiac shunting via a patent foramen ovale (PFO is associated with cryptogenic stroke in individuals without SCD. Recent evidence suggests that PFOs are associated with stroke in children with SCD, although the role of PFOs in adults with stroke and SCD is unknown. Here, we report 2 young adults with SCD, stroke, and PFOs. The first patient had hemoglobin SC and presented with a transient ischemic attack and a subsequent ischemic stroke. There was no evidence of cerebral vascular disease on imaging studies and the PFO was closed. The second patient had hemoglobin SS and two acute ischemic strokes. She had cerebral vascular disease with moyamoya in addition to a peripheral deep venous thrombosis (DVT. Chronic transfusion therapy was recommended, and the DVT was managed with warfarin. The PFO was not closed, and the patients' neurologic symptoms were stabilized. We review the literature on PFOs and stroke in SCD. Our cases and the literature review illustrate the dire need for further research to evaluate PFO as a potential risk factor for stroke in adults with SCD.

  12. Patent foramen ovale, ischemic stroke and migraine: systematic review and stratified meta-analysis of association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel; Gregson, John; Willeit, Peter; Stephan, Blossom; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Brayne, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Observational data have reported associations between patent foramen ovale (PFO), cryptogenic stroke and migraine. However, randomized trials of PFO closure do not demonstrate a clear benefit either because the underlying association is weaker than previously suggested or because the trials were underpowered. In order to resolve the apparent discrepancy between observational data and randomized trials, we investigated associations between (1) migraine and ischemic stroke, (2) PFO and ischemic stroke, and (3) PFO and migraine. Eligibility criteria were consistent; including all studies with specifically defined exposures and outcomes unrestricted by language. We focused on studies at lowest risk of bias by stratifying analyses based on methodological design and quantified associations using fixed-effects meta-analysis models. We included 37 studies of 7,686 identified. Compared to reports in the literature as a whole, studies with population-based comparators showed weaker associations between migraine with aura and cryptogenic ischemic stroke in younger women (OR 1.4; 95% CI 0.9-2.0; 1 study), PFO and ischemic stroke (HR 1.6; 95 CI 1.0-2.5; 2 studies; OR 1.3; 95% CI 0.9-1.9; 3 studies), or PFO and migraine (OR 1.0; 95% CI 0.6-1.6; 1 study). It was not possible to look for interactions or effect modifiers. These results are limited by sources of bias within individual studies. The overall pairwise associations between PFO, cryptogenic ischemic stroke and migraine do not strongly suggest a causal role for PFO. Ongoing randomized trials of PFO closure may need larger numbers of participants to detect an overall beneficial effect. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. [Stroke. are there any difference between patients with or without patent foramen ovale in left atrial appendage systolic function?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Alejandro E; Perrote, Federico; Concari, Ignacio; Brenna, Eduardo J; Lucero, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the systolic function of the left atrial appendage (LAA) in a group with and without patent foramen ovale (PFO) who suffered ischemic cerebrovascular events. Between September 2010 and October 2011, 17 patients were referred for transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) after suffering a stroke. PFO was defined as the passage of at least one bubble through atrial septum with bubble test. We compared systolic velocity in the appendage between patients with and without PFO and a control group. Were 8 women and 9 men, mean age 54.1 ± 19.5 years and 8 patients were under 55 years of age. All patients had suffered a ischemic cerebrovascular events, 41.2% had stroke, 52.9% transient ischemic attack and amaurosis fugax 5.9%. In the assessment of TEE, 11.8% had atrial septal aneurysm and 35.3% PFO. Mean LAA systolic velocity was 66.3 ± 20.3 cm / sec. There was no difference in systolic velocity of the LAA between patients with and without PFO (67.5 ± 11.8 cm / sec vs 65.7 ± 24.3 cm / sec respectively, p = 0.87). The control group of 8 patients, 5 women and 3 men, mean age 39.5 ± 18 years, had a LAA systolic velocity of 77.6 ± 28.9 cm / sec, no significant differences with ischemic patients. There were no differences in systolic function of the LAA between patients with and without PFO with ischemic cerebrovascular event.

  14. Patent foramen ovale closure using a bioabsorbable closure device: safety and efficacy at 6-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Branden, Ben J; Post, Martijn C; Plokker, Herbert W; ten Berg, Jurriën M; Suttorp, Maarten J

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mid-term safety and efficacy of percutaneous patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure using a bioabsorbable device (BioSTAR, NMT Medical, Boston, Massachusetts). Closure of PFO in patients with cryptogenic stroke has proven to be safe and effective using different types of permanent devices. All consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous PFO closure with the bioabsorbable closure device between November 2007 and January 2009 were included. Residual shunt was assessed using contrast transthoracic echocardiography. Sixty-two patients (55% women, mean age 47.7 ± 11.8 years) underwent PFO closure. The in-hospital complications were a surgical device retrieval in 2 patients (3.2%), device reposition in 1 (1.6%), and a minimal groin hematoma in 6 patients (9.7%). The short-term complications at 1-month follow-up (n = 60) were a transient ischemic attack in the presence of a residual shunt in 1 patient and new supraventricular tachycardia in 7 patients (11.3%). At 6-month follow-up (n = 60), 1 patient without residual shunt developed a transient ischemic attack and 1 developed atrial fibrillation. A mild or moderate residual shunt was noted in 51.7%, 33.9%, and 23.7% after 1-day, 1-month, and 6-month follow-up, respectively. A large shunt was present in 8.3%, 3.4%, and 0% after 1-day, 1-month, and 6-month follow-up. Closure of PFO using the bioabsorbable device is associated with a low complication rate and a low recurrence rate of embolic events. However, a relatively high percentage of mild or moderate residual shunting is still present at 6-month follow-up. Copyright © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Left atrial dysfunction in patients with patent foramen ovale and atrial septal aneurysm: an alternative concurrent mechanism for arterial embolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatelli, Gianluca; Aggio, Silvio; Cardaioli, Paolo; Braggion, Gabriele; Giordan, Massimo; Dell'avvocata, Fabio; Chinaglia, Mauro; Rigatelli, Giorgio; Roncon, Loris; Chen, Jack P

    2009-07-01

    We postulate that, in patients with large patent foramen ovales (PFO) and atrial septal aneurysms (ASA), left atrial (LA) dysfunction simulating "atrial fibrillation (AF)-like" pathophysiology might represent an alternate mechanism in the promotion of arterial embolism. Despite prior reports concerning paradoxical embolism through a PFO, the magnitude of this phenomenon as a risk factor for stroke remains undefined, because deep venous thrombosis is infrequently detected in such patients. To test our hypothesis, we prospectively enrolled 98 consecutive patients with previous stroke (mean age 37 +/- 12.5 years, 58 women) referred to our center for catheter-based PFO closure. Baseline values of LA passive and active emptying, LA conduit function, LA ejection fraction, and spontaneous echocontrast (SEC) in the LA and LA appendage were compared with those of 50 AF patients as well as a sex/age/cardiac risk-matched population of 70 healthy control subjects. Pre-closure PFO subjects demonstrated significantly greater reservoir function as well as passive and active emptying, with significantly reduced conduit function and LA ejection fraction, when compared with AF and control patients. Furthermore, in PFO patients, 66.3% (65 of 98) had moderate-to-severe ASA and basal shunt; SEC was observed in 52% of PFO plus ASA patients before closure. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression revealed moderate-to-severe ASA (odds ratio: 9.4, 95% confidence interval: 7.0 to 23.2, p < 0.001) as the most powerful predictor of LA dysfunction. After closure, all LA parameters normalized to the levels of control subjects: no SEC, device-related thrombosis, or aortic erosion were observed on follow-up echocardiography. This study suggests that moderate-to-severe ASA might be associated with LA dysfunction in patients with PFO. The resultant similarities to the pathophysiology of AF might represent an additional contributing mechanism for arterial embolism in such patients.

  16. Patent Foramen Ovale Closure in the Setting of Cryptogenic Stroke: A Meta-Analysis of Five Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Lohit; Haleem, Affan; Varade, Shweta; Sivakumar, Keithan; Shah, Mahek; Patel, Brijesh; Agarwal, Manyoo; Agrawal, Sahil; Leary, Megan; Kluck, Bryan

    2018-05-24

    The clinical benefit of patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure after cryptogenic stroke has been a topic of debate for decades. Recently, 3 randomized controlled trials of PFO closure in patients with cryptogenic stroke demonstrated a significantly reduced risk of recurrent stroke compared with standard medical therapy alone. This meta-analysis was performed to clarify the efficacy of PFO closure for future stroke prevention in this population. A systematic literature search was undertaken. Published pooled data from 5 large randomized clinical trials (CLOSE, RESPECT, Gore REDUCE, CLOSURE I, and PC) were combined and then subsequently analyzed. Enrolled patients with cryptogenic stroke were assigned to receive standard medical care or to undergo endovascular PFO closure, with a primary outcome of reduction in stroke recurrence rate. Secondary outcomes included rates of transient ischemic attack (TIA), composite outcome of stroke, TIA, and death from all causes, and rates of atrial fibrillation events. We analyzed data for 3412 patients. Transcatheter PFO closure resulted in a statistically significant reduced rate of recurrent stroke, compared with medication alone. Patients undergoing closure were 58% less likely to have another stroke. The number needed to treat with PFO closure to reduce recurrent stroke for 1 patient was 40. Endovascular PFO closure was associated with a reduced risk of recurrent stroke in patients with a prior cryptogenic cerebral infarct. Although the absolute stroke reduction was small, these findings are clinically significant, given the young age of this patient population and the patients' lifetime risk of recurrent stroke. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quality of life after percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale in patients after cryptogenic stroke compared to a normative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzada, Naqibullah; Ladenvall, Per; Hansson, Per-Olof; Eriksson, Peter; Taft, Charles; Dellborg, Mikael

    2018-04-15

    Despite the widespread use of percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in patients after a cryptogenic stroke, little is known about its impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The aim of this study was to assess HRQoL in these patients compared to PFO patients not considered candidates for percutaneous closure, and to a normal population. A total of 402 patients with cryptogenic stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) who had been referred to our center for PFO closure were invited to a long-term clinical follow-up (mean follow-up 5.5 years; range 3-13 years). HRQoL was assessed using the SF-36 Health Survey and data were compared with an age- and gender-matched reference group from the Swedish SF-36 normative database. Fifteen patients had died and 43 did not answer the SF-36. Of the remaining 344 patients, 208 had undergone PFO closure, and 136 had not. The closure group and reference group reported similar HRQoL levels. However, the non-closure group showed significantly lower HRQoL in role limitation - physical, vitality, general health, mental health (p < 0.05) and social functioning (p = 0.05) than the reference group and also had significantly lower scores than the closure group, correcting for age differences, on physical functioning, role limitation - physical, vitality and general health (p < 0.05). Non-closure patients had lower HRQoL than their counterparts in the normal population and the closure group. Percutaneous PFO closure is associated with a favorable quality of life. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Transthoracic contrast echocardiography using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents for the diagnosis of patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang-Chun; Zheng, Jian-Yong; Li, Xin; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Bo-Yang; Chen, Yu; Li, Xian-Feng; Liu, Ying-Ming; Cao, Yi; Zhao, Li; Li, Tian-Chang

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the utility of transthoracic contrast echocardiography (cTTE) using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents for diagnosing right-to-left shunt (RLS) caused by patent foramen ovale (PFO) compared to that of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). We investigated 125 patients admitted to our neurology department with unexplained cerebral infarction and migraine. All patients underwent cTTE using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents, after which they underwent transthoracic echocardiography. The Doppler signal was recorded during the Valsalva maneuver, and TEE examinations were performed. The feasibility, diagnostic sensitivity, and safety of cTTE and TEE for PFO recognition were compared. Evidence of PFO was found in 49 (39.20%) patients with cTTE, more than were detected with TEE (39, 31.20%) (χ 2 =5.0625, P=0.0244). cTTE had a sensitivity of 92.31% and a specificity of 84.88% for diagnosing PFO, showing high concordance with TEE for PFO recognition (κ=0.72). Further, results of a semi-quantitative evaluation of PFO-RLS by cTTE were better than those with TEE (Z=-2.011, P=0.044). No significant adverse reaction was discovered during cTTE examination. cTTE using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents has relatively good sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing RLS caused by PFO when compared with those for TEE. Using vitamin B6 and sodium bicarbonate as contrast agents to perform cTTE is recommended for detecting and diagnosing the PFO due to its simplicity, non-invasive character, low cost, and high feasibility.

  19. Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale versus Medical Therapy after Cryptogenic Stroke: Meta-Analysis of Five Randomized Controlled Trials with 3440 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros Oliveira; de Oliveira Neto, Luiz de Albuquerque Pereira; do Nascimento, Gabriella Caroline Sales; Vieira, Erik Everton da Silva; Martins, Gabriel Lopes; Rodrigues, Karine Coelho; Nascimento, Giulia Cioffi; de Menezes, Alexandre Motta; Lins, Ricardo Felipe de Albuquerque; Silva, Frederico Pires Vasconcelos; Lima, Ricardo Carvalho

    2018-01-01

    Objective We aimed to determine whether patent foramen ovale closure reduces the risk of stroke, also assessing some safety outcomes. Introduction The clinical benefit of closing a patent foramen ovale after a cryptogenic stroke has been an open question for several decades, so that it is necessary to review the current state of published medical data in this regard. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LI-LACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles were searched for randomized controlled trials that reported any of the following outcomes: stroke, death, major bleeding or atrial fibrillation. Five studies fulfilled our eligibility criteria and included 3440 patients (1829 for patent foramen ovale closure and 1611 for medical therapy). Results The risk ratio (RR) for stroke in the "device closure" group compared with the "medical therapy" showed a statistically significant difference between the groups, favouring the "device closure" group (RR 0.400; 95% CI 0.183-0.873, P=0.021). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the safety outcomes death and major bleeding, but we observed an increase in the risk of atrial fibrillation in the "device closure group (RR 4.000; 95% CI 2.262-7.092, P<0.001). We also observed that the larger the proportion of effective closure, the lower the risk of stroke. Conclusion This meta-analysis found that stroke rates are lower with percutaneously implanted device closure than with medical therapy alone, being these rates modulated by the rates of effective closure. PMID:29617507

  20. Patent foramen ovale closure with GORE HELEX or CARDIOFORM Septal Occluder vs. antiplatelet therapy for reduction of recurrent stroke or new brain infarct in patients with prior cryptogenic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasner, Scott E; Thomassen, Lars; Søndergaard, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Rationale The utility of patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure for secondary prevention in patients with prior cryptogenic stroke is uncertain despite multiple randomized trials completed to date. Aims The Gore REDUCE Clinical Study (REDUCE) aims to establish superiority of patent foramen ovale...... with truly cryptogenic strokes. Medical therapy is limited to antiplatelet agents in both arms thereby reducing confounding. The trial should determine whether patent foramen ovale closure with the Gore septal occluders is safe and more effective than medical therapy alone for the prevention of recurrent...... closure in conjunction with antiplatelet therapy over antiplatelet therapy alone in reducing the risk of recurrent clinical ischemic stroke or new silent brain infarct in patients who have had a cryptogenic stroke. Methods and design This controlled, open-label trial randomized 664 subjects...

  1. Does a patent foramen ovale matter when using a remote-controlled magnetic system for pulmonary vein isolation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gate-Martinet, Alexie; Da Costa, Antoine; Romeyer-Bouchard, Cécile; Bisch, Laurence; Levallois, Marie; Isaaz, Karl

    2014-02-01

    Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) takes longer when using a patent foramen ovale (PFO) compared with a transseptal puncture in paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) with manual catheter ablation. To our knowledge, no data exist concerning the impact of a PFO on AF ablation procedure variables when using a remote magnetic navigation (RMN) system. To assess the impact of a PFO when using an RMN system in patients requiring AF ablation. Between December 2011 and December 2012, catheter ablation was performed remotely using the CARTO(®) 3 system in 167 consecutive patients who underwent PVI for symptomatic drug-refractory AF. The radiofrequency generator was set to a fixed power ≤ 35 W. The primary endpoint was wide-area circumferential PVI confirmed by spiral catheter recording during ablation for all patients and including additional lesion lines (left atrial roof) or complex fractionated atrial electrograms for persistent AF. Secondary endpoints included procedural data. Mean age 58±10 years; 18% women; 107 (64%) patients with symptomatic paroxysmal AF; 60 (36%) with persistent AF; CHA2DS2-VASc score 1.2 ± 1. The PFO presence was evidenced in 49/167 (29.3%) patients during the procedure but in only 26/167 (16%) by transoesophageal echocardiography. Median procedure time 2.5 ± 1 hours; median total X-ray exposure time 14 ± 7 minutes; transseptal puncture and catheter positioning time 7.5 ± 5 minutes; left atrium electroanatomical reconstruction time 3 ± 2.3 minutes; catheter ablation time 3 ± 3 minutes. No procedure time or X-ray exposure differences were observed between patients with or without a PFO during magnetic navigation catheter ablation. X-ray exposure time was significantly reduced using a PFO compared with double transseptal puncture access. A PFO does not affect magnetic navigation during AF ablation; procedure times and X-ray exposure were similar. Septal catheter probing is mandatory to limit X-ray exposure and prevent potential complications

  2. Transcatheter closure of patent foramen ovale for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke: Quantitative synthesis of pooled randomized trial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakeem, Abdul; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet; Katramados, Angelos; Boudoulas, Konstantinos Dean; Iliescu, Cezar; Gundogdu, Betul; Marmagkiolis, Konstantinos

    2018-01-14

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous device closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) for secondary prevention of ischemic stroke BACKGROUND: Stroke remains the leading cause of serious long-term disability in the United States. The effectiveness of a percutaneous PFO closure in the prevention of recurrent cryptogenic strokes has not been established. We performed a literature search using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, and Internet-based sources from January 2003 to September 2017. Randomized controlled trails (RCTs) comparing percutaneous PFO closure to medical therapy alone. Five RCTs (CLOSURE I, PC Trial, REDUCE, RESPECT, and CLOSE) with 1,829 patients in the device group and 1,611 patients in the medical group met inclusion criteria. The cumulative incidence of recurrent stroke was 2.02% in the PFO closure arm and 4.4% in the medical therapy group (RR 0.42, 95%CI 0.20, 0.91; P = 0.03). There was no difference in the incidence of death [0.7% vs. 0.9%; RR 0.76 (95% CI 0.35, 1.64), P = 0.49] or adverse events during the follow-up period [24.6% vs. 23.7% (RR 1.03; 95% CI 0.91, 1.16), P = 0.65] between the closure and medical therapy groups. Incidence of atrial fibrillation was significantly higher in closure group compared to medical therapy [4% vs. 0.6% (RR 4.73; 95% CI 2.09, 10.70), P = 0.0002]. The comparative effectiveness of PFO closure (compared to medical therapy) was significantly more pronounced in those younger than 45 years, males, larger shunts and disc design platforms (P < 0.05). Based on the results of this analysis of randomized trial data, percutaneous PFO closure appears to be a safe and effective therapeutic option for the secondary prevention of ischemic stroke in patients with PFO and cryptogenic stroke. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale in patients with presumed paradoxical embolism: periprocedural results and midterm risk of recurrent neurologic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbi, Manrico; Casalino, Laura; Gnecco, Giovanni; Bezante, Gian Paolo; Pongiglione, Giacomo; Marasini, Maurizio; Del Sette, Massimo; Barsotti, Antonio

    2008-08-01

    To report our data on selected patients with previous paradoxical embolism who underwent transcatheter patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure. Between July 2001 and July 2007, percutaneous PFO closure was performed on 128 patients (65 women, mean age: 46 +/- 12.8 years). Patent foramen ovale closure was recommended for secondary prevention in patients with previous transient ischemic attacks (52.5%), stroke (46%), or peripheral embolism (1.5%). Implantation was successful in all patients, and at the end of intervention, complete PFO closure was achieved in 70.3% of them. There were no "major" complications (ie, deaths, device embolization or thrombosis, need for cardiac surgery). The overall incidence of complications (mostly hemorrhagic) was 7%. The mean follow-up period was 32 months. Complete closure had been achieved in 78.4% and in 82.5% of patients at the third month of transesophageal echocardiography examination and at the sixth month of transcranial Doppler examination, respectively. There were no recurrent thromboembolic events during the follow-up period. Percutaneous closure of PFO is a feasible procedure, but it is not a risk-free technique. However, in correctly selected patients (ie, large PFO and those at risk for neurologic relapse), nearly complete PFO closure seems to provide protection from future neurologic ischaemic events at midterm follow-up.

  4. Patent foramen ovale

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... air bubbles will be seen moving from the right to left side of the heart. ... leg veins) breaks free and travels to the right side of the heart. ... to the brain and become stuck there, preventing blood flow to ...

  5. Postoperative rescue closure of patent foramen ovale in the clinical setting of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and stroke following coronary artery bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L Díaz-Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of intraoperative diagnosis and successful deferred percutaneous closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO in the clinical setting of acute refractory hypoxemic respiratory failure and new-onset ischemic stroke in an elderly patient after coronary artery bypass graft. Perioperative morbidity (i.e. severe hypoxemia, worsening right ventricular dysfunction, and embolic stroke that is potentially related to intraoperatively diagnosed PFO during cardiac surgery can complicate management in the Intensive Care Unit and perhaps affect the patient′s outcome. Although the PFO closure can be challenging in the clinical setting of hypoxemic respiratory failure and stroke following cardiac surgery, it can be a reasonable perioperative option.

  6. Transcatheter closure of a small atrial septal defect with an Amplatzer™ patent foramen ovale occluder in a working dog with cyanosis and exercise intolerance at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelden, A; Wesselowski, S; Gordon, S G; Saunders, A B

    2017-12-01

    A 6.5-year-old male Border Collie presented for transcatheter closure of an atrial septal defect due to exercise intolerance and cyanosis while working and training at altitude. A small, left-to-right shunting secundum atrial septal defect was confirmed with no evidence of significant right-sided volume overload. Pulmonary hypertension with subsequent right-to-left interatrial shunting occurring during exercise at high altitude was suspected and prompted the closure of the defect due to the dog's continued athletic requirements. The anatomy of the defect prompted use of a patent foramen ovale occluder rather than an atrial septal defect occluder, which was deployed using a combination of fluoroscopic and transesophageal echocardiographic guidance. The owner did not report continued exercise intolerance or cyanosis and the dog's lifestyle and residence at altitude was unchanged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Patent foramen ovale increases the risk of acute ischemic stroke in patients with acute pulmonary embolism leading to right ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goliszek, Sylwia; Wiśniewska, Małgorzata; Kurnicka, Katarzyna; Lichodziejewska, Barbara; Ciurzyński, Michał; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Gołębiowski, Marek; Babiuch, Marek; Paczynska, Marzanna; Koć, Marcin; Palczewski, Piotr; Wyzgał, Anna; Pruszczyk, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is an established risk factor for ischemic stroke. Since acute right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) observed in patients with PE can lead to right-to-left inter-atrial shunt via PFO, we hypothesized that PFO is a risk factor for ischemic stroke in PE with significant right ventricular dysfunction. 55 patients (31 F, 24M), median age 49 years (range 19-83 years) with confirmed PE underwent echocardiography for RVD and PFO assessment. High risk acute PE was diagnosed in 3 (5.5%) patients, while 16 (29%) hemodynamically stable with RVD patients formed a group with intermediate-risk PE. PFO was diagnosed in 19 patients (34.5%). Diffusion-weighted MRI of the brain for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) was performed in all patients 4.91 ± 4.1 days after admission. AIS was detected by MRI in 4 patients (7.3%). Only one stroke was clinically overt and resulted in hemiplegia. All 4 AIS occurred in the PFO positive group (4 of 19 patients), and none in subjects without PFO (21.0% vs 0%, p=0.02). Moreover, all AIS occurred in patients with RVD and PFO, and none in patients with PFO without RVD (50% vs 0%, p=0.038). Our data suggest that acute pulmonary embolism resulting in right ventricular dysfunction may lead to acute ischemic stroke in patients with patent foramen ovale. However, the clinical significance of such lesions remains to be determined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bilateral thalamic stroke due to occlusion of the artery of Percheron in a patient with patent foramen ovale: a case report

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    López-Serna Raúl

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bilateral thalamic infarcts are rare presentations of stroke. They are the result of a complex combination of risk factors and a predisposing vessel distribution. The artery of Percheron, characterized by a single arterial trunk that irrigates both paramedian thalamic regions, can be occluded as a result of embolic diseases leading to bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts. Clinical and image findings of this uncommon form of posterior circulation infarct are presented along with their anatomic and pathophysiologic correlates. Case presentation A 27-year-old Mexican man with no relevant medical history was admitted to hospital after he was found deeply stuporous. On admission, an urgent neuroimaging protocol for stroke, including magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance imaging angiography, was performed. The scans revealed symmetric bilateral hyperintense paramedian thalamic lesions consistent with acute ischemic events. The posterior circulation was patent including the tip of the basilar artery and both posterior cerebral arteries, making the case compatible with occlusion of the artery of Percheron. Further evaluation with an aim to define the etiology revealed a patent foramen ovale as the cause of embolism. Conclusion Bilateral thalamic infarcts are unusual presentations of posterior circulation stroke; once they are diagnosed by an adequate neuroimaging protocol, a further evaluation to define the cause is necessary. Cardioembolism should always be considered in relatively young patients. A complete evaluation should be conducted by an interdisciplinary team including neurologists, cardiologists and neurosurgeons.

  9. Perineural tumor extension through the foramen ovale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laine, F.J.; Braun, I.F.; Jensen, M.E.; Nadel, L.

    1988-01-01

    The third division of the trigeminal nerve exists through the foramen ovale and supplies extensive superficial and deep facial structures. As such, it is a common route of perineural spread of head and neck tumors. Perineural tumor extension through basal foramina is well documented pathologically and has been described with multiple radiologic modalities. The authors present seven patients with transforaminal lesions evaluated with MR imaging. Clinical findings referable to the two dimensions of V 3 are correlated with the images. This paper focuses on the normal anatomy and pathologic findings in and around the foramen ovale

  10. Is transcatheter closure better than medical therapy for cryptogenic stroke with patent foramen ovale? A meta-analysis of randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Vinayak; Raval, Jwalant; Eslick, Guy D; Burgess, David; Denniss, A Robert

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of patent foramen ovale among patients with cryptogenic stroke is higher than that in the general population. Closure with a percutaneous device is often recommended in such patients, but it is not known whether this intervention reduces the risk of recurrent stroke. A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Current Contents Connect, Cochrane library, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Web of Science. Original data were abstracted from each study and used to calculate a pooled event rate (ER), odd ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Only three randomised trials comprising 2303 patients met full criteria for analysis. Procedural success (ER: 94.20%, 95% CI: 87.6-97.4%) and effective closure (ER: 92.70%, 95% CI: 85.9-96.4%) of closure therapy were good. The odds ratio for stroke (OR: 0.654, 95% CI: 0.358-1.193) and transient ischaemic attack (OR: 0.768, 95% CI: 0.413-1.429) did not confer a benefit of PFO closure over medical therapy. Age {45 years (OR: 0.707, 95% CI: 0.27-1.856)}, gender {males (OR: 0.498, 95% CI: 0.247-1.004), females (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 0.597-2.255)}, substantial shunt size (OR: 0.354, 95% CI: 0.089-1.406) and the presence of atrial septal aneurysm (OR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.21-2.33) did not influence the treatment effect of PFO closure. However, the adverse events like major vascular complication (OR: 10.905, 95% CI: 1.997-59.562) and atrial fibrillation (OR: 3.297, 95% CI: 0.874-12.432) were significantly higher in the closure group. In patients with cryptogenic stroke or TIA who had a patent foramen ovale, closure with a device does not confer an advantage over medical therapy and is associated with adverse events like major vascular complication and atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2013 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). All rights reserved.

  11. Patent foramen ovale closure with GORE HELEX or CARDIOFORM Septal Occluder vs. antiplatelet therapy for reduction of recurrent stroke or new brain infarct in patients with prior cryptogenic stroke: Design of the randomized Gore REDUCE Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasner, Scott E; Thomassen, Lars; Søndergaard, Lars; Rhodes, John F; Larsen, Coby C; Jacobson, Joth

    2017-12-01

    Rationale The utility of patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure for secondary prevention in patients with prior cryptogenic stroke is uncertain despite multiple randomized trials completed to date. Aims The Gore REDUCE Clinical Study (REDUCE) aims to establish superiority of patent foramen ovale closure in conjunction with antiplatelet therapy over antiplatelet therapy alone in reducing the risk of recurrent clinical ischemic stroke or new silent brain infarct in patients who have had a cryptogenic stroke. Methods and design This controlled, open-label trial randomized 664 subjects with cryptogenic stroke at 63 multinational sites in a 2:1 ratio to either antiplatelet therapy plus patent foramen ovale closure (with GORE® HELEX® Septal Occluder or GORE® CARDIOFORM Septal Occluder) or antiplatelet therapy alone. Subjects will be prospectively followed for up to five years. Neuroimaging is required for all subjects at baseline and at two years or study exit. Study outcomes The two co-primary endpoints for the study are freedom from recurrent clinical ischemic stroke through at least 24 months post-randomization and incidence of new brain infarct (defined as clinical ischemic stroke or silent brain infarct) through 24 months. The primary analyses are an unadjusted log-rank test and a binomial test of subject-based proportions, respectively, both on the intent-to-treat population, with adjustment for testing multiplicity. Discussion The REDUCE trial aims to target a patient population with truly cryptogenic strokes. Medical therapy is limited to antiplatelet agents in both arms thereby reducing confounding. The trial should determine whether patent foramen ovale closure with the Gore septal occluders is safe and more effective than medical therapy alone for the prevention of recurrent clinical ischemic stroke or new silent brain infarct; the neuroimaging data will provide an opportunity to further support the proof of concept. The main results are anticipated in 2017

  12. Safety and efficacy of device closure for patent foramen ovale for secondary prevention of neurological events: Comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakeem, Abdul; Marmagkiolis, Konstantinos; Hacioglu, Yalcin; Uretsky, Barry F.; Gundogdu, Betul; Leesar, Massoud; Bailey, Steven R.; Cilingiroglu, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Controversy persists regarding the management of patients with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO). We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing PFO closure with medical therapy. Methods and Results: A prospective protocol was developed and registered using the following data sources: PubMed, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, conference proceedings, and Internet-based resources of clinical trials. Primary analyses were performed using the intention-to-treat method. Three randomized trials comparing percutaneous PFO closure vs. medical therapy for secondary prevention of embolic neurological events formed the data set. Baseline characteristics were similar. During long-term follow-up, the pooled incidence of the primary endpoint (composite of stroke, death, or fatal stroke) was 3.4% in the PFO closure arm and 4.8% in the medical therapy group [risk-reduction (RR) 0.7 (0.48–1.06); p = 0.09]. The incidence of recurrent neurological events (secondary endpoint) was 1.7% for PFO closure and 2.7% for medical therapy [RR 0.66 (0.35–1.24), p = 0.19]. There was no difference in terms of death or adverse events between the two groups. Conclusions: While this meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials demonstrated no statistical significance in comparison to medical therapy, there was a trend towards overall improvement in outcomes in the PFO closure group

  13. Safety and efficacy of device closure for patent foramen ovale for secondary prevention of neurological events: Comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakeem, Abdul [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Marmagkiolis, Konstantinos [Citizens Memorial Hospital Heart and Vascular Institute, Bolivar, MO (United States); Hacioglu, Yalcin; Uretsky, Barry F.; Gundogdu, Betul [University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Leesar, Massoud [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bailey, Steven R. [University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Cilingiroglu, Mehmet, E-mail: mcilingiroglu@yahoo.com [Arkansas Heart Hospital, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Background: Controversy persists regarding the management of patients with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO). We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing PFO closure with medical therapy. Methods and Results: A prospective protocol was developed and registered using the following data sources: PubMed, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, conference proceedings, and Internet-based resources of clinical trials. Primary analyses were performed using the intention-to-treat method. Three randomized trials comparing percutaneous PFO closure vs. medical therapy for secondary prevention of embolic neurological events formed the data set. Baseline characteristics were similar. During long-term follow-up, the pooled incidence of the primary endpoint (composite of stroke, death, or fatal stroke) was 3.4% in the PFO closure arm and 4.8% in the medical therapy group [risk-reduction (RR) 0.7 (0.48–1.06); p = 0.09]. The incidence of recurrent neurological events (secondary endpoint) was 1.7% for PFO closure and 2.7% for medical therapy [RR 0.66 (0.35–1.24), p = 0.19]. There was no difference in terms of death or adverse events between the two groups. Conclusions: While this meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials demonstrated no statistical significance in comparison to medical therapy, there was a trend towards overall improvement in outcomes in the PFO closure group.

  14. 4D flow MRI assessment of right atrial flow patterns in the normal heart - influence of caval vein arrangement and implications for the patent foramen ovale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jehill D Parikh

    Full Text Available To investigate atrial flow patterns in the normal adult heart, to explore whether caval vein arrangement and patency of the foramen ovale (PFO may be associated with flow pattern.Time-resolved, three-dimensional velocity encoded magnetic resonance imaging (4D flow was employed to assess atrial flow patterns in thirteen healthy subjects (6 male, 40 years, range 25-50 and thirteen subjects (6 male, 40 years, range 21-50 with cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale (CS-PFO. Right atrial flow was defined as vortical, helico-vortical, helical and multiple vortices. Time-averaged and peak systolic and diastolic flows in the caval and pulmonary veins and their anatomical arrangement were compared.A spectrum of right atrial flow was observed across the four defined categories. The right atrial flow patterns were strongly associated with the relative position of the caval veins. Right atrial flow patterns other than vortical were more common (p = 0.015 and the separation between the superior and inferior vena cava greater (10±5mm versus 3±3mm, p = 0.002 in the CS-PFO group. In the left atrium all subjects except one had counter-clockwise vortical flow. Vortex size varied and was associated with left lower pulmonary vein flow (systolic r = 0.61, p = 0.001, diastolic r = 0.63 p = 0.002. A diastolic vortex was less common and time-averaged left atrial velocity was greater in the CS-PFO group (17±2cm/sec versus 15±1, p = 0.048. One CS-PFO subject demonstrated vortical retrograde flow in the descending aortic arch; all other subjects had laminar descending aortic flow.Right atrial flow patterns in the normal heart are heterogeneous and are associated with the relative position of the caval veins. Patterns, other than 'typical' vortical flow, are more prevalent in the right atrium of those with cryptogenic stroke in the context of PFO. Left atrial flow patterns are more homogenous in normal hearts and show a relationship with flow arising from the left

  15. Patent foramen ovale in a cohort of young patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke Forame oval patente em uma coorte de pacientes jovens com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Tulius T. Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although its role is a matter of debate, some studies described a higher prevalence of patent foramen ovale (PFO and atrial septal aneurysm (ASA in young stroke patients, with higher risk with PFO / ASA association (OR 4.96. The aim of this study was determine the prevalence of PFO and ASA in a cohort of cryptogenic ischemic stroke (IS patients younger than 55 years and to follow-up after surgical or percutaneous endovascular closure (PEC. METHOD: In 21 months we identified all patients less than 55 years old with IS who were admitted to our hospital. Cryptogenic IS was considered if there is not an identifiably cause to cerebral ischemia. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE was performed in all patients. After interatrial septal abnormalities diagnosis, percutaneous device closure was offered to all. Patients were followed monthly and keeped with oral AAS or Clopidogrel. RESULTS: We identified 189 patients with IS and 32 were less than 55 years old (16.9%. In 29 the IS was cryptogenic. TEE was performed in all patients and some form of interatrial septal abnormality was identified in 12 (12/29 - 41.3%; 5 had a PFO and in 7 there was PFO plus ASA. Ten patients were submitted to PEC and 2 were submitted to surgical closure. In mid-term follow-up (28 months no ischemic events occurred and 2 patients related disappearance of migraine symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our small series description is in accordance with other studies and suggests a possible relation between interatrial septal abnormalities and IS in a cohort of young patient.OBJETIVO: A associação das anormalidades do septo interatrial - forame oval patente (FOP e aneurisma de septo interatrial (ASA - com acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCI ainda é questão de incerteza para muitos autores. No entanto, vários estudo mostram que em pacientes jovens tais anormalidades podem estar relacionadas à gênese de eventos isquêmicos. Nosso objetivo é descrever a prevalência do

  16. Practice advisory: Recurrent stroke with patent foramen ovale (update of practice parameter): Report of the Guideline Development, Dissemination, and Implementation Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messé, Steven R; Gronseth, Gary; Kent, David M; Kizer, Jorge R; Homma, Shunichi; Rosterman, Lee; Kasner, Scott E

    2016-08-23

    To update the 2004 American Academy of Neurology guideline for patients with stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO) by addressing whether (1) percutaneous closure of PFO is superior to medical therapy alone and (2) anticoagulation is superior to antiplatelet therapy for the prevention of recurrent stroke. Systematic review of the literature and structured formulation of recommendations. Percutaneous PFO closure with the STARFlex device possibly does not provide a benefit in preventing stroke vs medical therapy alone (risk difference [RD] 0.13%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.2% to 2.0%). Percutaneous PFO closure with the AMPLATZER PFO Occluder possibly decreases the risk of recurrent stroke (RD -1.68%, 95% CI -3.18% to -0.19%), possibly increases the risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) (RD 1.64%, 95% CI 0.07%-3.2%), and is highly likely to be associated with a procedural complication risk of 3.4% (95% CI 2.3%-5%). There is insufficient evidence to determine the efficacy of anticoagulation compared with antiplatelet therapy in preventing recurrent stroke (RD 2%, 95% CI -21% to 25%). Clinicians should not routinely offer percutaneous PFO closure to patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke outside of a research setting (Level R). In rare circumstances, such as recurrent strokes despite adequate medical therapy with no other mechanism identified, clinicians may offer the AMPLATZER PFO Occluder if it is available (Level C). In the absence of another indication for anticoagulation, clinicians may routinely offer antiplatelet medications instead of anticoagulation to patients with cryptogenic stroke and PFO (Level C). © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Patent foramen ovale closure vs medical therapy for stroke prevention: meta-analysis of randomized trials and review of heterogeneity in meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udell, Jacob A; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Khairy, Paul; Silversides, Candice K; Gladstone, David J; O'Gara, Patrick T; Landzberg, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) might be a risk factor for unexplained ("cryptogenic") stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of transcatheter PFO closure compared with antithrombotic therapy for secondary prevention of cerebrovascular events among patients with cryptogenic stroke. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of MedLine and Embase (from inception to March 2013) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared transcatheter PFO closure with medical therapy in subjects with cryptogenic stroke. Data were independently extracted on trial conduct quality, baseline characteristics, efficacy, and safety events from published articles and appendices. Risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the composite of stroke or TIA, and adverse cardiovascular events including atrial fibrillation/flutter were constructed. Three RCTs of 2303 subjects with previous stroke, TIA, or systemic arterial embolism (mean age, 45.7 years; 47.3% women; mean follow-up, 2.6 years) were included. PFO closure did not significantly reduce the risk of recurrent stroke/TIA (3.7% vs 5.2%; RR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.50-1.07; P = 0.10); however, an increased risk of incident atrial fibrillation/flutter was detected (3.8% vs 1.0%; RR, 3.67; 95% CI, 1.95-6.89; P < 0.0001). No significant heterogeneity was detected for any end point among subgroups of patients stratified according to age, sex, index cardiovascular event, device type, interatrial shunt size, and presence of an atrial septal aneurysm (all P interactions ≥ 0.09). Meta-analysis of RCTs that assessed transcatheter PFO closure for secondary prevention of cerebrovascular events in subjects with cryptogenic stroke does not demonstrate benefit compared with antithrombotic therapy, and suggests potential risks. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Is it too early to recommend patent foramen ovale closure for all patients who suffer from migraine? A single-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessa, Massimo; Colombo, Chiara; Butera, Gianfranco; Negura, Diana; Piazza, Luciane; Varotto, Leonardo; Bussadori, Claudio; Fesslova, Vlasta; Meola, Giovanni; Carminati, Mario

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the course of migraine in migraine headache patients undergoing patent foramen ovale (PFO) transcatheter closure. Migraine has an important impact on the quality of life, and it seems to be one of the most disabling medical illnesses. In several studies, a high prevalence of right-to-left shunt has been described in patients with migraine, especially migraine with aura. The presence of right-to-left shunt, whatever the mechanism, may be the most potent trigger of migraine attacks in both migraine with aura and migraine without aura and the main determinant of aura in migraine with aura. A cohort of 42 patients (nine men/33 women; mean age 39 +/- 11.2 years), current migraineurs, underwent PFO percutaneous closure in our centre between January 2004 and December 2007. All patients rated the severity of their migraine preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively, indicating the frequency, duration, and intensity of the attacks and the occurrence of the aura in the prodromal phase, during the past 6 months, according to the migraine severity score. Baseline severity of migraine was higher in migraine with aura patients than in migraine without aura ones (8.8 vs. 7.5; P = 0.037). The resolution of migraine was verified in 11 patients (26%) after the closure of the PFO. A reduction in the frequency of the attacks (>=50%) was observed in 22 patients (52%). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the improvement in migraine with aura and migraine without aura was independent of migraine type, sex, age, cerebrovascular risk factors and cerebrovascular events, type of cardiac defect, and thrombophilic conditions. The consistent observations of this and other studies are provocative and worthy of evaluation with a prospective randomized trial using objective measures of migraine frequency and severity. However, it seems too early to recommend PFO closure for all patients who suffer from migraine until the results of ongoing large randomized trials are

  19. Determination of the optimum number of cardiac cycles to differentiate intra-pulmonary shunt and patent foramen ovale by saline contrast two- and three-dimensional echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Nirmanmoh; Abushora, Mohannad Y; Donneyong, Macarius M; Stoddard, Marcus F

    2014-03-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) and intra-pulmonary shunt (IPS) are potential causes of stroke. The most optimum cardiac cycle cutoff for bubbles to appear in the left heart on saline contrast transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) as criteria to differentiate the 2 entities is unknown. Ninety-five adult patients had saline contrast transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), two-dimensional (2D) and 3DTTE. Sensitivity and specificity of each cardiac cycle as cutoff to differentiate a PFO and IPS were obtained. Transesophageal echocardiography showed IPS in 28 and PFO in 15 patients. If bubbles appeared in the left heart within the first 4 cardiac cycles (the 4th cardiac cycle rule) as compared to alternate cutoffs, a PFO was most accurately diagnosed by both 2D and 3DTTE. Bubbles appearing at or after the 5th cardiac cycle most accurately determined an IPS. 3D versus 2DTTE had a trend for a higher sensitivity (61% vs. 36%, P = 0.06), but similar specificity (94% vs. 91%) for IPS. Accuracy of 3DTTE was 84% and 2DTTE was 75% (P = 0.08) for IPS. For PFO, 2DTTE sensitivity (87%) and specificity (98%) did not differ (P = NS) from that of 3DTTE sensitivity (73%) and specificity (100%). This study demonstrates for the first time that the 4th cardiac cycle rule differentiates PFO and IPS most optimally by 2D and 3DTTE. 3DTTE appears to have higher sensitivity for diagnosing IPS. These data suggest that 3DTTE is preferable when IPS is to be diagnosed. Both methods are similar for diagnosing PFO. © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A new theory of cryptogenic stroke and its relationship to patent foramen ovale; or, the puzzle of the missing extra risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Arnold E

    2006-01-01

    Cryptogenic stroke (or stroke of undetermined cause) is a common cause of stroke and is statistically associated with patent foramen ovale (PFO). The largest study of cryptogenic stroke is the Homma study, which is a sub-study of the WARSS trial; it produced the following data: cryptogenic stroke patients with and without PFO, when treated with either aspirin or warfarin, all had identical recurrence rates. This is puzzling because it seems as though there ought to have been some extra risk in one of the two groups under one of the two treatments. How could everything come out the same? A review of the epidemiology of cryptogenic stroke shows that, compared to patients with stroke of determined cause, cryptogenic stroke patients are a little younger and have lower doses of the usual risk factors (hypertension and diabetes mellitus) but more PFO. Cryptogenic strokes appear to be embolic strokes from an unknown source. A previously published article setting forth a hypothetical theory of stress-induced stroke was used to analyze these data. It is suggested that stress can induce episodic systemic platelet activation and hypercoagulability, which causes transient thrombus formation and subsequent embolization on both the arterial and venous sides of the circulation; the latter requires a PFO to cause a stroke (paradoxical embolism). The sum of these two mechanisms explains cryptogenic stroke. The PFO subset of cryptogenic stroke includes patients with both early and late stage disease who have an aggregate risk approximately equal to that of patients without PFO. Cryptogenic stroke is part of the disease of stress-induced cerebrovascular disease. Aspirin and warfarin have already been shown to be equally effective in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.

  1. Long-term outcomes of patent foramen ovale closure or medical therapy after cryptogenic stroke: A meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, Hesham K; Saad, Marwan; Abuomara, Hossamaldin Z; Nairooz, Ramez; Pothineni, Naga Venkata K; Madmani, Mohamed E; Roberts, David H; Mahmud, Ehtisham

    2018-05-04

    To examine long-term clinical outcomes with transcatheter patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure versus medical therapy alone in patients with cryptogenic stroke. A long-standing debate regarding the optimal approach for the management of patients with PFO after a cryptogenic stroke exists. An electronic search was performed for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) reporting clinical outcomes with PFO closure vs. medical therapy alone after stroke. Random effects DerSimonian-Laird risk ratios (RR) were calculated. The main outcome was recurrence of stroke. Other outcomes included transient ischemic attack (TIA), new-onset atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF/AFL), major bleeding, serious adverse events, and device-related complications. All-cause mortality was also examined. Five RCTs with a total of 3,440 patients were included. At a mean follow-up of 4.02 ± 1.57 years, PFO closure was associated with less recurrence of stroke (RR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.19-0.91; P = .027) compared with medical therapy alone. No difference was observed between both strategies for TIA (P = .21), major bleeding (P = .69), serious adverse events (P = .35), and all-cause death (P = .48). However, PFO closure, was associated with increased new-onset AF/AFL (P < .001), risk of pulmonary embolism (P = .04), and device-related complications (P < .001). On a subgroup analysis, stroke recurrence rate remained lower in PFO closure arm regardless of the type of closure device used (P interaction  = .50), or the presence of substantial shunt in the majority of study population (P interaction  = .13). Transcatheter PFO closure reduces the recurrence of stroke compared with medical therapy alone, with no significant safety concerns. Close follow-up of patients after PFO closure is recommended to detect new-onset atrial arrhythmias. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Intracardiac echo-guided radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation in patients with atrial septal defect or patent foramen ovale repair: a feasibility, safety, and efficacy study.

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    Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya; Rangisetty, Umamahesh; Prasad, Subramanya; Verma, Atul; Biria, Mazda; Berenbom, Loren; Pimentel, Rhea; Emert, Martin; Rosamond, Thomas; Fahmy, Tamer; Patel, Dimpi; Di Biase, Luigi; Schweikert, Robert; Burkhardt, David; Natale, Andrea

    2008-11-01

    Intracardiac Echo-Guided Radiofrequency Catheter. Patients with atrial septal defect (ASD) are at higher risk for atrial fibrillation (AF) even after repair. Transseptal access in these patients is perceived to be difficult. We describe the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of pulmonary vein antral isolation (PVAI) in these patients. We prospectively compared post-ASD/patent foramen ovale (PFO) repair patients (group I, n = 45) with age-gender-AF type matched controls (group II, n = 45). All the patients underwent PVAI through a double transseptal puncture with a roving circular mapping catheter technique guided by intracardiac echocardiography (ICE). The short-term (3 months) and long-term (12 month) failure rates were assessed. In group I, 23 (51%) had percutaneous closure devices and 22 (49%) had a surgical closure. There was no significant difference between group I and II in the baseline characteristics. Intracardiac echo-guided double transseptal access was obtained in 98% of patients in group I and in 100% of patients in group II. PVAI was performed in all patients, with right atrial flutter ablation in 7 patients in group I and in 4 patients in group II. Over a mean follow-up of 15 +/- 4 months, group I had higher short-term (18% vs 13%, P = 0.77) and long-term recurrence (24% vs 18%, P = 0.6) than group II. There was no significant difference in the perioperative complications between the two groups. Echocardiography at 3 months showed interatrial communication in 2 patients in group I and 1 patient in group II, which resolved at 12 months. Percutaneous AF ablation using double transseptal access is feasible, safe, and efficacious in patients with ASD and PFO repairs.

  3. Clinically apparent long-term electric disturbances in the acute and very long-term of patent foramen ovale device-based closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatelli, Gianluca; Zuin, Marco; Pedon, Luigi; Zecchel, Roberto; Dell'Avvocata, Fabio; Carrozza, Antonio; Zennaro, Marco; Pastore, Gianni; Zanon, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    Incidence of electrical disturbances in patients submitted to transcatheter patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure has not been fully clarified in a large population. The aim of the study is to assess the incidence of atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachi-arrhythmias, and atrio-ventricular block in the acute and very long-term follow-up. We reviewed the medical and instrumental data of 1000 consecutive patients (mean age 47.3±17.1years) prospectively enrolled in two centers over a 13-year period (February 1999 to February 2012) for right-to-left (R-to-L) shunt ICE-aided catheter-based closure using different devices. Successful transcatheter PFO closure was achieved in 99.8% of the patients. Implanted devices were: Amplatzer PFO Occluder in 463 patients (46.3%), Amplatzer ASD Cribriform Occluder in 420 patients (42.0%), Premere Occlusion System in 95 patients (9.5%), and Biostar Occluder in 22 patients (2.2%). Postprocedural electrical complications occurred in 5.9% of patients. The only independent predictors of electrophysiological complications were female gender (OR 2.3, 0.5-5.1 [95% CI], p30mm (OR 5.0, 1.2-7.2 [95% CI], pgender (OR 2.3, 0.5-5.1 [95% CI], p30mm (OR 5.0, 1.2-7.2 [95% CI], p<0.001). Device-based closure of PFO using different devices, appeared very safe from an electrophysiological point of view with low incidence of electrical disturbances even in the very long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcranial Doppler and transesophageal echocardiography: comparison of both techniques and prospective clinical relevance of transcranial Doppler in patent foramen ovale detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputi, Luigi; Carriero, Maria Rita; Falcone, Chiara; Parati, Eugenio; Piotti, Patrizia; Materazzo, Carlo; Anzola, Gian Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been investigated in several conditions apart from cryptogenic ischemic stroke. Contrast transesophageal echocardiography (cTEE) is the gold standard for the diagnosis, although it has some known limitations. Contrast transcranial Doppler (cTCD) allows a semiquantitative estimation of right-to-left shunt (RLS) volume. The aims of our study were to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of cTCD in PFO diagnosis and to compare the abilities of cTCD and cTEE to detect a RLS and PFO, respectively, under normal breathing. The latter could represent an important feature for its clinical significance. A total of 100 consecutive patients (59 women and 41 men, age 46 +/- 12 years) were evaluated after stabilized ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack, migraine, and lacunae, and before neurosurgery in sitting position. All patients undertook cTEE and cTCD, at rest and under Valsalva maneuver (VM). cTEE under VM was the reference standard. A categorization of patients and a semiquantitative cTCD classification were proposed. In all, 63 of 100 patients had PFO diagnosed by cTEE. A general concordance of up to 90% between both techniques was found. cTCD sensitivity and specificity were 96.8% and 78.4%, respectively. In 17 of 100 patients with cTEE-proven PFO under VM, cTCD and cTEE detected RLS at rest in 75% (95% confidence interval [CI] 62%-85%) and 48% (95% CI 35%-61%) of cases, respectively (P < .001). cTEE disclosed RLS at rest in about 71% (95% CI 9%-42%) of cTCDs showing a "shower-curtain" pattern and only in about 22% (95% CI 52%-85%) of those cTCDs without that pattern. In diagnosing PFO, cTCD has a good accuracy compared with cTEE. To detect a RLS at rest, cTCD appears to be more sensitive than cTEE. The latter resulted positive under normal breathing, mostly in cases of significant RLS at cTCD. Our results point out the impact of cTCD in the evaluation of RLS volume, thus aiding, in association with the anatomic details by cTEE, in the

  5. Percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale and atrial septal defect in adults: the impact of clinical variables and hospital procedure volume on in-hospital adverse events.

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    Opotowsky, Alexander R; Landzberg, Michael J; Kimmel, Stephen E; Webb, Gary D

    2009-05-01

    Percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale/atrial septal defect (PFO/ASD) is an increasingly common procedure perceived as having minimal risk. There are no population-based estimates of in-hospital adverse event rates of percutaneous PFO/ASD closure. We used nationally representative data from the 2001-2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample to identify patients >or-=20 years old admitted to an acute care hospital with an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision code designating percutaneous PFO/ASD closure on the first or second hospital day. Variables analyzed included age, sex, number of comorbidities, year, same-day use of intracardiac or other echocardiography, same-day left heart catheterization, hospital size and teaching status, PFO/ASD procedural volume, and coronary intervention volume. Outcomes of interest included length of stay, charges, and adverse events. The study included 2,555 (weighted to United States population: 12,544 +/- 1,987) PFO/ASD closure procedures. Mean age was 52.0 +/- 0.4 years, and 57.3% +/- 1.0% were women. Annual hospital volume averaged 40.8 +/- 7.7 procedures (range, 1-114). Overall, 8.2 +/- 0.8% of admissions involved an adverse event. Older patients and those with comorbidities were more likely to sustain adverse events. Use of intracardiac echocardiography was associated with fewer adverse events. The risk of adverse events was inversely proportional to annual hospital volume (odds ratio [OR] 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86-0.96, per 10 procedures), even after limiting the analysis to hospitals performing >or=10 procedures annually (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.98). Adverse events were more frequent at hospitals in the lowest volume quintile as compared with the highest volume quintile (13.3% vs 5.4%, OR 2.42, 95% CI 1.55-3.78). The risk of adverse events of percutaneous PFO/ASD closure is inversely correlated with hospital volume. This relationship applies even to hospitals meeting the current guidelines

  6. Randomized clinical trial comparing percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) using the Amplatzer PFO Occluder with medical treatment in patients with cryptogenic embolism (PC-Trial): rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ahmed A; Windecker, Stephan; Jüni, Peter; Hildick-Smith, David; Dudek, Dariusz; Andersen, Henning R; Ibrahim, Reda; Schuler, Gerhard; Walton, Antony S; Wahl, Andreas; Mattle, Heinrich P; Meier, Bernhard

    2011-02-28

    Several studies have shown an association of cryptogenic stroke and embolism with patent foramen ovale (PFO), but the question how to prevent further events in such patients is unresolved. Options include antithrombotic treatment with warfarin or antiplatelet agents or surgical or endovascular closure of the PFO. The PC-Trial was set up to compare endovascular closure and best medical treatment for prevention of recurrent events. The PC-Trial is a randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of percutaneous closure of the PFO using the Amplatzer PFO occluder with best medical treatment in patients with cryptogenic embolism, i.e. mostly cryptogenic stroke. Warfarin for 6 months followed by antiplatelet agents is recommended as medical treatment. Randomization is stratified according to patients age (Australia. Randomization started February 2000. Enrollment of 414 patients was completed in February 2009. All patients will be followed-up longitudinally. Follow-up is maintained until the last enrolled patient is beyond 2.5 years of follow-up (expected in 2011).

  7. Randomized clinical trial comparing percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO using the Amplatzer PFO Occluder with medical treatment in patients with cryptogenic embolism (PC-Trial: rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuler Gerhard

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have shown an association of cryptogenic stroke and embolism with patent foramen ovale (PFO, but the question how to prevent further events in such patients is unresolved. Options include antithrombotic treatment with warfarin or antiplatelet agents or surgical or endovascular closure of the PFO. The PC-Trial was set up to compare endovascular closure and best medical treatment for prevention of recurrent events. Methods The PC-Trial is a randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of percutaneous closure of the PFO using the Amplatzer PFO occluder with best medical treatment in patients with cryptogenic embolism, i.e. mostly cryptogenic stroke. Warfarin for 6 months followed by antiplatelet agents is recommended as medical treatment. Randomization is stratified according to patients age ( Discussion patients were randomized in 29 centers of Europe, Canada, and Australia. Randomization started February 2000. Enrollment of 414 patients was completed in February 2009. All patients will be followed-up longitudinally. Follow-up is maintained until the last enrolled patient is beyond 2.5 years of follow-up (expected in 2011. Trial Registration Trial listed in ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00166257 and sponsored by AGA Medical, Plymouth, MN, USA

  8. Propensity Score-Based Analysis of Percutaneous Closure Versus Medical Therapy in Patients With Cryptogenic Stroke and Patent Foramen Ovale: The IPSYS Registry (Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults).

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    Pezzini, Alessandro; Grassi, Mario; Lodigiani, Corrado; Patella, Rosalba; Gandolfo, Carlo; Zini, Andrea; DeLodovici, Maria Luisa; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Del Sette, Massimo; Toriello, Antonella; Musolino, Rossella; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Bovi, Paolo; Adami, Alessandro; Silvestrelli, Giorgio; Sessa, Maria; Cavallini, Anna; Marcheselli, Simona; Marco Bonifati, Domenico; Checcarelli, Nicoletta; Tancredi, Lucia; Chiti, Alberto; Del Zotto, Elisabetta; Tomelleri, Giampaolo; Spalloni, Alessandra; Giorli, Elisa; Costa, Paolo; Giacalone, Giacomo; Ferrazzi, Paola; Poli, Loris; Morotti, Andrea; Piras, Valeria; Rasura, Maurizia; Simone, Anna Maria; Gamba, Massimo; Cerrato, Paolo; Zedde, Maria Luisa; Micieli, Giuseppe; Melis, Maurizio; Massucco, Davide; Guido, Davide; De Giuli, Valeria; Bonaiti, Silvia; D'Amore, Cataldo; La Starza, Sara; Iacoviello, Licia; Padovani, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    We sought to compare the benefit of percutaneous closure to that of medical therapy alone for the secondary prevention of embolism in patients with patent foramen ovale (PFO) and otherwise unexplained ischemic stroke, in a propensity scored study. Between 2000 and 2012, we selected consecutive first-ever ischemic stroke patients aged 18 to 45 years with PFO and no other cause of brain ischemia, as part of the IPSYS registry (Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults), who underwent either percutaneous PFO closure or medical therapy for comparative analysis. Primary end point was a composite of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, or peripheral embolism. Secondary end point was brain ischemia. Five hundred and twenty-one patients qualified for the analysis. The primary end point occurred in 15 patients treated with percutaneous PFO closure (7.3%) versus 33 patients medically treated (10.5%; hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-1.32; P=0.285). The rates of the secondary end point brain ischemia were also similar in the 2 treatment groups (6.3% in the PFO closure group versus 10.2% in the medically treated group; hazard ratio, 0.64; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-1.21; P=0.168). Closure provided a benefit in patients aged 18 to 36 years (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-0.81; P=0.026) and in those with a substantial right-to-left shunt size (hazard ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.68; P=0.011). PFO closure seems as effective as medical therapy for secondary prevention of cryptogenic ischemic stroke. Whether device treatment might be more effective in selected cases, such as in patients younger than 37 years and in those with a substantial right-to-left shunt size, deserves further investigation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Clinical outcomes and a high prevalence of abnormalities on comprehensive arterial and venous thrombophilia screening in TIA or ischaemic stroke patients with a patent foramen ovale, an inter-atrial septal aneurysm or both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Soon Tjin; Murphy, Stephen J X; Smith, Deirdre R; Williams, Jennifer; Navarro, Silvia Gil; McCabe, John; Moore, David P; McHugh, Johnny; McCabe, Dominick J H

    2017-06-15

    Data are limited on the optimal management of cryptogenic TIA/stroke patients with a patent foramen ovale (PFO)±inter-atrial septal aneurysm (IASA), especially with an inherited thrombophilia. Prospectively-collected data on TIA/ischaemic stroke patients with PFO, IASA or both who received 'goal-directed secondary-prevention medical treatment' were analysed. All patients had trans-oesophageal echocardiography, anti-nuclear, anti-cardiolipin, anti-beta 2 glycoprotein I antibodies, rheumatoid factor, lupus anticoagulant, protein C&S, anti-thrombin, factor VIII activity, activated protein C resistance, Factor V Leiden, prothrombin gene and MTHFR-c.677C>T mutation screening. ENA and homocysteine were assessed in the latter study period. Eighty-three patients were recruited. Mean follow-up: 48.1months. Forty-seven patients (56.6%) had an isolated PFO, 32 (38.6%) a PFO and an IASA, and 4 (4.8%) an IASA alone. Eighteen (21.7%) had ≥1 abnormality on thrombophilia screening. The most important abnormalities which lead to treatment changes in 11 patients (13.3%) were primary anti-phospholipid syndrome (N=3; 3.6%), protein S deficiency (N=2; 2.4%) hyper-homocysteinaemia (N=6/72 screened, 8.3%). Four patients (4.8%) opted for PFO closure: two with protein S deficiency, and two with no identified thrombophilia. Seven (8.4%) had recurrent TIA/ischaemic stroke during follow-up (overall annualised incidence: 2.1%), of whom five had a PFO alone and two a PFO and IASA. Comprehensive arterial and venous thrombophilia screening is warranted in TIA/ischaemic stroke patients with a PFO±IASA, is conclusively abnormal in over a fifth, and informed important decision-making regarding individualised therapy in 13.3% of patients. The incidence of recurrent vascular events in this population is low on optimal, personalised secondary-prevention treatment, even with an underlying thrombophilia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of DSA-guided percutaneous puncture location of foramen oval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaojun; He Jiawei; Bai Guanghui; Shi Jianjing; Xu Chongyong; Zhan Gonghao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the technique of digital substraction angiography (DSA)-guided percutaneous puncture location of foramen oval. Methods: 39 cases of trigeminal neuralgia were included in the study from Feb. 2004 to Oct. 2006. The patients were punctured by the amending anterior position. The f0ramen oval was displayed by moving the tube tilted 20-28 degree to the caudal and 16-23 degree to the healthy side. The direction and depth of the needles was determined on the lateral view. Then, radio-frequency thermocoagulation therapy was performed. Results: The needles were located in oval foramen in all the patients. Pain disappeared in 36 cases, alleviated in other cases, and no serious complication occurred during therapy. Conclusions: Oval foramen locations by DSA can improve the successful rate of operation. The foramen oval can be clearly displayed by DSA-guided in amending position, with comfortable position for patients. (authors)

  11. Surgical prophylaxis secundary to cryptogenic stroke or transient ischemic attack in patients with patent foramen ovale Profilaxia cirúrgica secundária do acidente vascular cerebral ou ataque isquêmico transitório de origem indeterminada em pacientes com forame oval persistente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele E.A. Guffi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Prevention of recurrent cryptogenic strokes or transient ischemic attacks in adults with patent foramen ovale (PFO represents a therapeutic challenge. Antithrombotic pharmacological treatment is widely used, but its indication is limited because of its significant complications. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the efficacy of the surgical closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO as prophylaxis secondary to cryptogenic strokes or transient ischemic attacks of undetermined origin. METHOD: In this study, 31 men and 16 women with previous ischemic cerebral events underwent direct surgical closure of the PFO. Mean age was 40 years (from 27 to 59 years. No coexisting cause of the stroke was found after extensive investigation, including blood coagulation tests, transesophageal contrast echocardiography (TEE, extracranial and transcranial doppler ultrasonography, 24-hour electrocardiographic monitoring, brain magnetic resonance (BMR and CT scan. Criteria for operation also included at least two of the following: atrial septal aneurysm, multiple cerebral infarcts, multiple cerebral events and a history of Valsalva strain before stroke. Before operation, only one patient had two shunts (1 PFO and 1 intrapulmonary shunt. RESULTS: No complications occurred during or after the operation, but a few hours after the operation transient arrhythmias developed in four patients without atrial fibrillation, hemodynamic instability nor embolism. All patients survived in class I (NYHA and during a mean follow-up of 36 months, no patient had recurrence of the stroke or transient ischemic attacks. All patients prospectively underwent BMR and contrast TEE with simultaneous transcranial doppler ultrasonography. A residual right-to-left shunt, smaller than the preoperative one, was observed in only one patient, whereas no lesion was seen on the BMR. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that surgical closure of PFO in patients with presumed paradoxical embolism is safe and

  12. Study design of the CLOSURE I Trial: a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the STARFlex septal closure system versus best medical therapy in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack due to presumed paradoxical embolism through a patent foramen ovale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Anthony J; Reisman, Mark; Massaro, Joseph; Mauri, Laura; Adams, Harold; Albers, Gregory W; Felberg, Robert; Herrmann, Howard; Kar, Saibal; Landzberg, Michael; Raizner, Albert; Wechsler, Lawrence

    2010-12-01

    Some strokes of unknown etiology may be the result of a paradoxical embolism traversing through a nonfused foramen ovale (patent foramen ovale [PFO]). The utility of percutaneously placed devices for treatment of patients with cryptogenic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and PFO is unknown. In addition, there are no clear data about the utility of medical interventions or other surgical procedures in this situation. Despite limited data, many patients are being treated with PFO closure devices. Thus, there is a strong need for clinical trials that test the potential efficacy of PFO occlusive devices in this situation. To address this gap in medical knowledge, we designed the CLOSURE I trial, a randomized, clinical trial comparing the use of a percutaneously placed PFO occlusive device and best medical therapy versus best medical therapy alone for prevention of recurrent ischemic neurologic symptoms among persons with TIA or ischemic stroke. This prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial has finished enrollment. Two-year follow-up for all 910 patients is required. The primary end point is the 2-year incidence of stroke or TIA, all-cause mortality for the first 30 days, and neurologic mortality from ≥ 31 days of follow-up, as adjudicated by a panel of physicians who are unaware of treatment allocation. This article describes the rationale and study design of CLOSURE I. This trial should provide information as to whether the STARFlex septal closure system is safe and more effective than best medical therapy alone in preventing recurrent stroke/TIA and mortality in patients with PFO and whether the STARFlex septal closure device can demonstrate superiority compared with best medical therapy alone. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00201461.

  13. [Patent foramen ovele, good reasons to close it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Bernhard

    2018-03-01

    A patent foramen ovale (PFO) is not to be considered a disease as it is present in about 25 % of people. Yet, it is the prime reason for paradoxical embolism that can cause serious problems, such as death, stroke, myocardial infarction, and peripheral ischemia. The frequency of such events is probably underestimated as other causes tend to be blamed for them. Device PFO closure can be easily accomplished as outpatient procedure with minimal discomfort and risk and it has been referred to as mechanical vaccination. Randomized trials have proved its value for reduction of recurrent stroke. There is also good evidence that PFO closure solves problems like platypnoea orthodeoxia and exercise desaturation, improves migraine, and is helpful in sleep apnoea. In addition, it renders diving and high altitude climbing safer. The absolute risk of a PFO is dependent on its size and its association with an atrial septal aneurysm, a Eustachian valve, or a Chiari network. The number needed to treat to prevent one stroke by PFO closure may be as low as 2 over lifetime in selected patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Effect of body position and oxygen tension on foramen ovale recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Kayla L; Beshish, Arij G; Heinowski, Nicole; Baker, Kim R; Pegelow, David F; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Bates, Melissa L

    2015-01-01

    While there is an increased prevalence of stroke at altitude in individuals who are considered to be low risk for thrombotic events, it is uncertain how venous thrombi reach the brain. The patent foramen ovale (PFO) is a recruitable intracardiac shunt between the right and left atrium. We aimed to determine whether body position and oxygen tension affect blood flow through the PFO in healthy adults. We hypothesized that hypoxia and body positions that promote right atrial filling would independently recruit the PFO. Subjects with a PFO (n = 11) performed 11 trials, combining four different fractions of inhaled oxygen (FiO₂) (1.0, 0.21, 0.15, and 0.10) and three positions (upright, supine, and 45° head down), with the exception of FiO₂ = 0.10, while 45° head down. After 5 min in each position, breathing the prescribed oxygen tension, saline bubbles were injected into an antecubital vein and a four-chamber echocardiogram was obtained to evaluate PFO recruitment. We observed a high incidence of PFO recruitment in all conditions, with increased recruitment in response to severe hypoxia and some contribution of body position at moderate levels of hypoxia. We suspect that increased pulmonary vascular pressure, secondary to hypoxia-induced pulmonary vasoconstriction, increased right atrial pressure enough to recruit the PFO. Additionally, we hypothesize that the minor increase in breathing resistance that was added by the mouthpiece, used during experimental trials, affected intrathoracic pressure and venous return sufficiently to recruit the PFO. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Foramen ovale electrodes in the evaluation of epilepsy surgery: conventional and unconventional uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakis, Ioannis; Velez-Ruiz, Naymee; Pathmanathan, Jay S; Sheth, Sameer A; Eskandar, Emad N; Cole, Andrew J

    2011-10-01

    Foramen ovale (FO) electrodes have been used in the evaluation of epilepsy surgery for more than 25 years. Their traditional application was in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Due in part to advances in neuroimaging, their use has declined. We describe our cumulative experience with FO electrodes and use examples to illustrate a range of indications for FO recordings that extend beyond their conventional utility for mesial temporal lobe cases. We also summarize the pros and cons of FO electrodes implantation and attempt to reestablish their utility in presurgical evaluation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcatheter Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale: A Single Center Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Milev

    2016-10-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Percutaneous transcatheter closure of PFO is a safe and effective procedure showing mid-term relief of neurological symptoms in patients as well as significant reduction of migraine symptoms.

  17. Persistent (patent) foramen ovale (PFO): implications for safe diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germonpré, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Diving medicine is a peculiar specialty. There are physicians and scientists from a wide variety of disciplines with an interest in diving and who all practice 'diving medicine': the study of the complex whole-body physiological changes and interactions upon immersion and emersion. To understand these, the science of physics and molecular gas and fluid movements comes into play. The ultimate goal of practicing diving medicine is to preserve the diver's health, both during and after the dive. Good medicine starts with prevention. For most divers, underwater excursions are not a professional necessity but a hobby; avoidance of risk is generally a much better option than risk mitigation or cure. However, prevention of diving illnesses seems to be even more difficult than treating those illnesses. The papers contained in this issue of DHM are a nice mix of various aspects of PFO that divers are interested in, all of them written by specialist doctors who are avid divers themselves. However, diving medicine should also take advantage of research from the "non-diving" medicine community, and PFO is a prime example. Cardiology and neurology have studied PFO for as long, or even longer than divers have been the subjects of PFO research, and with much greater numbers and resources. Unexplained stroke has been associated with PFO, as has severe migraine with aura. As the association seems to be strong, investigating the effect of PFO closure was a logical step. Devices have been developed and perfected, allowing now for a relatively low-risk procedure to 'solve the PFO problem'. However, as with many things in science, the results have not been as spectacular as hoped for: patients still get recurrences of stroke, still have migraine attacks. The risk-benefit ratio of PFO closure for these non-diving diseases is still debated. For diving, we now face a similar problem. Let there be no doubt that PFO is a pathway through which venous gas emboli (VGE) can arterialize, given sufficiently favourable circumstances (such as: a large quantity of VGE, size of the PFO, straining or provocation manoeuvres inducing increased right atrial pressure, delayed tissue desaturation so that seeding arterial gas emboli (AGE) grow instead of shrink, and there may be other, as yet unknown factors). There is no doubt that closing a PFO, either surgically or using a catheter-delivered device, can reduce the number of VGE becoming AGE. There is also no doubt that the procedure itself carries some health risks which are, at 1% or higher risk of serious complications, an order of magnitude greater than the risk for decompression illness (DCI) in recreational diving. Scientists seek the 'truth', but the truth about how much of a risk PFO represents for divers is not likely to be discovered nor universally accepted. First of all, the exact prevalence of PFO in divers is not known. As it has been pointed out in the recent literature, a contrast echocardiography (be it transthoracic or transoesophageal) or Doppler examination is only reliable if performed according to a strict protocol, taking into account the very many pitfalls yielding false negative results. The optimal procedure for injection of contrast medium was described several years ago, but has not received enough attention. Indeed, it is our and others' experience that many divers presenting with PFO-related DCI symptoms initially are declared "PFO-negative" by eminent, experienced cardiologists! Failing a prospective study, the risks of diving with a right-to left vascular shunt can only be expressed as an 'odds ratio', which is a less accurate measure than is 'relative risk'. The DAN Europe Carotid Doppler Study, started in 2001, is nearing completion and will provide more insight into the actual risks of DCI for recreational divers. The degree of DCI risk reduction from closing a PFO is thus not only dependent on successful closure but also (mostly?) on how the diver manages his/her dive and decompression in order to reduce the incidence of VGE. It has been convincingly shown that conservative dive profiles reduce DCI incidence even in divers with large PFOs, just as PFO closure does not protect completely from DCI if the dive profiles are aggressive. Prospective studies should not only focus on the reduction of DCI incidence after closure, but should take into account the costs and side effects of the procedure, as has been done in the cardiology and neurology studies. Imagine lung transplants becoming a routine operation, costly but with a high success rate; imagine also a longterm smoker suffering from a mild form of obstructive lung disease and exercise-limiting dyspnoea. Which of two options would you recommend: having a lung transplant and continue smoking as before, or quit smoking and observe a progressive improvement of pulmonary and cardiac pathology? As opposed to patients with thrombotic disease and migraine, divers can choose to reduce DCI risk. In fact, all it takes is acceptance that some types of diving carry too high a health risk - whether it is because of a PFO or another 'natural' factor. It would be unethical to promote PFO closure in divers solely on the basis of its efficacy of shunt reduction. Unfortunately, at least one device manufacturer has already done so in the past, citing various publications to specifically target recreational divers. Some technical diving organizations even have recommended preventive PFO closure in order to undertaking high-risk dive training. As scientists, we must not allow ourselves to be drawn into intuitive diver fears and beliefs. Nor should we let ourselves be blinded by the ease and seemingly low risk of the procedure. With proper and objective information provided by their diving medicine specialist, divers could make an informed decision, rather than focus on the simplistic idea that they need 'to get it fixed' in order to continue diving. A significant relationship between PFO and cerebral damage, in the absence of high-risk diving or DCI, has yet to be confirmed. Studying PFO-related DCI provides us with unique opportunities to learn more about the effect of gas bubbles in various tissues, including the central vascular bed and neurological tissue. It may also serve to educate divers that safe diving is something that needs to be learned, not something that can be implanted.

  18. Tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo asociado a foramen oval permeable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miranda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La alta mortalidad de los pacientes con tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo amerita un enfoque terapéutico enérgico e invasivo que incluya la embolectomía pulmonar quirúrgica en aquellos pacientes con contraindicación para trombolisis o trombolisis fallida. Describimos un caso de tromboembolismo pulmonar masivo de alto riesgo que recibió tratamiento quirúrgico en vez de trombolisis debido a que al momento del diagnóstico presentaba un trombo móvil a través de un foramen oval permeable con altísima posibilidad de embolismo paradójico arterial.

  19. CT and MR imaging findings of subdural dermoid cyst extending into right foramen ovale: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, You Cheol; Park, Cheol Min; Lee, Si Kyeong [Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    Intracranial dermoid cyst is a rare congenital benign disease, representing less than 0.5% of primary brain tumors. Nevertheless, if ruptured spontaneously or during surgery, it has a poor prognosis due to chemical meningitis. Therefore, it is essential to perform accurate diagnosis and proper treatment. We report an intracranial subdural dermoid cyst that may be misdiagnosed as extracranial or epidural lesion because of extension into the right foramen ovale, and describe the CT and MR imaging findings.

  20. Network Analysis of Foramen Ovale Electrode Recordings in Drug-resistant Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-García, Ancor; Vega-Zelaya, Lorena; Pastor, Jesús; Torres, Cristina V.; Sola, Rafael G.; Ortega, Guillermo J.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 30% of epilepsy patients are refractory to antiepileptic drugs. In these cases, surgery is the only alternative to eliminate/control seizures. However, a significant minority of patients continues to exhibit post-operative seizures, even in those cases in which the suspected source of seizures has been correctly localized and resected. The protocol presented here combines a clinical procedure routinely employed during the pre-operative evaluation of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with a novel technique for network analysis. The method allows for the evaluation of the temporal evolution of mesial network parameters. The bilateral insertion of foramen ovale electrodes (FOE) into the ambient cistern simultaneously records electrocortical activity at several mesial areas in the temporal lobe. Furthermore, network methodology applied to the recorded time series tracks the temporal evolution of the mesial networks both interictally and during the seizures. In this way, the presented protocol offers a unique way to visualize and quantify measures that considers the relationships between several mesial areas instead of a single area. PMID:28060326

  1. Maximal potential patent foramen diameter does not correlate with the type or frequency of the neurologic event prior to closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Shelby; Brown, Kimberly; Qureshi, Athar M; Latson, Larry A

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed our data on patients undergoing transcatheter patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure to determine if the maximal potential PFO diameter (MPPD) by balloon sizing correlates with important clinical characteristics in this population. We defined stroke as a focal neurologic deficit lasting >24 h, or focal deficit of shorter duration associated with permanent MRI/CT changes consistent with a focal infarction. Parameters analyzed included age, gender, anticoagulation, hypertension, smoking, MRI/CT findings and MPPD at catheterization. We specifically analyzed the type of neurologic event (stroke/transient ischemic attack, TIA), and number of recorded preceding clinical neurologic events. In 216 consecutive patients, 167 suffered a stroke. MRI/CT changes consistent with one or more embolic events were seen in 156 patients; 49 had a clinical TIA. There was no significant difference in MPPD between stroke (11.0 +/- 3.6 mm) and TIA groups (10.9 +/- 3.9 mm; 95% confidence interval for difference: -1.33 to 1.00). MPPD did not differ between MRI/CT-positive vs. -negative strokes, and had no correlation with the number of identified pre-closure clinical neurologic events. Continued investigation is needed to determine whether other PFO characteristics, or other anatomic/physiologic parameters, may be useful to identify patients at high risk for cryptogenic stroke/TIA, even before they have their first neurologic event. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Predictors of recurrent stroke after percutaneous closure of patent foramen ovale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Volker; Augustin, Jahan; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    paradoxical embolic stroke were followed for a median time of 43.0 [interquartile range: 20.0-86.0] months. During the follow-up period a total of 22 (5.0%) strokes/TIAs and 17 (3.8%) deaths were observed. Cox regression analysis identified hypertension, age and the Essen stroke risk score as predictors...

  3. Closure of patent foramen ovale defects using GORE® CARDIOFORM septal occluder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Stefan E; Eicken, Andreas; Berger, Felix

    2017-01-01

    . Periprocedural complications were few including one patient with suspected transient ischemic attack, two access site bleedings, and one patient with AV-fistula. No device embolization occurred. During the 6-month follow-up period one patient had a transient asymptomatic thrombus on the device and four patients...

  4. Prevalencia de foramen oval permeable en pacientes con accidente cerebrovascular o accidente isquémico transitorio criptogénicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro E. Contreras

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMENIntroducciónEl foramen oval permeable (FOP se encuentra en alrededor de la cuarta parte de la población general. Pese a que su hallazgo no tiene repercusiones clínicas y no requiere tratamiento,se reconoce como una posible causa de accidente cerebrovascular (ACV criptogénico.ObjetivoConocer la prevalencia de FOP en pacientes estudiados por ACV o crisis isquémicas transitorias(CIT criptogénicos.Material y métodosSe analizaron retrospectivamente los ecocardiogramas transesofágicos de pacientes con ACVo CIT criptogénicos derivados para la evaluación de fuentes embolígenas. Se definió FOP alpasaje de una o más burbujas dentro de los tres primeros latidos luego de la opacificación dela aurícula derecha. Se definió aneurisma del septum interauricular (ASA a la excursióndel septum hacia la aurícula derecha o izquierda de 10 mm o más.ResultadosSe evaluaron 43 pacientes, edad promedio 59,6 ± 16,9 años, 41,9% mujeres. Se halló FOPen 13 pacientes (30,2% - IC 95% 15% a 44%, de los cuales 7 (16,3% del total de la poblaciónpresentaban FOP grande. Hubo 6 casos de ASA (14%, todos asociados con FOP y en 4 deellos (66% el FOP era grande.ConclusionesLa prevalencia de FOP en pacientes con ACV o CIT criptogénicos es del 30% y en uno decada tres de ellos se asocia con aneurisma del septum interauricular.REV ARGENT CARDIOL 2009;77:493-495.

  5. Cryptogenic transient ischemic attack after nose blowing: association of huge atrial septal aneurysm with patent foramen ovale as potential cause

    OpenAIRE

    Lotze, Ulrich; Kirsch, Uwe; Ohlow, Marc-Alexander; Scholle, Thorsten; Leonhardi, Jochen; Lauer, Bernward; Oltmanns, Gerhard; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Ulrich Lotze,1 Uwe Kirsch,1 Marc-Alexander Ohlow,2 Thorsten Scholle,3 Jochen Leonhardi,3 Bernward Lauer,2 Gerhard Oltmanns,4 Hendrik Schmidt5,6 1Department of Internal Medicine, DRK Krankenhaus Sondershausen, Sondershausen, Germany; 2Department of Cardiology, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Bad Berka, Germany; 3Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Germany; 4Department of Internal Medicine, DRK Krankenhaus Sömmerda; Sömmerda, Germany; 5Depar...

  6. Transvenous Closure of Patent Foramen Ovale: Preliminary Results with a New Self-Expanding Nitinol Wire Mesh in a Swine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Krizanic

    2009-01-01

    12 weeks. The devices were incorporated into connective tissue containing fibro muscular cells. An only mild inflammatory reaction was detected locally related to the polyester fibers. Conclusion. In terms of feasibility and handling, the new device does not seem to be inferior to other presently used implantation systems. Good biocompatibility was demonstrated with rapid and complete neoendothelialization.

  7. Plasmodium ovale infection in Malaysia: first imported case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Thiruventhiran

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium ovale infection is rarely reported in Malaysia. This is the first imported case of P. ovale infection in Malaysia which was initially misdiagnosed as Plasmodium vivax. Methods Peripheral blood sample was first examined by Giemsa-stained microscopy examination and further confirmed using a patented in-house multiplex PCR followed by sequencing. Results and Discussion Initial results from peripheral blood smear examination diagnosed P. vivax infection. However further analysis using a patented in-house multiplex PCR followed by sequencing confirmed the presence of P. ovale. Given that Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles dirus, vectors of P. ovale are found in Malaysia, this finding has significant implication on Malaysia's public health sector. Conclusions The current finding should serve as an alert to epidemiologists, clinicians and laboratory technicians in the possibility of finding P. ovale in Malaysia. P. ovale should be considered in the differential diagnosis of imported malaria cases in Malaysia due to the exponential increase in the number of visitors from P. ovale endemic regions and the long latent period of P. ovale. It is also timely that conventional diagnosis of malaria via microscopy should be coupled with more advanced molecular tools for effective diagnosis.

  8. DIVIDED FORAMEN TRANSVERSARIUM

    OpenAIRE

    Suba; Reena; Ravi

    2013-01-01

    The cervical vertebrae are seven in number. They are the smallest of the vertebrae and can be identified by the presence of a foramen in each transverse process. The dorsal and ventral roots terminate laterally as dorsal and ventral tubercles. The roots are connected lateral to the foramen by an intertubercular lamella. The vertebral artery which arises from the superoposterior aspect of the first part of the subclavian ar...

  9. A radiographic study of mental foramen in intraoral radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jeong Ick; Choi, Karp Shik

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position and shape of mental foramen in periapical radiographs. For this study, periapical radiographs of premolar areas were obtained from the 200 adults. Accordingly, the positional and shape changes of mental foramen were evaluated. The authors obtained radiographs according to changes in radiation beam direction in periapical radiographs of premolar areas, and then evaluated the positional and shape changes of mental foramen. The following results were obtained: 1. Shapes of mental foramen were observed elliptical (34.3%), round or oval (28.0%), unidentified (25.5%) and diffuse (12.2%) type in descending order of frequency. 2, Horizontal positions of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the 2nd premolar area (55.3%), the area between the 1st premolar and 2nd premolar (39.6%), the area between the 2nd premolar and 1st molar (3.4%), the 1st premolar area (1.0%), the area between the canine and 1st premolar (0.7%) in descending order of frequency. 3. Vertical positions of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the inferior to apex (67.1%), and at apex (24.8%), overlap with apex (6.4%), superior to apex (1.7%) in descending order of frequency. 4. Shapes of mental foramen were more obviously observed at the upward 10 degree positioned periapical radiographs. And according to the changes of horizontal and vertical position, they were observed similar to normally positioned periapical radiographs.

  10. Plasmodium ovale in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J K; Purnomo; Masbar, S

    1990-12-01

    We report 34 infections by Plasmodium ovale found among 15,806 blood film examinations taken between 1973 and 1989 from several sites in Indonesia. Twenty five of the P. ovale infections occurred in a single sample of 514 people living in Owi, Irian Jaya. We detected five additional infections at 3 other sites in Irian Jaya. Other infections by P. ovale occurred at two sites in West Flores. Another infection has already been reported from East Timor. Despite relatively frequent sampling of populations on Sumatra, Kalimantan, Java and Sulawesi, P. ovale has not been found on those islands. It appears that this parasite occurs only on the easternmost islands of the Indonesian archipelago where it is nonetheless a rare finding.

  11. Weakly oval electron lense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daumenov, T.D.; Alizarovskaya, I.M.; Khizirova, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The method of the weakly oval electrical field getting generated by the axially-symmetrical field is shown. Such system may be designed with help of the cylindric form coaxial electrodes with the built-in quadrupole duplet. The singularity of the indicated weakly oval lense consists of that it provides the conducting both mechanical and electronic adjustment. Such lense can be useful for elimination of the near-axis astigmatism in the electron-optical system

  12. A Review on Anatomical Variations of Mental Foramen (Number, Location, Shape, Symmetry, Direction and Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ezoddini-Ardakani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mental foramen is located on the anterior aspect of the mandible that permits the terminal branch of the inferior alveolar nerve and blood vessels to exit. The anatomical variations of mental foramen are of considerable importance in local anesthesia, treatment of the fractures in the parasymphysis area, orthognatic surgeries, implant placement, etc. Regarding the importance of mental foramen in dentistry (from local anesthesia to invasive surgical procedures, this study intends to review the anatomical variations of mental foramen in this study. Absence of mental foramen is rare. On the other hand, prevalence of accessory mental foramen has been estimated lower than 15% in the most studies. The position of mental foramen is normally between first and second premolar teeth or under second premolar tooth in different ethnic groups and bilateral symmetry exists in regard with location in most cases. In most studies, the ratio of distance from mental foramen to symphysis to distance from symphysis to posterior border of ramus has been reported about 1/3.5 to 1/3. Mental foramen is oval or circular in shape and its most common direction is usually posterosuperior. Its size in different studies has been estimated about 2 to 5 millimeters and asymmetry in size is possible on both sides of mandible. Due to variations of mental foramen between various ethnic groups and even different individuals in the same ethnic group, using advanced imaging techniques such as CBCT is recommended in order to gain detailed knowledge of anatomy and morphology of mental foramen before applying invasive surgeries.

  13. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Evaluation of Mental Foramen Variations: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikhi, Mahnaz; Karbasi Kheir, Mitra; Hekmatian, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Mental foramen is important in surgical operations of premolars because it transfers the mental nerves and vessels. This study evaluated the variations of mental foramen by cone-beam computed tomography among a selected Iranian population. Materials and Methods. A total number of 180 cone-beam computed tomography projections were analyzed in terms of shape, size, direction, and horizontal and vertical positions of mental foramen in the right and left sides. Results. The most common shape was oval, opening direction was posterior-superior, horizontal position was in line with second premolar, and vertical position was apical to the adjacent dental root. The mean of foremen diameter was 3.59 mm. Conclusion. In addition to the most common types of mental foramen, other variations exist, too. Hence, it reflects the significance of preoperative radiographic examinations, especially 3-dimensional images to prevent nerve damage

  14. Morphology of the Physiological Apical Foramen in Maxillary and Mandibular First Molars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, J.; Zaror, C.; Monardes, H.; Hermosilla, V.; Muñoz, C.; Cantin, M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Information regarding the anatomy of the physiological apical foramen is limited. Knowing its diameter and shapes contributes to clinical work, specifically to the cleaning and shaping of the apical third. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine the minimum and maximum diameters and shape of the physiological apical foramen in the roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars. A descriptive study was conducted on 89 recently extracted first molars. Roots 3–5 mm from the apex were sectioned and prepared for analysis at 40× magnification. The minimum and maximum diameters of each physiological foramen were measured using the program Motic Images plus 2.0 ML. The shape of the foramina, classified as round, oval or irregular, was determined by the difference between the maximum and minimum diameters. A total of 174 physiological foramina were analyzed. The average of the minimum and maximum diameters was between 0.24–0.33 mm in maxillary first molars and between 0.25–0.33 mm in mandibular first molars. In maxillary molars, the most common shape of the foramen was oval (50%), then irregular (32%), then round (18%). In mandibular molars, the oval shape was also the most frequent (59%), followed by irregular (23%) and round (18%). The findings of this study regarding the morphology of physiological apical foramina in first molars make it easier for the operator to choose the appropriately-sized instruments to perform endodontic therapy successfully. PMID:25937698

  15. Morphology of the Physiological Apical Foramen in Maxillary and Mandibular First Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, J; Zaror, C; Monardes, H; Hermosilla, V; Muñoz, C; Cantin, M

    2014-06-01

    Information regarding the anatomy of the physiological apical foramen is limited. Knowing its diameter and shapes contributes to clinical work, specifically to the cleaning and shaping of the apical third. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine the minimum and maximum diameters and shape of the physiological apical foramen in the roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars. A descriptive study was conducted on 89 recently extracted first molars. Roots 3-5 mm from the apex were sectioned and prepared for analysis at 40× magnification. The minimum and maximum diameters of each physiological foramen were measured using the program Motic Images plus 2.0 ML. The shape of the foramina, classified as round, oval or irregular, was determined by the difference between the maximum and minimum diameters. A total of 174 physiological foramina were analyzed. The average of the minimum and maximum diameters was between 0.24-0.33 mm in maxillary first molars and between 0.25-0.33 mm in mandibular first molars. In maxillary molars, the most common shape of the foramen was oval (50%), then irregular (32%), then round (18%). In mandibular molars, the oval shape was also the most frequent (59%), followed by irregular (23%) and round (18%). The findings of this study regarding the morphology of physiological apical foramina in first molars make it easier for the operator to choose the appropriately-sized instruments to perform endodontic therapy successfully.

  16. A radiographic study of the position and shape of mental foramen in panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Karp Shik; Kim, Dong Youn; Sohn, Jeong Ick; Bae, Yong Chul

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position and shape of mental foramen in panoramic radiographs. For this study, panoramic radiographs were obtained from the 200 adults and evaluated the position and shape of mental foramen. According to various positional changes in panoramic radiographs of the patients, the author also obtained panoramic radiographs from the 100 adults and then evaluated the positional and shape changes of mental foramen. The following results were obtained : 1. Shapes of mental foramen were observed elliptical (43.3%), round or oval (42.5%), unidentified (7.5%) and diffuse (6.7%) type in descending order of frequency. 2. Horizontal position of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the 2nd premolar area (54.2%), and area between the 1st premolar and 2nd premolar (43.1%), area between the 2nd premolar and 1st molar (2.7%), and at apex (9.7%), overlap with apex (1.9%), superior of apex (0.2%) in descending order of frequency. 4. According to various positional changes in panoramic radiographs of the patients, shape changes of mental foramen were more obviously observed at the forward 10 mm and chin down 10 degree positioned panoramic radiographs, And changes of horizontal and vertical position were observed in similar to compared with normal positioned panoramic radiographs.

  17. Morphometric aspects of the foramen magnum and the orbit in Brazilian dry skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A. S. Pires

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphometric analysis of crania structures are of great significance to anatomists, forensic doctors, anthropologists, and surgeons. We performed a morphometric study regarding the foramen magnum and the bony orbit on the right side of the cranium in 77 skulls with the purpose of identifying a correlation between these measures, as they are often employed alone to identify the genre and race of a skeleton with no other remains, since the cranium is a structure that can resist fire, explosions, and mutilations. The foramen magnum receives special attention, as it is located in a region together with many strong muscles and ligaments. The measures were taken with a sliding digital caliper. Our results showed that the foramen magnum had a mean anteroposterior diameter of 34.23±2.54 mm, and the mean transverse diameter was 28.62±2.83 mm. The most common shape for the foramen magnum was oval. The mean right orbital height was 32.89±2.45 mm, and the mean right orbital breadth was 37.15±2.68 mm. There was a weak to moderate correlation between these measures. Furthermore, the foramen magnum and the orbit are regions of surgical and clinical significance, thus requiring knowledge regarding the morphometric aspects of such areas, since they can often suffer morphological changes due to a number of diseases and they undergo surgical procedures in order to treat these conditions.

  18. Self-expanding nanoplatinum-coated nitinol devices for atrial septal defect and patent ductus arteriosus closure: a swine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsapcharoen, Pornthep; Khongphatthanayothin, Apichai; La-orkhun, Vidhavas; Supachokchaiwattana, Pentip; Charoonrut, Phingphol

    2006-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate self-expanding nanoplatinum-coated nitinol devices for transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects and patent ductus arteriosus in a swine model. The devices were braided from platinum-activated nitinol wires and filled with polyester to enhance thrombogenicity. The platinum activation of the nitinol wires was carried out with the help of Nanofusion technology. The coating of platinum covers the exposed surface of the nitinol wires and prevents the release of nickel into the blood stream after the implantation of the device but does not affect its shape memory, which makes the device self-expanding after it is loaded from the catheter. Atrial septal defects were created in 12 piglets by balloon dilation of the patent foramen ovale. The size of the device was selected on the basis of the diameter of the balloon and the size of the defect, measured by transthoracic echocardiography. The devices were successfully deployed in all 12 piglets under fluoroscopic study. Transthoracic color Doppler echocardiograms showed complete closure of the atrial septal defect within 15 minutes of device implantation. Twelve patent ductus arteriosus closure devices were deployed in the right or left subclavian arteries in 10 piglets. Angiograms showed complete occlusion of the subclavian arteries within a few minutes of device deployment. In the atrial septal defect cases, the autopsy findings showed complete organizing fibrin thrombus formation and complete neo-endothelialization on the outer surface of the devices within one week and six weeks of implantation, respectively. The use of self-expanding nanoplatinum-coated nitinol devices for the transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects and patent ductus arteriosus is feasible. The excellent occlusion result and complete neo-endothelialization of the devices in the swine model is an indication of the potential of these devices in human application.

  19. The Areopagus Oval Building Reconsidered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Eijnde, F.; Laughy, Michael H.

    2017-01-01

    The Areopagus Oval Building (AOB) provides a rare insight into Athenian architecture during the Geometric period, a time in which the archaeological record is mostly confined to graves. Dorothy Burr’s original 1933 publication of the building remains an exemplary and exhaustive presentation of the

  20. Arcuate foramen and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakmark, O.; Gurdal, E.; Cavdar, S.; Ekinci, G.; Yildiz, E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study determines the degree of ossification of the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane in dry bone, plane lateral cervical spine radiographs and computer tomography (CT). The average length, width and the area of the arcuate foramen were measured on dry bone and on cervical CT. Further, age, gender and complaints of the patients of shoulder and arm pain, neck pain, headache, vertigo, and lacrimation in relation to the presence of bony complete or incomplete arcuate foramen were evaluated. From February 2004 to January 2005 60 dry atlases were obtained from the Anatomy Department, University of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey and 416 lateral cervical spine radiographs were obtained from the Radiology department for neurological and orthopedic evaluations. Each complete arcuate foramen was calculated with the aid of Clemex Vision PE demo version computer program. Among the 60 dry atlases examined 7 (11.7%) had complete and 2 (3.3 %) had incomplete bony bridge formation. Of the 416 plane lateral cervical spine radiographs examined, 30 (7.2%) had complete and 26 (6.25%) had incomplete bony bridge formation. Of the 30 complete arcuate foramen 24 (80%) were females and 6 (20%) were males. The frequency of having a complete arcuate foramen in females was 8.45%, and in males it was 4.55%. Further, of the 26 incomplete arcuate foramen 20 (76.9%) were females and 6 (23.1%) were males. The frequency of having an incomplete arcuate foramen in females was 7%, and in males was 4.55%. The statistical evaluations showed that patients with complete arcuate foramen had significant complaints of shoulder-arm pain (p=0.0072), neck pain (p=0.0072) and vertigo (p=0.0598) compared to patients with incomplete arcuate foramen. The patients with complete arcuate foramen had a headache ratio of 12:30 and this ratio was 2:26 in patients with incomplete arcuate foramen and the difference between complete and incomplete arcuate foramen was statistically significant (p=0.0062). Further

  1. Urban Crafts and Oval Brooches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses technological and stylistic variations in copper-alloy workshops in Viking Age towns. In the decades around year 800 a cluster of new technologies, art styles and object types, including the characteristic oval brooches, were adopted across Scandinavia. Shared details of tech...... of professional identity among craftspeople. This could indicate that the first urban craftspeople in Scandinavia were communities with a sense of civic identity, rather than itinerant cosmopolitans....

  2. Google Patents: The global patent search engine

    OpenAIRE

    Noruzi, Alireza; Abdekhoda, Mohammadhiwa

    2014-01-01

    Google Patents (www.google.com/patents) includes over 8 million full-text patents. Google Patents works in the same way as the Google search engine. Google Patents is the global patent search engine that lets users search through patents from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office), EPO (European Patent Office), etc. This study begins with an overview of how to use Google Patent and identifies advanced search techniques not well-documented by Google Patent. It makes several sug...

  3. Decoding Patent Information Using Patent Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chen-Yuan; Yang, James Chingyu

    2008-01-01

    Patent information is a derivative product from the legal patent system. This information, which includes patent applications, patent descriptions, patent gazettes, patent abstracts, and patent data, is prepared in exact compliance with the regulations and specifications of the patent acts. Patent information, different from other published circulating information, is legally well protected. For convenience, this study classifies patent information into bibliographic and numeric data to creat...

  4. Anatomical Position of Mental foramen: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinit Aher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental foramen is a key factor in many of the surgical as well as clinical procedures in routine clinical practice. The variations of mental foramen with respect to position, size and number dose significantly alter the clinical implications of various intraoral treatments. The accurate knowledge of the mental nerve and its position helps the clinician for delivering local anesthesia effectively also placement of implants and dentures intraorally to replace missing teeth is important in prosthetic point of view. While doing the surgical procedures in this region the position of mental nerve and its foramen is of importance to avoid intraoperative neurovascular damage and to avoid postoperative neurosensory disturbances. The ethnic and racial variations are seen in the position of mental foramen, although a gender variation in same population has not been seen. Thus the knowledge of the position of mental nerve is important for day to day clinical practice of dentistry.

  5. Foramen magnum position in bipedal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Kirk, E Christopher

    2013-11-01

    The anterior position of the human foramen magnum is often explained as an adaptation for maintaining balance of the head atop the cervical vertebral column during bipedalism and the assumption of orthograde trunk postures. Accordingly, the relative placement of the foramen magnum on the basicranium has been used to infer bipedal locomotion and hominin status for a number of Mio-Pliocene fossil taxa. Nonetheless, previous studies have struggled to validate the functional link between foramen magnum position and bipedal locomotion. Here, we test the hypothesis that an anteriorly positioned foramen magnum is related to bipedalism through a comparison of basicranial anatomy between bipeds and quadrupeds from three mammalian clades: marsupials, rodents and primates. Additionally, we examine whether strepsirrhine primates that habitually assume orthograde trunk postures exhibit more anteriorly positioned foramina magna compared with non-orthograde strepsirrhines. Our comparative data reveal that bipedal marsupials and rodents have foramina magna that are more anteriorly located than those of quadrupedal close relatives. The foramen magnum is also situated more anteriorly in orthograde strepsirrhines than in pronograde or antipronograde strepsirrhines. Among the primates sampled, humans exhibit the most anteriorly positioned foramina magna. The results of this analysis support the utility of foramen magnum position as an indicator of bipedal locomotion in fossil hominins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spreadsheet Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Holger Stadel; Kirkbro, Malthe Ettrup; Sestoft, Peter

    2018-01-01

    This technical report gives a list of US patents and patent applications related to spreadsheet implementation technology. It is intended as a companion to the monograph Spreadsheet Implementation Technology (Peter Sestoft, MIT Press 2014), and substantially extends and updates an appendix from...

  7. Application of Cardio-O-Fix occluders for transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus and interatrial communications: Preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białkowski, Jacek; Szkutnik, Małgorzata; Fiszer, Roland; Głowacki, Jan; Banaszak, Paweł; Zembala, Marian

    2010-01-01

    Transcatheter treatment has become the method of choice for treating many heart defects. Recently, Cardio-O-Fix occluder (COF) - a new, self-expandable nitinol wire-mesh device very similar to the Amplatzer device - has been introduced into clinical practice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first publication related to its application. Five patients aged from six months to 69 years were included in the study: two with atrial septal defect (ASD), one with patent foramen ovale (PFO) after cryptogenic stroke, and two with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). These latter two comprised one six month old infant with co-existent hypertrophied cardiomyopathy, and a 53 year-old woman with recanalized PDA after previous ligation. All were treated percutaneously with COF. There was no preliminary patient selection. The only limitation was the size of the devices in our possession (16 and 22 mm ASD COF, 25 PFO COF, 4/6 and 6/8 PDA COF). The implantation technique was the same as previously described for Amplatzer occluders. All procedures were finished successfully with complete closure of the shunt. No complications were observed during a six month follow-up. In the child with PDA, we observed decrease of gradient from 80 to 60 mm Hg in hypertrophied left ventricular outflow tract, although a small protrusion of PDA-COF device was noted in the descending aorta (8 mm Hg gradient in ECHO). In the patient with recanalized PDA, the procedure was performed after arterio-venous loop creation. Mean fluoroscopy time was 4.4 (range from 1.6 to 11) minutes. Our preliminary experience indicates that the application of Cardio-O-Fix devices is safe and effective.

  8. Processing and characterization of oval piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadidian, B.; Allahverdi, M.; Mohammadi, F.; Safari, A.

    2002-03-01

    The processing and characterization of piezoelectric actuators with oval geometry are presented. The monolithic actuators were fabricated using the fused deposition of ceramic process. The minor diameter of the ovals varied between 2 and 14 mm and their major diameter, wall thickness, and width were 20, 0.85, and 7 mm, respectively. When driven under electric field, the actuators expanded along their minor diameter. The static and dynamic displacements of ˜7 and ˜5.6 μm were observed at 850 V(dc) and 100 V(ac). The static displacement of the ovals varied almost linearly with voltage and did not change under the application of external load in the range of 1-15 N. However, both dynamic displacement and resonant frequency of the ovals varied, with a maximum of 42 μm and 38 Hz, respectively, under 13 N load.

  9. Patent office governance and patent system quality

    OpenAIRE

    PICARD, Pierre M.; VAN POTTELSBERGHE DE LA POTTERIE, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The present paper discusses the role of quality in patent systems from the perspective of patent offices' behavior and organization. After documenting original stylized facts, the paper presents a model in which patent offices set patent fees and the quality level of their examination processes. Various objectives of patent offices' governors are considered. We show that the quality of the patent system is maximal for the patent offices that maximises either the social welfare or its own prof...

  10. Current Energy Patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Current Energy Patents (CEP) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of the international patent literature, including patent applications, that concerns any aspect of energy production, conservation, and utilization

  11. Anatomical structure of lingual foramen in cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ki, Min Woo; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate whether cone beam computed tomography can depict the distribution, position, frequency, relative vertical dimension, and the diameter of the lingual foramen and direction of lingual bone canal. Cone beam computed tomography of mandible was performed on 25 males and 25 females with no history of any orthodontic treatments or any other dental surgeries. A statistical comparison was done on the mean values of males and females. In the location and distribution of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was found in all subjects and lateral lingual foramen in 58%. In the lateral lingual foramen, bilateral type was found in 28% and unilateral type in 30%. In the number of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen had two foramina and lateral lingual foramen had one foramen, mostly. In the relative mean vertical dimension of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.03 ± 0.08, and both lateral lingual foramina was 0.20 ± 0.04. The mean diameter of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.9 mm ± 0.28, right lateral lingual foramen was 0.92 mm ± 0.23, and left lateral lingual foramen was 0.88 mm ± 0.27. The most frequent direction of the lingual bone canals, median lingual bone canal proceeded in anteroinferior direction and lateral lingual bone canal in anterosuperolateral direction. Cone beam computed tomography can be helpful for surgery and implantation on the mandibular area. Radiologist should be aware of this anatomical feature and its possible implications.

  12. Anatomical structure of lingual foramen in cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ki, Min Woo; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-15

    To evaluate whether cone beam computed tomography can depict the distribution, position, frequency, relative vertical dimension, and the diameter of the lingual foramen and direction of lingual bone canal. Cone beam computed tomography of mandible was performed on 25 males and 25 females with no history of any orthodontic treatments or any other dental surgeries. A statistical comparison was done on the mean values of males and females. In the location and distribution of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was found in all subjects and lateral lingual foramen in 58%. In the lateral lingual foramen, bilateral type was found in 28% and unilateral type in 30%. In the number of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen had two foramina and lateral lingual foramen had one foramen, mostly. In the relative mean vertical dimension of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.03 {+-} 0.08, and both lateral lingual foramina was 0.20 {+-} 0.04. The mean diameter of lingual foramina, median lingual foramen was 0.9 mm {+-} 0.28, right lateral lingual foramen was 0.92 mm {+-} 0.23, and left lateral lingual foramen was 0.88 mm {+-} 0.27. The most frequent direction of the lingual bone canals, median lingual bone canal proceeded in anteroinferior direction and lateral lingual bone canal in anterosuperolateral direction. Cone beam computed tomography can be helpful for surgery and implantation on the mandibular area. Radiologist should be aware of this anatomical feature and its possible implications.

  13. Meningioma of Foramen Magnum Causing Drop Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Mahore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old female presented with frequent episodes of falls without loss of consciousness. These episodes lasted for brief period followed by full neurological recovery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain showed foramen magnum meningioma encasing left vertebral artery. The patient had dramatic improvement after excision of the tumor.

  14. Retrospective Morphometric Analysis of the Infraorbital Foramen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... prevent the damage of the neurovascular structures during maxillofacial surgery ... Infraorbital nerve passes through infraorbital sulcus and infraorbital canal and extended to the skull via the infraorbital foramen (IOF).[1]. Infraorbital nerve block is used in regional ...... Trigeminal nerve peripheral branch.

  15. Congenital constriction of the foramen of Monro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marions, O.; Boethius, J.

    1986-01-01

    We report two cases of hydrocephalus in adults. The radiological investigations and direct inspection during surgery in one of the cases indicate that the hydrocephalus is caused in both cases by a benign stricture in the region of the foramen of Monro and that this constriction is congenital. This origin of hydrocephalus has not been reported previously in adults. (orig.)

  16. Retrospective Morphometric Analysis of the Infraorbital Foramen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of our study is to examine the morphometric characteristics of the infraorbital foramen (IOF) and its anatomic localization by using conebeam computerized tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: In our study, the anatomic characteristics of the IOF were identified by studying retrospectively the CBCT ...

  17. Features of the brainstem and tentorial foramen relationship and their practical value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Redyakina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Establish the morphological features and practical significance of the tentorial-stem relationship from the position of individual anatomical variability. Methods: head morphometry, macro and microscopic examination of the brainstem, morphometry of the brainstem and its departments, tentorial aperture morphometry, foramen magnum craniometry, manufacture of corrosion molds of the posterior cranial fossa, statistical processing of the results, computer-graphic modeling of the brainstem and surrounding formations. Results.  In the course of the study, the features of the individual variability of the tentorial foramen form were established, namely: shortened-expanded and oval-convex forms were defined in brachycephalic; in dolichocephalic - oblong-narrowed and elongated-conical. At the same time, a number of existing sizes and forms of the tentorial-stem spaces were noted. Among them, four main ones are described: front, side (right and left and rear. They have individual characteristics. Thus, in the brachycephalic we define lateral holes, due to the convexity of the tentorial margins. In dolichocephalic - front and back gaps, depending on the characteristics of their elongations. The obtained data are of great importance for the craniotopographic justification of the tentorial-stem wedges, which are formed with tumors which located here. In our opinion, tumors have the greatest possibility of passage through the left or right lateral intervals in people with a brachymorph form of the head, and through the anterior and posterior intervals - in people with meso- and dolichomorph forms of the head.

  18. Morphological and morphometric analysis of the shape, position, number and size of mental foramen on human mandibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Voljevica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide anatomical information on the position, morphological variations and incidence of mental foramen (MF and accessorymental foramen (AMF as they are important for dental surgeons, anesthetists in nerve block and surgical procedures, to avoid injury to the neurovascular bundle in the mental foramen area. Methods. Our study was conducted on 150 adult dry human mandibles from the osteological collection of the Department of Anatomy of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Sarajevo. The location and shape of the MF and the presence of the AMF were studied by visual examination. The size and position of the MF were measured using a digital vernier caliper. SPSS, version 17 software was used for the statistical analysis. Results. Bilateral mental foramina were presented in all 150 mandibles. In the majority of mandibles, the MF was located between the first and second premolar (20.3% or on the level of the root of the second premolar (60.3%, midway between the inferior margin and the alveolar margin of the mandible. Most of the mental foramina were oval in shape (83.3%. An AMF was present in four mandibles (2.7% on the right side. Conclusion. This study may be a very useful new supplement to data on variations in the incidence, position, shape and size of mental and accessory mental foramina, which may help surgeons, anaesthetists, neurosurgeons and dentists in carrying out surgical procedures successfully.

  19. Radiographic Localization of the Mental Foramen and Mandibular Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Afkhami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Accurately localizing the mental foramen and mandibular canal is important when administering local anesthesia and performing surgery; therefore, knowing the normal range of the possible locations is essential. Our purpose was to assess the location of the mental foramen and mandibular canal in an Iranian population using panoramic radiography.Materials and Methods: Standard panoramic radiographies were performed. The positions of 100 mental foramens were evaluated. The distances from the center of the mental foramen to the superior and inferior borders of the mandible and to the apexes of the first and second premolar were measured. The distance of the mental foramens from the mandibular midline and the diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection were also measured.Results: Among 100 mental foramens, 6% were positioned under the first premolar, 24% were between the first and second premolars, 67% were under the second premolar, and the remaining 3% were behind the second premolar. The mean distance from the mental foramen to the mandibular midline was 27.77±3.20 mm. The mean diameter of the mandibular canal in the mental foramen connection was 3.09±0.69mm.Conclusion: The mental foramen was near the second premolar and the inferior border of the mandible. This information can be used to perform safer mental nerve blocks in surgical interventions.

  20. Ellipse and Oval in Baroque Sacral Architecture in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grúňová, Zuzana; Holešová, Michaela

    2017-06-01

    Oval, circular and elliptic forms appear in the architecture from the very beginning. The basic problem of the geometric analysis of the spaces with an elliptic or oval ground plan is a great sensitivity of the outcome calculations to the plan's precision, mainly to distinguish between oval and ellipse. Sebastiano Serlio and Guarino Guarini belong to those architects, theoreticians, who analysed the potential of circular or oval forms and some of their ideas are analysed in the paper. Elliptical or oval plans were used also in Slovak baroque architecture or interior elements and the paper introduce some of the most known examples as a connection to the world architecture ideas.

  1. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  2. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  3. Molecular characterization of misidentified Plasmodium ovale imported cases in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavatte, Jean-Marc; Tan, Sarah Bee Hui; Snounou, Georges; Lin, Raymond Tzer Pin Valentine

    2015-11-14

    Plasmodium ovale, considered the rarest of the malaria parasites of humans, consists of two morphologically identical but genetically distinct sympatric species, Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri. These parasites resemble morphologically to Plasmodium vivax with which they also share a tertian periodicity and the ability to cause relapses, making them easily misidentified as P. vivax. Plasmodium ovale infections are rarely reported, but given the likelihood of misidentification, their prevalence might be underestimated. Morphological and molecular analysis of confirmed malaria cases admitted in Singapore in 2012-2014 detected nine imported P. ovale cases that had been misidentified as P. vivax. Since P. ovale had not been previously officially reported in Singapore, a retrospective analysis of available, frozen, archival blood samples was performed and returned two additional misidentified P. ovale cases in 2003 and 2006. These eleven P. ovale samples were characterized with respect to seven molecular markers (ssrRNA, Potra, Porbp2, Pog3p, dhfr-ts, cytb, cox1) used in recent studies to distinguish between the two sympatric species, and to a further three genes (tufa, clpC and asl). The morphological features of P. ovale and the differential diagnosis with P. vivax were reviewed and illustrated by microphotographs. The genetic dimorphism between P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri was assessed by ten molecular markers distributed across the three genomes of the parasite (Genbank KP050361-KP050470). The data obtained for seven of these markers were compared with those published and confirmed that both P. ovale species were present. This dimorphism was also confirmed for the first time on: (1) two genes from the apicoplast genome (tufA and clpC genes); and, (2) the asl gene that was used for phylogenetic analyses of other Plasmodium species, and that was found to harbour the highest number of dimorphic loci between the two P. ovale species

  4. Variant Plasmodium ovale isolated from a patient infected in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersen Eskild

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent data have found that Plasmodium ovale can be separated in two distinct species: classic and variant P. ovale based on multilocus typing of different genes. This study presents a P. ovale isolate from a patient infected in Ghana together with an analysis of the small subunit RNA, cytochrome b, cytochrome c oxidase I, cysteine protease and lactate dehydrogenase genes, which show that the sample is a variant P. ovale and identical or highly similar to variant P. ovale isolated from humans in South-East Asia and Africa, and from a chimpanzee in Cameroon. The split between the variant and classic P. ovale is estimated to have occurred 1.7 million years ago.

  5. Patent Assessment Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Paul F.; Reitzig, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The increasing number of patent applications worldwide and the extension of patenting to the areas of software and business methods have triggered a debate on "patent quality". While patent quality may have various dimensions, this paper argues that consistency in the decision making on the side...... of the patent office is one important dimension, particularly in new patenting areas (emerging technologies). In order to understand whether patent offices appear capable of providing consistent assessments of a patent's technological quality in such novel industries from the beginning, we study the concordance...... of the European Patent Office's (EPO's) granting and opoposition decisions for individual patents. We use the historical example of biotech patens filed between 1978 until 1986, the early stage of the industry. Our results indicate that the EPO shows systematically different assessments of technological quality...

  6. Patents in INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheel, H.; Breitfeld, B.

    1983-01-01

    Proceeding from the INIS rules for collecting, characterizing, and making available patent documents, results of an analysis are presented, which concern timeliness, origin, and classification of patents according to the INIS subject categories and the International Patent Classification. GDR's capabilities for SDI services and retrospective searches are outlined taking into account patents. For a selected subject area (IPC G21) the coverage of patents announced by INIS was found to be about 30%

  7. 115. Cirugía urgente en un caso de tromboembolia pulmonar con trombo acabalgado en foramen oval permeable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Castillo

    2012-04-01

    Conclusiones: La embolectomía pulmonar bajo circulación extracorpórea es una alternativa terapéutica reservada a los casos de tromboembolia pulmonar con fallo ventricular derecho e inestabilidad hemodinámica, y puede ser utilizada de forma segura y eficaz en aquellos casos en que la fibrinólisis esté contraindicada y la localización del trombo permita su extracción quirúrgica.

  8. Roentgen-anatomic studies on the mental foramen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Soon Pyo; Ahn, Hyung Kyu [College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-11-15

    The author measured the distance from mental foramen to the occlusal plane and classified the positional frequency of mental foramen to the tooth site using topography. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Of 964 mental foramen taken, the common site was in 2nd premolar region showing 64.08 percent in right and 57.17 per cent in left site. 2. The average distance from occlusal plane to the upper border of premolar region was 23.20 mm and lower border was 25. 07 mm. 3. The positional variation of mental foramen was that 4.77 percent were located above the apex of the nearest tooth, 50.42 per cent were located at the apex of the nearest tooth and 44.81 percent were located below the apex of the nearest tooth.

  9. Complete morphometric analysis of jugular foramen and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant Swaroop Das

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study gives knowledge about the various parameters, anatomical variations of jugular foramen in both sexes of an adult Indian population, and its clinical impact on the surgeries of this region.

  10. Roentgen-anatomic studies on the mental foramen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soon Pyo; Ahn, Hyung Kyu

    1972-01-01

    The author measured the distance from mental foramen to the occlusal plane and classified the positional frequency of mental foramen to the tooth site using topography. The results were obtained as follows; 1. Of 964 mental foramen taken, the common site was in 2nd premolar region showing 64.08 percent in right and 57.17 per cent in left site. 2. The average distance from occlusal plane to the upper border of premolar region was 23.20 mm and lower border was 25. 07 mm. 3. The positional variation of mental foramen was that 4.77 percent were located above the apex of the nearest tooth, 50.42 per cent were located at the apex of the nearest tooth and 44.81 percent were located below the apex of the nearest tooth.

  11. Patentability of inventions under the Nigeria's patents and designs act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patentability of inventions under the Nigeria's patents and designs act: an examination. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... The Nigerian Patent Registry refuses patent applications for Software or ...

  12. Litigation-proof patents: avoiding the most common patent mistakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldstein, Larry M

    2014-01-01

    "Litigation-Proof Patents: Avoiding the Most Common Patent Mistakes explains the principles of excellent patents, presents the ten most common errors in patents, and details a step-by-step method for avoiding these common errors...

  13. Hypochondroplasia with Foramen Magnum Stenosis: a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazik Aşılıoğlu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypochondroplasia was first reported in the English literature by Beals (1969. The features are similar to those of achondroplasia but are less severe and are usually reported not to involve the skull. The foramen magnum and whole spinal canal are reduced in diameter in achondroplasia, but less so in hypochondroplasia. In this study, we present an unique case of a seven month old child with hypochondroplasia with symptomatic foramen magnum stenosis which required surgical decompression. This 7-month-old child with hypochondroplasia presented with hypotonia and severe respiratory disabilities, including apneic episodes requiring continuous positive airway pressure. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed marked foramen magnum stenosis. Foramen magnum decompression was performed. Postoperatively, steady motor improvement has been observed and the patient no longer requires ventilatory support. To the our knowledge, this is the first report of hypochondroplasia and symptomatic foramen magnum stenosis. In this case we wish to emphasize the necessity of the radiological imaging of foramen magnum and spinal cord for the patient who has respiratory distress and hypotonia with skeletal dysplasia.

  14. Complete Cranial Iliac Osteotomy to Approach the Lumbosacral Foramen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Dyall

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An approach using a complete cranial iliac osteotomy (CCIO to access the lumbosacral (LS foramen in dogs from lateral was developed using cadavers and applied in a clinical patient with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS. The foraminal enlargement in the cadavers and the patient was documented on postoperative CT scans. The preoperative CT scan of the patient showed moderate cranial telescoping of the sacral roof and a moderate central disk protrusion, leading to moderate to severe compression of the cauda equina. In addition, there was lateral spondylosis with consequential stenosis of the right LS foramen. The right L7 nerve had lost its fat attenuation and appeared thickened. After a routine L7S1 dorsal laminectomy with a partial discectomy, a CCIO was performed, providing good access to the LS foramen and the adhesions around the proximal L7 nerve caudoventral to the foramen. The osteotomy was stabilized with a locking plate and a cerclage wire. The dog recovered well from the procedures and after 36 h, the dog walked normally and was discharged from the hospital. Eight and 16 weeks later, the signs of the DLSS had markedly improved. From these data, it can be concluded that the CCIO is a useful approach to the LS foramen and intervertebral disk in selected patients with DLSS, giving good access to the structures around the LS foramen.

  15. Modern evaluation of patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    The number of patents is not so important as the market value. The market value is especially important for licensing of patents, make-or-buy decisions for technology procurement, corporate finance. Patents can be used as collateral for financing. Patents and credit approvals: without patents only 46% and with patents 54%. The value share of knowledge-based components to industrial products already reached 50% and it is still rising. OECD called these developments under the slogan "knowledge economy”. German Norm-DIN 77100 provides a working method for monetary evaluation of a patent. The value of a patent arises from its use. A patent can be used to protect or to earn licensing revenues. An evaluation expertise is required in areas, such as marketing, finance, R & D and strategic planning. As an indicator of the value of a patent is often used the number of citations. The number of a patent citation refers to its meaning and value. Other indicators would be: size of the patent family, validity of the patent, result of objections against patent application, number and quality of claims. The analysis of 9.000 patents resulted that only 7.2% worth over 10 million euro and 68% below 1 million euro. The cost method: it is considered the cost that would be incurred for the development and patenting of a similar invention. The market method: are used the prices that have been achieved in comparable with recently transactions. The Income method: the potential reward is measured, which can arise from a patent. The evaluation will be in the following areas: legal status, technology, market conditions, finance and strategy. Each question relates to a different parameter of a value.

  16. A guide of patent map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    This book introduces application and characteristic of patent information, types of patent information data and research of patent information, arrangement of patent information and patent map, analysis of patent information, necessity, writing period arrangement way of patent map, cases of patent map on selection of task of research and development, system of research and development and application, examples of PM such as MAP by year, application, technique, Inventor, and claim point map and computerization like data arrangement of PM patent, collection of analysis range and item analysis of patent, cases and written reports on patent analysis.

  17. Patents for Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    PATENTS FOR SOLDIERS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment...COVERED (From - To) AUG 2015 – JUNE 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Patents for Soldiers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...protection of an innovative idea; that is, a patent . A Soldier’s pursuit of patents provides the Army with tangible and intangible benefits. There are on

  18. Creep relaxation of fuel pin bending and ovalling stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, D.P.; Jackson, R.J.

    1979-06-01

    Analytical methods for calculating fuel pin cladding bending and ovalling stresses due to pin bundle-duct mechanical interaction taking into account nonlinear creep are presented. Calculated results are in close agreement with finite element results by MARC-CDC program. The methods are used to investigate the effect of creep on the FTR fuel cladding bending and ovalling stresses. It is concluded that the cladding of 316 SS 20% CW and reference design has high creep rates in the FTR core region to keep the bending and ovalling stresses to low levels

  19. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe: Applying the ‘medical methods exception’ to emerging technologies is based on the authors PhD dissertation, defended in March 2014, at the University of Copenhagen. The book debates restrictions on the patentability of medical methods in European Patent Law....... The main question addressed is whether it is viable and advisable the reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of Article 53 (c) EPC – a provision restricting the patenting of medical methods. The subject is approached by reference to emerging technologies, and using nanomedicine innovation...... as example and point of departure. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been challenging the patent system and exposing the need for re...

  20. Invention note and patent note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sung Su

    1997-09-01

    This book deals with origin of invention and term related patent and invention, making idea, brain storming, 10 laws of invention skill, attitude of inventors, invention order, making good inventions, patent system, preparation of application, procedure and method of patent, management of patent, patent and trademark office, patent lawyer, copyright, new intellectual property right, industrial property right, trademark, invasion of industrial property right, patent, Judgment, preparation of items, application of industrial property right and effect of inventor and related people.

  1. Chimpanzee malaria parasites related to Plasmodium ovale in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Duval

    Full Text Available Since the 1970's, the diversity of Plasmodium parasites in African great apes has been neglected. Surprisingly, P. reichenowi, a chimpanzee parasite, is the only such parasite to have been molecularly characterized. This parasite is closely phylogenetically related to P. falciparum, the principal cause of the greatest malaria burden in humans. Studies of malaria parasites from anthropoid primates may provide relevant phylogenetic information, improving our understanding of the origin and evolutionary history of human malaria species. In this study, we screened 130 DNA samples from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla from Cameroon for Plasmodium infection, using cytochrome b molecular tools. Two chimpanzees from the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes presented single infections with Plasmodium strains molecularly related to the human malaria parasite P. ovale. These chimpanzee parasites and 13 human strains of P. ovale originated from a various sites in Africa and Asia were characterized using cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase 1 mitochondrial partial genes and nuclear ldh partial gene. Consistent with previous findings, two genetically distinct types of P. ovale, classical and variant, were observed in the human population from a variety of geographical locations. One chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was genetically identical, on all three markers tested, to variant P. ovale type. The other chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was different from P. ovale strains isolated from humans. This study provides the first evidence of possibility of natural cross-species exchange of P. ovale between humans and chimpanzees of the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes.

  2. The Oval Female Facial Shape--A Study in Beauty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Greg J

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of who is beautiful seems to be innate but has been argued to conform to mathematical principles and proportions. One aspect of beauty is facial shape that is gender specific. In women, an oval facial shape is considered attractive. To study the facial shape of beautiful actors, pageant title winners, and performers across ethnicities and in different time periods and to construct an ideal oval shape based on the average of their facial shape dimensions. Twenty-one full-face photographs of purportedly beautiful female actors, performers, and pageant winners were analyzed and an oval constructed from their facial parameters. Only 3 of the 21 faces were totally symmetrical, with the most larger in the left upper and lower face. The average oval was subsequently constructed from an average bizygomatic distance (horizontal parameter) of 4.3 times their intercanthal distance (ICD) and a vertical dimension that averaged 6.3 times their ICD. This average oval could be fitted to many of the individual subjects showing a smooth flow from the forehead through temples, cheeks, jaw angle, jawline, and chin with all these facial aspects abutting the oval. Where they did not abut, treatment may have improved these subjects.

  3. Acute headache attributed to whiplash in arcuate foramen and non-arcuate foramen subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Luis; Mata-Escolano, Federico; Blanco-Pérez, Esther; Llidó, Susanna; Bastir, Markus; Sanchis-Gimeno, Juan A

    2017-04-01

    To test the association between arcuate foramen (AF) in the first cervical vertebra with acute headache attributed to whiplash. Retrospective study of 128 patients that suffered a whiplash. The presence or absence of AF was recorded after a radiographic study, as well as the presence or absence of acute headache after the whiplash. The frequency of AF was 17.2%. Patients with bilateral AF presented a significant (p = 0.000, Fisher's test) increase in the frequency of acute headache (90.9%) in comparison with the non-AF group (5.7%). The ratio between the presence and absence of acute headache was 166.6 times higher (IC 95% 18.2-1526.22) in subjects with bilateral AF in comparison with non-AF subjects. The presence of bilateral AF is associated to an increased frequency of acute headache after suffering a whiplash, information of interest for the attention to these patients.

  4. Patents and nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, Raj

    2007-06-01

    Big pharma's business model, which relies on a few blockbusters to generate profits, is clearly broken. Patent expiration on numerous blockbusters in recent years is already altering the drug landscape. Drug companies are also facing other challenges that necessitate development and implementation of novel R&D strategies, including those that focus on nanotechnology and miniaturization. Clearly, there is enormous excitement and expectation regarding nanomedicine's potential impact. However, securing valid and defensible patent protection will be critical. Although early forecasts for nanomedicine commercialization are encouraging, there are numerous bottlenecks as well. One of the major hurdles is an emerging thicket of patent claims, resulting primarily from patent proliferation as well as continued issuance of surprisingly broad patents by the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). Adding to this confusion is the fact that the US National Nanotechnology Initiative's widely cited definition of nanotechnology is inaccurate and irrelevant from a nanomedicine perspective. It is also the cause of the inadequate patent classification system that was recently unveiled by the PTO. All of this is creating a chaotic, tangled patent landscape in various sectors of nanomedicine where the competing players are unsure of the validity and enforceability of numerous issued patents. If this trend continues, it could stifle competition and limit access to some inventions. Therefore, reforms are urgently needed at the PTO to address problems ranging from poor patent quality and questionable examination practices to inadequate search capabilities, rising attrition, poor employee morale and a skyrocketing patent application backlog. Only a robust patent system will stimulate the development of commercially viable nanomedicine products that can drastically improve a patient's quality of life and reduce healthcare costs.

  5. Function of oval cells in hepatocellular carcinoma in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chi-Hua; Gong, Jia-Qing; Zhang, Wei

    2004-09-01

    To study oval cells' pathological characteristics and relationship with the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); to observe the form and structural characteristics of oval cells; to explore the expression characteristics of C-kit, PCNA mRNA and c-myc gene during the occurrence and development of HCC and the effect of ulinastatin (UTI) on C-kit and PCNA expression. One hundred and twenty-five SD rats fed on 3,3'-diaminobenzidine (DAB) to construct HCC models were divided into control group, cancer-inducing group and UTI intervention group. In each group, rat liver samples were collected at weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 respectively to study pathological distribution characteristics of oval cells in the process of carcinogenesis under optical microscope. Oval cells were separated by the methods of improved density gradient centrifugation and their structural characteristics were observed under optical microscope and electronic microscope respectively; the oval cells expressing C-kit and PCNA in the collected samples were observed by the methods of immunohistochemistry and image analysis and the expression of c-myc mRNA was also detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Oval cells proliferated firstly in the portal area then gradually migrated into hepatic parenchyma in the inducing group and intervention group. The oval cells distributed inside and outside the carcinoma nodes. The oval cells presented the characteristics of undifferentiated cells: a high ratio of nucleolus and cellular plasm and obvious nucleoli, rare organelle in plasm. Only a few mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and some villus-like apophysis on surface of cells could be seen. Cells stained with C-kit and PCNA antibody were mainly oval cells distributed in the portal area. The expression of c-myc mRNA increased with the progression of HCC. However, in the intervention group, UTI could retard its increase. Oval cells work throughout

  6. Performance of Patenting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non-patenting...... firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political...

  7. Data anonymization patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Pejić Bach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The omnipresent, unstoppable increase in digital data has led to a greater understanding of the importance of data privacy. Different approaches are used to implement data privacy. The goal of this paper is to develop a data anonymization patent landscape, by determining the following: (i the trend in data anonymization patenting, (ii the type of technical content protected in data anonymization, (iii the organizations and countries most active in patenting data anonymization know-how; and (iv the topics emerging most often in patent titles. Patents from the PatSeer database relating to data anonymization from 2001 to 2015 were analyzed. We used the longitudinal approach in combination with text mining techniques to develop a data anonymization patent landscape. The results indicated the following. The number of single patent families is growing with a high increase after 2010, thus indicating a positive trend in the area of patenting data anonymization solutions. The majority of patenting activities relate to the G Physics section. Organizations from the USA and Japan assigned the majority of patents related to data anonymization. The results of text mining indicate that the most often used word in titles of data anonymization patents are “anonym*, “method”, “data” and “system”. Several additional words that indicated the most frequent topics related to data anonymization were: “equipment”, “software”, “protection”, “identification”, or “encryption”, and specific topics such as “community”, “medical”, or “service”.

  8. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  9. Truth and falsity of patent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gum Jin

    2006-10-01

    This book describes the process of the effect to build the business of patent strongly in difficult situation. The titles of this contents are finally, lawsuit if formed, the task of patent application introduction of tasks of patent negotiation, negotiation with Fujitsu, Mitsubishi, Oki and NEC, amalgamation between LG semiconductor and Hyundai Electronic Industry, life in incorporated company, current condition of application for a patent, the method to process strategy patent, how to make strong patent and effective negotiation strategy for a patent and strategy of patent application.

  10. Obturator foramen dissection for excision of symptomatic transobturator mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, W Stuart; Kit, Laura Chang; Kaufman, Melissa R; Karram, Mickey; Bales, Gregory T; Dmochowski, Roger R

    2012-05-01

    Groin pain after transobturator synthetic mesh placement can be recalcitrant to conservative therapy and ultimately requires surgical excision. We describe our experiences with and technique of obturator foramen dissection for mesh excision. The records of 8 patients treated from 2005 to 2010, were reviewed. Obturator dissection was performed via a lateral groin incision over the inferior pubic ramus at the level of the obturator foramen, typically in conjunction with orthopedic surgery. Five patients had transobturator mid urethral sling surgery for stress urinary incontinence, 2 had mid urethral sling and trocar based anterior vaginal wall mesh kits with transobturator passage of mesh arms for stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse, and 1 had an anterior vaginal wall mesh kit for pelvic organ prolapse. Patients had 0 to 2 prior transvaginal mesh excisions before obturator surgery. All patients presented with intractable pain in the area of the obturator foramen and/or medial groin for which conservative treatment measures had failed. Six patients underwent concurrent vaginal and obturator dissection and 2 underwent obturator dissection alone. In all cases residual mesh (3 to 11 cm) was identified and excised from the obturator foramen. Mesh was closely associated to or traversing the adductor longus muscle and tendon with significant fibrous reaction in all cases. Postoperatively 5 patients were cured of pain and/or infection, and 3 reported no or some improvement at a mean followup of 6 months (range 1 to 12). Our experience suggests that surgical excision of residual mesh can alleviate many of the symptoms in many patients. In all cases mesh remnants were identified and removed, and typically involved neuromuscular structures adjacent to the obturator foramen. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Searching bioremediation patents through Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    Patent classification systems have traditionally evolved independently at each patent jurisdiction to classify patents handled by their examiners to be able to search previous patents while dealing with new patent applications. As patent databases maintained by them went online for free access to public as also for global search of prior art by examiners, the need arose for a common platform and uniform structure of patent databases. The diversity of different classification, however, posed problems of integrating and searching relevant patents across patent jurisdictions. To address this problem of comparability of data from different sources and searching patents, WIPO in the recent past developed what is known as International Patent Classification (IPC) system which most countries readily adopted to code their patents with IPC codes along with their own codes. The Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) is the latest patent classification system based on IPC/European Classification (ECLA) system, developed by the European Patent Office (EPO) and the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) which is likely to become a global standard. This paper discusses this new classification system with reference to patents on bioremediation.

  12. FORAMEN MENTONIANO ACCESORIO: PRESENTACION DE UN CASO Y REVISION DE LA BIBLIOGRAFIA. Accessory mental foramen: A case report and literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Elías Fernández

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available El foramen mentoniano accesorio es un orificio adicional al foramen mentoniano que se localiza en la cara anterolateral externa del cuerpo mandibular y que se conecta con el conducto dentario inferior.  Su ubicación es posteroinferior al foramen mentoniano.  De acuerdo a su clasificación también se lo conoce como foramen mental doble, foramen mental adicional, foramen mental múltiple, foramen mental accesorio o foramen mandibular bucal suplementario. Su frecuencia de aparición varía del 1% al 10 %, cuando son unilaterales y del 0,47% al 1,2% cuando son bilaterales.  El  foramen mentoniano accesorio es una rara variante anatómica de poca frecuencia pero de gran relevancia clínico-quirúrgica ya que está asociado a un paquete vasculonervioso por lo cual es necesario su diagnóstico radiográfico ya sea por métodos convencionales o por alta resolución para evitar posibles complicaciones en los diferentes procedimientos odontológicos. Se presenta un caso de foramen mentoniano accesorio de un paciente remitido al Servicio de Radiología de la Facultad de Odontología de la UNC. La tomografía computada constituye el estudio por imágenes de excelencia ante la presunción de un foramen accesorio ya que los diferentes cortes tomográficos y la reconstrucción 3D nos permiten localizarlo de manera precisa e inequívoca. Constituye generalmente un hallazgo radiográfico o se observa durante procedimientos quirúrgicos al quedar al descubierto por el desplazamiento de los tejidos blandos. Cuando se localiza antes de cualquier procedimiento odontológico se deben tomar todos los recaudos necesarios para evitar daño del paquete vasculonervioso y futuras complicaciones como hemorragias o parestesias, principalmente en prácticas como la colocación de implantes dentales o las apicectomías. Accessory mental foramen (AMF is defined as any openings in addition to mental foramen, with connection to the mandibular canal in the anterolateral

  13. A Morphometric Study of the Foramen of Diaphragma Sellae and Delineation of Its Relation to Optic Neural Pathways through Computer Aided Superimposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris George Yohannan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The diaphragma sellae (DS is a fold of dura that forms a partial roof over the pituitary gland. The foramen of the diaphragma sellae (FDS is thereby a pathway for suprasellar extension of pituitary tumors. The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomical dimensions of the DS and FDS and to understand the relationship of FDS with the overlying optic chiasma. The study was conducted in 100 autopsy cases. Measurements were taken using vernier calipers. Photographs, taken before and after removal of optic pathway, were superimposed using image processing software. The results showed that the mean A-P dimension of DS was 1.17 ± 0.48 cm; the lateral dimension of DS was 1.58 ± 0.60 cm. The mean A-P dimension of FDS was 0.66 ± 0.42 cm; the lateral dimension of FDS was 0.82 cm ± 0.54 cm. The shapes of FDS were irregular (40%, transversely oval (29%, circular (13%, sagittally oval (11%, or trapezoid with posterior dimension more than the anterior one (6% or anterior dimension more than the posterior one (1%. The margins of FDS were either well defined (31% or ill defined (69%. The positional relation of FDS to optic chiasma was also found out.

  14. Foramen Tympanicum or Foramen of Huschke: A Bioarchaeological Study on Human Skeletons from an Iron Age Cemetery at Tabriz Kabud Mosque Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaian, Jafar; Namavar, Mohammad Reza; Vahdati Nasab, Hamed; Hojabri Nobari, Ali Reza; Abedollahi, Ali

    2015-07-01

    The foramen tympanicum is an anatomical variation that is created in the tympanic plate of temporal bone during the first year of life. The tympanic plate grows and foramen tympanicum is gradually closed by about the fifth postnatal year. However, due to a defect in normal ossification, foramen tympanicum sporadically remains throughout life. The construction of a shopping center in Tabriz, northwest of Iran, led to the discovery of an Iron Age cemetery (1500-500 BC). Several tombs have been uncovered below one meter of sterile soil so far and a thick level of architectural debris from the medieval city has been discovered. Up to now, no bioarchaeological data has been gathered about the burials in this area. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of foramen tympanicum in this area. In this study, 45 skeletons were studied and the prevalence of this foramen was about 4.4% bilaterally. We also reported on two babies with fused and un-fused squamotympanic fissure. The persistence of this foramen is a possible risk factor for otologic complications after arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint and salivary gland fistula through this foramen. The closure of this foramen could be also used for age estimation in sub-adult individuals. The incidence of this trait in this study was similar to other available studies on modern skeletons.

  15. Foramen Tympanicum or Foramen of Huschke: A Bioarchaeological Study on Human Skeletons from an Iron Age Cemetery at Tabriz Kabud Mosque Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Rezaian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The foramen tympanicum is an anatomical variation that is created in the tympanic plate of temporal bone during the first year of life. The tympanic plate grows and foramen tympanicum is gradually closed by about the fifth postnatal year. However, due to a defect in normal ossification, foramen tympanicum sporadically remains throughout life. The construction of a shopping center in Tabriz, northwest of Iran, led to the discovery of an Iron Age cemetery (1500-500 BC. Several tombs have been uncovered below one meter of sterile soil so far and a thick level of architectural debris from the medieval city has been discovered. Up to now, no bioarchaeological data has been gathered about the burials in this area. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of foramen tympanicum in this area. In this study, 45 skeletons were studied and the prevalence of this foramen was about 4.4% bilaterally. We also reported on two babies with fused and un-fused squamotympanic fissure. The persistence of this foramen is a possible risk factor for otologic complications after arthroscopy of the temporomandibular joint and salivary gland fistula through this foramen. The closure of this foramen could be also used for age estimation in sub-adult individuals. The incidence of this trait in this study was similar to other available studies on modern skeletons.

  16. How Important are Noncorporate Patents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the innovative performances of noncorporate inventors using patent citations data from the European Patent Office. The results show that inventions patented outside an established corporate framework are on average less ‘important’ than corporate patents, but with large...... variations across technology classes. Patents applied for by independent inventors, start-ups and corporate firms are of comparable ‘quality’ in emerging technologies. The results also highlight that in these fields noncorporate patents are more ‘radical’ than corporate patents....

  17. A newly developed oval-shaped port device (E•Z ACCESS Oval type) for use in reduced port surgery: initial clinical experiences with cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibao, Kazunori; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Higure, Aiichiro; Yamaguchi, Koji

    2013-09-01

    We recently developed an oval-shaped E•Z Access device designed exclusively for use with the LAP PROTECTOR™ Oval type device (Hakko Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan). The transverse abdominal opening diameter made by round-shaped (Alexis® Wound Retractor, Applied Medical, Rancho Santa Margarita, CA; and LAP PROTECTOR™ Round type) and oval-shaped (LAP PROTECTOR™ Oval type) wound retractors was measured and compared in 5 patients with cholecystolithiasis. Each device was placed through a single 25-mm longitudinal umbilical incision, and the length of trocar separation was compared. LESS cholecystectomy was then performed using the oval-shaped E•Z ACCESS/LAP PROTECTOR™. The transverse abdominal opening diameter was maximized with the LAP PROTECTOR™ Oval type device. The average distance between the working-ports for the glove method, round-shaped, and oval-shaped E•Z ACCESS/LAP PROTECTOR™ devices in the 25-mm umbilical incisions were 20 ± 0.8 mm, 24 ± 1.5 mm, and 35 ± 0.8 mm, respectively. Wider trocar separation was achieved using the oval-shaped device, making the surgical procedures easier to perform. No perioperative port-related or surgical complications were observed. LESS cholecystectomy using the E•Z ACCESS Oval type device was found to be technically feasible. The Oval type device appears to allow for wider trocar separation, thereby reducing stress on the surgeon, ensuring patient safety, and providing cosmetic benefits.

  18. Used, Blocking and Sleeping Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrisi, Salvatore; Gambardella, Alfonso; Giuri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    This paper employs data from a large-scale survey (InnoS&T) of inventors in Europe, the USA, and Japan who were listed in patent applications filed at the European Patent Office with priority years between 2003 and 2005. We provide evidence regarding the reasons for patenting and the ways in which...... patents are being utilized. A substantial share of patents is neither used internally nor for market transactions, which confirms the importance of strategic patenting and inefficiency in the management of intellectual property. We investigate different types of unused patents—unused blocking patents...... and sleeping patents. We also examine the association between used and unused patents and their characteristics such as family size, scope, generality and overlapping claims, technology area, type of applicant, and the competitive environment from where these patents originate. We discuss our results...

  19. Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Patent Ductus Arteriosus Figure A shows the interior of a normal heart and normal blood flow. ... PDA may shrink and go away. However, some children need treatment to close their PDAs. Some children ...

  20. DOE Patents Available for Licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuber, C.

    1981-01-01

    DOE Patents Available for Licensing (DOE PAL) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of the DOE patent literature, including patent applications, that concerns any apsect of energy production, conservation, and utilization. The citations are arranged by subject category. DOE is prepared to grant exclusive or nonexclusive, revocable licenses under DOE-owned US patents and patent applications in accordance with the provisions of 10CFR781

  1. Clinical anatomy and clinical significance of the cervical intervertebral foramen: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioutas, G; Kapetanakis, S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarise the knowledge about the anatomy of the cervical intervertebral foramen as a whole. Such reviews are rare in the literature. The intervertebral or neural foramen is the opening between the spinal canal and the extraspinal region. It is located between the vertebral pedicles at all spinal levels. A number of structures pass through the foramen: nerves, vessels and ligaments. We describe the bony borders and dimensions of the foramen, the adjacent ligaments, the arteries and veins passing through or neighbouring it, and the neural components. Many procedures are performed in the area of the cervical intervertebral foramen. Knowledge of the anatomy of the foramen is essential in order to operate to the area and to minimize iatrogenic injuries.

  2. An Electron Microscope Study of the Yeast Pityrosporum ovale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreger-van Rij, N.J.W.; Veenhuis, M.

    1970-01-01

    Cells of Pityrosporum ovale were prepared for electron microscopy by different methods of fixation and embedding, all of them causing some degree of damage to the cells. Apart from the usual organelles seen in other yeast cells, a body was found which showed an electron-dense outer layer and an

  3. Patent protection strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent.

  4. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    This work addresses the question of determining whether reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of article 53 (c) of the European Patent Convention is viable and advisable. It does so by reference to novel or resurfacing interpretative concerns connected with emerging technologies exemplif......This work addresses the question of determining whether reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of article 53 (c) of the European Patent Convention is viable and advisable. It does so by reference to novel or resurfacing interpretative concerns connected with emerging technologies...... exemplified by nanomedicine, while considering known interpretative issues and traditional objections to this provision. The debate concerning the patentability of ‘medical methods’ is multi-layered and complex. The ‘medical methods exception’ is a public policy mechanism, intended to introduce flexibility...... in the patent system in order to allow for the protection of core ethical values of society. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been...

  5. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions General Information and Correspondence § 1.5 Identification of patent, patent... benefit of the date of deposit with the United States Postal Service. If the returned correspondence is...

  6. POSITION OF CEREBELLAR TONSILS IN REFERENCE TO FORAMEN MAGNUM: AN MRI STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Normal position of the cerebellar tonsils is described to be at or above the foramen magnum. Western studies have shown the cerebellar tonsils to be below the foramen magnum. Position of tonsils is of great importance in assessing the hind brain deformity–Chiari malformation. There are no Indian studies to corroborate the findings. Hence, we proposed a basic study to find out the existence of tonsillar ectopia (Position of tonsils below the foramen magnum) in normal population. Ou...

  7. AN ANATOMICAL PERSPECTIVE OF HUMAN OCCIPITAL CONDYLES AND FORAMEN MAGNUM WITH NEUROSURGICAL CORRELATES

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav; Divya; Abha

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: Knowledge of condylar anatomy helps the surgeon in making important decisions regarding extent and direction of condylar drilling and minimizing injury and retraction of neural structures. Important preoperative information includes length, width, axis/directions and overriding of occipital condyle in foramen magnum, relationships of condyles to foramen magnum and to hypoglossal canal. The antero-posterior and transverse diameters of foramen magnum and amount of over...

  8. Lumbar Nerve Root Occupancy in the Foramen in Achondroplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Hitesh N.; Song, Hae-Ryong; Yang, Jae Hyuk

    2008-01-01

    Lumbar stenosis is common in patients with achondroplasia because of narrowing of the neural canal. However, it is unclear what causes stenosis, narrowing of the central canal or foramina. We performed a morphometric analysis of the lumbar nerve roots and intervertebral foramen in 17 patients (170 nerve roots and foramina) with achondroplasia (eight symptomatic, nine asymptomatic) and compared the data with that from 20 (200 nerve roots and foramina) asymptomatic patients without achondroplasia presenting with low back pain without neurologic symptoms. The measurements were made on left and right parasagittal MRI scans of the lumbar spine. The foramen area and root area were reduced at all levels from L1 to L5 between the patients with achondroplasia (Groups I and II) and the nonachondroplasia group (Group III). The percentage of nerve root occupancy in the foramen between Group I and Group II as compared with the patients without achondroplasia was similar or lower. This implied the lumbar nerve root size in patients with achondroplasia was smaller than that of the normal population and thus there is no effective nerve root compression. Symptoms of lumbar stenosis in achondroplasia may be arising from the central canal secondary to degenerative disc disease rather than a true foraminal stenosis. Level of Evidence: Level I, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18259829

  9. Surgical experience with skull base approaches for foramen magnum meningioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin Sanabria, Elio Arnaldo; Ehara, Kazumasa; Tamaki, Norihiko

    2002-11-01

    The surgical treatment of patients with foramen magnum meningioma remains challenging. This study evaluated the outcome of this tumor according to the evolution of surgical approaches during the last 29 years. A retrospective analysis of medical records, operative notes, and neuroimages of 492 meningioma cases from 1972 to 2001 identified seven cases of foramen magnum meningioma (1.4%). All patients showed various neurological symptoms corresponding with foramen magnum syndrome. The tumor locations were anterior in five cases and posterior in two. Surgical removal was performed through a transoral approach in one patient, the suboccipital approach in three, and the transcondylar approach in two. Total removal was achieved in all patients, except for one who refused any surgical treatment. The major complications were tetraparesis and lower cranial nerve paresis for tumors in anterior locations, and minor complications for posterior locations. One patient died of atelectasis and pneumonia after a long hospitalization. The transcondylar approach is recommended for anterior locations, and the standard suboccipital approach for posterior locations.

  10. Surface Projection of Interosseous Foramen of the Leg: Cadaver Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Arguello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study was conducted to identify the surface projection of the interosseous foramen and associated structures of the proximal leg using the average clinician’s thumb width as a quick measurement to assist in differential diagnosis and treatment. Methods. Twelve cadavers (5 males and 7 females, age range = 51–91 years, and mean age = 76.9 were dissected for analysis. Location and size of interosseous foramen, location of anterior tibial artery, location of deep fibular nerve, and corresponding arterial branches were measured and converted into thumb widths. Results. Mean thumb width measured among the cadavers was 17.94±3.9 mm. The interosseous foramen measured was approximately 1 thumb width vertically (18.47±3.0 mm and 1/2 thumb width horizontally (7.32±2.1 mm and was located approximately 1 thumb width distally to the tibial tuberosity (20.81±6.8 mm and 2 thumb widths (37.47±4.7 mm lateral to the tibial ridge. The anterior tibial artery and deep fibular nerve converged approximately 4 thumb widths (74.31±14.8 mm inferior to the tibial tuberosity and 2 thumb widths (33.46±4.9 mm lateral to the tibial ridge. Conclusion. Clinicians may identify anatomical structures of the proximal leg with palpation using the thumb width for measurement.

  11. The lifespan of semiconductor patents by assignee and patent characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shu-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the values of patents is critical for both managers and investors. Patent maintenance time is an ideal proxy indicator for evaluating commercial patent value. This study investigated the survival rates of patents in the semiconductor industry by using a survival analysis and incorporated a predictive model for patent maintenance times. The technical characteristics of the patents, the assignee factors, and the statuses of the patents were used as the predictive factors for patent maintenance time. The results revealed a small entity size and the number of assignees are the risk factors that increase the likelihood of the maintenance time of a patent decreasing. The litigation status of a patent and the number of its international patent classifications, claims, forward citations, and assignments were determined to be the protection factors that raise the likelihood of its maintenance time extending. Additionally, substantial differences were noted between small entities and nonsmall entities and between being litigated and not in their effects on the survival rates of patents. This study examined the factors that affect the survival rates of patents and provides a reference for the managers and investors of intellectual property rights to use when assessing technical and commercial patent values.

  12. Test Collections for Patent-to-Patent Retrieval and Patent Map Generation in NTCIR-4 Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Atsushi; Iwayama, Makoto; Kando, Noriko

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the Patent Retrieval Task in the Fourth NTCIR Workshop, and the test collections produced in this task. We perform the invalidity search task, in which each participant group searches a patent collection for the patents that can invalidate the demand in an existing claim. We also perform the automatic patent map generation task, in which the patents associated with a specific topic are organized in a multi-dimensional matrix.

  13. Strategic management and utilization of patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyeong Go; Yun, Gwon Jun

    1993-11-01

    This book deals with why does management of patents need?, system of management of patents with function and site of management of patents and system and composition, what does management of patents department do?, task like technical development, management regulation, patent information, management of patents in small business with technical development of small business, how does business manage the patents in real, introduction of management of patents in the U.S, Europe, Japan, and Korea, and management of patents as strategic management.

  14. Comprehension and application of patent information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Nam

    2004-05-01

    This book gives descriptions of conception of patent information such as the meaning, characteristic, function, investigation and map of patent information, pro-patent period and patent strategy of the business. It also deals with comprehension of patent information like publication of nations, patent document, patent procedure in Korea, patent procedure in Japan, the U.S, and Europe, article and function of patent document, patent information survey such as writing of search keyword, procedure of the survey and search site of other countries, patent analysis and patent map.

  15. Patenting human genes: Chinese academic articles' portrayal of gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li

    2018-04-24

    The patenting of human genes has been the subject of debate for decades. While China has gradually come to play an important role in the global genomics-based testing and treatment market, little is known about Chinese scholars' perspectives on patent protection for human genes. A content analysis of academic literature was conducted to identify Chinese scholars' concerns regarding gene patents, including benefits and risks of patenting human genes, attitudes that researchers hold towards gene patenting, and any legal and policy recommendations offered for the gene patent regime in China. 57.2% of articles were written by law professors, but scholars from health sciences, liberal arts, and ethics also participated in discussions on gene patent issues. While discussions of benefits and risks were relatively balanced in the articles, 63.5% of the articles favored gene patenting in general and, of the articles (n = 41) that explored gene patents in the Chinese context, 90.2% supported patent protections for human genes in China. The patentability of human genes was discussed in 33 articles, and 75.8% of these articles reached the conclusion that human genes are patentable. Chinese scholars view the patent regime as an important legal tool to protect the interests of inventors and inventions as well as the genetic resources of China. As such, many scholars support a gene patent system in China. These attitudes towards gene patents remain unchanged following the court ruling in the Myriad case in 2013, but arguments have been raised about the scope of gene patents, in particular that the increasing numbers of gene patents may negatively impact public health in China.

  16. Are biosimilars patentable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Damian; Parker, Jayson; Morgan, Max

    2016-08-01

    This paper explores whether, and under what circumstances, a biosimilar approved in the United States under the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act (hereafter 'BPCIA') can be patented. The possibility that a biosimilar product could have meaningful patent protection arises from specific requirements for biosimilarity under the BPCIA, which account for the fact that manufacturing processes of biologics are inherently imprecise. The requirements for biosimilar approval may provide sufficient leeway to a biosimilar applicant to patent structural or formulation differences that provide non-clinical but business-relevant advantages over the reference molecule, such as improved shelf-life or ease of manufacture, without compromising clinical biosimilarity. Examination of the BPCIA and related Acts, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance papers, case law, patent database searching, and relevant scholarly articles. Legislative and regulatory requirements for the approval of a biosimilar under the BPCIA are focused on clinical results and allow a degree of leeway for differences to exist between a biosimilar's structure and non-clinical components and those of the biosimilar's reference molecule. This leeway can be exploited to provide the biosimilar with potentially patentable business-relevant advantages over its reference product while maintaining clinical biosimilarity to the reference product.

  17. Ancient Norwegian literature in relation to the auroral oval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brekke, A.

    1981-01-01

    The Poetic Edda and The King's Mirror are well preserved Norse documents from the period between 700 and 1300 A.D. The latter states that the aurora was known to people living in Greenland but probably not observed in Norway at about 1200 A.D. The Poetic Edda does not include any decisive evidence for the aurora being known to the Norse scalds in the Viking era. This is a rather surprising fact as the scalds were much inspired by natural phenomena, and in particular occupied by celestial gestalts. In a search for an explanation of this lack of inspiration from the northern lights among the Norse scalds it is maintained that the position and shape of the auroral oval was different in the Viking era from the present day auroral oval. (orig.)

  18. Influences on the radius of the auroral oval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Milan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the variation in the radius of the auroral oval, as measured from auroral images gathered by the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE spacecraft, in response to solar wind inputs measured by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE spacecraft for the two year interval June 2000 to May 2002. Our main finding is that the oval radius increases when the ring current, as measured by the Sym-H index, is intensified during geomagnetic storms. We discuss our findings within the context of the expanding/contracting polar cap paradigm, in terms of a modification of substorm onset conditions by the magnetic perturbation associated with the ring current.

  19. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  20. Another look at the foramen magnum in bipedal mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Kirk, E Christopher

    2017-04-01

    A more anteriorly positioned foramen magnum evolved in concert with bipedalism at least four times within Mammalia: once in macropodid marsupials, once in heteromyid rodents, once in dipodid rodents, and once in hominoid primates. Here, we expand upon previous research on the factors influencing mammalian foramen magnum position (FMP) and angle with four new analyses. First, we quantify FMP using a metric (basioccipital ratio) not previously examined in a broad comparative sample of mammals. Second, we evaluate the potential influence of relative brain size on both FMP and foramen magnum angle (FMA). Third, we assess FMP in an additional rodent clade (Anomaluroidea) containing bipedal springhares (Pedetes spp.) and gliding/quadrupedal anomalures (Anomalurus spp.). Fourth, we determine the relationship between measures of FMP and FMA in extant hominoids and an expanded mammalian sample. Our results indicate that bipedal/orthograde mammals have shorter basioccipitals than their quadrupedal/non-orthograde relatives. Brain size alone has no discernible effect on FMP or FMA. Brain size relative to palate size has a weak influence on FMP in some clades, but effects are not evident in all metrics of FMP and are inconsistent among clades. Among anomaluroids, bipedal Pedetes exhibits a more anterior FMP than gliding/quadrupedal Anomalurus. The relationship between FMA and FMP in hominoids depends on the metric chosen for quantifying FMP, and if modern humans are included in the sample. However, the relationship between FMA and FMP is nonexistent or weak across rodents, marsupials, and, to a lesser extent, strepsirrhine primates. These results provide further evidence that bipedal mammals tend to have more anteriorly positioned foramina magna than their quadrupedal close relatives. Our findings also suggest that the evolution of FMP and FMA in hominins may not be closely coupled. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The fallacy of Software Patents

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Software patents are usually used as argument for innovation but do they really promote innovation? Who really benefits from software patents? This talk attempts to show the problems with software patents and how they can actually harm innovation having little value for software users and our society in general.

  2. Genome-scale comparison of expanded gene families in Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi with Plasmodium malariae and with other Plasmodium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Hifzur Rahman; Templeton, Thomas J; Subudhi, Amit Kumar; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Tang, Jianxia; Lu, Feng; Naeem, Raeece; Hashish, Yasmeen; Oguike, Mary C; Benavente, Ernest Diez; Clark, Taane G; Sutherland, Colin J; Barnwell, John W; Culleton, Richard; Cao, Jun; Pain, Arnab

    2016-10-01

    Malaria in humans is caused by six species of Plasmodium parasites, of which the nuclear genome sequences for the two Plasmodium ovale spp., P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri, and Plasmodium malariae have not yet been analyzed. Here we present an analysis of the nuclear genome sequences of these three parasites, and describe gene family expansions therein. Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri are genetically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable and have sympatric ranges through the tropics of Africa, Asia and Oceania. Both P. ovale spp. show expansion of the surfin variant gene family, and an amplification of the Plasmodium interspersed repeat (pir) superfamily which results in an approximately 30% increase in genome size. For comparison, we have also analyzed the draft nuclear genome of P. malariae, a malaria parasite causing mild malaria symptoms with a quartan life cycle, long-term chronic infections, and wide geographic distribution. Plasmodium malariae shows only a moderate level of expansion of pir genes, and unique expansions of a highly diverged transmembrane protein family with over 550 members and the gamete P25/27 gene family. The observed diversity in the P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi surface antigens, combined with their phylogenetic separation, supports consideration that the two parasites be given species status. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Genome-scale comparison of expanded gene families in Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi with Plasmodium malariae and with other Plasmodium species

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Hifzur Rahman; Templeton, Thomas J.; Subudhi, Amit; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Tang, Jianxia; Lu, Feng; Naeem, Raeece; Hashish, Yasmeen; Oguike, Mary C.; Benavente, Ernest Diez; Clark, Taane G.; Sutherland, Colin J.; Barnwell, John W.; Culleton, Richard; Cao, Jun; Pain, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    Malaria in humans is caused by six species of Plasmodium parasites, of which the nuclear genome sequences for the two Plasmodium ovale spp., P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri, and Plasmodium malariae have not yet been analyzed. Here we present an analysis of the nuclear genome sequences of these three parasites, and describe gene family expansions therein. Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri are genetically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable and have sympatric ranges through the tropics of Africa, Asia and Oceania. Both P. ovale spp. show expansion of the surfin variant gene family, and an amplification of the Plasmodium interspersed repeat (pir) superfamily which results in an approximately 30% increase in genome size. For comparison, we have also analyzed the draft nuclear genome of P. malariae, a malaria parasite causing mild malaria symptoms with a quartan life cycle, long-term chronic infections, and wide geographic distribution. Plasmodium malariae shows only a moderate level of expansion of pir genes, and unique expansions of a highly diverged transmembrane protein family with over 550 members and the gamete P25/27 gene family. The observed diversity in the P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi surface antigens, combined with their phylogenetic separation, supports consideration that the two parasites be given species status.

  4. Genome-scale comparison of expanded gene families in Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi with Plasmodium malariae and with other Plasmodium species

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Hifzur Rahman

    2016-07-05

    Malaria in humans is caused by six species of Plasmodium parasites, of which the nuclear genome sequences for the two Plasmodium ovale spp., P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri, and Plasmodium malariae have not yet been analyzed. Here we present an analysis of the nuclear genome sequences of these three parasites, and describe gene family expansions therein. Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri are genetically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable and have sympatric ranges through the tropics of Africa, Asia and Oceania. Both P. ovale spp. show expansion of the surfin variant gene family, and an amplification of the Plasmodium interspersed repeat (pir) superfamily which results in an approximately 30% increase in genome size. For comparison, we have also analyzed the draft nuclear genome of P. malariae, a malaria parasite causing mild malaria symptoms with a quartan life cycle, long-term chronic infections, and wide geographic distribution. Plasmodium malariae shows only a moderate level of expansion of pir genes, and unique expansions of a highly diverged transmembrane protein family with over 550 members and the gamete P25/27 gene family. The observed diversity in the P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi surface antigens, combined with their phylogenetic separation, supports consideration that the two parasites be given species status.

  5. Sex Prediction using Foramen Magnum and Occipital Condyles Computed Tomography Measurements in Sudanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Mohamed El-Barrany

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sex determination is important in establishing the identity of an individual. The foramen magnum is an important landmark of the skull base. The present research aimed to study the value of foramen magnum measurements to determine sex using computed tomography (CT among Sudanese individuals. Foramen magnum CT scans of 400 Sudanese individuals (200 males and 200 females aged 18 - 83 years were included in this study. Foramen magnum (length and width, right occipital condyle (length and width, left occipital condyle (length and width, minimum intercondylar distance, maximum bicondylar distance and maximum medial intercondylar distance were measured. All data were subjected to discriminant functions analysis. All nine measurements were significantly higher in males than females. Among these measurements, the right condyle length, minimum intercondylar distance, and foramen magnum width were able to determine sex in Sudanese individuals with an accuracy rate of 83 %.

  6. Foramen Magnum Meningioma: a Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurinovic, Pavao; Bulicic, Ana Repic; Marcic, Marino; Mise, Nikolina Ivica; Titlic, Marina; Suljic, Enra

    2016-02-01

    Meningiomas are slow-growing benign tumors that arise at any location where arachnoid cells reside. Although meningiomas account for a sizable proportion of all primary intracranial neoplasms (14.3-19%), only 1.8 to 3.2% arise at the foramen magnum. Their indolent development at the craniocervical junction makes clinical diagnosis complex and often leads to a long interval between onset of symptoms and diagnosis. We report a case of a 79-year-old male patient, presented with ataxia and sense of threatening fainting during verticalization. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of meningioma in the right side of craniospinal junction.

  7. Patent Searching for Librarians and Inventors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Timothy Lee

    Information on patents is provided for librarians and laypersons requiring an understanding of the system and the processes involved. Chapter 1 discusses successful patents; terms and concepts; patent types; copyright; trademark; requirements; patent examiners; patent pending; expiration; patentee and assignee; and reissued patents. Chapter 2…

  8. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  9. Patent urachus repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair - series—Normal anatomy URL of this ...

  10. Patent ductus arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent ductus arteriosus URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  11. Patent urachus repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  12. METRICS DEVELOPMENT FOR PATENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    To develop a proposal for metrics for patents to be applied in assessing the postgraduate programs of Medicine III - Capes. From the reading and analysis of the 2013 area documents of all the 48 areas of Capes, a proposal for metrics for patents was developed to be applied in Medicine III programs. Except for the areas Biotechnology, Food Science, Biological Sciences III, Physical Education, Engineering I, III and IV and Interdisciplinary, most areas do not adopt a scoring system for patents. The proposal developed was based on the criteria of Biotechnology, with adaptations. In general, it will be valued, in ascending order, the deposit, the granting and licensing/production. It will also be assigned higher scores to patents registered abroad and whenever there is a participation of students. This proposal can be applied to the item Intellectual Production of the evaluation form, in subsection Technical Production/Patents. The percentage of 10% for academic programs and 40% for Masters Professionals should be maintained. The program will be scored as Very Good when it reaches 400 points or over; Good, between 200 and 399 points; Regular, between 71 and 199 points; Weak up to 70 points; Insufficient, no punctuation. Desenvolver uma proposta de métricas para patentes a serem aplicadas na avaliação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da Área Medicina III - Capes. A partir da leitura e análise dos documentos de área de 2013 de todas as 48 Áreas da Capes, desenvolveu-se uma proposta de métricas para patentes, a ser aplicada na avaliação dos programas da área. Constatou-se que, com exceção das áreas Biotecnologia, Ciência de Alimentos, Ciências Biológicas III, Educação Física, Engenharias I, III e IV e Interdisciplinar, a maioria não adota sistema de pontuação para patentes. A proposta desenvolvida baseou-se nos critérios da Biotecnologia, com adaptações. De uma forma geral, foi valorizado, em ordem crescente, o depósito, a concessão e o

  13. Hydrocephalus caused by unilateral foramen of Monro obstruction: A review on terminology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigri, Flavio; Gobbi, Gabriel Neffa; da Costa Ferreira Pinto, Pedro Henrique; Simões, Elington Lannes; Caparelli-Daquer, Egas Moniz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hydrocephalus caused by unilateral foramen of Monro (FM) obstruction has been referred to in literature by many different terminologies. Precise terminology describing hydrocephalus confined to just one lateral ventricle has a very important prognostic value and determines whether or not the patient can be shunt free after an endoscopic procedure. Methods: Aiming to define the best term for unilateral FM obstruction, 19 terms were employed on PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) as quoted phrases. Results: A total of 194 articles were found. Four patterns of hydrocephalus were discriminated as a result of our research term query and were divided by types for didactic purpose. Type A - partial dilation of the lateral ventricle; Type B - pure unilateral obstruction of the FM; Type C - previously shunted patients with secondary obstruction of the FM; and Type D - asymmetric lateral ventricles with patent FM. Conclusion: In unilateral FM obstruction hydrocephalus, an in-depth review on terminology application is critical to avoid mistakes that may compromise comparisons among different series. This terminology review suggests that Type B hydrocephalus, i.e., the hydrocephalus confined to just one lateral ventricle with no other sites of cerebrospinal fluid circulation blockage, are best described by the terms unilateral hydrocephalus (UH) and monoventricular hydrocephalus, the first being by far the most popular. Type A hydrocephalus is best represented in the literature by the terms uniloculated hydrocephalus and loculated ventricle; Type C hydrocephalus by the terms isolated lateral ventricle and isolated UH; and Type D hydrocephalus by the term asymmetric hydrocephalus. PMID:27274402

  14. Suitability of foramen magnum measurements in sex determination and their clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellioglu, A Metin; Durum, Y; Gok, M; Karakas, S; Polat, A G; Karaman, C Z

    2018-01-01

    The foramen magnum provides a transition between fossa cranii posterior and canalis vertebralis. Medulla oblongata, arteria vertebralis and nervus accessorius spinal part pass through the foramen magnum. In this study, we aimed to make the morphometric measurements of the foramen magnum on computed tomography (CT) and to determine the feasibility of sex determination based on these measurements. Besides sex determination, from a clinical aspect, it is important to know the measurements of the foramen magnum in the normal population in terms of diseases characterised by displacement of the posterior fossa structures through foramen magnum to upper cervical spinal canal such as Chiari malformations and syringomyelia. All the data for our study was obtained retrospectively from 100 patients (50 males, 50 females) who had a CT scan of the head and neck region in Adnan Menderes University Hospital, Department of Radiology. To examine the foramen magnum in each and every occipital bone, we measured the foramen magnum's anteroposterior diameter, transverse diameter, the area of the foramen magnum and its circumference. We found that men have a higher average value than women in our study. According to Student's t-test results; in all measured parameters, there is significant difference between the genders (p discriminant function test is performed for all four measurements, the discrimination rate is 64% for all women, 70% for all men and 67% for both genders. As a result of our study, the metric data we obtained will be useful in cases where the skeletons' sex could not be determined by any other methods. We believe that, our study may be useful for other studies in determining of sex from foramen magnum. Our measurements could give some information of the normal ranges of the foramen magnum in normal population, so that this can contribute to the diagnosis process of some diseases by imaging. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 1: 99-104).

  15. Decoding gene patents in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denley, Adam; Cherry, James

    2014-10-03

    Patents directed to naturally occurring genetic material, such as DNA, RNA, chromosomes, and genes, in an isolated or purified form have been granted in Australia for many years. This review provides scientists with a summary of the gene patent debate from an Australian perspective and specifically reviews how the various levels of the legal system as they apply to patents-the Australian Patent Office, Australian courts, and Australian government-have dealt with the issue of whether genetic material is proper subject matter for a patent. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  16. Enlarged thalamostriate vein causing unilateral Monro foramen obstruction. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardo, Jody; Grand, Walter

    2009-06-01

    Causes of unilateral hydrocephalus resulting from an obstruction at the Monro foramen include foraminal atresia, tumors, gliosis, contralateral shunting, and infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, few reports in the literature cite vascular lesions as the cause of the obstruction. To their knowledge, the authors present the first report of unilateral hydrocephalus occurring due to an abnormally enlarged thalamostriate vein independent of an arteriovenous malformation or developmental venous angioma. The condition was treated successfully by endoscopic septum pellucidum fenestration. A 28-year-old man was referred for evaluation due to a 10-year history of chronic headaches that worsened in severity over the past year. A CT scan of the head revealed unilateral right ventricular dilation. Cranial MR imaging with and without contrast administration showed a dilated right thalamostriate-internal vein complex without any evidence of associated arteriovenous malformation or venous angioma. Endoscopic exploration of the right lateral ventricle showed an enlarged subependymal thalamostriate vein obstructing the Monro foramen. An endoscopic fenestration of the septum pellucidum was performed, resulting in alleviation of the patient's symptoms. Abnormally enlarged venous structures may cause obstructive unilateral hydrocephalus and can be a rare cause of chronic, intermittent headaches in adults. Endoscopic fenestration of the septum pellucidum is an effective treatment.

  17. Optimal patent policies: A survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys some of the patent literature, in particular, it focuses on optimal patent policies. We compare two situations. The first where the government only has a single policy tool to design the optimal patent policy, namely the optimal patent length. In the second situation......, the government uses two policy tools, the optimal breadth and length. We show that theoretical models give very different answers to what is the optimal patent policy. In particular, we show that the optimal patent policy depends among othet things on the price elasticity of demand, the intersectoral elasticity...... of research outputs as well as the degree of compettition in the R&D sector. The actual law on intellectual property, which advocates a unique patent length of 20 years is in general not supported by theoretical models....

  18. Patenting Human Genes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    In accordance with the concept of the book and the assigned scope of the contribution, this chapter describes the European law with respect to the patent-eligibility of isolated DNA sequences. This chapter will further include a brief comparison with recent developments from the US and Australia....... It will, however, not focus on the important debates regarding the patent-eligibility of other biological material, diagnostic methods patents (as data aggregators) or abstract ideas which will be addressed by other contributions. Moreover, the analysis will merely concentrate on patent-eligibility. Other...... patentability requirement will only be briefly touched upon in the discussion part. The paper starts out in section 1.5.2 by discussing the patent-eligibility of isolated human DNA sequences on the European national level and under the Biotechnology Directive. Then the patent-eligibility of isolated human DNA...

  19. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... for the years 1999-2002. The Danish workforce is split into "R&D workers", who hold a bachelor's or a master's degree in a technical field, and "non{R&D workers". We find that mobile R&D workers ("R&D joiners"') contribute more to patenting activity than immobile R&D workers. Furthermore, R&D workers who have...... previously been employed by a patenting firm ("patent exposed workers") have a larger effect on patenting activity than R&D workers without this experience. Patent exposed R&D joiners constitute the most productive group of workers: for firms that patented prior to 1999, one additional worker of this type...

  20. Lovely but dangerous: The impact of patent citations on patent duration

    OpenAIRE

    Maurseth, Per Botolf

    2001-01-01

    - What is the impact of patent citations on patent renewal behaviour? Patent citations are commonly used as an indicator of technology spillovers. For cited patents therefore, patent citations have a potentially ambiguous impact. On the one hand, patent citations may indicate a scientific breakthrough, a high value of the cited patent and therefore a long survival period. On the other hand, patent citations may indicate competing innovations that render the cited patent obsolete. By discri...

  1. [Application of Nested PCR in the Diagnosis of Imported Plasmodium Ovale Infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bing-cheng; Xu, Chao; Li, Jin; Xiao, Ting; Yin, Kun; Liu, Gong-zhen; Wang, Wei-yan; Zhao, Gui-hua; Wei, Yan-bin; Wang, Yong-bin; Zhao, Chang-lei; Wei, Qing-kuan

    2015-02-01

    To identity Plasmodium ovale infection by 18S rRNA gene nested PCR. Whole blood and filter paper blood samples of malaria patients in Shandong Province were collected during 2012-2013. The parasites were observed under a microscope with Giemsa staining. The genome DNA of blood samples were extracted as PCR templates. Genus- and species-specific primers were designed according to the Plasmodium 18S rRNA gene sequences. Plasmodium ovale-positive specimens were identified by nested PCR as well as verified by sequencing. There were 7 imported cases of P. ovale infection in the province during 2012-2013. Nested PCR results showed that the P. ovale specific band (800 bp) was amplified in all the 7 specimens. Blast results indicated that the PCR products were consistent with the Plasmodium ovale reference sequence in GenBank. Seven imported cases of ovale malaria in Shandong Province in 2012-2013 are confirmed by nested PCR.

  2. Recent patents on flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta, Gokhale; Bansal, Y K; Sandhu, S S

    2013-12-01

    Flavonoids are substances which are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. They occur in considerable quantities in common food products, spices and beverages. Interest of researchers has been greatly enhanced towards therapeutic potential of flavonoids in last some years. This review summarizes important patents pertaining to recent biotechnological techniques applied for the production, analysis of biosynthetic pathways, effects and applications of different flavonoids. For systematic studies investigations which have been published in the form of patents, are classified in different sectors like biosynthesis, medical application, antimicrobial activity, alteration of flower color, industrial application, cosmetics, food and plant tissue culture. A number of activities have been observed in each sector with vast area of research on flavonoids.

  3. How Patent Function Integration with R&D Influence the Value of Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Valentin, Finn

    Patent strategies are endogenous to firm appropriability. However, to what extent does firm’s R&D teams’ engagement with patent experts influence the value of patents? We estimate the relationship between firm’s R&D use of patent functions on patent value in Biotech firms. Controlling...... for characteristics of scientific team, firm effects, and other patent value indicators, we find that having a firm specific (in-house) internal patent function is a driver of patent value. In addition, we find that the way in which patent functions create patent value differs dependent on whether the firm has...... internal patent function or not. In-house patent functions create value through narrow patents, whereas, firms with no in-house patent function create valuable patents by the use of broader scoped patents. Our results point to a strong effect of firm specific patent functions, but also explain how firms...

  4. Ischemic stroke occurring during intercourse in young women on oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P Elliott; Brown, Lorrel; Khandheria, Paras; Resar, Jon R

    2014-08-01

    Ischemic stroke occurring during intercourse in young patients is exceedingly rare. We present 2 cases of young women taking oral contraceptives, each presenting with an ischemic stroke. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a patent foramen ovale in one patient and an atrial septal defect in the other. The most likely cause of stroke in both patients is embolic. Despite conflicting evidence, young patients presenting with ischemic stroke and found to have a patent foramen ovale or atrial septal defect should be considered for possible device-based closure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Science of invention patent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeong Taek; Park, Su Dong

    1999-02-01

    This book tells science of invention patent about new way of invention and creative solution for problems, basic conception of TRIZ, resolution of physical contradictory and technical contradictory, development of system and types of evolution, change of thinking for solving the problems, analysis of structure for problem solution, problem solution using scientific phenomenon and effect, use of standard solution and algorithm of creative problem solution.

  6. Do Military Personnel Patent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    following questions: In what fields are military personnel most likely to patent, and how do demographics, such as age, race, and gender , along with...technologies, which have transformed how the United States wages war. DARPA continues to develop new technologies and capabilities for the U.S. military today...build the European navies so it instead decided to utilize an innovative ship design to exploit a gap specific to the British Royal Navy. The six

  7. Morphometric study on mandibular foramen and incidence of accessory mandibular foramen in mandibles of south Indian population and its clinical implications in inferior alveolar nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalini, R; RaviVarman, C; Manoranjitham, R; Veeramuthu, M

    2016-12-01

    The mandibular foramen is a landmark for procedures like inferior alveolar nerve block, mandibular implant treatment, and mandibular osteotomies. The present study was aimed to identify the precise location of the mandibular foramen and the incidence of accessory mandibular foramen in dry adult mandibles of South Indian population. The distance of mandibular foramen from the anterior border of the ramus, posterior border of the ramus, mandibular notch, base of the mandible, third molar, and apex of retromolar trigone was measured with a vernier caliper in 204 mandibles. The mean distance of mandibular foramen from the anterior border of ramus of mandible was 17.11±2.74 mm on the right side and 17.41±3.05 mm on the left side, from posterior border was 10.47±2.11 mm on the right side and 9.68±2.03 mm on the left side, from mandibular notch was 21.74±2.74 mm on the right side and 21.92±3.33 mm on the left side, from the base of the ramus was 22.33±3.32 mm on the right side and 25.35±4.5 mm on the left side, from the third molar tooth was 22.84±3.94 mm on the right side and 23.23±4.21 mm on the left side, from the apex of retromolar trigone was 12.27±12.13 mm on the right side and 12.13±2.35 mm on the left side. Accessory mandibular foramen was present in 32.36% of mandibles. Knowledge of location mandibular foramen is useful to the maxillofacial surgeons, oncologists and radiologists.

  8. USE OF CT FOR ANALYSIS OF THE VERTEBRAL FORAMEN IN THE HOSPITAL OF QUERÉTARO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESÚS CISNEROS LÁMBARRI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the morphology of the vertebral foramen and its distance to the midline. Methods: Twenty cervical CT scans from the radiographic record of 12 men and 8 women, 18 to 74 years old, of C1 to C6 segments were evaluated, measuring the foramen diameter and its distance to the midline. We look for anomalies of vertebral foramen morphology, using Philips Ingenuity CT equipment with Philips IntelliSpace Portal software. Results: The mean age was 47 years; the segment with the most anomalies was C1, with 10% (increase in foramen diameter, followed by C2 and C6, with 5% (vertebral foramen hypotrophy; the mean diameter of the C1 to C6 segment was 6.081 mm, and the median distance from the midline to the vertebral foramen of C2 to C6 was 13.215 mm. The largest diameter of the vertebral foramen was C2, with a mean of 6.67 mm and the smallest was C4, with a mean of 5.75 mm; the greatest distance from the midline to the vertebral foramen was C1, with a mean of 22.59 mm and the shortest was C4, with a mean of 12.13 mm. Conclusions: The mean diameter of the vertebral foramen and its distance to the midline was determined, setting a safety region for procedures. In our city, there is no study that determines the means of the vertebral foramina diameters, the distance from the midline and its anomalies. It is necessary to rely on CT scans and to make a preoperative plan to avoid complications associated with morphological alterations.

  9. The Oval Engravings of Nabara 2 (Ennedi, Chad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Menardi Noguera

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available By revisiting the Nabara 2 shelter in the southern Ennedi (Chad, some previously unreported paintings and a whole set of unexpected oval engravings were surveyed. These engravings, internally decorated with patterns of lines, some featured by a single longitudinal element or a sort of reticular structure, make Nabara 2 an unparalleled site among the hundreds known in the region. Comparison with similar motifs associated to human depictions found at the western termination of the Ennedi Highland suggests these engravings could be depictions of shields, attributable to the pastoral period.

  10. Cartesian oval representation of freeform optics in illumination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, D; Schreiber, P; Bräuer, A

    2011-03-15

    The geometrical method for constructing optical surfaces for illumination purpose developed by Oliker and co-workers [Trends in Nonlinear Analysis (Springer, 2003)] is generalized in order to obtain freeform designs in arbitrary optical systems. The freeform is created by a set of primitive surface elements, which are generalized Cartesian ovals adapted to the given optical system. Those primitives are determined by Hamiltonian theory of ray optics. The potential of this approach is demonstrated by some examples, e.g., freeform lenses with collimating front elements.

  11. Low level of sequence diversity at merozoite surface protein-1 locus of Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri from Thai isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putaporntip, Chaturong; Hughes, Austin L; Jongwutiwes, Somchai

    2013-01-01

    The merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1) is a candidate target for the development of blood stage vaccines against malaria. Polymorphism in MSP-1 can be useful as a genetic marker for strain differentiation in malarial parasites. Although sequence diversity in the MSP-1 locus has been extensively analyzed in field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, the extent of variation in its homologues in P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri, remains unknown. Analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences of 10 P. ovale isolates from symptomatic malaria patients from diverse endemic areas of Thailand revealed co-existence of P. ovale curtisi (n = 5) and P. ovale wallikeri (n = 5). Direct sequencing of the PCR-amplified products encompassing the entire coding region of MSP-1 of P. ovale curtisi (PocMSP-1) and P. ovale wallikeri (PowMSP-1) has identified 3 imperfect repeated segments in the former and one in the latter. Most amino acid differences between these proteins were located in the interspecies variable domains of malarial MSP-1. Synonymous nucleotide diversity (πS) exceeded nonsynonymous nucleotide diversity (πN) for both PocMSP-1 and PowMSP-1, albeit at a non-significant level. However, when MSP-1 of both these species was considered together, πS was significantly greater than πN (pdiversity at this locus prior to speciation. Phylogenetic analysis based on conserved domains has placed PocMSP-1 and PowMSP-1 in a distinct bifurcating branch that probably diverged from each other around 4.5 million years ago. The MSP-1 sequences support that P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri are distinct species. Both species are sympatric in Thailand. The low level of sequence diversity in PocMSP-1 and PowMSP-1 among Thai isolates could stem from persistent low prevalence of these species, limiting the chance of outcrossing at this locus.

  12. Decoding Gene Patents in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Denley, Adam; Cherry, James

    2015-01-01

    Patents directed to naturally occurring genetic material, such as DNA, RNA, chromosomes, and genes, in an isolated or purified form have been granted in Australia for many years. This review provides scientists with a summary of the gene patent debate from an Australian perspective and specifically reviews how the various levels of the legal system as they apply to patents—the Australian Patent Office, Australian courts, and Australian government—have dealt with the issue of whether genetic m...

  13. Patents: Recent Trends and Puzzles

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Griliches

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical data on patenting in the United States with special reference to the last 20 years and their potential relation, if any, to the recent productivity slowdown. Two Points are made: Patents are not a "constant-yardstick" indicator of either inventive input or output. Moreover, they are "produced" by a governmental agency which goes through its own budgetary and inefficiency cycles. The paper shows that the appearance of an absolute decline in patenting in the 19...

  14. Jugular foramen meningiomas. Review of the major surgical series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakar, B.

    2010-01-01

    Primary jugular foramen meningiomas are uncommon, with 96 previous cases published between 1992 and 2007. Exact location and extent of tumor were determined on the basis of radiologic and operative findings and used to develop a staging system. The mean age of patients was 39.4 years. The lesion was located on the right in 14 patients and on the left in 11 patients. The series identified 23 males and 58 females. The most common presenting clinical symptoms were hearing loss and tinnitus. Most clinical findings were middle ear mass and neck mass. Most meningiomas were World Health Organization grade I. The most common postoperative complications were lower cranial nerve paresis and facial nerve paresis. Surgical planning should consider that meningiomas usually invade the dura mater, cranial nerves, and surrounding bone. The surgeon should carefully collect detailed data about the tumor, and consult an otolaryngologist preoperatively for lower cranial nerve functions and hearing levels.(author)

  15. Jugular foramen meningiomas. Review of the major surgical series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakar, B [Faculty of Medicine, Kirikkale Univ., Kirikkale (Turkey)

    2010-02-15

    Primary jugular foramen meningiomas are uncommon, with 96 previous cases published between 1992 and 2007. Exact location and extent of tumor were determined on the basis of radiologic and operative findings and used to develop a staging system. The mean age of patients was 39.4 years. The lesion was located on the right in 14 patients and on the left in 11 patients. The series identified 23 males and 58 females. The most common presenting clinical symptoms were hearing loss and tinnitus. Most clinical findings were middle ear mass and neck mass. Most meningiomas were World Health Organization grade I. The most common postoperative complications were lower cranial nerve paresis and facial nerve paresis. Surgical planning should consider that meningiomas usually invade the dura mater, cranial nerves, and surrounding bone. The surgeon should carefully collect detailed data about the tumor, and consult an otolaryngologist preoperatively for lower cranial nerve functions and hearing levels.(author)

  16. The role of patent and non-patent databases in patent research in universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstaya, A. M.; Suslina, I. V.; Tolstaya, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    This studies deal with the description and systematization of the popular patent retrieval resources. The importance of the non-patent information when conducting patent research for the intellectual property created in educational and scientific activity of the university is highlighted. The differences in the patent and non-patent information are found out. Based on the databases` analysis the authors conducted the patent research on "Wireless endoscopic capsules" (development of the NRNU MEPhI). This study can be used to facilitate the university work on the new product development in order to improve the efficiency of the process of the commercialization of the intellectual activity results, including the entering the international market.

  17. Neuroendoscopic treatment of idiopathic occlusion of unilateral foramen of Monro presenting as chronic headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval Shukla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric ventriculomegly due to idiopathic occlusion of the foramen of Monro is rare. Such patients present with clinical features of raised intracranial pressure (ICP. Presentation as chronic headache has not been previously described. In the absence of raised ICP, pursuing surgical treatment raises a clinical dilemma as the headache may be a primary headache with no improvement after surgery. A 21-year-old woman presented with chronic headache. She was found to have asymmetric ventriculomegaly due to the occlusion of the foramen of Monro. She underwent endoscopic septostomy and widening of the foramen of Monro. Her headache subsided after surgery. At 15 months of follow-up, she was free from headache without medications. Unilateral occlusion of the foramen of Monro can present with asymmetric ventriculomegaly resulting in chronic headache. Though the symptoms of raised ICP may not be present, still endoscopic relief of ventriculomegaly leads to cure of headache.

  18. Landmarks for Identifying the Suprascapular Foramen Anteriorly: Application to Anterior Neurotization and Decompressive Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouvakhova, Olga V; Macchi, Veronica; Fries, Fabian N; Loukas, Marios; De Caro, Raffaele; Oskouian, Rod J; Spinner, Robert J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2018-02-01

    Additional landmarks for identifying the suprascapular nerve at its entrance into the suprascapular foramen from an anterior approach would be useful to the surgeon. To identify landmarks for the identification of this hidden site within an anterior approach. In 8 adult cadavers (16 sides), lines were used to connect the superior angle of the scapula, the acromion, and the coracoid process tip thus creating an anatomic triangle. The suprascapular nerve's entrance into the suprascapular foramen was documented regarding its position within this anatomical triangle. Depths from the skin surface and specifically from the medial-most point of the clavicular attachment of the trapezius to the suprascapular nerve's entrance into the suprascapular foramen were measured using calipers and a ruler. The clavicle was then fractured and retracted superiorly to verify the position of the nerve's entrance into the suprascapular foramen. From the trapezius, the nerve's entrance into the foramen was 3 to 4.2 cm deep (mean, 3.5 cm). The mean distance from the tip of the corocoid process to the suprascapular foramen was 3.8 cm. The angle best used to approach the suprascapular foramen from the surface was 15° to 20°. Based on our study, an anterior suprascapular approach to the suprascapular nerve as it enters the suprascapular foramen can identify the most medial fibers of the trapezius attachment onto the clavicle and insert a finger at an angle of 15° to 20° laterally and advanced to an average depth of 3.5 cm. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  19. Incidencia del foramen retromolar en mandibulas humanas: aspectos étnicos y clínicos

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Ana Claudia; Freire, Alexandre Rodrigues; Prado, Guilherme Bevilacqua; Prado, Felippe Bevilacqua; Botacin, Paulo Roberto [UNESP; Ferreira Caria, Paulo Henrique

    2012-01-01

    The retromolar foramen allows the passage of the neurovascular bundles that contribute to nutrition and innervation of the pulp and periodontium of the lower teeth. Knowledge of this anatomical variation may prevent complications in the anesthesia and surgical procedures in this area and serve as an anatomical landmark for ethnic identification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the retromolar foramen in human mandibles of adult Brazilians and discuss the clinical and ethnic...

  20. SURGICAL OUTCOME OF CERVICAL AND FORAMEN MAGNUM INTRA DURAL AND INTRA MEDULLARY TUMOURS

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Babu; Deekshanti Narayan; Biju; Manas; Vijaya Saradhi; Pathapati Rama; Madhavalu

    2014-01-01

    : INTRODUCTION: Spinal tumors account for only approximately 5-15% of the nervous system neoplasms. Technical advances in imaging and surgical procedures have brought about significant better clinical results in the last 2 decades. We also evaluated surgical and functional outcomes in patients having cervical intradural tumors including tumors at foramen magnum. METHODS: All patients who underwent surgical treatment for cervical intradural tumors from foramen magnum to C7,...

  1. SAGITTAL DIAMETER OF FORAMEN MAGNUM IN NORMAL POPULATION: AN MRI STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Lower position of cerebellar tonsils was frequently noticed in Western studies. In some of the studies, sagittal diameter of foramen magnum was found to be larger in cases of Chiari malformation. However, there are no Indian studies for comparison. Our study was proposed to determine the standard values for sagittal diameter of foramen magnum in various age groups and both sexes. This gives a guideline for further studies in pathological conditions like Craniovertebral Junctional ...

  2. CORRELATION BETWEEN ENDOCRANIAL CAPACITY AND SIZE OF FORAMEN MAGNUM WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SEX

    OpenAIRE

    Muralidhar P Shepur; Magi M; Nanjundappa B; Pavan P Havaldar; Premalatha Gogi; Shaik Hussain Saheb

    2014-01-01

    Background: Endocranial capacity is an important parameter in the study of human evolution, race and sex determination of skull. Diameters of foramen magnum are important because vital structures passing through it may endues compression and for sex determination of skulls. Correlation between endocranial capacity and area of foramen magnum was reported in mammals. This relation in human can be used to determine sex of damaged skulls. Methods: 150 dry skulls and 30 CT scan imag...

  3. Morphology of the Physiological Apical Foramen in Maxillary and Mandibular First Molars

    OpenAIRE

    Abarca, J.; Zaror, C.; Monardes, H.; Hermosilla, V.; Muñoz, C.; Cantin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Information regarding the anatomy of the physiological apical foramen is limited. Knowing its diameter and shapes contributes to clinical work, specifically to the cleaning and shaping of the apical third. The aim of this ex vivo study was to determine the minimum and maximum diameters and shape of the physiological apical foramen in the roots of maxillary and mandibular first molars. A descriptive study was conducted on 89 recently extracted first molars. Roots 3–5 mm from the apex were sect...

  4. Endoscope-assisted resection of cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumoto, Yuji; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Shimazu, Yousuke; Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Date, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intraventricular cavernous angiomas are rare pathological entities, and those located at the foramen of Monro are even rarer. We herein present a case of cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro that was successfully treated by neuroendoscope-assisted surgical removal, and review the relevant literature. Case presentation A 65-year-old woman had experienced headache and vomiting for 10?days before admission to another hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mass at t...

  5. Normal and pathological growth of the foramen occipitale magnum shown in the plain radiograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliesener, J.A.; Schmidt, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    The transverse diameter of the foramen occipitale magnum (f.o.m.) in the semiaxial skull X-ray was measured and evaluated statistically in 174 cerebrally healthy children of different ages. These normal values are contrasted with the foramen diameters of 35 children with verified Arnold-Chiari malformation as well as children with macrocephaly and microcephaly. The values in children with Arnold-Chiari malformation are all above the norm, irrespective of whether or not there is a concomitant hydrocephalus.

  6. MR imaging of spondylolytic spondylolisthesis: changes of intervertebral foramen and nerve root compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hyung [Ajou Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Young Soo [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate the factors affecting intervertebral foramen stenosis and nerve root compression in spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. We investigated 120 intervertebral foramina of 60 patients with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis who had undergone lumbar MRI. A retrospective review of their MR images revealed the degree of intervertebral foramen stenosis and causes of nerve root compression. The relationship between disk height diminution following spondylolysis and degree of intervertebral foramen stenosis was also evaluated. Forty eight of 60 patients showed a similar degree of intervertebral foramen stenosis, and in 12 patients the degree of stenosis was different. In 110 intervertebral foramina, stenosis of both the superior and inferior compartments of intervertebral foramina was demonstrated. In 37 of 120 cases (30.8%), stenosis was mild ; in 44 of 120 (36.7%) it was modcrate, and in 29 of 120 (24.2%) it was severe. Stenosis of the inferior compartment was demonstrated in ten of 120 intervertebral foramina (8.3%). Nerve root compression was caused by posterior bulging of the intervertebral disk (65/120), descent of the pedicle (51/120), an isthmic bony segment above the site of spondylolytic (44/120), a bony spur formed at a spondylolytic site (11/120), and fibrocartilaginous callus at a spondylolytic site (5/48). In all cases there was degenerative change of the intervertebral disk at the affected level. There was no relationship between degree of disk height diminution and degree of intervertebral foramen stenosis (p > 0.05). The degree of intervertebral foramen stenosis and causes of nerve root compression in spondylolytic spondylolisthesis are variable, and MRI demonstrates them precisely. There was no positive relationship between degree of nerve root compression at an intervertebral foramen and degree of spondylolysis and degeneration of an intervertebral foramen. The degree of nerve root compression is believed to be another criterion for describing

  7. MR imaging of spondylolytic spondylolisthesis: changes of intervertebral foramen and nerve root compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hyung; Chung, Tae Sub; Kim, Young Soo

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the factors affecting intervertebral foramen stenosis and nerve root compression in spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. We investigated 120 intervertebral foramina of 60 patients with spondylolytic spondylolisthesis who had undergone lumbar MRI. A retrospective review of their MR images revealed the degree of intervertebral foramen stenosis and causes of nerve root compression. The relationship between disk height diminution following spondylolysis and degree of intervertebral foramen stenosis was also evaluated. Forty eight of 60 patients showed a similar degree of intervertebral foramen stenosis, and in 12 patients the degree of stenosis was different. In 110 intervertebral foramina, stenosis of both the superior and inferior compartments of intervertebral foramina was demonstrated. In 37 of 120 cases (30.8%), stenosis was mild ; in 44 of 120 (36.7%) it was modcrate, and in 29 of 120 (24.2%) it was severe. Stenosis of the inferior compartment was demonstrated in ten of 120 intervertebral foramina (8.3%). Nerve root compression was caused by posterior bulging of the intervertebral disk (65/120), descent of the pedicle (51/120), an isthmic bony segment above the site of spondylolytic (44/120), a bony spur formed at a spondylolytic site (11/120), and fibrocartilaginous callus at a spondylolytic site (5/48). In all cases there was degenerative change of the intervertebral disk at the affected level. There was no relationship between degree of disk height diminution and degree of intervertebral foramen stenosis (p > 0.05). The degree of intervertebral foramen stenosis and causes of nerve root compression in spondylolytic spondylolisthesis are variable, and MRI demonstrates them precisely. There was no positive relationship between degree of nerve root compression at an intervertebral foramen and degree of spondylolysis and degeneration of an intervertebral foramen. The degree of nerve root compression is believed to be another criterion for describing

  8. Oval gradient coils for an open magnetic resonance imaging system with a vertical magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Koki; Abe, Mitsushi; Kose, Katsumi; Terada, Yasuhiko

    2017-05-01

    Existing open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems use biplanar gradient coils for the spatial encoding of signals. We propose using novel oval gradient coils for an open vertical-field MRI. We designed oval gradients for a 0.3T open MRI system and showed that such a system could outperform a traditional biplanar gradient system while maintaining adequate gradient homogeneity and subject accessibility. Such oval gradient coils would exhibit high efficiency, low inductance and resistance, and high switching capability. Although the designed oval Y and Z coils showed more heat dissipation and less cooling capability than biplanar coils with the same gap, they showed an efficient heat-dissipation path to the surrounding air, which would alleviate the heat problem. The performance of the designed oval-coil system was demonstrated experimentally by imaging a human hand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A morphological and morphometric study of jugular foramen in dry skulls with its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandni Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Jugular foramen of human skull is one of the most interesting foramina. It is a complex bony canal, numerous vital structures, including nerves and vessels are transmitted through it. Most of the intracranial and extra cranial lesions of posterior cranial fossa might affect the structures in jugular foramen in addition to intrinsic abnormalities. As the neurosurgeons have become courageous in approaching this area, so there is a need to become familiar with this area. Hence, the present study was done to examine the anatomy of jugular foramen, including its morphological features and dimensions. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 50 dried skulls. 100 jugular foramina were studied on both right and left side of skulls. The length, width of jugular foramen and width and depth of jugular fossa were measured using vernier calipers. Presence of dome, complete and incomplete septation was also looked for. Results: The mean right and left anteroposterior diameter, latero-medial diameter, area, jugular fossa width, depth in our study was 11.22, 16.52, 187.34, 6.83, 11.58 mm and 9.52, 16.02, 153.2, 5.69, 11.13 mm. Dome was present in jugular foramen in 74% on the right side and 58% on the left side. Complete septation in jugular foramen is seen in 44% on the right side and 42% on the left side. Conclusion: This study will help the neurosurgeons while doing surgery in this region.

  10. Radiographic evaluation of the mental foramen in a selected Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haghanifar Sina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information on the position of the mental foramen is important for dental surgeons. Variations in its position can be a cause of complications during local anesthesia or surgical procedures. The usual position of the mental foramen in an Iranian population has not been previously reported. Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the most common location of the mental foramen in an Iranian population. We also analyzed gender differences and the symmetry of location within individuals. Materials and Methods : 400 panoramic radiographs were evaluated with regard to the location and symmetry of the mental foramina in male and female subjects. Results : We found that the mental foramen was located between the first and second premolars in 47.2% of patients and in line with the second premolar in 46%. In 49.2% of males, the mental foramen was in line with the second premolar. In 50.9% of females it was between the first and second premolars. It was symmetrical in 85.7%. Conclusions : Based on this study it appears that the most common position of mental foramen is either between the two premolars or in line with the second premolar. This is in concordance with previous studies.

  11. Comparative morphology of premolar foramen in lagomorphs (Mammalia: Glires and its functional and phylogenetic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucja Fostowicz-Frelik

    Full Text Available Lagomorphs (a group that consists of pikas, hares, rabbits and allies are notable for their conservative morphology retained for most of their over 50 million years evolutionary history. On the other hand, their remarkable morphological uniformity partly stems from a considerable number of homoplasies in cranial and dental structures that hamper phylogenetic analyses. The premolar foramen, an opening in the palate of lagomorphs, has been characterized as an important synapomorphy of one clade, Ochotonidae (pikas. Within Lagomorpha, however, its phylogenetic distribution is much wider, the foramen being present not only in all ochotonids but also in leporids and stem taxa; its morphology and incidence also varies considerably across the order, even intraspecifically. In this study, we provide a broad survey of the taxonomic distribution of the premolar foramen in extant and fossil Lagomorpha and describe in detail the morphological variation of this character within the group. Micro-computed tomography was used to examine the hard palate and infraorbital groove morphology in Poelagus (Leporidae and Ochotona. Scans revealed the course and contacts of the canal behind the premolar foramen and structural differences between the two crown clades. We propose that the premolar foramen has evolved independently in several lineages of Lagomorpha, and we discuss development and function of this foramen in the lagomorph skull. This study shows the importance of comprehensive studies on phylogenetically informative non-dental characters in Lagomorpha.

  12. A COMPARISON OF SAWTEETH IN BEAN AND OVAL SHAPED PLASMAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAZARUS, E.A.; AUSTIN, M.E.; BURRELL, K.H.; CHU, M.S.; HYATT, A.W.; JAYAKUMAR, R.J.; LUCE, T.C.; MAKOWSKI, M.A.; OSBORNE, T.H.; PETTY, C.C.; POLITZER, P.A.; PRATER, R.; REIMERDES, H.; SCOVILLE, J.T.; WADE, M.R.; WAELBROECK, F.L.

    2003-01-01

    A set of experiments has been conducted in DIII-D to compare sawteeth in bean and oval shaped, inner-wall limited plasmas. The distinction is that the oval will violate the ideal Mercier criterion with q 0 somewhat above 1, while a low κ bean shape will remain ideally Mercier stable with q 0 somewhat below 1. In this way they hope to separate the roles of internal kink and interchange in the behavior of sawteeth. The experimental arrangement allows us to change shape on successive discharges, which helps minimize systematic errors in the data. The principal diagnostics are motional Stark effect for the internal ploidal field, electron cyclotron emission for electron temperature, multi-pulse Thomson scattering for the density profile, and charge exchange recombination (CER) for ion temperature and toroidal velocity. New CER channels with greatly improved signal-to-noise allow resolution of the ion behavior during a sawtooth. These channels are critical to their ability to resolve the evolution of the ion temperature profiles during the sawteeth, enabling transport analysis. The experimental conditions are constant for about 3 s with 2.5 MW of neutral beam heating, which is needed for the diagnostics. The plasma shape is grown during the current ramp-up to facilitate equilibration of the current profile, which is stationary (aside from the sawteeth) as are temperature and density profiles. In some cases ECH heating is added. This increases the electron temperature so it is nearly equal to the ion temperature. At the present time the calibration of the MSE diagnostic calibration is incomplete and they will avoid analysis that is dependent on accurate knowledge of the equilibrium. After a brief characterization of the global features of the discharges, this paper will focus on two aspects of the experiment. There are two principal observations reported here. First, the nature of the sawtooth collapse in the two shapes, which they believe to be a current

  13. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivi?re, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely...

  14. Wacky Patents Meet Economic Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and citation lags, suggesting that these indicators should be interpreted...

  15. Online Patent Searching: The Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaback, Stuart M.

    1983-01-01

    Considers patent subject searching capabilities of major online databases, noting patent claims, "deep-indexed" files, test searches, retrieval of related references, multi-database searching, improvements needed in indexing of chemical structures, full text searching, improvements needed in handling numerical data, and augmenting a…

  16. Pesticides and the Patent Bargain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermann, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to enlarge the pool of knowledge available in the public domain, temporary exclusive rights (i.e. patents) are granted to innovators who are willing to fully disclose the information needed to reproduce their invention. After the 20-year patent protection period elapses, society should be

  17. Patent arterial duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Robin P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes. Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of

  18. Observations on the bony bridging of the jugular foramen in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodo, Y

    1986-02-01

    The anatomical nature and pattern of incidence of bony bridging of the jugular foramen was investigated using 64 fetal crania aged nine months to term and 222 adult crania of Japanese. In addition, the region of the jugular foramen of an adult cadaver was carefully dissected in order to clarify the relationship between the cranial nerves passing through the jugular foramen and the intrajugular processes of the jugular foramen. The general conclusions concerning the anatomical nature of the bony bridging of the jugular foramen were as follows. (1) The intrajugular process of the temporal bone is situated posterior to the triangular depression (as described in Gray's Anatomy) of the petrous part. (2) The bony bridging of the jugular foramen is established by the contact of the intrajugular process of the temporal bone with the bony process of the occipital bone projecting either from just above the hypoglossal canal (Type I) or from posterior to the hypoglossal canal (Type III). (3) If both the processes of the occipital bone reach the intrajugular process of the temporal bone simultaneously, the jugular foramen is divided into three compartments. (4) In the case of Type I bridging, the anteromedial compartment transmits the glossopharyngeal nerve, while the posterolateral compartment gives passage to the vagus nerve, the accessory nerve and the internal jugular vein. (5) In the case of Type II bridging, the anteromedial compartment contains the glossopharyngeal, vagus and accessory nerves, and the posterolateral compartment transmits the internal jugular vein. (6) When tripartite division of the jugular foramen occurs, the anteromedial compartment transmits the glossopharyngeal nerve, the middle compartment contains the vagus and accessory nerves, and the posterolateral compartment transmits the internal jugular vein. Concerning the pattern of incidence of jugular foramen bridging in the Japanese fetal and adult cranial series, this is similar to that of the bony

  19. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure from Plasmodium ovale infection with fatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yee-Ling; Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Tan, Lian-Huat; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Syed Omar, Sharifah Faridah; Fong, Mun-Yik; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Mahmud, Rohela

    2013-11-04

    Plasmodium ovale is one of the causative agents of human malaria. Plasmodium ovale infection has long been thought to be non-fatal. Due to its lower morbidity, P. ovale receives little attention in malaria research. Two Malaysians went to Nigeria for two weeks. After returning to Malaysia, they fell sick and were admitted to different hospitals. Plasmodium ovale parasites were identified from blood smears of these patients. The species identification was further confirmed with nested PCR. One of them was successfully treated with no incident of relapse within 12-month medical follow-up. The other patient came down with malaria-induced respiratory complication during the course of treatment. Although parasites were cleared off the circulation, the patient's condition worsened. He succumbed to multiple complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure. Sequencing of the malaria parasite DNA from both cases, followed by multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction suggested that the causative agent for both malaria cases was P. ovale curtisi. In this report, the differences between both cases were discussed, and the potential capability of P. ovale in causing severe complications and death as seen in this case report was highlighted. Plasmodium ovale is potentially capable of causing severe complications, if not death. Complete travel and clinical history of malaria patient are vital for successful diagnoses and treatment. Monitoring of respiratory and renal function of malaria patients, regardless of the species of malaria parasites involved is crucial during the course of hospital admission.

  20. Economic Justification of Patents and Exceptions to Patentability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The present article is the conclusion of a review of economic justifications for patent rights conducted with the objective of determining whether such arguments are per se capable of sustaining the existence of a different patentability regime for inventions of methods for treatment and diagnostic...... methods (art.53 (c) European Patent Convention). It starts by exploring the normative background and summarily describes the different types of claims allowed under the current legal framework and their differences. The following sections will describe and apply the main economic arguments sustaining...... patent rights inventions of methods for treatment and diagnostic methods. These reasoning will be later confronted with contra-arguments. This piece will finalize with the formulation of conclusions extracted from the previous debate, inter-alia that economic reasoning does not per se sustain...

  1. Technology Clusters Exploration for Patent Portfolio through Patent Abstract Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabjo Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores technology clusters through patent analysis. The aim of exploring technology clusters is to grasp competitors’ levels of sustainable research and development (R&D and establish a sustainable strategy for entering an industry. To achieve this, we first grouped the patent documents with similar technologies by applying affinity propagation (AP clustering, which is effective while grouping large amounts of data. Next, in order to define the technology clusters, we adopted the term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF weight, which lists the terms in order of importance. We collected the patent data of Korean electric car companies from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO to verify our proposed methodology. As a result, our proposed methodology presents more detailed information on the Korean electric car industry than previous studies.

  2. Patent protection for microbial technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkow, Jacob S

    2017-11-01

    Microbial technologies often serve as the basis of fundamental research tools in molecular biology. These present a variety of ethical, legal and social issues concerning their patenting. This commentary presents several case studies of these issues across three major microbiological tools: CRISPR, viral vectors and antimicrobial resistance drugs. It concludes that the development of these technologies-both scientifically and commercially-depend, in part, on the patent regime available for each, and researchers' willingness to enforce those patents against others. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Patenting Biotechnological Inventions in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Raspor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The patent system has been able to provide the protection for the achievements of different technologies and in that way it has supported further development and growth of the industry where those achievements were implemented. Modern technologies like information technology and biotechnology with genetic engineering that appeared in the 70s have overgrown the frames of the existing patent system because of their exponential development during the last thirty years. Industry that invests a huge amount of money in these technologies, especially in the field of biotechnology, where the results are very uncertain, has started to claim changes in the patent system.

  4. Developing a Systematic Patent Search Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to develop a systematic patent training program using patent analysis and citation analysis techniques applied to patents held by the University of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the target audience will be researchers in life sciences, and aggregated patent database searching and advanced search techniques should be…

  5. 78 FR 31885 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal...

  6. 78 FR 7759 - Patent Cooperation Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Patent Cooperation Treaty ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal...

  7. 75 FR 20561 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450...

  8. 76 FR 72000 - Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts AGENCY: U.S... Consultants, 1255 Roberts Boulevard NW., Suite 200, Kennesaw, GA 30144, on U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/133,666, and a divisional patent application to be filed shortly at the Patent and Trademark...

  9. Research method of nuclear patent information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Dan; Gao An'na; Sun Chenglin; Wang Lei; You Xinfeng

    2010-01-01

    When faced with a huge amount of nuclear patent information, the key to effective research include: (1) Choose convenient way to search, quick access to nuclear technology related patents; (2) To overcome the language barrier, analysis the technical content of patent information; (3) Organize the publication date of retrieved patent documents, analysis the status and trends of nuclear technology development; (4) Research the patented technology of main applicants; (5) Always pay attention to the legal status of patent information, free use the invalid patents, at the same time avoid the patent infringement. Summary, patent information is important to obtain the latest technical information source, and the research work of patent information is a comprehensive understanding and mastery way for advanced nuclear technology. (authors)

  10. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  11. Endoscope-assisted resection of cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yuji; Kurozumi, Kazuhiko; Shimazu, Yousuke; Ichikawa, Tomotsugu; Date, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Intraventricular cavernous angiomas are rare pathological entities, and those located at the foramen of Monro are even rarer. We herein present a case of cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro that was successfully treated by neuroendoscope-assisted surgical removal, and review the relevant literature. A 65-year-old woman had experienced headache and vomiting for 10 days before admission to another hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a mass at the foramen of Monro, and obstructive hydrocephalus of both lateral ventricles. The patient was then referred to our hospital. Neurological examination on admission to our hospital showed memory disturbance (Mini-Mental State Examination 20/30) and wide-based gait. A cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro was diagnosed based on the typical popcorn-like appearance of the lesion on MRI. The lesion was completely removed by neuroendoscope-assisted transcortical surgery with the Viewsite Brain Access System (Vycor Medical Inc., Boca Raton, FL), leading to a reduction in the size of the ventricles. The resected mass was histologically confirmed to be cavernous angioma. The patient's symptoms resolved immediately and there were no postoperative complications. Minimally invasive neuroendoscope-assisted surgery was used to successfully treat a cavernous angioma at the foramen of Monro.

  12. Radiologic study of mandibular foramen of mandibular prognathism by three-dimensional computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Moon, Cheol Hyun; Im, Jeong Soo; Seo, Hwa Jeong [Graduate School of Public Health and Social Welfare, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    This study is aimed to evaluate the position of mandibular foramen of mandibular prognathism patients using 3-dimensional CT images in order to reduce the chance of an anesthetic failure of the mandibular nerve and to prevent the damage to the inferior alveolar nerve during the orthognathic surgery. The control group consist of 30 patients with class I occlusion. The experimental group consist of 44 patients with class III malocclusion. Three-dimensional computed tomography was used to evaluate the position of the mandibular foramina. The distance between mandibular plane and mandibular foramen, class I was 25.385 mm, class III was 23.628 mm. About the distance between occlusal plane and mandibular foramen, class I was 1.478 mm, class III was 5.144 mm. The distance between posterior border plan of mandibular ramus and mandibular foramen had not statistically significant. About the distance between sagittal plane of mandible and mandibular foramen did not also showed statistically significant. The result of this study could help the clinicians to apprehend more accurate anatomical locations of the foramina on the mandible with various facial skeletal types. Thereby to perform more accurate block anesthesia of the mandibular nerve and osteotomy with minimal nerve damage. In addition, this study could provide fundamental data for any related researches about the location of the mandibular foramina for other purposes.

  13. Radiologic study of mandibular foramen of mandibular prognathism by three-dimensional computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hun; Moon, Cheol Hyun; Im, Jeong Soo; Seo, Hwa Jeong

    2010-01-01

    This study is aimed to evaluate the position of mandibular foramen of mandibular prognathism patients using 3-dimensional CT images in order to reduce the chance of an anesthetic failure of the mandibular nerve and to prevent the damage to the inferior alveolar nerve during the orthognathic surgery. The control group consist of 30 patients with class I occlusion. The experimental group consist of 44 patients with class III malocclusion. Three-dimensional computed tomography was used to evaluate the position of the mandibular foramina. The distance between mandibular plane and mandibular foramen, class I was 25.385 mm, class III was 23.628 mm. About the distance between occlusal plane and mandibular foramen, class I was 1.478 mm, class III was 5.144 mm. The distance between posterior border plan of mandibular ramus and mandibular foramen had not statistically significant. About the distance between sagittal plane of mandible and mandibular foramen did not also showed statistically significant. The result of this study could help the clinicians to apprehend more accurate anatomical locations of the foramina on the mandible with various facial skeletal types. Thereby to perform more accurate block anesthesia of the mandibular nerve and osteotomy with minimal nerve damage. In addition, this study could provide fundamental data for any related researches about the location of the mandibular foramina for other purposes.

  14. A study of angle of mandibular canal and mental foramen on the panoramic radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Moon

    2009-01-01

    To assessment the angle between mandibular canal and occlusal plane at each posterior tooth region and location of mental foramen on the panoramic radiographs. This study analysed 46 half-mandibles of panoramic radiographs. Inferior border of mandibular canal was traced. Occlusal plane was drawn from lingual cusp tip of the first premolar to distolingual cusp tip of the second molar. Perpendicular line from occlusal plane was drawn at each tooth region and then tangential lines were drawn from the crossing points at canal. The angle between occlusal plane and tangential line was measured. The location of mental foramen was also studied. According to the location of mental foramen, radiographs were divided into M (mesial) group and D (distal) group on the basis of the second premolar. and then inter-group analysis about mandibular canal angle was done. The angles of mandibular canals were -17.7 .deg. C, -9.5 .deg. C, 8.2 .deg. C, 22.3 .deg. C, and 39.2 .deg. C at first premolar, second premolar, first molar, second molar, and third molar, respectively. The commonest position of the mental foramen was distal to the second premolar. Inter-group comparison showed statistically significant difference at the second premolar and the first molar (p<0.001). The acknowledgement of mandibular canal angulation and location of mental foramen can help understanding the course of mandibular canal.

  15. Religious coalition opposes gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1995-05-19

    The biotechnology industry is concerned about a coalition of mainstream religious leaders, working with Jeremy Rifkin of the Foundation of Economic Trends, who oppose the patenting of human and animal life forms, body parts, and genes. The coalition called a press conference on May 18 to ask the government to prohibit the current patenting practices for genetic engineering. The biotechnology industry argues that patents indicate that a company's research tool has significant value, and encourages capitalists to invest their dollars in the development of new treatments for diseases. They also argue that the 29 biotech drugs that are on the market have been developed as a result of patents on genes. Although most business leaders are united in opposing restrictions, many scientists are divided, citing both religious and scientific reasons.

  16. Patent Law for Computer Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, Daniel; Gardiner, Alex; Giemsa, Falk; Machek, Jörg

    More than five centuries ago the first patent statute was passed by the Venetian senate. It already had most of the features of modern patent law, recognizing the public interest in innovation and granting exclusive right in exchange for a full disclosure. Some 350 years later the industrial revolution led to globalisation. The wish to protect intellectual property on a more international level evolved and supranational treaties were negotiated. Patent laws are still different in many countries, however, and inventors are sometimes at a loss to understand which basic requirements should be satisfied if an invention is to be granted a patent. This is particularly true for inventions implemented on a computer. While roughly a third of all applications (and granted patents) relate, in one way or another, to a computer, applications where the innovation mainly resides in software or in a business method are treated differently by the major patent offices. The procedures at the USPTO, JPO and EPO and, in particular, the differences in the treatment of applications centring on software are briefly explained. In later sections of this book, a wealth of examples will be presented. The methodology behind the treatment of these examples is explained.

  17. New innovations in interventional cardiac procedures - role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    percutaneous closure of the left atrial appendage as well as closure of a patent foramen ovale are usually performed without the help of anaesthesiologists and will therefore not be discussed furthermore. The transapical NeoChord DS 1000 system (NeoChord Inc,. USA) is a new treatment option for patients with severe.

  18. PFO closuRE and CryptogenIc StrokE (PRECISE) registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wöhrle, Jochen; Bertrand, Bernard; Søndergaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The Premere™ PFO closure device has a special design for closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) including a flexible distance and angulation between the right and left disc providing minimal septal distortion. The primary objective of the study was to determine the degree of risk for stroke or tra...... or transient ischemic attack (TIA) in patients after Premere™ PFO closure device implantation....

  19. Saline Contrast Echocardiography in the Era of Multimodality Imaging--Importance of "Bubbling It Right".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Saurabh K; Shetkar, Sudhir S; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Kothari, Shyam S

    2015-11-01

    Saline contrast echocardiography is an established imaging modality. Logical interpretation of a carefully performed study is vital to realize its diagnostic potential. In this review, we discuss utility of saline contrast echocardiography in evaluation of various pathologies within and outside the heart other than a patent foramen ovale. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Paradoxical embolisation and cerebral white matter lesions in dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purandare, N.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; McCollum, C.; Jackson, A.; Burns, A.

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the relationship between spontaneous cerebral emboli (SCE), patent foramen ovale (PFO) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on cerebral MRI in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). SCE were identified by transcranial Doppler of the middle

  1. Acquisition and transmission of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) by the tick Amblyomma ovale (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, A S; Paduan, K S; Martins, T F; Labruna, M B; O'Dwyer, L H

    2009-10-14

    The present study aimed to evaluate under controlled conditions the acquisition of Hepatozoon canis by Amblyomma ovale after feeding on infected dogs, and the subsequent induction of infection in uninfected dogs that ingested the experimentally infected ticks. Two H. canis naturally infected dogs were infested with A. ovale adult ticks derived from an uninfected laboratory tick colony. After feeding, two A. ovale females presented H. canis oocysts in the hemolymph at the first and fourth days after removal of ticks from dogs. The oocysts had an average size of 244.34 microm x 255.46 microm. Three uninfected dogs were fed with ticks previously fed on the infected dogs. Only one dog became infected 32 days after oral inoculation, presenting circulating gametocytes, parasitemia less than 1%, and positive PCR confirmed to be H. canis by DNA sequencing. The results obtained indicated A. ovale ticks as potential vector of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil.

  2. Comparison of auroral ovals from all-sky camera studies and from satellite photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, F.R.; Akasofu, S.I.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison is made of the statistical auroral ovals determined by all-sky camera photographs with DMSP photographs for different degrees of geomagnetic activity. It is shown that the agreement between them is excellent. (author)

  3. Severe Plasmodium ovale malaria complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome in a young Caucasian man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Abramo, Alessandra; Gebremeskel Tekle, Saba; Iannetta, Marco; Scorzolini, Laura; Oliva, Alessandra; Paglia, Maria Grazia; Corpolongo, Angela; Nicastri, Emanuele

    2018-04-02

    Although Plasmodium ovale is considered the cause of only mild malaria, a case of severe malaria due to P. ovale with acute respiratory distress syndrome is reported. A 37-year old Caucasian man returning home from Angola was admitted for ovale malaria to the National Institute for Infectious Diseases Lazzaro Spallanzani in Rome, Italy. Two days after initiation of oral chloroquine treatment, an acute respiratory distress syndrome was diagnosed through chest X-ray and chest CT scan with intravenous contrast. Intravenous artesunate and oral doxycycline were started and he made a full recovery. Ovale malaria is usually considered a tropical infectious disease associated with low morbidity and mortality. However, severe disease and death have occasionally been reported. In this case clinical failure of oral chloroquine treatment with clinical progression towards acute respiratory distress syndrome is described.

  4. Constructing an Intelligent Patent Network Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chan Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Patent network analysis, an advanced method of patent analysis, is a useful tool for technology management. This method visually displays all the relationships among the patents and enables the analysts to intuitively comprehend the overview of a set of patents in the field of the technology being studied. Although patent network analysis possesses relative advantages different from traditional methods of patent analysis, it is subject to several crucial limitations. To overcome the drawbacks of the current method, this study proposes a novel patent analysis method, called the intelligent patent network analysis method, to make a visual network with great precision. Based on artificial intelligence techniques, the proposed method provides an automated procedure for searching patent documents, extracting patent keywords, and determining the weight of each patent keyword in order to generate a sophisticated visualization of the patent network. This study proposes a detailed procedure for generating an intelligent patent network that is helpful for improving the efficiency and quality of patent analysis. Furthermore, patents in the field of Carbon Nanotube Backlight Unit (CNT-BLU were analyzed to verify the utility of the proposed method.

  5. Bonebridge Implantation for Conductive Hearing Loss in a Patient with Oval Window Atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minbum

    2015-08-01

    The occurrence of oval window atresia is a rare anomaly with conductive hearing loss. Traditional atresia surgeries involve challenging surgical techniques with risks of irreversible inner ear damage. Recent reports on Bonebridge (Medel, Innsbruck, Austria), a novel implantable bone conduction hearing aid system, assert that the device is safe and effective for conductive hearing loss. We present a case of Bonebridge implantation in an eight-year-old girl with bilateral oval window atresia.

  6. 37 CFR 1.710 - Patents subject to extension of the patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Patent Term Extension of Patent Term Due to Regulatory Review § 1.710 Patents subject to extension... primarily manufactured using recombinant DNA, recombinant RNA, hybridoma technology, or other processes...

  7. Longitudinal stress fracture: patterns of edema and the importance of the nutrient foramen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Joseph G.; Widman, David; Holsbeeck, Marnix van [Department of Radiology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2003-01-01

    We reviewed the MR appearances of six cases of longitudinal stress fracture of the lower extremity.Results. One fracture was in the femur and five were in the tibia. Four of the tibial fractures showed edema starting in the mid-tibia at the level of the nutrient foramen with the fracture on the anteromedial cortex. The other tibial fracture started at the nutrient foramen. Three fractures (two tibial and the femur fracture) showed eccentric marrow edema; all fractures showed either eccentric periosteal reaction or soft tissue edema.Conclusion. Primary diagnosis of longitudinal stress fracture is made by finding a vertical cleft on one or more axial images. Secondary signs of position of the nutrient foramen and patterns of edema may be useful. (orig.)

  8. The mandible and its foramen: anatomy, anthropology, embryology and resulting clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, M; Tomaszewska, I M; Lipska, W; Lis, G J; Tomaszewski, K A

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to summarise the knowledge about the anatomy, embryology and anthropology of the mandible and the mandibular foramen and also to highlight the most important clinical implications of the current studies regarding anaesthesia performed in the region of the mandible. An electronic journal search was undertaken to identify all the relevant studies published in English. The search included MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and years from 1950 to 2012. The subject search used a combination of controlled vocabulary and free text based on the search strategy for MEDLINE using key words: 'mandible', 'mandibular', 'foramen', 'anatomy', 'embryology', 'anthropology', and 'mental'. The reference lists of all the relevant studies and existing reviews were screened for additional relevant publications. Basing on relevant manuscripts, this short review about the anatomy, embryology and anthropology of the mandible and the mandibular foramen was written.

  9. Persistent foramen of Huschke: a tomographic study; Persistencia do forame de Huschke: um estudo tomografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Henrique Nogueira; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; Mello, Rossana Corbo Ramalho de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: hsodonto@gmail.com; Leite, Horacio Faig [UNESP, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Xavier, Sergio Salles [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho. Servico de Cardiologia

    2006-07-15

    Objective: to evaluate the persistency of foramen of Huschke by means of computed tomography study of the ear region and approaching important clinical aspects related to the presence of this anatomical anomaly. Materials and methods: two examiners have analyzed the whole tympanic portion of temporal bone in 150 bilateral computed tomography studies of the ear region, searching for foramen of Huschke presence or absence. Results: the mentioned anatomical anomaly was found in 17 cases (11.3%), 13 patients (76.5%) being female and four (23.5%) male. This higher female incidence is statistically confirmed. Conclusion: ear and/or temporomandibular joint specialists should turn their attention to the persistency of foramen of Huschke. (author)

  10. Accessory mental foramen: A rare anatomical variation detected by cone-beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Marianna Guanaes Gomes; De Faro Valverde, Ludmila; Vidal, Manuela Torres Andion; Crusoe-Rebello, Ieda Margarida [Dept. of Oral Radiology, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    The mental foramen is a bilateral opening in the vestibular portion of the mandible through which nerve endings, such as the mental nerve, emerge. In general, the mental foramen is located between the lower premolars. This region is a common area for the placement of dental implants. It is very important to identify anatomical variations in presurgical imaging exams since damage to neurovascular bundles may have a direct influence on treatment success. In the hemimandible, the mental foramen normally appears as a single structure, but there are some rare reports on the presence and number of anatomical variations; these variations may include accessory foramina. The present report describes the presence of accessory mental foramina in the right mandible, as detected by cone-beam computed tomography before dental implant placement.

  11. Relationship between foramen magnum position and locomotion in extant and extinct hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaux, Dimitri; Bienvenu, Thibaut; Guy, Franck; Daver, Guillaume; Sansalone, Gabriele; Ledogar, Justin A; Rae, Todd C; Wroe, Stephen; Brunet, Michel

    2017-12-01

    From the Miocene Sahelanthropus tchadensis to Pleistocene Homo sapiens, hominins are characterized by a derived anterior position of the foramen magnum relative to basicranial structures. It has been previously suggested that the anterior position of the foramen magnum in hominins is related to bipedal locomotor behavior. Yet, the functional relationship between foramen magnum position and bipedal locomotion remains unclear. Recent studies, using ratios based on cranial linear measurements, have found a link between the anterior position of the foramen magnum and bipedalism in several mammalian clades: marsupials, rodents, and primates. In the present study, we compute these ratios in a sample including a more comprehensive dataset of extant hominoids and fossil hominins. First, we verify if the values of ratios can distinguish extant humans from apes. Then, we test whether extinct hominins can be distinguished from non-bipedal extant hominoids. Finally, we assess if the studied ratios are effective predictors of bipedal behavior by testing if they mainly relate to variation in foramen magnum position rather than changes in other cranial structures. Our results confirm that the ratios discriminate between extant bipeds and non-bipeds. However, the only ratio clearly discriminating between fossil hominins and other extant apes is that which only includes basicranial structures. We show that a large proportion of the interspecific variation in the other ratios relates to changes in facial, rather than basicranial, structures. In this context, we advocate the use of measurements based only on basicranial structures when assessing the relationship between foramen magnum position and bipedalism in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A case of huge neurofibroma expanding extra- and intracranially through the enlarged jugular foramen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanakita, Junya; Imataka, Kiyoharu; Handa, Hajime

    1984-01-01

    The surgical approach to the jugular foramen has been considered to be very difficult and troublesome, because of the location in which important structures, such as the internal jugular vein, internal carotid artery and lower cranial nerves, converge in the narrow deep space. A case of huge neurofibroma, which extended from the tentorium cerebelli through the dilated jugular foramen to the level of the vertebral body of C 3 was presented. A 12-year-old girl was admitted with complaints of visual disturbance and palsy of the V-XII cranial nerves of the left side. Plain skull film showed prominent widening of the cranial sutures and enlargement of the sella turcica. Horizontal CT scan with contrast showed symmetrical ventricular dilatation and a heterogeneously enhanced mass, which was situated mainly in the left CP angle. Coronal CT scan with contrast revealed a huge mass and enlarged jugular foramen, through which the tumor extended to the level of the vertebral body of C 3 . Occlusion of the sigmoid sinus and the internal jugular vein of the left side was noticed in the vertebral angiography. Two-stage approach, the first one for removal of the intracranial tumor and the second one for extracranial tumor, was performed for its huge tumor. Several authors have reported excellent surgical approaches for the tumors situated in the jugular foramen. By our approach, modifying Gardner's original one, a wide operative field was obtained to remove the tumor around the jugular foramen with success. Our approach for the jugular foramen was described with illustrations. (author)

  13. Study of the inferior alveolar canal and mental foramen on digital panoramic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pria, Carlos M; Masood, Farah; Beckerley, Joy M; Carson, Robert E

    2011-07-01

    To study the radiographic location of the mental foramen and appearance of the inferior alveolar canal and the relationship between image gray values and the clarity of inferior alveolar canal on the digital panoramic images and to evaluate if the histogram equalization of the digital image would improve the visualization of the inferior alveolar canal outline on the digital panoramic images in the mandible. Five hundred digital panoramic images were evaluated by two examiners using a specific inclusion criteria. Only the right side of the mandible was studied. Chi-square analyses were used for comparisons of distributions. Mean and median pixel values were analyzed separately with a one-way analysis of variance. Also, percentages were calculated to report the usefulness of the histogram equalization for visualization of canal. RESULTS show variation in location of mental foramen. Most frequent location of the mental foramen was reported as first and second premolar region. Chi-square analysis showed that the frequency of occurrence of the mental foramen was equally probable for any of the three locations. The study did not find significant usefulness of the gray values obtained from the histogram equalization in predicting the clarity of inferior alveolar canal outlines. Knowing the normal relationship and the anatomical variation of the maxillofacial structures for each patient is important for surgical implant treatment planning to avoid future complications. It is also important to be familiar with the advantages and limitations of diagnostic aids available before making treatment planning decisions based on such findings. Digital imaging, Panoramic, Inferior alveolar canal, Mental foramen. How to cite this article: Pria CM, Masood F, Beckerley JM, Carson RE. Study of the Inferior Alveolar Canal and Mental Foramen on Digital Panoramic Images. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(4):265-271. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared.

  14. Locating Mandibular Foramen in Children with Mandibular Retrognathism in Mixed Dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrsa Paryab

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. One of the most common reasons forthe inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia failure is the variation in mandibular foramen location. The aim of this study was to assess the location of mandibular foramen in chil-dren with mandibular retrognathism in comparison to children with normal skeletal occlusion in the mixed dentition. Materials and methods. One hundred and twenty panoramic radiographs of patients in mixed dentition period, undergo-ing orthodontic treatment, were selected based on inclusion criteria, skeletal occlusion and stage of dental development. The radiographs were divided into two groups: I: 60 panoramic radiographs of patients with normal skeletal occlusion (15 in each of the Hellman dental age stages; II: 60 panoramic radiographs of patients with mandibular retrognathism (15 in each of the Hellman dental age stages. The radiographs were traced and the linear distance from the mandibular foramen to the borders of the mandibular ramus and its angular position were identified. The measurements were compared between the two groups and among the four dental age groups by t-test, ANOVA and post hoc tests. Results. No statistically significant differences werefound between the patients with normal skeletal occlusion and patients with mandibular retrognathism (P>0.05. Statistical tests showed significant differences in the vertical location of mandibu-lar foramen and gonial angle between the four dental age groups (P<0.05. Conclusion. Mandibular retrognathism does not have a significant impact on the location of the mandibular foramen in the mixed dentition period. The child’s dental age would be considered in the localization of the mandibular foramen.

  15. A primary leiomyoma in the neural foramen of the lumbar spine: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jong Chang; Kang, Byeong Seong; Kim, Young Min; Park, Moon Soo; Jeong, Ae Kyung; Yang, Myeon Jun; Hwang, Jae Cheol [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    A primary leiomyoma in the neural foramen of the lumbar spine is a very rare condition. We examined a 23-year-old female presented with back and right flank pain. A plain radiography showed a well-defined, osteolytic lesion in the L3 body. In addition, MR images showed a mass lesion with intense enhancement, after intravenous injection with contrast material, in the right neural foramen at the L2/3 level. A histopathologic examination of the resected specimen revealed a benign leiomyoma.

  16. Normal and pathological growth of the foramen occipitale magnum shown in the plain radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliesener, J.A.; Schmidt, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    The transverse diameter of the foramen occipitale magnum (f.o.m.) in the semiaxial skull X-ray was measured and evaluated statistically in 174 cerebrally healthy children of different ages. These normal values are contrasted with the foramen diameters of 35 children with verified Arnold-Chiari malformation as well as children with macrocephaly and microcephaly. The values in children with Arnold-Chiari malformation are all above the norm, irrespective of whether or not there is a concomitant hydrocephalus. (orig.) [de

  17. Patents, Inducement Prizes, and Contestant Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Jerome; Davis, Lee N.

    2006-01-01

    Debate over the merits of patents versus inducement prizes has tended to ignore the signaling roles of patents, and totally ignores the impact of patent signaling on prize contests. This paper asks: How does patent signaling affect the strategic choices of firms considering entering prize contests......? First, we consider contests that do not allow patenting, then contests that do. If patenting is not allowed, we argue, patent-holders, both internal and external to the contest, can adversely impact prize contests by claiming prize winner violation of their patents, and suing for damages. The likelihood...... of such challenges being made can deter entry, particularly in contests requiring large sunk costs. Furthermore, the firm's decisionmaking process will discriminate against entering prize contests and favor R&D projects with patentable outcomes. Together, these problems may circumscribe any future wider role...

  18. Evaluation of the resin cement thicknesses and push-out bond strengths of circular and oval fiber posts in oval-shapes canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Özgür; Kılıç, Kerem; Kılınç, Halil İbrahim; Sağsen, Burak

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the push-out bond strength varies between oval and circular fiber posts, and to examine the effect on the resin cement thicknesses around the posts. MATERIALS AND METHODS Eighteen mandibular premolar roots were separated into two groups for oval and circular fiber posts systems. Post spaces were prepared and fiber posts were luted to the post spaces. Roots were cut horizontally to produce 1-mm-thick specimens. Resin cement thicknesses were determined with a metallographic optical microscope and push-out tests were done. RESULTS No significant differences were observed in terms of push-out bond strength between the oval and circular fiber posts (P>.05) The resin cement thicknesses of the oval posts were greater than those of the circular posts group in the coronal, middle and apical specimens (P<.05). CONCLUSION In the light of these results, it can be stated that resin cement thickness does not affect the push-out bond strength. PMID:25722832

  19. Argonne National Laboratory patent portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguelet, B.C.

    1976-01-01

    This booklet contains the abstracts of all active U. S. patents on technology items that originated at ANL, the applicability of which is not limited to nuclear reactors. Also listed are the titles of all ANL-originated nuclear-related U. S. patents that are still in force. Selected technology items for which patent applications have been filed and are available for licensing are included in several categories. Categories included in this booklet are as follows: atmospheric and earth sciences; biological and medical sciences; chemistry and chemical engineering; cryogenics and superconductivity; electronics and electrical engineering; energy conversion; measurements and controls; methods and devices; materials and fabrication; physics, accelerators and fusion; and selected nuclear-related technology

  20. Patent quality and incentives at the patent office

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuett, F.

    2013-01-01

    Patent examination is a problem of moral hazard followed by adverse selection: examiners must have incentives to exert effort, but also to truthfully reveal the evidence they find. I develop a theoretical model to study the design of incentives for examiners. The model can explain the puzzling

  1. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability. ...

  2. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability. ...

  3. Fundamentals of patenting and licensing for scientists and engineers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, M. Y. (Matthew Y.)

    2009-01-01

    ... ...28 3.2 Types of Patents...28 3.3 Patent Dates ...29 viiviii Fundamentals of Patenting and Licensing for Scientists and Engineers 3.4 Eligibility of Priority Date ...30 3.5 Patentability ...32...

  4. Morphometrics of foramen magnum in African four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgiri, I; Olopade, J O; Yahaya, A

    The purpose of this study was to examine the morphometry of the foramen magnum of African four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) in Maiduguri. Fourteen hedgehog skulls (7 male and 7 female each) were used for this study. The overall mean value of foramen magnum height and width were 0.51 ± 0.05 cm and 0.64 ± 0.04 cm while occipital condylar and interparacondylar widths were 1.00 ± 0.12 cm and 1.62 ± 0.07 cm, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two sexes. The foramen magnum index was 83.4 ± 5.51 cm in males and was significantly higher than 76.3 ± 6.37 cm observed in females. The presences of dorsal notches (occipital dysplasia) were observed, that were of three distinct types. It is envisaged, that the study will provide a valuable database on the anatomy of foramen magnum of hedgehogs in Nigeria for morphological, neurological, zooarchaeological, and comparative anatomical studies.

  5. Is there a correlation between sleep disordered breathing and foramen magnum stenosis in children with achondroplasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Klane K; Parnell, Shawn E; Kifle, Yemiserach; Blackledge, Marcella; Bompadre, Viviana

    2016-01-01

    Children with achondroplasia have midface hypoplasia, frontal bossing, spinal stenosis, rhizomelia, and a small foramen magnum. Central sleep apnea, with potential resultant sudden death, is thought to be related to compression of the spinal cord at the cervicomedullary junction in these patients. Screening polysomnography and/or cervical spine MRI are often performed for infants with achondroplasia. Decompressive suboccipital craniectomy has been performed in selected cases. We aim to better delineate the relationship between polysomnography, cervical spine MRI, and indications for surgical decompression in achondroplasia.We retrospectively review electronic medical records of all children with achondroplasia in our IRB-approved skeletal dysplasia registry who had received screening polysomnography and cervical spine MRI examination was performed. We explored correlations of polysomnography, MRI parameters, and need for decompressive surgery. Seventeen patients with both polysomnography and MRI of the cervical spine met inclusion criteria. The average age at time of the sleep study was 2.4 ± 3.6 years. An abnormal apnea-hypopnea index was found in all patients, with central sleep apnea found in 6/17. Five patients (29%) required foramen magnum decompression. We found no statistically significant correlation between central sleep apnea and abnormal MRI findings suggestive of foramen magnum stenosis. Screening polysomnography is an important tool but does not appear to correlate with MRI findings of foramen magnum stenosis. Cord compression, with either associated T2 cord signal abnormality or clinical findings of clonus, was most predictive of subsequent surgical decompression. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Endoscopic resection of cavernoma of foramen of Monro in a patient with familial multiple cavernomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Ricardo; Galeano, Inmaculada

    2008-09-01

    Intraventricular cavernomas are extremely infrequent and only 11 cases of cavernous hemangioma to occur at the foramen of Monro have been reported in the literature. This 56 years old patient was admitted with progressive and intractable headache of 10 days of evolution. He was known to suffer familial multiple cavernomatosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), revealed obstructive hydrocephalus due to a cavernoma located in the area of the left foramen of Monro. Under neuronavigation guidance, complete endoscopic resection of the cavernoma was performed and normal ventricular size achieved. The patient experienced transient recent memory loss that resolved within a month after surgery. In the literature attempted endoscopic resection is reported to be abandoned due to bleeding and ineffectiveness of piecemeal endoscopic resection. In this case, the multiplicity of the lesions made it advisable to resect the lesion endoscopically, to avoid an open procedure in a patient with multiple potentially surgical lesions. Endoscopic resection was uneventful with easy control of bleeding with irrigation, suction, and bipolar coagulation despite dense vascular appearance of the lesion. During the procedure, precise visualization of the vascular structures around the foramen of Monro allowed complete resection with satisfactory control of the instruments. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first published cavernoma of foramen of Monro successfully resected using an endoscopic approach.

  7. Rapid pre-operative diagnosis of ileal hernia through the foramen of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Radiology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. Y-P Lo, MD. Corresponding author: Y-H Liao (D14887@mail.cmuh.org.tw). Internal hernias through the foramen of Winslow are extremely rare. Prompt diagnosis and early surgical reduction are vital to prevent bowel gangrene and avoid ...

  8. Mental foramen and lingual vascular canals of mandible on MDCT images: anatomical study and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direk, Filiz; Uysal, Ismihan Ilknur; Kivrak, Ali Sami; Fazliogullari, Zeliha; Unver Dogan, Nadire; Karabulut, Ahmet Kagan

    2018-03-01

    The mental foramen and lingual vascular canals are related to vessels and nerves in the mandibular body. The aim of the present study was to determine the number and location of these structures and to make measurements of them. The archived Multidetector Computed Tomography images of 100 adult (15- to 70-year-old) patients were evaluated retrospectively. The diameters of the mental foramens and their distances from the front, back, upper and lower reference points were measured. The distribution of mental foramens with respect to the teeth was also researched. The presence of lingual vascular canals, and the number of median and lateral canals was determined, and the length of the median lingual vascular canals measured. All measurement parameters were analyzed by gender, side and age group. Eleven patients demonstrated a total of 15 accessory mental foramen. Median lingual vascular canals were observed in 100% of cases, with lateral lingual vascular canals determined in 32%. Significant differences were observed in the results of different gender groups (P mental foramen was determined mostly in males, and unilaterally on the right side; also, the distances of mental foramen, except the distance from the back border of the mandible (P mental foramen, as well as the presence, position and size of lingual vascular canals can be clearly investigated by multidetector computed tomography. A preoperative knowledge of the positions of neurovascular and bone structures is very important for preventing complications that may occur during or after operations.

  9. Foreign patent documentation and information research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tongsheng; Wu Xianfeng; Liu Jia; Cao Jifen; Song Tianbao; Feng Beiyuan; Zhang Baozhu

    2014-01-01

    Patent documentations are important scientific and technical documentations, which gather legal information, technical information and economic information together. According to WIPO forecasts, making full use of patent documentation can save 40% of research funding and 60% of the study period. Foreign patent documentations are the world's most valuable patent documentations, and many original technologies that have significant influence are first disclosed in foreign patent documentation. Studying and making use of foreign patent documentations can improve our starting point of scientific and technological innovation, and reduce the research investment. This paper analyzes foreign patent documentation and, combining with the actual development of nuclear technology in our country, makes specific recommendations for patent documentation research. (authors)

  10. Effect of firm variables on patent price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sreekumaran Nair

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, using singleton patent auction price data from Ocean Tomo, LLC, we analyse the effect of firm variables on patent price. Patents owned by small firms attract higher price than patents owned by large firms, if they engage in multi-country filings. The patents owned by small firms get cited more than the patents owned by large firms. The patents owned by individual inventors attract a higher price than the patents owned by organisations when multi-country filings are not included. We believe that the lack of resources is preventing individual inventors from engaging in multi-country filings and maximising the revenue from their invention. A larger representative data should be used to replicate the results before generalising it.

  11. Can this kind of idea be a patent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    2004-08-01

    This book mentions patent such as application, what is patents, patent law, procedure and patent attorney, which includes business idea is patent. Is internet domain name or name-brand? We can make a big money with others idea, the difference among patent, trademark, utility model rights and registration of design, priority system, new weapon in digital period, patent is a knife and a shield, the cost from application to registration, what is hunting of patent information, writing document for patent, patent examination and patent lawyer.

  12. Can this kind of idea be a patent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    2004-08-15

    This book mentions patent such as application, what is patents, patent law, procedure and patent attorney, which includes business idea is patent. Is internet domain name or name-brand? We can make a big money with others idea, the difference among patent, trademark, utility model rights and registration of design, priority system, new weapon in digital period, patent is a knife and a shield, the cost from application to registration, what is hunting of patent information, writing document for patent, patent examination and patent lawyer.

  13. Increasing the Discovery and Use of Non-Patent Literature (NPL): Scientific Publications in Patent Examination

    OpenAIRE

    F. Loizides; B. Diallo; A. Pollard; A. Mavri

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present findings on non-patent literature use, and specifically scientific publications such as academic articles. We interview patent examiners and observe their prior art searching in order to provide insights into the perceived usage of non-patent literature and produce high level requirements for advancing non-patent literature search tools.

  14. 77 FR 4509 - Patent Public Advisory Committee Public Hearings on the Proposed Patent Fee Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... patent fees. The publication of that Notice will open a comment window through which the public may...-P-2012-0002] Patent Public Advisory Committee Public Hearings on the Proposed Patent Fee Schedule... Trademark Office (USPTO) may set or adjust by rule any patent or trademark fee established, authorized, or...

  15. Exploring gender differences in patenting in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Elba Mauleón; Cinzia Daraio; Maria Bordons

    2013-01-01

    The under-representation of women in science and technology is a matter of current great concern. Obtaining patent-based indicators by gender is crucial to analyse the situation of women in innovation, identify potential cases of gender inequalities, and support policy measures to promote gender balance. In this article we analyse men and women involvement in Spanish patents applied to the European Patent Office during 1990--2004. At least one female inventor is present in 18% of the patents;...

  16. Beyond Invention: Patent as Knowledge Law

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in Bilski v. Kappos, concerning the legal standard for determining patentable subject matter under the American Patent Act, is used as a starting point for a brief review of historical, philosophical, and cultural influences on subject matter questions in both patent and copyright law. The article suggests that patent and copyright law jurisprudence was constructed initially by the Court with explicit attention to the relationship between...

  17. 14 CFR 1260.28 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent rights. 1260.28 Section 1260.28... Provisions § 1260.28 Patent rights. Patent Rights May 2006 As stated at § 1260.136, this award is subject to... “Patent Rights (Small Business Firms and Nonprofit Organizations)” and the following: (a) Where the term...

  18. The instantaneous relationship between polar cap and oval auroras at times of northward interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphree, J.S.; Anger, C.D.; Cogger, L.L.

    1982-01-01

    Optical images of the polar cap region at both 5577 and 3914 A obtained from 1400 km above the earth have been used to study the relationship between polar cap and oval aurora during periods when the interplanetary magnetic field is strongly northward, i.e., B > 3.5 nT. When this rather rare condition occurs, distinction between the two types of aurora is no longer as clear as depicted on the basis of statistical definitions of the auroral oval. Diffuse, weak emission can fill in the region between the auroral oval and discrete auroral features in the polar cap. The polar cap discrete features can appear very similar to auroral oval arcs in intensity, intensity ratio, and structure. Even more striking are the situations where discrete polar cap features merge with oval auroras. From this study it is concluded that under conditions of large positive B the region of closed magnetic field lines can expand poleward to occupy much of the high latitude region

  19. The improved oval forceps suture-guiding method for minimally invasive Achilles tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Lin, Lixiang; Lin, Chuanlu; Weng, Qihao; Hong, Jianjun

    2018-06-01

    To discuss the effect and advantage of the improved oval forceps suture-guiding method combined with anchor nail in the treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture. A retrospective research was performed on 35 cases of acute Achilles tendon rupture treated with the improved oval forceps suture-guiding method from January 2013 to October 2016. Instead of the Achillon device, we perform the Achillon technique with the use of simple oval forceps, combined with absorbable anchor nail, percutaneously to repair the acute Achilles tendon rupture. All patients were followed up for at least 12 months (range, 12-19 months), and all the patients underwent successful repair of their acute Achilles tendon rupture using the improved oval forceps suture-guiding method without any major intra- or postoperative complications. All the patients returned to work with pre-injury levels of activity at a mean of 12.51 ± 0.76 weeks. Mean AOFAS ankle-hindfoot scores improved from 63.95 (range, 51-78) preoperatively to 98.59 (range, 91-100) at last follow-up. This was statistically significant difference (P anchor nail, the improved technique has better repair capacity and expands the operation indication of oval forceps method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Correspondence between the ULF wave power spatial distribution and auroral oval boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozyreva O.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The world-wide spatial distribution of the wave power in the Pc5 band during magnetic storms has been compared with auroral oval boundaries. The poleward and equatorward auroral oval boundaries are estimated using either the British Antarctic Survey database containing IMAGE satellite UV observations of the aurora or the OVATION model based on the DMSP particle data. The “epicenter” of the spectral power of broadband Pc5 fluctuations during the storm growth phase is mapped inside the auroral oval. During the storm recovery phase, the spectral power of narrowband Pc5 waves, both in the dawn and dusk sectors, is mapped inside the auroral oval or around its equatorward boundary. This observational result confirms previously reported effects: the spatial/temporal variations of the Pc5 wave power in the morning/pre-noon sector are closely related to the dynamics of the auroral electrojet and magnetospheric field-aligned currents. At the same time, narrowband Pc5 waves demonstrate typical resonant features in the amplitude-phase latitudinal structure. Thus, the location of the auroral oval or its equatorward boundary is the preferred latitude for magnetospheric field-line Alfven resonator excitation. This effect is not taken into account by modern theories of ULF Pc5 waves, but it could be significant for the development of more adequate models.

  1. The Ultrasonographic Determination of the Position of the Mental Foramen and its Relation to the Mandibular Premolar Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laher, Abdullah Ebrahim; Motara, Feroza; Moolla, Muhammed

    2016-06-01

    The position of the mental foramen has been well researched in cadaver specimens, radiographically as well as intraoperatively. To our knowledge, this landmark study is the first to make use of ultrasonography in a study population to determine the position of the mental foramen in relation to the mandibular premolar teeth. Ultrasonography has great potential to further revolutionize the practice of medicine and dento-maxillofacial surgery. To make use of ultrasound to determine the position of the mental foramen and its relation to the mandibular premolar teeth. One hundred Black and Caucasian subjects were enrolled. A high frequency (8MHz) transducer (PLF.805ST) of a diagnostic ultrasound system (model SSA-510A) was applied above the inferior border of the mandible, just lateral to the mentum. With the marker of the transducer pointing cranially, the position of the mental foramen in relation to the closest mandibular premolar tooth was determined. The position was compared across race, sex and age groups. All mental foramina (100%) were visualised. Overall the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar on the right (44%) and between the first and second premolars on the left (44%). There were no statistical differences (p >0.05) between race groups, sex and age groups with regard to the position of the mental foramen in relation to the mandibular premolars. However, in Blacks, the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar and in Caucasians the most common position was between the first and second premolars. The most frequent position of the mental foramen in females was in line with the long axis of the second premolar on the right and between the first and second premolars on the left. In males, the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar bilaterally. The most common position of the mental

  2. Patentability aspects of computational cancer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishchuk, Iryna

    2017-07-01

    Multiscale cancer models, implemented in silico, simulate tumor progression at various spatial and temporal scales. Having the innovative substance and possessing the potential of being applied as decision support tools in clinical practice, patenting and obtaining patent rights in cancer models seems prima facie possible. What legal hurdles the cancer models need to overcome for being patented we inquire from this paper.

  3. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands... LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully... and patent and shall state the statutory authority for such liens. The receipt shall be submitted to...

  4. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights. ...

  5. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights, see...

  6. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term...

  7. Imitation, patent protection and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherjee, A.; Pennings, H.P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Once a new technology has been invented it is shown that the innovator has an incentive to postpone technology adoption when the cost of imitation is high and patent protection is strong. With the possibility of licensing it is shown that licensing oftechnology instead of delaying technology

  8. CLASSICS UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    From the profits, he became a very rich man and was able ... The Schedule referred to in these Letters Patent and making part of the same. TO ALL ... This is the real character and purpose of my invention; and in order to enable others ... kneading, it is rubbed through a hair, silk, or brass-wire sieve, (iron corrodes) and any.

  9. Patents - Overlooked Source of Information

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Ilavský, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2004), s. 473-476 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : patent * database * thermal spraying Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.068, year: 2004

  10. Cross-Border Patent Disputes: Unified Patent Court or International Commercial Arbitration?

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Betancourt, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the enforcement of a patent that is registered in several countries involves the risk of getting different and conflicting decisions from the national courts. In 2013, 25 European countries entered in an agreement that aims to homogenise the patent system by creating the European patent with unitary effect and a Unified Patent Court (UPC). This article focuses on the UPC, which aims to have a single court proceeding for cross-border patent conflicts. Does the UPC system represent a...

  11. A comparison of sawtooth oscillations in bean and oval shaped plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, E A [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Waelbroeck, F L [University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Luce, T C [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Austin, M E [University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Burrell, K H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Ferron, J R [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Hyatt, A W [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Osborne, T H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Chu, M S [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Brennan, D P [Massachussets Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Gohil, P; Groebner, R J; Hsieh, C L [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Jayakumar, R J [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Lao, L L [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Lohr, J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Petty, C C; Politzer, P A; Prater, R [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Rhodes, T L [University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Scoville, J T; Strait, E J; Turnbull, A D; Wade, M R [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Wang, G [University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Reimerdes, H [Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Zhang, C [ASIPP (China)

    2006-08-15

    The effect of plasma shape on sawtooth oscillations in the DIII-D tokamak plasmas is investigated by comparing discharges with cross-sections shaped like a bean and an oval. The two shapes are designed so that the Mercier instability threshold is reached when the axial safety factor is below unity for the bean and above unity for the oval cross-sections. This allows the role of interchange modes to be differentiated from that of the kink-tearing mode. The differences in the nature of the sawtooth oscillations in the bean and oval discharges are found to be determined primarily by extreme differences in the electron heat transport during the reheat. In both cases, the axial safety factor is found to be near unity following the crash. (letter to the editor)

  12. Entrepreneurial patent management in pharmaceutical startups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgersson, Marcus; Phan, Tai; Hedner, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Startups fill an increasingly important role as innovators in the pharmaceutical industry, and patenting is typically central to their success. This article aims to explore patent management in pharmaceutical startups. The results show that startups need to deal with several challenges related to patenting and an 'entrepreneurial' approach to patent management is called for. Resource constraints, venture capital provision, exits and other conditions and events must be readily considered in the patent management process to build a successful pharmaceutical venture, something that could benefit the pharmaceutical industry as a whole. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Patent data mining method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyack, Kevin W.; Grafe, V. Gerald; Johnson, David K.; Wylie, Brian N.

    2002-01-01

    A method of data mining represents related patents in a multidimensional space. Distance between patents in the multidimensional space corresponds to the extent of relationship between the patents. The relationship between pairings of patents can be expressed based on weighted combinations of several predicates. The user can select portions of the space to perceive. The user also can interact with and control the communication of the space, focusing attention on aspects of the space of most interest. The multidimensional spatial representation allows more ready comprehension of the structure of the relationships among the patents.

  14. The Patentability of Stem Cells in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Jenny; Cowin, Prue

    2015-07-01

    The potential therapeutic applications of stem cells are unlimited. However, the ongoing political and social debate surrounding the intellectual property and patenting considerations of stem cell research has led to the implementation of strict legislative regulations. In Australia the patent landscape surrounding stem cells has evolved considerably over the past 20 years. The Australian Patents Act 1990 includes a specific exclusion to the patentability of human beings and of biological processes for their generation. However, this exclusion has received no judicial consideration to date, and so its scope and potential impact on stem cell patents is unclear. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  15. Dynamics of night-side auroral oval associated with substorm activity during magnetic storms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tverskaya, L.V.; Tel'tsov, M.V.; Shkol'nikova, S.I.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1989-01-01

    Data of measurements of precipitated electrons with E=1 keV and longitudinal currents, conducted on INTERCOSMOS-BOLGARIYA-1300 satellite, were used to analyze variations of latitude sizes of the night section of auroral oval during heavy magnetic storm on 1-4.3 1982. Rapid (during ∼ 0.5 h) oval expansion on the night side both to the pole and to the equator at the moment of suddent shift of the west polar electrojet to the equator was revealed. It is shown that the width of the night region of auroral electron precipitation in the process of world magnetic storm development increases during certain substorms

  16. Heat transfer, erosion and acid condensation characteristics for novel H-type finned oval tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y; Zhao, X; Tang, G

    2015-01-01

    Low efficiency of heat transfer, acid corrosion and erosion of economizers affect the economy and security in coal-fired power plants significantly. The H-type finned oval tube is proposed to alleviate these problems. Based on the H-type finned oval tube, we investigated three novel types of fins, including bleeding dimples, longitudinal vortex generators (LVGs), and compound dimple-LVG. We considered the three aspects together, and obtained the heat transfer, acid condensation rate and erosion loss. The results show that the tube bank with the new structured fins can improve the performance on the three aspects, and the compound dimple-LVG performs the highest comprehensive effect. (paper)

  17. Analysis of US patents on spacer grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Hong Seok; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Jeon, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Ki; Bang, Jae Keun; Oh, Seung Eun; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Jin Seok; Park, Seong Keun

    1997-06-01

    The total of 137 US patents on spacer grids patented from 1968 through 1993 are analyzed and summarized. Database is constituted with designing the appropriate fields by which each patent can be identified. The fields consist of patent number, inventor, assignee, date of patent, title and major foci of the patent. The major foci are again classified by detailed subjects such as the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related, the strength-related, the fabrication-related as for mechanical subjects, while the cooling performance-related and the pressure drop-related as for thermal-hydraulic one. The 92% of the patents analyzed were issued form nuclear companies of USA, France and Germany. Among the patents dealing with mechanical subjects, the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related is more than the pressure drop-related among the patents of thermal-hydraulic subjects. The number of patents issued from Japan ranks just after Germany i.e., the 4th country. It is thought that much concern as well as investment should be increased in this field, the patent of nuclear components. (author). 2 tabs., 5 figs

  18. Analysis of US patents on spacer grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Hong Seok; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Jeon, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Ki; Bang, Jae Keun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seung Eun; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Jin Seok; Park, Seong Keun [Korea Nuclear Fuel Company, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    The total of 137 US patents on spacer grids patented from 1968 through 1993 are analyzed and summarized. Database is constituted with designing the appropriate fields by which each patent can be identified. The fields consist of patent number, inventor, assignee, date of patent, title and major foci of the patent. The major foci are again classified by detailed subjects such as the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related, the strength-related, the fabrication-related as for mechanical subjects, while the cooling performance-related and the pressure drop-related as for thermal-hydraulic one. The 92% of the patents analyzed were issued form nuclear companies of USA, France and Germany. Among the patents dealing with mechanical subjects, the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related is more than the pressure drop-related among the patents of thermal-hydraulic subjects. The number of patents issued from Japan ranks just after Germany i.e., the 4th country. It is thought that much concern as well as investment should be increased in this field, the patent of nuclear components. (author). 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  19. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  20. Idea on patent ; It is high time to stress quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    This book deals with patent stressing on the quality, which includes from idea to technical business, It's simple to register the computer program, why do patent lawyer appoint the patent attorney's office? construction of patent right range, a good patent and a bad patent, strong patent and weak patent. It doesn't allow for Dus to use as we like, each patent has different value, Let's write technical specifications, advice on talking for invention with a patent attorney's office and what kind of task do intellectual property division do?

  1. Information Extraction From Chemical Patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bergmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new chemicals or pharmaceuticals is preceded by an indepth analysis of published patents in this field. This information retrieval is a costly and time inefficient step when done by a human reader, yet it is mandatory for potential success of an investment. The goal of the research project UIMA-HPC is to automate and hence speed-up the process of knowledge mining about patents. Multi-threaded analysis engines, developed according to UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture standards, process texts and images in thousands of documents in parallel. UNICORE (UNiform Interface to COmputing Resources workflow control structures make it possible to dynamically allocate resources for every given task to gain best cpu-time/realtime ratios in an HPC environment.

  2. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Alleged Early Radio Patent Thicket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    -examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means...... of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how the ‘overlapping’ patent rights were resolved by the courts and by the immunity of suppliers to the Government from patent infringement liability. We trace the cross-licensing agreements between the different radio...

  3. Patent first, ask questions later: morality and biotechnology in patent law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Margo A

    2003-12-01

    This Article explores the U.S. "patent first, ask questions later" approach to determining what subject matter should receive patent protection. Under this approach, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO or the Agency) issues patents on "anything under the sun made by man," and to the extent a patent's subject matter is sufficiently controversial, Congress acts retrospectively in assessing whether patents should issue on such interventions. This practice has important ramifications for morally controversial biotechnology patents specifically, and for American society generally. For many years a judicially created "moral utility" doctrine served as a type of gatekeeper of patent subject matter eligibility. The doctrine allowed both the USTPO and courts to deny patents on morally controversial subject matter under the fiction that such inventions were not "useful." The gate, however, is currently untended. A combination of the demise of the moral utility doctrine, along with expansive judicial interpretations of the scope of patent-eligible subject matter, has resulted in virtually no basis on which the USTPO or courts can deny patent protection to morally controversial, but otherwise patentable, subject matter. This is so despite position statements by the Agency to the contrary. Biotechnology is an area in which many morally controversial inventions are generated. Congress has been in react-mode following the issuance of a stream of morally controversial biotech patents, including patents on transgenic animals, surgical methods, and methods of cloning humans. With no statutory limits on patent eligibility, and with myriad concerns complicating congressional action following a patent's issuance, it is not Congress, the representative of the people, determining patent eligibility. Instead, it is patent applicants, scientific inventors, who are deciding matters of high public policy through the contents of the applications they file with the USTPO. This Article

  4. Generation and characterization of p53 null transformed hepatic progenitor cells: oval cells give rise to hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumble, Melissa L; Croager, Emma J; Yeoh, George C T; Quail, Elizabeth A

    2002-03-01

    Oval cells are bipotential liver stem cells able to differentiate into hepatocytes and bile duct epithelia. In normal adult liver oval cells are quiescent, existing in low numbers around the periportal region, and proliferate following severe, prolonged liver trauma. There is evidence implicating oval cells in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, and hence the availability of an immortalized oval cell line would be invaluable for the study of liver cell lineage differentiation and carcinogenesis. A novel approach in the generation of cell lines is the use of the p53 knockout mouse. Absence of p53 allows a cell to cycle past the normal Hayflick limit, rendering it immortalized, although subsequent genetic alterations are thought necessary for transformation. p53 knockout mice were fed a choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented diet, previously shown to increase oval cell numbers in wild-type mice. The oval cells were isolated by centrifugal elutriation and maintained in culture. Colonies of hepatic cells were isolated and characterized with respect to phenotype, growth characteristics and tumorigenicity. Analysis of gene expression by Northern blotting and immunocytochemistry suggests they are oval-like cells by virtue of albumin and transferrin expression, as well as the oval cell markers alpha fetoprotein, M(2)-pyruvate kinase and A6. Injection into athymic nude mice shows the cell lines are capable of forming tumors which phenotypically resemble hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, the use of p53 null hepatic cells successfully generated immortalized and tumorigenic hepatic stem cell lines. The results presented support the idea that deleting p53 allows immortalization and contributes to the transformation of the oval-like cell lines. Further, the tumorigenic status of the cell lines is direct evidence for the participation of oval cells in the formation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women’s rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women’s patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women—and in particular academic women—contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  6. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Sugimoto

    Full Text Available We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO. Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  7. Large Dumbbell-Shaped C1 Schwannoma Presenting as a Foramen Magnum Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Jody; Michael, Lattimore Madison

    2012-01-01

    Schwannomas involving the foramen magnum commonly originate from the lower cranial nerves, but they are rarely found arising from the first cervical root. To date, very few cases have been described in the literature. The majority involve either the intradural or extradural compartment but not both. We report the second case of a dumbbell-shaped schwannoma arising from the first cervical root. Our patient presented with hemisensory deficits secondary to brainstem compression at the level of the foramen magnum. The patient underwent a far lateral approach, and a gross total resection was achieved. Preoperative suspicion of the diagnosis is helpful in anticipating displacement and avoiding damage to the surrounding neurovascular structures. PMID:23946923

  8. Some Studies on Reduction of Ovality in Turned Component-Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Dhirajlal Ghetiya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the competitive market and globalization phase, industries are required to manufacture good quality machine tools with optimized performance at the moderate cost. Moreover, the industries are facing competition internationally due to worldwide globalization of business. This work aims to reduce the error called ovality in the turned work piece. This work piece is a clutch component used for the clutch assembly. For the clutch to work perfectly, it is required for its component to be precise and error free. The machining parameters like cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut are taken as input parameters and the ovality as output response. Response surface methodology is used for the optimization of process parameters. The most significant process parameter causing the ovality has been found. The other attempts like balancing of the work piece and radiography of the work piece is done to solve the problem which is causing the ovality. The centrifugal force analysis of the component is carried out using finite element analysis.

  9. Antipityrosporum Ovale Activity Of A Herbal Drug Combination Of Wrightia Tinctoria And Hisbiscus Rosasinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirshnamoorthy J R

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Antipityosporum activity of a herbal drug combination of Wrighria tinctoria and Hibiscus rosasinensis was tested in vitro against the isolates of Pityrosporum ovale recovered from dandruff. The drug combination exhibited fungicidal activity at a concentration ranging between 500 to1000 pg/ml.

  10. All sides to an oval properties, parameters, and borromini's mysterious construction

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzotti, Angelo Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This is the only book dedicated to the Geometry of Polycentric Ovals. It includes problem solving constructions and mathematical formulas. For anyone interested in drawing or recognizing an oval, this book gives all the necessary construction and calculation tools. More than 30 basic construction problems are solved, with references to Geogebra animation videos, plus the solution to the Frame Problem and solutions to the Stadium Problem. A chapter (co-written with Margherita Caputo) is dedicated to totally new hypotheses on the project of Borromini’s oval dome of the church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane in Rome. Another one presents the case study of the Colosseum as an example of ovals with eight centres. The book is unique and new in its kind: original contributions add up to about 60% of the whole book, the rest being taken from published literature (and mostly from other work by the same author). The primary audience is: architects, graphic designers, industrial designers, architecture historians, c...

  11. Trepanation and enlarged parietal foramen on skulls from the Loyalty Islands (Melanesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, Sergey V; Sviridov, Alexey A

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this study is a comprehensive examination of openings discovered on two skulls in the collection of skeletal remains from the Loyalty Islands (Melanesia). The skull No. 1524 displayed an evidence of successful trepanation, and the skull No. 7985 revealed openings that were reminiscent of a trepanation, however, we are inclined to believe that in the latter case we are dealing with a rare genetic anomaly - enlarged parietal foramen.

  12. Dumb-bell sarcoma of the foramen jugulare with syringomyelia. A radio-induced tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieben, G; Sieben-Praet, M; de Reuck, J; de Coster, W; Remouchamps, A; Roels, H; van der Eecken, H [Ghent Rijksuniversiteit (Belgium). Dept. of. Neurology and Pathology

    1980-01-01

    The clinicopathological findings of a 58-year-old man, who developed cervicothoracic syringomyelia at the age of 25 are presented. He was given radiation therapy at the age of 33. At the age of 57 he developed a foramen jugulare syndrome on the left, caused by a low grade leiomyosarcoma. Etiologically, the most attractive hypothesis appears to be that the tumour was induced by radiation therapy administered 24 years previously.

  13. MORPHOMETRIC EVALUATION OF FORAMEN MAGNUM FOR SEX DETERMINATION IN A DOCUMENTED NORTH INDIAN SAMPLE

    OpenAIRE

    Jain; Alok Kumar; Pankaj

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Sex determination is used in anthropology, forensic medicine and medic o - legal cases. It is (1) remarked that “next to the pelvis, the skull is the most easily sexed portion of the skeleton”. It has been suggested (2 - 5) that the measurements of the foramen magnum are useful for determining the sex. There are two osteological techniques used to determine the sex of an individual; the first is visual assessment to evaluate the morphological sex tra...

  14. Foramen of Monro meningioma with atypical appearance: CT and conventional MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakyemez, B.; Erdogan, C.; Oruc, E.; Parlak, M.; Aker, S.; Aksoy, K.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Intraventricular meningiomas have often been reported; however, literature reveals very few cases localized within foramen of Monro. Herein we report a 57-year-old woman admitted with obstructive hydrocephalus-related symptoms. Strikingly, the lesion was completely calcified in (T and had no marked solid component on MRI. The lesion was completely removed by surgical resection with a transfrontal intraventricular approach. The resected mass was histopathologically diagnosed as meningioma. The patient's symptoms resolved immediately after the operation

  15. Large Dumbbell-Shaped C1 Schwannoma Presenting as a Foramen Magnum Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Helms, Jody; Michael, Lattimore Madison

    2012-01-01

    Schwannomas involving the foramen magnum commonly originate from the lower cranial nerves, but they are rarely found arising from the first cervical root. To date, very few cases have been described in the literature. The majority involve either the intradural or extradural compartment but not both. We report the second case of a dumbbell-shaped schwannoma arising from the first cervical root. Our patient presented with hemisensory deficits secondary to brainstem compression at the level of t...

  16. Best practices in the evaluation and treatment of foramen magnum stenosis in achondroplasia during infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Klane K; Bompadre, Viviana; Goldberg, Michael J; Bober, Michael B; Campbell, Jeffrey W; Cho, Tae-Joon; Hoover-Fong, Julie; Mackenzie, William; Parnell, Shawn E; Raggio, Cathleen; Rapoport, David M; Spencer, Samantha A; Savarirayan, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Achondroplasia is the most common inherited disorder of bone growth (skeletal dysplasia). Despite this fact, consistent and evidence-based management approaches to recognized, life-threatening complications, such as foramen magnum stenosis, are lacking. This study aims to outline best practice, based on evidence and expert consensus, regarding the diagnosis, assessment, and management of foramen magnum stenosis in achondroplasia during infancy. A panel of 11 multidisciplinary international experts on skeletal dysplasia was invited to participate in a Delphi process. They were: 1) presented with a list of 26 indications and a thorough literature review, 2) given the opportunity to anonymously rate the indications and discuss in face to face discussion; 3) edit the list and rate it in a second round. Those indications with more than 80% agreement were considered as consensual. After two rounds of rating and a face-to-face meeting, consensus was reached to support 22 recommendations for the evaluation and treatment of foramen magnum stenosis in infants with achondroplasia. These recommendations include indications for surgical decompression, ventriculomegaly, and hydrocephalus, sleep-disordered breathing, physical exams and the use of polysomnography and imaging in this condition. We present a consensus-based best practice guidelines consisting of 22 recommendations. It is hoped that these guidelines will lead to more uniform and structured evaluation, standardizing care pathways, and improving mortality and morbidity outcomes for this cohort. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A 2-D simulation of hydrocephalus in the Foramens of Monro of the human ventricular system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammourah, S.; Aroussi, A. [Univ. of Nottingham, School of Mechanical, Materials, Manufacturing and Management, University Park, Nottingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: eaxsaka@nottingham.ac.uk; Vloeberghs, M. [Queen' s Medical Centre, Dept. of Child Health, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This study investigates the Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow behavior in a two-dimensional plane (2-D) of the human ventricular system when the hydrocephalus in the Foramens of Monro (F.O.M) occurs. In order to understand the CSF behaviour when the hydrocephalus occurs, it is essential to comprehend its normal flow dynamics i.e. the healthy case with no hydrocephalus. This had been done numerically by reconstructing the ventricular system geometry from the MRI scans and then made a 15{sup o} degree cut in the surgical line to obtain the outlines of the 2-D plane. The healthy cases were solved for the CSF actual flow rate, which is between 100-500 ml/day in 100 incremental steps. The unhealthy cases were studied for the average flow rate, which is 300 ml/day but for blockage ratios of the Foramen diameter of 20%, 50% and 75%. These obstructions are designed to simulate the hydrocephalus. The results show that as the flow rate increases the pressure and the velocity values increases, but no changes in the flow pattern occurs. The maximum pressure on the normal cases occurred in the lateral ventricles and the maximum velocity occurred in the aqueduct neck. The results of the hydrocephalus cases show that as the obstruction degree increases the pressure in the lateral ventricle increases accompanied with a velocity increase in the obstructed Foramen, which may cause unwanted stress on the neighboring tissues. (author)

  18. Differentiating human versus non-human bone by exploring the nutrient foramen: implications for forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vail; Beckett, Sophie; Márquez-Grant, Nicholas

    2017-11-01

    One of the roles of a forensic anthropologist is to assist medico-legal investigations in the identification of human skeletal remains. In some instances, only small fragments of bone may be present. In this study, a non-destructive novel technique is presented to distinguish between human and non-human long bones. This technique is based on the macroscopic and computed tomography (CT) analysis of nutrient foramina. The nutrient foramen of long bone diaphyses transmits the nutrient artery which provides much of the oxygen and nutrients to the bone. The nutrient foramen and its canal were analysed in six femora and humeri of human, sheep (Ovies aries) and pig (Sus scrofa) species. The location, position and direction of the nutrient foramina were measured macroscopically. The length of the canal, angle of the canal, circumference and area of the entrance of the foramen were measured from CT images. Macroscopic analysis revealed the femora nutrient foramina are more proximal, whereas humeri foramina are more distal. The human bones and sheep humerus conform to the perceived directionality, but the pig bones and sheep femur do not. Amongst the parameters measured in the CT analysis, the angle of the canal had a discriminatory power. This study shows the potential of this technique to be used independently or complementary to other methods in distinguishing between human and non-human bone in forensic anthropology.

  19. Visibility of the mandibular canal and the mental foramen in panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Seon Jin; Choi, Eui Hwan; Kim, Jae Duk

    2001-01-01

    To determine the head position that the superior border of the mandibular canal as well as mental foramen can be more clearly visualized in panoramic radiography. Ten dry mandibles were radiography bilaterally using PM 2002 CC panoramic machine. A 20 mm thick aluminium filter was added to the slit collimator to obtain radiographs with acceptable density. The specimens were tilted by 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 degrees downward with and without radiopaque markers. Radiopaque markers were inserted into the mandibular canals and the mental canals of each side of the specimens to serve as reference image when assessing the radiographs. The obtained results were analyzed statistically. Mandibular canals were significantly more clearly visible in the radiographs with 4 and 6 degree downward position on both sides (P<0.05). Mental foramen were significantly more clearly visible in the was not significant difference between right and left sides. Panoramic radiographs with 4 to 6 degree downward tilting could be valuable in locating the mandibular canal as well as the mental foramen

  20. A 2-D simulation of hydrocephalus in the Foramens of Monro of the human ventricular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammourah, S.; Aroussi, A.; Vloeberghs, M.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow behavior in a two-dimensional plane (2-D) of the human ventricular system when the hydrocephalus in the Foramens of Monro (F.O.M) occurs. In order to understand the CSF behaviour when the hydrocephalus occurs, it is essential to comprehend its normal flow dynamics i.e. the healthy case with no hydrocephalus. This had been done numerically by reconstructing the ventricular system geometry from the MRI scans and then made a 15 o degree cut in the surgical line to obtain the outlines of the 2-D plane. The healthy cases were solved for the CSF actual flow rate, which is between 100-500 ml/day in 100 incremental steps. The unhealthy cases were studied for the average flow rate, which is 300 ml/day but for blockage ratios of the Foramen diameter of 20%, 50% and 75%. These obstructions are designed to simulate the hydrocephalus. The results show that as the flow rate increases the pressure and the velocity values increases, but no changes in the flow pattern occurs. The maximum pressure on the normal cases occurred in the lateral ventricles and the maximum velocity occurred in the aqueduct neck. The results of the hydrocephalus cases show that as the obstruction degree increases the pressure in the lateral ventricle increases accompanied with a velocity increase in the obstructed Foramen, which may cause unwanted stress on the neighboring tissues. (author)

  1. US patent interferences vs. international first-to-file patent systems, and current GATT problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhurst, R.W.; Serbinowski, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Simultaneous superconductivity research activities by different entities have resulted in numerous US patent applications, some of which may claim identical inventions and thus likely will be involved in interference proceedings in the US Patent and Trademark Office to determine which inventors are entitled to priority of invention and the resulting US patent. The determination in an interference proceeding of what inventors were the first-to-invent a patentable invention is contrasted with the patent systems in the rest of the world where the first inventor to file his patent application automatically gains priority. This issue and other aspects of US patent law are the subjects of criticism of US patent law and practice in the current Uruguay round of talks on the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT). Interesting aspects of each of these subjects will be discussed

  2. Alienation from the Objectives of the Patent System: How to Remedy the Situation of Biotechnology Patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li

    2018-03-12

    Some fundamental biotechnologies hold unprecedented potential to eradicate many incurable diseases. However, in absence of regulations, the power of patent makes the future use of some important biotechnology in few institution's hands. The excessive patents restrict researcher access to the fundamental technologies. It generates concerns and complaints of deteriorating the public health and social welfare. Furthermore, intellectual curiosities, funding, respect among colleagues etc., rather than patents, are the real motivations driving a major ground-breaking discoveries in biotechnology. These phenomena reveal that some biotechnology patents are alienated from the purpose of patent system. Therefore, it is necessary to take some approaches to stop over-patenting these fundamental biotechnology inventions. This article proposes a model regulatory framework for controlling biotechnology patent alienating from the purpose of patent system.

  3. 37 CFR 1.81 - Drawings required in patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawings required in patent..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The Drawings § 1.81 Drawings required in patent application. (a) The applicant for a patent is required to furnish...

  4. 37 CFR 1.41 - Applicant for patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant for patent. 1.41 Section 1.41 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply for A...

  5. 37 CFR 1.14 - Patent applications preserved in confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent applications preserved in confidence. 1.14 Section 1.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions...

  6. 37 CFR 1.314 - Issuance of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of patent. 1.314 Section 1.314 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of...

  7. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE...

  8. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent application publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Publication...

  9. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of...

  10. Patents - Superconductor materials, processes and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test, A.

    1987-01-01

    A patent is a grant by a country to an inventor or his assignee of the right to exclude others for a limited period of time from making, using or selling the patented invention within its territory. It is reported that basic patents have been filed by IBM and the University of Houston to protect a broad range of warm superconducting materials or compounds. It is believed that other researchers are seeking patents to protect related or improved materials, processes and apparatus. Because of the importance of this field and to speed up the patent process, the United States Patent Office is giving, upon request, special expedited status to these patent applications. A survey of Japanese companies shows that more than 1500 patents have been applied for in Japan relating to superconducting materials, compositions, apparatus using superconductors and improvements. It appears that the goal of the Japanese companies is to obtain a patent position in Japan so that they can trade with companies wishing to do business in Japan for rights in other parts of the world

  11. Performance of Patenting Firms in Danish Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non-patenting...... firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political...

  12. The History of Patenting Genetic Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkow, Jacob S; Greely, Henry T

    2015-01-01

    The US Supreme Court's recent decision in Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc. declared, for the first time, that isolated human genes cannot be patented. Many have wondered how genes were ever the subjects of patents. The answer lies in a nuanced understanding of both legal and scientific history. Since the early twentieth century, "products of nature" were not eligible to be patented unless they were "isolated and purified" from their surrounding environment. As molecular biology advanced, and the capability to isolate genes both physically and by sequence came to fruition, researchers (and patent offices) began to apply patent-law logic to genes themselves. These patents, along with other biological patents, generated substantial social and political criticism. Myriad Genetics, a company with patents on BRCA1 and BRCA2, two genes critical to assessing early-onset breast and ovarian cancer risk, and with a particularly controversial business approach, became the antagonist in an ultimately successful campaign to overturn gene patents in court. Despite Myriad's defeat, some questions concerning the rights to monopolize genetic information remain. The history leading to that defeat may be relevant to these future issues.

  13. Patents and Innovation: Friends or Foes?

    OpenAIRE

    Lévêque, François

    2007-01-01

    Over 2 million patents are currently in force in the EU and in the USA. Do they testify innovation is blockaded for they restrict freedom in research or do they give evidence innovation is flourishing for patent law provides incentives to invent new products and processes? In other terms do patents freeze or spur innovation? The question arises for massive anecdotal evidence shows the patent system may have turned on its head, e.g., USPTO and EPO examiners spend less than 30 hours pe...

  14. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  15. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric'' and the subclasses Photoelectric,'' Testing,'' and Applications.'' The search also located patents that contained the words photovoltaic(s)'' or solar cell(s)'' and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  16. Interactive overlay maps for US Patent (USPTO) data based on International Patent Classifications (IPC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Kushnir, D.; Rafols, I.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of an interface to the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) that allows for the mapping of patent portfolios as overlays to basemaps constructed from citation relations among all patents contained in this database during the period 1976-2011. Both the interface and the

  17. Using Patent Classification to Discover Chemical Information in a Free Patent Database: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha¨rtinger, Stefan; Clarke, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Developing skills for searching the patent literature is an essential element of chemical information literacy programs at the university level. The present article creates awareness of patents as a rich source of chemical information. Patent classification is introduced as a key-component in comprehensive search strategies. The free Espacenet…

  18. Discrimination against foreigners in the patent system : evidence from standard-essential patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rassenfosse, G.; Raiteri, E.; Bekkers, R.N.A.

    This paper tests for traces of discrimination against foreign firms in the patent prosecution process. It focuses on the case of China and looks specifically at patent applications declared as essential to a technological standard. The choice of standard-essential patents (SEPs) is particularly

  19. Discrimination in the patent system: evidence from standard-essential patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rassenfosse, G.; Raiteri, E.; Bekkers, R.N.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper tests for traces of discrimination against foreigners in the patent prosecution process. It focuses on the case of China and looks specifically at patent applications declared as essential to a technological standard, so called standard-essential patents. The identification strategy

  20. 78 FR 51177 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC, a revocable...

  1. 78 FR 72872 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC, a revocable...

  2. Design of an oval-form cathode for the precision etching process of e-paper surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pa, P.S.

    2009-01-01

    A newly designed oval-form cathode using electroetching for indium-tin-oxide (ITO) microstructure removal from the surface of e-paper polymer PET films is presented. Through ultra-precise microstructural etching, the semiconductor industry can effectively reclaim defective products, thereby reducing production costs. The design features for the ITO removal process and the tool design of oval-form cathodes are of significant interest. A smaller oval-form cathode minor axis, a higher cathode rotational speed, a higher concentration, or a higher electrolyte temperature corresponds to a higher ITO etching rate.

  3. Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)

  4. NREL Patents Method for Continuous Monitoring of Materials During

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing | News | NREL NREL Patents Method for Continuous Monitoring of Materials During Manufacturing News Release: NREL Patents Method for Continuous Monitoring of Materials During Manufacturing NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF). More information, including the published patent, can

  5. Pre-empted Patents, Infringed Patents and Firms’ Participation in Markets for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk their patent applications to be pre-empted or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...... patents on firms’ engagement in in- and cross-licensing. Based on a sample of more than 1100 German manufacturing firms our results show that firms engage in in-licensing as a reaction to pre-empted patents and in cross-licensing if their protected IP was infringed upon. However, these effects vary...

  6. Achondroplasia in children: correlation of ventriculomegaly, size of foramen magnum and jugular foramina, and emissary vein enlargement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Orman, Gunes; Hergan, Benedikt; Carson, Kathryn A; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Poretti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Achondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia with diminished growth of the skull base secondary to defective enchondral bone formation. This leads to narrowing of the foramen magnum and jugular foramina, which further leads to ventricular dilatation and prominence of the emissary veins. The primary goal of our study was to determine a correlation between the degree of ventricular dilatation, jugular foramina and foramen magnum narrowing, as well as emissary vein enlargement. Conventional T2-weighted MR images were evaluated for surface area of the foramen magnum and jugular foramina, ventricular dilatation, and emissary veins enlargement in 16 achondroplasia patients and 16 age-matched controls. Ratios were calculated for the individual parameters using median values from age-matched control groups to avoid age as a confounder. Compared to age-matched controls, in children with achondroplasia, the surface area of the foramen magnum (median 0.50 cm(2), range 0.23-1.37 cm(2) vs. 3.14 cm(2), 1.83-6.68 cm(2), p achondroplasia, (1) the variation in ventricular dilatation may be related to an unquantifiable interdependent relationship of emissary vein enlargement, venous channel narrowing, and foramen magnum compression and (2) stable ventricular size facilitated by interdependent factors likely obviates the need for ventricular shunt placement.

  7. Endoscopic biopsy of foramen of Monro and third ventricle lesions guided by frameless neuronavigation: usefulness and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Ricardo; Galeano, Inmaculada

    2009-09-01

    To describe our institution experience regarding the usefulness and limitations of frameless neuronavigation in the endoscopic biopsy of foramen of Monro and third ventricle lesions. We report our experience with 22 patients harbouring intraventricular lesions located in the region of the foramen of Monro or the third ventricle who underwent endoscopic biopsy guided by the neuronavigation system. Nine lesions were located on the posterior aspect of the third ventricle or at the pineal region, and thirteen lesions were located at the foramen of Monro or anterior third ventricle region. The endoscopes were introduced via an operating sheath, which had previously been inserted with a trocar under neuronavigational control. After approaching the foramen of Monro from the planned angle, surgery was continued under direct visualisation until the lesion was reached, if it was located on the third ventricle. In cases where the lesion was located at the foramen of Monro, an excellent view of the lesion was obtained and neuronavigation was used to determine the location of critical areas. Histological examination of biopsy specimens obtained endoscopically was diagnostic in all cases. Open surgery following endoscopic biopsy was only needed in 1 patient out of 22. In our experience, image-guided neuroendoscopy can improve the accuracy of the endoscopic approach, minimising brain trauma. It can be particularly helpful when performing a brain biopsy in the absence of clear intraventricular landmarks or in the event of adverse visual conditions such as intraventricular bleeding.

  8. The Unified Patent Court (UPC) in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The new common judiciary for European patents (UPC) will play a crucial role in the future European patent system. The UPC will be a very specialised court that i.a. recruits judges from specialists’ circles and has as part of its mission to develop a coherent and autonomous body of case law...

  9. Patentability of methods of human enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for hum...... future evolution and the corresponding public policy choices. This article seeks to provide prospective patentees with guidance and awareness concerning the patentability of methods for human enhancement.......This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for human...... enhancement. Patents will be instrumental for companies to protect investment in innovation and tap into this potentially valuable market. The European patent system contains, in Article 53(c) EPC, an exception from patentability for methods for treatment and diagnostic methods. Such rule was created...

  10. Disclosure rules and declared essential patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.N.A.; Catalini, C.; Martinelli, Arianna; Righi, C.; Simcoe, T.

    Many standard setting organizations (SSOs) require participants to disclose patents that might be infringed by implementing a proposed standard, and commit to license their “essential” patents on terms that are at least fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory (FRAND). Data from these SSO

  11. Patent protection and licensing in microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisen, Ali K; Volpatti, Lisa R

    2014-07-07

    Microfluidic devices offer control over low-volume samples in order to achieve high-throughput analysis, and reduce turnaround time and costs. Their efficient commercialisation has implications for biomedical sciences, veterinary medicine, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. In particular, market diffusion of microfluidic laboratory and point-of-care diagnostic devices can contribute to the improvement of global health. In their commercialisation, consultancy and patent protection are essential elements that complement academic publishing. The awareness of knowledge transfer strategies can help academics to create value for their research. The aim of this article is to provide a guidance to (1) overview the terminology in patent law, (2) elucidate the process of filing a patent in the US, EU, Japan and internationally, (3) discuss strategies to licence a patent, and (4) explain tactics to defend a patent in a potential infringement. Awareness of the patent law and rights allows obtaining optimised, valid and valuable patents, while accelerating implementation to market route. Striking a balance between academic publishing, consultancy to industry and patent protection can increase commercial potential, enhance economic growth and create social impact.

  12. DOE patents available for licensing: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoeming, G.H.

    1982-06-01

    Abstracts and indexes are provided for 1344 DOE patents or patent applications concerning any aspect of energy production, conservation, and utilization. The entries are arranged by subject category as shown in the table of contents. The bibliography covers the period from January 1974 through December 1980

  13. When patents matter: The impact of competition and patent age on the performance contribution of intellectual property rights protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maresch, Daniela; Fink, Matthias; Harms, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The question whether patenting impacts patenting firms' subsequent financial performance is important for technology-oriented companies. However, relevant research has led to contradictory results. We strive to overcome this impasse by introducing innovation competition and patent age as moderators

  14. Herbal drug patenting in India: IP potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Niharika; Manchikanti, Padmavati; Dey, Satya Hari

    2011-09-01

    Herbal drugs are gaining worldwide prominence due to their distinct advantages. Developing countries have started exploring the ethnopharmacological approach of drug discovery and have begun to file patents on herbal drugs. The expansion of R&D in Indian herbal research organizations and presence of manufacturing units at non-Indian sites is an indication of the capability to develop new products and processes. The present study attempts to identify innovations in the Indian herbal drug sector by analyzing the patenting trends in India, US and EU. Based on key word and IPC based search at the IPO, USPTO, Esp@cenet and WIPO databases, patent applications and grant in herbal drugs by Indian applicants/assignees was collected for the last ten years (from 1st January 2001 to 31st October 2010). From this collection patents related to human therapeutic use only were selected. Analysis was performed to identify filing trends, major applicants/assignees, disease area and major plant species used for various treatments. There is a gradual increase in patent filing through the years. In India, individual inventors have maximum applications and grants. CSIR, among research organizations and Hindustan Unilever, Avesthagen, Piramal Life Science, Sahajanand Biotech and Indus Biotech among the companies have the maximum granted patents in India, US and EU respectively. Diabetes, cancer and inflammatory disorders are the major areas for patenting in India and abroad. Recent patents are on new herbal formulations for treatment of AIDS, hepatitis, skin disorders and gastrointestinal disorders. A majority of the herbal patents applications and grants in India are with individual inventors. Claim analysis indicates that these patents include novel multi-herb compositions with synergistic action. Indian research organizations are more active than companies in filing for patents. CSIR has maximum numbers of applications not only in India but also in the US and EU. Patents by research

  15. On Sharks, Trolls, and Other Patent Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzig, Markus; Henkel, Joachim; Heath, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Patent trolls (or sharks) are small patent holding individuals or firms who trap R&D intense manufacturers in patent infringement situations in order to receive damage awards for the illegitimate use of their technology. While of great concern to management, their existence and impact for both...... corporate decision makers and policy makers remains to be fully analyzed from an academic standpoint. In this paper we show why patent sharks can operate profitably, why they are of growing concern, how manufacturers can forearm themselves against them, and which issues policy makers need to address. To do...... so, we map international indemnification rules with strategic rationales of small patent-holding firms within a game-theoretical model. Our central finding is that the courts’ unrealistic consideration of the trade-offs faced by inadvertent infringers is a central condition for sharks to operate...

  16. Simultaneous invention and the patent law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    inventions they often find this to challenge the idea that patent law (which rewards only the first inventor with exclusive rights) is needed to encourage invention and innovation. We review the empirical evidence alleged to show that simultaneous invention is prevalent for important inventions. In general...... is typical of important pioneer inventions in both survey evidence and alleged illustrative cases of simultaneous invention. We show this in the cases of Edison, the Wright brothers, the Selden automobile patent vis a vis Ford, Watt and the steam engine. We then point out that patent law inherently ensures...... that patent protection is not extended to near simultaneous inventions. There remain a number of simultaneous inventions discovered through interference proceedings but we find the number too small to mount a serious challenge to the general operation of patent law....

  17. Are Patents used to Suppress Useful Technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2006-01-01

    of innovation, other than in the trivial sense of excluding third parties from the right to develop the technology covered by the patent? There are many references to this possibility in the management, economic and legal literatures, but two highly-cited papers stand out for grounding their claims of corporate......This article examines the evidence behind claims that innovation is hindered or blocked (termed technology suppression) by corporations' use of patents. In other words, are there ways in which the exploitation of the exclusive development right of the patent can be shown to retard the process...... and the difference between economic monopoly and an exclusive right. It is argued here that what is at issue in this work is the proper function of the patent institution. It is shown early in this paper that the understanding of the patent institution as a system of development prospects makes better sense...

  18. The Patent Literature As A Shortcut To Identify Knowledge Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    patents which decreases the time span between a patent is filed and its value can be evaluated when searching the patent literature. A potential benefit thereof could be that the patent literature could become relevant in order to identify potential knowledge suppliers.......The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating...

  19. On the aerodynamics of variable-geometry oval-trajectory Darrieus wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponta, F.L.; Seminara, J.J.; Otero, A.D. [College of Engineering, University of Buenos Aires, Paseo Colon 850, Buenos Aires C1063ACV (Argentina)

    2007-01-15

    A new computational model for the aerodynamics of vertical-axis wind turbines is introduced. It is based on the double-multiple streamtube concept and it incorporates the capacity of dealing with rotors whose blades follow oval-trajectories at variable setting-angles. We applied this model to the study of the aerodynamics of an innovative concept in extra-large wind-power plants: the VGOT (variable-geometry oval-trajectory) Darrieus wind turbine. Due to the especial geometric characteristics of the VGOT Darrieus, it was necessary to propose three new non-dimensional parameters to quantify its performance under different wind-conditions: the equivalent power coefficient, the equivalent solidity coefficient and the trajectory efficiency. We show some numerical results testing several rotor configurations working under different wind scenarios. (author)

  20. The process parameters effect of ovality in cross wedge rolling for hollow valve without mandril

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hongchao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the experimental and numerical results of the effect process parameters on ovality in cross wedge rolling (CWR for hollow engine valve without mandrel. Numerical simulation model for ovality was established by means of the rigid-plastic finite element modeling (FEM method for hollow engine valve. The experiments and numerical analyses suggest that the following parameters represent the best conditions for CWR of hollow engine valve: 30°-34° for the forming angle(α, 5°-7° for the stretching angle(β, 0.2-0.3mm for the mold void width(L, and 65%-70% for the area reduction(Ψ.

  1. Section for Standard and Patents - Standardization and Patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtowicz, S.; Trechcinski, R.; Rybka, M.; Ryszkowska, A.; Wardaszko, J.

    1997-01-01

    Standardization; cooperation with the Patent Office Republic of Poland in the areas of inventiveness and patents. (author)

  2. Dawn- Dusk Auroral Oval Oscillations Associated with High- Speed Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Kan; Sibeck, David G.

    2018-01-01

    We report evidence of global-scale auroral oval oscillations in the millihertz range, using global auroral images acquired from the Ultraviolet Imager on board the decommissioned Polar satellite and concurrent solar wind measurements. On the basis of two events (15 January 1999 and 6 January 2000) studied, it is found that (1) quasi-periodic auroral oval oscillations (approximately 3 megahertz) can occur when solar wind speeds are high at northward or southward interplanetary magnetic field turning, (2) the oscillation amplitudes range from a few to more than 10 degrees in latitudes, (3) the oscillation frequency is the same for each event irrespective of local time and without any azimuthal phase shift (i.e., propagation), (4) the auroral oscillations occur in phase within both the dawn and dusk sectors but 180 degrees out of phase between the dawn and dusk sectors, and (5) no micropulsations on the ground match the auroral oscillation periods. While solar wind conditions favor the growth of the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability on the magnetopause as often suggested, the observed wave characteristics are not consistent with predictions for K-H waves. The in-phase and out-of-phase features found in the dawn-dusk auroral oval oscillations suggest that wiggling motions of the magnetotail associated with fast solar winds might be the direct cause of the global-scale millihertz auroral oval oscillations. Plain Language Summary: We utilize global auroral image data to infer the motion of the magnetosphere and show, for the first time, the entire magnetospheric tail can move east-west in harmony like a windsock flapping in wind. The characteristic period of the flapping motion may be a major source of global long-period ULF (Ultra Low Frequency) waves, adding an extra source of the global mode ULF waves.

  3. The Vortex Formerly Known as White Oval BA: Temperature Structure, CloudProperties and Dynamical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn S.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.; Parrish, P. D.; Mousis, O.; Pantin, E.; Fuse, T.; Fujiyoshi, T.; Simon-Miller, A.; Morales-Juberias, R.; Tollestrup, E.; Connelley, M.; Trujillo, C.; Hora, J.; Irwin, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hill, D.; Kollmansberger, S.

    2006-09-01

    White Oval BA, constituted from 3 predecessor vortices (known as Jupiter's "classical" White Ovals) after successive mergers in 1998 and 2000, became second-largest vortex in the atmosphere of Jupiter (and possibly the solar system) at the time of its formation. While it continues in this distinction,it required a name change after a 2005 December through 2006 February transformation which made it appear visually the same color as the Great Red Spot. Our campaign to understand the changes involved examination of the detailed color and wind field using Hubble Space Telescope instrumentation on several orbits in April. The field of temperatures, ammonia distribution and clouds were also examined using the mid-infrared VISIR camera/spectrometer on ESO's 8.2-m Very Large Telescope, the NASA Infrared telescope with the mid-infrared MIRSI instrument and the refurbished near-infrared facility camera NSFCam2. High-resolution images of the Oval were made before the color change with the COMICS mid-infrared facility on the 8.2-m Subaru telescope.We are using these images, togther with images acquired at the IRTF and with the Gemini/North NIRI near-infrared camera between January, 2005, and August, 2006, to characterize the extent to which changes in storm strength (vorticity, postive vertical motion) influenced (i) the depth from which colored cloud particles may have been "dredged up" from depth or (ii) the altitude to which particles may have been lofted and subject to high-energy UV radiation which caused a color change, as alternative explanations for the phenomenon. Clues to this will provide clues to the chemistry of Jupiter's cloud system and its well-known colors in general. The behavior of Oval BA, its interaction with the Great Red Spot in particular,are also being compared with dynamical models run with the EPIC code.

  4. Experimental infection in Cavia porcellus by infected Amblyomma ovale nymphs with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustolin, Joice Magali; da Silva Krawczak, Felipe; Alves, Marta Elena Machado; Weiller, Maria Amélia; de Souza, Camila Lopes; Rosa, Fábio Brum; Cadore, Gustavo Cauduro; Dos Anjos Lopes, Sônia Terezinha; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Sangioni, Luís Antônio

    2018-03-01

    This study describes experimental infection of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) infested with naturally infected Amblyomma ovale nymphs with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain), and the capacity of A. ovale nymphs to transmit this bacterium. Twenty-six guinea pigs were divided into the following groups: G1, 10 animals infested with uninfected A. ovale nymphs; G2, 10 animals infested with nymphs infected with Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain); and G3, 6 animals without tick infestation. Blood samples were taken 7, 14, 21, and 28 days post-infestation for serological and hematological tests. For histopathological analysis and rickettsial DNA detection, fragments of the spleen, lung, brain, and liver were harvested after euthanasia. The average feeding period for nymphs was 6.6 days for G1 and 6 days for G2. Hemolymph and PCR assays, performed to detect the causative agent in ticks, indicated that in G1, all ticks were negative, and in G2, all nymphs were positive by PCR and 80% (8/10) was positive by hemolymph tests. The only clinical change was skin scarring at the tick attachment site. Hematological parameters indicated leukopenia and total plasma protein (TPP) increased with decreased platelets in G1. In G2, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, monocytosis, an increase in platelets, and reduced TPP were observed. Only G2 guinea pigs were seroconverted (80%; 8/10). Histopathology tests indicated mild, diffuse hemosiderosis and mild, multifocal, follicular hyperplasia in the spleen. Molecular analysis did not detect Rickettsia sp. DNA in C. porcellus tissues. We demonstrated the capacity of A. ovale nymphs to transmit Rickettsia sp. (Atlantic rainforest strain) to guinea pigs.

  5. Dynamics of classical particles in oval or elliptic billiards with a dispersing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Diogo Ricardo da; Dettmann, Carl P.; Oliveira, Juliano A. de; Leonel, Edson D.

    2015-01-01

    Some dynamical properties for an oval billiard with a scatterer in its interior are studied. The dynamics consists of a classical particle colliding between an inner circle and an external boundary given by an oval, elliptical, or circle shapes, exploring for the first time some natural generalizations. The billiard is indeed a generalization of the annular billiard, which is of strong interest for understanding marginally unstable periodic orbits and their role in the boundary between regular and chaotic regions in both classical and quantum (including experimental) systems. For the oval billiard, which has a mixed phase space, the presence of an obstacle is an interesting addition. We demonstrate, with details, how to obtain the equations of the mapping, and the changes in the phase space are discussed. We study the linear stability of some fixed points and show both analytically and numerically the occurrence of direct and inverse parabolic bifurcations. Lyapunov exponents and generalized bifurcation diagrams are obtained. Moreover, histograms of the number of successive iterations for orbits that stay in a cusp are studied. These histograms are shown to be scaling invariant when changing the radius of the scatterer, and they have a power law slope around −3. The results here can be generalized to other kinds of external boundaries

  6. Radiographic and computed tomographic features of caval foramen hernias of the liver in 7 dogs: mimicking lung nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Soyoung; Jo, Jieun; Lee, Seungjun; Eom, Kidong

    2016-12-01

    This study describes the imaging features and characteristics of caval foramen hernias in 7 dogs diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). On lateral radiographs, 6 of 7 dogs showed dome-shaped, broad-based, caudal mediastinal lesions. CT findings included caudal vena cava (CVC) compression (n=7), right lateral (n=6) or medial (n=1) liver lobe involvement, hepatic vein dilation (n=5) and biliary tract involvement (n=1) with partial (n=6) or entire (n=1) liver lobe hernias. A caval foramen hernia should be part of the differential diagnosis when the aforementioned imaging features are detected. CT is considered as a useful tool for diagnosis and evaluation in dogs with a caval foramen hernia.

  7. Computed tomography in the foramen magnum and high cervical cord lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isu, T.; Ito, T.; Iwasaki, Y.; Tsuru, M. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine); Kitaoka, K.

    1981-10-01

    The value of computed tomography in the spine and spinal cord disease recently has been well documented. However, little attention is made to the role of computed tomography in foramen magnum and high cervical cord lesion. We report 16 cases of the foramen magnum and high cervical cord lesion. Method: Either EMI Head Scanner, CT 1010 (slice thickness 10 mm) or EMI Whole Body Scanner, CT 5005 (slice thickness 13 mm) was used. In 9 cases enhanced CT with intravenous injection of contrast medium was performed. Eleven cases received intrathecal injection of metrizamide. Materials: 1) control group without cervical pathology 70 cases, 2) spinal cord tumor 6 cases, 3) atlanto-axial dislocation 6 cases, 4) Chiari malformation (type 1) 3 cases, 5) spinal foreign body (acupuncture needle) 1 case. Results: 1. plain CT. 1) In control group without cervical pathology the cervical cord at C/sub 1/ level was seen as area surrounded by ring of subarachnoid space. 2) In 14 cases except for 1 case of atlanto-axial dislocation and 1 case of spinal foreign body identification of the cervical cord at C/sub 1/ level was impossible. 3) CT was of diagnostic value in detecting altanto-axial dislocation and spinal foreign body. 2. enhanded CT. Meningioma and neurinoma showed positive contrast enhancement. However, astrocytoma and herniated cerebellar tonsils were not detectable. 3. CT metrizamide myelography visualized the subarachnoid space and made it possible to localize the lesion in the spinal canal in relation to the spinal cord. Conclusion: Attention should be given to plain CT finding at C/sub 1/ level in diagnosis of foramen magnum and high cervical cord lesion. If identification of cervical cord at C/sub 1/ level is impossible, it is suspected that subarachnoid space is blocked by the lesion, and enhanced CT and CT metrizamide myelography must be performed.

  8. ILEAL HERNIATION THROUGH THE FORAMEN OF WINSLOW: OVEREATING AS A RISK FACTOR FOR INTERNAL HERNIATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirigin, Lora Stanka; Nikolić, Marko; Kruljac, Ivan; Marjan, Domagoj; Penavić, Ivan; Ljubicić, Neven; Budimir, Ivan; Vrkljan, Milan

    2016-03-01

    Internal hernias have an overall incidence of less than 1% and are difficult to diagnose clinically due to their nonspecific presentation. Most internal hernias present as strangulating closed-loop obstruction and delay in surgical intervention is responsible for a high mortality rate (49%). We present a case of ileal herniation through the foramen of Winslow. A 29-year-old previously healthy female presented with acute onset right upper quadrant pain, abdominal fullness, and nausea. The pain was sudden in onset and began shortly after a dinner party where she consumed larger portions of food. Laboratory investigations revealed mild leukocytosis with left shift. Dual-phase multi-detector computed tomography disclosed herniation of the small bowel into the lesser sac. The patient underwent an emergency median laparotomy that revealed ileal herniation through the foramen of Winslow. Adhesiolysis and manual reduction of the bowel was performed, and the reduced bowel showed only congestive changes. The postoperative recovery was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the third postoperative day. Risk factors for internal herniation still remain unclear, although excessively mobile bowel loops and an enlarged foramen of Winslow have been described. Our case demonstrated that overeating could be an additional risk factor for internal herniation. We describe our clinical and radiology findings, as well as surgical management. Due to the high rates of morbidity and mortality, it is imperative that clinicians be aware of the possible risks factors for internal herniation. Internal hernias should be included in the differential diagnosis of small bowel obstruction so that appropriate steps can be made in the work-up of these patients, followed by timely surgical intervention.

  9. Microcomputed tomography analysis of mesiobuccal orifices and major apical foramen in first maxillary molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, Gianrico; Ametrano, Gianluca; D'Antò, Vincenzo; Formisano, Anna; Simeone, Michele; Riccitiello, Francesco; Amato, Massimo; Rengo, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study was to determined by microcomputed tomography (µCT) the horizontal distance between the main (MB1) and the second mesiobuccal canal (MB2) orifices, the vertical distance between the MB1 and MB2 orifices planes, and the distance between the anatomic apex and major apical foramen (AF). Furthermore, we characterized the entire internal and external anatomy of the MB, distalbuccal (DB) and palatal (P) maxillary first molars roots. Twenty-two intact extracted first maxillary molars were scanned by X-ray computed transaxial µCT and then 2D and 3D images were processed and analyzed. The results showed that 77.27% of the mesiobuccal (MB) roots presented a second MB canal, and 29.41% of the MB2 were independent from the MB1 canals. In 15 teeth, there were three root canal orifices on the chamber floor, and 10 of these teeth presented MB2 canals. The mean vertical distance between the MB1 and MB2 planes was 1.68 ± 0.83 mm. Seven teeth had four orifices. The mean horizontal interorificial distance between the MB1 and MB2 orifices was 1.21 ± 0.5 mm. Accessory canals were observed in 33.33% of the roots, loops in 6.06%, while isthmuses were found in 15 of the 22 MB roots. Of the total roots, 74.24% presented one foramen, while all of the roots showed a major apical foramen that was not coincident with the anatomic apex. Our µCT analysis provided interesting features on the horizontal and vertical distance between the MB1 and MB2 orifices and on the distance of AF and anatomic apex. These results have an important clinical value because might support the endodontist in the recruitment, negotiation and obturation of maxillary first molar canal system.

  10. Development of a new laparoscopic Foramen Epiploicum Mesh Closure (FEMC) technique in 6 horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bergen, T; Wiemer, P; Bosseler, L; Ugahary, F; Martens, A

    2016-05-01

    Epiploic foramen entrapment (EFE) is, based on the number of reports in the literature, a relatively important life-threatening cause of colic in horses that could be prevented by closing the epiploic foramen (EF) in horses at risk of developing EFE. To describe the laparoscopic foramen epiploicum mesh closure (FEMC) technique and its outcome. Descriptive experimental study. The EF of 6 horses was closed with the FEMC technique. A diabolo-shaped constructed mesh was introduced into the omental vestibule through the EF under laparoscopic visualisation in the standing sedated horse. Clinical and laboratory parameters were recorded during the post operative period. Four weeks after the intervention, repeat laparoscopy was performed in all horses. Three horses were subjected to euthanasia one, 2 and 3 months after the intervention, and were examined on necropsy and histopathology. The remaining 3 horses were followed clinically for 6 months. The 6 FEMC procedures were performed successfully in a median surgery time of 22 min (range 18-27 min). One horse was treated for large colon impaction in the immediate post operative period. On repeat laparoscopy at 4 weeks all 6 EFs were closed and no undesired adhesions were identified. This was confirmed on gross and histopathological examination of the 3 horses that were subjected to euthanasia. The 3 remaining horses were clinically normal in the 6-month post operative observation period. This FEMC technique provides a fast, simple, reliable and safe procedure to obliterate the EF and may be useful in horses at risk for EFE. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  11. Computed tomography in the foramen magnum and high cervical cord lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isu, Toyohiko; Ito, Terufumi; Iwasaki, Yoshnobu; Tsuru, Mitsuo; Kitaoka, Kenichi.

    1981-01-01

    The value of computed tomography in the spine and spinal cord disease recently has been well documented. However, little attention is made to the role of computed tomography in foramen magnum and high cervical cord lesion. We report 16 cases of the foramen magnum and high cervical cord lesion. Method: Either EMI Head Scanner, CT 1010 (slice thickness 10 mm) or EMI Whole Body Scanner, CT 5005 (slice thickness 13 mm) was used. In 9 cases enhanced CT with intravenous injection of contrast medium was performed. Eleven cases received intrathecal injection of metrizamide. Materials: 1) control group without cervical pathology 70 cases, 2) spinal cord tumor 6 cases, 3) atlanto-axial dislocation 6 cases, 4) Chiari malformation (type 1) 3 cases, 5) spinal foreign body (acupuncture needle) 1 case. Results: 1. plain CT. 1) In control group without cervical pathology the cervical cord at C 1 level was seen as area surrounded by ring of subarachnoid space. 2) In 14 cases except for 1 case of atlanto-axial dislocation and 1 case of spinal foreign body identification of the cervical cord at C 1 level was impossible. 3) CT was of diagnostic value in detecting altanto-axial dislocation and spinal foreign body. 2. enhanded CT. Meningioma and neurinoma showed positive contrast enhancement. However, astrocytoma and herniated cerebellar tonsils were not detectable. 3. CT metrizamide myelography visualized the subarachnoid space and made it possible to localize the lesion in the spinal canal in relation to the spinal cord. Conclusion: Attention should be given to plain CT finding at C 1 level in diagnosis of foramen magnum and high cervical cord lesion. If identification of cervical cord at C 1 level is impossible, it is suspected that subarachnoid space is blocked by the lesion, and enhanced CT and CT metrizamide myelography must be performed. (author)

  12. Patent Keyword Extraction for Sustainable Technology Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongchan Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, sustainable growth and development has become an important issue for governments and corporations. However, maintaining sustainable development is very difficult. These difficulties can be attributed to sociocultural and political backgrounds that change over time [1]. Because of these changes, the technologies for sustainability also change, so governments and companies attempt to predict and manage technology using patent analyses, but it is very difficult to predict the rapidly changing technology markets. The best way to achieve insight into technology management in this rapidly changing market is to build a technology management direction and strategy that is flexible and adaptable to the volatile market environment through continuous monitoring and analysis. Quantitative patent analysis using text mining is an effective method for sustainable technology management. There have been many studies that have used text mining and word-based patent analyses to extract keywords and remove noise words. Because the extracted keywords are considered to have a significant effect on the further analysis, researchers need to carefully check out whether they are valid or not. However, most prior studies assume that the extracted keywords are appropriate, without evaluating their validity. Therefore, the criteria used to extract keywords needs to change. Until now, these criteria have focused on how well a patent can be classified according to its technical characteristics in the collected patent data set, typically using term frequency–inverse document frequency weights that are calculated by comparing the words in patents. However, this is not suitable when analyzing a single patent. Therefore, we need keyword selection criteria and an extraction method capable of representing the technical characteristics of a single patent without comparing them with other patents. In this study, we proposed a methodology to extract valid keywords from

  13. Threading the Needle: Intrapelvic Displacement of a Femoral Neck Fracture through the Obturator Foramen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautham Prabhakar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite timely and appropriate management, displaced femoral neck fractures are often devastating injuries for the young patient. The risk of negative sequelae is further amplified with increasing displacement and vertical fracture patterns. Open anatomic reduction with rigid internal fixation is essential to maximize the healing potential in displaced fractures of the femoral neck. Successful primary osteosynthesis of significantly displaced femoral neck fractures in the young patient has been reported in the literature. We present a unique case of open reduction and internal fixation of a high-energy femoral neck fracture with extrusion of the head through the obturator foramen into the pelvis without associated acetabular or pelvic injury.

  14. Accuracy of five electronic foramen locators with different operating systems: an ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Bruno Carvalho de; Bueno, Michelli de Medeiros; Luna-Cruz, Suyane Maria; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Fernandes, Carlos Augusto de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, ex vivo, the precision of five electronic root canal length measurement devices (ERCLMDs) with different operating systems: the Root ZX, Mini Apex Locator, Propex II, iPex, and RomiApex A-15, and the possible influence of the positioning of the instrument tips short of the apical foramen. Forty-two mandibular bicuspids had their real canal lengths (RL) previously determined. Electronic measurements were performed 1.0 mm short of the apical foramen (-1.0), followed by measurements at the apical foramen (0.0). The data resulting from the comparison of the ERCLMD measurements and the RL were evaluated by the Wilcoxon and Friedman tests at a significance level of 5%. Considering the measurements performed at 0.0 and -1.0, the precision rates for the ERCLMDs were: 73.5% and 47.1% (Root ZX), 73.5% and 55.9% (Mini Apex Locator), 67.6% and 41.1% (Propex II), 61.7% and 44.1% (iPex), and 79.4% and 44.1% (RomiApex A-15), respectively, considering ±0.5 mm of tolerance. Regarding the mean discrepancies, no differences were observed at 0.0; however, in the measurements at -1.0, the iPex, a multi-frequency ERCLMD, had significantly more discrepant readings short of the apical foramen than the other devices, except for the Propex II, which had intermediate results. When the ERCLMDs measurements at -1.0 were compared with those at 0.0, the Propex II, iPex and RomiApex A-15 presented significantly higher discrepancies in their readings. Under the conditions of the present study, all the ERCLMDs provided acceptable measurements at the 0.0 position. However, at the -1.0 position, the ERCLMDs had a lower precision, with statistically significant differences for the Propex II, iPex, and RomiApex A-15.

  15. Morphologic and Morphometric Analysis of Lingula in Localizing Mandibular Foramen with its Surgical Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phalguni Srimani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Morphologic and morphometric evaluation of mandible is clinically important. Considering the close relationship of lingula with neurovascular structures entering through mandibular foramen, lingula is often used as an important bony landmark during oral and maxillofacial surgical approach and inferior alveolar nerve block anaesthesia. Inadequate anatomical knowledge may result various intra operative complications like haemorrhge, fractures and nerve injury. Also, structural variations of lingula followed by inaccurate localization of mandibular foramen have been implicated as causative factor for unsuccessful inferior alveolar nerve block anaesthesia. Aim: To determine morphological and morphometric variations related to lingula of mandible in localizing mandibular foramen and to compare the results with similar type of osteological studies performed earlier on different population group. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 36 adult dry human mandibles on both sides to categorize lingula according to its various shapes and determine the location of lingula based on surrounding mandibular landmarks by using Vernier caliper as 5 distances from tip of lingula as follows: i to anterior border of ramus of mandible; ii to posterior border of ramus of mandible; iii to centre of mandibular notch; iv to the alveolar socket of second molar tooth; and v to the base of mandible. The present study also indicated bilingual distance between tips of lingula of both sides. Data collected were analyzed statistically. Results: The most common shape of lingula was observed as triangular (51.39% followed by truncated (23.61%, then nodular (20.83% and assimilated (4.17% as least prevalent type. The average distances of tip of lingula from anterior and posterior borders of ramus of mandible were 18.21±1.50 mm and 16.33±1.21 mm respectively. On average, the tip of lingula was situated at 18.17±1.51 mm, 33.40±2.11 mm and 32.07±2.68 mm

  16. Multidetector computed tomography diagnosis of gastric volvulus through the foramen of Morgagni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecouvet, S; Coulier, B; Pierard, F; Gogoase, M; Coppens, J P; Van Hoof, M

    2014-01-01

    Morgagni hernia is considered to be the rarest form of all diaphragmatic hernias. It develops through a congenital defect in the retrosternal area. Usually asymptomatic, this entity can lead to life-threatening complications such as incarceration, strangulation or volvulus of the herniated viscus. We hereby report a rare case of organoaxial gastric volvulus producing through the foramen of Morgagni in a 78-year-old woman. The full diagnosis was made by upper gastro-intestinal series and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The basic anatomy, physiopathology, diagnostic methods, complications and surgical treatment of Morgagni hernia are briefly reviewed.

  17. Unilateral Absence of Mental Foramen with Surgical Exploration in a Living Human Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Ulu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mental foramen (MF is an important anatomic landmark of the mandible, in which the somatic afferent sensory nerve of the mandibular nerve emerges as mental nerve and blood vessels. The identification and actual location of MF are important in order to avoid sensory dysfunction or paresthesia due to mental nerve injury. In the literature there are some rare reports on the anatomical variations of the MF such as its location or presence of accessory foramina. The present report describes the absence of mental foramina on the left side of the mandible, as detected by cone-beam computed tomography before impacted tooth removal and observed directly during surgery.

  18. Position of the Mental Foramen in Panoramic Radiography and Its Relationship to Age in a Selected Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The position of the mental foramen is critical for surgery and local anesthesia. Objectives This study was conducted to assess the position of the mental foramen and its relationship to age in a selected Iranian population. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Three hundred panoramic radiographs were assessed. Three variables were assessed for each radiograph: anterior-posterior position, superior-inferior position, and radiographic appearance. The position and appearance of the mental foramen were recorded according to gender and age. The results were analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Results Considering the anterior-posterior position, the mental foramina were located in the following positions: between premolars (41.5%, at the apex of the second premolars (31.7%, in the posterior area of the second premolars (19.2%, in the anterior area of the first premolars (4.3%, and at the apex of the first premolars (3.3%.The superior-inferior position of the mental foramina were below, above, and at the level of the apices of the premolars in 78.8%, 2.5%, and 18.7% of cases, respectively. The appearance of the mental foramen was continuous in relation to the mandibular canal in 55.9% of cases, while it was separated, diffuse, and unidentified in 29.5%, 9.7%, and 5% of cases, respectively. Age was found to affect the position and appearance of mental foramen. Conclusions The mental foramina were most commonly located between the first and second premolars and below the apex. A continuous appearance was the most common appearance for the mental foramen, which was similar in males and females.

  19. Teaching Chemistry Students How To Use Patent Databases and Glean Patent Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Margy; Shaw, Lawton

    2008-07-01

    Patent literature is an important source of chemical information that is often neglected by chemical educators. This paper describes an effort to teach chemistry students how to use patent databases to search for information on applied chemical technology related to the manufacture of industrial and specialty chemicals. Students in a second-year-level organic chemistry class were shown how to search patent literature as part of a group research paper assignment that involved determining the feasibility of starting an industrial chemical operation to manufacture a given industrial chemical. Students who were assigned high value or specialty chemicals were most likely to cite patent literature in their final papers. Students who were assigned plastics or bulk commodity chemicals were less likely to cite patents. It is suggested that students made choices about the usefulness of patent literature and that patents were most useful when current patents existed and provided the patent owner a competitive advantage. For plastics or commodity chemicals, manufacturing technologies tend to be mature and are well described by more accessible information sources. Suggestions are made for effective introduction of patent literature instruction into upper-level chemistry courses.

  20. Physiological Responses during Cycling With Oval Chainrings (Q-Ring) and Circular Chainrings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Alfredo; Latasa, Iban; Seco, Jesus; Villa, Gerardo; Rodriguez-Falces, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the physiological responses of cyclists using round (C-ring) or oval (Q-ring) chainrings during an incremental test until exhaustion. Following a randomized design, twelve male elite cyclists [age (mean ± SD): 21.1 ± 2.1 yr; VO2max: 78.1 ± 5.3 mL·kg(-1)min(-1)] performed two incremental maximal tests separated by 48 h (one with C-rings, the other with Q-rings). Starting at 100 W, the workload was increased by 25 W every 3 min until volitional exhaustion. Maximal heart rate, power output and oxygen consumption were compared. Blood lactate was monitored throughout the test. After the incremental test, 4 intermittent 20-s maximal sprints with a 60-s recovery period in between were performed. Maximal isometric voluntary contractions were performed at rest and immediately after each 20-s maximal sprint, and the force and EMG RMS amplitude were recorded from the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis muscles. For the incremental exercise test, no significant differences were found in the maximal power output (P=0.12), oxygen consumption (P=0.39), and heart rate (P=0.32) between Q-rings and C-rings. Throughout the incremental test, lactate levels were comparable when using both the C-rings and Q-rings (P=0.47). During the short sprints, power output was 2.5-6.5% greater for Q-rings than for C-rings (P=0.22). The decline in EMG RMS amplitude observed during the incremental tests was comparable for Q-rings and C-rings (0.42). These findings indicate that the oval chainring design, presented here as "Q-rings", did not significantly influence the physiological response to an incremental exercise test as compared to a conventional chainring. Key pointsDuring the incremental exercise test, no significant differences were found in power output, oxygen consumption or heart rate between oval "Q-rings" and conventional chainrings.Over the course of the incremental test, blood lactate levels were comparable for the oval "Q-rings" and

  1. Radiographic and computed tomographic features of caval foramen hernias of the liver in 7 dogs: mimicking lung nodules

    OpenAIRE

    KIM, Jaehwan; KIM, Soyoung; JO, Jieun; LEE, Seungjun; EOM, Kidong

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the imaging features and characteristics of caval foramen hernias in 7 dogs diagnosed by computed tomography (CT). On lateral radiographs, 6 of 7 dogs showed dome-shaped, broad-based, caudal mediastinal lesions. CT findings included caudal vena cava (CVC) compression (n=7), right lateral (n=6) or medial (n=1) liver lobe involvement, hepatic vein dilation (n=5) and biliary tract involvement (n=1) with partial (n=6) or entire (n=1) liver lobe hernias. A caval foramen hernia...

  2. AVC/H.264 patent portfolio license

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalis, Dean A.

    2006-08-01

    MPEG LA, LLC offers a joint patent license for the AVC (a/k/a H.264) Standard (ISO/IEC IS 14496-10:2004). Like MPEG LA's other licenses, the AVC Patent Portfolio License is offered for the convenience of the marketplace as an alternative enabling users to access essential intellectual property owned by many patent holders under a single license rather than negotiating licenses with each of them individually. The AVC Patent Portfolio License includes essential patents owned by DAEWOO Electronics Corporation; Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI); France Telecom, societe anonyme; Fujitsu Limited; Hitachi, Ltd.; Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.; LG Electronics Inc.; Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.; Microsoft Corporation; Mitsubishi Electric Corporation; Robert Bosch GmbH; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.; Sedna Patent Services, LLC; Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha; Siemens AG; Sony Corporation; The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York; Toshiba Corporation; UB Video Inc.; and Victor Company of Japan, Limited. Another is expected also to join as of August 1, 2006. MPEG LA's objective is to provide worldwide access to as much AVC essential intellectual property as possible for the benefit of AVC users. Therefore, any party that believes it has essential patents is welcome to submit them for evaluation of their essentiality and inclusion in the License if found essential.

  3. The Transformation of Science Into Patented Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested. The fin......This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety......, which can be mobilized by patent experts with both an in-depth understanding of the scientific discovery, due to their educational background in the life sciences, and capabilities within the legal framework for patenting. More specifically, the findings reveal previously unreported aspects...

  4. Exploring Contextual Models in Chemical Patent Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Jay; Frieder, Ophir

    We explore the development of probabilistic retrieval models for integrating term statistics with entity search using multiple levels of document context to improve the performance of chemical patent search. A distributed indexing model was developed to enable efficient named entity search and aggregation of term statistics at multiple levels of patent structure including individual words, sentences, claims, descriptions, abstracts, and titles. The system can be scaled to an arbitrary number of compute instances in a cloud computing environment to support concurrent indexing and query processing operations on large patent collections.

  5. Quinoxaline derivatives: a patent review (2006--present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Mercedes; Cerecetto, Hugo

    2012-11-01

    Quinoxaline scaffold is included in a large number of therapeutic agents because of its physicochemical properties that make the difference between them and the carbono analogue, naphthalene. This review of patented products presents the quinoxaline heterocycle as part of the structural patent claims from a medicinal chemistry perspective. We centred our discussion in the various drug patent applications of the quinoxaline and its derivatives. The applications are based firstly in the specific enzyme target with very low development in the disease treatment. Only for cancer and antimicrobial agents they were specifically determined but little is mentioned in order to insight in the last development activities.

  6. Patent border wars: defining the boundary between scientific discoveries and patentable inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Christopher M

    2007-12-01

    Drawing an appropriate boundary between unpatentable natural phenomena and patentable inventions is crucial in preventing the patent laws from unduly restricting access to fundamental scientific discoveries. Some would argue that, particularly in the U.S., patents are being issued that purport to claim a novel product or process but that, in effect, encompass any practical application of a fundamental biological principle. Examples include gene patents, which Congress is considering banning, and patents relating to biological correlations and pathways, such as the patents at issue in the headline-grabbing LabCorp v. Metabolite and Ariad v. Eli Lilly litigations. In view of the mounting concern, it seems likely that Congress and/or the courts will address the issue, and perhaps substantially shift the boundary.

  7. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information

  8. Valuing patents on cost-reducing technology: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Triest, S.P.; van de Vis, Wim

    2007-01-01

    We present an approach for valuing patents on production process improvements. Specifically, we focus on valuing a patent on cost-reducing process improvements from the viewpoint of the patent holding firm. We do this by considering the relevant cash flows that result from owning the patent. The

  9. 78 FR 62367 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    ... Office 37 CFR Parts 1, 3 and 11 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (PLTIA) amends...

  10. 78 FR 21787 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 3 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Proposed Rule #0;#0...-0007] RIN 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties...

  11. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright infringement liability. 1327.201 Section 1327.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and...

  12. The European Patent System: Dealing with emerging technologies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa; Groenendijk, Nico

    2011-01-01

    In light of recent controversial patent decisions in biotechnology, this article argues that the current European patent examination and opposition procedures do not suffice to balance the patent system These procedures do not provide sufficient guidance for patent examiners to deal effectively with

  13. 48 CFR 970.2702-3 - Patent indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent indemnity. 970.2702... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2702-3 Patent indemnity. (a) Contracting officers must use the clause at 970.5227-6, Patent Indemnity—Subcontracts to...

  14. 14 CFR 1214.112 - Patent, data and information matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent, data and information matters. 1214... Customers § 1214.112 Patent, data and information matters. (a) Patent and data rights. NASA will not acquire rights to inventions, patents or proprietary data which may be used in, or arise from, activities for...

  15. 77 FR 269 - Matters Related to Patent Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Matters Related to Patent Appeals ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office... Matters Related to Patent Appeals comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K. Fawcett...

  16. 48 CFR 31.205-30 - Patent costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent costs. 31.205-30....205-30 Patent costs. (a) The following patent costs are allowable to the extent that they are incurred... patent application where title or royalty-free license is to be conveyed to the Government. (b) General...

  17. 76 FR 53885 - Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and... ``Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K...

  18. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2... FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National Science... adopted the following statement of NSF patent policy. (a) In accordance with the Bayh-Dole Act and the...

  19. Locomotor pattern fails to predict foramen magnum angle in rodents, strepsirrhine primates, and marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Aidan A; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Meindl, Richard S; Lovejoy, C Owen

    2016-05-01

    Foramen magnum position has traditionally been used as an indicator of bipedality because it has been thought to favor a more "balanced" skull position. Here, we analyzed foramen magnum angle (FMA) in relation to locomotion in three mammalian orders that include bipedal or orthograde species in addition to quadrupedal or pronograde species. In marsupials and strepsirrhine primates, we found that there is no relationship between locomotor pattern and FMA. In rodents, we found that there is a significant difference in FMA between bipedal and quadrupedal rodents. However, when these species are analyzed in the context of enlarged auditory bullae, this relationship is no longer significant. Additionally, we find a significant relationship between relative brain size and FMA in strepsirrhine primates. Taken together, these data indicate that several developmental modules of the cranium influence FMA, but that locomotion does not. We caution that basicranial evolution is a complex phenomenon that must be explored in the context of each taxon's unique evolutionary and developmental history. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor in a Teenager with Unusual Infiltration Into the Jugular Foramen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaka, Yoko T; Yoon, Janet M; Malicki, Denise M; Khanna, Paritosh C; Levy, Michael L; Crawford, John R

    2015-12-01

    Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor is a rare malignant neoplasm that represents 1%-2% of all pediatric central nervous system tumors. Immunohistochemistry plays an important role in establishing the diagnosis with a loss of INI-1 staining in tumor cells. In this case report, we describe a teenager with an unusual presentation and pattern of infiltration of the tumor. A 13-year-old boy presented with a history over several months of progressive nausea, weight loss, and hoarseness of voice associated with multiple lower cranial nerve palsies on neurologic examination. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large heterogeneously enhancing extra-axial neoplasm with extension and bony expansion of the jugular foramen. After near total resection, neuropathology demonstrated the absence of INI-1 expression consistent with a diagnosis of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor. This case highlights the diverse clinical presentation and infiltrative potential of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors, thus expanding the differential diagnosis of extra-axial tumors invading the jugular foramen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuroradiological evaluation of benign extramedullary tumors in the high cervical region and at the foramen magnum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiura, Iwao; Koyama, Tsunemaro; Tanaka, Kimito; Aii, Heihachirou

    1986-06-01

    Twelve cases of benign extramedullary tumors in the high cervical region and at the foramen magnum were experienced during past five years among eighty all spinal and paraspinal tumors. The diagnosis of masses in this region is very difficult because of the variety of clinical course, symptoms and neurological findings as pointed out by many reporters. Also in our cases, 70 % of the patients complained of the deteriorated motor weakness of the upper or lower extremities on admission, though they had noticed the onset of slight neck or occipital pain a few years ago. Neurological examination on admission clearly showed the symptom of myelopathy except in two cases with a tumor at the foramen magnum and C/sub 1/ level. The percentage of positive findings of plain X-rays was 50 %, that of metrizamide myelography was 92 % and that of IV. e. CT and met. e. CT was 100 %. NMR-CT was performed in 2 cases, and in one of them it was useful in confirming the tumor configuration and extension. Five interesting cases were described mainly from the neuroradiological aspects. Finally the differentiation between meningioma and neurinoma was discussed from the aspects of myelogram, CT and NMR-CT. As already pointed out, it is most important not to forget the existence of tumors in this region when one comes across the confused symptoms, afterwards not to overlook the slight positive neurological and neuroradiological findings.

  2. A Database of EPO-Patenting Firms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    1998-01-01

    The first section gives a brief introduction of the basic stages to be observed by the patent applicant from idea to the patent is granted. Section two presents three examples of how patents are registered in the online patent database INPADOC. Section three accounts for the initial analysis...... of the existing patent stock issued to firms with domicile in Denmark. Sections four and five report the basic characteristics of the EPO-patent sample and the procedures for linking the patent statistics to accounting data at the firm level, and finally they present the basic properties of the resulting database...

  3. Managing the patent thicket and maximizing patent lifetime in vaccine technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertes, Maria M M; Stötter, Gerd

    2010-10-01

    Patents are exclusive rights for a limited period of time that are granted to provide an incentive for innovation and in exchange for the public disclosure of an invention. Patenting in the medical field, especially in the field of human vaccine technologies, is full of pitfalls, because the products that finally access the market are often covered by a multitude of exclusive IP rights. This commentary gives an overview on obstacles in vaccine patenting and how to overcome them, and intends to provide a patenting guideline for researchers.

  4. Effect of Oval Posts on Stress Distribution in Endodontically Treated Teeth: A Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Mahmoodi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In post-core crown restorations, the use of prefabricated composite posts concentrate stress at the cervical region and the use of metal posts (prefabricated and customized posts concentrates stress at the interfaces. Fiber reinforced composite posts (FRCs with oval cross-section (oval posts were proposed for post-core crown restorations to reduce the stress levels at the cervical region. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of oval cross-section composite posts on stress distribution of premolar with oval-shaped canal by using three-dimensional (3D finite element analysis. Materials and Methods: An extracted premolar tooth was mounted, sectioned, and photographed to create a 3D model. The surrounding tissues of the tooth, periodontal ligament, as well as cortical and trabecular bones were modeled. Seven taper posts with two different cross-section geometries (circular and oval shapes were modeled, as well. Then, the effect of post geometry, post material (carbon fiber and fiberglass, and cement material were investigated by 3D finite element analysis and the stress distribution results were compared. Results: In all the models, the highest stress levels of the dentin were accumulated at the coronal third of the root, and the highest stress levels at the bonding layers were accumulated at the cervical margin. Narrow circular posts induced the highest stress levels, whereas the stress levels were reduced by using thick oval posts. Application of elastic cement reduces the stress at the bonding layers but increases stress at the dentin. Conclusion: Finite element analysis showed that prefabricated oval posts are superior to traditional circular ones. The use of cement with low elastic modulus reduces the risk of debonding but raises the risk of root fracture.

  5. Multiple current sheets in a double auroral oval observed from the MAGION-2 and MAGION-3 satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Echim

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available A case is described of multiple current sheets crossed by the MAGION-2 satellite in the near-midnight quieting auroral oval. The data were obtained by the magnetometer experiment onboard. Results show during a quieting period after a preceding substorm, or during an early growth phase of the next substorm, two double-sheet current bands, POLB and EQUB, located at respectively the polar and equatorial borders of the auroral oval separated by about 500 km in latitude. This is consistent with the double-oval structure during recovery introduced by Elphinstone et al. (1995. Within the POLB, the magnetic field data show simultaneous existence of several narrow parallel bipolar current sheets within the upward current branch (at 69.5–70.3° invariant latitude with an adjacent downward current branch at its polar side at (70.5–71.3°. The EQUB was similarly stratified and located at 61.2–63.5° invariant latitude. The narrow current sheets were separated on average by about 35 km and 15 km, respectively, within the POLB and EQUB. A similar case of double-oval current bands with small-scale structuring of their upward current branches during a quieting period is found in the data from the MAGION-3 satellite. These observations contribute to the double-oval structure of the late recovery phase, and add a small-scale structuring of the upward currents producing the auroral arcs in the double- oval pattern, at least for the cases presented here. Other observations of multiple auroral current sheets and theories of auroral arc multiplicity are briefly discussed. It is suggested that multiple X-lines in the distant tail, and/or leakage of energetic particles and FA currents from a series of plasmoids formed during preceding magnetic activity, could be one cause of highly stratified upward FA currents at the polar edge of the quieting double auroral oval.

  6. Revising the Complex Economics of Patent Scope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    Merges and Nelson claim to have provided an empirically grounded argument that pioneer patents of 'broad' scope are used to block technological development. It is widely understood in both law and economics that they have, as they claim, faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents, a theory...... that a function of patents is to enable the coordinated development of novel technical ideas. This article is a critical review of Merges and Nelson's historical empirical evidence. I find that, first, 'broad' scope is only implicated in one of the examples cited by Merges and Nelson as supportive evidence...... - the Wright brothers' warped-wing patent; second, that strict development block, defined as the prevention, or retardation of the development of technology understood to be capable of useful development, was not illustrated by any of their examples. Therefore I conclude that their general thesis...

  7. Turning Technology into Business Using University Patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, L.

    2014-01-01

    We present an education paradigm that stimulates innovation and entrepreneurship through a master's-level university course: "Turning Technology into Business". The course was specifically designed to connect technological research with education using patented technologies developed at the research

  8. Internet: A place for patent retrieval

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-05-16

    May 16, 2006 ... Key words: Biotechnology, intellectual property rights, Patents, Internet application. INTRODUCTION. The principle objective of biotechnology is to produce ... Finland. France. Germany. Greek. Georgian. Hong Kong. Hungarian. Irsish. Italian. Japan. Korean. Luxemberg. Lithuania. Malaysian. Moldova.

  9. Patent documentation - comparison of two MT strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on two matters: A comparison of how two different MT strategies manage translating the text type of patent documentation and a survey of what is needed to transform a MT research prototype system to a translation application for patent texts. The two MT strategies is represented....... The distinctive text type of patents pose special demands for machine translation and these aspects are discussed based on linguistic observations with focus on the users point of view. Two main demands are automatic pre processing of the documents and implementation of a module which in a flexible and user......-friendly manner offers the opportunity to extend the lexical coverage of the system. These demands and the comparison of the two MT strategies are discussed on the basis of proofread patents....

  10. The patent activity of the Czech R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kučera Zdeněk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective knowledge transfer between research institutions and industry is a significant bottleneck in the national innovation system. CR adopted in recent years a series of systemic measures aimed to stimulate the orientation of the R&D organizations towards the generation of knowledge directly applicable in the innovation process and more generally to improve the collaboration of the R&D establishment with the industry. In the majority of programs supporting the applied research patents and industrial designs and utility models are among the anticipated results. The Methodology of the evaluation of R&D organizations implemented in the second half of the last decade brought financial bonuses for the creation of the results in the category of industrial property. Despite of this stimulus CR lags behind the technologically advanced EU countries in the patent activities. The topic of this article is a comparison of the protection of the industrial property rights in the Czech higher education institutions and governmental R&D institutions with selected EU countries. We make use of a couple of quantitative indicators to assess the quality and the technological and the commercial potential of the produced industrial property. Despite a dynamic growth of the patent applications in the CR the number of patent applications relative to the country size is far below the EU-15 average. The Czech research organizations contribute to a higher extent to the number of patent applications then do the analogous institutions in EU-15 countries where the majority of patent applications come from the industrial sphere. The Czech research organizations mainly limit the patent rights to the Czech Republic whereas in the EU-15 countries the opposite is preponderant and only a small fraction of patent applications remains limited to the national environment. Thus the majority of the Czech patents created by research organizations cannot be commercialized on the

  11. Patent portfolio structure for single technology companies

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwell, Ian P.

    2004-01-01

    Single technology companies (STCs) are defined in this thesis as companies that (a) have the fundamental rights to a new technology, (b) have development of that technology as their core competence, (c) seek to exploit that technology primarily by licensing the patent rights, and (d) are driven primarily by 'technology push'. These factors often result in much of the value of the STC residing in its patent portfolio. This in turn may place significant - and often conflicting - ...

  12. Competition policy in patent cases and antitrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The article that follows examines the competition policy reflected in the decisions of the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in its patent cases. The court's views on this subject have been manifested most plainly in decisions that have transformed the law concerning infringement under the doctrine of equivalents and claim construction. In both categories, the court narrowed patent scope by reason of its desire to protect competitors. The article argues that the court's premise in prescribing narrower claim scope reflected an incomplete view of competition policy. The court's analysis overlooked the benefits to competition provided by patents, which stimulate inventions and their development. The article traces the development of antitrust jurisprudence and demonstrates how respect for the contribution of patents to competition and skepticism of free-riding has evolved, particularly beginning in the 1970s. The article draws a parallel between the Court's reasoning about competition policy, on the one hand, and the rejected views of Justices Hugo Black and William O. Douglas and abandoned patent-antitrust jurisprudence, on the other. The Federal Circuit's decision in Festo Corp. v. Shoketsu Kinzoku Kogyo Kabushiki Co., Ltd., 234 F.3d 558 (Fed. Cir. 2000), on the subject of equivalents is considered in the paper. In that decision, the majority adopted a new rule that completely barred infringement under the doctrine of equivalents of any claim limitation where, in prosecution, there had been a narrowing amendment relating to patentability. In the past, prosecution estoppel foreclosing equivalents had been subject to a "flexible bar," which, in some circumstances, allowed for equivalence notwithstanding such an amendment. The article points out that because almost all patents are amended during prosecution, the effect would be to allow widespread copying of patented inventions by trivial modifications of any narrowed claim limitation. The incentive to innovate

  13. Patent business guide in a domestic and foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This book explains general things on industrial property right, which includes description of industrial property right, types, qualification for application of patent, application guide, on-line application, useful procedure of application, writing methods and samples for application of patents such as design patent and trademarks patent, writing skill and examples for registration, writing ways and examples related examination and writing tips and samples on international application of patent.

  14. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Yan; Zhang, Yulei; Fan, Li; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991?2008 have been examined using the ?title?abstract? keyword search on esp@cenet ?worldwide? database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People?s Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the larges...

  15. Patent Value: A Business Perspective for Technology Startups

    OpenAIRE

    Angela de Wilton

    2011-01-01

    In the last year, news headlines have highlighted record patent infringement settlements, multibillion dollar auctions of large corporate patent portfolios, and ongoing patent battles between key technology industry players. Despite this acknowledgment of the significant value of patents for large corporations, many small technology companies are understandably more focused on the near-term costs of obtaining a patent rather than future value. Costs may seem prohibitive to an early stage tech...

  16. Determination of apical constriction and apical foramen using electronic apex locator in vivo: Comparison between vital and nonvital teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Aggarwal

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The study supports that EAL measures the location of AC and apical foramen with similar accuracy in vital and nonvital teeth. Furthermore, the distance between the two is reliable when compared with the actual distance observed under stereomicroscope supporting its widespread usage in clinical endodontics.

  17. Measurements of the vertebral foramen and the spinal cord by means of x-ray computed tomography (corpse)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Kazue; Katakura, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Kenji; Sato, Takanori; Azuma, Koji; Okuaki, Koju; Mizukoshi, Hitoshi; Kageyama, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Sigeki

    1985-01-01

    It is important for orthopedics to measure the sizes of the vertebral canal and the spinal cord. Owing to the development of X-ray computed tomography (XCT), clear cross section images of the vertebral foramen and the spinal cord are now available, facilitating the measurement of these sizes, so that many literatures on this subject have been reported. The authors studied the errors of measurements of the anteroposterior diameterers of the vertebral foramen and the spinal cord by means of XCT (EMI CT 5005 type, slice thickness: 14mm). Method: Cross section images by XCT at the mid-plane of each vertebral body of cadaver were taken, and then, sawed cross sections were prepared for actual survey of the antero-posterior diameters of the vertebral foramen and the spinal cord. Measurements by XCT were made with the CT-number profile method and the multi-format film method. Results: The errors at the measurement of the antero-posterior diameters of the vertebral foramen and the spinal cord were about +- 2.0 - +- 4.5 %. The slice thickness of XCT pictures at present is thinner than 14mm and if we can make the tomographic plane at a right angle to the long axis of the vertebral column, the errors may be more minimized. (author)

  18. Unitals and ovals of symmetric block designs in LDPC and space-time coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriamanalimanana, Bruno R.

    2004-08-01

    An approach to the design of LDPC (low density parity check) error-correction and space-time modulation codes involves starting with known mathematical and combinatorial structures, and deriving code properties from structure properties. This paper reports on an investigation of unital and oval configurations within generic symmetric combinatorial designs, not just classical projective planes, as the underlying structure for classes of space-time LDPC outer codes. Of particular interest are the encoding and iterative (sum-product) decoding gains that these codes may provide. Various small-length cases have been numerically implemented in Java and Matlab for a number of channel models.

  19. COVE-1: a finite difference creep collapse code for oval fuel pin cladding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, C.L.

    1975-03-01

    COVE-1 is a time-dependent incremental creep collapse code that estimates the change in ovality of a fuel pin cladding tube. It uses a finite difference method of solving the differential equations which describe the deflection of the tube walls as a function of time. The physical problem is nonlinear, both with respect to geometry and material properties, which requires the use of an incremental, analytical, path-dependent solution. The application of this code is intended primarily for tubes manufactured from Zircaloy. Therefore, provision has been made to include some of the effects of anisotropy in the flow equations for inelastic incremental deformations. 10 references. (U.S.)

  20. Case report: spontaneous rupture of spleen in patient with Plasmodium ovale malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmerer, Raphael; Unger, Manuel; Voßen, Matthias; Forstner, Christina; Jalili, Ahmad; Starzengruber, Peter; Werzowa, Johannes; Ramharter, Michael; Winkler, Stefan; Thalhammer, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Malaria may lead to spontaneous splenic rupture as a rare but potentially lethal complication. Most frequently, this has been reported in patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, while other parasitic agents are less likely to be the cause.We report a 29-year-old British Caucasian, who after returning from a business trip in Democratic Republic Congo was diagnosed with tertian malaria caused by Plasmodium ovale.During his in-patient stay, the patient suffered a splenic rupture requiring immediate surgical intervention and splenectomy. Following this surgical intervention, there was an uneventful recovery, and the patient was discharged in a good general condition.