WorldWideScience

Sample records for pastoralism

  1. Images of pastoral care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-25

    Aug 25, 2017 ... pastoral work and demonstrate how we can avoid a sacrificial model of pastoral care. ... very important for all people offering pastoral care to be aware of their own power ... Good Samaritan is proposed in order to stimulate a life- .... and family. ... healthy balance of give and take in pastoral relationships.

  2. Pastores en el 'Quijote'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco López Estrada

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Alonso Quijano become to be don Quixote, when the reading of some books of knight-errantry makes him mad. But don Alonso reads also pastoral literature. Sancho confess the was a rustician shepherd. Dulcinea is a name nearly to the pastoral literature. Don Quixote pronounces a pastoral lecture, adressed to others shepherds. In Sierra Morena, during the Grisóstomo's funeral, Marcela enunciate & discourse in favor of love liberty. Don Quixote attends to Camacho's wedding and he intervenes in the facts of this act. Finally, Don Quixote regains his mind, and he dies like a christianman being Alonso Quijano.

  3. in the pastoral epistles?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    book-length project, into the spirituality of the Pastoral Epistles. In this larger ..... only three references in the Greek magical papyri.12 Nevertheless, there is a close link between the ..... Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University.

  4. Gubernamentalidad y poder pastoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Benente

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En sus trabajos de fines de la década de 1970 Michel Foucault abordó la noción de gubernamentalidad para dar cuenta del funcionamiento del gobierno de los hombres. En su genealogía de estas tecnologías de gobierno encuentra un antecedente remoto en el poder pastoral y afirma que el pastorado es ajeno al pensamiento político de la Grecia clásica. En este trabajo desarrollo algunos problemas en la presentación que realiza de la obra de Platón. Foucault estudia la aparición del poder pastoral en las obras políticas de Platón, en particular en Político, y afirma que allí se rechaza al pastor como clave para explicar la actividad de gobierno, pero creo que sus argumentos no alcanzan para realizar esta afirmación.

  5. Understanding pastoral mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    Based on a case study from Sahelian Senegal, this paper analyses how various actors perceive the importance of pastoral mobility and presents issues of importance for understanding the use of mobility among Fulani of Ferlo. One knowledge system is a scientific one, the 'new rangeland paradigm...... territory, which they consider their place, but are unwilling to employ large-scale mobility themselves. Mobility is not of importance for their ethnic identity and some use paid herders to care for their livestock. By looking at both knowledge systems, we achieve a better understanding of pastoral mobility...

  6. The oxymoron of American pastoralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sayre

    2013-01-01

    Pastoralism has been variously defined in American literary studies. In European literature the pastoral persisted as a distinct genre and self-conscious literary tradition from Theocritus and Virgil through the eighteenth century. Major eighteenth and nineteenth-century American authors alluded to this tradition, but they could not really lay claim to it, for as this...

  7. Pastoral care: marketing "high touch".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, M

    1986-01-01

    Marketing pastoral care skills is important both within and without the health care organization. To increase administrators' awareness of the value of the pastoral care department, for example, chaplains must be able to demonstrate that their activities can affect the bottom line. They must therefore develop a system of accountability that defines and measures their services in objective terms. Such a system would include the reporting of monthly visit statistics as well as the collection of data from patients and personnel on the adequacy of pastoral care services. Other awareness-building activities could include participation in nursing practice rounds, in-service presentations, involvement in hospital social events, and placement of articles about pastoral care in hospital publications. Activities that would help to foster good community relations and thereby improve census include participation in the area clergy association, work with local church groups that visit the sick and the homebound, providing speakers to community organizations, and sponsoring a memorial Mass for families of patients who have died at the hospital. Pastoral care staff should not feel threatened by the changing health care environment. Instead they must recognize the opportunity it provides to create ways to minister to a new mix of patients and to reach new groups.

  8. Street Pastors : on security, care and faith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steden, R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a study of Street Pastors in Cardiff, the capital city of Wales. Street Pastors are Christian volunteers who look after vulnerable people in the night-time economy. In this manner, they provide ‘securitas’ through empathy and care. The motives of Street Pastors for engaging with

  9. Practicing discernment: pastoral care in crisis situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Scott D

    2010-01-01

    This article correlates a particular experience of providing pastoral care for a person in a crisis situation with a particular understanding of the practice of pastoral care. Through engaging in correlative practical theology, it highlights the need for practicing discernment when providing pastoral care for persons utilizing narratives to work through crisis situations.

  10. Reflection on pastoral care in Africa: Towards discerning emerging pragmatic pastoral ministerial responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral care takes different forms in responding to people’s needs in their context. Accordingly, over the centuries it has evolved in response to emerging needs. Historical developments in pastoral care are well-documented. However, pastoral care in Africa has a short and unsystematically documented history. Scholarly discussions on pastoral care concerning the continent tend to be considered under African theological frameworks. Notwithstanding the already existing weaknesses in African theological discussion, pastoral care in Africa has remained fragmented with diverse and seemingly knee-jerk approaches in guiding individuals who provide pastoral care. In view of this, this article firstly aims to provide a broad overview and initiate a discussion on the current challenges in pastoral care in Africa. Secondly, it aims to reveal some gaps worth pursuing by scholars in the discipline. Thirdly, it sheds some light on approaches employed by pastoral practitioners in pastoral ministry practice. In doing so, this article opens the lid on some perspectives adopted in ministry work on the frontlines, that is, providing pastoral care to people in their communities – particularly church communities. This article first outlines the problem to be addressed followed by an overview of pastoral care in Africa. It then proceeds to address potential research opportunities within the discipline. Finally, it highlights some emerging approaches in providing pastoral care in the communities. This article does not focus on one particular pastoral care issue, but gives an overview of the situation relative to pastoral care in Africa and the emerging responses.

  11. Economic valuation of pastoral meat production system in Arusha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    system may well co-exists with pastoralism but the two need not be mutually exclusive. Keywords: pastoralism, livestock sector, value chain analysis, economic .... What is needed, then, is a dynamic economic model of pastoralism that ...

  12. "Pastoral crisis intervention": toward a definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, G S

    2000-01-01

    The pastoral community represents a large and often untapped resource in times of crisis. It possesses a unique aggregation of characteristics that makes it uniquely valuable amidst the turmoil of a psychological crisis. In critical incidents such as terrorism, mass disasters, violence, the loss of loved ones, and any events wherein human actions result in injury, destruction, and/or death, the pastoral community may possess especially powerful restorative attributes. Unfortunately, heretofore, there has existed no generally recognized and accepted manner in which the healing factors inherent in pastoral care have been functionally integrated with the well-formulated principles of crisis intervention. This paper represents an initial effort to elucidate how the principles of pastoral care may be functionally integrated with those of crisis intervention. The amalgam shall heretofore be referred to as "pastoral crisis intervention" and is defined herein.

  13. Is there an Australian Pastoral Poetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Taylor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral was common as a European literary genre from the Renaissance until the eighteenth century. It existed in other artistic forms as well, especially in the visual arts, and after its demise as a distinct genre elements of it persisted into the twentieth century, for example in music. With the colonial spread of European culture the pastoral influence also extended into other countries, with a mixed fate. Recently, the term Pastoral has come back into prominence in literature in English, not only in Great Britain but also, notably in the USA and Australia, with the growth of writing motivated by ecological involvement with the natural world, especially landscape. This has led to re-definitions of the term Pastoral in the last few decades. A number of Australian poets are looked at to see whether, and how, their writing about landscape might relate to, or incorporate elements of the Pastoral. The Australian poet John Kinsella, in particular, has been a widely published spokesperson for a new definition of Pastoral. His published works trace his move from a politically activist anti-colonialist redefinition of Pastoral towards a quieter, more harmonious, and essentially ethical engagement with the natural world.

  14. Inhabiting compassion: A pastoral theological paradigm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... to read online. ... Pastoral theologian Paul Ballard, drawing on the ..... biblical narrative in Luke's gospel, we read of the threefold ..... Vanier, J., 2008, Becoming human, 2nd edn., Harper Collins Press, Scarborough, ON.

  15. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Glanville; Yolanda Dreyer

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social) impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be awar...

  16. A three musketeering approach to pastoral care: Reflections on collaboration between pastoral care, narrative therapy and positive psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred R. Brunsdon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current times of change, deconstruction and ever-growing relativisation, pastoral praxis finds itself in methodological limbo. Pastoral practitioners currently face the challenge of effectively reaching postmodern people through the pastoral process. This challenge is intensified by the innate tension between revelation and experience in pastoral theology as well as the philosophical migration from modernism to postmodernism, which necessitates an on-going rethinking of pastoral praxis. This research investigates a collaborative approach between pastoral care, narrative therapy and positive psychology as a possible method for dispensing pastoral care. A broad outline of these approaches as well as their underlying philosophical frameworks is contemplated in order to evaluate their suitability for a pastoral collaboration. Markers for a collaborative model are suggested where the narrative and positive psychology are employed as strategies in a so-called three- musketeering approach to pastoral care.

  17. Pastoral ministry in a missional age: Towards a practical theological understanding of missional pastoral care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume H. Smit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns itself with the development of a missional ecclesiology and the practices that may accept the challenge of conducting pastoral ministry in the context of South African, middleclass congregations adapting to a rapidly changing, post-apartheid environment. Some practical theological perspectives on pastoral counselling are investigated, whilst Narrative Therapy is explored as an emerging theory of deconstruction to enable the facilitating of congregational change towards a missional understanding of church life in local communities. Subsequently, the theological paradigm of missional ecclesiology is investigated before drawing the broad lines of a theory for pastoral ministry within missional ecclesiology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: In this article, a missional base theory is proposed for pastoral counselling, consisting of interdisciplinary insights gained from the fields of Missiology, Practical Theology, Narrative Therapy and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. The implications of this proposal for the development of a missional pastoral theory focus on the following three aspects:� re-establishing pastoral identity: exploring Christ� pastoral development: intentional faith formation� pastoral ministry: enabling Christ-centred lives.In such a missional pastoral theory four practices should be operationalised: first of all, a cognitive approach to increasing knowledge of the biblical narrative is necessary. This provides the hermeneutical skills necessary to enable people to internalise the biblical ethics and character traits ascribed to the Christian life. Secondly, a pastoral theory needs to pay close attention to development of emotional intelligence. Thirdly, this should be done in the context of small groups, where the focus falls on the personality development of members. Finally, missional pastoral theory should also include the acquisition of life coaching skills, where leaders can be

  18. Pastors as gewonde genesers: Outobiografiese pastoraat as heelmiddel vir emosionele verwonding en verlamming by pastors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Phillip Nolte

    2009-06-01

    In a previous article it was argued that pastors suffer from cognitive dissonance because of the paradigm shift from modernity to postmodernity, and the emotional woundedness that frequently results from their struggles to come to terms with the new world in which they have to live and minister. This article reflects on the way in which two further issues may exacerbate emotional woundedness in pastors. The one is church tradition, as it is reflected in several formularies used during church services in the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika (NHKA, as well as the Church Ordinance of the NHKA. The other issue is the way in which pastors view the Bible. The language and rhetoric used to reflect on these issues are discussed and evaluated. In its last paragraph the article reflects on the possibility of autobiographical pastorate as a way for pastors to achieve emotional wholeness.

  19. Determinants of Livestock Prices in Ethiopian Pastoral Livestock Markets: Implications for Pastoral Marketing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Belayneh, Hailemariam Teklewold; Feye, Getachew Legese; Alemu, Dawit; Negassa, Asfaw

    2009-01-01

    The major objective of this paper is to identify determinants of market prices for cattle, sheep and goat in the export market value chain starting from pastoral markets to export abattoirs and live animal exporters. The study is based on the information generated through a formal survey conducted in the major pastoral livestock markets of Ethiopia with 128 collectors, small and big traders, feedlot operators, live animal and meat exporters. Hedonic price formation model was used to analyze t...

  20. AIDS: A theological and pastoral response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Miller

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available The anticipated A.I.D.S. crisis in Southern Africa presents an opportunity for the Christian church to respond positively rather than merely to react negatively. This requires both a theological understanding and a pastoral response. Theologically, A.I.D.S. may be seen as an object lesson in the interrelation of natural, personal and historical evil. Although both the Old Testament and the New Testament warn against a simplistic doctrine of individual retribution, there are also several different ways in which the A.I.D.S. crisis may indeed in some particular cases be seen as a judgement of God while in other cases it is rather a horrifying event. Other relevant issues include matters relating to justification and sanctification and the wider ethical issues of discrimination and human rights, of "public" and "private" morality. The Church's pastoral response should include both "corrective" education to remove irrational and fearful ignorance and also "preventative" education to encourage a monogamous lifestyle. Pastoral ministry must be "redemptive", appropriate to the varying needs of persons with A.I.D.S., of their families and friends and of professional care-providers. The Church cannot ignore the A.I.D.S. crisis, but must respond to it both Biblically and pastorally.

  1. The Prophetic Nature of Pastoral Counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Explores the role of pastoral counseling in the light of the increasing interest among secular therapists in spirituality and the escalation in the number of clients presenting themselves with spiritual issues. Examines the central influence of Carl Rogers and argues that his late embracing of the spiritual dimension makes him a potential source…

  2. Pastoralism, sustainability, and marketing. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tessema, W.K.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Pastoralism is a highly traditional production system for livestock and livestock products. Under the surface of a seeming stability a variety of pressures of the modern time all seem to accumulate to put the sustainability of the pastoralist production system to the test. Population growth and

  3. Narcissism and motivation for the pastorate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondag, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an empirical study of the relationship between narcissism and motivation for the pastorate. Narcissism has been a key concept in the psychology of personality in recent decades, in an age in which personal life has acquired central status. Motivation is a vital concept in the

  4. Pastors as gewonde genesers: Outobiografiese pastoraat as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as it is refl ected in several formularies used during church services in the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika (NHKA), as well as the Church Ordinance of the NHKA. The other issue is the way in which pastors view the Bible. The language and rhetoric used to refl ect on these issues are discussed and evaluated.

  5. The educational dimension of pastoral youth service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Miriam Gallego

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The educational dimension of pastoral youth service is highlighted by the fact that it is about education on faith. Faith education means taking a young person towards a personal encounter with God. This fact is also known as an experience with God or religious experience. The religious experience favors cognitive and affective development, desire of the absolute, relationships development, commitments with justice, and the construction of a personal life and social history; in this regard, the religious experience turns into an educational one.The evangelist deed in the pastoral youth service, does not occur through isolated actions but through a process, that is, through a set of educational dynamisms that bring the young person to open up to his/her personal and social reality, to search for answers to his/her questions, be active in society, and build a life project. In pastoral ministries each gesture is, at the same time and with the same intensity, an educational event and a proposal of youth’s lives about God’s mysteries. The pastoral youth service brings educational means —objectives, contents, educational sites, processes, methodologies, people responsible for education, etc.— that can be no doubt evaluated.

  6. A holistic approach to pastoral care and poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Janse van Rensburg

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The previous approaches to pastoral care are no longer adequate or effective for addressing the many issues related to poverty. The church has done wonderful work in terms of Christian charity. However, more needs to be done to improve the worsening situation of the poor significantly. The clear distinction between pastoral care and Christian charity is a luxury that is no longer affordable. Once we have a holistic understanding of pastoral care and counselling, we will find that we cannot possibly restrict our pastoral attention to encouraging the poor, to giving random advice and to praying. A holistic pastoral theology could lead to empowerment and should be a key concept in pastoral care with poor people and societies. The article offers a theological theory for a holistic approach and some implications of the praxis of counselling.

  7. Vatican II and pluralism in pastoral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D A

    1978-01-01

    The documents of Vatican II imply that the ever increasing plurality of needs in the world and in Catholic health care institutions must be met by plurality in Christian response. Catholic hospitals should welcome onto their pastoral care teams people with diverse credentials and use them to promote the spiritual care of patients--Catholic and non-Catholic. In addition, this pluralistic ministry should extend itself beyond institutional walls toward the social needs of the community.

  8. Pastoral research: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, John J

    2004-01-01

    In healthcare environments of excellence, clinically trained chaplains are valued members of the medical treatment team. There are skills and values they hold in common with medicine and allied health disciplines: enhancing the health and well-being of the patient as a unity of body, mind, and spirit within a unique family and cultural system. This article examines the past, present, and future of pastoral research, including the chaplain's moral imperative to examine practice and to share what is found.

  9. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  10. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  11. Pastoral care and healing in Africa: Towards an Adamic Christological practical theology imagination for pastoral healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the challenge and need for relevant ministry models is critical for effective Christian ministry and pastoral ministry as practical life ministry. It establishes an Adamic Christological model as a paradigm that provides a practical effective ministerial approach in Africa, particularly within the context of pastoral care and healing. This framework reveals Christ’s complete identification with African Christians in their contextual sufferings as the New Adam without compromising authentic gospel reality. In employing the Adamic Christological framework as the anchor for African pastoral and healing ministry, a model for African Christians’ daily response to their various contextual sufferings is constructed. This responsive model bridges the gap between the ascension of Christ and the interim period of Christianity by instituting God’s ongoing personal presence in believers’ suffering through the Holy Spirit (pneumatology as an encouraging and comforting reality that should enable Christians to cope in their suffering. It is argued that this Adamic Christological framework provides a practical theological model that contributes to healing and hope in pastoral care through practical knowing that impacts and imparts meaning in life.

  12. Melanie Klein on mourning: Its relation to pastoral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, C W

    1991-09-01

    This paper connects the work of Melanie Klein on mourning to the pastor's work with the grief sufferer. Klein holds that mourning is an illness of manic depressive character rooted in infantile development. Klein's description of manic defenses in the face of loss has adult behavioral analogues with which the pastor must deal to bring mourning to resolution.

  13. Theoretical Construction of Freedom and Pluralism Education in Pastoral Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuyan

    2009-01-01

    At beginning of the article, the author has a brief introduction of basic conditions in pastoral areas of Imperial Town, and interprets ethnic relations among Han, Tibetan, Mongolian, Yugur, Hui, Manchu and Tu mixed residence. After analysis of the internal and external factors that affect the specificity of pastoral education, the author…

  14. Biometrical applications in tropical pasture and agro-pastoral research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amézquita, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    "Biometrical Applications in Tropical Pasture and Agro-pastoral Research" illustrates, through selected Case Studies, the contribution of Biometry to pasture and agro-pastoral research in Tropical Latin America ( TLA ) in the last

  15. A triad of pastoral leadership for congregational health and well ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    That ministry is to be given back to the laity is a laudable proposition. However, the level of development in many township and village communities is still such that a strong leadership and management facilitation role is demanded of the pastor. In such contexts, the pastor is also the only one who is always available for ...

  16. Pastoral Perspectives of Humor's Use in Ministry Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative component of a mixed-methods research design are reported regarding the use of humor in pastoral ministry. Thirteen Southern Baptist (SB) pastors were interviewed, from a total of 37 exemplars identified in the quantitative component of the study, regarding their perspectives toward humor in ministry. Results overall…

  17. Theoretical Foundations of Pastoral Care in Christian Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Agılkaya-Sahin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing academic and institutional interest in pastoral care and counseling raises attention day by day. However there is no institutionally established concept and practice of pastoral care in Turkey’s prevalent Islamic tradition. Therefore there is a lack of theoretical foundation for this service that wants to be developed and established in Turkey. In fact pastoral care services are quite well developed in Christian tradition. Especially in Germany pastoral care and counseling has a deep-rooted history and professional practice. Thus in this paper in order to give an insight into theoretical foundations of German pastoral care and counseling the concept is illustrated in terms of definition, characteristics, subjects, objects, aims, tasks and theology.

  18. Reindeer pastoralism in Sweden 1550-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Lundmark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the 16th century we get the first opportunity to a more detailed knowledge of reindeerpastoralism in Sweden. At that time the Sami lived in a hunter-gatherer economy. A family had in average about 10-20 domesticated reindeer, mainly used for transport. They could also be milked and used as decoys when hunting wild reindeer. During late 16th century the Swedish state and merchants bought large amounts of fur from the Sami. The common payment was butter and flour. This created a new prosperity, which lead to a considerable increase in population in Swedish Lapland. The population became too large for a hunter-gatherer economy. A crisis in early 17th century was the starting point for the transition to a large-scale nomadic reindeer pastoralism. Up to the middle of the 18th century intensive reindeer pastoralism was successful. But the pastoralism became gradually too intensive and diseases started to spread when the herds were kept too densely crowded for milking in summertime. During the first decades of the 19th century reindeer pastoralism in Sweden went through a major crisis. The number of reindeer herding mountain-Sami decreased considerably, mainly because they went to live permanently along the Norwegian coastline. Intensive reindeer pastoralism started to give way for extensive herding towards the end of the 19th century. In the north of Sweden influences from the Kautokeino Sami were an important factor, in the south extensive reindeer herding started to expand when the market for meat came closer to the Sami. During the 1920s the milking of reindeer ceased in Sweden, except in a few families. At that time Sami families from the north had been removed southwards. They further demonstrated the superiority of extensive herding to the Sami in mid- and southern Lapland. Reindeer pastoralism is basically a system of interaction between man and animal, but it has been heavily influenced by market forces and state intervention

  19. Entrepreneurial orientation and religion: the Pastor as an entrepreneur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Silva Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent decades Brazil has witnessed radical changes in its religious composition, with rapid expansion of Evangelical communities. Within these communities there exist various religious associations in which pastors play a key role. Using the theoretical framework of Entrepreneurial Orientation, and based on interviews with 20 Neopentecostal pastors in Belo Horizonte/Minas Gerais, this article shows that, in their work developing their churches, pastors exhibit characteristically entrepreneurial behavior (innovation, proactivity, competitive aggressiveness, risk-taking, autonomy. This study further demonstrates the importance and explanatory power of the Entrepreneurial Orientation theoretical framework and may open new research perspectives for social managers, social scholars and practitioners in related fields.

  20. IMPROVING CONECTIVITY BETWEEN BARÓ DEVIVER ANDBON PASTOR

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    Mihong Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the description of the academic exercise of public space design on the Continuity of Ciutat Rambla de Asuncion in “Gestion de Proyectos” course, which is given to first know the background of the neighborhoods and their current situation, the phases followed in the design process and the end result presented as an annex to plans, sections, diagrams, views, etc. It also describes the aim of achieving unity and continuity together to improve the connectivity being the two neighborhoods through the design of the three major themes of group work are; a Continuity Rambla de la Ciutat de Asunción, b the walk Rivera Besos river, and c the industrial estate between Bon Pastor and Baró de Viver.

  1. Inhabiting compassion: A pastoral theological paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil C. Zylla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the vision of care in Vincent van Gogh’s depiction of the parable of the Good Samaritan, this article offers a paradigm for inhabiting compassion. Compassion is understood in this article as a moral emotion that is also a pathocentric virtue. This definition creates a dynamic view of compassion as a desire to alleviate the suffering of others, the capacity to act on behalf of others and a commitment to sustain engagement with the suffering other. To weave this vision of compassion as a habitus rather than a theoretical construct, the article develops three phases of compassion: seeing, companioning and sighing. This framework deepens and augments a pastoral theological paradigm of compassion with the aim of inculcating an inhabited compassion in caregivers and the communities in which they participate.

  2. Integrating the pastoral component in agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César de Faccio Carvalho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper aims to discuss the impact of the introduction of pastures and grazing animals in agricultural systems. For the purposes of this manuscript, we focus on within-farm integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS, typical of Southern Brazil. These ICLS are designed to create and enhance the synergisms and emergent properties have arisen from agricultural areas where livestock activities are integrated with crops. We show that the introduction of the crop component will affect less the preceding condition than the introduction of the livestock component. While the introduction of crops in pastoral systems represents increasing diversity of the plant component, the introduction of animals would represent the entry of new flows and interactions within the system. Thus, given the new complexity levels achieved from the introduction of grazing, the probability of arising emergent properties is theoretically much higher. However, grazing management is vital in determining the success or failure of such initiative. The grazing intensity practiced during the pasture phase would affect the canopy structure and the forage availability to animals. In adequate and moderate grazing intensities, it is possible to affirm that livestock combined with crops (ICLS has a potential positive impact. As important as the improvements that grazing animals can generate to the soil-plant components, the economic resilience remarkably increases when pasture rotations are introduced compared with purely agriculture systems, particularly in climate-risk situations. Thus, the integration of the pastoral component can enhance the sustainable intensification of food production, but it modifies simple, pure agricultural systems into more complex and knowledge-demanding production systems.

  3. Nutritional status of underfive children in a pastoral community in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: nutrition, children, pastoral community, Tanzania. Introduction. Nutritional ... adequate diet, availability of education, health services and healthy environment ..... improve growth or hemoglobin status of rural. Tanzanian infants from ...

  4. Economic valuation of pastoral meat production system in Arusha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    53. Independent consultant, email: esitayo@yahoo.com ... increasing climate variability and incidence of extreme events (droughts, floods), there are .... If at all accounted in national statistics, official data on pastoralism set focus exclusively on.

  5. The Good Pastoring Mother: how Female Pastors in Norway and the United States Balance Work and Home

    OpenAIRE

    Ophoff, Brooke

    2017-01-01

    Pastoral work is a unique vocation, which blurs the lines between personal and professional life to an extreme degree. While this dynamic has been examined from many angles, very little time has been spent determining specifically how women navigate this complicated relationship. Similarly, while there is a great deal of literature focused on how women fulfill their roles at home and in the workplace, such studies do not usually focus on women in pastoral work, instead generally centering o...

  6. FALLECIMIENTO DEL DOCTOR ALFONSO AGUSTI PASTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Pedraza M.

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Palabras del Profesor Héctor Pedraza M., en el Cementerio Central de Bogotá.


    Señores Académicos, colegas, señoras, señores:

    El doctor Hernando Groot, Presidente de la Academia Nacional de Medicina, nos encomienda que pronunciemos algunas palabras frente al féretro que contiene los despojos mortales del Académico Alfonso Agusti Pastor, Miembro Numerario de nuestra ilustre corporación, Médico ejemplar en el ejercicio profesional y Profesor Agregado por concurso en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional, para que hagamos breve elogio de quien fue sobresaliente en aquel plantel por su caballerosidad y consagración al estudio,
    por lo cual obtuvo, desde entonces, merecidas distinciones.

    Su temperamento observador y analítico lo condujo a ejercer la medicina en el dificil campo de la siquiatría, la cual exige cualidades especiales de sabiduría, templanza y equilibrio en el razonamiento y el concepto. Poseedor de estas cualidades pudo cuidar con éxito y humanidad a sus pacientes que estaban sumergidos en la tinieblas de la demencia
    y de otras afecciones menores, que en este tiempo alteran cada vez con mayor frecuencia el siquismo, y que estorban o impiden vivir en paz consigo y con sus semejantes. El doctor Alfonso Agusti Pastor fue de los primeros en nuestro medio con el Profesor Maximiliano Rueda, en aplicar el shock, para ciertas enfermedades mentales; por tal motivo obtuvo merecido renombre.

    En la Academia de Medicina nos deleitó con magníficas semblanzas de sus ilustres maestros profesores: Edmundo Rico, Julio Manrique, Maximiliano Rueda y Alfonso Esguerra Gómez, dando así prueba de su generosidad y agradecimiento y de su compromiso con Hipócrates.

    Felizmente tales escritos quedaron consignados en la Revista "Medicina", órgano de publicidad de la Academia...

  7. High altitude survival: conflicts between pastoralism and wildlife in the Trans-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : Pastoralism, agriculture, wildlife, Himalaya, competition, bharal, yak, livestock, snow leopard, wolf, herbivore, ungulate, resource, rangeland, steppe, mountain

    How harmonious is the coexistence between pastoralism and

  8. Self-Disclosure and Spiritual Well-Being in Pastors Seeking Professional Psychological Help

    OpenAIRE

    Salwen, Erik D.; Underwood, Lee A.; Dy-Liacco, Gabriel S.; Arveson, Kathleen R.

    2017-01-01

    Pastoral mental health is a topic that has only rarely been researched empirically in the psychological literature, yet a pastor?s mental health can have a significant impact on churches, communities, and even nations (Royal and Thompson, Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 31(3), 195?204, 2012). One of the thoughts prompting this research is that evangelical pastors might be expected to resist the findings of psychological research and lack understanding of specific mental illnesses they...

  9. Management of agro-pastoral dams in Benin: stakeholders, institutions and rehabilitation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpéra, G.N.; Aarts, N.; Saïdou, A.; Tossou, R.C.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Mensah, G.A.; Sinsin, B.A.; Kossou, D.K.; van der Zijpp, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Agro-pastoral dams are waterholes constructed to provide water for livestock and for agricultural development. In Benin, agro-pastoral dams are managed by dam management committees. This study seeks to (1) characterize the stakeholders involved in agro-pastoral dam use and management, (2) identify

  10. Arid waste? Reassessing the value of dryland pastoralism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Ced; MacGregor, James

    2009-06-15

    East Africa has a huge hidden asset – but risks throwing it away in the quest for economic development. This is its millions-strong herds of dryland livestock managed by pastoralists. New findings show that pastoralism has immense potential value for reducing poverty, managing the environment, promoting sustainable development and building climate resilience. In Kenya alone, the sector is worth an estimated three-quarters of a billion dollars a year. Yet pastoralism is seen by many as archaic, economically inefficient, chaotic and environmentally destructive – perceptions that are not evidence-based, yet drive much regional policy. Inadequate, inaccurate national statistics on pastoralism do little to alter this view. Persistent undervaluation has effectively trapped up to 20 million dryland pastoralists in a cycle of poverty, conflict and environmental degradation. Now, with climate change biting, the time is ripe for a conceptual framework that captures the total economic benefits of this livelihood.

  11. Inner change in the Corpus Paulinum: pointers for pastoral counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Campbell-Lane

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to establish what perspectives exist on inner change within the “Corpus Paulinum” and how it should be applied in pastoral counselling. The Scriptural guidelines of change that will be examined for the purposes of this article, are found in the following references: Ephesians 4:22-24, Colos- sians 3:8-10, and Romans 12:1-2. The work of the Holy Spirit as “Agent of change” will also be discussed and finally some pointers on inner change and the implications for pastoral counselling will be proposed.

  12. Pastoral counselling: towards a diagnostic and interpretational approach in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective pastoral counselling is influenced by appropriate pas- toral diagnosis. A pastoral diagnosis or assessment in Africa should focus on socio-cultural systems thinking, which entails an understanding of the people’s worldview of distress embed- ded in stories. Thus, the process of assessment in Africa should concentrate, among other factors, on the constructive and de- structive role of the community and the strength of beliefs in supernatural causes of distress in order to focus the probing and interpretation of the conversation.

  13. Pastoral mobility as a response to climate variability in African drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    1999-01-01

    The article outlines aspects of ‘the new paradigm’ for dryland ecosystems and pastoral production systems. Rationality of pastoralism was claimed by parts of the research community for decades, but especially among policy and development planners pastoralism was perceived as an irrational and des...... in West Africa. In an example from Ferlo, Senegal, different types of pastoral mobility are discussed with special focus on the importance of scale. It is concluded that pastoral mobility is a rational response to climate variability and unpredictability in African drylands....

  14. Leading God's People: Perceptions of Influence Among African-American Pastors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Brook E; Strayhorn, Shaila; Webb, Benjamin L; Hébert, James R

    2018-01-31

    Religious leaders, particularly African-American pastors, are believed to play a key role in addressing health disparities. Despite the role African-American pastors may play in improving health, there is limited research on pastoral influence. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American pastors' perceptions of their influence in their churches and communities. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 African-American pastors and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Three themes emerged: the historical role of the church; influence as contextual, with pastors using comparisons with other pastors to describe their ability to be influential; and a reciprocal relationship existing such that pastors are influenced by factors such as God and their community while these factors also aid them in influencing others. A conceptual model of pastoral influence was created using data from this study and others to highlight factors that influence pastors, potential outcomes and moderators as well as the reciprocal nature of pastoral influence.

  15. Spiritual Dryness in Non-Ordained Catholic Pastoral Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt Büssing

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We wondered whether “spiritual dryness” as a specific phase of “spiritual crisis” or insecurity is mostly a matter only of Catholic priests or can also be found in other pastoral professionals. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, we measured the prevalence of spiritual dryness in non-ordained Catholic pastoral workers, and identified relevant predictors. Results: In a sample of 3.277 pastoral workers, 50% would occasionally experience phases of spiritual dryness, while 13% experience it often or even regularly. There were no significant differences between women and men, professions, or age groups. The best predictors of spiritual dryness were low transcendence perception and a low sense of coherence (both are resources, as well as depressive symptoms and stress perception (both are demands or stressors, which would explain 41% of the variance. Self-efficacy expectation and social support were not among the significant predictors. Conclusion: Both the proportions and the main predictors are similar compared to Catholic priests. It is thus not the underlying profession or vocation and the related life situation or differences in social support, but predominantly specific perceptions, feelings, and attitudes that are related to the phenomenon of spiritual dryness—and these can be found in all pastoral professionals who seriously live their spirituality.

  16. Vegetation Cover Changes in Selected Pastoral Villages in Mkata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arid and semi-arid savannah ecosystems of Tanzania are subjected to increasing pressure from pastoral land-use systems. A spatial temporal study involving analysis of satellite imageries and range surveys was carried out to determine the effects of high stocking levels on savannah vegetation cover types in Mkata plains.

  17. Explaining the Effects of Communities of Pastoral Care for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph; Holste, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This article explains how communities of pastoral care work. It presents an empirically forged theory in action. We examined theoretical and empirical work across the targeted area of personalization for students. We also completed what Hallinger (2012) refers to as "exhaustive review" of the field of school improvement writ large. We…

  18. Gender and climate change-induced conflict in pastoral communities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    30 juin 2011 ... Climate change poses serious challenges to the already precarious livelihoods of pastoral communities in East Africa. Now, climate-related resource scarcities are increasing the likelihood of violent conflict. Women are often most vulnerable to such violence. Understanding the drivers of this environmental ...

  19. Anonymous pastoral care for problems pertaining to sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drie, A.; Ganzevoort, R.R.; Spiering, M.

    2014-01-01

    Anonymous pastoral care is one of the options for help in problems pertaining to sexuality. This paper explores the topics they seek help for, the religious aspects involved, and the relation between the normativity of their church tradition on the one hand and sexual and spiritual health criteria

  20. The perfect drought? Constraints limiting Kalahari agro-pastoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Kalahari agro-pastoral communities of Southern Africa have been exposed to drought shocks throughout history and have adapted their livelihoods accordingly. Yet, drought continues to disrupt or threaten to disrupt their production systems. With semi arid Botswana as a case study, this paper hence sought to unearth ...

  1. Malaria among the pastoral communities of the Ngorongoro Crater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria among the pastoral communities of the Ngorongoro Crater Area, northern Tanzania. L.E.G Mboera, R.C Malima, P.E Mangesho, K.P Senkoro, V Mwingira. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  2. Nutritional status of underfive children in a pastoral community in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Simanjiro district in northern Tanzania to determine the nutritional status of underfive children in a pastoral community. Weight and height measurements were carried out on 250 children and that of mean upper arm circumference (MUAC) on 226 children. The z-scores of weight-for-age, ...

  3. Philosophical counselling: Towards a 'new approach' in pastoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article it was argued that philosophical counselling opens up new avenues for pastoral care and counselling. Philosophical counselling probes into the realm of different schemata of interpretation. A model for the making of a spiritual existential analysis was proposed in order to detect the impact of the Christian ...

  4. Pastoral Conventions in Martino Filetico’s De Vita Theocriti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Trine Arlund

    2015-01-01

    Martino Filetico (1430–1490) recounts the life of Theocritus in De Vita Theocriti, a brief text of thirty verses. In the traditional description of Renaissance pastoral poetry, Virgil is considered the primary model and the best example, and the authoritative commentators praise his qualities...

  5. An embodied spirituality: Perspectives for a bodily pastoral anthoplogy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of a re-described spiritual embodied anthropology, it is claimed that the mind-body dualism is outdated and that the roots of human corporeality are to be rediscovered. The article investigates the effect of an emphasis on the biological for a pastoral anthropology in terms of its implications for one's concept of God, ...

  6. Pastoral productivity and intensification | PdV | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Pasture Scientist is primarily concerned with maximizing the productivity of pastoral lands. In conducting his research and expressing the results of his work he had not always appreciated that in order to have most meaning to agricultural industry his levels of productivity should be expressed in terms of the economic ...

  7. The onset of alpine pastoral systems in the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeggl, Klaus; Festi, Daniela; Putzer, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Since the discovery of the Neolithic glacier mummy "Ötzi" in the nival belt of the main Alpine ridge, the onset of alpine pasture is matter of a highly controversial debate both in archaeology and in palaeo-ecology of the Eastern Alps. The implication is that his sojourn in the high-altitudes of the Alps is considered to be connected with pastoral nomadism. Regrettably any archaeological evidence for the existence of such Neolithic alpine pastoral systems is missing up to now and the assumption is based on palynological data only. However, also the palynological record is ambiguous, because pasture indicators in the alpine regions react positive on grazing as well as on fertilization induced by a higher runoff of precipitation. Thus alpine pasture indicators reflect both grazing pressure and climatic change. Anyhow, alpine pastoral systems are a common practice in Alpine animal husbandry, but from an economic point of view such a seasonal vertical transhumance is costly. There are three main reasons for its practice: i) climatic, ii) economic (mainly in connection with population pressure or mining activities), and iii) cultural ideology. In this study we tested the above mentioned reasons in an interdisciplinary study on the beginning of pastoral activities in high altitudes in the central part of the Eastern Alps. This is conducted by palynological analyses of peat deposits situated in the vicinity of the timberline (1600 - 2400 m a.s.l.) combined with archaeological surveys. The investigated sites are located in traditional Alpine transhumance regions and aligned on a transect through the central part of the Eastern Alps. The studies reveal that grazing pressure is reflected since the Bronze Age, which is corroborated by archaeological findings in the vicinity of the investigated sites.

  8. Wildlife and pastoral society--shifting paradigms in disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Richard; Kebkiba, Bidjeh; Heinonen, Risto; Bedane, Berhanu

    2002-10-01

    The dramatic changes in the human and animal populations in Africa over the last century demand the re-examination of priorities and policies. The introduction of developed medical and other human technologies into the continent has contributed to increases in population and a rapid, unsustainable increase in the utilization of resources. This in turn has led to the destruction of flora and fauna on an unprecedented scale with little real improvement in the human condition. One factor in this has been the increase in livestock in line with human demographic growth, as it is a traditional livelihood of many African peoples. In recent years the growth in livestock populations has slowed owing to a cycle of degradation and disease, affecting especially traditional pastoral systems with a close physical association between people, livestock, and wild animals. Pathogens benefit hugely from the dynamic state created by animal migration, although to some extent the livestock and certainly wildlife show considerable tolerance to this. One of the grave economic consequences of this increase in disease has been collapse of the export trade. In order for Africa to fully benefit and share in world trade, the zoosanitary situation must show improvement. To do this without destroying the natural resource base and traditional pastoral systems, will require a careful, future-oriented land-use policy along ecologically sound criteria. Export livestock will have to be maintained in areas, probably free of ruminant wildlife, with strict veterinary controls. If this can be balanced with sufficient areas retained for traditional pastoralism and wildlife, with perhaps the main income from recreational tourism and local consumption, the benefits will be considerable. The answer may be community-based, low-cost, decentralized health systems for pastoral communities, with less stringent sanitary mandates, a private/parastatal sector servicing, with specialization in wildlife, dairy or

  9. Child Abuse and Neglect: A Manual for the Pastoral Counselor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual was developed to help the pastor identify, evaluate, and counsel families experiencing child abuse situations. Precise data is presented...agencies involved in treating child abuse . The causal factors - parent, child, and environment are discussed. A practical viewpoint and analysis of the legal...ramifications of child abuse are presented. This manual presents a biblical bases for the counseling model which determine intervention strategies

  10. Pastoral transformation : Shifta-war, livelihood, and gender perspectives among the Waso Borana in Northern Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Khalif, Zeinabu Kabale

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the analysis of external and internal drivers of pastoral transformation (i.e. conflicts), their long-term impact on the pastoral livelihood, and community response mechanisms. The thesis examines the roles of a secessionist war and subsequent banditry and violent conflicts in the socio-economic transformation of the Waso Borana pastoralists of Northern Kenya. The thesis shows that a drastic decline in pastoral production following socio-political upheavals in th...

  11. Revisiting the role of woman pastors in the church in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Wagner-Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to obtain feedback from women pastors in and around the Tshwane metropole in South Africa on their experiences of their role as pastors. The question at stake was: are woman pastors more often approached for counselling? Therefore, half structured interviews were conducted in order to explore their life stories. The four core tasks of practical theological interpretation, according to Richard Osmer, were used as the framework for this article.

  12. With Doug: an Eastern Orthodox--Gestalt framework for pastoral psychotherapy in the armed forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David

    2013-01-01

    In military behavioral healthcare, a short-term, solutions-focused system often privileges cognitive techniques over existential, affective, or psychodynamic approaches to care. Pastoral psychotherapy, which often privileges existential and person-centered care, has the potential to prove a pivotal complement in treating the whole person. This article offers an existential approach to pastoral psychotherapy in the military using integrated concepts and applications from Gestalt Therapy and Eastern Orthodox pastoral care.

  13. Deficiencies in pastoral care with prisoners in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham K. Akih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon celebrated fifty years of independence from colonial rule on 20 May 2010. Major problems facing the nation are economic, social and political crises and the appalling condition of its prisons. This article focuses on pastoral care with prisoners in Cameroon. Most churches in Cameroon have no pastoral care programme for prisoners. The churches in general are not yet committed to this kind of work. The article argues that changes and reform of the penitential system will be difficult if not impossible without collaboration with other institutions and resources, which include the different faith communities and faith based organisations. The focus should be on the care and well-being of those within its walls if successful rehabilitation is to take place. Spiritual care will contribute to the general well-being of prisoners. The article gives a broad overview of the situation of prisons and prisoners in Cameroon and presents a pastoral care approach that could contribute to the overall improvement of the lives of people in Cameroon prisons.

  14. AGS-pastore se belewenis van hulle teologiese opleiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard P Mar�

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Theological training is in a crisis worldwide. Although the role that Theological Seminaries have fulfilled is acknowledged, there is a growing concern about the ability of these institutions to serve the upcoming generations of Christian leaders. Some warn they may not be well tailored for our post-modern age. Many people feel that the Seminary as an institution is in danger of extinction due to irrelevancy. Seminaries, in general, are perceived as not connecting to the needs of today� s church. The� Auckland Park Theological Seminary (ATS, whose training is the subject of this research, is not excluded from this concern of the Church for relevant theological training. Many pastors of the AFM of SA are of the opinion that the training offered at the ATS does not effectively train pastors for the ministry. The purpose of this article is to investigate and describe how pastors who studied at the ATS experienced their theological training, as well as to offer guidelines to the Church and the ATS to develop a more effective model for theological training.

  15. Path of Social Construction in Northwest Sichuan Plateau Pastoral Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of main contents of social construction and key points of construction,this paper analyzes features of conditions of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area.The social construction at current stage mainly includes social cause in narrow sense,and social management at meso-level.The northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area is faced with the best policy and development opportunity.However,there are still many weak aspects.Firstly,social structure is not coordinated with economic structure.Secondly,social construction ability of grass-roots government is weak.Thirdly,the ability to respond to public demands is low.Fourthly,there is a big gap in availability of basic public service.Finally,it presents path selection for social construction of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area:strengthen social construction ability of grass-roots government;promote social construction with livelihood projects as key projects;boost social construction taking advantage of ecological construction;develop basic public service with the aid of external forces;intensify evaluation system for supervision of social construction works.

  16. The Pastoral Power of Technology. Rethinking Alienation in Digital Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Giritli Nygren

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to bring Foucault’s elaboration on ‘the pastoral modalities of power’ into play in order to rethink alienation in digital culture. Pastoral power is not displacing other conceptions of power, but provides another level of analysis involved in the forging of reasonable responsible subjects willing and able to sustain other conceptions of power. We will draw particularly on the early writings of Marx and the more recent poststructuralist developments concerning hegemony and superstructure in relation to technology. Technology as such is analysed in terms of repercussions of ‘design of the machine’ in industrial technological contexts and ‘design of digital culture’ in digital technological contexts. Pastoral power not only directs our focus to the making of technologies, but also to the making of individuals capable of taking on the responsibilities of technologies. This means that it is necessary to take on the notion of effective power of ideologies and their material reality.

  17. Climate change and pastoralism: impacts, consequences and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M; Addison, J; Bedelian, C; Carabine, E; Havlík, P; Henderson, B; Van De Steeg, J; Thornton, P K

    2016-11-01

    The authors discuss the main climate change impacts on pastoralist societies, including those on rangelands, livestock and other natural resources, and their extended repercussions on food security, incomes and vulnerability. The impacts of climate change on the rangelands of the globe and on the vulnerability of the people who inhabit them will be severe and diverse, and will require multiple, simultaneous responses. In higher latitudes, the removal of temperature constraints might increase pasture production and livestock productivity, but in tropical arid lands, the impacts are highly location specific, but mostly negative. The authors outline several adaptation options, ranging from implementing new technical practices and diversifying income sources to finding institutional support and introducing new market mechanisms, all of which are pivotal for enhancing the capacity of pastoralists to adapt to climate variability and change. Due to the dynamism of all the changes affecting pastoral societies, strategies that lock pastoral societies into specified development pathways could be maladaptive. Flexible and evolving combinations of practices and policies are the key to successful pastoral adaptation.

  18. Psicología pastoral. Aproximaciones teóricas y tendencias actuales (pastoral psychology, theoretical approaches, and current tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique León Arbelaéz Castaño

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente artículo pretende mostrar la importancia que en los últimos tiempos ha cobrado la psicología en el ámbito de la pastoral, y es por esto que se hará un recuento de los principales autores que han abordado este tema, para luego adentrarnos en aspectos psicopatológicos que se aplican a este campo. ABSTRACT: This current article aims to show the importance that, in the last few years, psychology has had in the pastoral setting, and that is why an inventory of the main authors, in this issue, will be made. Then, we will go into some psychopathological aspects, which apply in this field

  19. Transitions through Pastoral Peer Mentoring: A Qualitative Analysis of the Challenges and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenedy, Robert; Monty, Vivienne; Lambert-Drache, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Pastoral peer mentoring often benefits both mentors and mentees through promoting a successful academic postsecondary transition. Based on interviews and focus groups with 36 York University mentors and mentees, this qualitative study highlights the successes and challenges of university pastoral peer mentoring and leadership. Major findings…

  20. Refleksie op twee pastorale modelle, Deel 2: Die pastor as luisteraar - die storiemodel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Drever

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Reflection on two pastoral models, Part 2: The pastor as listener - the narrative model. This study focuses on pastoral interaction with women. Pastoral care and counselling with women takes place within hierarchical societal and church structures. In such societies those higher up in the hierarchy exercise power over others. The male perspective has been the dominant one. This article is a critical description and evaluation of Julian Miiller's narrative model for pastoral counselling. The premise of this model is that identity and story are related. This forms part of what is known in a broader context as the hermeneutics of conversation. In pastoral interaction the life stories of people are associated or disassociated with stories in the Bible. The article pleads for symmetrical interaction in pastoral counselling. This means that women should not be sold out to patriarchal narratives in the Bible that devalue them. Contra-narratives in the Bible according to which women have equal access to God could play an important role in pastoral interaction.

  1. Loss and fragmentation of habitat for pastoral people and wildlife in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little of the current focus on landscape fragmentation has focused on rangelands or pastoral lands. This paper investigates the existing evidence for causes and processes of fragmentation in pastoral lands and its effects of landscapes and peoples. More conceptual work is needed on the definition of loss and fragmentation ...

  2. The Training of Semiliterate Rural Pastors in the Northwest Region Ethiopian Kale Heywet Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, Timothy Steven

    2014-01-01

    A common plea in missions is the need to train pastors and church leaders for the rapidly multiplying churches in the Majority World, resulting in numerous formal and nonformal theological education training programs. In spite of these efforts, many rural churches remain without pastors. Using appreciative inquiry and participatory…

  3. Leadership and Spirituality: The Indivisible Leadership of African American School Administrators as Pastors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anthony D., Sr.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the role that spirituality plays in the leadership of African American men who are both a pastor and a public school administrator. Very little has been written about the role of African American spirituality in educational leadership or about school administrators who are also pastors.…

  4. Action and Church : Pastoral Work as the Focal Point of a Liberating Ecclesiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Först, Johannes; Dillen, Annemie; Wolfteich, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Pastoral work is the church in action. That is perhaps the most concise definition of pastoral work. Despite its briefness, however, it offers an ingenious point of departure for reflecting on key issues concerning the church and its task in the world. Based on this short definition, the current

  5. 'n Hoofstuk in die (outo)biografie van die predikant (pastor?) | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... but to the pastoral duty as well. The development of the metaphor “wounded healer” and the associative networks it awakens, are important in the establishment of these accents in a new life text. This perspective ought to be articulated in the further development of metaphors for the description of the identity of the pastor.

  6. Pastoral care in a time of global market capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, James

    2004-01-01

    The author defines pastoral theology as "the study of the micro-world of intrapsychic and interpersonal interactions with the tools of theology and the social sciences for the purpose of support and healing. In a typical class or supervisory session, we analyze the words, voice inflection, pace, and gestures of an intimate conversation between two people, looking for clues to the deep structure of personality and intimate relationships. The hope of such study is that we will see the revelation of God is love and power in action to validate and challenge the theological traditions that give us eyes to see and invite us to see more clearly."

  7. Bon Pastor (Barcelona un territori en construcció

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Salas Ramos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available L'article desenvolupa alguns dels aspectes de la tesi doctoral de l'autor (Sales, 2015. Es planteja una anàlisi de l'evolució del territori en el qual es troba el barri del Bon Pastor (Barcelona, posant l'accent en l'entorn construït. Per a això, la narrativa històrica es complementa amb documentació gràfica, part d'ella a partir dels diversos tallers de participació que l'autor ha desenvolupat i continua desenvolupant-se en aquest barri, en cooperació amb l'Associació de Veïns i l'Ajuntament de Barcelona (Districte de Sant Andreu amb l'objectiu de desenvolupar intervencions en l'espai públic de la zona en relació amb la preservació de la memòria cívica de Bon Pastor i en el context d'avançar en els processos de governaza urbana basada en la participació creativa dels veïns  Alhora s'organitzaven els primers processos participatius, vam començar a documentar la història de Bon Pastor. També a fer rutes pel barri per veure les seves característiques urbanes actuals i recopilar informació sobre els plans urbanístics vigents. Els següents paràgrafs són una síntesi del relat literari de la història de Bon Pastor i les seves principals característiques urbanes. Com va succeir amb Baró de Viver, és un relat que s'haurà d'anar completant a mesura que es desenvolupin els diferents processos participatius amb els relats de les vivències de la població, així com la diferent documentació que ens puguin aportar

  8. Women and leadership from a pastoral perspective of friendship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolande Dreyer

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to describe leadership from the perspective of friendship. This perspective highlights a  pastoral rather than a power oriented approach to leadership. Such an approach would be compatible with an attitude of service as an essential characteristic of the church. It could also contribute to the healing of church  structures that have become entangled in power games. It could lead to the healing of women and other disempowered groups who have for centuries been the victims of the power struggles of church institutions.

  9. Perspectives of Taiwanese pastoral counselors on the use of scripture and prayer in the counseling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Pan, Peter Jen; Deng, Liang-Yu F; Tsai, Shiou Ling; Yuan, S S Jenny

    2015-04-01

    Interviews were carried out with 10 Christian pastoral counselors to explore their perspectives on the use of Scripture and prayer in the counseling process. Grounded Theory was utilized. Five main categories including a theological framework of pastoral counseling, counselors' considerations of using Scripture and prayer, preparation for Christian spiritual intervention, implications of spiritual resources, and ethical issues in the pastoral counseling process were generated. The results suggest the theological framework of pastoral counseling is crucial to the use of Scripture and prayer, and the issue of a neutral response should first be clarified for clients. Basic guidelines for ethically using Scripture and prayer for working with Christian clients are proposed for further pastoral counselor training, practice, and research.

  10. Computational Research on Mobile Pastoralism Using Agent-Based Modeling and Satellite Imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuto Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Dryland pastoralism has long attracted considerable attention from researchers in diverse fields. However, rigorous formal study is made difficult by the high level of mobility of pastoralists as well as by the sizable spatio-temporal variability of their environment. This article presents a new computational approach for studying mobile pastoralism that overcomes these issues. Combining multi-temporal satellite images and agent-based modeling allows a comprehensive examination of pastoral resource access over a realistic dryland landscape with unpredictable ecological dynamics. The article demonstrates the analytical potential of this approach through its application to mobile pastoralism in northeast Nigeria. Employing more than 100 satellite images of the area, extensive simulations are conducted under a wide array of circumstances, including different land-use constraints. The simulation results reveal complex dependencies of pastoral resource access on these circumstances along with persistent patterns of seasonal land use observed at the macro level.

  11. Achieving Development Impact among Pastoral and Agro-Pastoral People: Lessons Learned in Southern Ethiopia, 2000-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Coppock, D. Layne; Tezera, Seyoum; Desta, Solomon; Gebru, Getachew

    2012-01-01

    The outreach and action-research component of the Pastoral Risk Management (PARIMA) project began with a focus on the Borana Plateau of southern Ethiopia in 2000. Our goal was to use participatory methods to learn about development needs and apply the knowledge gained to benefit local communities. Today it is clear that the project has had positive impacts on the lives of thousands of people. This report helps tell this story by emphasizing the process we used. At the start we knew that th...

  12. Wife beating amongst Africans as a challenge to pastoral care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magezi E. Baloyi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional African people are known for respecting their marriage. Even though marriage is so highly regarded, it is astonishing to realise that wife beating has become an extremely common practice amongst them. It therefore becomes an important research question to ask about the extent to which deeply-seated traditional customs regarding wife beating as a form of stamping down authority and of trying to keep the household in order, will have to be confronted with what is deemed to be good practice from the perspective of the law, community and pastoral caregivers. There are women who live with scars on their faces and bodies, having been beaten by their husbands. Although there are many forms of abuse towards women in family situations, this article aims particularly to focus on wife beating that is practiced for traditional as well as other related reasons. This research will involve itself with establishing whether the reasons for wife beating are part of the traditional system for keeping the household in order and interrogate both legal and pastoral interventions that attempt to eliminate or avoid such behaviour.

  13. Double Marginalized Livelihoods: Invisible Gender Inequality in Pastoral Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sileshi Mengistu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Achieving gender equality is the Third Millennium Development Goal, and the major challenge to poverty reduction is the inability of governments to address this at grass root levels. This study is therefore aimed at assessing gender inequality as it pertains to socio-economic factors in (agro- pastoral societies. It tries to explain how “invisible” forces perpetuate gender inequality, based on data collected from male and female household heads and community representatives. The findings indicate that in comparison with men, women lack access to control rights over livestock, land, and income, which are critical to securing a sustainable livelihood. However, this inequality remains invisible to women who appear to readily submit to local customs, and to the community at large due to a lack of public awareness and gender based interventions. In addition, violence against women is perpetuated through traditional beliefs and sustained by tourists to the area. As a result, (agro- pastoral woman face double marginalization, for being pastoralist, and for being a woman.

  14. Self-Disclosure and Spiritual Well-Being in Pastors Seeking Professional Psychological Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwen, Erik D; Underwood, Lee A; Dy-Liacco, Gabriel S; Arveson, Kathleen R

    2017-01-01

    Pastoral mental health is a topic that has only rarely been researched empirically in the psychological literature, yet a pastor's mental health can have a significant impact on churches, communities, and even nations (Royal and Thompson, Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 31 (3), 195-204, 2012). One of the thoughts prompting this research is that evangelical pastors might be expected to resist the findings of psychological research and lack understanding of specific mental illnesses they are potentially facing. Combined with historical and cultural dynamics that could influence resistance to professional psychological help, evangelical pastors have personal, internal factors that could also strengthen resistance, including the researched issues of self-disclosure flexibility and spiritual well-being. A correlational research design with multivariate regression was used to determine potentially significant or predictive relationships between the relevant factors. Among evangelical seminary students ( N  = 251) preparing for parish-based pastoral ministry, this research determined that no significant relationship, predictive or otherwise, existed between self-disclosure flexibility, spiritual well-being, and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Implications include a shift in focus toward external factors influencing pastors' help-seeking attitudes, such as the need for the mental health community to develop connections with evangelical pastors and the development of more support for Christian mental health professionals in the larger evangelical community.

  15. Gedagtes oor die arbeidsregtelike posisie van predikante, pastore en priesters as werknemers van die kerk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanie van Jaarsveld

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Thoughts on the labor law position of pastors and priests as employees of the church. The issue of labour-law relationships between pastors or priests and their employers (churches is controversial because they (pastors or priests are often regarded as employees and often not. These issues are discussed on the basis of problems in the South-African positive law and English law. In discussing the question about the nature of this labour-law relationship, a two-stage approach is suggested, especially when bearing in mind that the employment contract forms the basis of the labour-law relationship between the two parties.

  16. The Influence of Pastors' Ideologies of Homosexuality on HIV Prevention in the Black Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Young, Staci

    2016-10-01

    Young, Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, and Black Churches may be a source of stigma which can exacerbate HIV risk and contribute to negative health and psychosocial outcomes. Findings from this study are based on 21 semi-structured interviews with pastors and ethnographic observation in six Black Churches. Interview transcripts and field notes were analyzed in MAXQDA using thematic content analysis. Although pastors espoused messages of love and acceptance, they overwhelmingly believed homosexuality was a sin and had difficulty accepting YBMSM into their churches. The tension around homosexuality limited pastors' involvement in HIV prevention efforts, although there still may be opportunities for some churches.

  17. Pastoral suitability driven by future climate change along the Apennines

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    Camilla Dibari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at evaluating the impacts of climate change on pastoral resources located along the Apennines chain. To this end, random forest machine learning model was first calibrated for the present period and then applied to future conditions, as projected by HadCM3 general circulation model, in order to simulate possible spatial variation/shift of pastoral areas in two time slices (centred on 2050 and 2080 under A2 and B2 SRES scenarios. Pre-existent spatial database, namely Corine land cover map and WorldClim, were integrated and harmonised in a GIS environment in order to extract climate variables (mean seasonal precipitation, mean maximum temperature of the warmest month and minimum temperature of the coldest month and response variables (presence/absence of pastures to be used as model predictors. Random forest model resulted robust and coherent to simulate pastureland suitability under current climatology (classification accuracy error=19%. Accordingly, results indicated that increases in temperatures coupled with decreases in precipitation, as simulated by HadCM3 in the future, would have impacts of great concern on potential pasture distribution. In the specific, an overall decline of pasturelands suitability is predicted by the middle of the century in both A2 (–46% and B2 (–41% along the entire chain. However, despite alarming reductions in pastures suitability along the northern (–69% and –71% under A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively and central Apennines (–90% under both scenarios by the end of the century, expansions are predicted along the southern areas of the chain (+96% and +105% under A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. This may be probably due to expansions in pastures dominated by xeric and thermophiles species, which will likely benefit from warmer and drier future conditions predicted in the southern zone of the chain by the HadCM3. Hence, the expected climate, coupled with an increasing abandonment of the

  18. Kenyan pastors' perspectives on communicating about sexual behaviour and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann Neville; Kizito, Mary N; Mwithia, Jesica Kinya; Njoroge, Lucy; Ngula, Kyalo Wa; Davis, Kristin

    2011-09-01

    The article presents an analysis of in-depth interviews with 18 leaders of Christian churches in Nairobi, Kenya, regarding the content and context of messages they disseminate to their congregations about sexual behaviour and HIV. The content of messages was nearly consistent across the different denominations. However, three sorts of tensions were identified within pastoral communication about these topics: the need to discuss sex and HIV versus societal taboos against speaking about those issues from the pulpit; traditional cultural norms versus current lifestyles; and the ideals of abstinence and fidelity versus the reality of congregants' sexual behaviour. Although some of the religious leaders accepted the idea of condom use, no denominational patterns were noted on that subject, except with respect to Catholic priests. Pentecostal leaders were notable for describing proactive strategies to address both the ideal/real dilemma and the tension between church norms and current media content about sexuality and HIV.

  19. Školski pastoral kao doprinos školskoj kulturi

    OpenAIRE

    Kaupp, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Nakon 1990. godine u većini njemačkih biskupija razvijaju se planovi i programi "školskog pastorala". Školski pastoral obuhvaća kršćanski angažman u školi kao mjestu učenja, a organiziraju ga crkve. Riječ je o slobodnoj ponudi koja je namijenjena učenicima, nastavnom osoblju i roditeljima. Za razliku od toga, školski vjeronauk je u gotovo svim njemačkim saveznim pokrajinama redoviti školski predmet u svim vrstama škola, za koji su zajednički odgovorne država i škola. Školski vjeronauk predaju...

  20. Alternative Visions for Pastoral Work with LGBTQ Individuals, Families, and Communities: A Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Joretta L

    2017-03-01

    Multiple theological perspectives provide frameworks for pastoral work with lesbian, gay, bisesxual and trans individuals, families, and communities. One model is offered by those who argue for celibacy or heterosexual marriages for those who self-identify as part of LGBTQ communities. This article names other theologically grounded perspectives with the goal of inviting practitioners to broaden their understandings and wrestle with the implications of their theological and ethical stances. When reflecting on the intersection of spirituality and sexuality, the meaning of theological terms such as sin, contributions from queer theologians and pastoral counselors, and the limitations of binary categories common in our theological history, this article encourages pastoral counselors and spiritual care providers to re-examine theological assumptions they bring to their work. The article ends with questions and opportunities for ongoing pastoral theological work and reflection.

  1. The pastoral letter on war and peace emdash the challenge of peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This pastoral letter explains the criteria for distinguishing a just from an unjust war. It also contains a commentary on the conduct of war, including the use of nuclear weapons; and an assessment of the current US deterrence policy

  2. Transhumant Pastoralism in the Context of Socioeconomic and Climate Change in the Mountains of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popular Gentle

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research explored how transhumant pastoralism has been sustained and promoted in the context of socioeconomic and climate change in the mountain regions of Nepal. Based on case study research conducted in Nepal’s western mountains, the status, opportunities, and constraints of transhumant pastoralism in the changing context were analyzed. We found that indigenous and traditional knowledge, feelings of cultural identity, collective ownership, income, and mutual benefits have acted as motivating factors in sustaining transhumant pastoralism for generations. The continuation of this practice is threatened by the following challenges: the impacts of climate change on mountain ecosystems, socioeconomic changes, market influence on livelihood decisions, youth migration and labor shortage, low motivation of local people to engage in livestock rearing, and conflicts between herder and nonherder communities and institutions, as well as inadequate policy support and institutional arrangements. We conclude that unless there are positive policy and institutional arrangements to support transhumant pastoralism, the age-old practice will disappear.

  3. Ecology, mobility and labour: dynamic pastoral herd management in an uncertain world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, B

    2016-11-01

    In this review, the author discusses how pastoralism, and its many constituent components, is increasingly being recognised as in tune with the changing political and ecological nature of rangelands. He describes ways in which the literature reflects this changing attitude, outlines how rangelands respond to changes in climate and explores the evolving use of livestock resources. In addition, he describes the growing recognition of factors other than livestock density that affect rangeland vegetation (i.e. density-independent relationships). The author explains how terms such as 'carrying capacity', 'overgrazing' and 'desertification' are often taken out of their social and political context when describing rangeland pastoralism. Next, he describes the growing recognition by the development community of the importance of the mobility model, particularly in relation to changing ecologies and politics. Finally, he outlines how labour, a central focus of pastoral herd management, is a fluid component of pastoral systems in response to changing political and ecological circumstances.

  4. Pastoralism in the drylands of Latin America: Argentina, Chile, Mexico and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünwaldt, J M; Castellaro, G; Flores, E R; Morales-Nieto, C R; Valdez-Cepeda, R D; Guevera, J C; Grünwaldt, E G

    2016-11-01

    This article discusses various aspects of pastoralism in the Latin American countries with the largest dryland areas. The topics covered include: social, economic and institutional issues; grasslands and their carrying capacity; production systems and productivity rates; competition for forage resources between domestic livestock and wildlife; and the health status of livestock and wildlife. Most grasslands exhibit some degree of degradation. The percentage of offspring reaching weaning age is low: 47-66% of calves and 40-80% of lambs. Some pastoralists adopt patterns of transhumance. In the main, pastoralists experience a high poverty rate and have poor access to social services. For many pastoralists, wildlife is a source of food and by-products. Argentina, Chile, Mexico and Peru have animal health control agencies, are members of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and have signed the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. Pastoral systems subsist mainly on income unrelated to pastoral farming. The OIE recognises all four countries as free from infection with peste des petits ruminants virus, and from rinderpest and African horse sickness. It is difficult to predict the future of pastoralism in Latin America because the situation differs from country to country. For instance, pastoralism is more important in Peru than in Argentina, where it is a more marginal activity. In the future, lack of promotion and protection policies could lead to a decline in pastoralism or to an adverse environmental impact on drylands.

  5. Enabling sustainable pastoralism: policies and investments that optimise livestock production and rangeland stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, R; Davies, J

    2016-11-01

    Pastoralism is a system of dynamically managing livestock and land for economic, social and environmental benefit. To a large extent, pastoralism is an adaptation to ecological and climatic variability and is not simply a livestock production system but provides significant environmental services to humanity. Evidence from a range of national contexts shows that sustainable pastoralist development requires an understanding of the dual environmental and economic roles of pastoralism and an adaptation of policies and investments to support both. The current paper examines three cornerstones that have proven to be crucial for sustainable pastoralist development and for maximising the links between livestock production and environmental stewardship: strengthening pastoral capabilities and institutions, securing land tenure and natural resource governance, and ensuring equitable markets for pastoral diversity. To effectively support the dual economic-environmental roles of pastoralism requires not only optimisation of the production of ecosystem services through extensive livestock production, but also a major overhaul of the way we approach pastoralist development, and major investment in the people who are central to the system. As long as pastoralists remain marginalised, with weak rights and little access to services, their future will remain uncertain.

  6. Wife beating amongst Africans as a challenge to pastoral care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magezi E. Baloyi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional African people are known for respecting their marriage. Even though marriage is so highly regarded, it is astonishing to realise that wife beating has become an extremely common practice amongst them. It therefore becomes an important research question to ask about the extent to which deeply-seated traditional customs regarding wife beating as a form of stamping down authority and of trying to keep the household in order, will have to be confronted with what is deemed to be good practice from the perspective of the law, community and pastoral caregivers. There are women who live with scars on their faces and bodies, having been beaten by their husbands. Although there are many forms of abuse towards women in family situations, this article aims particularly to focus on wife beating that is practiced for traditional as well as other related reasons. This research will involve itself with establishing whether the reasons for wife beating are part of the traditional system for keeping the household in order and interrogate both legal and pastoral interventions that attempt to eliminate or avoid such behaviour. Tradisionele Afrikane is nog altyd daarvoor bekend dat hulle die instelling van die huwelik respekteer. Verbasend genoeg is vroueslanery egter ’n ou gevestigde gebruik wat vandag algemeen onder Afrikane voorkom. Die mate waartoe diepgewortelde gebruike soos vroueslanery as ’n manier om gesag af te dwing en orde in die huis te handhaaf, gekonfronteer sal moet word met wat as goeie praktyk beskou word vanuit die gesigspunt van die reg, die gemeenskap en pastorale versorgers, is dus ’n belangrike navorsingsvraag. Baie vroue dra fisiese en emosionele littekens wat deur hulle eggenote veroorsaak is. Alhoewel daar baie vorme van vrouemishandeling in familiesituasies voorkom, fokus hierdie artikel veral op vroueslanery wat om tradisionele en verwante redes beoefen word. Hierdie navorsing probeer vasstel of die redes vir

  7. Assessment of wild boar rooting on ecological and pastoral values of alpine pyrenean grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bueno, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild boar rooting is nowadays one of the main disturbances in Pyrenean alpine grasslands. Its consequences for the ecosystem are not perfectly understood yet despite alpine grasslands in the Pyrenees have an important economic role and a priority conservation interest. The ecosystem services of this habitat lay mainly on pastoral and ecological values that wild boar rooting seems to affect. In this study, we measured those ecological and pastoral values at different scales to improve our understanding of the reach of these disturbances in this sensitive ecosystem. At landscape and community scales we compare disturbed and undisturbed areas in pastoral, ecological and community maps of the study area by means of a geographic information system. At a local scale we compare ecological and pastoral values of different plant groups (based on species abundance, within and outside wild boar rootings. A preference for areas of high pastoral and intermediate ecological values was found for wild boar rooting at the landscape level. However at the community level, disturbances notably reduced pastoral and ecological values in all communities. At the local level, the ecological value of bulbs and the pastoral value of annual dicots increased within disturbances, suggesting that disturbances may favour functional group diversity. In sum, wild boar rooting affects Pyrenean alpine grasslands moderately, with higher affection to pastoral than ecological values at all levels, what should be considered for the management and preservation of these habitats since these disturbances are likely to increase.

    Las hozaduras de jabalí son una de las mayores perturbaciones actuales de los pastos supraforestales pirenaicos. Sus consecuencias para el ecosistema no están todavía perfectamente descritas, a pesar de ser uno de los hábitats de mayor interés de conservación y que juegan un importante papel en las economías locales. Los bienes y servicios que provee

  8. O ideário taylorista, a gestão da subjetividade e o poder pastoral Taylorist ideology, subjectivity management, and pastoral power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Eduardo Procopiuk Walter

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio tem por objetivo analisar o ideário taylorista concernente à relação entre operários e gestores a partir da categoria do poder pastoral, proposta por Michel Foucault. Se o poder disciplinar incide sobre o corpo, o poder pastoral incide sobre a alma do indivíduo, implicando - por meio de técnicas confessionais - a direção de consciência. No âmbito do taylorismo, pode-se concluir, tal poder se manifesta, mas não com um sentido parhesiastico, revelando no taylorismo um processo de configuração de verdades a respeito do sujeito operário, ou trabalhador, que o coloca em condição de objeto da gestão nas relações estabelecidas entre a gestão e o operário.This essay aims to analyze the Taylorist ideology concerning the relation between laborers and managers through the pastoral power category, proposed by Michel Foucault. If the disciplinary power is focused on the body, the pastoral power is focused on the individual's soul, implying - through confessional techniques - the direction of consciousness. Under Taylorism, one may conclude, such power manifests itself, but not in a parrhesiastic sense, revealing in Taylorism a truth configuration process with regard to the working subject, or laborer, which puts him in a condition of management object in the relations established between management and laborer.

  9. Public pastoral leaders: The purpose of theological training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malan Nel

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a follow-up of an article in which I attempted to gain insight into the corporate nature of being called to ministry. The mentioned article was also aimed at discerning the specifics of the ministry of the “public pastoral leader”. While the question is even asked whether theological training is necessary at all, I accept, as point of departure, the critical need for such training. What is of more importance is the discernment of what I call in this article the “teleological core” of theological education. I purposefully chose to explore the contributions of a number of well-known scholars who devoted much of their research to this field: Schner, Farley, Wood, Hough and Cobb, Heitink, Van der Ven and a few others. The ultimate finding is that some consensus about the telos of theological education does exist. The nature of the telos is phrased differently, but the different dimensions identified are indeed complementary. Concepts like “vision and discernment”, “critical reflection” “reflective practitioner”, “hermeneutical-communicative com- petence” and others are discussed as they relate to the core research problem. Attention is also given to the necessity of training a “basic pastor” as well as to the importance of “limited specialisation” in theological training.

  10. Institutional development: from legal pluralism to institutional bricolage in West African pastoralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokou, G; Bonfoh, B

    2016-11-01

    Pastoralists in Africa are increasingly vulnerable to the effects of globalisation, climate change and changes in land use. They are confronted with problems related to access to scarce natural resources and their regulation, the management of mobility, and too little investment in health systems, livestock production and social service delivery. However, this paper focuses on positive trends and vital innovations in pastoral societies. These rely on robust institutions and policy frameworks that contribute to economically secure, politically stable, and environmentally sustainable livelihoods for African pastoral societies. The authors analyse ways in which internal and external efforts can improve the economic viability and social aspects of pastoralism. The institutions that manage natural resources and their effects on livelihoods and access to social services must be critically reviewed. The authors suggest that a new model for the economic and social development of African pastoralism should be positioned between donor- or governmentdriven development (in other words, 'seeing like a state') and the autonomous development goals of pastoralists ('seeing like a pastoralist'). Pastoralists are resourceful, entrepreneurial and innovative people, fully able to support new institutional systems and services which recognise their way of life and production systems. It seems evident that African pastoralism will maintain its vitality and creativity through a process of 'bricolage', with institutional and policy innovations based on a constant renegotiation of norms, the reinvention or transformation of tradition, the importance of legitimate authority and the role of the people themselves in shaping such arrangements.

  11. Risk Assessment of Maize Drought Disaster in Agro-Pastoral Transitional Zone in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, H.; Pan, D.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural drought is one of the focuses of global concern and one of the natural disasters that affect the agriculture production mostly in China. Farming-pastoral zones in China are located in the monsoon fringe area, precipitation of which is extremely unstable, and drought occurs frequently. The agro-pastoral transitional zone in North China is one of the main producing areas of northern spring maize in northern China, and maize is the second largest grain crop in the region. An assessment of the risk of drought disaster in this region is therefore important in ensuring a reduction in such disasters and an increase in food security. A risk assessment model, EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) model, for maize drought disasters based on the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator crop model is proposed for areas with the topographic characteristics of agro-pastoral transitional zone in North China. The results showed that the hazard risk level for the maize zone of agro-pastoral transitional zone in North China is generally high. Most hazard index values were between 0.4 and 0.5, accounting for 48.77% of total study area. The high-risk areas were mainly distributed in Ordos Plateau (South of Inner Mongolia Autonomous region), South of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and Center of Gansu Province. These results provide a scientific basis and support for the reduction of agricultural drought disasters and an increase in food security in the agro-pastoral transitional zone in North China.

  12. Adaptation to New Climate by an Old Strategy? Modeling Sedentary and Mobile Pastoralism in Semi-Arid Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbinian P. Freier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a modeling study we examine vulnerability of income from mobile (transhumant pastoralism and sedentary pastoralism to reduced mean annual precipitation (MAP and droughts. The study is based on empirical data of a 3410 km2 research region in southern, semi-arid Morocco. The land use decision model integrates a meta-model of the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC simulator to depict perennial and annual forage plant development. It also includes livestock dynamics and forward-looking decision making under uncertain weather. Mobile livestock in the model moves seasonally, sedentary livestock is restricted to pastures around settlements. For a reduction of MAP by 20%, our model shows for different experimental frequencies of droughts a significant decrease of total income from pastoralism by 8%–19% (p < 0.05. Looking separately at the two modes of pastoralism, pronounced income losses of 18%–44% (p < 0.05 show that sedentary pastoralism is much more vulnerable to dryer climate than mobile pastoralism, which is merely affected. Dedicating more pasture area and high quality fodder to mobile pastoralism significantly abates impacts from reduced MAP and droughts on total income by 11% (p < 0.05. Our results indicate that promotion of mobile pastoralism in semi-arid areas is a valuable option to increase resilience against climate change.

  13. Prison hospice and pastoral care services in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, John F; Knauf, Keith; Enders, Sheila R; Meyers, Frederick J

    2002-12-01

    Hospice at the California Medical Facility (CMF) Vacaville dates back to the mid-1980s, when the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic began to be felt throughout California's Department of Corrections. Vacaville has served for decades as the principal location for delivering health services to California's incarcerated men. Informal hospice-like services were inspired by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross and through inmate and community calls for more humane care for dying inmates. By 1990, efforts to formally establish a hospice were under way. In 1996, a 17-bed, state-licensed hospice began caring for dying inmates. An interdisciplinary team plans and delivers the care, meeting weekly to admit and review patients. The Pastoral Care Services (PCS) inmate volunteer program, with more than 50 trained participants, provides care and comfort to dying patients in hospice and to ill patients on the general medicine service. PCS volunteers perform many duties, including sitting vigil with actively dying inmates. Inmates enrolling in hospice have to forgo further curative therapy, consent to the program in writing, and have a 6-month or less survival prognosis; patients are not required to have a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order, but are encouraged to consider one. Training for physicians, staff and PCS volunteers is provided by the University of California, Davis faculty of the West Coast Center for Palliative Education. Bereavement services are provided for PCS volunteers, other inmate "family" and staff. Family and friends of the deceased in the free community are followed by phone, mail, and primarily through referral to resources in their local area.

  14. Becoming Bioethically Confident: The Contribution of Learning Experiences in Seminary and Congregational Ministry to Evangelical Pastors' Wise Leadership on Bioethical Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Paige Comstock

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the factors that contribute to evangelical pastors becoming bioethically confident leaders of their congregation. This basic qualitative study invited twenty-five pastors who have a M.Div. or similar seminary degree to share their experiences of theological education, congregational ministry, and their views of pastoral moral…

  15. Pastoral Care Functional Approach as Panacea For Involuntary Childlessness Among Christian Couples In Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Oladele Ayankeye

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of involuntary childlessness is a serious one in Africa where parenthood is given a pride of place. The fact that there is a high population growth has not removed the trauma associated with inability to reproduce from the African society. The weight of the crisis cuts across socio-economic and religious boundaries. Little wonder why studies continue to emerge from various fields on the issue. This paper focused on the application of some functions of pastoral care that can be of help while pastoral caregivers and counsellors are caring for childless couples in Africa. The functions are educating healing and sustaining. The intention, since there have been several papers on causes and effects of childlessness, is to avail pastoral caregivers with a handy guideline in the process of ministering to the involuntarily childless couples in Africa

  16. The Gendering of Pastors in Contemporary Nordic Films: Norms, Conventions and Contemporary Views

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    Sofia Sjö

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article examines how Lutheran pastors are gendered in six well-known Nordic films. Building on the theory of mediatisation of religion, the study argues for the need to look at how media shapes religion and gender for a thorough understanding of viewson religion today. The film analyses show a connection between female pastors and less problematised forms of religion, but also traditional ways of undermining women in films. The films are argued to present a problematised religious view on sexuality, mostly connected to male pastors. Both aspects of gendering religion are tied to larger debates and discussions of religion and gender in the Nordic countries today. The article suggests that media have the potential to challenge traditional religious norms and to present their own norms, and highlights the need for further comparative studies.

  17. Philosophical counselling: Towards a ‘new approach’ in pastoral care and counselling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Louw

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The practice of pastoral counselling was dominated for several decades by the Rogerian techniques of empathetic listening. To a large extent, healing was predominately related to the realm of feelings (the affective dimension. Rational Emotive Therapy opened up other avenues. However, besides Logotherapy, the realm of meaning and its connectedness to world views and ideas (Plato: forms remained uncharted in many theories for pastoral care and counselling. In this article it was argued that philosophical counselling opens up new avenues for pastoral care and counselling. Philosophical counselling probes into the realm of different schemata of interpretation. A model for the making of a spiritual existential analysis was proposed in order to detect the impact of the Christian spiritual schema of interpretation on the dynamics of existential networking.

  18. Handling of pastoral misconduct and discipline: Evidence from the Apostolic Faith Mission in Zimbabwe church

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    Norman Chivasa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Misconduct has permeated almost every community across the globe and Christian churches have not been spared either. The two basic questions that the current study addresses were what are some of the reported behaviours of male pastors that constitute misconduct in the Apostolic Faith Mission (AFM in Zimbabwe church?; and is there any policy framework in the AFM in Zimbabwe designed to repair distressed relationships between offending pastors and the church? Results showed that in the AFM in Zimbabwe, pastoral misconduct is seen as a negative force that militates against sustaining harmony in the church. As such, whenever a male pastor commits an act of misconduct, disciplinary action is taken against him. It was also found that constructive dialogue to address misconduct is still a blind spot in the church under review. And because there is no policy framework to amend distressed relationships after administering discipline, social interactions between offending pastors and the church remain antagonistic. In view of the identified problem, this study proposed that the AFM in Zimbabwe might need to embrace a peace building framework because it has the propensity to repair broken relationships and to build friendships, social networks and trust between people. This framework can be instrumental in repairing distressed relations between offending pastors and the church at large. The strength of peace building lies in the values of brotherly love, forgiveness, reconciliation and relationship building, which are compatible with Christianity.

  19. Chance Encounters: Rap Music as a Relational and Pedagogical Resource in Clinical Pastoral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Jeremy

    2018-03-01

    Music has long been regarded as a valuable tool for educators. Over the last three decades, rap music has grown to become a global phenomenon. However, due to historical and cultural factors, rap music is often underutilized in Clinical Pastoral Education. This article discusses the social significance of rap music, highlights how rap music informed my supervision of a clinical pastoral education student, and examines Chance the Rapper's mixtape Coloring Book as a case study on the utilization of rap music as a relational and pedagogical resource in spiritual education.

  20. Medicinal plants potential and use by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Erer Valley of Babile Wereda, Eastern Ethiopia

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    Belayneh Anteneh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopian plants have shown remarkably effective medicinal values for many human and livestock ailments. Some research results are found on medicinal plants of the south, south west, central, north and north western parts of Ethiopia. However, there is lack of data that quantitatively assesses the resource potential and the indigenous knowledge on use and management of medicinal plants in eastern Ethiopia. The main thrust of the present ethnobotanical study centres around the potential and use of traditional medicinal plants by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Babile Wereda (district of eastern Ethiopia. The results can be used for setting up of conservation priorities, preservation of local biocultural knowledge with sustainable use and development of the resource. Materials and methods Fifty systematically selected informants including fifteen traditional herbalists (as key informants participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews, discussions and guided field walk constituted the main data collection methods. Techniques of preference ranking, factor of informant consensus and Spearman rank correlation test were employed in data analysis. Medicinal plant specimens were collected, identified and kept at the National Herbarium (ETH of Addis Ababa University and Haramaya University Herbarium. Results Fifty-one traditional medicinal plant species in 39 genera and 28 families were recorded, constituting 37% shrubs, 29% trees, 26% herbs, 6% climbers and 2% root parasites. Leaves contributed to 35.3% of the preparations, roots (18.8% and lower proportions for other parts. Formulations recorded added to 133 remedies for 54 human ailments, in addition to some used in vector control. The majority of remedies were the juice of single species, mixtures being generally infrequent. Aloe pirottae, Azadirachta indica and Hydnora johannis were the most cited and preferred species. Aloe pirottae, a species endemic to Ethiopia

  1. A pastoral evaluation and responses to the challenge of spiritual insecurity in African pastoral ministry and Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2017-01-01

    article discusses African spiritual worldview and its implications to practical Christianity. It is an interdisciplinary theological article that integrates African Christian theology and pastoral care. It contributes to the discussion on contextualising Christian practical ministry in Africa.

  2. Francisco de Aguiar y Seijas, pastor del rebaño

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    Silva Herrera, Rocío

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Which was the pastoral profile of Francisco de Aguiar y Seijas, archbishop of Mexico? Through the dates of the Book of visit in his fourth journey in the regions of Chalco, Amilpas, Xochimilco and Coyoacan from december 4th 1686 to april 9th 1687, and making use of the thematic biography as method, the answer to the initial question has arrived. After the Council of Trent, the bishop had the duty to promote the reform of customs in his diocese; the pastoral visit was a privileged way to achieve it. The archbishop Aguiar, educated from the tridentine discipline in the archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela, made of his pastoral visit a really popular mission among the people. He takes a small itinerant curia, to govern and discharging justice in a delegated manner. A disciplined, austere and conciliator man, he served as a souls shepherd more than a court official.¿Cuál fue el perfil pastoral de Francisco de Aguiar y Seijas, arzobispo de México? A través de los datos que aporta el Libro de visita de su cuarta salida a las regiones de Chalco, Amilpas, Xochimilco y Coyoacán del 4 de diciembre de 1686 al 9 de abril de 1687, y utilizando la metodología de la biografía temática, se ha dado respuesta a la pregunta inicial. Luego del Concilio de Trento, el obispo tenía el grave deber de suscitar la reforma de las costumbres en su diócesis; la visita pastoral fue un medio privilegiado para lograrlo. El arzobispo Aguiar, formado bajo la disciplina tridentina en la arquidiócesis compostelana, hizo de su visita pastoral una verdadera misión popular entre la gente. Acompañado de una pequeña curia itinerante, gobernó e impartió justicia con características de delegación de poder. Hombre disciplinado, austero y de carácter conciliador se dirigió más como pastor de almas que como funcionario real. [gl] Cal foi o perfil pastoral de Francisco de Aguiar e Seijas, arcebispo de México? A través dos datos que achega o libro de visita da s

  3. O jogo do PE: luzes examinantes para o além-mundo da Pastoral Educativa EP game: examining lights toward the beyond-world of Educative Pastoral

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    Sandra Mara Corazza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O jogo do PE (Pastoral Educativa: 1 aproveita as quatro partes que compõem Also Sprach Zarathustra, de Nietzsche, para desenhar a própria configuração; 2 utiliza a maioria dos subtítulos de Also Sprach..., sem necessariamente fazer corresponder-lhe o que ali Zaratustra falou; 3 solicita licença para propor a esta fala - pelo amor antigo que lhe tem - outros aforismos, idéias e considerações, mesmo que extemporâneos, para montar o tabuleiro onde possa jogar o PE; 4 entende "jogo" do mesmo modo que Foucault, ou seja, como um conjunto de regras de produção da verdade; 5 descreve esse jogo imediatamente, sem mais delongas.The EP (Educative Pastoral game: 1 makes good use of the four parts which constitute Also Sprach Zarathustra, by Nietzsche, to outline its own configuration; 2 uses most of the subtitles of Also Sprach…, without necessarily making it correspond with what Zarathustra spoke there; 3 asks for permission to propose this speech - due to the old love devoted to it - other aphorisms, ideas and considerations, even if extemporaneous, to build the board where EP (Educative Pastoral game can be played; 4 understands "game" the same way Foucault does, that is, as a set of rules of truth-production; 5 describes this game immediately, without any delay.

  4. Understanding complexity in managing agro-pastoral dams ecosystem services in Northern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpera, G.N.

    2015-01-01

    Key words: conflict, water quality, crocodile, fish diversity, vegetable, watershed management, institutional changes, innovation system.

    Understanding complexity in managing agro-pastoral dams ecosystem services in Northern Benin

    Gnanki

  5. Intrapersoonlike transformasie by pastors – die paradoks van emosionele verwonding as bron tot genesing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Philip Nolte

    2009-09-01

    This article reflects upon the way in which the interplay between reason and emotion influences pastors’ lives and ministry. It studies the process of inner transformation as a meaningful way for pastors to become ‘healed healers’. Inner transformation is described in terms of Aristotle’s phronēsis and Paul Ricoeur’s movement from mimēsis1 to mimēsis3. The article agrues that ‘healing’ in no way purports that pastors are able to heal others in a literal sense, but merely that by being conscious of their own wounds, pastors can experience the paradox that their own wounds could become a source of healing. This approach to woundedness is interpreted from two distinct perspectives. Firstly, it is seen from the perspective of Jesus as the human face of God. Jesus’ emotional disposition towards the nobodies of his time is seen as paradigmatic for pastors’ relationships with others. Secondly, woundedness is seen within the context of the metaphor of the wounded healer as narrated in ancient Greek mythology, and used by Carl Jung in a psychiatric setting. It is not only pastors’ knowledge of the Bible, theological tradition and different pastoral and other therapeutic theories, models and methods that facilitates meaningful interaction between themselves and others. Central to pastors’ role as wounded healers is their conscious acknowledgement of their own humanity and therefore their own woundedness.

  6. Cyberbullying Bystanders and Moral Engagement: A Psychosocial Analysis for Pastoral Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Chris; Zuin, Antônio

    2018-01-01

    One of the new challenges facing pastoral care in schools is dealing with the rapid growth of cyberbullying by school-aged children. Within digital cyberspace, cyberbullies are finding more opportunities to express their aggression towards others as social networks become technologically more sophisticated. An important feature of cyberbullying is…

  7. Enhancing the economic viability of pastoralism: the need to balance interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueff, H; Rahim, I

    2016-11-01

    Extensive mobile pastoral systems do not follow conventional marketing optimisation models, since they must deal with the factors of mobility, erratic environments, dependency on natural resources, seasonality, and distance to markets. While pastoralist systems contribute substantially to national economies, government investment to support pastoralism remains limited or non-existent. Pastoralists are becoming increasingly integrated into larger market systems and therefore need investment and specially adapted policies to supply a growing demand for livestock products and to support their livelihoods. In this paper, the authors show that investment and technology can support and empower pastoralist marketing strategies in supplying higher-value and more stable livestock products. Furthermore, the authors demonstrate that pastoralists also supply services, broadening the marketing landscape within which they operate to include more players and trading options. Pastoralists are undeniably the custodians of rangelands and provide a wide range of ecosystem services. These new market prospects nevertheless require structuring (e.g. regulation, infrastructure) and adjustments in the trading environment of stakeholders all along the value chain. There is, however, an inherent risk in intervening in pastoral marketing and production processes. Too many or ill-adapted interventions can have severe effects on these systems, resulting in over-intensification and reduced mobility. Finding the right level of intervention to support extensive pastoral systems is important when developing policy, since it is about the only form of land use that can keep a third of the world's land surface in food production without additional inputs.

  8. Leadership Role Expectations and Relationships of Principals and Pastors in Catholic Parochial Elementary Schools: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Duane F.

    2004-01-01

    Parish elementary schools in the United States have a governance structure that often precipitates conflict. The principal is the designated leader of the school, the educational administrator, and the supervisor of the faculty and students. By canon law, however, the pastor of the parish remains ultimately responsible for the spiritual and…

  9. Archaeology, archaeozoology and the study of pastoralism in the Near East (Review Article)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çakirlar, Canan

    2017-01-01

    Sheep and goat herding, the basis of pastoralism in the Near East, has been integral to the social organisation, diet, economy, religion and environment of the region since the beginnings of animal domestication. Interestingly, this omnipresent factor of life in the Near East has not been a popular

  10. "Holy Cow! This Stuff Is Real!" from Imagining Ministry to Pastoral Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Reed, Eileen R.; Scharen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    How do seminarians move from imagining ministry to embodying pastoral imagination? Stories gathered from seminarians in their final year of study show the complexity of shifting from classroom work, which foregrounds theory and intellectual imagination, to more embodied, relational, and emotionally intense engagements of ministry. Stories about…

  11. n hoofstuk in die (outo)biografie van die predikant (pastor?) 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    biografie van die dominee (pastor?), spreek om verskeie redes boekdele. Die gebruik van die onbepaalde lidwoord is eerstens 'n bevestiging dat die artikel slegs 'n verdere bydrae (hoofstuk) tot die bestaande en steeds voortgaande gesprek (boek) oor die biografie van die dominee is (Heitink 2001). Tweedens plaas ek ...

  12. Pastoral community organization, livelihoods and biodiversity conservation in Mongolia's Southern Gobi Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabine M. Schmidt

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I describe processes and impacts of collective action by mobile pastoralist communities, and of external support strategies to strengthen local institutions and cooperation in Mongolia’s southern Gobi. The need for pastoral mobility triggered the processes leading to community organization, and the emergence, or re-emergence, of local informal...

  13. the problem of cultural stereotyping in the pastoral care of a suicidal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By global culture we mean the fusion of cultures as a result of immigration and ... individualism in the European context: “the importance of self-expression and the .... interdependence and growth. .... exchange of cultures and religious/spiritual experience in pastoral care. .... Medical students in this study were to explore.

  14. A re-reading of John 8:1–11 from a pastoral liberative perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article intends to unmask collusion with patriarchal societies including the Jewish society in Jesus' time by mapping out the forms of harassment and embarrassment inflicted upon women. The study shows how pastoral care can help victims of oppression. A re-reading of John 8:1–11 will inform the, how can the verses ...

  15. The Lenten Pastoral Letter: a first public declaration of the hidden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, it has been recorded that when asked about the origins of the Pastoral. Letter, one of.the ... voice of the poor. This state of affairs would explain ... discusses the terms 'public' and 'hidden' in the context of power relations and discourse.

  16. Small ruminant production in smallholder and pastoral/extensive farming systems in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosgey, I.S.; Rowlands, G.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Baker, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    A survey was conducted by way of personal interviews with 562 respondents comprising 459 farmers and 103 butchers/traders in selected districts in the central and western parts of Kenya, consisting of three predominantly smallholder and four predominantly pastoral/extensive districts. The study

  17. The hearthhold in pastoral Fulbe society, central Mali : social relations, milk and drought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de M.E.

    1997-01-01

    In pastoral Fulbe society in central Mali women had, and to some degree still have, an important social and economic role, concentrated on a 'milk economy' organized through a female-headed, women-centred unit, called 'fayannde' or 'hearthhold'. In a society of seminomadic pastoralists who live most

  18. Local land management in Benin with special reference to pastoral groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo); T. Djedjebi

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA review of local land management experiences in West Africa reveals that the resolution of conflicts over the uses of resources between herders and farmers depends on factors like land and water rights, promotion of the interests of pastoral groups and the Intervention of

  19. Towards sustainable vegetable production around agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpéra, G.N.; Segnon, Alcade C.; Saïdou, Aliou; Mensah, Guy A.; Aarts, Noelle; Zijpp, van der Akke J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rehabilitation and optimized utilization of agro-pastoral dams (APDs), especially for vegetable production, has been recently promoted to boost agricultural production and ensure food security in Benin. However, little information was available on APDs' agricultural potentials and

  20. Pastoral care and gays against the background of same-sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of the article is to show how the hegemony of heteronormativity compromises attempts at gay-friendly pastoral care and counselling with sexual minorities. Ecclesial resolutions with regard to same-sex relationships are based on Biblical propositions, theologies of heterosexual marriage, and often also on social ...

  1. Envisioning the future of transhumant pastoralism through participatory scenario planning: a case study in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oteros Rozas, E.; González, J.A.; Martín-López, B.; López, C.A.; Palomo, I.; Sotelo Montes, C.

    2013-01-01

    Transhumance is a practice of nomadic pastoralism that was once common in Mediterranean Europe. This livestock-rearing system is associated with the maintenance of cultural landscapes and the delivery of a wide range of ecosystem services. Although transhumance is still practised in Spain on a small

  2. The Paradox of Being a Wounded Healer: Henri J.M. Nouwen’s Contribution to Pastoral Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Philip Nolte

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first in a series of two dealing with Henri Nouwen’s contribution to pastoral care. The present article focuses on the impact of cognitive dissonance and the role it plays in pastors becoming constrained in their ministry. The point of departure is that during the past two decades, pastors have been subjected to profound changes. While pastors view their involvement with people in the social and faith communities in which they live and work as guiding people towards a life of wholeness and integrity, they themselves, because of their own inner woundedness, struggle to live a life of wholeness. This article investigates how pastors can act congruently and with integrity in a world that has been profoundly changed by a shift from a modern to a postmodern paradigm. This reflection explores the ancient Greek mythological origins of the concept ‘wounded healer’. It also shows that, in its utilisation by the Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, the concept became a metaphor. This insight leads to a discussion of how Henri Nouwen applied the significance of the metaphor to pastoral ministry. The discussion takes on the form of certain relevant biographical side notes on Nouwen’s contribution to pastoral theology. The article concludes with an exposition of Nouwens’s use of the metaphor in his book, The wounded healer: Ministry in contemporary society.

  3. The Interactive Play and a Persuasive God: A Psychoanalytic Approach to Re-envisioning Pastoral Care and Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jung Eun

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a sketch of a new image of pastoral care and counseling, which reflects the psychoanalytic understanding of the interacting transference and countertransference matrix, along with a process view of God in a mutually influencing relationship with creatures. A more effective approach in pastoral care and counseling can be conceptualized as the interactive play in which pastoral caregivers and receivers co-create a therapeutic relationship with their own past experiences and their creative capabilities. The interactive play is a concept of describing the mutually influencing relationship in the transference and countertransference interchange. The article introduces the concept of a persuasive God as a new image of pastoral care and counseling which includes aspects of the mutually interacting process in play. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Is multifunctionality the future of mountain pastoralism? Lessons from the management of semi-natural grasslands in the Pyrenees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-i-Gelats, F.; Rivera-Ferre, M.G.; Madruga-Andreu, C.; Bartolomé-Filella, J.

    2015-07-01

    Land abandonment is pervasive in mountainous Europe. In the present situation of price-cost squeeze on pastoral households and general shift in the role of farming, the development of farming abandonment risk regions is generally associated with adoption of new multifunctional rural development strategies, such as farm tourism, which in the end entail less time being devoted to farming practices. We explored the effects of such developmental scheme on the preservation of semi-natural grasslands, in particular, and on the sustainability of mountain pastoralism, in general. While the effects on the preservation of semi-natural grasslands of full abandonment have been extensively explored, this is not the case of partial abandonment. Results showed that the adoption of simplified and low-cost management regimes, associated with partial abandonment and the increased adoption of part-time farming, immerses semi-natural grasslands in processes of secondary succession that undermine both their conservation and pastoral functions. This points the need for caution when endorsing multifunctional developmental schemes in farming abandonment risk regions, particularly when those imply less labor being devoted to pastoral practices. In conclusion, we stress that in farming abandonment risk regions it is possible to guarantee both viable pastoralism and diversified rural economy. However, it is necessary to implement developmental strategies that are centered on stimulating synergies between pastoralism and other economic activities, rather than promoting activities that depend on additional farmers’ polyvalence. (Author)

  5. Is multifunctionality the future of mountain pastoralism? Lessons from the management of semi-natural grasslands in the Pyrenees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-i-Gelats, F.; Rivera-Ferre, M.G.; Madruga-Andreu, C.; Bartolomé-Filella, J.

    2015-01-01

    Land abandonment is pervasive in mountainous Europe. In the present situation of price-cost squeeze on pastoral households and general shift in the role of farming, the development of farming abandonment risk regions is generally associated with adoption of new multifunctional rural development strategies, such as farm tourism, which in the end entail less time being devoted to farming practices. We explored the effects of such developmental scheme on the preservation of semi-natural grasslands, in particular, and on the sustainability of mountain pastoralism, in general. While the effects on the preservation of semi-natural grasslands of full abandonment have been extensively explored, this is not the case of partial abandonment. Results showed that the adoption of simplified and low-cost management regimes, associated with partial abandonment and the increased adoption of part-time farming, immerses semi-natural grasslands in processes of secondary succession that undermine both their conservation and pastoral functions. This points the need for caution when endorsing multifunctional developmental schemes in farming abandonment risk regions, particularly when those imply less labor being devoted to pastoral practices. In conclusion, we stress that in farming abandonment risk regions it is possible to guarantee both viable pastoralism and diversified rural economy. However, it is necessary to implement developmental strategies that are centered on stimulating synergies between pastoralism and other economic activities, rather than promoting activities that depend on additional farmers’ polyvalence. (Author)

  6. Is multifunctionality the future of mountain pastoralism? Lessons from the management of semi-natural grasslands in the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliu López-i-Gelats

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Land abandonment is pervasive in mountainous Europe. In the present situation of price-cost squeeze on pastoral households and general shift in the role of farming, the development of farming abandonment risk regions is generally associated with adoption of new multifunctional rural development strategies, such as farm tourism, which in the end entail less time being devoted to farming practices. We explored the effects of such developmental scheme on the preservation of semi-natural grasslands, in particular, and on the sustainability of mountain pastoralism, in general. While the effects on the preservation of semi-natural grasslands of full abandonment have been extensively explored, this is not the case of partial abandonment. Results showed that the adoption of simplified and low-cost management regimes, associated with partial abandonment and the increased adoption of part-time farming, immerses semi-natural grasslands in processes of secondary succession that undermine both their conservation and pastoral functions. This points the need for caution when endorsing multifunctional developmental schemes in farming abandonment risk regions, particularly when those imply less labor being devoted to pastoral practices. In conclusion, we stress that in farming abandonment risk regions it is possible to guarantee both viable pastoralism and diversified rural economy. However, it is necessary to implement developmental strategies that are centered on stimulating synergies between pastoralism and other economic activities, rather than promoting activities that depend on additional farmers’ polyvalence.

  7. A House Full of Trap Doors. Identifying barriers to resilient drylands in the toolbox of pastoral development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krätli, Saverio; Kaufmann, Brigitte; Roba, Hassan; Hiernaux, Pierre; Li, Wenjun; Easdale, Marcos H.; Huelsebusch, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The theoretical understanding of drylands and pastoral systems has long undergone a U-turn from the initial perspective rooted in classical ecology. The shift has hinged on the way to represent asymmetric variability, from a disturbance in an ecosystem that naturally tends towards uniformity and stability, to a constitutive part of a dynamic ecosystem. Operationalising the new reversed perspective, including the need to update the methodological infrastructure to plan around drylands and pastoral development, remains a challenge. Underlying assumptions about stability and uniformity, that are a legacy of equilibrium thinking, remain embedded in the toolbox of pastoral development, starting from the technical language to talk about the subject. This effectively gets in the way of operationalizing state of the art understanding of pastoral systems and the drylands. Unless these barriers are identified, unpacked and managed, even the present calls for increasing the rigour and intensity of data collection - for example as part of the ongoing global process to revise and improve agricultural data - cannot deliver a realistic representation of pastoral systems in statistics and policy making. This contribution presents the case for understanding variability as an asset, and provides a range of examples of methodological barriers, including classifications of livestock systems, scale of observation, key parameters in animal production, indicators in the measurement of ecological efficiency, concepts of ecological fragility, natural resources, and pastoral risk. The need to update this legacy is a pressing challenge for policy makers concerned with both modernisation and resilience in the drylands.

  8. El pastor Quijótiz by Camón Aznar and Unamuno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Fernández Rivera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In El pastor Quijótiz (1969, Camón Aznar resorted to the antagonism ideal vs. reality, characteristic of many recreations of Cervantes’ masterpiece, to explore the problem he had in combining the ideas of his freethinking youth with his later role as an active intellectual under Franco.  El pastor Quijótiz is an attempt at saving the liberal intellectuals’ utopianism of the early 20th century by transforming it into a form of private spirituality that serves as a comforter in the face of the surrounding social injustice. Camón Aznar builds upon the figure of the rebellious Don Quixote created by Unamuno, who he had admired in his youth. However, he changes the figure by adding a resigned victimization of Stoic- Christian origin.

  9. Community healing and the role of pastoral care of the ill and suffering in Africa

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    V. Magezi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The extended family (community in Africa plays a crucial role in the process of healing. However, while the role of the community is invaluable, many scholars overlook its other side. This article argues for a critical consideration of the healing role of the community in Africa and offers a critique of African community healing in the light of pastoral healing. Pastoral healing as a spiritual and faith perspective is juxtaposed with the healing process within African traditional communities. Since these two communities operate from different perspectives, in many cases they are competing forces in the process of healing – a difference that aggravates pain. This article thus carefully describes the process of healing both within a faith community (with its acts of “koinonia” and the African traditional community, and concludes by proposing a healthy integration of these systems.

  10. A political project by instruction: a hundred years of the Pastoral Letter of D. Leme

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    Marco Aurélio Corrêa Martins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The rereading of the centennial Pastoral Letter of greeting from D. Leme to diocesans in the Archdiocese of Olinda, in 1916, allows to understand, from historical and historiographical aspects, the composition between ultramontanism and traditionalism in the text of strong politicalbias, in which the archbishop intended a project of religious instruction for the catholicpeople. The analysis points out some aspects of the text in the educational and ideological issues of the period of its production, highlighting the separation between education and instruction in the text. The theoretical framework in the concept of temporality of Paul Ricoeur, beyond the beddings of the philosophy of the history of this author, for its phenomenological entail, allowed a specific understanding of proposals of the archbishop. It was about a bibliographical study in which the Pastoral Letter is a document and a vestige of that time, studied along with some papal encyclicals, also treated documentarily.

  11. Genetic Structure of Pastoral and Farmer Populations in the African Sahel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Viktor; Pereira, L.; Musilová, E.; Kujanová, M.; Vašíková, A.; Blasi, P.; Garofalo, L.; Soares, P.; Diallo, I.; Brdička, R.; Novelletto, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 9 (2011), s. 2491-2500 ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1587 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : African Sahel * pastoralism * archaeogenetics Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 5.550, year: 2011 http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/9/2491

  12. Vulnerability of the Tibetan Pastoral Systems to Climate and Global Change

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    Yang Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate and global change on Tibetan pastoral systems have become increasingly evident. Thus, a significant research endeavor is to explore the combined effects of these changes on the livelihoods of herder households and communities, on the adaptation strategies they adopted to respond to the current and expected risks associated with these changes, and on the emerging opportunities that can strengthen their resilience and adaptive capacity. We performed an integrated analysis of the dynamics of Tibetan pastoral systems influenced by climate and global changes by using the analytical framework developed by Ostrom. Climate and global changes have significantly altered the attributes of and the interactions within Tibetan pastoral systems, thus posing great challenges to their sustainable development. We used Nagqu County, a remote area of the northern Tibetan Plateau of China, as a case study to analyze the adaptation strategies adopted by local herders to respond to multiple stressors, as well as the emerging opportunities that they can take advantage of to increase their adaptive capacity. Findings show that although local herders have developed various adaptation strategies, such as planting forage grass, buying fodder from the market, renting pastures, joining formal or informal cooperatives, and diversifying livelihoods, social, cultural, and institutional challenges still exist. To enhance the adaptive capacity of herders and to reduce their vulnerability, we recommend that future rangeland policies and programs promote: (1 comprehensive support for formal or informal pastoral cooperatives, (2 development of the rangeland economy to take advantage of the multifunctionalities of rangeland ecosystems, and (3 revitalization of the mobility paradigm to allow the flexible use of rangelands.

  13. Statistical analysis of nitrous oxide emission factors from pastoral agriculture field trials conducted in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelliher, F.M.; Cox, N.; Weerden, T.J. van der; Klein, C.A.M. de; Luo, J.; Cameron, K.C.; Di, H.J.; Giltrap, D.; Rys, G.

    2014-01-01

    Between 11 May 2000 and 31 January 2013, 185 field trials were conducted across New Zealand to measure the direct nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission factors (EF) from nitrogen (N) sources applied to pastoral soils. The log(EF) data were analysed statistically using a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. To estimate mean EF values for each N source, best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) were calculated. For lowland soils, mean EFs for dairy cattle urine and dung, sheep urine and dung and urea fertiliser were 1.16 ± 0.19% and 0.23 ± 0.05%, 0.55 ± 0.19% and 0.08 ± 0.02% and 0.48 ± 0.13%, respectively, each significantly different from one another (p 12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. Thus, urine and dung EFs should be disaggregated for sheep and cattle as well as accounting for terrain. -- Highlights: • Nitrous oxide emission factors (EFs) for pastoral soils measured in 185 field trials. • For lowland, the mean (±standard error) urea nitrogen fertiliser EF was 0.5 ± 0.1%. • For lowland, mean dairy cattle urine and dung EFs were 1.2 and 0.2%, respectively. • For lowland, mean sheep urine and dung EFs were 0.6 and 0.1%, respectively. • For pastoral soils in terrain with slopes >12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. -- From 185 field trials, mean nitrous oxide emission factors for pastoral soils were 0.1% for sheep dung up to 1.2% for dairy cattle urine, while that for urea fertiliser was 0.5%

  14. The Evolution of Research Paradigms in Pastoral/Spiritual Care, Counseling, and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, John C

    2015-12-01

    This partially autobiographical article is presented as a chapter in the narrative of the evolution of research methodology in the social sciences and the impact that evolution has had on pastoral/spiritual care research as the author has experienced and observed it during the latter part of the 20th century and the early years of the 21st century. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Pinus mugo Krummholz Dynamics During Concomitant Change in Pastoralism and Climate in the Central Apennines

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    Li Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of Pinus mugo krummholz during concomitant change in pastoral land use and climate in central Italy since the mid-20th century was investigated. Krummholz dynamics were detected using sequential aerial photography and fitted to a logistic regression model with elevation, grazing, proximity to beech forest, and proximity to krummholz as explanatory variables. Dendrochronological series were correlated with temperature and precipitation and fitted to a linear model. During this period krummholz doubled in extent and migrated 35–65 m upslope. Expansion was positively associated with krummholz proximity, residual pastoral grazing, and proximity to beech forest beyond 10 m and negatively associated with elevation and beech forest closer than 10 m. The logistic regression model forecasts krummholz migration by an additional 30 m upslope by 2060. During the 20th century, winter and spring minimum temperatures increased but did not result in increased radial stem growth of P. mugo. The combined evidence suggests that krummholz dynamics can be explained by the legacy of summer pastoralism and the dispersal limitations of P. mugo, rather than by climate change.

  16. Random demographic household surveys in highly mobile pastoral communities in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Daniel; Béchir, Mahamat; Hattendorf, Jan; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2011-05-01

    Reliable demographic data is a central requirement for health planning and management, and for the implementation of adequate interventions. This study addresses the lack of demographic data on mobile pastoral communities in the Sahel. A total of 1081 Arab, Fulani and Gorane women and 2541 children (1336 boys and 1205 girls) were interviewed and registered by a biometric fingerprint scanner in five repeated random transect demographic and health surveys conducted from March 2007 to January 2008 in the Lake Chad region in Chad. Important determinants for the planning and implementation of household surveys among mobile pastoral communities include: environmental factors; availability of women for interviews; difficulties in defining "own" children; the need for information-education-communication campaigns; and informed consent of husbands in typically patriarchal societies. Due to their high mobility, only 5% (56/1081) of registered women were encountered twice. Therefore, it was not possible to establish a demographic and health cohort. Prospective demographic and health cohorts are the most accurate method to assess child mortality and other demographic indices. However, their feasibility in a highly mobile pastoral setting remains to be shown. Future interdisciplinary scientific efforts need to target innovative methods, tools and approaches to include marginalized communities in operational health and demographic surveillance systems.

  17. Random demographic household surveys in highly mobile pastoral communities in Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béchir, Mahamat; Hattendorf, Jan; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem Reliable demographic data is a central requirement for health planning and management, and for the implementation of adequate interventions. This study addresses the lack of demographic data on mobile pastoral communities in the Sahel. Approach A total of 1081 Arab, Fulani and Gorane women and 2541 children (1336 boys and 1205 girls) were interviewed and registered by a biometric fingerprint scanner in five repeated random transect demographic and health surveys conducted from March 2007 to January 2008 in the Lake Chad region in Chad. Local setting Important determinants for the planning and implementation of household surveys among mobile pastoral communities include: environmental factors; availability of women for interviews; difficulties in defining “own” children; the need for information-education-communication campaigns; and informed consent of husbands in typically patriarchal societies. Relevant changes Due to their high mobility, only 5% (56/1081) of registered women were encountered twice. Therefore, it was not possible to establish a demographic and health cohort. Lessons learnt Prospective demographic and health cohorts are the most accurate method to assess child mortality and other demographic indices. However, their feasibility in a highly mobile pastoral setting remains to be shown. Future interdisciplinary scientific efforts need to target innovative methods, tools and approaches to include marginalized communities in operational health and demographic surveillance systems. PMID:21556307

  18. Pastoralism and wildlife: historical and current perspectives in the East African rangelands of Kenya and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankester, F; Davis, A

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between pastoralists, their livestock, wildlife and the rangelands of East Africa is multi-directional, complex and long-standing. The tumultuous events of the past century, however, have rewritten the nature of this relationship, reshaping the landscapes that were created, and relied upon, by both pastoralists and wildlife. Presently, much of the interaction between wildlife and pastoralists takes place in and around protected areas, the most contentious occurring in pastoral lands surrounding national parks. In conservation terminology these areas are called buffer zones. In the past century buffer zones have been shaped by, and contributed to, restrictive conservation policies, expropriation of land, efforts to include communities in conservation, both positive and negative wildlife/livestock interactions, and political tensions. In this review paper, the authors outline the history that shaped the current relationship between pastoralists, livestock and wildlife in buffer zones in East Africa and highlight some of the broader issues that pastoralists (and pastoralism as an effective livelihood strategy) now face. Finally, they consider some of the sustainable and equitable practices that could be implemented to improve livelihoods and benefit wildlife and pastoralism alike.

  19. Maternidade, cuidados do corpo e "civilização" na Pastoral da Criança Motherhood, body care and "civilization" in the Pastoral da Criança

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele dos Anjos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este texto é uma análise de como a Pastoral da Criança, organismo da Igreja Católica, procura definir identidades femininas pela difusão de práticas relativas ao uso e cuidado do corpo. As técnicas de exame e cuidado do corpo presentes nos manuais da Pastoral da Criança são usadas para desenvolver uma auto-identificação como mãe entre as atendidas e uma identificação das 'líderes' com o papel de educadoras. Este trabalho possibilita à Pastoral da Criança apresentar uma ideologia contraposta aos feminismos e concorrer com estes em fóruns governamentais em que são definidas políticas relativas ao uso do corpo.This paper is an analysis of how the Pastoral da Criança (Children's Pastoral, organization of the Catholic Church, seeks to define women's identities by disseminating practices related to the use and care of the body. The techniques utilized to examine and care for the body found in the handbooks of the Pastoral da Criança are used to develop women's self-identification as mothers among the women seen by the service and the "líderes" (leaders as educators. This work enables the Pastoral da Criança to present an ideology opposed to feminist activities and compete with the later in government spheres in which policies related to the use of the body are defined.

  20. Pastoral power in HIV prevention: Converging rationalities of care in Christian and medical practices in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, P; Worth, H; Travaglia, J; Kelly-Hanku, A

    2017-11-01

    In his conceptualisation of pastoral power, Michel Foucault argues that modern healthcare practices derive a specific power technique from pastors of the early Christian church. As experts in a position of authority, pastors practise the care of others through implicitly guiding them towards thoughts and actions that effect self-care, and towards a predefined realm of acceptable conduct, thus having a regulatory effect. This qualitative study of healthcare workers from two Christian faith-based organisations in Papua New Guinea examines the pastoral rationalities of HIV prevention practices which draw together globally circulated modern medical knowledge and Christian teachings in sexual morality for implicit social regulation. Community-based HIV awareness education, voluntary counselling and testing services, mobile outreach, and economic empowerment programs are standardised by promoting behavioural choice and individual responsibility for health. Through pastoral rationalities of care, healthcare practices become part of the social production of negative differences, and condemn those who become ill due to perceived immorality. This emphasis assumes that all individuals are equal in their ability to make behavioural choices, and downplays social inequality and structural drivers of HIV risk that are outside individual control. Given healthcare workers' recognition of the structural drivers of HIV, yet the lack of language and practical strategies to address these issues, political commitment is needed to enhance structural competency among HIV prevention programs and healthcare workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pastoral Perceptions of the Learning and Developing Individual Exercise Skills (L.A.D.I.E.S.) Intervention: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Chandra R.; Gross, Tyra T.; Harvey, Idethia S.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.

    2017-01-01

    African-American women experience higher rates of obesity compared to other racial/ethnic groups. High levels of reported church attendance among African-Americans have led to the proliferation of faith-based health programs. Pastors can influence success for faith-based programs. The purpose of this study was to assess pastors' perceptions of the…

  2. Cognitive Development and Home Environment of Rural Paraguayan Infants and Toddlers Participating in Pastoral del Nino, an Early Child Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peairson, Shannon; Austin, Ann M. Berghout; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta

    2008-01-01

    Participants included 106 infants and toddlers living in rural Paraguay and their primary caregiver. Children ranged in age from birth to 24 months and belonged to two distinct groups, including 46 children who had never participated in Pastoral del Nino, an early child development program, and 60 children who had participated in Pastoral for at…

  3. Resiliencia, inculturación y sincretismo religioso. Notas etnográficas acerca de la pastoral afrocolombiana - Resilience, Inculturation and Religious Syncretism. Ethnographic Notes about the Afro-colombian Pastoral Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Alì

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe some aspects of the Afro-American culture in Colombia starting from the observation of its religious manifestations. The ethnographic analysis of the activities carried out within the framework of the Afro-Colombian Catholic pastoral care allows us to reflect on the importance of the notions of identity, corporeality and spirituality for the descendants of former African slaves in Colombia. From an anthropological point of view, the Afro-Colombian pastoral can be analyzed as a peculiar form of religious syncretism which demonstrates the resilience of African descendants faced with the pressure of the enculturation process led by the Catholic Church.

  4. A re-reading of John 8:1–11 from a pastoral liberative perspective on South African women

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    Elijah M. Baloyi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The inception of democracy in South Africa faced the oppression of women as one of the challenges. The duty to improve women’s position in society is not the responsibility of a few people alone, but of everyone. According to the researcher, the church has not done enough pastorally in this regard. In denouncing the oppression of women, the Christian community should also support the victims of abuse. This article intends to unmask collusion with patriarchal societies including the Jewish society in Jesus’ time by mapping out the forms of harassment and embarrassment inflicted upon women. The study shows how pastoral care can help victims of oppression. A re-reading of John 8:1–11 will inform the, how can the verses above be used in counselling the victims of gender oppression. This study will formulate pastoral guidelines from Jesus’ response to the Pharisees, the Scribes and the woman.

  5. A systematic review of zoonotic enteric parasitic diseases among nomadic and pastoral people.

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    Amber N Barnes

    Full Text Available Zoonotic enteric parasites are ubiquitous and remain a public health threat to humans due to our close relationship with domestic animals and wildlife, inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and diet. While most communities are now sedentary, nomadic and pastoral populations still exist and experience unique exposure risks for acquiring zoonotic enteric parasites. Through this systematic review we sought to summarize published research regarding pathogens present in nomadic populations and to identify the risk factors for their infection.Using systematic review guidelines set forth by PRISMA, research articles were identified, screened and summarized based on exclusion criteria for the documented presence of zoonotic enteric parasites within nomadic or pastoral human populations. A total of 54 articles published between 1956 and 2016 were reviewed to determine the pathogens and exposure risks associated with the global transhumance lifestyle.The included articles reported more than twenty different zoonotic enteric parasite species and illustrated several risk factors for nomadic and pastoralist populations to acquire infection including; a animal contact, b food preparation and diet, and c household characteristics. The most common parasite studied was Echinococcosis spp. and contact with dogs was recognized as a leading risk factor for zoonotic enteric parasites followed by contact with livestock and/or wildlife, water, sanitation, and hygiene barriers, home slaughter of animals, environmental water exposures, household member age and sex, and consumption of unwashed produce or raw, unprocessed, or undercooked milk or meat.Nomadic and pastoral communities are at risk of infection with a variety of zoonotic enteric parasites due to their living environment, cultural and dietary traditions, and close relationship to animals. Global health efforts aimed at reducing the transmission of these animal-to-human pathogens must incorporate

  6. The impact of spousal violence on the children: A pastoral care approach

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    Luvuyo G. Sifo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the impact of spousal violence on children. Spousal violence in the home affects children negatively and its impact goes beyond their childhood years into adulthood. Some children become dysfunctional in life as a result of their exposure to violence between their parents. These children may exhibit symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD later on in life. A case study of a family exposed to violence was undertaken. Findings from this case scenario were measured against existing literature. A pastoral care method of responding to the victims is proposed in order for them to be healed.

  7. Pastoral counselling of persons with homosexual tendencies in a heterosexual marriage / by Louis Antonie Gerber

    OpenAIRE

    Gerber, Louis Antonie

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of marriages failing as a result of one member of the couple having a homosexual relationship has increased since the rewriting of the law on human rights. This resulted in a heightened need for pastoral care of members of the family that were affected by this tendency. Of cardinal importance to this study and in light of the constant debate about homosexuality in the church, a Scriptural foundation is found in the handling in cases of marriage breaking up as a resu...

  8. Universities' expectations of pastoral care: trends, stressors, resource gaps and support needs for teaching staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Thomas A; Fiedler, Brenton A

    2012-10-01

    Since the mid-90s, the university environment has challenged the motivation of academic staff to engage in pastoral care. A literature review revealed five themes that aligned with analysis of interview data from a previous study (Laws and Fiedler, 2010). The key themes were i) staff were often disturbed by unplanned intrusions of students who exhibited behavioural problems or sought emotional support, ii) the management of emotions in face-to-face encounters was stressful, iii) staff felt under-equipped for dealing with Mental Health (MH) issues, iv) standards and control needed updating and v) counselling and disability services did not meet academics' need to know about 'at risk' students. Having identified the incidence of mental health issues among Australian University students, this study aims to locate literature that describes how well current university policies/protocols are supported by Evidence Based Practice in the management of MH problems in the student population. Findings from a content analysis of the literature were triangulated with verbatim comments recorded during a previous study that utilised semi structured interviews with 34 academics at the School of Nursing and Midwifery and the School of Commerce at the University of South Australia (Laws and Fiedler, 2010). Lack of clarity on role boundaries around promotion of students' well-being was not clearly defined. The Higher Education (HE) institutions' slowness in responding to mental health needs of students combined with the increasing expectations of academics' performance monitoring has lead staff to avoid deep investment in their students' well-being. The literature indicates that students are in need of psychological support, but pastoral care remains ill-defined despite enduring expectations held by university administrators. Teacher motivation is diminished by time spent with students in need of emotional support which is not acknowledged in workloads. Staff stress is increased by

  9. The early Browning: Pastoral care in a pluralistic age and the method of practical moral inquiry

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    Mark Hestenes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The past president of the International Academy of Practical Theology, Prof. Donald Browning, has written books and articles across a wide variety of topics concerning the correlation of many great fields of knowledge, including theology, psychology, philosophy, sociology, practical theology, ethics, family therapy and ecology over the past 40 years. Prof. Browning passed away on 03 June 2010. This left the author of this article with a desire to begin to reassess some of Browning’s earlier reflections regarding his vision of pastoral care in a pluralistic age and the importance of his method of practical moral inquiry.

  10. Determinants of institutional delivery service utilization among pastorals of Liben Zone, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia, 2015

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    Zepro NB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nejimu Biza Zepro,1 Ahmed Tahir Ahmed2 1College of Health Sciences, Samara University, Samara, Afar, Ethiopia; 2College of Health Science, Jigjiga University, Jigjiga, Somali, Ethiopia Abstract: Maternal health service utilizations are poorly equipped, inaccessible, negligible, and not well documented in the pastoral society. This research describes a quantitative and qualitative study on the determinants of institutional delivery among pastoralists of Liben Zone with special emphasis on Filtu and Deka Suftu woredas of Somali Region, Ethiopia. The study was funded by the project “Fostering health care for refugees and pastoral communities in Somali Region, Ethiopia”. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during November 2015. Interviews through a questionnaire and focus group discussions were used to collect the data. Proportional to size allocation followed by systematic sampling technique was used to identify the study units. The major determinants of institutional delivery in the study area were as follows: being apparently healthy, lack of knowledge, long waiting time, poor quality services, cultural beliefs, religious misconception, partner decision, and long travel. Around one-third (133, 34.5% of the women had visited at least once for their pregnancy. More than half (78, 58.6% of the women had visited health facilities due to health problems and only 27 (19.9% women had attended the recommended four antenatal care visits. Majority (268, 69.6% of the pregnant women preferred to give birth at home. Women who attended antenatal care were two times more likely to deliver at health facilities (AOR, 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.38, 1.065–4.96. Women whose family members preferred health facilities had 14 times more probability to give birth in health institutions (AOR, 95% CI =13.79, 5.28–35.8. Women living in proximity to a health facility were 13 times more likely to give birth at health facilities than women

  11. Assesment of wild boar rooting on ecological and pastoral values of alpine pyrenean grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, C. Guillermo; Barrio, Isabel C.; García-González, Ricardo; Alados, Concepción L.; Gómez García, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    [ES] Las hozaduras de jabalí son una de las mayores perturbaciones actuales de los pastos supraforestales pirenaicos. Sus consecuencias para el ecosistema no están todavía perfectamente descritas, a pesar de ser uno de los hábitats de mayor interés de conservación y que juegan un importante papel en las economías locales. Los bienes y servicios que provee dicho hábitat están claramente relacionados tanto con su valor ecológico como pastoral, los cuales parecen estar afectados p...

  12. An investigation into the use of music as a part of pastoral counselling of the adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    du Plessis, Amanda L; de Beer, Janene

    2014-01-01

    Pastoral counselling of the adolescent could be a challenge, because adolescence is a period characterised by emotional fluctuation. During this period of the individual's life, he or she begins to form his or her own identity and searches for a place in society, apart from the protection of their parents. Adolescents often do not have the necessary skills to deal with repressed emotions. Research shows that music has been used for many centuries in the healing process and that it has had a g...

  13. Regional Approach for Linking Ecosystem Services and Livelihood Strategies Under Climate Change of Pastoral Communities in the Mongolian Steppe Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D. S.; Galvin, K.; Togtohyn, C.

    2012-12-01

    Dramatic changes due to climate and land use dynamics in the Mongolian Plateau affecting ecosystem services and agro-pastoral systems in Mongolia. Recently, market forces and development strategies are affecting land and water resources of the pastoral communities which are being further stressed due to climatic changes. Evaluation of pastoral systems, where humans depend on livestock and grassland ecosystem services, have demonstrated the vulnerability of the social-ecological system to climate change. Current social-ecological changes in ecosystem services are affecting land productivity and carrying capacity, land-atmosphere interactions, water resources, and livelihood strategies. The general trend involves greater intensification of resource exploitation at the expense of traditional patterns of extensive range utilization. Thus we expect climate-land use-land cover relationships to be crucially modified by the social-economic forces. The analysis incorporates information about the social-economic transitions taking place in the region which affect land-use, food security, and ecosystem dynamics. The region of study extends from the Mongolian plateau in Mongolia. Our research indicate that sustainability of pastoral systems in the region needs to integrate the impact of climate change on ecosystem services with socio-economic changes shaping the livelihood strategies of pastoral systems in the region. Adaptation strategies which incorporate integrated analysis of landscape management and livelihood strategies provides a framework which links ecosystem services to critical resource assets. Analysis of the available livelihood assets provides insights to the adaptive capacity of various agents in a region or in a community. Sustainable development pathways which enable the development of these adaptive capacity elements will lead to more effective adaptive management strategies for pastoral land use and herder's living standards. Pastoralists will have the

  14. Pastoral Group Counselling at a High Security Prison in Israel: Integrating Pierre Janet's Psychological Analysis with Fritz Perls' Gestalt Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paul; Brown, Marta

    2015-03-01

    This is a report of a short-term, pastoral counselling group conducted with Jewish internees in a high security prison in Israel. It was held as an adjunct to daily secular individual and group counselling and rehabilitation run by the Department of Social Work. Pastoral counselling employed spiritual and psychosocial methodologies to reduce anger, improve prisoner frustration tolerance, and develop a sense of self-efficacy and communal identity. It combined semi-didactic scriptural input with Pierre Janet's personality model, Fritz Perls' gestalt therapy, and analysis of the group process. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Proyecto educativo y pastoral para los niños trabajadores en el mercado mayorista del sur de Quito

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra Sandoval, Fredy

    2005-01-01

    El presente trabajo investigativo: “Proyecto Educativo y Pastoral para los niños trabajadores en el Mercado Mayorista del sur de Quito”, fue seleccionado con el objetivo de presentar una parte de la realidad actual educativa y pastoral por la que atraviesan los niños que trabajaban en el Mercado Mayorista, ubicado al Sur de Quito. La Educación es un derecho y un deber de todo ciudadano, por tanto creo imprescindible hacer respetar y apoyar para que esta gestión sea diligente...

  16. [Application of Landsat ETM+ in monitoring of desertification in agro-pastoral ecotone of northern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Jia; Wang, Kun; Wang, Hong-mei

    2011-03-01

    Agro-pastoral ecotone of northern China is a transitional and interlaced zone of agricultural cultivation region and grazing region The ecotone is a complex containing several ecosystems. Soil desertification has become a serious problem that endangered sustainable development in the ecotone. The area of desertification land has been increasing year after year in agro-pastoral ecotone of northern China. This problem concerns the ecological environment, economic development and living quality of people in northern and central eastern of China. For these reasons, ecotone has recently become a focus of research of restoration ecology and global climate change. Remote sensing monitoring of desertification land is a key technique to collect the status and development of sandy land, providing scientific bases for the national desertification control. Landsat ETM+ is an advanced multispectral remote sensing system for the research of regional scale and has been widely used in many fields, such as geologic surveys, mapping, vegetation monitoring, etc. In the present, the authors introduce that spectral characteristics, desertification information extraction, desertification classification and development analyses in detail, and summarizes the study progresses discusses the problems and trends.

  17. The Teatro Guindalera Project. An Interview with Juan Pastor MilletFernandez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª-Yolanda Fernández-Suárez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Juan Pastor Millet was born in Alicante in 1943. He has a degree in Drama and did his training with William Layton and Arnold Taraborrelli in Laboratorio T.E.I. Till 1980 he worked as a theatre, cinema and TV actor. As an independent director he has produced plays by both Spanish and foreign contemporary authors, and also by classic ones like Calderón de la Barca, Shakespeare, Cervantes, Molière, Ibsen, Strindberg and Brecht. From 1987 till 2006 he combined his job as a director with his job as a Drama teacher at RESAD (Real Escuela Superior de Arte Dramático. In November 2003 he opened his own Studio and Theatre House in Madrid – Guindalera. From then on he devotes all his time to the family project Guindalera Escena Abierta  together with his wife Teresa Valentín-Gamazo and their daughter, the actress María Pastor. In 2009 while they were celebrating Brian Friel’s 80th anniversary staging three of his plays – El Juego de Yalta, Molly Sweeney and Bailando en Lughnasa – they were awarded the prestigious “Premio Ojo Crítico de Teatro” for their commitment to new authors and their pedagogical character.

  18. The paths to last in pastoral sheep farming in the Cevennes in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dedieu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In a context of uncertainty of future conditions, which are the sustainable paths? We described the long-term action logics relied upon by the farmers to develop their farms or adapt them to their environment. These logics are based on choices related to increasing the farm size, specializing, the techniques used, marketing, production project debts, and technology incorporation. The data comes from sheep farms in the Cevennes, a pastoral Mediterranean region of Southern France, based on trajectory surveys of families, farming, and sheep management over 30 years (1982–2012. Although sheep farming hardly changed over this period, three different long-term action logics were identified: a clannish logic that gives the opportunity for the children to settle on the farm or nearby; a logic centered on sheep tradition with a focus on increasing the herd size; a multiphase logic, i.e. two or three successive sheep management types or combined household activities are explored. The identified action logics were similar to those described in other studies, except that they did not include logics based on increasing herd productivity by use of technologies, an option too removed from the kind of pastoralism practiced in the Cevennes.

  19. Fitting the Stocking Rate with Pastoral Resources to Manage and Preserve Mediterranean Forestlands: A Case Study

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    Elisa Bianchetto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasture practices have affected Mediterranean forest ecosystems for millennia, and they are still quite widespread in mountainous areas. Nevertheless, in the last decades, the stability of forest ecosystems has been jeopardized due to the abandonment of traditional agro-pastoral practices, so that the gradual reduction of open areas due to progressive succession processes has caused a high increase of grazing pressure by livestock and wild ungulates feeding on forest areas. This paper aims at showing a methodological approach for evaluating the effect of applying measures in order to improve the grazing value of grasslands and ecotonal patches and lower the grazing impact on native woodlands. A protected area in Sicily (Italy is considered as a representative case study. The analysis of remotely sensed imagery and several field surveys enabled to identify and map six different land use units subject to grazing, i.e., (1 forests; (2 grasslands (pastures dominated by palatable herbs and grasses; (3 overgrazed grasslands (dominated by poisonous and/or thorny herbs and forbs, not palatable; (4 encroached pastures; (5 roadside firebreaks (dominated by palatable herbs with no shrubs; and (6 wooded/ encroached roadside firebreaks. Several data were collected through sample plots selected within each land use unit, in order to assess their pastoral value. These data have been used to define current and optimal animal stock rates aiming at addressing pasture management planning towards a sustainable use of forestland and shrubland.

  20. Pathways towards to improve the feasibility of dairy pastoral system in La Pampa (Argentine

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    Elena Angón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, pastoral systems have been intensified in response to an increasing demand for meat and milk, by generating environmental and social problems due to its high dependence on external inputs. The objective of this research was to analyze the economic feasibility of dairy pastoral system in La Pampa (Argentina. The main successful factors were identified through technical efficiency analysis, and subsequently improvement actions were suggested. The technique data envelopment analysis creates efficiency indexes by comparing the performance of each farm with the best practice, which defines the production frontier. The farms were classified attending to two criteria: first, the level of efficiency, second, the regular use of supplementation feed. The results showed that about 40% of the farms were efficient and the efficiency rate of the farms without supplementary feed was 80%. A 70% of the farms uses their own grassland resources adjusting milk yield to the capacity of the pasture. The technical efficiency for this group is 14% higher than the rest. Inefficient farms can adopt different strategies to enhance by practicing benchmarking. One of the examples studied shows two ways to do it: on the one hand the extensification by producing at a minimum cost; on the other hand, the technification, linked to the increase of stocking rate and the use of strategic supplementation. Finally, small changes in the management of the farms positively impact on performance, use of resources, and the sustainability of the system.

  1. Characterization of an abandoned pastoral area in the Northern Apennines, Italy

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    Argenti G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first results of an investigation carried out within the research project "Study and improvement of woods and shrubbery derived from abandoned agricultural areas" (RiSelvItalia Project. Changes occurred in the past 50 years in the pastoral area of S. Paolo in Alpe (Appennino Romagnolo, Northern Apennines, Italy were described on the grounds of photo-interpretation of three sets of aerial photos (1955, 1976, 1997. A high reduction of the surface of sowable lands and pastures (from 80% to 33% was pointed out, together with an increase of shrubbery (from 5% to 18% and woods (from 0 to 42%. The characterization of woods, shrubbery and pastures was performed through structural transects and phyto-sociological investigations. Thus it was possible to reconstruct the dynamic series of vegetation, from grasslands belonging to the association Centaureo bracteatae-Brometum erecti (Festuco-Brometea to woods referable to the association Aceri obtusati-quercetum cerridis (Querco-Fagetea. Investigations on meadows revealed also a good quality of pastures, not only in open grasslands (mean pastoral value - VP - of 30, but even in partially shrubby areas (VP 21. Some guidelines for a multi-purpose exploitation of the site are suggested, taking into account not only economic aspects, but also the conservation of environment and landscape.

  2. The pastoral care of preaching and the trauma of HIV and AIDS

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    F J Streets

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available There is within the history of Christian worship practices a long tradition of someone offering a sermon to those gathered for worship. The primary means for many Christians throughout the world of receiving Christian education and guidance is by listening to sermons. There is generally embedded in all Christian preaching some attempt on the part of the preacher to share a worldview based upon the his or her biblical and theological interpretation of the meaning of faith and their application to daily living. This article explores how the sermon can be a source of religious instruction and aspect of pastoral caring for those infected and affected by HIV and AIDS. The article also suggests that such sermons can be a form of advocating social justice for those who are stigmatized because of their HIV status. Note: The people mentioned in this article, are real but, their names, Rob, Inspiration and Pastor Able are fictitious for reasons of confidentiality.�My Africa is fading and no one sees or cares that it is happening.�

  3. Innovations and diverse livelihood pathways: alternative livelihoods, livelihood diversification and societal transformation in pastoral communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler-Rollefson, I

    2016-11-01

    Pastoralists have a rich tradition of 'innovation', as continuous adaptation to new ecological and economic scenarios has been a prerequisite for their survival through the millennia. One of their greatest assets is the large number of locally adapted livestock breeds they have developed, which represent a major resource for climate change adaptation as well as mitigation. Pastoralists are beginning to position themselves as providers of ecological services as well as of livestock products that represent a healthy and eco-friendly alternative to the products from industrial production systems. Nevertheless, many governments continue with antagonistic policies, being unaware of the ecological and economic significance of their pastoral populations. Biocultural Community Protocols, as specified in the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-Sharing to the Convention on Biological Diversity, are emerging as an important tool for setting the record straight about the role of pastoralists in food security and biodiversity conservation. There is a need for increased recognition of the inherent 'modernity' of pastoralism and the role it can play in creating a more green economy. If this recognition is forthcoming and is rewarded appropriately with government support, this may also overcome the current problem of finding enough capable young people interested in pursuing pastoralist careers.

  4. The Detection of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia DNA in Tick Samples From Pastoral Communities in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koka, Hellen; Sang, Rosemary; Kutima, Helen Lydia; Musila, Lillian

    2017-05-01

    In this study, ticks from pastoral communities in Kenya were tested for Rickettsia spp. infections in geographical regions where the presence of tick-borne arboviruses had previously been reported. Rickettsial and arbovirus infections have similar clinical features which makes differential diagnosis challenging when both diseases occur. The tick samples were tested for Rickettsia spp. by conventional PCR using three primer sets targeting the gltA, ompA, and ompB genes followed by amplicon sequencing. Of the tick pools screened, 25% (95/380) were positive for Rickettsia spp. DNA using the gltA primer set. Of the tick-positive pools, 60% were ticks collected from camels. Rickettsia aeschlimannii and R. africae were the main Rickettsia spp. detected in the tick pools sequenced. The findings of this study indicate that multiple Rickettsia species are circulating in ticks from pastoral communities in Kenya and could contribute to the etiology of febrile illness in these areas. Diagnosis and treatment of rickettsial infections should be a public health priority in these regions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Exodus of clergy: A practical theological grounded theory exploration of Hatfield Training Centre trained pastors

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    Shaun Joynt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a shortage of clergy, at least in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestant churches in general are experiencing more of a distribution or placement challenge than a shortage. The two greatest hindrances to addressing the Protestant clergy distribution challenge are a lack of adequate compensation for clergy and the undesirable geographical location of a number of churches, as perceived by clergy. Influences such as secularisation, duality of vocation, time management, change in type of ministry, family issues, congregational and denominational conflict, burnout, sexual misconduct, divorce or marital problems, and suicide, affect clergy. Studies on the shortage of clergy have been conducted mostly in the USA and Europe and not in South Africa. This article focuses on the research gap by means of a practical theological grounded theory exploration of the exodus of clergy. Grounded theory methodology is used to identify the reasons why clergy trained at a Bible college of a Protestant charismatic mega church leave full-time pastoral ministry. Findings correspond to previous studies with two reasons appearing more frequently than others: responding to a call and leadership related issues. Firstly, respondents differed in their replies with respect to reconciling their exit from full-time pastoral ministry with their call. The replies included not being called, a dual call, or called but left anyway. Secondly, respondents indicated that leadership influence was mostly negative with regard to affirming their call.

  6. Internal diversification of non-Sub-Saharan haplogroups in Sahelian populations and the spread of pastoralism beyond the Sahara

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulichová, I.; Fernandes, V.; Deme, A.; Nováčková, Jana; Stenzl, V.; Novelletto, A.; Pereira, L.; Černý, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 2 (2017), s. 424-434 ISSN 0002-9483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37998S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Fulani * mtDNA * pastoralism * phylogeography * Y chromosome Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 2.552, year: 2016

  7. Soil respiration patterns for four major land-use types of the agro-pastoral region of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-use types and management practices are critical factors that affect soil CO2 efflux (Rs). In the agro-pastoral area of northern China, land-use types have changed considerably during the last 60 years due to changes in the social-economic status of the human population and associated changes i...

  8. Carbon sequestration in pastures, silvo-pastoral systems and forests in four regions of the latin American Tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amezquita, M.C.; Ibrahim, M.; Llanderal, T.; Buurman, P.; Amezquita, E.

    2005-01-01

    Tropical America (TA) holds 8% of the world's population, 11% of the world's continental area, 23% and 22%, respectively, of the world's forest and water resources, and 13% of the world's pasture and agro-pastoral land, this representing 77% of TA's agricultural land. Recent interest in carbon

  9. Water quality as an indicator of the health status of agro-pastoral dams' ecosystems in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpéra, G.N.; Mensah, G.A.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a study in three agro-pastoral dams in Nikki, Sakabansi and Fombawi in northern Benin, this article aims to characterize their physical, chemical and microbiological water quality. The ecosystem services framework underlies this article. Water of the three dams was sampled in the field and

  10. The Chinese perspective on pastoral resource economics: a vision of the future in a context of socio-ecological vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L; Farrell, K N

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews institutional changes in pastureland use in China over the last 30 years and discusses their impacts on pastoral communities, drawing evidence from case studies of two agro-pastoralist and two pastoralist communities. Those who rely directly on pastureland for their livelihood are vulnerable to the joint effects of pastureland degradation and climate change. The authors argue that a 'top-down' governance structure with no participation from local communities and a 'one size fits all' institutional solution are a poor fit for pastoralism management. The authors conclude that the current institutional environment in China may be leading to decreasing populations, reduced livestock rearing, impoverishment and increasing inequality within pastoral communities. Bearing in mind that pastoral systems have characteristics that are specific to their areas and tailored to their local context, the authors recommend paying greater attention to 'bottom-up', locally specified strategies which can be combined with long-term institutional arrangements that have historically provided pastoralists and agro-pastoralists with the resources to adapt to change.

  11. The Pastoral Care of International Students in New Zealand: Is It More Than a Consumer Protection Regime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawir, Erlenawati; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Rawlings-Sanaei, Felicity

    2009-01-01

    Student security is a composite social practice that includes the domains of consumer rights, entitlement to a range of welfare supports and pastoral care, and freedom from exploitation and discrimination. Three traditions shape the systems used for managing and regulating international student security in the nations that export education:…

  12. SD simulation study on degraded farmland policy on farming-pastoral area under the constrains of water resources-Taking Tongliao City of Inner Mongolia as example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D. P.; Zhao, B.; Li, T. S.; Zhu, J. W.; Yu, M. M.

    2017-08-01

    Water resources are the primary factor in restricting the sustainable development of farming-pastoral regions. To support the sustainable development of water resources, whether or not the land uses patterns of farming-pastoral areas is a reasonably important issue. This paper takes Tongliao city as example for the purpose of sustainably developing the farming-pastoral area in the north. Several scientific preductions and evaluations were conducted to study the farming-pastoral landuse pattern, which is the key problem that effects sustainable development of farming-pastoral areas. The paper then proposes that 1:7 landuse pattern is suitable for the sustainable development of farming-pastotal area. Based on the analysis of the research findings on sustainable development of farming-pastoral area, the paper established a suitability evaluation indicators system of degraded farmland policies in Tongliao city, and used an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method to determine the weight to run system dynamic (SD) model. The simulation results were then obtained on social economic ecological development in Tongliao city under different degraded farmland policies, and used the comprehensive evaluation model to optimize the results. It is concluded that stabilizing the policy of degraded farmland policy is the preferential policy in Tongliao, which provides useful theoretical research for the sustainable development of farming-pastoral area.

  13. El reto de reinventar la vida. Acompañamiento pastoral a mujeres en la adversidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Becerra Melo*

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article narrates the testimony of rape and forced displacement of a woman in the context of the Colombian armed conflict. The hermeneutical method and the approach to gender will help clarify the question brought up by the text whether this woman is capable of experiencing God’s salvation after she has suffered this infamy. The answer is evidenced through Mileidys’ testimony and the pragmatic study of the Parable of the Good Samaritan, where a pastoral of compassion is based on the sensitivity faced by human suffering. Mileidys’ experiences salvation when she discovers compassion on the suffering face of another woman who leads her to act in a different manner, giving a new sense to her life which makes her become a compassionate human being who has experienced the salvation of God.

  14. Urinary diseases and ethnobotany among pastoral nomads in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Aref

    2005-08-02

    This article is derived from a broad, twenty-year study of ethnobotany and folk medicine among pastoral nomads in the Middle East which took place from 1984 to 2004. The article presents examples of different treatments of diseases and disorders of the urinary tract carried out by healer herbalists. The preparation of remedies includes boiling infusions, extraction of dry or fresh leaves, flowers, seeds or whole plants. Some of these plants were used both as food and as medicine, by ingesting different parts of the plants, such as leaves, flowers, fruits, and so on, either while soft, cooked or dried. Data were collected by using unstructured interviews and by observation. These plants were identified by healers, patients, and university botanists. This paper identified eighty-five plant species, which belong to thirty-six families. The most representative families are: Asteraceae (8), Brassicaceae (6), Poaceae (6), Umbelliferae (6).

  15. URBAN COHESION. IMPROVING CONECTIVITY BETWEEN BARÓ DE VIVER AND BON PASTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Equipo Docente Taller Gestión de Proyectos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the description of the academic exercise of public space design on the Continuity of Ciutat Rambla de Asuncion in “Gestion de Proyectos” course, which is given to first know the background of the neighborhoods and their current situation, the phases followed in the design process and the end result presented as an annex to plans, sections, diagrams, views, etc. It also describes the aim of achieving unity and continuity together to improve the connectivity being the two neighborhoods through the design of the three major themes of group work are; a Continuity Rambla de la Ciutat de Asunción, b the walk Rivera Besos river, and c the industrial estate between Bon Pastor and Baró de Viver.

  16. Urinary diseases and ethnobotany among pastoral nomads in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Aref

    2005-01-01

    This article is derived from a broad, twenty-year study of ethnobotany and folk medicine among pastoral nomads in the Middle East which took place from 1984 to 2004. The article presents examples of different treatments of diseases and disorders of the urinary tract carried out by healer herbalists. The preparation of remedies includes boiling infusions, extraction of dry or fresh leaves, flowers, seeds or whole plants. Some of these plants were used both as food and as medicine, by ingesting different parts of the plants, such as leaves, flowers, fruits, and so on, either while soft, cooked or dried. Data were collected by using unstructured interviews and by observation. These plants were identified by healers, patients, and university botanists. This paper identified eighty-five plant species, which belong to thirty-six families. The most representative families are: Asteraceae (8), Brassicaceae (6), Poaceae (6), Umbelliferae (6). PMID:16270930

  17. Using Coupled Simulation Models to Link Pastoral Decision Making and Ecosystem Services

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    Randall B. Boone

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Historically, pastoral people were able to more freely use the services their semi-arid and arid ecosystems provide, and they adapted to changes in ways that improved their well-being. More recently, their ability to adapt has been constrained due to changes from within and from outside their communities. To compare possible responses by pastoral communities, we modeled ecosystem services and tied those services to decisions that people make at the household level. We created an agent-based household model called DECUMA, joined that model with the ecosystem model SAVANNA, and applied the linked models to southeastern Kajiado District, Kenya. The structure of the new agent-based model and linkages between the models are described, and then we demonstrate the model results using a scenario that shows changes in Maasai well-being in response to drought. We then explore two additional but related scenarios, quantifying household well-being if access to a grazing reserve is lost and if access is lost but those most affected are compensated. In the second scenario, households in group ranches abutting the grazing reserve that lost access had large declines in livestock populations, less food energy from animal sources, increased livestock sales and grain purchases, and increased need for supplemental foods. Households in more distant areas showed no changes or had increases in livestock populations because their herds had fewer animals with which to compete for forage. When households neighboring the grazing reserve were compensated for the lease of the lands they had used, they prospered. We describe some benefits and limitations of the agent-based approach.

  18. Impacts of a Changing Climate and Land Use on Reindeer Pastoralism: Indigenous Knowledge and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N. G.; Oskal, A.; Turi, A.; Mathiesen, J. M.; Eira, S. D.; Yurchak, I. M. G.; Etylin, B.; Gebelein, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic is home to many indigenous peoples, including those who depend on reindeer herding for their livelihood, in one of the harshest environments in the world. For the largely nomadic peoples, reindeer not only form a substantial part of the Arctic food base and economy, but they are also culturally important, shaping their way of life, mythologies, festivals and ceremonies. Reindeer pastoralism or husbandry has been practiced by numerous peoples all across Eurasia for thousands of years and involves moving herds of reindeer, which are very docile animals, from pasture to pasture depending on the season. Thus, herders must adapt on a daily basis to find optimal conditions for their herds according to the constantly changing conditions. Climate change and variability plus rapid development are increasingly creating major changes in the physical environment, ecology, and cultures of these indigenous reindeer herder communities in the North, and climate changes are occurring significantly faster in the Arctic than the rest of the globe, with correspondingly dramatic impacts (Oskal, 2008). In response to these changes, Eurasian reindeer herders have created the EALAT project, a comprehensive new initiative to study these impacts and to develop local adaptation strategies based upon their traditional knowledge of the land and its uses - in targeted partnership with the science and remote sensing community - involving extensive collaborations and coproduction of knowledge to minimize the impacts of the various changes. This chapter provides background on climate and development challenges to reindeer husbandry across the Arctic and an overview of the EALAT initiative, with an emphasis on indigenous knowledge, remote sensing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and other scientific data to 'co-produce' datasets for use by herders for improved decision-making and herd management. It also provides a description of the EALAT monitoring data integration and sharing

  19. Mediaciones para un método de teología pastoral, a partir de la teología práctica de Karl Rahner

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    Alex Vigueras Cherres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una comprensión de la teología práctica de Karl Rahner como una teología pastoral en perspectiva escatológica, y teniendo como plano de fondo el problema del carácter teológico del análisis de la situación presente, presentamos algunas posibles mediaciones para un método de teología pastoral, a saber, mirar el futuro desde la "futuridad del presente", conocer desde los otros, la narratividad, la corporeidad y la "indiferencia".Based on understanding of Karl Rahner's practical theology as a pastoral theology in an eschatological perspective, and having as a background the theological problem of analyzing the present situation, we present some possible mediations for a pastoral theology method, namely, looking at the future from a "futurity of the present," knowing from others, narrative, corporeality and "indifference."

  20. Fire assisted pastoralism vs. sustainable forestry--the implications of missing markets for carbon in determining optimal land use in the wet-dry tropics of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockwell, David; Lovett, Jon C

    2005-04-01

    Using Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia as a case study, this paper combines field sampling of woody vegetation with cost-benefit analysis to compare the social optimality of fire-assisted pastoralism with sustainable forestry. Carbon sequestration is estimated to be significantly higher in the absence of fire. Integration of carbon sequestration benefits for mitigating future costs of climate change into cost-benefit analysis demonstrates that sustainable forestry is a more socially optimal land use than fire-assisted pastoralism. Missing markets for carbon, however, imply that fire-assisted pastoralism will continue to be pursued in the absence of policy intervention. Creation of markets for carbon represents a policy solution that has the potential to drive land use away from fire-assisted pastoralism towards sustainable forestry and environmental conservation.

  1. Comparative changes in density and demography of large herbivores in the Masai Mara Reserve and its surrounding human-dominated pastoral ranches in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhola, Nina; Ogutu, Joseph O.; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Said, Mohamed Y.; Reid, Robin S.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Olff, Han

    Wildlife habitats in pastoral lands adjoining protected areas in east African savannas are getting progressively degraded, fragmented and compressed by expanding human populations and intensification of land use. To understand the consequences of these influences on wildlife populations, we

  2. El acompañamiento pastoral para jóvenes desde la comprensión psicológica y pedagógica humanista

    OpenAIRE

    Segarra Sánchez, Edgar Iván

    2014-01-01

    The pastoral care for youth involves treating the theological, educational, psychological dimensions and teaching, the latter presents the associative array as the central experience of evangelizing youth ministry proposal for the integral growth of the young, who are accompanied by pastoralists with a basic profile to make, with vocation and professionalism, this task entrusted by the Church. El acompañamiento pastoral para jóvenes implica tratar las dimensiones teológica, educat...

  3. Um personagem da memória campo-bonense?: o emblemático pastor Klingelhoeffer, soldado Farroupilha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza, José Edimar de

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa analisa os motivos que teriam levado um “cura de almas” a empunhar armas contra o Império. Friedrich Christian Klinglhoeffer, popularmente conhecido como Pastor Farrapo, com seu envolvimento na Revolução Farroupilha transforma-se em pastor mártir da causa republicana no Rio Grande do Sul. Na busca das justificativas deste fato avalia-se a situação política da Europa (Alemanha no século XIX, bem como o Brasil e o Rio Grande do Sul à época da imigração de Klingelhoeffer. Neste contexto, se desenvolve a trajetória e importante participação de Klingellhoeffer na Revolução Farroupilha e, principalmente, no desenvolvimento de Campo Bom e para o progresso do Vale dos Sinos

  4. O ideário taylorista, a gestão da subjetividade e o poder pastoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Eduardo Procopiuk Walter

    Full Text Available Este ensaio tem por objetivo analisar o ideário taylorista concernente à relação entre operários e gestores a partir da categoria do poder pastoral, proposta por Michel Foucault. Se o poder disciplinar incide sobre o corpo, o poder pastoral incide sobre a alma do indivíduo, implicando - por meio de técnicas confessionais - a direção de consciência. No âmbito do taylorismo, pode-se concluir, tal poder se manifesta, mas não com um sentido parhesiastico, revelando no taylorismo um processo de configuração de verdades a respeito do sujeito operário, ou trabalhador, que o coloca em condição de objeto da gestão nas relações estabelecidas entre a gestão e o operário.

  5. Pastoral theory and practice in the team approach to treatment of scrupulosity as a component of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennemer, Darren L

    2007-01-01

    The statistical estimates of the prevalence of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in the general population have increased dramatically in recent years. "Blasphemous" obsessions and religious compulsions dominate the clinical picture of many sufferers of OCD. Freud proposed that religion might be a contributing factor for many patients with mental illness. He hedged, however, that observation--something that many of his followers have not done. Others have noted the pathoplasticity of strict religious upbringing and images of God as vindictive or otherwise harsh. Only recently--since the 1970s--has much clinical attention been focused on this disorder by the other disciplines within the mental health community. The church, however, is ahead of the curve in diagnosis and treatment of scrupulosity. It has long been a concern for pastoral counselors--particularly pre-Vatican II Roman Catholic priests. Pathological religion influences OCD and pastoral counseling, the author proposes, can contributes to recovery.

  6. ‘We Don’t Need No Education’. A Case Study About Pastoral Datoga Girls in Tanzania

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    Bihariová Emília

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper reflects the reasons why formal education is not in accord with Datoga pastoral life in Tanzania and why this marginalized Nilotic tribe hesitates to send children to schools. In an attempt to grasp different reasons of avoiding education, the paper is focused especially on education of girls, which is less preferred than that of boys. The discussion reveals the impact of formal/informal education on traditional life of mobile Datoga and how norms, habits are slowly weakened. The suggestion is offered that unless the communication between pastoral Datoga and the government regarding school attendance and better conditions takes the cultural context, Datoga will remain outside the schooling process and their marginal position in the society will not change and neither their image of savage people.

  7. How useful are bounded online chat rooms as a source of pastoral support in a sixth-form college?

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of chat technology there has been resistance within education to fully engage with it partly due to policy making that has left teachers disempowered (UCLAN 2002:66). Unlike other innovative technologies, its use has been limited. Pastoral support has developed significantly in education but in some instances, like chat rooms, has been viewed with scepticism. One reason for this scepticism may be that a clear measurable link between support and achievement is not easily...

  8. Establishing an operational waterhole monitoring system using satellite data and hydrologic modelling: Application in the pastoral regions of East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Gabriel B.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Alemu, Henok; Pervez, Shahriar Md; Asante, Kwabena O; Karuki, Gatarwa; Taa, Asefa; Angerer, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Timely information on the availability of water and forage is important for the sustainable development of pastoral regions. The lack of such information increases the dependence of pastoral communities on perennial sources, which often leads to competition and conflicts. The provision of timely information is a challenging task, especially due to the scarcity or non-existence of conventional station-based hydrometeorological networks in the remote pastoral regions. A multi-source water balance modelling approach driven by satellite data was used to operationally monitor daily water level fluctuations across the pastoral regions of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data were used for mapping and estimating the surface area of the waterholes. Satellite-based rainfall, modelled run-off and evapotranspiration data were used to model daily water level fluctuations. Mapping of waterholes was achieved with 97% accuracy. Validation of modelled water levels with field-installed gauge data demonstrated the ability of the model to capture the seasonal patterns and variations. Validation results indicate that the model explained 60% of the observed variability in water levels, with an average root-mean-squared error of 22%. Up-to-date information on rainfall, evaporation, scaled water depth and condition of the waterholes is made available daily in near-real time via the Internet (http://watermon.tamu.edu). Such information can be used by non-governmental organizations, governmental organizations and other stakeholders for early warning and decision making. This study demonstrated an integrated approach for establishing an operational waterhole monitoring system using multi-source satellite data and hydrologic modelling.

  9. Vocational Leadership: A Faith Perspective. A Training Program for U.S. Navy Chaplains in Pastoral Care and Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-06

    Collins Publishers, 1981), p. 3. 19 Ibid. p. 4. 32 as the father of the psychosocial school, Erik Erikson . With the inclusion of his understanding of...hift in the study of human development . Dr. Fowler asserts that there exist at least seven stages of faith or ways of knowing the world and...1984. iowler, .ames W, FAITH DEVELOPMENT AND PASTORAL CARE, Philadelphia, PA: Fortress Press, 1975. Fcwler, James W. STAGES OF FAITH: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF

  10. The drought risk of maize in the farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China based on physical vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Jingyi; Ma, Qing

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is affecting every aspect of human activities, especially the agriculture. In China, extreme drought events caused by climate change have posed a great threat to food safety. In this work we aimed to study the drought risk of maize in the farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China based on physical vulnerability assessment. The physical vulnerability curve was constructed from the relationship between drought hazard intensity index and yield loss rate. The risk assessment of agricultural drought was conducted from the drought hazard intensity index and physical vulnerability curve. The probability distribution of drought hazard intensity index decreased from south-west to north-east and increased from south-east to north-west along the rainfall isoline. The physical vulnerability curve had a reduction effect in three parts of the farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China, which helped to reduce drought hazard vulnerability on spring maize. The risk of yield loss ratio calculated based on physical vulnerability curve was lower compared with the drought hazard intensity index, which suggested that the capacity of spring maize to resist and adapt to drought is increasing. In conclusion, the farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China is greatly sensitive to climate change and has a high probability of severe drought hazard. Risk assessment of physical vulnerability can help better understand the physical vulnerability to agricultural drought and can also promote measurements to adapt to climate change.

  11. Subverting the pastoral: the transcendence of space and place in J.M. Coetzee’s Disgrace

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    S. Smit-Marais

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates how J.M. Coetzee’s “Disgrace” (1999 – portrayed as a postcolonial and postmodern fictional event – embodies, problematises and subverts the vision of the pastoral farm novel tradition by transcending traditional configurations of space and place. The novel offers a rather bleak apocalyptic vision of gender roles, racial relationships and family relations in post-apartheid South Africa and expresses the socio-political tensions pertaining to the South African landscape in terms of personal relationships. As a fictional reworking of the farm novel, “Disgrace” draws on the tradition’s anxieties about the rights of (white ownership, but within a post-apartheid context. As such, “Disgrace” challenges the pastoral farm novel’s “dream topography” (Coetzee, 1988:6 of the family farm ruled by the patriarch – a topography inscribed – with the help of the invisible labour of black hands – as a legacy of power and ownership to be inherited and cultivated in perpetuity. Accordingly, the concept “farm” is portrayed as a contested and liminal space inscribed with a history of violence and dispossession – a dystopia. This article therefore conceptualises “Disgrace” as an antipastoral farm novel that reconfigures the concept “farm” – within the context of the South African reality – by subverting, inverting and parodying the structures of space and place postulated by the pastoral farm novel.

  12. As I see it: a study of African American pastors' views on health and health education in the black church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Michael L; Isaac-Savage, E Paulette

    2014-08-01

    The Black Church is the only institution that has consistently served the interest of African Americans, and there is no other institution in the African American community that rivals its influence (Camara, 2004). The spiritual well-fare, social support, health, and well-being of its people have been one of its main goals. With health disparities of African Americans still at an alarming rate, the Black Church has used informal education as a means to impart knowledge on health, as well as other non-religious and religious topics. One of the avenues least researched within the Black Church is the pastor's perception of its educational role in health and wellness and its efforts to reduce health discrimination and health disparities between African American and European Americans in the U.S. Since social justice appears as a theme and concern in the traditions of many churches, it is only appropriate that, among other things, the Black Church should address the issue of health education and interventions. The purpose of this study was to explore African American pastors' perceptions of the role of the Black Church in providing health care, health education, and wellness opportunities to African Americans. Many pastors reported their church provided some form of health education and/or health screenings. Their perceptions about the important issues facing their congregants versus African Americans in general were quite similar.

  13. From "Animal Machines" to "Happy Meat"? Foucault's Ideas of Disciplinary and Pastoral Power Applied to 'Animal-Centred' Welfare Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew

    2011-01-11

    Michel Foucault's work traces shifting techniques in the governance of humans, from the production of 'docile bodies' subjected to the knowledge formations of the human sciences (disciplinary power), to the facilitation of self-governing agents directed towards specified forms of self-knowledge by quasi-therapeutic authorities (pastoral power). While mindful of the important differences between the governance of human subjects and the oppression of nonhuman animals, exemplified in nonhuman animals' legal status as property, this paper explores parallel shifts from disciplinary to pastoral regimes of human-'farmed' animal relations. Recent innovations in 'animal-centred' welfare science represent a trend away from the 'disciplinary' techniques of confinement and torture associated with 'factory farms' and towards quasi-therapeutic ways of claiming to know 'farmed' animals, in which the animals themselves are co-opted into the processes by which knowledge about them is generated. The new pastoral turn in 'animal-centred' welfare finds popular expression in 'happy meat' discourses that invite 'consumers' to adopt a position of vicarious carer for the 'farmed' animals who they eat. The paper concludes that while 'animal-centred' welfare reform and 'happy meat' discourses promise a possibility of a somewhat less degraded life for some 'farmed' animals, they do so by perpetuating exploitation and oppression and entrenching speciesist privilege by making it less vulnerable to critical scrutiny.

  14. Grassland production under global change scenarios for New Zealand pastoral agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, E. D.; Baisden, W. T.; Timar, L.; Mullan, B.; Clark, A.

    2014-10-01

    We adapt and integrate the Biome-BGC and Land Use in Rural New Zealand models to simulate pastoral agriculture and to make land-use change, intensification of agricultural activity and climate change scenario projections of New Zealand's pasture production at time slices centred on 2020, 2050 and 2100, with comparison to a present-day baseline. Biome-BGC model parameters are optimised for pasture production in both dairy and sheep/beef farm systems, representing a new application of the Biome-BGC model. Results show up to a 10% increase in New Zealand's national pasture production in 2020 under intensification and a 1-2% increase by 2050 from economic factors driving land-use change. Climate change scenarios using statistically downscaled global climate models (GCMs) from the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report also show national increases of 1-2% in 2050, with significant regional variations. Projected out to 2100, however, these scenarios are more sensitive to the type of pasture system and the severity of warming: dairy systems show an increase in production of 4% under mild change but a decline of 1% under a more extreme case, whereas sheep/beef production declines in both cases by 3 and 13%, respectively. Our results suggest that high-fertility systems such as dairying could be more resilient under future change, with dairy production increasing or only slightly declining in all of our scenarios. These are the first national-scale estimates using a model to evaluate the joint effects of climate change, CO2 fertilisation and N-cycle feedbacks on New Zealand's unique pastoral production systems that dominate the nation's agriculture and economy. Model results emphasise that CO2 fertilisation and N-cycle feedback effects are responsible for meaningful differences in agricultural systems. More broadly, we demonstrate that our model output enables analysis of decoupled land-use change scenarios: the Biome-BGC data products at a national or regional level can be re

  15. Poder pastoral, acomodo y territorialidad en las Cartas Annuas jesuitas de Quito

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    Carlos Espinosa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las Cartas Annuas jesuitas entre 1586 y 1660 que hacen refe-rencia a la Audiencia de Quito. Esta fuente poco consultada se utiliza para son-dear las estrategias jesuitas de evangelización y el régimen de administración de sacramentos de la orden en Quito. El artículo propone que las estrategias de evangelización jesuita dieron un giro al pasar de un encuentro con la religión nativa que incluyó un interés en mitos prehispánicos y extirpación de idolatría a un enfoque tabula rasa que se centraba en la administración de sacramentos. El artículo atribuye este giro a la transferencia del Colegio jesuita de Quito de la provincia jesuita de Perú a la provincia del Nuevo Reino (Nueva Granada. El artículo contextualiza el encuentro jesuita con la cultura nativa y la operación del régimen sacramental con referencia al concepto de las dos evangelizaciones de Juan Carlos Estenssoro, la noción de poder pastoral de Michel Foucault y la idea de la confesionalización perteneciente a la historiografía de la modernidad temprana europea. The article looks at the Jesuit Annual Letters concerning the Audiencia of Quito between 1586 and 1660. This virtually unexplored source is employed to analyze the conversion strategies and sacramental regime of the Jesuits in Quito. The article contends that the Jesuit conversion strategies shifted from an early enga-gement with native religion that included an interest in native myths, and ex-tirpation of idolatry to a tabula rasa approach centered on the administration of sacraments. The article attributes this shift to the transfer of the Colegio de Quito from the Jesuit province of Peru to that of the New Kingdom (New Granada. The article contextualizes the Jesuit engagement with native culture in Quito and the operation of the administration of sacraments with reference to Juan Carlos Estenssoro’s notion of the two conversions as well as with reference to Michel Foucault

  16. Tennessee Williams’s post-pastoral Southern gardens in text and on the movie screen

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    Taïna Tuhkunen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the representation of the American South in the film adaptations of five plays by the Mississippi-born playwright, Tennessee Williams: A Streetcar Named Desire (Elia Kazan, 1951, Baby Doll (Elia Kazan, 1956, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (Richard Brooks, 1958, Suddenly Last Summer (Joseph L. Mankiewicz, 1959 and The Night of the Iguana (John Huston, 1964. The article focuses on the disrespectful representations of the paradigmatic Southern garden which remains dynamic while maintaining some of its classic or biblical features. By relying on the conception of the pastoral garden as theorized by Leo Marx in The Machine in the Garden (1964, the author pays specific attention to the way mid-xxth century cinema kept recreating Williams’s Southern gardens as a corrupted and dehumanized space pierced through by disquieting shrieks.Cette étude se penche sur la représentation du Sud états-unien dans l’adaptation cinématographique de cinq pièces du dramaturge américain originaire du Mississippi, Tennessee Williams: Un tramway nommé désir (Elia Kazan, 1951, La poupée de chair (Elia Kazan, 1956, La chatte sur un toit brûlant (Richard Brooks, 1958, Soudain l’été dernier (Joseph L. Mankiewicz, 1959, et La nuit de l’iguane (John Huston, 1964. L’article met en évidence, chez Williams, la représentation irrévérencieuse du paradigmatique jardin sudiste qui, s’il conserve certains de ses attributs classiques et bibliques, ne s’avère pas moins dynamique. En s’appuyant sur la conception du jardin pastoral théorisé par Leo Marx dans The Machine in the Garden (1964, l’auteur s’attarde sur la façon dont le cinéma du milieu du xxe siècle cherchait à recréer le jardin williamsien comme un lieu corrompu et déshumanisé, traversé de cris inquiétants.

  17. Connecting above and below: the impacts of large wildlife loss and pastoralism on savanna carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, E. S.; Young, H. S.; Young, T.; Schimel, J.

    2016-12-01

    There is widespread evidence that large wildlife species contribute to ecosystem carbon efflux; however, their influence is not incorporated into traditional carbon models. As large wildlife loss continues in the Anthropocene and in the face of climate change, it becomes increasingly important to understand the impacts of their loss on ecosystem carbon. The charismatic, threatened wildlife in central Kenya's savanna provide an ideal framework for these questions. We compared differences in carbon efflux in the presence or absence of native herbivores and/or cattle, as a proxy for wildlife loss and the interaction of pastoralism. We measured carbon dynamics in situ with a closed-chamber system and microbial respiration rates in lab by incubating sampled soil. We discovered a significant effect of herbivore presence/absence on carbon efflux: incubated soils collected from plots with cattle only exhibit greater carbon accumulation and faster initial respiration rates than soils collected from plots with native herbivores and no cattle, native herbivores and cattle, and neither native herbivores nor cattle. When measured in situ, plots with no herbivores show higher efflux than plots with only native herbivores, and plots with both. The data also suggest that grazing pressure results in successively lower efflux. The differences in these studies imply that the impacts of large wildlife loss differ on microbial respiration as an isolated mechanism in ecosystem carbon exchange, and total carbon efflux. This is most likely because in situ efflux measurements encompass environmental variables as well as soil microbial respiration. The lab data suggest that cattle as the only herbivore causes greater soil microbial efflux compared to native herbivores alone, native herbivores with cattle, or no herbivores. The in situ data show that no herbivores results in increased carbon efflux, and suggest that increasing numbers of herbivores lowers efflux.These studies demonstrate

  18. Associations between milking practices, somatic cell counts and milk postharvest losses in smallholder dairy and pastoral camel herds in Kenya

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    Olivier B. Kashongwe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available On-farm hygienic practices are important in assuring quality and safety of milk for consumers and for reducing losses at production and at post-harvest. This study investigated the relationship between milking practices, mastitis as well as milk somatic cell counts (SCC and the effects of high SCC on milk production and post-harvest losses (PHL in smallholder dairy (n = 64 and pastoral camel (n = 15 herds in Kenya. The collected data included milking practices, mastitis test on udder quarters (n = 1236 and collection of milk samples for laboratory analyses: SCC, detection of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus species. Production losses were computed as a proportion of cows and herds with SCC (>200,000 cells/mL and PHL as quantity of milk exceeding 4 × 105 cells/mL. Practices associated with production herds included hands, udder washing and drying, and milk let down stimulation with calves suckling or manually (p < 0.001. Udder drying was only applied in peri-urban herds (100%. Herd level prevalence of mastitis was lower in smallholder than in pastoral herds (60.7% vs 93.3%. Mastitis positive samples had higher prevalence of S.aureus than of Streptococcus species in both smallholder (57.9% vs 23.7% and pastoral (41.6% vs 36.5% herds. Moreover, SCC was significantly affected by presence of mastitis and S.aureus (p < 0.001. Milk PHL from high SCC was higher in smallholder rural herds (27% compared to peri-urban (7% and in pastoral peri-urban (81% compared to rangelands (76%. Milking practices may have contributed to maintain mastitis pathogens in herds. This has led to substantial pre and postharvest milk losses in smallholder and pastoral herds. Therefore teat dipping, dry cow period and herd level mastitis treatment may complement current practices for lower SCC and milk PHL.

  19. Husbandry, breeding practices, and production constraints of camel in the pastoral communities of Afar and Somali, Ethiopia

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    Yosef Tadesse

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper were to identify and describe husbandry practices, herd structure, owners’ trait preferences, breeding practices, and production constraints of camel in the two major camel rearing pastoral communities, viz. Afar and Somali, to generate baseline information that would help to plan possible breed improvement strategies and options for the different camel populations. The study sites were selected purposively while households from each of the sites randomly. Data were collected using formal questionnaires and focus group discussion. Results showed that average camel population per household was higher in Mille (28.06±2.27, Gode (27.51±2.02, and Moyale (24.07±2.13 districts. Female camel populations with age of >1 year contributes 78-83% of the total camel herd population in all the study districts. Higher number of female animals in the herd in the arid environment means providing continuous supply of milk and allows a rapid recovery of herd numbers after a disease outbreak or drought occurrence. This shows that pastoralists breeding objectives are in relation to the arid environment and female population in the herd. Most of the pastoral communities utilize a single breeding male camel per 40-50 female camels and this will affect productivity and heterogeneity of camel population. With regard to trait preference, all pastoral communities ranked milk yield as the first trait of choice, except Liben district in which adaptation trait was the primary preference. Growth trait ranked second in Mille, Gode, Liben, and Jijiga pastoral communities where as adaptation trait ranked second in Amibara and Shinille pastoral communities. The major camel production constraints were feed, diseases, and lack of water in that order and the major cause of the constraints was the recurrent drought occurred during the past 2-3 decades in the two regions. Therefore, in planning and implementation of the breeding strategies for small

  20. A community needs responsive management training model: Re-envisioning management training for pastors of the International Assemblies of God Church

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    Malesela J. Masenya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organisations (NGO�s play an important role in helping satisfy society�s many needs. Churches, for example, are called upon to address critical challenges facing the South African society such as discrepancies in life chances, unemployment and corruption. It largely depends on the management skills of leaders of such organisations to succeed in their endeavour to meet community needs. In order to improve these skills, this study sought to redefine the initial training of student pastors, including their management training, at the colleges of the International Assemblies of God Church (IAG. A qualitative research approach was followed. Two focus group interviews and seven individual interviews were conducted. Interviews included members of the national and provincial executive committees of the IAG, serving pastors, directors of training colleges, pastor trainees in their final year of study, and a newly graduated student. The findings of the study support the importance of formal management training for pastors before being employed in the service of the IAG. This Church has moved away from accepting ministers for service based on their faith and profession of a call to ministry only. The investigation revealed shortcomings in the initial training programmes of pastors; for example, the emphasis on theological courses at the expense of courses that are responsive to community needs and management training issues. Leaders with the competency to respond to community needs are required. The implementation of a transformational management framework, which includes community responsive courses, is recommended as a way to effectively train church leaders.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Although this article is written within the framework of Educational Management, it touches on other fields like Practical Theology and Curriculum Development. It reflects on the perceived need to include management training in

  1. Pastoral care and religious support as a part of treatment of religious patient with the severe form of osteoarthritis

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    Đurović Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Religious needs of patients are consistently being neglected in the clinical medicine. Pastoral care is a religious support which a religious patient receives from priests, chaplains, imams, rabbis or other religious authorities. Religious support, in terms of clinical medicine, is a spiritual support which religious patients obtain from religious and trained medical workers. The aim of this report was to present the effects of pastoral care and religious support in hospital treatment of a 73-year-old patient with the severe form of osteoarthritis. Case report. The 73- year-old, highly religious patient with severe form of osteoarthritis was admitted at the Clinic for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Military Medical Academy in Belgrade, due to heterogeneous problems in the activities of daily living. The patient walked with difficulty using a stick, suffered pain, and was anxious and depressive. In order to objectively demonstrate effects of both pastoral care and religious support in this patient we performed multiple treatment with reversal design, in which the basic treatment consisting of hospital care, pharmacotherapy and physical therapy (the treatment A was alternatively changed with the treatment that included combination of the basic treatment and religious support provided by religious physiatrist and physiotherapist (the treatment B or combination of the basic treatment and pastoral care provided by military priest (the treatment C. The treatment A was applied three times and lasted two weeks, every time. Treatments B and C were applied once and lasted three weeks, each. The order of the treatments was: A→B→A→C→A. During the whole treatment period the patient’s condition was assessed by several measuring scale: the level of depression by The Hamilton Rang Scale for Depression and The Zung Self Rating Depression Scale; the level of anxiety by The Zung Self Rating Anxiety Scale; the functional capability of

  2. Pastoral care to or with sex-starved pregnant women in an African context

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    Magezi E. Baloyi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to highlight some African women’s problematic sex life, even in their married lives, as a result of prescribed and lengthy periods of abstinence from sex – especially during pregnancy. Literature studies, especially on Yoruba sexual practices, showed that forced abstinence from sexual activity during pregnancy is rife and that many women seem content with the situation, probably as a result of their internalisation of patriarchal beliefs and values, prescribed as a means of socialisation. This phenomenon of abstinence from sexual intercourse during pregnancy by the women in some African societies is the focus of the study. The article examined the following: views of sex amongst Black African people, medical views of sex and views of sex in Christian tradition. Also examined at length was the phenomenon of abstinence from sex in an African context. The findings led to a critical evaluation of the phenomenon and a search for pastoral guidelines that could facilitate transformation, intimacy and committed sexual life in African families.

  3. Is it possible to bring together pastoral youth service with the academic learning process?

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    Pedro Soto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible a dialogue between the dynamics of youth ministry and academic learning process. As animated by the adult personnel of the school helps to guarantee a correct initiation or pedagogy of the proper imprint in the academic world for the evangelizer, and involves students in the work of evangelization whereby they connect the four pillars of education treated in the Delors Report with the three levels of evangelization under the guidance of the Church. Youth ministry, which is an organized action of the Church, is carried out by young men and women who involve themselves with Jesus Christ and his message and become protagonists of a civilization of fraternity, thus fulfilling the mandate of Jesus: “Go into the whole world and proclaim the Gospel to every creature (Mk. 16, 15. When the school moves thus, it is to say that it becomes a school of “pastoral importance”; one that, despite difficulties encountered from the various points of view, employs stragies for inserting the seeds of the Gospel into different scholastic environments, which often results in high academic learning and at the same time a robust living of the values of the Gospel.

  4. Understanding the role of local management in vegetation recovery around pastoral settlements in northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roba, Hassan G; Oba, Gufu

    2013-04-01

    The recent greening of the Sahel region and increase in vegetation cover around pastoral settlements previously described as "man-made deserts", have raised important questions on the permanency of land degradation associated with the over-exploitation of woody plants. Evidence presented is mostly on increased wetness, while management by local communities has received limited attention. This study evaluated changes in woody vegetation cover around the settlements of Kargi and Korr in northern Kenya, using satellite imagery (1986/2000), ecological ground surveys and interviews with local elders, in order to understand long-term changes in vegetation cover and the role of local community in vegetation dynamics. At both settlements, there were increments in vegetation cover and reduction in the extent of bare ground between 1986 and 2000. At Kargi settlement, there were more tree seedlings in the centre of settlement than further away. Mature tree class was more abundant in the centre of Korr than outside the settlement. The success of the regeneration and recovery of tree cover was attributed to the actions of vegetation management initiative including stringent measures by the local Environmental Management Committees. This study provides good evidence that local partnership is important for sustainable management of resources especially in rural areas where the effectiveness of government initiative is lacking.

  5. The Pastoral aspects of the inspiration, the Divine revelation and the truth in the Bible

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    Roman Bogacz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the document published in 2014 by the Pontifical Biblical Commission and called: The Inspiration and Truth of Sacred Scripture. The Word that comes from God and speaks of God for the salvation of the world. The purpose of publishing was to reach the priests, the people studying the Bible as well as the laity. By the discovering the biblical truth everybody can understand better oneself, the creation and God. Everybody can concisely grow in one’s faith. According to the document, the Divine inspiration is revealed to us when we read the Holy Scriptures. On the pages of Bible we can meet God himself. The message shared with us in the Bible explains the truth about God, about a man, our salvation and about a world. Even though it has some elements of the science or history, it is not a source of the science knowledge or chronicle of the historic facts. Besides we always have to include the genre and style of the ancient authors. This document can have amazing impact on the pastoral work, helping people to get interested in the Bible and to find the answers for many questions they have about it.

  6. Land use influences arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in the farming-pastoral ecotone of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dan; Verbruggen, Erik; Hu, Yajun; Veresoglou, Stavros D; Rillig, Matthias C; Zhou, Wenping; Xu, Tianle; Li, Huan; Hao, Zhipeng; Chen, Yongliang; Chen, Baodong

    2014-12-01

    We performed a landscape-scale investigation to compare the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities between grasslands and farmlands in the farming-pastoral ecotone of northern China. AMF richness and community composition were examined with 454 pyrosequencing. Structural equation modelling (SEM) and multivariate analyses were applied to disentangle the direct and indirect effects (mediated by multiple environmental factors) of land use on AMF. Land use conversion from grassland to farmland significantly reduced AMF richness and extraradical hyphal length density, and these land use types also differed significantly in AMF community composition. SEM showed that the effects of land use on AMF richness and hyphal length density in soil were primarily mediated by available phosphorus and soil structural quality. Soil texture was the strongest predictor of AMF community composition. Soil carbon, nitrogen and soil pH were also significantly correlated with AMF community composition, indicating that these abiotic variables could be responsible for some of the community composition differences among sites. Our study shows that land use has a partly predictable effect on AMF communities across this ecologically relevant area of China, and indicates that high soil phosphorus concentrations and poor soil structure are particularly detrimental to AMF in this fragile ecosystem. © 2014 The Author. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Sidama Agro-Pastoralism and Ethnobiological Classification of its Primary Plant, Enset (Ensete ventricosum

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    Marsha B. Quinlan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Enset is an essential plant for the Ethiopian Sidama system of agropastoralism. Sidama agropastoralism and the folk taxonomy of enset is presented here in ethnographic context. One of several societies of Ethiopia’s enset complex, the highland Sidama are among the most wholly reliant on enset and maintain more enset varieties in their gardens than other groups. Sidama agro-pastoral systems revolve around human-enset-cattle interaction: Sidama eat low-protein parts of enset; cattle eat high-protein parts of enset; Sidama get protein from dairy; Sidama fertilize enset with cattle manure. In the Sidama language, enset offers an example of Hunn’s generic elevation within the framework of Berlinian perceptual-taxonomic theory. Weesho (enset may serve both as a folk generic taxon and a life-form taxon depending on the frame of reference. Such expansion allows for an intermediate taxa translating to “male” or “female” ensets, followed by generic and specific taxa for kinds or “breeds” of enset. Generic elevation offers descriptive magnification of nomenclature for enset, a most salient species among Sidama people.

  8. Trapping or tethering stones (TS: A multifunctional device in the Pastoral Neolithic of the Sahara.

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    Marina Gallinaro

    Full Text Available The Pierres de Ben Barour, also known as trapping or tethering stones (TS, are stone artefacts with notches or grooves usually interpreted as hunting devices on the basis of rock art engravings. Though their presence is a peculiar feature of desert landscapes from the Sahara to the Arabian Peninsula, we know little about their age, context and function. Here we present a new approach to the study of these artefacts based on a large dataset (837 items recorded in the Messak plateau (SW Libya. A statistically-based geoarchaeological survey carried out between 2007 and 2011 in Libya, alongside landscape and intra-site analyses of specific archaeological features (such as rock art, settlement and ceremonial contexts, reveal that these artefacts were used for a prolonged period, probably from the early Holocene. This was followed by a multifunctional use of these devices, particularly during the Pastoral Neolithic phase (ca. 6400-3000 cal BC, with the highest concentrations being found near ceremonial contexts related to cattle burials.

  9. Teachers’ Pastoral Role in Response to the Needs of Orphaned Learners

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    Teresa Auma Ogina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a study that explored the way teachers perceive and describe their roles in responding to the needs of orphaned learners. The participants in the study comprised three secondary and two primary school teachers. The data on the teachers’ experiences were collected through semi-structured interviews, and the findings revealed that, although some of the teachers attempted to fulfill some of the orphaned learners’ needs, most were unable to cope with the combined roles of teaching and learning and care giving. The study identified a lack of material, social, and emotional support for grieving learners. The findings indicate that there is a need for teacher development in terms of preparing teachers to provide pastoral care for orphaned learners. For the teachers’ efforts to be more fruitful, there is also an urgent need for supportive school leadership. In addition, the study highlights the need for counsellors and social workers to be appointed to work in collaboration with the teachers in providing for the needs of the learners.

  10. Understanding God images and God concepts: Towards a pastoral hermeneutics of the God attachment experience

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    Victor Counted

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author looks at the God image experience as an attachment relationship experience with God. Hence, arguing that the God image experience is borne originally out of a parent�child attachment contagion, in such a way that God is often represented in either secure or insecure attachment patterns. The article points out that insecure God images often develop head-to-head with God concepts in a believer�s emotional experience of God. On the other hand, the author describes God concepts as indicators of a religious faith and metaphorical standards for regulating insecure attachment patterns. The goals of this article, however, is to highlight the relationship between God images and God concepts, and to provide a hermeneutical process for interpreting and surviving the God image experience.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Given that most scholars within the discipline of Practical Theology discuss the subject of God images from cultural and theological perspectives, this article has discussed God images from an attachment perspective, which is a popular framework in psychology of religion. This is rare. The study is therefore interdisciplinary in this regards. The article further helps the reader to understand the intrapsychic process of the God image experience, and thus provides us with hermeneutical answers for dealing with the God image experience from methodologies grounded in Practical Theology and pastoral care.

  11. MEDELLÍN: FERTILE SEEDS OF PASTORAL CONVERSION IN THE UNITED STATES

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    Allan Figueroa Deck

    2018-04-01

    RESUMO: Este artigo investiga a forma pela qual tanto o evento como o documento de Medellín tiveram papel significativo na evolução dos ministérios pastorais e sociais da população de origem latino-americana dos Estados Unidos nos últimos cinquenta anos. A recepção de Medellín nos Estados Unidos, dentro do contexto mais amplo que se seguiu ao Concílio Vaticano II, foi ampla e profunda, e é aqui delineada em seus muitos desdobramentos. Naquelas comunidades de origem latino-americana, na forma de organizações comunitárias de base conforme a tra­dição de Saul Alinsky, os ministérios sociais de cunho confessional foram influen­ciados pela opção pelos pobres e pela pastoral de conjunto lançadas por Medellín. Vários outros exemplos do impacto causado por Medellín são aqui situados no seu contexto histórico mais amplo da última metade de século, período no qual a população de origem latino-americana despontou como majoritária entre todos os católicos norte-americanos na faixa etária até 35 anos.

  12. Reasserting the commons: Pastoral contestations of private and state lands in East Africa

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    John G. Galaty

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The theory that land holding is inexorably evolving from common to private or state tenure is challenged by facts on the ground that this paper will examine. ‘Tenure’ is interpreted both in terms of formal law and informal practices. While the association between privatization and land fragmentation is clear, property theory has influenced privatization so the process cannot be used to validate the evolutionary model of transitions from open access to common property to private property. Although in many settings common and state property has given way to privatization, in other cases private or state property has reverted to common holdings. A dynamic tenure model would demonstrate the conditions under which tenure transitions occur between common, private and state property, as the balance between transaction and exclusion costs shifts, or when the boundaries of tenure forms weaken to allow open access to occur. Examining three scenes of tenure transitions involving Kenyan pastoralists (Laikipia County, the Rift Valley, Narok County and Kajiado County, this paper examines cases in which transaction and exclusion dynamics – which are metaphors for the institutional effects of social and territorial relations- lead to changing land-use practices and tenure transitions. In semi-arid pastoral regions, we find more fluid systems of tenure than the inexorable spread of privatization through formalized land rights and increasing land fragmentation would have suggested should occur in the 21st century.

  13. Economic assessment of the performance of trypanotolerant cattle breeds in a pastoral production system in Kenya

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    M.W. Maichomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  14. Challenges and Alternatives to Sustainable Management of Agriculture and Pastoral Ecosystems in Asian Drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, J.

    2015-12-01

    There is no question that human must produce additional 70% food to feed the new 2.2 billion of people on the planet by 2050, but the question is where to grow the additional food. The demand for the additional food lies not only in producing the basic resources needed to sustain a healthy lifestyle, but also from a changing diet, especially in rapidly developing countries in the dryland regions around the world. It is forecast that this demand for meat will require an additional 0.2 billion tons per year by 2050, which is almost a doubling of present meat consumption. These new demands create mounting pressures on agriculture and pastoral ecosystems and the reported trajectory of warmer and drier climate in the future increases uncertainties in food security, adding further stresses to the already stressed nations in the Asian dryland belt. Different approaches are being either proposed or practiced in the region but the question is whether or not the current practices are sustainable or optimal in addressing the emerging issues. Given the complexity and interplay among the food, water and energy, what are alternatives to ensure a sustainable trajectory of regional development to meet the new food demand? This presentation reviews existing practices and proposes alternative solutions, by specifically examining the trade-offs between different ecosystem services that drylands in Asian may provide. Preliminary analysis suggested that the current trajectory of meat and milk production is likely not on a sustainable pathway.

  15. Modelling global change impacts on soil carbon contents of agro-silvo-pastoral Mediterranean systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2016-04-01

    To assess the impact of climate change on soil organic C (SOC) stocks in agro-silvo-pastoral environments, different models have been applied worldwide at local or regional scales, such as as RothC (Francaviglia et al., 2012) or CENTURY (Alvaro-Fuentes et al., 2012). However, some of these models may require a high number of input parameters or can underestimate the effect of soil depth. CarboSOIL (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013) is an empirical model based on regression techniques and developed to predict SOC contents at standard soil depths (0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm) under a range of climate and/or land use change scenarios. CarboSOIL has been successfully applied in different Mediterranean areas ,e.g. Southern Spain (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013; Abd-Elmabod et al., 2014), Northern Egypt (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2014) and Italy (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2015). In this study, CarboSOIL was applied in the Cardeña and Montoro mountain range Natural Park. This area covers 385 km2 and is located within Sierra Morena (Córdoba, South Spain) and has a semiarid Mediterranean climate. It is characterized by agro-silvo-pastoral systems. The Mediterranean evergreen oak woodland (MEOW-dehesa) is savanna-like open woodland ecosystem characterized by silvopastoral uses, being an ancient human modified Mediterranean landscape (Corral-Fernández et al., 2013; Lozano-García and Parras-Alcántara 2013). The most representative soils in the Cardeña and Montoro mountain range Natural Park are Cambisols, Regosols, Leptosols and Fluvisols. These soils are characterized by low fertility, poor physical conditions and marginal capacity for agricultural use, together with low organic matter (OM) content due to climate conditions (semiarid Mediterranean climate) and soil texture (sandy). The model was applied at different soil depths: 0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015) considering land use and climate changes scenarios based on available global climate models (IPPC, 2007). A

  16. How did Humans Adapt in the Eastern Farming-pastoral zone during the Medieval Warm Period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X.

    2017-12-01

    With its extremely warm climate, the "medieval warm period" is considered analogous to the climate change humans are likely to face due to future global warming. Thus, the ability of humans to adapt to an extremely warm climate during the medieval period in Eurasia's farming-pastoral zone has attracted some attention. The warmth of the climate during this period (900-1300 BC) is demonstrated by evidence of bamboo in charcoal remains and phytoliths found in the settlement sites and tomb murals of the Western Liao river basin in Northeast China. This warmth probably promoted agricultural diversification, as the presence of foxtail millet, broomcorn millet, wheat, barley, soybean, hemp, and buckwheat in this region can be seen in plant seeds and phytoliths found in archaeological sites. The bones of deer and birds also provide evidence of hunting, and the practice of animal husbandry is indicated in pig, dog, cattle, ovicaprid, horse and camel bones. Diversity in food structures is also shown in stable isotopes from human and animal bones. Competence in animal husbandry and hunting, and the availability of stable food resources may have contributed to the rise of the Liao people in military prowess and power, and promoted the expansion of Khitan-Liao culture.

  17. Constitución pastoral Gozo y Esperanza: memoria y profecía ((Pastoral Constitution, Joy and Hope: Memory and Prophecy - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n24p1301

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    Alberto Parra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl artículo dirige su atención a la dimensión pastoral del Vaticano II, comprendida como una relación de ida y vuelta entre Iglesia y sociedad. Corroborando esta perspectiva el texto construye una memoria del Concilio, partiendo de algunas charlas de los Papas Juan XXIII y Pablo VI, así como de diversos pasajes de la Constitución Pastoral Gaudium et Spes. El foco insiste en la reciprocidad implicativa del orden secular y del orden de la gracia; rompe con las dicotomías; afirma el ministerio teológico como lectura creyente del devenir histórico. También destaca las exigencias  de la Iglesia para acatar valores “modernos”, como la libertad de consciencia de los fieles, la pluralidad de opiniones y la autonomía de la investigación científica incluso en el ámbito religioso. En un segundo momento, contraponiéndose a una crítica ingenua de la modernidad, dirige su reflexión a la perspectiva profética de la Gaudium et Spes que preconizó la urgencia –para la Iglesia y para la sociedad- de romper con las normativas totalizadoras y hegemónicas para abrirse a las relaciones plurales.Palabras clave: Iglesia. Vaticano II. Gaudium et Spes AbstractThis article focuses on the pastoral dimension of Vatican II, understood as a two-way relationship between Church and society. In support of this view, the text builds a memory of the council from the understanding of some speeches of Pope John XXIII and Paul VI and  also analyzes some passages of the Pastoral Constitution ´Gaudium et Spes`. The reflection emphasizes the reciprocity of the secular order and the order of grace, breaking with all dichotomies and thus reaffirming the theological task as an understanding of historical events. The article also emphasizes the requirements of the Church to accept "modern" values such as freedom of conscience of their followers, the plurality of opinions, the autonomy of scientific research, even in the religious sphere. Secondly, in

  18. Relaciones suelo-planta-herbívoro en un sistema pastoral de montaña

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    Alonso, I.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil characteristics of six communities with pastoral interest in León mountain (Spain and the Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, N, K and Na contents of soils and vegetation were analysed in relation with the nutritional characteristics of herbivores' diet. The communities were named after the most representative species: Nardus stricta, Bromus erectus. Genista florida. Erica australis. Genista occidentalis and Calluna vulgaris. Soils showed in general good conditions for vegetal growth. There were no relationships between soil and plants mineral contents. Ca and Cu were deficient in some moments during the stay of the animals in the mountain. Mineral concentrations in vegetation communities varied seasonally due to maturity processes and physiological changes in plants, depending on the kind of plant and the microenvironment where they grew.

    [es] Se analizaron las características edáficas de seis comunidades de interés pastoral.en la montaña de León denominadas en función de la especie más representativa (Nardus stricta, Bromus erectus, Genista florida. Erica australis, Genista occidentalis, Calluna vulgaris, así como las concentraciones minerales de Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, N, Ky Na en suelos y pastos por su influencia sobre las características nutritivas de la dieta de los herbívoros. Según los resultados obtenidos, los suelos presentaron en general unas buenas condiciones para el desarrollo vegetal. No se apreció ninguna relación entre la concentración de minerales en suelos y plantas. Las cantidades de Ca y Cu presentes en la vegetación fueron insuficientes para el mantenimiento de los herbívoros domésticos al menos durante parte de su estancia en el puerto. Las concentraciones minerales en la vegetación sufrieron variaciones estacionales debido a procesos de madurez y cambios fisiológicos, en mayor o menor medida según el tipo de planta y el ambiente en que se encuentre. [de] Die Bodeneigenschaften von sechs

  19. Genetic Origins of Lactase Persistence and the Spread of Pastoralism in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranciaro, Alessia; Campbell, Michael C.; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Ko, Wen-Ya; Froment, Alain; Anagnostou, Paolo; Kotze, Maritha J.; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Nyambo, Thomas; Omar, Sabah A.; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    In humans, the ability to digest lactose, the sugar in milk, declines after weaning because of decreasing levels of the enzyme lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, encoded by LCT. However, some individuals maintain high enzyme amounts and are able to digest lactose into adulthood (i.e., they have the lactase-persistence [LP] trait). It is thought that selection has played a major role in maintaining this genetically determined phenotypic trait in different human populations that practice pastoralism. To identify variants associated with the LP trait and to study its evolutionary history in Africa, we sequenced MCM6 introns 9 and 13 and ∼2 kb of the LCT promoter region in 819 individuals from 63 African populations and in 154 non-Africans from nine populations. We also genotyped four microsatellites in an ∼198 kb region in a subset of 252 individuals to reconstruct the origin and spread of LP-associated variants in Africa. Additionally, we examined the association between LP and genetic variability at candidate regulatory regions in 513 individuals from eastern Africa. Our analyses confirmed the association between the LP trait and three common variants in intron 13 (C-14010, G-13907, and G-13915). Furthermore, we identified two additional LP-associated SNPs in intron 13 and the promoter region (G-12962 and T-956, respectively). Using neutrality tests based on the allele frequency spectrum and long-range linkage disequilibrium, we detected strong signatures of recent positive selection in eastern African populations and the Fulani from central Africa. In addition, haplotype analysis supported an eastern African origin of the C-14010 LP-associated mutation in southern Africa. PMID:24630847

  20. Genetic origins of lactase persistence and the spread of pastoralism in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranciaro, Alessia; Campbell, Michael C; Hirbo, Jibril B; Ko, Wen-Ya; Froment, Alain; Anagnostou, Paolo; Kotze, Maritha J; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Nyambo, Thomas; Omar, Sabah A; Tishkoff, Sarah A

    2014-04-03

    In humans, the ability to digest lactose, the sugar in milk, declines after weaning because of decreasing levels of the enzyme lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, encoded by LCT. However, some individuals maintain high enzyme amounts and are able to digest lactose into adulthood (i.e., they have the lactase-persistence [LP] trait). It is thought that selection has played a major role in maintaining this genetically determined phenotypic trait in different human populations that practice pastoralism. To identify variants associated with the LP trait and to study its evolutionary history in Africa, we sequenced MCM6 introns 9 and 13 and ~2 kb of the LCT promoter region in 819 individuals from 63 African populations and in 154 non-Africans from nine populations. We also genotyped four microsatellites in an ~198 kb region in a subset of 252 individuals to reconstruct the origin and spread of LP-associated variants in Africa. Additionally, we examined the association between LP and genetic variability at candidate regulatory regions in 513 individuals from eastern Africa. Our analyses confirmed the association between the LP trait and three common variants in intron 13 (C-14010, G-13907, and G-13915). Furthermore, we identified two additional LP-associated SNPs in intron 13 and the promoter region (G-12962 and T-956, respectively). Using neutrality tests based on the allele frequency spectrum and long-range linkage disequilibrium, we detected strong signatures of recent positive selection in eastern African populations and the Fulani from central Africa. In addition, haplotype analysis supported an eastern African origin of the C-14010 LP-associated mutation in southern Africa. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Climate risk management information, sources and responses in a pastoral region in East Africa

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    Anthony Egeru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastoralists in East Africa face a range of stressors, climate variability and change being one of them. Effective climate risk management involves managing the full range of variability and balancing hazard management with efforts to capitalise on opportunity; climate risk management information is central in this process. In this study, pastoralists’ perceptions of climate change, climate risk management information types, sources and attendant responses in a pastoral region in East Africa are examined. Through a multi-stage sampling process, a total of 198 heads of households in three districts were selected and interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. In addition, 29 focus group discussions and 10 key informant interviews were conducted to generate qualitative information to supplement survey data. Descriptive and thematic analysis were utilised in summarizing the data. Ninety-nine percent of the pastoralists noted that the climate had changed evidenced by high but erratic rainfall, occurrence of floods and variation in rainfall onset and cessation among other indicators. This change in climate had led to emergence of ‘new’ livestock and crop diseases, crop failure and low yields leading to frequent food shortages, water shortages, poor market access, and variation in pasture availability among other effects. Climate risk management information was received from multiple sources including; radio, diviners, community meetings, shrine elders, humanitarian agencies, and Uganda People’s defence forces (UPDF. Community meetings were however perceived as most accessible, reliable and dependable sources of information. Shifting livestock to dry season grazing and watering areas, selling firewood and charcoal, seeking for military escorts to grazing areas, purchasing veterinary drugs, shifting livestock to disease ‘free’ areas, and performing rituals (depending on the perceived risk constituted a set of responses undertaken in

  2. Monitoring Water Resources in Pastoral Areas of East Africa Using Satellite Data and Hydrologic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, H.; Senay, G. B.; Velpuri, N.; Asante, K. O.

    2008-12-01

    The nomadic pastoral communities in East Africa heavily depend on small water bodies and artificial lakes for domestic and livestock uses. The shortage of water in the region has made these water resources of great importance to them and sometimes even the reason for conflicts amongst rival communities in the region. Satellite-based data has significantly transformed the way we track and estimate hydrological processes such as precipitation and evapotranspiration. This approach has been particularly useful in remote places where conventional station-based weather networks are scarce. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite data were extracted for the study region. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) data were used to extract the climatic parameters needed to calculate reference evapotranspiration. The elevation data needed to delineate the watersheds were extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) with spatial resolution of 90m. The waterholes (most of which have average surface area less than a hectare) were identified using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images with a spatial resolution of 15 m. As part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) funded enhancement to a livestock early warning decision support system, a simple hydrologic water balance model was developed to estimate daily waterhole depth variations. The model was run for over 10 years from 1998 till 2008 for 10 representative waterholes in the region. Although there were no independent datasets to validate the results, the temporal patterns captured both the seasonal and inter-annual variations, depicting known drought and flood years. Future research includes the installation of staff-gauges for model calibration and validation. The simple modeling approach demonstrated the effectiveness of integrating dynamic coarse resolution datasets such as TRMM with

  3. Anticipating Vulnerability to Climate Change in Dryland Pastoral Systems: Using Dynamic Systems Models for the Kalahari

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    Andrew J. Dougill

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is vitally important to identify agroecosystems that may cease functioning because of changing climate or land degradation. However, identifying such systems is confounded on both conceptual and methodological grounds, especially in systems that are moving toward thresholds, a common trait of dryland environments. This study explores these challenges by analyzing how a range of external pressures affect the vulnerability of dryland pastoral systems in the Kalahari. This is achieved by employing dynamic systems modeling approaches to understand the pathways by which communities became vulnerable to drought. Specifically, we evaluate how external pressures have changed: (1 different agroecosystems' abilities to tolerate drought, i.e., ecosystem resilience; (2 rural communities' abilities to adapt to drought, mediated via their access to assets; and (3 the ability of institutions and policy interventions to play a role in mediating drought-related crises, i.e., socio-political governance. This is done by reanalyzing ecological and participatory research findings along with farm-scale livestock offtake data from across the Kalahari in Botswana. An iterative process was followed to establish narratives exploring how external drivers led to changes in agroecosystem resilience, access to assets, and the institutional capacity to buffer the system. We use "causal loop diagrams" and statistical dynamic system models to express key quantitative relationships and establish future scenarios to help define where uncertainties lie by showing where the system is most sensitive to change. We highlight how that greater sharing of land management knowledge and practices between private and communal land managers can provide 'win-win-win' benefits of reducing system vulnerability, increasing economic income, and building social capital. We use future scenario analyses to identify key areas for future studies of climate change adaptation across the Kalahari.

  4. Seasonal movements of wildlife and livestock in a heterogenous pastoral landscape: Implications for coexistence and community based conservation

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    Peter Tyrrell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rangelands across the world are home to millions of pastoral people and vast wildlife populations, which create a complex landscape for conservation. Community based conservation has been used to promote human-wildlife coexistence on pastoral lands, protecting wildlife outside of official protected areas. With the spread of community based conservation within the rangelands there is a need for more information on successful management practices. This study provides an example of this in the South Rift, Kenya, where seasonal movements of pastoralists aid coexistence. We used Density Surface Modelling (DSM, a novel tool for conservation managers in the rangelands, to predict wildlife and livestock abundance across the landscape and seasons. Wildlife grazers, zebra (Equus burchelli and wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus, follow expected metabolic patterns, feeding on short grass outside the conservation area in the wet season, before returning to the taller-lower quality grazing in the conservation areas during the drought. Browsing wildlife, impala (Aepyceros melampus and Grant’s gazelle (Nanger granti, move from open grassland and bushland areas into thicker, denser browse as the seasons progress towards the drought. Livestock, both shoats (Ovis aries, and Capra aegagrus hircus and cattle (Bos indicus, are managed by community grazing committees, who enforce a grazing plan that creates spatial–temporal separation between wildlife and livestock. They exploit the high-quality grazing in the livestock area during the wet season while conserving pasture in the conservation area, which is utilized only as forage is depleted. This ensures that wildlife has access to a diverse resource base across all seasons and potentially reduces competition, allowing for a diverse and abundant wildlife community to coexist with livestock. This highlights the importance of the presence and maintenance of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of forage resources

  5. Competencias laborales orientadas a la competitividad empresarial en la comunidad educativa Diocesana el Buen Pastor Lima-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Noblecilla Saavedra, Brenda Verónica

    2015-01-01

    El crecimiento de la comunidad educativa el Buen pastor en Lima – Perú, ha traído una alta demanda de mano de obra con competencias laborales que mejoren la competitividad de la misma, premisa que no se cumple a totalidad por las carencias de dichas competencias que traen los nuevos empleados, siendo este el tema de estudio de la presente investigación, teniendo como objetivo fundamental analizar como el desarrollo de competencias laborales influyen en la competitividad de l...

  6. The effects of pastoralism and protection on lion behaviour, demography and space use in the Mara Region of Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Niels L.; Oguto, Joseph O.; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Contraction of their historic geographic ranges and conflicts with humans underpins declines in large carnivore populations worldwide. These declines, which characterize pastoral systems where carnivores, people and livestock live in close contact, may be paralleled by changes in carnivore...... the three prides except when the ranch lions were severely disturbed and became more nocturnal and inactive. The reserve lions ate their kills on open plains and returned to them often but the ranch lions did so only inside bushes and abandoned unfinished kills during a drought in 2005. The reserve lions...

  7. ANALYSIS ON TEMPORAL-SPATIAL CHANGES OF VEGETATION CVERRGE IN FARMING-PASTORAL ECOTONE OF INNER MONGOLIA

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    X. Yan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chen Barag Banner is located in the typical farming-pastoral ecotone of Inner Mongolia, and it is also the core area of Hulunbuir steppe. Typical agricultural and pastoral staggered production mode so that the vegetation growth of the region not only determines the local ecological environment, and animal husbandry production, but also have a significant impact on the whole Hulunbuir ecological security and economic development. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the change of vegetation in this area. Based on 17 MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI images, the authors reconstructed the dynamic change characteristics of Fraction vegetation coverage(FVC)in Chen Barag Banner from 2000 to 2016. In this paper, first at all, Pixel Decomposition Models was introduced to inversion FVC, and the time series of vegetation coverage was reconstructed. Then we analyzed the temporal-spatial changes of FVC by employing transition matrix. Finally, through image analyzing and processing, the results showed that the vegetation coverage in the study area was influenced by effectors including climate, topography and human actives. In the past 17 years, the overall effect of vegetation coverage showed a downward trend of fluctuation. The average vegetation coverage decreased from 58.81 % in 2000 to 48.14 % in 2016, and the area of vegetation cover degradation accounts for 40.09 % of the total change area. Therefore, the overall degradation trend was obvious.

  8. Analysis on Temporal-Spatial Changes of Vegetation Cverrge in Farming-Pastoral Ecotone of Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Li, J.; Yang, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Chen Barag Banner is located in the typical farming-pastoral ecotone of Inner Mongolia, and it is also the core area of Hulunbuir steppe. Typical agricultural and pastoral staggered production mode so that the vegetation growth of the region not only determines the local ecological environment, and animal husbandry production, but also have a significant impact on the whole Hulunbuir ecological security and economic development. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the change of vegetation in this area. Based on 17 MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images, the authors reconstructed the dynamic change characteristics of Fraction vegetation coverage (FVC) in Chen Barag Banner from 2000 to 2016. In this paper, first at all, Pixel Decomposition Models was introduced to inversion FVC, and the time series of vegetation coverage was reconstructed. Then we analyzed the temporal-spatial changes of FVC by employing transition matrix. Finally, through image analyzing and processing, the results showed that the vegetation coverage in the study area was influenced by effectors including climate, topography and human actives. In the past 17 years, the overall effect of vegetation coverage showed a downward trend of fluctuation. The average vegetation coverage decreased from 58.81 % in 2000 to 48.14 % in 2016, and the area of vegetation cover degradation accounts for 40.09 % of the total change area. Therefore, the overall degradation trend was obvious.

  9. The cultural heritage of pastoralism - local knowledge, state identity and the global perspective: the example of local breeds in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hounet, Y; Brisebarre, A-M; Guinand, S

    2016-11-01

    Over the past few decades, the heritage designation process has come to impact on the way of life of many nomadic pastoralists across the world. Since the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage was adopted in 1972, policies for the conservation of protected areas have been implemented under the aegis of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), especially in countries of the South, with a varying impact on the practices and perceptions of pastoral communities. Heritage policies were further extended by the establishment of the list of Intangible Cultural Heritage (the Convention was adopted by the UNESCO General Conference in October 2003 and came into force in 2006) and the list of Cultural Landscapes (adoption in 1992, with the first site listed in 1993). This enthusiasm for heritage, which is felt by States and local communities alike, provides an opportunity to study the contradictions and changing perceptions of the nomadic and pastoral identity. In this context of wholesale heritage designation, it is interesting to examine how local knowledge - especially that on hardy animal breeds - is promoted and safeguarded. The authors focus on the case of Morocco, where the national association of sheep and goat breeders (ANOC) oversees breed selection and health policy for local breeds, in order to demonstrate that greater recognition of farmers' knowledge and their ability to identify hardy animals can ensure the sustainability of farms in both South and North from a socio-economic, genetic and health standpoint.

  10. A practical-theological reflection on the usage of symbols and metaphors in intercultural pastoral care in South Africa

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    Amanda Du Plessis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The African continent is associated with a variety of problems. Irrespective of having achieved a new democracy more than two decades ago, South Africa still seems to suffer the same fate as the rest of the continent because of the inability to solve its innate challenges. However, at grass roots level South Africans are desperately seeking ways of moving away from this problem-focused paradigm to a more constructive and assertive paradigm where South Africans can truly be reconciled as a ‘rainbow nation’ despite the different cultures. Scholars who have written about this intercultural challenge are of the opinion that intercultural hermeneutics no longer works with a split between Christ and culture, but rather with the interconnectedness between Christ and culture, without the sacrifice of the culture’s uniqueness. One cannot understand religion, faith and spirituality without understanding culture. This article investigates the church’s responsibility to provide pastoral care to the people of South Africa within an intercultural paradigm by using different symbols and metaphors. The research question concentrates on the interconnectedness of the Christian faith and the different cultures in South Africa. It examines how a pastoral approach, using symbols and metaphors, could contribute to the avoidance of the mere ‘Christianisation’ of the culture, resulting in an approach where Christ is the authentic transformer of culture.

  11. Pastoral care to or with sex-starved pregnant women in an African context

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    Magezi E. Baloyi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to highlight some African women’s problematic sex life, even in their married lives, as a result of prescribed and lengthy periods of abstinence from sex – especially during pregnancy. Literature studies, especially on Yoruba sexual practices, showed that forced abstinence from sexual activity during pregnancy is rife and that many women seem content with the situation, probably as a result of their internalisation of patriarchal beliefs and values, prescribed as a means of socialisation. This phenomenon of abstinence from sexual intercourse during pregnancy by the women in some African societies is the focus of the study. The article examined the following: views of sex amongst Black African people, medical views of sex and views of sex in Christian tradition. Also examined at length was the phenomenon of abstinence from sex in an African context. The findings led to a critical evaluation of the phenomenon and a search for pastoral guidelines that could facilitate transformation, intimacy and committed sexual life in African families. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die problematiese seksuele lewens van sommige vrouens in Afrika na vore te bring. Die probleme kom voor ten spyte van die feit dat hulle getroud is omdat lang tydperke van onthouding, veral tydens swangerskap, vir hulle voorgeskryf word. ’n Literatuurstudie, veral oor die Yoruba se seksuele praktyke, dui daarop dat gedwonge onthouding van seksuele aktiwiteite gedurendede swangerskap heersend is. Verder kom dit ook voor asof baie vrouens nie daarmee probleme ervaar nie, waarskynlik as gevolg van hulle geïnternaliseerde patriargale oortuigings en waardes, wat vir sosialiseringsdoeleindes voorgeskryf word. Hierdie studie fokus op die verskynsel van onthouding van geslagsomgang gedurende swangerskap deur vrouens in sommige Afrika-gemeenskappe. Die artikel ondersoek die volgende: Swart Afrikane se tradisionele seksbeskouing, die mediese seksbeskouing

  12. Ethnobotanical knowledge acquisition during daily chores: the firewood collection of pastoral Maasai girls in Southern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaojie

    2017-01-13

    Researchers considering children's traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) highlighted the importance of examining children's daily activities as empirical contexts for its acquisition. Many of them evaluated children's TEK acquisition linearly as gain or loss, and paid less attention to the adaptive nature of this knowledge system and the social relationships arising from its acquisition processes. This study approaches children's TEK acquisition considering these abovementioned aspects. I utilize pastoral Maasai girls' firewood collection as a case study, and analyze the personal, interpersonal and cultural institutional aspects of girls' Ethnobotanical knowledge (EK) acquisition within this chore. Participant observation and unstructured interviews were used for data collection. I joined 12 girls (6 to 15 years old) on day trips for firewood collection, and documented their participation and performance during this chore. I observed interactions among girls and between girls and women concerning this activity, and investigated girls' perceptions of local wood species via their descriptions. I also informally interviewed 15 women, between 20 and 80 years old on their evaluation of the wood species to be used as firewood. Current diet change and gender-age roles in chore participation in Maasai society require females to continually participate in firewood collection. Within this social context, girls intensively participated in day trips of firewood collection during the long-term vacation in the dry season. They collected a sizable amount from 24 plant species, and generated EK through personal sensual experiences, such as fragrance, hardness, and heaviness of different wood species. They acquired local taxonomy and terminology of different wood species, and learned others preferences for wood species used as fuel through interpersonal communication. These personal and interpersonal aspects, together with current diet change and division of labor within gender

  13. Knowledge and perceptions of brucellosis in the pastoral communities adjacent to Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic infections globally. Lack of knowledge about brucellosis may affect the health-seeking behavior of patients, thus leading to sustained transmission in these communities. Our study assessed knowledge and perceptions of brucellosis among pastoral communities adjacent to Lake Mburo National Park (LMNP), Kiruhura District, Uganda. Methods A community cross-sectional questionnaire survey involving 371 randomly selected household heads from three sub-counties neighboring LMNP were interviewed between June and August 2012. Data collected included communities’ knowledge on causes, symptoms, transmission, treatment, prevention and risk factors of brucellosis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to explore strength of association between overall knowledge of brucellosis and various individual factors using odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results Only 70 (19%) knew the symptoms of brucellosis in animals, and three quarters (279, 75.5%) mentioned joint and muscle pain as a common symptom in humans. Almost all participants (370, 99.3%) had ever heard about brucellosis, majority (311, 84.7%) believed it affects all sexes and two thirds (67.7%) of the respondents believed close proximity to wildlife contributes to the presence of the disease. Almost all (352, 95.4%) knew that brucellosis in humans could be treatable using modern drugs. The main routes of infection in humans such as consumption of unpasteurized dairy products were known by 97% (360/371); eating of half-cooked meat by 91.4% and eating contaminated pasture in animals by 97.4%. There was moderate overall knowledge of brucellosis 197 (53.1%). Factors associated with higher overall knowledge were being agro-pastoralists (aOR: 2.08, CI: 1.17-3.71) compared to pure pastoralists while those who reported that the disease was a health problem (aOR: 0.18, CI: 0.06-0.56) compared to those who said it was not were less likely to be

  14. Bereavement healing ministry amongst Abaluyia: Towards a ‘circle for pastoral concern’ as a healing model

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    Benjamin Shikwati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article formulates a new integrated pastoral care approach to bereavement healing ministry in Africa, termed a circle for pastoral concern. In pursuit of this, the article highlights the pastoral challenge brought about by the occurrence of death and bereavement within the cultural and Christian intermix. Using the example of the Abaluyia of western Kenya, traditional cultural bereavement healing approaches are assessed against the backdrop of Christian influence on the understanding and response to death and bereavement healing and the resultant tension. The article juxtaposes the Abaluyia cultural concept of okhukura [to encircle with loving care] with the biblical koinōnia [fellowship, communion] as springboard for building culturally sensitive and biblically sound Christian caring communities. It is hoped that the juxtaposition helps to establish and promote meaningful engagement between therapeutic traditional beliefs and practices, and the gospel. The gospel-culture engagement within a local church setting provides the context in which bereavement healing and individual growth after the death of a significant other takes place. The juxtaposition is necessitated by the rampant practice in African pluralistic societies where Christians consciously, or otherwise, lurch back to cultural approaches in their effort to provide or find healing when faced with death and bereavement. The ‘circle for pastoral concern’ model encourages inclusiveness by enlisting the means and talents of the community of believers, both ordained and lay. The principle of inclusion ensures that the load of pastoral care is shared and assumes a deeper response due to diversity of gifts and talents within the caring community.’n Nuwe integrale benadering vir pastorale hulpverlening en berading tydens rousmart word voorgestel, naamlik ’n omsirkelingsmodel vir pastorale omgee-uitreiking met die oog op treurbediening binne ’n Afrika-konteks. Die vraagstuk van

  15. Bereavement healing ministry amongst Abaluyia: Towards a ‘circle for pastoral concern’ as a healing model

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    Benjamin Shikwati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article formulates a new integrated pastoral care approach to bereavement healing ministry in Africa, termed a circle for pastoral concern. In pursuit of this, the article highlights the pastoral challenge brought about by the occurrence of death and bereavement within the cultural and Christian intermix. Using the example of the Abaluyia of western Kenya, traditional cultural bereavement healing approaches are assessed against the backdrop of Christian influence on the understanding and response to death and bereavement healing and the resultant tension. The article juxtaposes the Abaluyia cultural concept of okhukura [to encircle with loving care] with the biblical koinōnia [fellowship, communion] as springboard for building culturally sensitive and biblically sound Christian caring communities. It is hoped that the juxtaposition helps to establish and promote meaningful engagement between therapeutic traditional beliefs and practices, and the gospel. The gospel-culture engagement within a local church setting provides the context in which bereavement healing and individual growth after the death of a significant other takes place. The juxtaposition is necessitated by the rampant practice in African pluralistic societies where Christians consciously, or otherwise, lurch back to cultural approaches in their effort to provide or find healing when faced with death and bereavement. The ‘circle for pastoral concern’ model encourages inclusiveness by enlisting the means and talents of the community of believers, both ordained and lay. The principle of inclusion ensures that the load of pastoral care is shared and assumes a deeper response due to diversity of gifts and talents within the caring community. ’n Nuwe integrale benadering vir pastorale hulpverlening en berading tydens rousmart word voorgestel, naamlik ’n omsirkelingsmodel vir pastorale omgee-uitreiking met die oog op treurbediening binne ’n Afrika-konteks. Die vraagstuk

  16. 'A pond with crocodiles never dries up’: a frame analysis of human-crocodile relationships in agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpéra, G.N.; Aarts, N.; Tossou, R.C.; Mensah, G.A.; Saïdou, A.; Kossou, D.K.; Sinsin, A.B.; van der Zijpp, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Crocodiles, a protected species, share ecosystem services with local communities in agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin. Using a comparative case study conducted in three villages and a framing perspective, this study aims to elucidate how stakeholders frame the presence of crocodiles, and how they

  17. A Study of the Relationship between Social Support and Clergy Family Stress among Korean-American Baptist Pastors and Their Wives

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    Shin, Min Young

    2012-01-01

    Problem: The first problem of this study was to determine the relationship between the clergy family stress scores as measured by the Clergy Family Inventory (CFLI) and the specified predictor variables of social support among Korean-American Baptist pastors. The specified predictor variables included tangible support, appraisal support,…

  18. O texto bíblico e a igreja católica romana: aproximações pastorais = Bible text and Roman Catholic Church: approaches pastoral

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    Junqueira, Sérgio Rogério Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto é parte de uma pesquisa qualitativa histórica sobre o uso do texto bíblico na pastoral. Articulado a partir do início da era cristã, perpassando pelo período medieval, renascimento, moderno e contemporâneo, este breve estudo histórico será pressuposto para outras etapas da pesquisa do uso pastoral da Bíblia. Significativamente pelo fato de que, ao longo dos séculos, o uso do texto bíblico vinha acompanhado de várias questões acerca de quem e como interpretá-lo, considerando a tradição e o magistério, de forma que houve uma restrição ao texto para a maioria dos cristãos. Trata-se de uma longa história da qual se pretende apresentar alguns acenos para levantar novas questões, sobretudo, quanto ao lugar da Escritura na pastoral da Igreja hoje, especialmente na pastoral escolar

  19. A triad of pastoral leadership for congregational health and well-being: Leader, manager and servant in a shared and equipping ministry

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    Matsobane J. Manala

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available That ministry is to be given back to the laity is a laudable proposition. However, the level of development in many township and village communities is still such that a strong leadership and management facilitation role is demanded of the pastor. In such contexts, the pastor is also the only one who is always available for church tasks. The point of departure of this article was that the pastor is primarily a facilitator who assumes the tasks of a leader, a manager and a servant. The Trinitarian office of Christ is taken as model. Christian leadership, as discussed from a systems perspective, is seen as enabling rather than hegemonic. The pastor fulfils the seven leadership functions in order to equip the saints for their Christian service. Church management is redefined as a process which takes place in meaningful collaboration with others, over against the objectification found in conventional definitions which focus on ‘getting things done through people’. This article discussed servant leadership and service provision as the central purpose of Christian leadership.

  20. roLverWAgTinge vAn Ags PAsTors: voorsTeLLe vir 'n voorTgeseTTe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tor god volkome vertrou en bereidwillig is om sy onderdaan ten alle tye te wees. dit sal hulle ook in staat stel om hulle .... hou wat uitgewys is, is onder andere beplanning, organisasie, spanbou, vision ering, bemarking en .... tor en 'n literatuurkontrole oor teologiese opleiding kan 'n voorlopige vToP vir pastors volgens Putter ...

  1. 'A pond with crocodiles never dries up'. A frame analysis of human –crocodile relationships in agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpera, G.N.; Aarts, N.; Tossou, R.C.; Mensah, G.A.; Saïdou, A.; Kossou, D.K.; Sinsin, A.B.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Crocodiles, a protected species, share ecosystem services with local communities in agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin. Using a comparative case study conducted in three villages and a framing perspective, this study aims to elucidate how stakeholders frame the presence of crocodiles, and how they

  2. Regional Approach for Managing for Resilience Linking Ecosystem Services and Livelihood Strategies for Agro-Pastoral Communities in the Mongolian Steppe Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D. S.; Togtohyn, C.; Qi, J.; Galvin, K.

    2011-12-01

    Dramatic changes due to climate and land use dynamics in the Mongolian Plateau are affecting ecosystem services and agro-pastoral livelihoods in Mongolia and China. Recently, evaluation of pastoral systems, where humans depend on livestock and grassland ecosystem services, have demonstrated the vulnerability of the social-ecological system to climate change. Current social-ecological changes in ecosystem services are affecting land productivity and carrying capacity, land-atmosphere interactions, water resources, and livelihood strategies. Regional dust events, changes in hydrological cycle, and land use changes contribute to changing interactions between ecosystem and landscape processes which then affect social-ecological systems. The general trend involves greater intensification of resource exploitation at the expense of traditional patterns of extensive range utilization. Thus we expect climate-land use-land cover relationships to be crucially modified by the socio-economic forces. The analysis incorporates information of the socio-economic transitions taking place in the region which affect land-use, food security, and ecosystem dynamics. The region of study extends from the Mongolian plateau in Mongolia and China to the fertile northeast China plain. Sustainability of agro-pastoral systems in the region needs to integrate the impact of climate change on ecosystem services with socio-economic changes shaping the livelihood strategies of pastoral systems in the region. Adaptation strategies which incorporate landscape management provides a potential framework to link ecosystem services across space and time more effectively to meet the needs of agro-pastoral land use, herd quality, and herder's living standards. Under appropriate adaptation strategies agro-pastoralists will have the opportunity to utilize seasonal resources and enhance their ability to process and manufacture products from the available ecosystem services in these dynamic social

  3. Knowledge and perception of pulmonary tuberculosis in pastoral communities in the middle and Lower Awash Valley of Afar region, Ethiopia

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    Mamo Gezahegne

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Afar pastoralists live in the northeast of Ethiopia, confined to the most arid part of the country, where there is least access to educational, health and other social services. Tuberculosis (TB is one of the major public health problems in Afar region. Lack of knowledge about TB could affect the health-seeking behaviour of patients and sustain the transmission of the disease within the community. In this study, we assessed the knowledge and perception of apparently healthy individuals about pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in pastoral communities of Afar. Methods Between March and May 2009, a community-based cross-sectional questionnaire survey involving 818 randomly selected healthy individuals was conducted in pastoral communities of Afar region. Moreover, two focus group discussions (FGDs, one with men and one with women, were conducted in each of the study area to supplement the quantitative study. Results The majority (95.6% of the interviewees reported that they have heard about PTB (known locally as "Labadore". However, the participants associated the cause of PTB with exposure to cold air (45.9%, starvation (38%, dust (21.8% or smoking/chewing Khat (Catha edulis (16.4%. The discussants also suggested these same factors as the cause of PTB. All the discussants and the majority (74.3% of the interviewees reported that persistent cough as the main symptom of PTB. About 87.7% of the interviewees and all the discussants suggested that PTB is treatable with modern drugs. All the discussants and the majority (95% of the interviewees mentioned that the disease can be transmitted from a patient to another person. Socio-cultural practices, e.g. sharing cups (87.6%, and house type (59.8% were suggested as risk factors for exposure to PTB in the study areas, while shortage of food (69.7% and chewing khat (53.8% were mentioned as factors favouring disease development. Almost all discussants and a considerable number (20.4% of the

  4. En el evangelio y en el partido: trayectorias políticas de pastores en el Gran Buenos Aires

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    Marcos Andrés Carbonelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available D esde el año 2001 los evangélicos han ensayado diversas modalidades de aproxima ción al mundo partidario en Argentina, que se distancian de los intentos realizados por partidos confesionales en un ciclo de movilización que se extendió entre 1980 y 2001. Los nuevos intentos se orientan por estrategias para insertarse en las estructuras partidarias y territoriales. En el presente artículo analizaremos el itinerario político de dos pastores que participaron en competencias electorales en 2007 y que adoptaron estrategias diversas de construcción política. Identificaremos las motivaciones de sus proyecciones electorales, los recursos simbólicos y materiales de su praxis política y sus incidencias en los resultados obtenidos. Finalmente, daremos cuenta de las diferencias y los denominadores comunes entre estas experiencias y sus antecedentes.

  5. L’élevage pastoral au Sénégal entre pression spatiale et mutation commerciale

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    Géraud Magrin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L'élevage pastoral est menacé au Sénégal car les dynamiques écologiques, les défrichements et les politiques publiques compromettent l'accès aux ressources sur lequel repose sa mobilité essentielle. Loin des clichés qui le présentent comme une activité homogène et archaïque, l'élevage connaît pourtant des mutations importantes. Sous des formes variées, il se diversifie et se connecte aux marchés urbains nationaux du lait et de la viande, valorisant des marchés de niche. Les dynamiques observées dans le plus urbanisé des États du Sahel préfigurent ainsi celles qui s'amorcent ailleurs.

  6. Genetic variation among the Golla pastoral caste subdivisions of Andhra Pradesh, India, according to the HLA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M H; Reddy, B M; Martinez-Laso, J; Mack, S J; Erlich, H A

    2001-09-01

    The HLA allele frequency distributions have been characterized for the HLA class I and class II loci of the Golla pastoral caste, from Southeast India, subdivided into the subcastes (Puja, Punugu, Kurava, Pokanati, Karnam, and Doddi). Genetic distances, neighbor-joining, correspondence, and haplotype analyses all indicate that the subcastes exhibit a high haplotype variability and that their genetic substratum may be the result of European-Middle East/Asian admixture with the autochthonous populations. The Karnam subcaste seems to be the one that has undergone a higher degree of admixture, when compared with the other subcastes. The Golla speak an old Indian Dravidian language and should theoretically represent the basic Indian substratum that existed before the postulated "Aryan" invasion.

  7. Book review: Francesco Pastore, The Youth Experience Gap. Explaining National Differences in the School-to-work Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PAŞNICU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Francesco Pastore is qualified as full professor of Economic Policy.  Currently, he is Assistant Professor of Economics at Seconda Universita di Napoli. He is also secretary of the Italian Association of Labor Economics (AIEL and a member of the executive board of the Italian Association of Comparative Economic Studies (AISSEC. His main research interests are in labor and education economics. He is also interested in development and transition economics. He has contributed extensively in several such fields as regional unemployment differentials, school-to-work transitions, labor market dynamics, gender discrimination, human capital investment, public employment services and passive as well as active labor market policy, labor market consequences of international trade and nonprofit organization.

  8. Snow cover monitoring model and change over both time and space in pastoral area of northern China

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    Cui, Yan; Li, Suju; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Juan; Wen, Qi

    2014-11-01

    Snow disaster is a natural phenomenon owning to widespread snowfall for a long time and usually affect people's life, property and economic. During the whole disaster management circle, snow disaster in pastoral area of northern china which including Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Tibet has been paid more attention. Thus do a good job in snow cover monitoring then found snow disaster in time can help the people in disaster area to take effective rescue measures, which always been the central and local government great important work. Remote sensing has been used widely in snow cover monitoring for its wide range, high efficiency, less conditions, more methods and large information. NOAA/AVHRR data has been used for wide range, plenty bands information and timely acquired and act as an import data of Snow Cover Monitoring Model (SCMM). SCMM including functions list below: First after NOAA/AVHRR data has been acquired, geometric calibration, radiometric calibration and other pre-processing work has been operated. Second after band operation, four threshold conditions are used to extract snow spectrum information among water, cloud and other features in NOAA/AVHRR image. Third snow cover information has been analyzed one by one and the maximum snow cover from about twenty images in a week has been selected. Then selected image has been mosaic which covered the pastoral area of China. At last both time and space analysis has been carried out through this operational model ,such as analysis on the difference between this week and the same period of last year , this week and last week in three level regional. SCMM have been run successfully for three years, and the results have been take into account as one of the three factors which led to risk warning of snow disaster and analysis results from it always play an important role in disaster reduction and relief.

  9. THE APOSTLE PAUL: THEOLOGIAN-MISSIONARY AND PASTOR-THEOLOGIAN. TOWARDS A DEEPER UNDERSTANDING OF SAINT PAUL

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    Eckhart Schnabel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This Article is an attempt to shed light on a few texts of the acts of the Apostles and of the epistles which are viewed as sources documenting the life and activity of Saint Paul. The author attempts to settle a number of questions regarding the authenticity of sources illustrating the life of Saint Paul. Similar questions are often raised by those who write and publish guides and textbooks for the teaching of the Pauline corpus. The author agrees with the overwhelming positive judgment of the academic world regarding the authenticity of the pastoral epistles, but at the same time he notes a number of objections to their authenticity proposed by the same forum: inconsistencies within the vocabulary of the texts themselves, their linguistic style, and their theological argumentation. The author concludes that these objections are inconclusive and the features enumerated by those who object constitute in reality only minor exceptions, inconsequential when taking into account the entire Pauline corpus. The author also examines the authenticity and historical accuracy of the account of the life of Saint Paul as given in the Acts of the Apostles. A few Biblicists claim that the account in Acts is merely legendary and is to be regarded as a type of early Christian folklore. The author disagrees with this opinion, backing up his position with the evidence that both the Acts of the Apostles and the Pastoral Epistles agree in historical detail and background. The author concludes with a further consideration regarding the correct method guiding biblical research on Saint Paul. He opines that such research must view the biblical texts in a correct historical perspective

  10. Modeling the effects of different fuel treatment mosaics on wildfire spread and behavior in a Mediterranean agro-pastoral area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Michele; Del Giudice, Liliana; Arca, Bachisio; Ager, Alan A; Alcasena-Urdiroz, Fermin; Lozano, Olga; Bacciu, Valentina; Spano, Donatella; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2018-04-15

    Wildfire spread and behavior can be limited by fuel treatments, even if their effects can vary according to a number of factors including type, intensity, extension, and spatial arrangement. In this work, we simulated the response of key wildfire exposure metrics to variations in the percentage of treated area, treatment unit size, and spatial arrangement of fuel treatments under different wind intensities. The study was carried out in a fire-prone 625 km 2 agro-pastoral area mostly covered by herbaceous fuels, and located in Northern Sardinia, Italy. We constrained the selection of fuel treatment units to areas covered by specific herbaceous land use classes and low terrain slope (post-treatment wildfire behavior by the Minimum Travel Time (MTT) fire spread algorithm. The simulations replicated a set of southwestern wind speed scenarios (16, 24 and 32 km h -1 ) and the driest fuel moisture conditions observed in the study area. Our results showed that fuel treatments implemented near the existing road network were significantly more efficient than the other alternatives, and this difference was amplified at the highest wind speed. Moreover, the largest treatment unit sizes were the most effective in containing wildfire growth. As expected, increasing the percentage of the landscape treated and reducing wind speed lowered fire exposure profiles for all fuel treatment alternatives, and this was observed at both the landscape scale and for highly valued resources. The methodology presented in this study can support the design and optimization of fuel management programs and policies in agro-pastoral areas of the Mediterranean Basin and herbaceous type landscapes elsewhere, where recurrent grassland fires pose a threat to rural communities, farms and infrastructures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impacto da Pastoral da Criança sobre a nutrição de menores de cinco anos no Maranhão: uma análise multinível Impact of Pastoral da Criança on the nutrition of children under 5 years of age in Maranhão: a multi-level analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A. Neumann

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA: A Pastoral da Criança acompanha mais de 1,5 milhão de crianças mensalmente na promoção da saúde materno-infantil. Há necessidade de avaliações independentes para avaliar o seu impacto. OBJETIVO: Comparar indicadores de nutrição infantil em comunidades servidas pela Pastoral da Criança e em comunidades-controle através da análise tradicional e multinível. DELINEAMENTO: Estudo quase-experimental, comparando conglomerados de crianças acompanhadas por 60 líderes comunitárias da Pastoral e conglomerados-controle. LOCAL: Áreas urbanas e rurais (municípios São Luís e Timbiras no Maranhão. PARTICIPANTES: 60 conglomerados em cada grupo (Pastoral e Controle e média de 14 crianças por conglomerado, sendo efetivamente incluídas no estudo 1.629 crianças, das quais 820 eram acompanhadas pela Pastoral. RESULTADOS: A análise dos desfechos foi realizada através de métodos tradicionais, que ignoram a estrutura hierarquizada dos dados, e considerando as correlações intra-grupos através de análise multinível. Esta mostrou que a variabilidade do modelo de regressão estava distribuída em todos os 4 níveis estudados. Na análise tradicional do escore-Z de altura para idade, as crianças da Pastoral eram em média 0,184 escore-Z mais baixas do que as crianças controle (P=0,03. Após ajuste para o escore de fatores de confusão, esta diferença aumentou. No entanto, quando se ajustou para a idade das crianças o efeito diminuiu e deixou de ser significativo. A análise multinível não mostrou efeito significante da Pastoral em nenhum dos modelos de ajuste, ao contrário da análise tradicional. Tanto a análise tradicional quanto a multinível apresentaram resultados similares quanto ao desfecho de aleitamento materno exclusivo ou predominante no terceiro mês de vida, ambos evidenciando influência positiva da Pastoral da Criança, tanto na análise bruta quanto na análise ajustada (razões de odds de 4,37 e 4

  12. Use of local pastoral species to increase fodder production of the saline rangelands in southern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Abderrazak; Tarhouni, Mohamed; Cardà, Artemi; Neffati, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Climate changes associated with multiple destructive human activities accelerate the degradation process of the natural rangelands around the world and especially the vulnerable areas such as the dryland ecosystems (Anaya-Romero et al., 2015; Eskandari et al., 2016; Muños Rojas et al., 2016; Vicente-Serrano et al., 2016). The vegetation cover and the biomass production of these ecosystems are decreasing and this is resulting in land degradation due to the soil erosion and changes in soil quality due to the abuse and misuse of the soil resources (Cerdà et al., 2016; Prosdocimi et al., 2016; Keesstra et al., 2016). To cope with such threats, it is necessary to develop some management techniques (restoration, plantation…) to enhance the biomass production and the carbon sequestration of the degraded rangelands (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016; Tarhouni et al., 2016). The valorization of saline water by planting pastoral halophyte species in salt-affected soils as well as the marginal areas are considered among the valuable tools to increase the rangeland production in dry areas. In this work, the ability of four plants (Atriplex halimus L. (Amaranthaceae), Atriplex mollis Desf. (Amaranthaceae), Lotus creticus L. (Fabaceae) and Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae)) to grow and to produce are tested under a field saline conditions (water and soil). Non-destructive method (Vegmeasure) is used to estimate the biomass production of these species. Chemical (crude protein, moisture and ash contents) and biochemical analyses (sugars, tannins and polyphenols contents) are also undertaken. Two years after plantation, the obtained results showed the ability of the four species to survive and to grow under high salinity degree. A strong positive correlation was obtained between the canopy cover and the dry biomass of the four studied species. Hence, the restoration of saline soils can be ensured by planting local halophytes. Acknowledgements. The research leading to these results has

  13. PRIORIDADE TEOLÓGICO-PASTORAL DA PNEUMATOLOGIA HOJE: “O ESPÍRITO PRECEDE A VINDA DE CRISTO” (SÃO BASÍLIO

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    Víctor Codina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo se propõe recuperar a Pneumatologia – em contraposição ao esquecimento do Espírito na teologia latina – e refletir não só em torno à presença pós-pascal do Espírito na Igreja e no mundo, mas também sobre o Espírito como condição necessária para o acesso ao Senhor, o que implica importantes consequências para a pastoral de hoje. ABSTRACT: The article intends to recuperate the Pneumatology – before the forgotten dimension of the Spirit which has happened in Latin theology – and reflect not only on the paschal presence of the Spirit in the Church, but also on the Spirit as a prerequisite for access to the Lord, which implies major consequences for the pastoral care of today.

  14. Iglesia y Monarquía castellana bajo la misma cruz: Una visita pastoral a la diócesis de Segovia en 1446-1447

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    Silvina Andrea Mondragón

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la situación de las parroquias segovianas de mediados del siglo XV a partir del documento de una visita pastoral donde se asienta el estado de conservación de las iglesias, la conducta de los curas párrocos y las opiniones campesinas vinculadas a esto. Se analiza también el rol que desempeña el visitador en tanto portador de la ideología emanada de la Iglesia como institución, al tiempo que imbuido de la lógica de la comunidad campesina de la que generalmente procede. El contexto general de esta visita pastoral es la reforma eclesiástica general del siglo XIV, que trató de revertir la crisis de la Iglesia

  15. Market access and community size influence pastoral management of native and exotic livestock species : a case study in communities of the Cordillera Real in Bolivia's high Andean wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Struelens, Quentin; Pomar, K. G.; Herrera, S. L.; Huanca, G. N.; Dangles, Olivier; Rebaudo, François

    2017-01-01

    Grazing areas management is of utmost importance in the Andean region. In the valleys of the Bolivian Cordillera Real near La Paz, pastoralism constitutes the traditional way for people to insure food security and economical sustainability. In these harsh mountains, unique and productive wetlands sustained by glacial water streams are of utmost importance for feeding cattle herds during the dry season. After the colonization by the Spanish, a shift in livestock species has been observed, with...

  16. Lutheran Clergy in an Orthodox Empire. The Apppointment of Pastors in the Russo-Swedish Borderland in the 18th Century

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    Räihä Antti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The history of the parishioners’ right to participate in and influence the choice of local clergy in Sweden and Finland can be taken back as far as the late Medieval Times. The procedures for electing clergymen are described in historiography as a specifically Nordic feature and as creating the basis of local self-government. In this article the features of local self-government are studied in a context where the scope for action was being modified. The focus is on the parishioners’ possibilities and willingness to influence the appointment of pastors in the Lutheran parishes of the Russo-Swedish borderlands in the 18th century. At the same time, this article will offer the first comprehensive presentation of the procedures for electing pastors in the Consistory District of Fredrikshamn. The Treaty of Åbo, concluded between Sweden and Russia in 1743, ensured that the existing Swedish law, including the canon law of 1686, together with the old Swedish privileges and statutes, as well as the freedom to practise the Lutheran religion, remained in force in the area annexed into Russia. By analysing the actual process of appointing pastors, it is possible to discuss both the development of the local political culture and the interaction between the central power and the local society in the late Early Modern era.

  17. Respostas religiosas à aids no Brasil: impressões de pesquisa acerca da Pastoral de DST/Aids da Igreja Católica1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffner, Fernando; Silva, Cristiane Gonçalves Meireles da; Maksud, Ívia; Garcia, Jonathan; Rios, Luís Felipe; Natividade, Marcelo; Borges, Priscila Rodrigues; Parker, Richard; Terto, Veriano

    2009-01-01

    O texto encontra-se estruturado em quatro partes. Na primeira delas, apresentamos um conjunto de considerações e informações acerca da situação da aids no Brasil, das relações entre religião, sexualidade, aids e estado laico, bem como uma descrição mais clara do Projeto Respostas Religiosas ao HIV/Aids no Brasil, do qual este texto apresenta algumas impressões de pesquisa preliminares. A seguir, dedicamos um item a apresentação da Pastoral de DST/Aids, sua história, estrutura e objetivos. No item seguinte problematizamos diversas questões em particular no âmbito das relações Estado e Igreja, relações entre agentes de pastoral e hierarquia da Igreja, e questões ligadas mais diretamente à sexualidade e aids, todas referenciadas ao trabalho da Pastoral de DST/Aids. Ao final, apresentamos a bibliografia e fontes consultadas. PMID:20442806

  18. Language and values in the human cloning debate: a web-based survey of scientists and Christian fundamentalist pastors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weasel, Lisa H; Jensen, Eric

    2005-04-01

    Over the last seven years, a major debate has arisen over whether human cloning should remain legal in the United States. Given that this may be the 'first real global and simultaneous news story on biotechnology' (Einsiedel et al., 2002, p.313), nations around the world have struggled with the implications of this newly viable scientific technology, which is often also referred to as somatic cell nuclear transfer. Since the successful cloning of Dolly the sheep in 1997, and with increasing media attention paid to the likelihood of a successful human reproductive clone coupled with research suggesting the medical potential of therapeutic cloning in humans, members of the scientific community and Christian fundamentalist leaders have become increasingly vocal in the debate over U.S. policy decisions regarding human cloning (Wilmut, 2000). Yet despite a surfeit of public opinion polls and widespread opining in the news media on the topic of human cloning, there have been no empirical studies comparing the views of scientists and Christian fundamentalists in this debate (see Evans, 2002a for a recent study of opinion polls assessing religion and attitudes toward cloning). In order to further investigate the values that underlie scientists' and Christian fundamentalist leader's understanding of human cloning, as well as their differential use of language in communicating about this issue, we conducted an open-ended, exploratory survey of practicing scientists in the field of molecular biology and Christian fundamentalist pastors. We then analyzed the responses from this survey using qualitative discourse analysis. While this was not necessarily a representative sample (in quantitative terms, see Gaskell & Bauer, 2000) of each of the groups and the response rate was limited, this approach was informative in identifying both commonalities between the two groups, such as a focus on ethical concerns about reproductive cloning and the use of scientific terminology, as well

  19. A Pastoral da Criança em Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brasil: cobertura e características sócio-demográficas das famílias participantes The Children's Pastoral in Criciúma, Southern Brazil: coverage and socio-demographic characteristics of participating families

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    Nelson A. Neumann

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever as principais características sócio-econômicas, biológicas e demográficas das crianças e famílias que participam ou participaram da Pastoral da Criança em relação à população urbana do Município de Criciúma-SC , realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional, com uma amostra probabilística de 2.208 crianças menores de três anos. Verificou-se que 16,7% das mães estudadas afirmaram ter participado alguma vez da Pastoral; destas, 4,8% ainda o fazem, havendo as restantes abandonado o acompanhamento. Crianças com mais de 12 meses, negras, com dois ou mais irmãos mais velhos, tiveram maior freqüência de participação. Os principais fatores familiares associados à participação foram idade materna acima dos 25 anos, o fato de a mãe não trabalhar fora de casa, renda per capita baixa, menor escolaridade dos pais, tempo de moradia no bairro superior a quatro anos e morte de filho menor de cinco anos. A migração, a falta de tempo e a interrupção das atividades pela Pastoral foram os principais motivos alegados para o abandono. Concluiu-se que a Pastoral deveria priorizar os mais pobres dos pobres e adotar medidas para reduzir a taxa de abandono.This study describes the main social, economic, biological, and demographic characteristics of children and families who participate or have participated in the Children's Pastoral as compared to the overall urban population of Criciúma (Southern Brazil. A population-based cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of 2208 children under three years of age was conducted; 16.7% of the mothers confirmed having participated in the Pastoral at any given time, of whom 4.8% were currently participating, while the rest had dropped out. Black children and those over 12 months old or with two or more older siblings participated more frequently in the Pastoral. The main family factors associated with participation were mother's age (over 25, mother

  20. Substitusi Medium Sintetik dengan Pupuk Daun, Air Kelapa dan Ekstrak Nabati pada Subkultur Anggrek Cattleya pastoral Innocence secara In Vitro

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    Etty Handayani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A research was perfomed to find the proper of coconut water and natural ekstracts combined with Hyponex medium that compared with Vacin & Went medium. This research has been done at Tissue Culture Laboratory, Agricultural Faculty, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta. The method of this research was arranged in Randomized Complete Design with 9 treatments and 8 replications. The treatments were VW + NAA 0,5 ppm + BAP 3 ppm, green Hyponex 3 g/l, green Hyponex 3 g/l + bean sprouts 150 g/l, green Hyponex 3 g/l + tomatoes 150 ml/l, green Hyponex 3 g/l + avocado 150 g/l, red Hyponex 3 g/l, red Hyponex 3 g/l + bean sprouts 150 g/l, red Hyponex 3 g/l + tomatoes 150 ml/l, red Hyponex 3 g/l + avocado 150 g/l. The each of Hyponex mediums were given with bananas 150 g/l and coconut water 150 ml/l. The result of this research showed that Hyponex mediums combined with natural ekstract was not signicicantly with Vacin & Went medium to high and shoot growth. Red Hyponex medium 3 g/l combined bananas 150 g/l and coconut water 150 ml/l resulted the best high, leaf and shoot in tissue culture Cattleya pastoral innocence orchid.

  1. Del corpus theologicum de Xavier Zubiri a una pastoral de la Providencia en Latinoamérica

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    Adalberto Cardona Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de los tres niveles de la experiencia de Dios en que, según Xavier Zubiri, se concretiza la Providencia divina: a experiencia universal de religación, propia de todo ser humano; b experiencia específicamente religiosa (gracia, en las que la iniciativa procede de Dios que se va revelando en el espacio y en el tiempo, a nivel individual, social e histórico; y c experiencia de la encarnación, constituida por la experiencia de la deiformidad, expresión esencial del cristianismo que se hace realidad en la persona de Cristo, en quien Dios asume forma humana y el hombre se deiformiza, este artículo se acerca a la Providencia por la vía de la encarnación, que le indica al hombre que la experiencia de Dios no lo aleja del mundo sino que lo obliga a él, constatación desde la que se propone para Latinoamérica una pastoral que integra responsablemente la idea de la Providencia de Dios.

  2. El Buen Pastor y la Monarquía Católica en la segunda mitad del siglo XVII

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    Iván Sánchez Llanes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En los siglos XVII y XVIII hay muchas maneras en las que se conceptualiza la relación entre el rey y la comunidad de vasallos, cada una de las cuales muestra algunos aspectos particulares de la teoría y metodología de la praxis del poder político. En este artículo, vamos a explorar la imagen del «Buen pastor» en la monarquía católica en la segunda mitad del siglo XVII y los modos en que apunta una nueva percepción de los deberes y obligaciones que vinculan al rey y su reino.In the XVI and XVII centuries, there are several ways in which the relationship between the king and the community of the vassals is conceptualized, everyone of them showing some particular aspects of the theoretical and methodological praxis of the political power. In this article, we are going to explore the image of the «Good shepherd» in the Catholic monarchy in the second half of the XVII century and the ways in which it points out a new perception of the duties and obligations that links the king and its kingdom.

  3. Market integration of pastoral systems in the south of Chad : case of the milk trade in Moundu

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    G. Duteurtre

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1980, livestock husbandry has steadily increased in the south of Chad, particularly because of transhumant herd moves from the center to the south of the country. Supplying cities and villages with dairy products is an important trade for the breeders. This trade was the foundation for pastoral breeders to settle down around the city of Moundu. Can such a livestock system respond in a sustainable way to the quickly growing demand of the population? Does it change as a result of integrating the market? Suburban dairy producers, dairy processors, salespersons and consumers were surveyed to better understand the organization of this subsector. Results show that the traditional dairy product trade is dynamic. More than 5000 liters originating from suburban Fulani settlements reach city markets every day. The livestock system is also adapting itself well to the new trade environment, while keeping its intrinsic mobility, even on short distances. In addition, urban dairy processors (cheesemakers and dairy bars boost this subsector. Finally, there is not much competition with imports due to the area being enclosed and consumers’ preference for traditional products. However, Fulani pastoralist settlements generate some conflicts on land use. This study shows the need to initiate more talks between livestock breeders and cotton producers, to reorganize the cotton oilseed cake market, and to develop small dairy-processing units.

  4. The use of Imago Dei as a pastoral healing vision against women killings in the South African context

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    Elijah M. Baloyi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation and killings of women in South Africa are a concern not only for the government, but also for pastoral caregivers as well. Although the government has introduced institutions like the Commission for Gender Equality with responsibilities to ensure that there is equality between genders, it seems that the supposed patriarchal masculine superiority continues to demonstrate its dominance through the abuse, as well as the killings of women. Assigning women to the status of secondary citizens who are tortured and exposed to gender-based violence is not only unconstitutional, but also biblically wrong, as we can see from the biblical message of the creation of human beings. The goal of this article is to use the premise of �the image of God� to argue that women also are created in the image of God and hence they are worthy to be treated as such, from sexual harassment, sexual abuse and violence to murder. This is my personal observation as women of this country are being killed by their husbands and boyfriends. This article will use case studies to argue that women (just like men deserve, as images of God, to live freely without fear of being killed by their husbands and boyfriends for whatever wrongdoing.

  5. Diverse effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production in the agro-pastoral transitional zone of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jianmin; Yu, Deyong; Wang, Qianfeng; Liu, Yupeng

    2018-06-01

    Both crop distribution and climate change are important drivers for crop production and can affect food security, which is an important requirement for sustainable development. However, their effects on crop production are confounded and warrant detailed investigation. As a key area for food production that is sensitive to climate change, the agro-pastoral transitional zone (APTZ) plays a significant role in regional food security. To investigate the respective effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production, the well-established GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was adopted with different scenario designs in this study. From 1980 to 2010, the crop distribution for wheat, maize, and rice witnessed a dramatic change due to agricultural policy adjustments and ecological engineering-related construction in the APTZ. At the same time, notable climate change was observed. The simulation results indicated that the climate change had a positive impact on the crop production of wheat, maize, and rice, while the crop distribution change led to an increase in the production of maize and rice, but a decrease in the wheat production. Comparatively, crop distribution change had a larger impact on wheat (-1.71 × 106 t) and maize (8.53 × 106 t) production, whereas climate change exerted a greater effect on rice production (0.58 × 106 t), during the period from 1980 to 2010 in the APTZ. This study is helpful to understand the mechanism of the effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production, and aid policy makers in reducing the threat of future food insecurity.

  6. The Climate-Population Nexus in the East African Horn: Emerging Degradation Trends in Rangeland and Pastoral Livelihood Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricope, N. G.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Lopez-Carr, D.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing climate variability and extreme weather conditions along with declining trends in both rainfall and temperature represent major risk factors affecting agricultural production and food security in many regions of the world. We identify regions where significant rainfall decrease from 1979-2011 over the entire continent of Africa couples with significant human population density increase. The rangelands of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia in the East African Horn remain one of the world's most food insecure regions, yet have significantly increasing human populations predominantly dependent on pastoralist and agro-pastoralist livelihoods. Vegetation in this region is characterized by a variable mosaic of land covers, generally dominated by grasslands necessary for agro-pastoralism, interspersed by woody vegetation. Recent assessments indicate that widespread degradation is occurring, adversely impacting fragile ecosystems and human livelihoods. Using two underutilized MODIS products, we observe significant changes in vegetation patterns and productivity over the last decade all across the East African Horn. We observe significant vegetation browning trends in areas experiencing drying precipitation trends in addition to increasing population pressures. We also found that the drying precipitation trends only partially statistically explain the vegetation browning trends, further indicating that other factors such as population pressures and land use changes are responsible for the observed declining vegetation health. Furthermore, we show that the general vegetation browning trends persist even during years with normal rainfall conditions such as 2012, indicating potential long-term degradation of rangelands on which approximately 10 million people depend. These findings have serious implications for current and future regional food security monitoring and forecasting as well as for mitigation and adaptation strategies in a region where population is expected

  7. Diverse effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production in the agro-pastoral transitional zone of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jianmin; Yu, Deyong; Wang, Qianfeng; Liu, Yupeng

    2017-07-01

    Both crop distribution and climate change are important drivers for crop production and can affect food security, which is an important requirement for sustainable development. However, their effects on crop production are confounded and warrant detailed investigation. As a key area for food production that is sensitive to climate change, the agro-pastoral transitional zone (APTZ) plays a significant role in regional food security. To investigate the respective effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production, the well-established GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was adopted with different scenario designs in this study. From 1980 to 2010, the crop distribution for wheat, maize, and rice witnessed a dramatic change due to agricultural policy adjustments and ecological engineering-related construction in the APTZ. At the same time, notable climate change was observed. The simulation results indicated that the climate change had a positive impact on the crop production of wheat, maize, and rice, while the crop distribution change led to an increase in the production of maize and rice, but a decrease in the wheat production. Comparatively, crop distribution change had a larger impact on wheat (-1.71 × 106 t) and maize (8.53 × 106 t) production, whereas climate change exerted a greater effect on rice production (0.58 × 106 t), during the period from 1980 to 2010 in the APTZ. This study is helpful to understand the mechanism of the effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production, and aid policy makers in reducing the threat of future food insecurity.

  8. Identification of the key ecological factors influencing vegetation degradation in semi-arid agro-pastoral ecotone considering spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu; Wang, Qinghui; Fan, Min

    2017-11-01

    When assessing re-vegetation project performance and optimizing land management, identification of the key ecological factors inducing vegetation degradation has crucial implications. Rainfall, temperature, elevation, slope, aspect, land use type, and human disturbance are ecological factors affecting the status of vegetation index. However, at different spatial scales, the key factors may vary. Using Helin County, Inner-Mongolia, China as the study site and combining remote sensing image interpretation, field surveying, and mathematical methods, this study assesses key ecological factors affecting vegetation degradation under different spatial scales in a semi-arid agro-pastoral ecotone. It indicates that the key factors are different at various spatial scales. Elevation, rainfall, and temperature are identified as crucial for all spatial extents. Elevation, rainfall and human disturbance are key factors for small-scale quadrats of 300 m × 300 m and 600 m × 600 m, temperature and land use type are key factors for a medium-scale quadrat of 1 km × 1 km, and rainfall, temperature, and land use are key factors for large-scale quadrats of 2 km × 2 km and 5 km × 5 km. For this region, human disturbance is not the key factor for vegetation degradation across spatial scales. It is necessary to consider spatial scale for the identification of key factors determining vegetation characteristics. The eco-restoration programs at various spatial scales should identify key influencing factors according their scales so as to take effective measurements. The new understanding obtained in this study may help to explore the forces which driving vegetation degradation in the degraded regions in the world.

  9. Spatial and temporal variations of wind erosion climatic erosivity in the farming-pastoral zone of Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Shuping; Yang, Ruixin; Yan, Yechao; Yang, Zhengwei; Wang, Dandan

    2018-03-01

    Wind erosion climatic erosivity is an important parameter to assess the possible effects of climatic conditions on wind erosion. In this paper, the wind erosion climatic factor (C-factor), which was used to quantify the wind erosion climatic erosivity, was calculated for the period 1960-2014 based on monthly meteorological data collected from 101 stations in the farming-pastoral zone of Northern China. The Mann-Kendall (M-K) test, trend analysis, and geostatistical analysis methods were used to explore the spatial and temporal characteristics of the wind erosion climatic erosivity in this region. The result suggests that the annual C-factor, with a maximum of 76.05 in 1969 and a minimum of 26.57 in 2007, has a significant decreasing trend over the past 55 years. Strong seasonality in the C-factor was found, with the highest value in spring, which accounts for a significant proportion of the annual C-factor (41.46%). However, the coefficient of variation of the seasonal C-factor reaches a maximum in winter and a minimum in spring. The mean annual C-factor varies substantially across the region. Areas with high values of the mean annual C-factor (C ≥ 100) are located in Ulanqab and Dingxi, while areas with low values (C ≤ 10) lie in Lanzhou, Linxia, Dingxi, Xining, and Chengde. Spatial analysis on the trend of the C-factor reveals that 81% of the stations show statistically significant decreases at a 90% confidence level. An examination of the concentration ratio of the C-factor shows that the wind erosion climatic erosivity is concentrated in spring, especially in April, which makes this period particularly important for implementing soil conservation measures.

  10. Hacia la construcción del gracioso: Carnaval y metateatralidad en los pastores de Bartolomé Torres Naharro

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    Julio Vélez-Sainz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Es común en la crítica del teatro áureo destacar la función metaliteraria del personaje del gracioso. Éste funcionaría como un elemento casi ficticio dentro de la ficción de la comedia (la “ilusión escénica” y sus apartes dramáticos marcan el ritmo de ésta, lo que le serviría a los autores a ejercer una cierta crítica literaria a partir de estos personajes. El siguiente estudio plantea un acercamiento a los albores del teatro laico en la España pre-renacentista que desvela la metateatralidad de las figuras cómicas del teatro prelopista. Sostenemos que la autorreferencialidad del gracioso que tanto ha destacado la crítica es, en realidad, un rasgo heredado de sus antepasados teatrales: los pastores del pacense Bartolomé de Torres Naharro.Summary: Theater critics have insisted upon the metaliterary function of the gracioso stock-character in the Spanish Golden Age. This comic figure works as a quasi-fictitious element within the theatrical fiction (the “scenic illusion”, as some have termed and his dramatic comments and asides would serve to path the rhythm of the scenes. This character could also be used to insert comments of literary criticism The following study approaches dramatis personae of lay Renaissance theater that unveil the metatheatricality of the pre-Lopean comic figures. I thus assert that the self-referentiality of the gracioso is, in fact, a trait inherited from the gracioso´s predecessors, among them the comic shepherds of the Badajoz-born author Bartolomé de Torres Naharro.

  11. Internal diversification of non-Sub-Saharan haplogroups in Sahelian populations and the spread of pastoralism beyond the Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichová, Iva; Fernandes, Verónica; Deme, Alioune; Nováčková, Jana; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Novelletto, Andrea; Pereira, Luísa; Černý, Viktor

    2017-10-01

    Today, African pastoralists are found mainly in the Sahel/Savannah belt spanning 6,000 km from west to east, flanked by the Sahara to the north and tropical rainforests to the south. The most significant group among them are the Fulani who not only keep cattle breeds of possible West Eurasian ancestry, but form themselves a gene pool containing some paternally and maternally-transmitted West Eurasian haplogroups. We generated complete sequences for 33 mitogenomes belonging to haplogroups H1 and U5 (23 and 10, respectively), and genotyped 16 STRs in 65 Y chromosomes belonging to haplogroup R1b-V88. We show that age estimates of the maternal lineage H1cb1, occurring almost exclusively in the Fulani, point to the time when the first cattle herders settled the Sahel/Savannah belt. Similar age estimates were obtained for paternal lineage R1b-V88, which occurs today in the Fulani but also in other, mostly pastoral populations. Maternal clade U5b1b1b, reported earlier in the Berbers, shows a shallower age, suggesting another possibly independent input into the Sahelian pastoralist gene pool. Despite the fact that animal domestication originated in the Near East ∼ 10 ka, and that it was from there that animals such as sheep, goats as well as cattle were introduced into Northeast Africa soon thereafter, contemporary cattle keepers in the Sahel/Savannah belt show uniparental genetic affinities that suggest the possibility of an ancient contact with an additional ancestral population of western Mediterranean ancestry. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Integrating local pastoral knowledge, participatory mapping, and species distribution modeling for risk assessment of invasive rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora in Ethiopia's Afar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Luizza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The threats posed by invasive plants span ecosystems and economies worldwide. Local knowledge of biological invasions has proven beneficial for invasive species research, but to date no work has integrated this knowledge with species distribution modeling for invasion risk assessments. In this study, we integrated pastoral knowledge with Maxent modeling to assess the suitable habitat and potential impacts of invasive Cryptostegia grandiflora Robx. Ex R.Br. (rubber vine in Ethiopia's Afar region. We conducted focus groups with seven villages across the Amibara and Awash-Fentale districts. Pastoral knowledge revealed the growing threat of rubber vine, which to date has received limited attention in Ethiopia, and whose presence in Afar was previously unknown to our team. Rubber vine occurrence points were collected in the field with pastoralists and processed in Maxent with MODIS-derived vegetation indices, topographic data, and anthropogenic variables. We tested model fit using a jackknife procedure and validated the final model with an independent occurrence data set collected through participatory mapping activities with pastoralists. A Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis revealed areas with novel environmental conditions for future targeted surveys. Model performance was evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC and showed good fit across the jackknife models (average AUC = 0.80 and the final model (test AUC = 0.96. Our results reveal the growing threat rubber vine poses to Afar, with suitable habitat extending downstream of its current known location in the middle Awash River basin. Local pastoral knowledge provided important context for its rapid expansion due to acute changes in seasonality and habitat alteration, in addition to threats posed to numerous endemic tree species that provide critical provisioning ecosystem services. This work demonstrates the utility of integrating local

  13. [A prevalence study on mild cognitive impairment among the elderly populations of Mongolian and Han nationalities in a pastoral area of Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Riletemuer; Zhao, Shi-gang; Wang, De-sheng; Wen, Shi-rong; Niu, Guang-ming; A, Rong; Wang, Zhi-guang; Jiang, Ming-fang; Zhang, Chun-yu

    2012-04-01

    To understand the epidemiological characteristics and distribution of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly populations from Mongolian and Han nationalities living in the pastoral areas of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. According to the MCI clinical diagnostic criteria from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th revised edition (DSM-IV) by American Psychiatric Association, the individuals under study were at the age of 55 or over, with Mongolian or Han ethnicities and living in the pastoral area of Inner Mongolia. The crude MCI morbidity rates of Mongolian and Han of the study populations in the pastoral area of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China was 19.48% (1782/9146) and the standardization morbidity was 18.98%. The crude MCI morbidity rates of both Mongolian and Han ethnicities were 17.46% (the standardization morbidity was 16.99%) and 20.60% (the standardization morbidity was 19.98%), respectively. There showed a significant positive correlation between the crude morbidities and age, also significantly increasing with the latter. In the Mongolian population, the morbidity increased from 12.17% at the age 55-59 to 27.78% at 85 while in the Han population, the morbidity increased from 15.50% at the age 55-59 to 23.53% at 85. In both the populations of Mongolian and Han, there was a statistically difference found between the morbidities of MCI (χ2=13.229, P=0.000). The morbidity was higher in Hans than in the Mongolians. However, there was no statistically significant difference noticed between the morbidities of MCI in the Mongolian males and females (χ2=2.376, P=0.123). There was statistically significant difference found between the morbidities of MCI in the Han males and females, with females having higher risk than males (χ2=24.470, P=0.000). The morbidity of MCI in the elderly Mongolian and Han populations from the pastoral area of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China was considered to be quite high and

  14. Presentación sistémica de Aspergillus spp con semiología neurológica en un Pastor Alemán: informe de un caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Tapia, Ana Laura; Santoscoy Mejía, Eduardo Carlos; Ramírez Lezama, José; Cervantes Olivares, Roberto A.; Quiroz Mercado, Joaquín Arturo

    2010-01-01

    La infección del sistema nervioso en el perro es poco común; posibles causas son Aspergillus spp, Cryptococcus neoformans, Blastomyces dermatidis y Coccidioides immitis. La infección por Aspergillus spp afecta al aparato respiratorio y en pocas ocasiones se presenta de manera diseminada. Sin embargo, en el Pastor Alemán hay mayor incidencia de éste, pues dicha infección se asocia con una deficiencia inmunológica. Se describe el caso de una perra de raza Pastor Alemán, de 1.5 años de edad, ref...

  15. Effect of land use and soil organic matter quality on the structure and function of microbial communities in pastoral soils: Implications for disease suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignam, Bryony E A; O'Callaghan, Maureen; Condron, Leo M; Kowalchuk, George A; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Zhou, Jizhong; Wakelin, Steven A

    2018-01-01

    Cropping soils vary in extent of natural suppression of soil-borne plant diseases. However, it is unknown whether similar variation occurs across pastoral agricultural systems. We examined soil microbial community properties known to be associated with disease suppression across 50 pastoral fields varying in management intensity. The composition and abundance of the disease-suppressive community were assessed from both taxonomic and functional perspectives. Pseudomonas bacteria were selected as a general taxonomic indicator of disease suppressive potential, while genes associated with the biosynthesis of a suite of secondary metabolites provided functional markers (GeoChip 5.0 microarray analysis). The composition of both the Pseudomonas communities and disease suppressive functional genes were responsive to land use. Underlying soil properties explained 37% of the variation in Pseudomonas community structure and up to 61% of the variation in the abundance of disease suppressive functional genes. Notably, measures of soil organic matter quality, C:P ratio, and aromaticity of the dissolved organic matter content (carbon recalcitrance), influenced both the taxonomic and functional disease suppressive potential of the pasture soils. Our results suggest that key components of the soil microbial community may be managed on-farm to enhance disease suppression and plant productivity.

  16. Teología de la Liberación y Pastoral de la Liberación: entre la solidaridad y la insurgencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Acevedo Tarazona

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como fin mostrar el impacto de la Pastoral de la Liberación en Colombia (hoy conocida como Teología de la Liberación y cómo sus principales promotores, entre ellos los Sacerdotes Camilo Torres Restrepo, Diego Uribe Escobar, Domingo Laín Sanz, Manuel Pérez Martínez y José Antonio Jiménez Comín terminaron vinculados al Ejército de Liberación Nacional (ELN. La estructura del artículo está compuesta por una introducción con un énfasis en la situación social y política del mundo para los años 60. Posteriormente, se estudia el concepto de Teología de la Liberación como distinción de Pastoral de la Liberación, el proceso de cambio de la Iglesia Católica a raíz del Concilio Vaticano II y la Conferencia Episcopal de Medellín. Luego es estudiado el fenómeno de Golconda para finalizar con un análisis sobre la actuación de los denominado “curas rebeldes” en el contexto de las nuevas concepciones en boga sobre la acción social y política de la Iglesia.

  17. Contrasting land uses in Mediterranean agro-silvo-pastoral systems generated patchy diversity patterns of vascular plants and below-ground microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagella, Simonetta; Filigheddu, Rossella; Caria, Maria Carmela; Girlanda, Mariangela; Roggero, Pier Paolo

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this paper were (i) to define how contrasting land uses affected plant biodiversity in Mediterranean agro-silvo-pastoral-systems across a gradient of disturbance regimes: cork oak forests, secondary grasslands, hay crops, grass covered vineyards, tilled vineyards; (ii) to determine whether these patterns mirrored those of below-ground microorganisms and whether the components of γ-diversity followed a similar model. The disturbance regimes affected plant assemblage composition. Species richness decreased with increasing land use intensity, the Shannon index showed the highest values in grasslands and hay crops. Plant assemblage composition patterns mirrored those of Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. Richness in Basidiomycota, denitrifying bacteria and microbial biomass showed the same trend as that observed for vascular plant richness. The Shannon index pattern of below-ground microorganisms was different from that of plants. The plant γ-diversity component model weakly mirrored those of Ascomycota. Patchy diversity patterns suggest that the maintenance of contrasting land uses associated with different productions typical of agro-silvo-pastoral-systems can guarantee the conservation of biodiversity. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

  19. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L./maize (Zea mays L. intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoru Sun

    Full Text Available Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

  20. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/Maize (Zea mays L.) Intercropping Provides a Feasible Way to Improve Yield and Economic Incomes in Farming and Pastoral Areas of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China. PMID:25329376

  1. Agro-pastoral expansion and land use/land cover (LU/LC) change dynamics in Central-western Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga-Ngoie, K.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Brazil, large-scale land cover changes following extensive deforestations are expected to generate big impacts onto the climate and the environment over this area, with eventually many negative feedbacks on the global scale. Mato Grosso State, located in the central western Brazil, is known to be the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate. Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes have been reported to occur over large areas in this state due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and uncontrolled slash-and-burn cultivation since the 1980s. In this study, we specifically aim at doing more detailed analysis for the causes of deforestation and savannization in this area, with special attention to agriculture and cattle ranching industry at the municipal district level in this state. Using GIS techniques and remotely-sensed NOAA/AVHRR data, we created 5-year Digital Vegetation Model Maps characterizing LU/LC features for every five years during the 1981-2001 periods using the PCA first components of the NOAA/AVHRR multi-spectral data. Our results make it clear that: (1) LU/LC changes among the phases are of the following 3 major types: degradation, recovery or transition; (2) The changes in LU/LC features are concomitant with the advance of cattle ranching and corn production activities toward the northern parts of the state, and with the expansion of soybean production in the central and western Mato Grosso; (3) Most of the agro-pastoral business are found in the southern Mato Grosso where about 46% of the state's deforestation during the 1981-2001 period occurred; (4) Rates of vegetation change are larger over non-inhabited areas (56%), especially in the north, than over the populated zones in the south (42%). Moreover, this work sheds some new light on the patterns of the changes in LU/LC features (deforestation and savannization) for each municipal district of Mato Grosso. In general, the following activities

  2. Contributions of climate change to the boundary shifts in the farming-pastoral ecotone in northern China since 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, W.; Liu, Y.; Shi, X.

    2017-12-01

    Critical transitions of farming-pastoral ecotone (FPE) boundaries can be affected by climate change and human activities, yet current studies have not adequately analyzed the spatially explicit contributions of climate change to FPE boundary shifts, particularly those in different regions and periods. In this study, we present a series of analyses at the point (gravity center analysis), line (boundary shifts detected using two methods) and area (spatial analysis) levels to quantify climate contributions at the 1 km scale in each ecological functional region during three study periods from the 1970s to the 2000s using climate and land use data. Both gravity center analysis and boundary shift detection reveal similar spatial patterns, with more extensive boundary shifts in the northeastern and southeastern parts of the FPE in northern China, especially during the 1970s-1980s and 1990s-2000s. Climate contributions in the X- and Y-coordinate directions and in the directions of transects along boundaries show that significant differences in climate contributions to FPE boundary shifts exist in different ecological regions during the three periods. Additionally, the results in different directions exhibit good agreement in most of the ecological functional regions during most of the periods. However, the contribution values in the directions of transects along the boundaries (with 1-17%) were always smaller than those in the X-and Y-coordinate directions (4-56%), which suggests that the analysis in the transect directions is more stable and reasonable. Thus, this approach provides an alternative method for detecting the climate contributions to boundary shifts associated with land use changes. Spatial analysis of the relationship between climate change and land use change in the context of FPE boundary shifts in northern China provides further evidence and explanation of the driving forces of climate change. Our findings suggest that an improved understanding of the

  3. The attitudes and activities of pastors and faith leaders in Zimbabwe on the use of family planning methods among their members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Alikali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Faith leaders are important gatekeepers in disseminating reproductive health messages and influencing positive behaviour change within communities. Faith leaders are seen as the most powerful, visible, and reachable form of authority, even trusted more than governments or non-profit organizations. In addition to providing counsel and advice aimed at enhancing health and wellbeing of the worshippers, faith leaders also play an important role in advocating and influencing what is taught in schools and what services are provided in healthcare facilities. Because of this influence, faith leaders often have an unparalleled opportunity—indeed, a moral obligation—to prioritize conversations about family planning, advocating, and closing the contraception gap.The overall objective of this study was to ascertain the attitude and activities of pastors and faith leaders in Zimbabwe on the use of family planning methods among their members. The result revealed that some faith leaders believed that spreading information about family planning education was the responsibility of the government and tended to avoid such responsibility. However, through training on family planning advocacy, much can be achieved. Methods: Qualitative study methods were used to better understand the attitude and activities of pastors and faith leaders in Zimbabwe on the use of family planning methods among their members. The participants of this survey were drawn from 8 of 10 provinces in Zimbabwe, which include: Bulawayo, Harare, Manicaland, Mashonaland Central, Mashonaland East, Mashonaland West, Masvingo, and Matabeleland North.Paper-based questionnaires were answered by 24 pastors and 26 faith leaders in Zimbabwe (Table 1 through personal face-to-face meetings, while interviews were conducted with a select few pastors and faith leaders. The samples were drawn from randomly selected churches in Zimbabwe. Data was analysed using Epi info 7 and Microsoft Excel

  4. Resolution 369/012. It authorize to Vientos de Pastoral S.A. to generate a wind power electricity source by 150.0 MW generating station section, and their connection to National interconnected system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    It has been allowed the wind power generation electricity energy source as a the primary electricity source. This project was presented by the Vientos de Pastoral S.A company according to the opinion of the National Energy Regulatory Unit and the Energy and Water Services in relation with the requirements of the current rule

  5. Roma in Slovakia – silent and invisible minority (Social Networking and Pastoral Pentecostal Discourse as a case of giving voice and positive visibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Podolinská

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is meant to be a micro-case study to the issue of institutional production and reproduction of security of a selected minority group in Slovakia, through tracing the process of social networking and re-construction of the (ethnic identity on a religious basis. Principal attention is paid to the analysis of the transsocial and trans-ethnic discourse and the concept of New Roma as a de-ethnicised and ahistorically constructed label with positive and non-ascriptive connotations. The Pentecostal concept of the Family of God is studied in connection with the perception of the increased feeling of security not only within primary (family networks, but also within hybrid (religion-based networks. The New Roma concept offered to Roma by pastors would increase the potential of Roma to enter also secondary (professional and other kinds of networks within the mainstream society and allow them positive visibility at the mezzo-level of society. The new forms of social networking hand in hand with the new concept of de-ethnicised and deessentialised identity would allow Roma to change the management techniques from making security through invisibility to a more emancipative and assertive technique employing the paradigm “more visible = more secure”. The author points out the forced ethnicisation of the categories of Rom and Roma nation at the level of the practical discourse. From this point of view, the traditional type of ethnicity (based on traditional definitions of the nationis often intentionally over-communicated. Both ethnicisation (excessive accentuation of the ethnic perspective and de-ethnicisation (itsintentional suppression usually serve as practical (political tools for an objective fixing of the unfavourable position of Roma ethnic minority.This may produce a strong feeling of cultural hostility and insecurity on “both sides”. The author picks up the cases from practice and turns attention to the analysis of the

  6. Appreciating the image of God in all humanity: Towards a pastoral response to skin lightening as image enhancement to exit dark skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah K. Tenai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The practice of skin lightening is prevalent amongst dark-skinned people globally. Various current studies that map this practice and that seek motivations behind the practice are examined. It is observed that through shrewd marketing, dark-skinned people are offered a promise of a better quality of life, obtained by a lighter skin, through the use of skin lighteners. In spite of the severe health risks involved, the promise is ostensibly irresistible to some dark-skinned persons. A pastoral response is offered that affirms the full personhood and complete humanity of dark-skinned people as fully human and whole in their dark skins. Keywords: Skin lightening, Dark skin, Image of God

  7. [Effects of climate and land use change on the changes of vegetation coverage in farming-pastoral ecotone of Northern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Hui; Gao, Ji-Xi

    2008-09-01

    Based on the remote sensing images and the meteorological data in 1986 and 2000, and by using the model of extracting vegetation coverage, the spatiotemporal changes of vegetation coverage in the farming-pastoral ecotone of Northern China in 1986-2000 were studied, with the effects of climate and land use change on the changes analyzed. The results showed that in this ecotone, the area with lower vegetation coverage was increasing, while that with higher vegetation coverage was in adverse. The regions with increasing vegetation coverage were mainly in the east of northeast section, the west of north section, and the west of northwest section of the ecotone, while the vegetation coverage in the other sections was obviously degraded. The vegetation coverage were positively correlated with precipitation and aridity index, but negatively correlated with temperature. The change direction and extent of the vegetation coverage varied with land use types.

  8. Allies Advancing Justice: Cooperation between U.S. Bishops and Call to Action to Promote the Peace and Economic Pastoral Letters (1982–1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Pogorelc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a phase of an ongoing relationship between a social movement organization (SMO, Call to Action, and the institutional organization (IO in which it is embedded, the Catholic Church. Relationships between SMOs and IOs are dynamic. At times they may engage in heated conflict related to the SMO’s goal to reform the IO and the desire of the IO leaders to maintain stability. There can also be times when such relationships are less adversarial and even cooperative. This article draws on periodicals, archival data and interviews to describe and analyze a period (1982–1987 when the values and interests of Call to Action and U.S. Bishops coalesced and led to a period of cooperation in which they together promoted the Peace and Economic Pastoral Letters written by the U.S. Conference of Bishops.

  9. El uso del concepto “totalitarismo” en la ensayística antiperonista. El caso de Frente al totalitarismo peronista, de Reynaldo Pastor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Bisso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza el libro de Reynaldo Pastor, Frente al tota- litarismo peronista , en tanto producto tardío de la literatura de ensayo antiperonista, en el que se intenta conjugar parte de la tradición antifas- cista de cuño liberal-conservador en el marco de la renovada prédica antitotalitaria de la Guerra Fría. A partir de este análisis se tendrá en cuenta el lugar que la taxonomización política cumple como estrategia de verosimilitud en el intento que hace el autor de equiparar la experien- cia peronista con los fenómenos totalitarios –entre los que se incluye al comunismo– mediante el uso, en su texto, de columnas comparativas.

  10. O adolescente infrator interno pelo estatuto da criança e do adolescente e o aconselhamento psicológico pastoral

    OpenAIRE

    Werno Nilsson

    2007-01-01

    A pesquisa servirá como manual para o Aconselhamento Psicológico Pastoral do Adolescente Infrator Interno com base no Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente. A primeira parte aborda o antigo Código de Menores e suas restrições. Em seguida a inovação do Estatuto quanto a proteção integral do Adolescente, principalmente do infrator interno. A nova visão global e a intenção do legislador, avançada para o tempo em que foi lançado, para a defesa e a reeducação do infrator. O fato da proteção e prio...

  11. Apropiación y alienación: consideraciones hermenéutico-existenciales a propósito de la Pastoral americana de Philip Roth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Darío Vélez López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Partiendo de una formulación básica de algunos elementos relevantes de la hermenéutica fenomenológica de Heidegger, el presente artículo propone una lectura de la obra del escritor norteamericano Philip Roth titulada Pastoral americana, que lo hizo acreedor al premio Pulitzer en 1989. El propósito cen- tral de esa lectura consiste en mostrar de qué manera fenómenos existenciales elementales como estar-lejos (Wegsein, estar-despierto (Wachsein, estar-ahí (Dasein permiten una articulación propia del sentido de la obra de Roth en la que ésta manifiesta su particular compromiso existencial.

  12. Pastoralism in northern Peru during pre-Hispanic times: insights from the Mochica Period (100-800 AD) based on stable isotopic analysis of domestic camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Elise; Goepfert, Nicolas; Gutiérrez Léon, Belkys; Chauchat, Claude; Jordán, Régulo Franco; Vásquez Sánchez, Segundo

    2014-01-01

    Llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl), while their presence on the Pacific coast during pre-Hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. This study aims to document herding practices on the northern Peruvian coast during the Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD) by gaining insights into diet, location of breeding and mobility of archaeological camelids from the funerary and ritual contexts of two Mochica sites, Uhle Platform in Huacas de Moche and El Brujo. The three first early years and the long-term life histories of the animals were documented by the combined bulk analysis of bone collagen (δ(13)C col and δ(15)N col) and bone structural carbonate (δ(13)C bone and δ(18)O bone) and the serial analysis of structural carbonate of molar tooth enamel (δ(13)C enamel and δ(18)O enamel). Mochica camelids were bred in the low and/or middle valleys, unlike their modern counterparts, who are restricted to highland puna C3 pastures. Archaeological camelids had diverse and complex life histories, usually with substantial maize foddering. An ontogenetic switch in diet and possible residential mobility during the course of life were identified for some specimens. Although the inference of geographic origin from δ(18)O bone and δ(18)O enamel values was limited because of the lack of understanding of the influence of environmental and biological factors, tooth enamel analysis has great potential for exploring camelid herding practices and Andean pastoralism. Our study suggested that Mochica herders adapted their practices to the difficult lowland environment and that herding practices were varied and not restricted to breeding at higher altitudes. The role of maize in different aspects of the economic life

  13. Assessing the resilience of a real-world social-ecological system: lessons from a multidisciplinary evaluation of a South African pastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Linstädter

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, social-ecological systems (SESs worldwide have undergone dramatic transformations with often detrimental consequences for livelihoods. Although resilience thinking offers promising conceptual frameworks to understand SES transformations, empirical resilience assessments of real-world SESs are still rare because SES complexity requires integrating knowledge, theories, and approaches from different disciplines. Taking up this challenge, we empirically assess the resilience of a South African pastoral SES to drought using various methods from natural and social sciences. In the ecological subsystem, we analyze rangelands' ability to buffer drought effects on forage provision, using soil and vegetation indicators. In the social subsystem, we assess households' and communities' capacities to mitigate drought effects, applying agronomic and institutional indicators and benchmarking against practices and institutions in traditional pastoral SESs. Our results indicate that a decoupling of livelihoods from livestock-generated income was initiated by government interventions in the 1930s. In the post-apartheid phase, minimum-input strategies of herd management were adopted, leading to a recovery of rangeland vegetation due to unintentionally reduced stocking densities. Because current livelihood security is mainly based on external monetary resources (pensions, child grants, and disability grants, household resilience to drought is higher than in historical phases. Our study is one of the first to use a truly multidisciplinary resilience assessment. Conflicting results from partial assessments underline that measuring narrow indicator sets may impede a deeper understanding of SES transformations. The results also imply that the resilience of contemporary, open SESs cannot be explained by an inward-looking approach because essential connections and drivers at other scales have become relevant in the globalized world. Our study thus has

  14. Pastoralism in Northern Peru during Pre-Hispanic Times: Insights from the Mochica Period (100–800 AD) Based on Stable Isotopic Analysis of Domestic Camelids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Elise; Goepfert, Nicolas; Gutiérrez Léon, Belkys; Chauchat, Claude; Franco Jordán, Régulo; Sánchez, Segundo Vásquez

    2014-01-01

    Llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl), while their presence on the Pacific coast during pre-Hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. This study aims to document herding practices on the northern Peruvian coast during the Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD) by gaining insights into diet, location of breeding and mobility of archaeological camelids from the funerary and ritual contexts of two Mochica sites, Uhle Platform in Huacas de Moche and El Brujo. The three first early years and the long-term life histories of the animals were documented by the combined bulk analysis of bone collagen (δ13Ccol and δ15Ncol) and bone structural carbonate (δ13Cbone and δ18Obone) and the serial analysis of structural carbonate of molar tooth enamel (δ13Cenamel and δ18Oenamel). Mochica camelids were bred in the low and/or middle valleys, unlike their modern counterparts, who are restricted to highland puna C3 pastures. Archaeological camelids had diverse and complex life histories, usually with substantial maize foddering. An ontogenetic switch in diet and possible residential mobility during the course of life were identified for some specimens. Although the inference of geographic origin from δ18Obone and δ18Oenamel values was limited because of the lack of understanding of the influence of environmental and biological factors, tooth enamel analysis has great potential for exploring camelid herding practices and Andean pastoralism. Our study suggested that Mochica herders adapted their practices to the difficult lowland environment and that herding practices were varied and not restricted to breeding at higher altitudes. The role of maize in different aspects of the economic life of the Mochicas is also

  15. Care of the dying: a Catholic perspective. Part IV: Theological, moral, and pastoral response--the transformation of suffering. Catholic Health Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    People struggle to find meaning in suffering and death. In a culture that cannot depend on religious insights into suffering to address the deeper questions (e.g., Why me?), all kinds of interventions, even euthanasia and assisted suicide, may seem inevitable. Catholic healthcare providers can respond by offering patients, families, and care givers a vision of how suffering can be understood. Based on the power of divine love to transform suffering and death from absolute evils to personal triumphs, the moral principles the Catholic Church upholds can provide a hopeful perspective for healthcare professionals who care for the dying. Three principles support Roman Catholic teaching on conserving health and life: sanctity of life, God's dominion and human stewardship, and the prohibition against killing. These principles by themselves are insufficient as a moral or pastoral response to the care of the suffering and dying. Action is also required. Moral virtues must be reflected in ethical behavior and in pastoral practice so that we may enact our Christian vision in the face of suffering and death. Attention to our character as providers and our ethical practices is of grave importance in these days when euthanasia and assisted suicide are being promoted so aggressively. To carry on Jesus' healing mission by responding to human suffering and death, healing communities must embody virtues that bear convincing witness in both a personal and a corporate manner regarding the care of the dying. Three characteristics of a virtuous community stand out: interdependence, care, and hospitality. By being a virtuous community, we may be able to address many of the concerns that motivate people to consider euthanasia.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Interactions of six SNPs in APOA1 gene and types of obesity on low HDL-C disease in Xinjiang pastoral area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinping; He, Jia; Guo, Heng; Mu, Lati; Hu, Yunhua; Ma, Jiaolong; Yan, Yizhong; Ma, Rulin; Li, Shugang; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Mei; Niu, Qiang; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Jingyu; Guo, Shuxia

    2017-10-02

    This study aims to investigate association between six single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) in APOA1 gene and types of obesity with the risk of low level HDL-C in the pastoral area of northwest China. A total of 1267 individuals including 424 patients with low HDL-C disease and 843 health subjects were analyzed based on matched for age, sex. SNPShot technique was used to detect the genotypes of rs670, rs5069, rs5072, rs7116797, rs2070665 and rs1799837 in APOA1 gene. The relationship between above six SNPs and types of obesity with low HDL-C disease was analyzed by binary logistic regression. Carriers with rs670 G allele were more likely to get low HDL-C disease (OR = 1.46, OR95%CI: 1.118-1.915; P = 0.005); The genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs5069, rs5072, rs7116797, rs2070665, rs1799837 revealed no significant differences between cases and controls (P obesity measured by BMI had 2.686 times (OR95%CI: 1.695-4.256; P obesity measured by WC had 1.925 times (OR95%CI: 1.273-2.910; P = 0.002) and abdominal obesity measured by WHR had 1.640 times (OR95%CI: 1.114-2.416; P = 0.012) risk to get low HDL-C disease; APOA1 rs670 interacted with obesity (no matter general obesity or abdominal obesity) on low HDL-C disease. APOA1 gene may be associated with low HDL-C disease in the pastoral area of northwest China; obesity was the risk factor for low HDL-C disease; the low HDL-C disease is influenced by APOA1, obesity, and their interactions.

  17. A Pastoral da Criança em Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brasil: cobertura e características sócio-demográficas das famílias participantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumann Nelson A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de descrever as principais características sócio-econômicas, biológicas e demográficas das crianças e famílias que participam ou participaram da Pastoral da Criança em relação à população urbana do Município de Criciúma-SC , realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional, com uma amostra probabilística de 2.208 crianças menores de três anos. Verificou-se que 16,7% das mães estudadas afirmaram ter participado alguma vez da Pastoral; destas, 4,8% ainda o fazem, havendo as restantes abandonado o acompanhamento. Crianças com mais de 12 meses, negras, com dois ou mais irmãos mais velhos, tiveram maior freqüência de participação. Os principais fatores familiares associados à participação foram idade materna acima dos 25 anos, o fato de a mãe não trabalhar fora de casa, renda per capita baixa, menor escolaridade dos pais, tempo de moradia no bairro superior a quatro anos e morte de filho menor de cinco anos. A migração, a falta de tempo e a interrupção das atividades pela Pastoral foram os principais motivos alegados para o abandono. Concluiu-se que a Pastoral deveria priorizar os mais pobres dos pobres e adotar medidas para reduzir a taxa de abandono.

  18. Estudio de las comunidades de interés pascícola en un puerto de montaña: I. Estructura y valor pastoral

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    Alonso, I.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of grazing plant communities in mountainous areas: I. Structure and grass quality. The study of the structure of the mountainous grassland communities, as the main factor involved in the ingestive behaviour of herbivores, is presented in this work. The pressure on these communities depends on the selection exercised by the grazing animal and this, in turn, depends on the plant value or pastoral value for the herbivore. The "complex" method was used to determine this value. The results are compared with those of other authors. The "life forms" based on Raunkiaer's classification complete this study of the vegetal communities, defined from the point of view of their pastoral value.

    [es] En este trabajo se presenta un estudio de la estructura de las comunidades de pasto de montaña, como factor determinante del comportamiento ingestivo de los herbívoros. El mayor o menor impacto sobre estas comunidades depende de la selección que ejercen los animales, y ésta, a su vez, depende del valor que las plantas tienen para el herbívoro. El método aplicado en este caso para determinar este valor es el método "complex". Los resultados obtenidos se comparan con los de otros autores. La caracterización de las comunidades desde el punto de vista de su interés pascícola se completa con el estudio de los tipos biológicos basados en la clasificación de Raunkiaer.
    [fr] Étude des communautés de pâturage dans un port de montagne: I. Structure et valeur pastoral. Dans ce travail on présente l'étude de la structure des communautés de pâturage de montagne comme un facteur déterminant du comportement ingestive des herbivores. La grandeur de l'impact sur ces communautés dépend de la sélection faite par les animaux et, celle-ci en même temps, dépend de la valeur qu'ont les plantes pour l'herbivore. La méthode appliquée dans ce cas pour déterminer cette valeur est la méthode "complex". Les résultats obtenus sont compar

  19. O ESTILO PASTORAL DO VATICANO II E SUA RECEPÇÃO PÓS-CONCILIAR ELABORAÇÃO DE UMA CRITERIOLOGIA E ALGUNS EXEMPLOS SIGNIFICATIVOS

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    Christoph Theobald

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Em diálogo com a leitura de John W. O’Malley sobre o Concílio Vaticano II, o presente artigo analisa seu corpus textual e se pergunta sobre seu “estilo pastoral”. Desde sua preparação, o Concílio se caracterizou por um processo de intercompreensão conciliar e ecumênica. Seu estilo afastou-se das fórmulas canônicas, eliminando os anátemas e aproximando-se do estilo evocativo, bíblico (narrativo, parenético, deliberativo, doxológico. Os preâmbulos das Constituições Dei Verbum, Sacrosanctum Concilium, Lumen Gentium e Gaudium et Spes permitem avaliar esse “estilo pastoral” e as consequências para a recepção visível na exortação Evangelii nuntiandi, na encíclica Ut unum sint e no encontro inter-religioso de Assis em 1986. À guisa de conclusão, recorda que o estilo cria o mundo que o texto habita. Daí o valor heurístico desta abordagem na análise da recepção do Vaticano II e a determinação de uma autêntica fidelidade ao espírito e à letra do Concílio, em contraste com outros textos que revelam o conflito entre esse “estilo pastoral” e a tradição dogmática. ABSTRACT: In dialogue with the reading of John W. O’Malley on the Second Vatican Council this article analyzes its textual corpus and questions its “pastoral style.” Since its preparation, the Council was characterized by a process of conciliar and ecumenical mutual understanding. Its style departed from the canonical formulas, eliminating the anathemas and approaching the evocative style, Biblical (narrative, parenetical, deliberative, doxological. The preambles of the Constitutions Dei Verbum, Sacrosanctum Concilium, Lumen Gentium and Gaudium et Spes assess this “pastoral style” and the consequences for the visible reception in the exhortation Evangelii nuntiandi, in the Encyclical Ut unum sint and in the interreligious meeting in Assisi in 1986. By way of conclusion it points out that the style creates the world in which the text

  20. One Year of Monthly N and O Isotope Measurements in Nitrate from 18 Streamwater Monitoring Stations Within the Predominantly Pastoral Upper Manawatu Catchment, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisden, W. T.; Douence, C.

    2010-12-01

    New Zealand's intensive pastoral agricultural systems have a significant impact on water quality due to nitrogen loading in rivers. A research programme has been designed to develop indicators of the sources and denitrification losses of nitrate in streamwater. This work describes the results of one year of monthly measurements at ~18 monitoring locations in the 1260 square km upper Manawatu River catchment. The catchment was chosen for study because it is among the most pastoral catchments in New Zealand, with little non-pastoral agriculture and limited forest area outside of the Tararua mountain range on the west side of the catchment. The use of N and O isotope ratios in nitrate has considerable potential to elucidate the sources and fate of nitrate with greater precision than in most other nations due to the lack of nitrate in atmospheric deposition and the lack of nitrates used as fertilizer. We measured N and O isotope ratios in nitrate plus nitrite using cadmium and azide chemical denitrification method, and refer to the results as nitrate for brevity due to low nitrite concentrations. When examined as annual averages at each monitoring site, we found the lowest N and O isotope ratios in our only site draining native forest. All agricultural monitoring sites sit approximately on a 1:1 line, enriched in N-15 and O-18 by 2-6 per mil relative to the native forest subcatchment. The three main effluent point sources in the catchment demonstrated unexpected variability in isotope ratios. Two modern sewage treatment ponds had N and O isotope ratios close to those found in agricultural catchments, while a closed meat freezing factory effluent pond had isotope ratios strongly enriched in N-15 and O-18. The lack of summer low flows during monitoring period, combined with the variability in isotope ratios from point source, appeared to be responsible for our inability to clearly detect the effect of point sources in the isotope data from stations upstream and

  1. The potential for SLM, facing human constraints, the case of the semi-arid agro-pastoral lands in the Atlantic plateaus, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouina, A.; Chaker, M.; Aderghal, M.; Machouri, N.; Alkarkouri, J.

    2012-04-01

    The agro-pastoral activity through its evolution, in the Atlantic plateaus of Morocco, led to unsuitable forms of resources use, which carried damage in the balance of water and the stability of land. It was thus necessary to start a revision of these practices and to set up improved forms of land use. The research made in the framework of the DESIRE project concerns the Sehoul commune, which presents a high rate of poverty and illiteracy, in spite of its location near Rabat, the capital of the country. Farming has as main objective to feed the livestock. The rain-based cereal cultivations, which still occupy more than 80% of the agricultural surface, reveals the stagnation of the techniques adopted and of the local knowledge. In collaboration with various stakeholders, technicians and farmers, the assessment with the WOCAT approach permitted to identify the main factors of constraints, responsible of the current spreading of land degradation mechanisms (forest clearing, shrubs cutting on the pastoral slopes, soil erosion, constitution of rills in the recently ploughed fields, incision of gullies and channels, mass movements on the banks of the deepest channels). These constraints derive from social evolution of the population during the last 60 years and mainly the rapid transformation of the rural structure of families to a new kind of farmers, more interested by what they can earn during their frequent movements to the city than by their own traditional agriculture. Due to the penetration of urban investment, direct overgrazing and indirect effect related to mismanagement of land for fodder production, operate massive damages to the vegetation cover and to the soil. It is why the SLM behavior, approaches and techniques have a very low rate of chance for success, without a deep change in term of land ownership, law constraints, agrarian structures, relations between the city and its vicinity, etc. Scenarios were built, based on various rates of land management

  2. The paradoxical evolution of runoff in the pastoral Sahel: analysis of the hydrological changes over the Agoufou watershed (Mali) using the KINEROS-2 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Laetitia; Grippa, Manuela; Hiernaux, Pierre; Pons, Léa; Kergoat, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    In recent decades, the Sahel has witnessed a paradoxical increase in surface water despite a general precipitation decline. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as the Sahelian paradox, is not completely understood yet. The role of cropland expansion due to the increasing food demand by a growing population has been often put forward to explain this situation for the cultivated Sahel. However, this hypothesis does not hold in pastoral areas where the same phenomenon is observed. Several other processes, such as the degradation of natural vegetation following the major droughts of the 1970s and the 1980s, the development of crusted topsoils, the intensification of the rainfall regime and the development of the drainage network, have been suggested to account for this situation. In this paper, a modeling approach is proposed to explore, quantify and rank different processes that could be at play in pastoral Sahel. The kinematic runoff and erosion model (KINEROS-2) is applied to the Agoufou watershed (245 km2), in the Gourma region in Mali, which underwent a significant increase of surface runoff during the last 60 years. Two periods are simulated, the past case (1960-1975) preceding the Sahelian drought and the present case (2000-2015). Surface hydrology and land cover characteristics for these two periods are derived by the analysis of aerial photographs, available in 1956, and high-resolution remote sensing images in 2011. The major changes identified are (1) a partial crusting of isolated dunes, (2) an increase of drainage network density, (3) a marked decrease in vegetation with the nonrecovery of tiger bush and vegetation growing on shallow sandy soils, and (4) important changes in soil properties with the apparition of impervious soils instead of shallow sandy soil. The KINEROS-2 model was parameterized to simulate these changes in combination or independently. The results obtained by this model display a significant increase in annual discharge between the

  3. A theological model for pastoral anthropology within the dynamics of interculturality: Cura animarum and the quest for wholeness in a colo-spirituality

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    Daniël J. Louw

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Healing is embedded in relational and systemic networks. In order to heal life (cura vitae human relationships as determined by paradigms (patterns of thinking and conceptualisation emanating from cultural settings, should be healed. In order to apply a holistic approach to healing in pastoral therapy, a systemic, relational and qualitative interpretation of soul in cura animarum [cure and care of human souls] was proposed. The notion of a colo-spirituality [spiritual culture] was developed in order to link interculturality to the trans-cultural notion of grace (the eschatological paradigm. The latter is the prerequisite for an intimate space of unconditional love in order to heal the quality of our human identity and attitude or habitus [being functions] within the existential realities of life (i.e. anxiety, guilt or shame, despair, helplessness or vulnerability, anger. ’n Teologiese model vir ’n pastorale antropologie binne die dinamika van interkulturaliteit: Colo-spiritualiteit as integrale pastorale terapie binne cura animarum. Die konsep van heling is ingebed binne relasionele en sistemiese netwerke. Ten einde die lewe self te genees (cura vitae moet menslike verhoudinge soos wat dit bepaal word deur paradigmas (patrone van rasionele denkkonstrukte en kulturele kontekste genees word. Ten einde ’n omvattende en integrale benadering tot pastoral terapie te volg, word ’n sistemiese, relasionele en kwalitatiewe verstaan van die menslike siel in ’n pastorale model vir cura animarum voorgestel. Ten einde ’n interkulturele benadering in pastorale terapie te volg en heling te verbind met die trans-kulturele konsep van genade (die eskatologiese paradigma word die konsep van ’n colo-spiritualiteit ontwikkel. Die verstaan van genade as ’n transkulturele konsep is nodig met die oog op die vestiging van ’n ruimte van onvoorwaardelike liefde wat die kwaliteit van menswees en houdinge (habitus binne verskillende eksistensi

  4. Pastoralism in northern Peru during pre-Hispanic times: insights from the Mochica Period (100-800 AD based on stable isotopic analysis of domestic camelids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Dufour

    Full Text Available Llama (Lama glama and alpaca (Vicugna pacos are the only large domesticated animals indigenous to the Americas. Pastoralism occupies a fundamental economic, social and religious role in Andean life. Today, camelid livestock are confined to the ecozone of the puna (above 3,500 masl, while their presence on the Pacific coast during pre-Hispanic times is attested by archaeological skeletal remains. This study aims to document herding practices on the northern Peruvian coast during the Early Intermediate Period (200 BC-600 AD by gaining insights into diet, location of breeding and mobility of archaeological camelids from the funerary and ritual contexts of two Mochica sites, Uhle Platform in Huacas de Moche and El Brujo. The three first early years and the long-term life histories of the animals were documented by the combined bulk analysis of bone collagen (δ(13C col and δ(15N col and bone structural carbonate (δ(13C bone and δ(18O bone and the serial analysis of structural carbonate of molar tooth enamel (δ(13C enamel and δ(18O enamel. Mochica camelids were bred in the low and/or middle valleys, unlike their modern counterparts, who are restricted to highland puna C3 pastures. Archaeological camelids had diverse and complex life histories, usually with substantial maize foddering. An ontogenetic switch in diet and possible residential mobility during the course of life were identified for some specimens. Although the inference of geographic origin from δ(18O bone and δ(18O enamel values was limited because of the lack of understanding of the influence of environmental and biological factors, tooth enamel analysis has great potential for exploring camelid herding practices and Andean pastoralism. Our study suggested that Mochica herders adapted their practices to the difficult lowland environment and that herding practices were varied and not restricted to breeding at higher altitudes. The role of maize in different aspects of the economic

  5. Prevalence and molecular characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin resistant strains, isolated from bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of South-West Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, Benon B; Baldan, Rossella; Trovato, Alberto; Cirillo, Daniela M

    2017-06-13

    Staphylococcus aureus strains are now regarded as zoonotic agents. In pastoral settings where human-animal interaction is intimate, multi-drug resistant microorganisms have become an emerging zoonotic issue of public health concern. The study of S. aureus prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and clonal lineages in humans, animals and food in African settings has great relevance, taking into consideration the high diversity of ethnicities, cultures and food habits that determine the lifestyle of the people. Little is known about milk carriage of methicillin resistant S. aureus strains (MRSA) and their virulence factors in Uganda. Here, we present the prevalence of MRSA in bulk can milk and raw milk products in pastoral communities of south-west Uganda. We also present PFGE profiles, spa-types, as well as frequency of enterotoxins genes. S. aureus was identified by the coagulase test, susceptibility testing by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion and E-test methods and MRSA by detection of the mecA gene and SCCmec types. The presence of Panton - Valentine Leucocidin (PVL) genes and staphylococcal enterotoxins was determined by PCR, while genotyping was by PFGE and spa typing. S. aureus were isolated from 30/148 (20.3%) milk and 11/91(12%) sour milk samples. mecA gene carriage, hence MRSA, was detected in 23/41 (56.1%) of the isolates, with 21 of the 23 (91.3%) being SCCmec type V; while up to 30/41 (73.2%) of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Only five isolates carried the PVL virulence gene, while PFGE typing revealed ten clusters (ranging from two seven isolates each) that comprised 83% of the sample, and only eight isolates with unique pulsotypes. The largest PFGE profile (E) consisted of seven isolates while t7753, t1398, and t2112 were the most common spa-types. Thirty seven of the 41 strains (90.2%) showed at least one of the eight enterotoxin genes tested, with sem 29 (70.7%), sei 25 (61%) and seg 21 (51.2%) being the most frequently observed genes. This

  6. Distribución y abundancia del zooplancton del complejo lagunar Chacahua-La Pastoría, Oaxaca, México Distribution and abundance of zooplankton of the lagoon system Chacahua-La Pastoria, Oaxaca, Mexico

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    Benigno Pantaleón-López

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la comunidad zooplánctica del sistema lagunar Chacahua-La Pastoría, antes de la apertura de la barra arenosa de Chacahua por la Secretaría de Marina. Se identificaron 26 grupos de zooplancton provenientes de 5 muestreos realizados en Mayo, Octubre, Diciembre de 1996 y Febrero y Junio de 1997, en el área investigada. En la Pastoría se registraron 25 grupos y en Chacahua 19; de los 26 grupos determinados 18 fueron comunes en ambas lagunas. El grupo más abundante fue el de las larvas de braquiuros que representaron el 35.7% del total del zooplancton, fueron seguidos por las larvas y huevos de peces con 22.74 y 15.26%, respectivamente. Los máximos valores promedio de abundancia se observaron durante el periodo de sequía, en las zonas aledañas al canal de intercomunicación de ambas lagunas, así como en las cercanías del canal de comunicación con el mar. En Chacahua se observaron las mayores densidades en Junio, 1997 y en La Pastoría en Diciembre, 1996. En general en la laguna La Pastoría la riqueza de grupos fue mayor. La composición de la comunidad zooplánctica está condicionada por la salinidad y la tasa de intercambio de agua entre la laguna y el mar.The zooplankton community of the lagoon system Chacahua-La Pastoría was studied before the opening of the sandy bar of Chacahua by the Secretaría de Marina. A total of 26 groups of zooplankton were identified at the lagoon complex Chacahua-La Pastoria made during five samplings in May, October and December, 1996 and February and June, 1997. In La Pastoria were recorded 25 groups and 19 in Chacahua. From 26 groups recorded, 18 were common in both lagoons. Braquiurid larvae were the most abundant group, and represent 35.7% of total zooplankton, followed by fish larvae and eggs with 22.74 and 15.26%, respectively. The maximum mean values of abundance were observed in the dry period in the adjacent zones to the channel of intercommunication of both lagoons, as well as in

  7. A sero-survey of rinderpest in nomadic pastoral systems in central and southern Somalia from 2002 to 2003, using a spatially integrated random sampling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempia, S; Salman, M D; Keefe, T; Morley, P; Freier, J E; DeMartini, J C; Wamwayi, H M; Njeumi, F; Soumaré, B; Abdi, A M

    2010-12-01

    A cross-sectional sero-survey, using a two-stage cluster sampling design, was conducted between 2002 and 2003 in ten administrative regions of central and southern Somalia, to estimate the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of rinderpest (RP) in the study area, as well as to identify potential risk factors for the observed seroprevalence distribution. The study was also used to test the feasibility of the spatially integrated investigation technique in nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoral systems. In the absence of a systematic list of livestock holdings, the primary sampling units were selected by generating random map coordinates. A total of 9,216 serum samples were collected from cattle aged 12 to 36 months at 562 sampling sites. Two apparent clusters of RP seroprevalence were detected. Four potential risk factors associated with the observed seroprevalence were identified: the mobility of cattle herds, the cattle population density, the proximity of cattle herds to cattle trade routes and cattle herd size. Risk maps were then generated to assist in designing more targeted surveillance strategies. The observed seroprevalence in these areas declined over time. In subsequent years, similar seroprevalence studies in neighbouring areas of Kenya and Ethiopia also showed a very low seroprevalence of RP or the absence of antibodies against RP. The progressive decline in RP antibody prevalence is consistent with virus extinction. Verification of freedom from RP infection in the Somali ecosystem is currently in progress.

  8. Etiquetas e comportamentos durante a viagem pastoral de D. Carlos Luiz D’Amour ao sul da Diocese de Cuiabá

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    Jérri Roberto Marin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo tematiza a difusão de etiquetas e a reforma dos comportamentos durante a viagem pastoral de D. Carlos Luiz D’Amour ao sul da diocese de Cuiabá, em 1886. A fonte de pesquisa é o diário escrito por seu secretário particular, o cônego Bento Severiano da Luz. Nesse diário, foram narrados os percursos, os principais acontecimentos e as realizações da comitiva, sendo o bispo a personagem central. Entre os objetivos da viagem, estavam difundir novos padrões de conduta, de sentimentos e de etiqueta, civilizar os mato-grossenses e instaurar a boa sociedade católica. As aparições públicas do bispo tinham funções simbólicas, ou seja, a afirmação política e religiosa do poder episcopal na sociedade, criando uma esfera sagrada e corporificada em sua pessoa. D. Carlos, no jogo das relações de poderes, viu-se compelido a submeter-se à etiqueta, assim como a exercer pressões para que os diocesanos a cumprissem. Cada detalhe da etiqueta e do cerimonial cumpria a função de autorrepresentação ostentatória de D. Carlos e a suas supressões aboliam as distâncias, as distinções sociais e obliteravam sua autoridade e poder.

  9. Comparison of the impacts of climate change on potential productivity of different staple crops in the agro-pastoral ecotone of North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianzhao; Wang, Jing; He, Di; Huang, Mingxia; Pan, Zhihua; Pan, Xuebiao

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the impacts of climate change on the potential productivity and potential productivity gaps of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and spring wheat ( Triticumaestivum Linn) in the agro-pastoral ecotone (APE) of North China. A crop growth dynamics statistical method was used to calculate the potential productivity affected by light, temperature, precipitation, and soil fertility. The growing season average temperature increased by 0.47, 0.48, and 0.52°C per decade ( p < 0.05) for sunflower, potato, and spring wheat, respectively, from 1981 to 2010. Meanwhile, the growing season solar radiation showed a decreasing trend ( p < 0.05) and the growing season precipitation changed non-significantly across APE. The light-temperature potential productivity increased by 4.48% per decade for sunflower but decreased by 1.58% and 0.59% per decade for potato and spring wheat. The climate-soil potential productivity reached only 31.20%, 27.79%, and 20.62% of the light-temperature potential productivity for sunflower, potato, and spring wheat, respectively. The gaps between the light-temperature and climate-soil potential productivity increased by 6.41%, 0.97%, and 1.29% per decade for sunflower, potato, and spring wheat, respectively. The increasing suitability of the climate for sunflower suggested that the sown area of sunflower should be increased compared with potato and spring wheat in APE under future climate warming.

  10. Comparison of evapotranspiration components and water-use efficiency among different land use patterns of temperate steppe in the Northern China pastoral-farming ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuzhe; Fan, Jiangwen; Hu, Zhongmin; Shao, Quanqin; Harris, Warwick

    2016-06-01

    Water-use efficiency (WUE), which links carbon and water cycles, is an important indicator of assessing the interactions between ecosystems and regional climate. Using chamber methods with and without plant removal treatments, we investigated WUE and evapotranspiration (ET) components in three ecosystems with different land-use types in Northern China pastoral-farming ecotone. In comparison, ET of the ecosystems with grazing exclusion and cultivating was 6.7 and 13.4 % higher than that of the ecosystem with free grazing. The difference in ET was primarily due to the different magnitudes of soil water evaporation (E) rather than canopy transpiration (T). Canopy WUE (WUEc, i.e., the ratio of gross primary productivity to T) at the grazing excluded and cultivated sites was 17 and 36 % higher than that at the grazing site. Ecosystem WUE (WUEnep, i.e., the ratio of net ecosystem productivity to ET) at the cultivated site was 34 and 28 % lower in comparison with grazed and grazing excluded stepped, respectively. The varied leaf area index (LAI) of different land uses was correlated with microclimate and ecosystem vapor/carbon exchange. The LAI changing with land uses should be the primary regulation of grassland WUE. These findings facilitate the mechanistic understanding of carbon-water relationships at canopy and ecosystem levels and projection of the effects of land-use change on regional climate and productivity.

  11. Land use change and its driving forces toward mutual conversion in Zhangjiakou City, a farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Xu, Yueqing; Sun, Piling; Huang, An; Zheng, Weiran

    2017-09-14

    Land use/cover change (LUCC), a local environmental issue of global importance, and its driving forces have been crucial issues in geography and environmental research. Previous studies primarily focused on major driving factors in various land use types, with few explorations of differences between driving forces of mutual land use type conversions, especially in fragile eco-environments. In this study, Zhangjiakou City, in a farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China, was taken as an example to analyze land use change between 1989 and 2015, and explore the driving forces of mutual land use type conversions using canonical correlation analysis. Satellite images and government statistics, including social-economic and natural data, were used as sources. Arable land, forestland, and grassland formed the main land use structure. From 1989 to 2015 forestland, orchard land, and construction land significantly increased, while arable land, grassland, unused land, and water areas decreased. Conversions from grassland to forestland; from arable land to orchard land, forestland and construction land; and from unused land to grassland and forestland were the primary land use changes. Among these, the conversion from grassland to forestland had the highest ranking. Average annual precipitation and per capita net income of rural residents positively affected the conversion of arable land to forestland and unused land to grassland. GDP, total population, and urbanization rate contributed most significantly to converting arable land to construction land; total retail sales of social consumer goods, average annual temperature, and GDP had important positive influences in converting arable land to orchard land.

  12. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China

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    Muyessar Turdi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively. The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y. Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element–induced health risk (including for DW adults was higher than acceptable (10−6 and lower than priority risk levels (10−4 (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B. For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10−4, higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10−4.

  13. Logit Model of Analysing the Factors Affecting the Adoption of Goat Raising Activity by Farmers in the Non-pastoral Centre Region of Cameroon

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    Folefack, AJZ.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Three years after the beginning of a goat project in the Centre region of Cameroon, the engagement of farmers in this activity has been timid. As this region is not a traditional pastoral zone, farmers have not yet incorporated the crop-livestock integration into their habits. Hence, this paper uses a logistic regression approach in order to analyse the factors affecting the adoption of goat raising activity by farmers of this locality. The computed odds ratio indicate that the practice of goat raising activity is significantly influenced by the farmer's age, gender, farming experience, practice of other livestock activities, frequency of contact with extension agents, access to credit and farm income. However, being a goat raiser does not depend on the farmer's marital status, education, farm size, household size, membership into a common initiative group. The study therefore recommends that the government authorities should give more attention to significant factors so as to popularize the goat raising activity in this region.

  14. A Critical Assessment of Ministerial Formation in Roman Catholic Seminaries in Nigeria in the Light of the Pastores Dabo Vobis: A Case Study of Claretian Institute, Owerri

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    John Enyinnaya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the last few decades, spiritual formation has been receiving attention in theological education literature. An increasing number of theological educators have observed how easily this important objective of ministerial formation gets crowded out by the academic and ministry emphases. Others have called attention to the problem of fragmentation pointing to the need for integration in the work theological institutions do. Thus, it has become common to hear institutions boast of how integrated their programmes are and how much emphasis they place on spiritual formation. It is, however, not that common to see studies dedicated to finding out how these claims are actually realized in practice. The purpose of this paper is to assess to what extent Roman Catholic Seminaries in Nigeria comply with the emphasis in the Pastores Dabo Vobis (PDV on spiritual formation. The PDV is the dominant Roman Catholic document on ministerial formation since Vatican II. The PDV has been influential in highlighting the importance of spiritual formation in theological education globally. The paper gives a brief overview of the PDV’s portrayal of ministerial formation and then examines one Roman Catholic Seminary in Nigeria (the Claretian Institute, Nekede, Owerri  to see to what extent spiritual formation is carried out amongst other objectives. The paper concludes with salient lessons other theological institutions can learn from Claretian Institute’s effort at provision of holistic and relevant theological preparation for ministers.

  15. Magnitude of institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among women in pastoral community of Awash Fentale district Afar Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Luelseged; Alemayehu, Mussie; Debie, Ayal

    2018-03-02

    Reduction of maternal mortality is a global priority particularly in developing countries like Ethiopia where maternal mortality ratio is one of the highest in the world. Most deliveries in developing countries occur at home without skilled birth attendants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among women in pastoral community of Awash Fentale district, Ethiopia. Overall, 35.2% of women delivered at health facilities. Women who had good knowledge AOR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.32, 4.87), Ante Natal Care (ANC) follow up (AOR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.55, 6.63), resided in a place where distance to reach at the nearby health facilities takes delivery place (AOR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.49, 5.07) were more likely to deliver at health facility. Therefore, strengthening ANC services, improving maternal knowledge, involving husbands in decision of delivery place and expanding health facilities in the community would enhance institutional delivery.

  16. The Christian church’s role in the escalating mob justice system in our black townships – An African pastoral view

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    Elijah Baloyi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the crimes in the South African black townships, mob justice has become a growing concern. Some questions that need to be asked are: Is our police force doing enough to protect the ordinary citizens of this country? If the situation continues, will all suspects be killed in the same manner or will there be a solution to change the situation? What is the impact of mob justice on the families of the victims and the witnesses of the brutal acts? How long are we going to live as a traumatised nation as a result of these violent acts? Is there any hope that our nation will ever have the peace it deserves in the context of democracy? This article intends to investigate the impact of the mob justice system and find out what the role of the Christian church should be in the midst of this escalating violence. This study aims to unveil the negative impact of mob justice on the lives of many township South Africans and giving pastoral-biblical suggestions of the church’s role in the elimination of this kind of brutality.

  17. Changes in the pastoral sheep systems of semi-arid Mediterranean areas: association with common agricultural policy reform and implications for sustainability

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    Paula M. Toro-Mujica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of sheep systems the Mediterranean region have been influenced by reforms coming from the Common Agricultural Policy, and the general economic evolution of markets. The aim of this study was the analysis of the structural changes that occurred between 1999 and 2009, and the identification of future implications for the sheep systems in Andalusia region, Spain. Analysis of the structural changes allowed the generation of strategic information, identified trends that should suggest new rural policies and changes that are likely to have social and environmental impacts, and lastly, prioritize future research. The application of multivariate methodology allowed clustering the farm population into four groups. The typology of these systems was determined by variables related to the sheep subsystem, by the set of agricultural activities, and by changes in swine husbandry, within a context of changes in land tenure and the drive for agricultural intensification. Major modifications of extant systems included a 42% reduction in the number of farms, a decrease in sheep numbers, replacement of native rangelands with improved pastures, olive trees and orchards, a reduction of traditional extensive pastoral activities, and increases in hog production in Dehesa grasslands. Given the historical economic and social importance of the sheep-cereal system, the observed substantial modifications of land use suggest a need to assess their consequences in terms of social and environmental impacts, as well as their implications for climate change.

  18. Market access and community size influence pastoral management of native and exotic livestock species: A case study in communities of the Cordillera Real in Bolivia's high Andean wetlands.

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    Quentin Struelens

    Full Text Available Grazing areas management is of utmost importance in the Andean region. In the valleys of the Bolivian Cordillera Real near La Paz, pastoralism constitutes the traditional way for people to insure food security and economical sustainability. In these harsh mountains, unique and productive wetlands sustained by glacial water streams are of utmost importance for feeding cattle herds during the dry season. After the colonization by the Spanish, a shift in livestock species has been observed, with the introduction of exotic species such as cows and sheep, resulting in a different impact on pastures compared to native camelid species-llamas and alpacas. Here we explored some of the social-economical and environmental drivers that motivate Bolivian pastoralists to prefer exotic over native livestock species, based on 36 household surveys in the Cordillera Real. We constructed a Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model in order to assess the relationships between these drivers. Our results suggest that the access to market influenced pastoralists to reshape their herd composition, by increasing the number of sheep. They also suggest that community size increased daily grazing time in pastures, therefore intensifying the grazing pressure. At a broader scale, this study highlights the effects of some social-economical and environmental drivers on mountain herding systems.

  19. Market access and community size influence pastoral management of native and exotic livestock species: A case study in communities of the Cordillera Real in Bolivia's high Andean wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struelens, Quentin; Gonzales Pomar, Karina; Loza Herrera, Susi; Nina Huanca, Gaby; Dangles, Olivier; Rebaudo, François

    2017-01-01

    Grazing areas management is of utmost importance in the Andean region. In the valleys of the Bolivian Cordillera Real near La Paz, pastoralism constitutes the traditional way for people to insure food security and economical sustainability. In these harsh mountains, unique and productive wetlands sustained by glacial water streams are of utmost importance for feeding cattle herds during the dry season. After the colonization by the Spanish, a shift in livestock species has been observed, with the introduction of exotic species such as cows and sheep, resulting in a different impact on pastures compared to native camelid species-llamas and alpacas. Here we explored some of the social-economical and environmental drivers that motivate Bolivian pastoralists to prefer exotic over native livestock species, based on 36 household surveys in the Cordillera Real. We constructed a Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model in order to assess the relationships between these drivers. Our results suggest that the access to market influenced pastoralists to reshape their herd composition, by increasing the number of sheep. They also suggest that community size increased daily grazing time in pastures, therefore intensifying the grazing pressure. At a broader scale, this study highlights the effects of some social-economical and environmental drivers on mountain herding systems.

  20. Changes in the pastoral sheep systems of semi-arid Mediterranean areas: association with common agricultural policy reform and implications for sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toro-Mujica, P.M.; Aguilar, C.; Vera, R.; Barba, C.; Rivas, J.; García-Martínez, A.

    2015-07-01

    The dynamics of sheep systems the Mediterranean region have been influenced by reforms coming from the Common Agricultural Policy, and the general economic evolution of markets. The aim of this study was the analysis of the structural changes that occurred between 1999 and 2009, and the identification of future implications for the sheep systems in Andalusia region, Spain. Analysis of the structural changes allowed the generation of strategic information, identified trends that should suggest new rural policies and changes that are likely to have social and environmental impacts, and lastly, prioritize future research. The application of multivariate methodology allowed clustering the farm population into four groups. The typology of these systems was determined by variables related to the sheep subsystem, by the set of agricultural activities, and by changes in swine husbandry, within a context of changes in land tenure and the drive for agricultural intensification. Major modifications of extant systems included a 42% reduction in the number of farms, a decrease in sheep numbers, replacement of native rangelands with improved pastures, olive trees and orchards, a reduction of traditional extensive pastoral activities, and increases in hog production in Dehesa grasslands. Given the historical economic and social importance of the sheep-cereal system, the observed substantial modifications of land use suggest a need to assess their consequences in terms. (Author)

  1. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-09-23

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element-induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10(-6)) and lower than priority risk levels (10(-4)) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10(-4), higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10(-4)).

  2. An African hermeneutic reading of Luke 9:18–22 in relation to conflict and leadership in pastoral ministry: The Cameroonian context

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    Mbengu D. Nyiawung

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The practice of ministry is an intricate issue which involves the combination of individual efforts from diverse backgrounds. This diversity has been a breeding ground for conflict between the clergy and all the stakeholders involved in parish administration. This article attempted to highlight some of these conflicts, using the Presbyterian Church in Cameroon as a case study. The approach employed is an African hermeneutic reading of Luke 9:18–22 in which the clergy’s leadership has been likened to that of Jesus. The presence of many distracting agents did not perturb Jesus’ ministry instead, he remained focused. Conclusively, it is observed that the clergy often face conflict within the ministry because they ignore the fact that (1 they are expected to know their mission better than anyone else; (2 the diverse backgrounds of their followers are potential causes of conflict; and (3 there are several distracting agents within the ministry. In short, Jesus’ model of conflict management is recommended to the clergy for an effective pastoral ministry.

  3. The paradoxical evolution of runoff in the pastoral Sahel: analysis of the hydrological changes over the Agoufou watershed (Mali using the KINEROS-2 model

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    L. Gal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the Sahel has witnessed a paradoxical increase in surface water despite a general precipitation decline. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as the Sahelian paradox, is not completely understood yet. The role of cropland expansion due to the increasing food demand by a growing population has been often put forward to explain this situation for the cultivated Sahel. However, this hypothesis does not hold in pastoral areas where the same phenomenon is observed. Several other processes, such as the degradation of natural vegetation following the major droughts of the 1970s and the 1980s, the development of crusted topsoils, the intensification of the rainfall regime and the development of the drainage network, have been suggested to account for this situation. In this paper, a modeling approach is proposed to explore, quantify and rank different processes that could be at play in pastoral Sahel. The kinematic runoff and erosion model (KINEROS-2 is applied to the Agoufou watershed (245 km2, in the Gourma region in Mali, which underwent a significant increase of surface runoff during the last 60 years. Two periods are simulated, the past case (1960–1975 preceding the Sahelian drought and the present case (2000–2015. Surface hydrology and land cover characteristics for these two periods are derived by the analysis of aerial photographs, available in 1956, and high-resolution remote sensing images in 2011. The major changes identified are (1 a partial crusting of isolated dunes, (2 an increase of drainage network density, (3 a marked decrease in vegetation with the nonrecovery of tiger bush and vegetation growing on shallow sandy soils, and (4 important changes in soil properties with the apparition of impervious soils instead of shallow sandy soil. The KINEROS-2 model was parameterized to simulate these changes in combination or independently. The results obtained by this model display a significant increase in annual

  4. Livestock induces strong spatial heterogeneity of soil CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions within a semi-arid sylvo-pastoral landscape in West Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed H ASSOUMA; Dominique SER(C)A; Frédéric GU(E)RIN; Vincent BLANFORT; Philippe LECOMTE; Ibra TOUR(E); Alexandre ICKOWICZ

    2017-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the surface soils and surface water receiving animal excreta may be important components of the GHG balance of terrestrial ecosystems,but the associated processes are poorly documented in tropical environments,especially in tropical arid and semi-arid areas.A typical sylvo-pastoral landscape in the semi-arid zone of Senegal,West Africa,was investigated in this study.The study area (706 km2 of managed pastoral land) was a circular zone with a radius of 15 km centered on a borehole used to water livestock.The landscape supports a stocking rate ranging from 0.11 to 0.39 tropical livestock units per hectare depending on the seasonal movements of the livestock.Six landscape units were investigated (land in the vicinity of the borehole,natural ponds,natural rangelands,forest plantations,settlements,and enclosed plots).Carbon dioxide (CO2),nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) fluxes were measured with static chambers set up at 13 sites covering the six landscape units,and the 13 sites are assumed to be representative of the spatial heterogeneity of the emissions.A total of 216 fluxes were measured during the one-year study period (May 2014 to April 2015).At the landscape level,soits and surface water emitted an average 19.8 t C-CO2 eq/(hm2·a) (CO2:82%,N2O:15%,and CH4:3%),but detailed results revealed notable spatial heterogeneity of GHG emissions.CO2 fluxes ranged from 1148.2 (±91.6) mg/(m2·d) in rangelands to 97,980.2 (±14,861.7) mg/(m2·d) in surface water in the vicinity of the borehole.N2O fluxes ranged from 0.6 (±0.1) mg/(m2·d) in forest plantations to 22.6 (±10.8) mg/(m2·d) in the vicinity of the borehole.CH4 fluxes ranged from-3.2 (±0.3) mg/(m2·d) in forest plantations to 8788.5 (±2295.9) mg/(m2·d) from surface water in the vicinity of the borehole.This study identified GHG emission "hot spots" in the landscape.Emissions from the surface soilts were significantly higher in the landscape units most frequently

  5. Carbon isotopes of C3 herbs correlate with temperature on removing the influence of precipitation across a temperature transect in the agro-pastoral ecotone of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Zhao; Zhang, Yong; Li, Zhen-Guo; Feng, Teng; Su, Qing; Song, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Plant δ 13 C-temperature (δ-T) relation has been established in many systems and is often used as paleotemperature transfer function. However, it is still unclear about the exact contributions of temperature variation to plant 13 C discrimination because of covariation between temperature and precipitation (aridity), which reduces confidence in reconstruction of paleoclimate. In this study, we measured carbon isotope composition (δ 13 C) of 173 samples of C3 perennial herbs from 22 sites across a temperature gradient along the 400 mm isohyet in the farming-pastoral zone of North China. The results showed that precipitation obviously affected the correlations of temperatures and foliar δ 13 C. After removing the influence of precipitation by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), a more strongly positive relationship was obtained between site-mean foliar δ 13 C and annual mean temperature (AMT), with a regression coefficient of 0.1636‰/°C ( p  =   .0024). For widespread species, Artemisia lavandulaefolia and Artemisia capillaries , the slopes (or coefficients) of foliar δ 13 C and AMT were significantly steeper (larger) than those of foliar δ 13 C and AMT where the precipitation influence was not excluded, whereas the δ-T coefficients of Polygonum persicaria and Leymus chinensis showed little change across the transect after deducting the precipitation effect. Moreover, the positive relationship between temperature and δ 13 C over the transect could be explained by soil moisture availability related to temperature. Our results may afford new opportunities for investigating the nature of past climate variability.

  6. A study on reproductive performance and related factors of zebu cows in pastoral herds in a semi-arid area of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanuya, N L; Matiko, M K; Kessy, B M; Mgongo, F O; Ropstad, E; Reksen, O

    2006-06-01

    A prospective longitudinal study was carried out from September 2001 to June 2004 in three adjacent villages in a semi-arid area of Tanzania. The objectives of this study were to measure the intervals between calving and either resumption of cyclical activity or confirmation of pregnancy, to estimate calving intervals, and to investigate the effect of factors assumed to be related to postpartum reproductive performance. A total of 275 lactation periods from 177 Tanzanian Shorthorn Zebu cows managed in a traditional pastoral system in 46 households were initially included. Animals were initially screened for brucelosis and thereafter examined by palpation per rectum at 2-week intervals. Body condition score (scale 1 to 5) was assessed and girth measurement (cm) taken. Occurrence of other reproductive events such as calving, abortion, death of calf, culling and reason for culling were recorded. In a subset of 98 lactation periods from 91 cows milk samples for progesterone (P4) determination were collected twice per week from day 7 after calving to the time of confirmed pregnancy or until milk production ceased before pregnancy. The data were analysed both univariately and in multivariable Cox proportional hazard (frailty) models. The mean (+/-S.E.M.) calving interval was 500+/-13.6 days. Positive reactors in the brucellosis test were 15.6% of the tested animals. Milk P4 analysis showed the rate of abortion/late embryo loss to be 14.3%. Calf mortality rates varied between 14.6 and 17.4%. A positive relationship was found between the outcome variables likelihood of cyclical activity and likelihood of pregnancy in the Cox model, and the explanatory variables: parity and body condition score (BCS) at calving. A negative relationship was found between the outcome variables, and the explanatory variables: maximum BCS loss and calf survival/mortality. Calving in the rainy season was associated with an increased likelihood of pregnancy.

  7. Multi-agent modeling and simulation of farmland use change in the farming-pastoral zone: A case study of Qianjingou Town in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H.

    2015-12-01

    Farmland is the most basic material conditions for guaranteeing rural livelihoods and national food security, and exploring management strategies that take both of the sustainable rural livelihoods and sustainable farmland use into account has vital significance of theory and practice. Farmland is a complex and self-adaptive system that couples human and natural systems together, and natural factors and social factors that are related to its changing process need to be considered when modeling farmland changing process. This paper takes Qianjingou Town in Inner Mongolia farming-pastoral zone as study area. From the perspective of the relationship between households' livelihoods and farmland use, this study builds the process mechanism of farmland use change based on questionnaires data, and constructs multi-agent simulation model of farmland use change with the help of Eclipse and Repast toolbox. Through simulating the relationship between natural factors (with geographical location) and households' behaviors, this paper systematically simulates households' renting and abandoning farmland behaviors, and truly describes dynamic interactions between households' livelihoods and factors related to farmland use change. These factors include natural factors (net primary productivity, road accessibility, slope and relief amplitude) and social factors (households' family structures, economic development and government policies). In the end, this study scientifically predicts farmland use change trend in the future 30 years. The simulation results show that, the number of abandoned and sublet farmland plots has a gradually increasing trend, the number of non-farm households and pure-outwork households has a remarkable increasing trend, and the number of part-farm households and pure-farm households shows a decreasing trend. Households' livelihoods sustainability in the study area is confronted with increasing pressure, and households' nonfarm employment has an increasing

  8. Healing and coping with life within challenges of spiritual insecurity: Juxtaposed consideration of Christ’s sinlessness and African ancestors in pastoral guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Spiritual insecurity among African Christians is a huge challenge. The insecurity among other things arises from African people’s former traditional African ancestral world view of ancestral veneration. The ancestors promote or hinder African Christians’ reliance on Christ because they have presupposedly acquired the supernatural power that enables them to provide diagnoses and solutions to life challenges. The inherent problem in the ancestral world view, however, is that the ancestors are both respected and feared by their descendants because they can either bless or harm depending on the state of the relationship between the surviving human beings and the ancestors. The basis of the unpredictable influence of ancestors lies in the fact that they (ancestors are considered as human beings who carry their human qualities to the spiritual world. In light of this situation, one constructive approach that can be advanced to address the challenges of African Christians’ spiritual insecurity is a proper understanding of Christ as a sinless representative of humanity. This approach maintains that healing and coping with life within the challenge of African spirituality in the context of threatening life issues can be addressed by an appropriate understanding of Christ’s sinlessness. The article argues for the foundational status of Christ as a sinless representative of humanity as the controlling framework. In doing so, Christ’s sinlessness and the sinfulness of natural ancestors are juxtaposed to compare the two ontologies in order to draw some pastoral guidelines for African Christians. This approach pays close attention to the factors and mindset that sustain people who adhere to ancestral worship and assess them through a lens of Christology focusing on Christ’s sinlessness as an exemplary doctrine.

  9. Multi-Agent Modeling and Simulation of Farmland Use Change in a Farming–Pastoral Zone: A Case Study of Qianjingou Town in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehong Bai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Farmland is the most basic material condition for guaranteeing rural livelihoods and national food security, and exploring management strategies that take both stable rural livelihoods and sustainable farmland use into account has vital significance in theory and practice. Farmland is a complex and self-adaptive system that couples human and natural systems, and natural and social factors that are related to its changing process need to be considered when modeling farmland changing processes. This paper uses Qianjingou Town in the Inner Mongolian farming–pastoral zone as a study area. From the perspective of the relationship between household livelihood and farmland use, this study establishes the process mechanism of farmland use change based on questionnaire data, and constructs a multi-agent simulation model of farmland use change using the Eclipse and Repast toolbox. Through simulating the relationship between natural factors (including geographical location and household behavior, this paper systematically simulates household farmland abandonment and rent behaviors, and accurately describes the dynamic interactions between household livelihoods and the factors related to farmland use change. These factors include natural factors (net primary productivity, road accessibility, slope and relief amplitude and social factors (household family structures, economic development and government policies. Ultimately, this study scientifically predicts the future farmland use change trend in the next 30 years. The simulation results show that the number of abandoned and sublet farmland plots has a gradually increasing trend, and the number of non-farming households and pure-outworking households has a remarkable increasing trend, whereas the number of part-farming households and pure-farming households has a decreasing trend. Household livelihood sustainability in the study area is confronted with increasing pressure, and household non

  10. Cultura, práticas e saberes no trabalho desenvolvido na Pastoral da Saúde e a relação com a Política Pública de Saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Quintanilha Gomes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando a relevância da política pública de saúde vigente no país e também a necessidade de inclusão e acesso a todas as pessoas, visualiza-se a integração  de ações de saúde, como práticas alternativas, que visem a qualidade de vida do cidadão. Este estudo foi elaborado com a finalidade de apresentar o trabalho realizado nas Pastorais da Saúde no município de São Borja/RS, evidenciando questões como  cultura, práticas e saberes  dos agentes da pastoral e o resultado deste na visão de quem utiliza (usuários os produtos que ali são preparados. A Pastoral da Saúde possui sua organização e referência de trabalho em três dimensões (social, comunitária e sócio-política, inclusive na inter relação com a política pública de saúde vigente no país, atuando também na melhoria das condições de saúde da população que busca o serviço da Pastoral da Saúde. Para atingir a finalidade do trabalho traçamos como objetivo: analisar a cultura, práticas e saberes no trabalho desenvolvido nas Pastorais da Saúde do município na visão dos agentes da pastoral e dos usuários deste serviço. A metodologia utilizada foi quantitativa, com busca bibliográfica, coleta de dados (observação participante e questionário, análise e discussão dos resultados.  Por fim, os objetivos do estudo foram alcançados, resultando no conhecimento da importância deste trabalho frente à coletividade e em conjunto à política pública de saúde e a política nacional de plantas fitoterápicas e medicinais.

  11. Salud Mental, género, educación social en mujeres reclusas del Centro de Rehabilitación Femenino El Buen Pastor de Barranquilla (Colombia) (2015-2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Edith T. Aristizábal; Ana Liliana Ríos García; Francisco José del Pozo Serrano

    2016-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar las principales características de las mujeres reclusas del Centro de Rehabilitación Femenino El Buen Pastor de Barranquilla, con enfoque de género, desde un programa de acción con énfasis en salud mental y educación social. Metodología: El tipo de estudio es investigación-acción. El enfoque es mixto, se emplearon técnicas de Estadística Descriptiva y Diseño de Comparación Multicaso. El muestreo realizado fue intencional, debido a la demanda de consulta psicológica indiv...

  12. Tradición y utopía pastoral : antropología de la Diócesis desde el nacimiento de la Diócesis de Lurín: 1954-1996.

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio Torres, Juan Alberto

    2013-01-01

    La Arquidiócesis de Lima creó, también por desmembramiento, otras tres diócesis en el mundo urbano marginal de la metrópoli, al borde del nuevo milenio. De esta manera, en el marco de una experiencia eclesial pastoral lograda particularmente en Lima Sur, de la que aún no se ha dado cuenta, quedó abierta una veta de investigación, que amerita empezar a explorar e interpretar, en la línea demarcada por Manuel Marzal, quien señalaba que el estudio del hecho religioso peruano, apenas está comenza...

  13. The refugee dilemma and migrant crisis: ‘Charity begins at Home’ or ‘Being Home to the Homeless’? The paradoxical stance in pastoral caregiving and the infiltration and perichoresis of compassion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Louw

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current refugee and migrant crisis is revealing on a deeper ‘spiritual level’ a crisis of meaning and habitus (attitudinal crisis. Because of prejudice, xenophobia reveals a crisis of compassion and diaconic outreach. How should local communities and communities of faith display hospitality (xenophilia to the other (stranger, foreigner, outsider in cases where one’s own life is threatened by those you are supposed to care for? Is it true that charity begins at home, or is charity, as determined by the Christian notions of ḥesed and oiktirmos, an inclusive concept that should or could start with the homeless, the outcast and the outsider as well? This question points to the danger of selective compassion. It is argued that pastoral caregiving, within the refugee and migrant dilemma, should apply a hermeneutics of complexity and paradox. In this regard the theological paradox of the passion (pathē of Christ should be implied in order to make room (perichoresis for displaced and homeless people. The theological argument is based on the following presupposition: the passio dei defines ‘practice’ in pastoral theology as compassionate hospitality, as a mode of being-with, that eventually should infiltrate and penetrate the systemic paranoia of prejudice, as well as the networking dynamics of human relationships, irrespective of race, class and gender distinctions.

  14. [Suitability of four stomatal conductance models in agro-pastoral ecotone in North China: A case study for potato and oil sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ming Xia; Wang, Jing; Tang, Jian Zhao; Yu, Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Xue, Qing Yu; Chang, Qing; Tan, Mei Xiu

    2016-11-18

    The suitability of four popular empirical and semi-empirical stomatal conductance models (Jarvis model, Ball-Berry model, Leuning model and Medlyn model) was evaluated based on para-llel observation data of leaf stomatal conductance, leaf net photosynthetic rate and meteorological factors during the vigorous growing period of potato and oil sunflower at Wuchuan experimental station in agro-pastoral ecotone in North China. It was found that there was a significant linear relationship between leaf stomatal conductance and leaf net photosynthetic rate for potato, whereas the linear relationship appeared weaker for oil sunflower. The results of model evaluation showed that Ball-Berry model performed best in simulating leaf stomatal conductance of potato, followed by Leuning model and Medlyn model, while Jarvis model was the last in the performance rating. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) was 0.0331, 0.0371, 0.0456 and 0.0794 mol·m -2 ·s -1 , the normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) was 26.8%, 30.0%, 36.9% and 64.3%, and R-squared (R 2 ) was 0.96, 0.61, 0.91 and 0.88 between simulated and observed leaf stomatal conductance of potato for Ball-Berry model, Leuning model, Medlyn model and Jarvis model, respectively. For leaf stomatal conductance of oil sunflower, Jarvis model performed slightly better than Leuning model, Ball-Berry model and Medlyn model. RMSE was 0.2221, 0.2534, 0.2547 and 0.2758 mol·m -2 ·s -1 , NRMSE was 40.3%, 46.0%, 46.2% and 50.1%, and R 2 was 0.38, 0.22, 0.23 and 0.20 between simulated and observed leaf stomatal conductance of oil sunflower for Jarvis model, Leuning model, Ball-Berry model and Medlyn model, respectively. The path analysis was conducted to identify effects of specific meteorological factors on leaf stomatal conductance. The diurnal variation of leaf stomatal conductance was principally affected by vapour pressure saturation deficit for both potato and oil sunflower. The model evaluation suggested that the stomatal

  15. On facing the God-question in a pastoral theology of compassion: From imperialistic omni-categories to theopaschitic pathos-categories

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    Daniel J. Louw

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many scholars in the 20th century warned against static, ontological and metaphysicalschemata of interpretation, stemming from Hellenistic thinking with its impact on God images in Christian reflection. Against the background of new spiritual and philosophica lphenomena like apatheism and anatheism, the question regarding the appropriateness o fexisting categories for God within the framework of pastoral theology surfaces. A paradigm shift from omni-categories to pathos-categories is proposed in order to deal with issues like human suffering, dignity and justice. In this regard, theopaschitic theology can play adecisive role in the reframing of existing static God-images stemming predominantly from the Roman-Greco world. The notion of a ‘sustainable God’ is introduced in order to reframe God’s compassionate presence (ta splanchna in terms of a continuum of infinitive interventions (infiniscience and the pneumatology of to-be-with. Die dinamika van die God-vraagstuk in ’n pastorale teologie van medelye en omgee: Vanafimperialistiese omni-kategorieë na teopasgitiese patos-kategorieë. Navorsers het telkemale in die twintigste eeu teen die impak van statiese, ontologiese en metafisiese skemas van interpretasie gewaarsku. Teïstiese denke is grootliks deur Hellenistiese denkkategorieë bepaal. Teen die agtergrond van nuwe filosofiese verskynsels soos apateïsme en anateïsme en die invloed daarvan op die verskillende vorms van spiritualiteitsdenke, duik die vraag op na die toepaslikheid en relevansie van bestaande, geykte denkkategorië vir die Christelike verstaan van God. Die vraagstuk van lyding, menswaardigheid en geregtigheid stel nuwe eise aan ’n pastorale teologie wat met kontekstuele lewensvraagstukke erns maak. In die lig hiervan word ’n paradigmaskuif in teologisering, vanaf omni-kategorieë na patos-kategorieë voorgestel. Dit word beredeneer dat ’n teopasgitiese teologie ’n belangrike bydrae kan lewer om statiese

  16. Nitrate movement and removal along a shallow groundwater flow path in a riparian wetland within a sheep-grazed pastoral catchment : result of a tracer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.A.; Nguyen, L.

    2002-01-01

    The movement and removal of nitrate (NO 3 ) along a groundwater flow path within a riparian wetland was investigated during a 24-day period in late autumn-early winter, using a lithium bromide (LiBr)-potassium nitrate (KNO 3 ) tracer solution containing 19 200 mg/litre as Br - and 193.8 mg/litre as NO 3 -N. The tracer solution was added as an instantaneous dose of tracer solution at a depth of 10-20 cm to four injection wells in two 1 m 2 plots within a sheep-grazed pastoral catchment at the Whatawhata Agricultural Research Centre near Hamilton, New Zealand. Bromide and NO 3- N concentrations were measured periodically in: (1) wetland groundwater samples from piezometers installed at 15 and 30 cm depths and located at 30, 60, and 100 cm down gradient from the injection wells; and (2) surface flow samples. Peak concentrations of 50-250 mg/litre of Br - and 0.2-1.1 mg/litre of NO 3 -N were reached within 1-2 days after application at most piezometers. Nitrate concentrations decreased thereafter more sharply than did those of Br - , resulting in decreased NO 3 -N/Br - ratios from Days 2 through 7. More than 99% of groundwater samples collected after the tracer application had NO 3 -N/Br - less than the value in the tracer solution indicating removal of NO 3 -N during transport. Mass flux estimates indicated removal of >90% of added NO 3 -N along the 100 cm flow path from the injection, with essentially all of the NO 3 - removed within the first 30 cm of transport. On Days 10 and 24, just after rain events, surface flow from the experimental plots had greatly elevated NO 3 -N concentrations that were not accompanied by correspondingly elevated Br - concentrations, indicating that NO 3 -N originating from the surrounding catchment was transported over the wetland surface with little penetration or mixing with wetland groundwater. Despite a significant capacity for NO 3 -N removal from shallow groundwater equivalent to an annualised value of 50 kg/ha in these wetland

  17. Cistadenocarcinoma renal e dermatofibrose nodular em cães pastor alemão: 4 casos Renal cystadenocarcinoma and nodular dermatofibrosis in german shepherd dogs: 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Maria Langohr

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available São descritos quatro casos da síndrome cistadenocarcinoma renal-dermatofibrose nodular em Pastor Alemão. Todos eram cães machos, com idades entre 6 e 10 anos. Os aspectos clínicos incluíam hematúria e retenção urinária, emagrecimento progressivo, anorexia, vômito, polidipsia e dificuldade respiratória. Em um animal, foram observados múltiplos nódulos recidivantes na pele. Três cães tiveram morte espontânea e um foi submetido à eutanásia. Os principais achados de necropsia incluíram nódulos multifocais ou coalescentes na pele e múltiplos nódulos, muitas vezes císticos, em ambos os rins. Na avaliação histológica, observaram-se dermatofibrose nodular na pele e cistos, hiperplasia, displasia e neoplasia de células epiteliais dos túbulos renais. As neoplasias foram classificadas como cistadenoma em um dos casos e como cistadenocarcinoma nos outros três. Metástases foram observadas em dois casos: no fígado, no baço e no pulmão em um cão e no linfonodo renal em outro.Renal cystadenocarcinoma-nodular dermatofibrosis syndrome of German shepherd are described in four 6 to 10-year-old male dogs. Clinical findings included hematuria and urinary retention, progressive weight loss, polydipsia, anorexia, vomiting, and respiratory distress. Several recurrent skin nodules were observed in one of the dogs. Three dogs died spontaneously and one was euthanatized. Main gross findings included multifocal to coalescent skin nodules and multiple nodules, mostly cystic, in both kidneys. Microscopically there was nodular dermatofibrosis in the skin and renal cysts, dysplastic, hyperplastic and neoplastic changes of the renal tubular epithelium. The neoplasms were classified as cystadenoma in one case and cystadenocarcinoma in the other three. There were metastases in the liver, spleen and lung of one dog and in the renal lymph node in another one.

  18. Carbon Isotope Composition of Nighttime Leaf-Respired CO2 in the Agricultural-Pastoral Zone of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haiying; Wang, Yunbo; Jiang, Qi; Chen, Shiping; Ma, Jian-Ying; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the carbon isotope signature of leaf dark-respired CO2 (δ13CR) within a single night is a widely observed phenomenon. However, it is unclear whether there are plant functional type differences with regard to the amplitude of the nighttime variation in δ13CR. These differences, if present, would be important for interpreting the short-term variations in the stable carbon signature of ecosystem respiration and the partitioning of carbon fluxes. To assess the plant functional type differences relating to the magnitude of the nighttime variation in δ13CR and the respiratory apparent fractionation, we measured the δ13CR, the leaf gas exchange, and the δ13C of the respiratory substrates of 22 species present in the agricultural-pastoral zone of the Songnen Plain, northeast China. The species studied were grouped into C3 and C4 plants, trees, grasses, and herbs. A significant nocturnal shift in δ13CR was detected in 20 of the studied species, with the magnitude of the shift ranging from 1‰ to 5.8‰. The magnitude of the nighttime variation in δ13CR was strongly correlated with the daytime cumulative carbon assimilation, which suggests that variation in δ13CR were influenced, to some extent, by changes in the contribution of malate decarboxylation to total respiratory CO2 flux. There were no differences in the magnitude of the nighttime variation in δ13CR between the C3 and C4 plants, as well as among the woody plants, herbs and graminoids. Leaf respired CO2 was enriched in 13C compared to biomass, soluble carbohydrates and lipids; however the magnitude of enrichment differed between 8 pm and 4 am, which were mainly caused by the changes in δ13CR. We also detected the plant functional type differences in respiratory apparent fractionation relative to biomass at 4 am, which suggests that caution should be exercised when using the δ13C of bulk leaf material as a proxy for the δ13C of leaf-respired CO2. PMID:26356083

  19. A regional assessment of the cost and effectiveness of mitigation measures for reducing nutrient losses to water and greenhouse gas emissions to air from pastoral farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibart, Ronaldo; Vogeler, Iris; Dennis, Samuel; Kaye-Blake, William; Monaghan, Ross; Burggraaf, Vicki; Beautrais, Josef; Mackay, Alec

    2015-06-01

    Using a novel approach that links geospatial land resource information with individual farm-scale simulation, we conducted a regional assessment of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) losses to water and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to air from the predominant mix of pastoral industries in Southland, New Zealand. An evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of several nutrient loss mitigation strategies applied at the farm-scale, set primarily for reducing N and P losses and grouped by capital cost and potential ease of adoption, followed an initial baseline assessment. Grouped nutrient loss mitigation strategies were applied on an additive basis on the assumption of full adoption, and were broadly identified as 'improved nutrient management' (M1), 'improved animal productivity' (M2), and 'restricted grazing' (M3). Estimated annual nitrate-N leaching losses occurring under representative baseline sheep and beef (cattle) farms, and representative baseline dairy farms for the region were 10 ± 2 and 32 ± 6 kg N/ha (mean ± standard deviation), respectively. Both sheep and beef and dairy farms were responsive to N leaching loss mitigation strategies in M1, at a low cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Only dairy farms were responsive to N leaching loss abatement from adopting M2, at no additional cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Dairy farms were also responsive to N leaching loss abatement from adopting M3, but this reduction came at a greater cost per kg N-loss mitigated. Only dairy farms were responsive to P-loss mitigation strategies, in particular by adopting M1. Only dairy farms were responsive to GHG abatement; greater abatement was achieved by the most intensified dairy farm system simulated. Overall, M1 provided for high levels of regional scale N- and P-loss abatement at a low cost per farm without affecting overall farm production, M2 provided additional N-loss abatement but only marginal P-loss abatement, whereas M3 provided the greatest N-loss abatement, but

  20. 《田园交响曲》的器乐表达及其人文品读%On the Instrumental Music Expression and Its Humanistic Read of Pastoral Symphony

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建国

    2016-01-01

    Beethoven ’s Sixth Symphony is the orchestral Sonata, also known as the Pastoral Symphony ,which is based on the Memories of Pastoral Life.However,it is more emotional than the phonetic description.It is the main content of this paper to study the instrumental language,the musical conception of the title,the spiritual state of “pure music”,the artistic value of the works and the posi-tive social significance from the perspective of musical instrumentation and orchestration.“Pastoral Symphony ”instrumental music is vivid and full of beautiful emotions,which optimizes the current public art appreciation of the quality of music,the current music minority art learning behavior and re-covers the complex of humanity which is nature oriented.%贝多芬创作的第六交响曲是“以田园生活的回忆为标题”的管弦乐奏鸣套曲,又称《田园交响曲》,但是,该作品的感情表现多于音画般描写。从乐器法和配器学的角度,聆听作品的器乐语言,品读标题的音乐意境,体悟“纯音乐”的精神状态,考量作品的艺术价值和积极的社会意义,是本文探究的主旨内容。《田园交响曲》的器乐生动和情感优美,优化着当下音乐大众的艺术欣赏质量;优化着当下音乐小众的艺术学习行为;呼唤着当下社会民众“以自然为师”人文情愫的觉醒复苏。

  1. Activated charcoal and graphite for the micropropagation of Cattleya bicolor Lindl. and a orchid double-hybrid ‘BLC Pastoral Innocence’=Carvão ativado e grafite para a micropropagação de Cattleya bicolor Lindl. e um duplo híbrido de orquídea ‘BLC Pastoral Innocence’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Aparecida Mangolin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available No previous studies have investigated the use of graphite instead of activated charcoal in orchids. In this work, different concentrations of activated charcoal or graphite were added to KC medium to darken the culture medium and stimulate the in vitro propagation of Cattleya bicolor and of a double hybrid orchid (‘BLC Pastoral Innocence’. The seedlings were inoculated on growth regulator-free KC medium; the effects of activated charcoal (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, and 7.5 g L-1 and graphite (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, and 7.5 g L-1 concentrations were tested separately. Each flask contained fifteen seedlings, and the experiments had a randomised, two-way factorial design. The two tested variables were culture medium and illumination levels; eleven culture levels (different concentrations of graphite or activate charcoal and two illumination levels (14-hr photoperiod or continuous illumination were evaluated. Three replicates of each combination were utilised. After six months of culture, the average numbers of induced buds and roots per seedling were recorded for each concentration of activated charcoal or graphite. Whereas the largest number of buds in C. bicolor seedlings occurred on media containing 6.0 or 7.5 g L-1 graphite, the largest number of roots occurred on media containing 6.0 g L-1 activated charcoal. In the hybrid ‘BLC Pastoral Innocence’, the largest number of buds and roots was reported in medium with 4.5 g L-1 activated charcoal. When using graphite in place of activated charcoal, we obtained disparate the results in root formation that suggest that graphite is not a recommended substitute for activated charcoal.Nenhum estudo prévio tem investigado o uso de grafite como substituto do carvão ativado em orquídeas. No presente trabalho, concentrações diferentes de carvão ativado ou de grafite foram adicionadas ao meio KC para escurecer o meio de cultura e estimular a propagação in vitro de Cattleya bicolor e de um

  2. Application of CarboSOIL model to predict the effects of climate change on soil organic carbon stocks in agro-silvo-pastoral Mediterranean management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Doro, Luca; Ledda, Luigi; Francaviglia, Rosa

    2014-05-01

    CarboSOIL is an empirical model based on regression techniques and developed to predict soil organic carbon contents (SOC) at standard soil depths of 0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013). The model was applied to a study area of north-eastern Sardinia (Italy) (40° 46'N, 9° 10'E, mean altitude 285 m a.s.l.), characterized by extensive agro-silvo-pastoral systems which are typical of similar areas of the Mediterranean basin (e.g. the Iberian peninsula). The area has the same soil type (Haplic Endoleptic Cambisols, Dystric according to WRB), while cork oak forest (Quercus suber L.) is the potential native vegetation which has been converted to managed land with pastures and vineyards in recent years (Lagomarsino et al., 2011; Francaviglia et al., 2012; Bagella et al, 2013; Francaviglia et al., 2014). Six land uses with different levels of cropping intensification were compared: Tilled vineyards (TV); No-tilled grassed vineyards (GV); Hay crop (HC); Pasture (PA); Cork oak forest (CO) and Semi-natural systems (SN). The HC land use includes oats, Italian ryegrass and annual clovers or vetch for 5 years and intercropped by spontaneous herbaceous vegetation in the sixth year. The PA land use is 5 years of spontaneous herbaceous vegetation, and one year of intercropping with oats, Italian ryegrass and annual clovers or vetch cultivated as a hay crop. The SN land use (scrublands, Mediterranean maquis and Helichrysum meadows) arise from the natural re-vegetation of former vineyards which have been set-aside probably due to the low grape yields and the high cost of modern tillage equipment. Both PA and HC are grazed for some months during the year, and include scattered cork-oak trees, which are key components of the 'Dehesa'-type landscape (grazing system with Quercus L.) typical of this area of Sardinia and other areas of southern Mediterranean Europe. Dehesas are often converted to more profitable land uses such as vineyards (Francaviglia et al., 2012; Mu

  3. IMPORTÂNCIA DA AVALIAÇÃO CLÍNICA NO DIAGNÓSTICO DE DOENÇA PERIODONTAL EM CÃES DA RAÇA PASTOR ALEMÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz de Macêdo Farias

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available As doenças periodontais resultam de resposta inflamatória progressiva do hospedeiro ao acúmulo de placa bacteriana, incluindo os metabólitos no dente e nos tecidos gengivais. Assim, avaliou-se, clinicamente, o periodonto de cães da raça Pastor Alemão, levando-se em consideração presença de tártaro, sangramento à sondagem e mobilidade dentária em animais com sítios saudáveis e com doença periodontal. Para isso, utilizaram-se 29 cães,da raça Pastor Alemão, com idade variando de três a seis anos. Clinicamente, 27 (93,10% cães apresentavam vários sítios com sintomatologia clínica de doença periodontal e somente dois apresentavam sítios saudáveis. Os dentes mais acometidos foram os molares, os pré-molares e os caninos,com sinais clínicos mais intensos nas superfícies dentárias e maior acúmulo de tártaro e placa bacteriana. Os resultados demonstraram a necessidade de se proceder a uma limpeza preventiva dos dentes, para proporcionar maior saúde para os cães. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Periodonto, cães, dente.

  4. Institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors among women of reproductive age in the mobile pastoral community of the Liban District in Guji Zone, Oromia, Southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako, Wako Golicha; Kassa, Dejene Hailu

    2017-05-15

    Globally, an estimated 289,000 maternal deaths occurred in 2013. Majority of these deaths occurred in sub-Saharan Africa and Southern Asia. Mobility of pastoralists is a well-recognized survival strategy in arid and semi-arid land of sub-Saharan Africa. However governments often encourage settlement as a solution to the difficulty of providing health services for mobile pastoralists. This study aimed to assess utilization of institutional delivery and associated factors among women of reproductive age in the mobile pastoral community of the Liban District in Guji zone, Oromia, Ethiopia. A Community based cross-sectional survey was conducted among the mobile pastoralist community of the Liban District. Seven hundred ninety-one (791) randomly selected women, who had birth within the last 2 years preceding the survey, were interviewed using a pretested structured questionnaire. Data were entered into Epi-Info version 3.5.4 and analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 16. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were done. Out of 791 women who gave birth within the last 2 years preceding the survey, only 110 (13.9%) gave birth in health institutions. Majority (74.1%) of the women gave birth at their home. Ninety-one women (11.5%) gave birth at traditional birth attendant's home; assisted by traditional birth attendants. Multiple logistic regression shows that women who had readily available cash at the onset of labor (aOR 2.79, 95% CI: 1.29-6.25), delivered the birth preceding the most recent birth in a health institution (aOR 6.8, 95% CI: 3.44-13.45) and had birth related complications during the birth preceding the most recent birth (aOR 1.90, 95% CI: 1.08-3.36) were more likely to deliver at health institutions. Majority of the pastoral women seek institutional delivery, only when labor related complications are perceived. Mechanisms of alleviating indirect health care costs affecting institutional delivery need to be addressed in future studies.

  5. Liderança de mulheres em pastorais e comunidades católicas e suas retribuições Women's leadership in catholic communities and pastorals and their retributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele dos Anjos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto trata da militância de mulheres de classes populares em clubes de mães, Comunidades Eclesiais de Base e Pastorais da Igreja Católica. A diferenciação entre "líderes" e demais participantes, e as motivações e os interesses específicos ao engajamento e à militância como "líder" são compreendidos a partir da análise das retribuições à atividade militante e suas relações com o exercício da liderança e com o conjunto de significados ligados à ação militante.This paper covers the militancy of popular class women within Mothers' Clubs, Ecclesiastical Communities and Pastorals of the Catholic Church. Such militancy implies a differentiation between "leaders" and the other participants. This differentiation is defined by specific motivations and interests related to the commitment and militancy as "leader" in these forms of association. These motivations and interests can be understood by analyzing the rewards for militant activities and their relationships with the exercise of leadership and with the meanings associated with militant action.

  6. Teologia da Libertação e Política: da ação radical à pulverização de sua ação pastoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Augusto Leão

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho procura demonstrar o processo de distanciamento da ação política radical da Teologia da Libertação para uma ação pastoral focada em diversas pautas e com menos envolvimento político direto. Quando do auge da TL na década de 1970, seus religiosos enfrentaram fazendeiros, grandes empresas e se chocaram até mesmo com o regime militar instalado no Brasil à época. Após o fim da Ditadura, a Igreja Católica desencorajou a participação política do clero envolvido com a Teologia da Libertação e também iniciou um processo de perseguição aos principais pensadores dessa teologia. Em um novo período no qual a democracia estava de volta e sendo perseguidos pelo Vaticano, os religiosos da Teologia da Libertação evitaram a ação radical e um envolvimento maior com a política nacional e direcionaram a sua ação a outras temáticas, como a questão de gênero, o meio ambiente, a situação dos indígenas no Brasil, entre outras.

  7. Some Trends and Risks of Pastoral Occupation and Agricultural Consequences for the Romanian Mountain Village – The Results and Conclusions from a Sociological Research in Rucăr Village (Argeş

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    Iulian Vlad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During the sociological research and in the elaboration of this paper, the authors were challenged by a number of threats to the existence and development of the Romanian mountain village, especially to the pastoral occupations. The major trend and risk are the abandonment of sheep breeding, with negative effects on the local food products and the drastic decrease of the sheep breeding population, which will never be able to provide alternatives to the development of the agriculture by promoting certain agro-tourism activities in Rucăr village. The analysis of the traditional occupational impact requested the application of a sociological research, effected on the field, in order to gain statistic decision support, adjusted to the specific of animals breeding activities and especially to sheep. The most important risk is that traditional sheep breeders tend to become mere historic references and are not replaced by other professions or occupations in rural areas, which seem to disintegrate due to lack of support, to much too high burdens... The final remark underlines that profitability of the sheep breeding occupation was never limited to its specific food products, and covered, instead, sometimes unimaginable , in terms of social and even cultural forms.

  8. O benevolente e a “vítima” na prostituição: Poder e violência simbólica em interações entre prostitutas e a Pastoral da Mulher Marginalizada

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    Andreia Skackauskas

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo aborda o papel de organizações dedicadas ao “resgate” de prostitutas no Brasil, cujas práticas quase artesanais de assistência são assumidas principalmente por organizações religiosas. Tais organizações imaginam-se como sujeitos benevolentes, enquanto constroem as prostitutas necessariamente como “vítimas”. A partir de pesquisa etnográfica, analisa-se a desigualdade de poder e a violência simbólica que permeiam as relações entre prostitutas e integrantes de uma organização da Igreja Católica - a Pastoral da Mulher Marginalizada. O processo de subalternização de prostitutas mostra desacordos entre o discurso e as práticas mediante os quais essa organização pretende mudar a vida das mulheres sujeitas às suas intervenções, particularmente através do procedimento de deixá-las falar, mas sem ouvi-las, ou de silenciá-las.

  9. A Reforma do Ordo Missae no Vaticano II: aspectos históricos teológicos e pastorais (The Reform of the Ordo Missae Vatican II: historical aspects theological and pastoral

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    Vanderson de Sousa Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo tratar-se-á da reforma do Ordo Missae perpetrado pelo Concílio Ecumênico Vaticano II (1962-1965, em seus aspectos históricos e teológicos, bem como as incidências pastorais da mesma. Buscar-se-á como delimitação somente analisar a reforma do Ordo Missae, no que tange as Orações Eucarísticas implementadas pela reforma conciliar, especialmente ao problema da ‘reforma’ do Ordo Missae, do Cânon Romano e das novas Orações Eucarísticas. Em suma, vislumbra-se a reforma litúrgica, os aspectos teológicos da Sacrosanctum Concilio e o ‘problema do Cânon’. O Concílio optou por retornar às fontes, redescobriu as Anáforas Eucarísticas Ocidentais e Orientais e adaptou-as nas Novas Orações Eucarísticas: a Anáfora de Hipólito de Roma em sua obra Traditio Apostolica que foi adaptada para ser a Oração Eucarística II; a Oração Eucarística III é inspirada na liturgia galicana e moçarábica; a Oração Eucarística IV de inspiração na Anáfora de Basílio e no Brasil somente, a Oração Eucarística V. Palavras-chave: Ordo Missae. Concílio Vaticano II. Orações Eucarísticas.  Abstract: The Reform Ordo Missae Vatican II: historical, ,theological and pastoral aspects. This article deals with the reform of the Ordo Missae held by the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965, in their historical and theological aspects, as well as its pastoral implications. The text will analyze the reform of Ordo Missae regarding the Eucharistic Prayers implemented by the Conciliar reform, especially the problem of 'reform' of the Ordo Missae, the Roman Canon and new Eucharistic Prayers. In short, this analysis aims to liturgical reform, the theological aspects of Sacrosanctum council and the 'problem of the canon'. The council opted to return to the sources, rediscovered the Eucharistic Anaphoras and adapted them in New Eucharistic Prayers: the Anaphora of Hippolytus of Rome in his Traditio Apostilica which was adapted for

  10. Entre ovejas, pastores y perros. Crónica de una intervención artística en clave ANT. Among sheeps, shepherds and dogs. Chronicle of an artistic intervention using an ANT approach

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    Diego Carbajo Padilla

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es aplicar y probar algunas de la herramientas teóricas desarrolladas por la Teoría del Actor Red sobre una intervención artística centrada en la Competición Internacional de Perros Pastores que se celebra anualmente en Oñati (Gipuzkoa. La primera parte, apoyándose en esta teoría describe los principales agentes que intervienen en el entramando que constituye la competición. La segunda se centra en la descripción y análisis de la intervención artística y algunos de los resultados que de ella se han producido. Por ultimo, se esbozan algunas ideas y críticas que suscitan tanto el análisis de la competición desde la Teoría del Actor Red como el cruce de esta con la práctica artística.

     

    The purpose of this article is to apply and to test some of the theoretical tools developed by Actor Network Theory within an artistic intervention centered on the International Competition of Sheepdogs annually celebrated in Oñati (Gipuzkoa. Based on this theory, the first section describes the principal agents who intervene in the fabric that constitutes the competition. The second section is focused on the description and analysis of the artistic intervention and some of its results. The last section includes some ideas and critiques emerging from the analysis of competition through the lens of Actor Network Theory and its overlaps with an artistic practice.

     

  11. Salud Mental, género, educación social en mujeres reclusas del Centro de Rehabilitación Femenino El Buen Pastor de Barranquilla (Colombia (2015-2016

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    Edith T. Aristizábal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar las principales características de las mujeres reclusas del Centro de Rehabilitación Femenino El Buen Pastor de Barranquilla, con enfoque de género, desde un programa de acción con énfasis en salud mental y educación social. Metodología: El tipo de estudio es investigación-acción. El enfoque es mixto, se emplearon técnicas de Estadística Descriptiva y Diseño de Comparación Multicaso. El muestreo realizado fue intencional, debido a la demanda de consulta psicológica individual de 18 mujeres, de un total de 130, recluidas en este centro penitenciario de mínima seguridad. Resultados: En las mujeres entrevistadas pudieron identificarse: Trastornos Depresivos de considerable gravedad, Trastornos de Ansiedad con ataques de pánico, Trastorno por Estrés Postraumático. Pudieron observarse eventos traumáticos y antecedentes de victimización, abuso de substancias y/o alcohol. Algunas ya habían iniciado el consumo antes de su reclusión y otras solo han consumido en la cárcel. Conclusiones: En las entrevistas pudo evidenciarse como factores de riesgo para los Trastornos Depresivos en las mujeres madres: la separación de sus hijos y no poder estar presentes de forma activa en su crianza. En las solteras, la angustia estuvo asociada a no poder realizar actividades productivas para ayudar económicamente a sus padres o por causarles sufrimiento. Otro factor de riesgo que cronificaba esos trastornos mentales es el abuso de substancias psicoactivas y la reclusión.

  12. Perspectiva sobre la valorización de los sistemas agrosilvopastoriles en la cuenca del Mediterráneo A perspective on the valorization of agro-silvo-pastoral systems in the Mediterranean Basin

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    A Pardini

    2007-03-01

    transhumance survive beside farm systems based on the most advanced technologies, there are cases of modernization of traditional activities and other cases of modern agriculture that conserves traditions. Some case studies referred to countries of the northern, southern, western and eastern shore of the Mediterranean sea are given to exemplify the variability of pastoral or agricultural systems, as well as complex and integrated agro-silvo-pastoral systems. The enhanced diversity of some Mediterranean agro-silvo-pastoral systems needs complex management that, especially in marginal areas, cannot be economically competitive with intensive agriculture and animal rearing. However diversity brings also more ecological sustainability in comparison to simple intensive systems and it is useful to conserve the natural environment. Finally, nowadays diversity can become richness if the link of traditional rural world with the modern sectors of economy is started in some of the southern and eastern countries and further developed in the European Mediterranean area. Under this point of view, the passage from simple conventional systems to more complex systems that integrate pasture, cropped fields and forest is suggested to develop the integration of the rural people within the global development.

  13. Megaesophagus secondary to myasthenia gravis in a female German shepherd dog/ Megaesôfago secundário a miastenia grave em uma cadela da raça Pastor Alemão

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    Osimar Sanches

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Megaesophagus is a common cause of regurgitation being one of the possible etiologies the myasthenia gravis characterized by a neuromuscular disorder that result in weakness of the skeletal muscles, of the esophagus, of the larynx and of the pharynx. The present report describes a case of a female German shepherd dog, with report of muscles weakness and frequent vomits, which was diagnosed as a megaesophagus secondary to myasthenia gravis. The radiograph of the animal presented an accentuated cervical and thoracic megaesophagus. After the institution of the recommended therapeutic protocol the animal presented visible improvement when walking, however the regurgitations worsened and it began to present cough. New radiograph was accomplished with presence, besides megaesophagus, of aspiration pneumonia. The owner opted for the euthanasia of the animal and the necropsy revealed severe pneumonia and an accentuated dilation of the posterior portion of the esophagus, collaborating with subsidies for an unfavorable prognostic of the case.Megaesôfago é uma causa comum de regurgitação sendo uma das possíveis etiologias a miastenia grave caracterizada por uma desordem neuromuscular que resulta em fraqueza dos músculos esqueléticos, do esôfago, da laringe e da faringe. O presente relato descreve um caso de uma cadela da raça Pastor Alemão, com histórico de fraqueza muscular e vômitos freqüentes, que foi diagnosticada como megaesôfago secundário à miastenia grave. A radiografia do animal apresentou um acentuado megaesôfago cervical e torácico. Após a instituição do protocolo terapêutico recomendado o animal apresentou melhora visível ao caminhar, porém as regurgitações pioraram e começou a apresentar tosse. Foi realizado novo exame radiográfico com presença, além de megaesôfago, de pneumonia aspirativa. A proprietária optou pela eutanásia do animal e a necropsia revelou severa pneumonia e dilatação acentuada da por

  14. Sin as an Ailment of Soul and Repentance as the Process of Its Healing. The Pastoral Concept of Penitentials as a Way of Dealing with Sin, Repentance, and Forgiveness in the Insular Church of the Sixth to the Eighth Centuries

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    Kursawa Wilhelm

    2017-05-01

    astonishing network in using their mutual interrelations. Here the earlier penitentials served as source for the later ones. But it is remarkable that the authors in no way appeared as simple copyists, but also as creative revisers, who took regard of the pastoral necessities of the entrusted flock. They appeared as engaged in the goal to improve their ecclesiastical as well as their civil life-circumstances to make it possible that the penitents of the different ecclesiastical estates could perform their conversion and become reconciled in a dignified way. The aim of the authors was to enable the confessors to do the healing dialogue qualitatively in a high standard; quantity was not their goal. The penitents should feel themselves healed, not punished.

  15. Isolamento e identificação da microbiota periodontal de cães da raça Pastor Alemão Isolate and identify of periodontal microbiota of German Shepherd dogs

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    Carla Afonso da Silva Bitencourt Braga

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A microbiota indígena gengival de cães não está totalmente descrita, sendo sua identificação uma etapa importante no estabelecimento da etiopatogenia e terapia da doença periodontal. O objetivo deste trabalho foi isolar e identificar a microbiota periodontal de cães da raça Pastor Alemão, considerando sítios saudáveis e com doença periodontal. Foram utilizados 29 cães, com idade variando de três a seis anos, sendo analisados espécimes clínicos de sítios periodontais saudáveis de 12 cães e sítios com periodontite de outros 17. Foram isoladas 672 amostras microbianas, com predomínio dos gêneros Pasteurella, Staphylococcus, Porphyromonas e Fusobacterium. A microbiota dos sítios saudáveis equiparou-se à dos sítios doentes, tratando-se de uma microbiota indígena. A microbiota dos sítios doentes apresentou-se aumentada em relação a dos sítios saudáveis, indicando mudança do ambiente do sítio periodontal.The indigenous gingival microbiota of dogs is not totally described, although such identification is an important step to establish the etiopathogenesis and adequate therapy for the periodontal disease. The aims of this study were to isolate and identify the periodontal microbiota of German Shepherd dogs from healthy and with periodontal desease sites. Twenty nine German Shepherd dogs from three to six years of age were used in this study. Clinical specimens were analysed from healthy periodontal sites of 12 dogs and sites presenting gingivitis of 17 dogs. A total amount of 672 microbial samples, were isolated where the predominant genera were Pasteurella spp., Staphylococcus spp., Porphyromonas spp. and Fusobacterium spp. The microbiological population of the affected sites was similar to the healthy sites, consisting on an indigenous microbiota. The microbiota on the affecteded sites was higher in number than on the healthy sites, showing change in the environment of the periodontal sites.

  16. Pastoral Care and Mindfulness: A Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strongman, Luke

    2017-01-01

    From the earliest modern academic literature of industrial organization, supervision education and training, managerial considerations involve leveraging to improve the work of the supervisor and supervisee, and accentuating the value added opportunities for work improvement (Dawson, 1926, pp. 293-295). Reflecting the incorporation of the…

  17. Social Work, Pastoral Care and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considine, Tom; Hollingdale, Paul; Neville, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    This paper briefly examines the growing interest in developing resilience in the social work curricula as it is seen as a crucial quality necessary to cope with the increasing demands of the profession. The recent research into developing resilience is dominated by a psychological model which emphasises personal qualities. It runs the risk of…

  18. Using GPS for studying pastoral mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    geographer familiar with satellite remote sensing and GIS, I pondered how these relatively new technologies could be combined with classic ethnographic fieldwork, which we also use in human geography. I decided to use handheld GPS devices for tracking the pastoralists and their herds. My study was, as far...... the interviewee’s point of view....

  19. Fulani herdsmen's pastoral activities, conflict and conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LGA) of Oyo state Nigeria had come with some challenges over the years of interacting with their host community. This study was aimed at determining the effects of nomadic farming in the study area attendant conflicts and conflict management ...

  20. Die pastorale sielkundige as diakonale pastor

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    A. J. Smuts

    1985-08-01

    Full Text Available In die bedieningspatroon van die Ned. Geref. Kerk het die pastorale sielkundige die afgelope aantal jare steeds meer op die voorgrond begin tree. Hy is egter 'n problematiese figuur, wie se identiteit van meer as een kant onder bespreking is. In ander lande, selfs in die VSA waar die kerk veel gebruik maak van die sielkunde, is dit moeilik om 'n presiese parallel vir hom te vind. Sowel binne as buite die kerk word hy deur sommige bevraagteken. Daarom is dit noodsaaklik om vanuit die teologie te kyk na die werk wat hy doen.

  1. Industrial Pastoral: Lake Macquarie Coal Miners’ Holidays

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    Russell McDougall

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available As Stephen Page and Joanne Connell note in their mapping of the field, leisure studies is a largely post-war development, evolving internationally out of geography, economics, sociology and a range of other disciplines mostly in the social sciences rather than the humanities. Historians have not ignored the subject – there are plenty of historical studies of sports and recreation, the development of national parks, and so on. Yet, while leisure clearly has a vital and dynamic relation to work – culturally, politically, psychologically – labour historians in Australia appear to have been less interested in this area of research. We, the authors of this article, are primarily literary scholars rather than historians, but we have been puzzled by this apparent neglect. It is not our brief to examine the contemporary meanings of ‘leisure’ in relation to ‘work’ (or ‘forced labour,’ to adopt Guy Standing’s important twenty-first century distinction. Instead, our own study of coal miners’ holidays around Lake Macquarie from the late nineteenth and into the second half of the twentieth century considers the bygone rituals and activities of their holidaying from the vantage point of our own present location in an age where ‘simulation and nostalgia lie at the heart of everyday life.’ The article includes memoir and creative writing along with theory and analysis.

  2. Le recul de l'espace agro-pastoral dans les Préalpes du Sud et ses conséquences sur le paysage de la moyenne montagne

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    de Reparaz, G. A.

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Southern Alps, a rural deeply depopulated region with very feeble densities (five inhabitants per km2 fallows Inherited from the previously cultivated areas cover considerable surfaces (almost 60% of the whole. The very rare agricultural sheep-farmers who still subsist in these areas have ground too old to see to the upkeep of their holdings: so, the "saltus" which is still nowadays spreading on takes quite various forms analyzed in this article in a typology showing the evolution of the saltus landscape according of their varied origins. The new Inhabitants and the new functions of this space underline the problem of the new forms of agricultural management and of its external agents (State, Region and tourism structure.

    [fr] Dans les Préalpes du Sud, zone désertifiée aux très faibles densités (5 h/km2, les friches héritées des anciennes zones cultivées ou des anciennes pâtures de l'agriculture traditionnelle, couvrent des espaces considérables (près de 60% du territoire. Les agriculteurs-éleveurs très rares et vieillissants qui subsistent dans cet espace ne peuvent aménager ou entretenir celui-ci, et le saltus qui progresse encore actuellement prend des formes très diverses analysées ici. Une typologie communale évolutive des paysages de saltus, fonction de leurs origines diverses, est présentée. Les nouveaux habitants et les nouvelles fonctions de cet espace: tourisme 'vert', résidences secondaires nombreuses, posent le problème des formes nouvelles de l'aménagement et de l'Importance des acteurs extérieurs (État et reboisement massif, collectivités régionales, structures du tourisme.
    [es] En los Prealpes del sur, zona desertificada de muy bajas densidades (5 h/km2, los eriales heredados de las zonas anteriormente cultivadas o pastadas en el marco de la agricultura tradicional ocupan una amplia extensión (cerca de 60% del territorio. Los agricultores—pastores

  3. Estimation of the seismic hazards of the possible rupture of the Pastores and Venta de Bravo faults in the Acambay grabens, state of Mexico, Mexico, using the Empirical Green's Function Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizawa, O. A.; Lermo, J.; Aguirre, J.

    2003-04-01

    Even though the majority of earthquakes in Mexico and in the world are in direct relation with the movement of tectonic plates, there are less frequent tremors which take place in the continents, within the plates. This is the case with the earthquakes which occur in Mexico along the Neovolcanic Axis. Despite the fact that these quakes in the Neovolcanic Axis are, in general, of small magnitude, there are occassional events of greater magnitude. For instance, in 1912, an earthquake with an approximate magnitude of M=6.9 took place in Acambay, state of Mexico, 80 km. from Mexico City. The reported damage areas for these earthquakes suggest that they were originated in surface faults probably associated with tensional geological structures which exist in the area (grabens). This region stretches along 400 km. between the cities of Mexico and Guadalajara. The faults are normal, extending tens of kilometers, with a dip of up to 80o and vertical differences of several hundred meters. The faults in this part of the country can be classified as "active" or "potentially active", with an important seismic expression. The faulting, volcanism and seismicity manifested in the region studied constitute geological effects of the more recent tectonic activity of the central part of Mexico. The present activity of these faults represent the major part of the natural hazards (geological hazards) for this region, taking account of its high demographic density make it a zone of great vulnerability. We will be primarily interested in two of the faults which constitute the fault system of the Acambay graben, eastern sector of the Mexican Neovolcanic Axis, at approximately 80 km. northwest of Mexico City: the Pastores fault and the Venta de Bravo fault system. We will estimate the resultant seismic movement at the University campus (CU) station, in Mexico DF, utilizing the record of the main earthquake (M=4.0) of Tlaxcoapan, Hgo., of March 18 1998 and formulating the scenario of the

  4. Pastoral mobility and policy recommendations for livestock herding in the Borana pastoral system in southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livelihoods of pastoralists in the Borana Zone of southern Ethiopia have become increasingly vulnerable as a result of stressors like accelerating population growth, shrinking resource availability, sedentarization, and increased frequency and severity of drought. A research team from the USDA Agric...

  5. THE PASTORAL ROAD TO EXTINCTION - COMPETITION BETWEEN WILDLIFE AND TRADITIONAL PASTORALISM IN EAST-AFRICA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRINS, HHT

    1992-01-01

    In some developing countries there is a call to open-up protected areas and even National Parks for low-intensity use by the local population to alleviate the pressure of the rapidly increasing human population, or because conservationists have been able to 'take' too much land according to others.

  6. A influência da Ação Católica na atuação social e pastoral de D. Waldyr Calheiros: o caso dos Direitos Humanos na cidade Volta Redonda * La influencia de la Acción Catolica...

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    LUIZ FERNANDO MANGEA DA SILVA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo faz uma análise da influência da Ação Católica na atuação social e pastoral de D. Waldyr Calheiros de Novaes na Diocese de Barra do Piraí/Volta Redonda, tendo como base o contexto sociopolítico nacional e local do início da década de 1950 até 1968. Essa atuação se inicia a partir do episódio referente à violação dos direitos humanos, em que operários da Companhia Siderúrgica Nacional e intelectuais volta-redondenses foram presos após uma comemoração pelos 20 anos da Declaração Universal dos Direitos do Homem. No evento, também foram comemorados os dois anos da chegada e posse do bispo à diocese. Houve, por parte da organização do evento, a iniciativa de incluir dramatizações que simbolizavam o universo dos trabalhadores. Não podemos esquecer que Volta Redonda era uma cidade militarizada, por causa da instalação do 1º Batalhão de Infantaria Blindada em Barra Mansa, cidade vizinha. O serviço de espionagem do regime militar identificou as lideranças operárias e intelectuais, o que resultou nas prisões dos organizadores do evento. Foi nesse episódio que o bispo se declarou preso no batalhão, em protesto contra a detenção dessas lideranças.Palavras-chave: Waldyr Calheiros de Novaes – Ação Católica – Ditadura Militar e Direitos Humanos. Resumen: Este artículo analiza la influencia de la Acción Católica en el trabajo social y pastoral D. Waldyr Calheiros de Novaes en la Diócesis de Barra do Piraí/Volta Redonda, en función del contexto socio-político nacional y local de la década de 1950 hasta 1968 . Dicha acción se inicia desde el episodio relativo a la violación de los derechos humanos, en el que los trabajadores nacionales Steel Company y los intelectuales era redondenses fueron arrestados después de una celebración para el 20 aniversario de la Declaración universal de los derechos humanos. En el evento, también se celebraron dos años de la llegada e

  7. Efetividade do aconselhamento nutricional da Pastoral da Criança sobre a variação de hemoglobina entre menores de seis anos de idade Effectiveness of nutritional counseling provided by the Children's Mission on hemoglobin variation in under-six children

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    Iná dos Santos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a efetividade do treinamento das líderes da Pastoral da Criança em aconselhamento nutricional sobre a variação da hemoglobina entre menores de seis anos, foi realizada uma intervenção comunitária. Por sorteio, uma das duas áreas de ação da Pastoral da Criança em Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, foi selecionada e as líderes treinadas (Grupo Intervenção. A outra área constituiu o Grupo Controle. Após consentimento, a mãe foi entrevistada sobre a família, saúde e alimentação da criança. A hemoglobina foi medida com fotômetro portátil ao ingressar no estudo e após seis meses. O desfecho foi a variação da hemoglobina, da primeira para a segunda medida. Ingressaram 183 crianças intervenção e 179 crianças controle, comparáveis quanto ao sexo, idade, características ao nascer, aporte de ferro e nível médio de hemoglobina. Na análise ajustada, a variação no grupo intervenção foi 0,18 ± 0,27g/dl maior do que no controle. Embora a diferença entre os grupos não fosse estatisticamente significativa, a variação foi positiva no grupo intervenção e negativa no grupo controle, sugerindo benefício do treinamento.A community intervention was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of leadership training in the Children's Mission (of the Brazilian Catholic Church for providing nutritional counseling on hemoglobin variation in children less than six years of age. Two areas of activity by the Children's Mission in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, were randomly selected and the leaders in one were trained (intervention group. The other area constituted the control group. After providing consent, mothers were interviewed concerning the family and the child's health and eating. Hemoglobin was measured with a portable photometer upon entry into the study and at six months. The outcome variable was hemoglobin variation between the first and second measurements. The study included 183 intervention

  8. Inhabiting compassion: A pastoral theological paradigm | Zylla | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inspired by the vision of care in Vincent van Gogh's depiction of the parable of the Good Samaritan, this article offers a paradigm for inhabiting compassion. Compassion is understood in this article as a moral emotion that is also a pathocentric virtue. This definition creates a dynamic view of compassion as a desire to ...

  9. Un libro de Eduardo Santa: el pastor y las estrellas

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    Eduardo Carranza

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available Jamas he identificado verso y poesía. He dicho y escrito muchas veces que la poesía está más allá del verso, del poema y de las palabras, incluso. (En el silencio tiembla, a menudo, la más hermosa, misteriosa y acompañadora poesía. Porque ella es atmósfera necesaria, fatal, de la vida humana. Cuando se llama -¡y tantas veces así se llama!- amor, ilusión, ensueño, nostalgia, honor y recuerdo y esperanza... Algunas veces, maravillosamente, la poesía habita en el verso. Otras, muchísimas, no.

  10. using stories to assist storytelling in a pastoral setting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-03-19

    Mar 19, 2009 ... The research opened up a discussion about spirituality. ... endeavour is confessed for I assume that storytelling is not merely a method for solving particular problems ..... A collection of papers, essays and exercises,. Dulwich ...

  11. The Dynamics of (Agro) Pastoral Conflicts in Eastern Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The new political and administrative arrangements following the introduction of ethnic based federalism gave the existing conflicts new a dimension. The research revealed that socio-political factors and competition over scarce natural resources, particularly on water and pasture land, were found to be among important ...

  12. A pastoral evaluation of menopause in the African context

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-01-15

    Jan 15, 2013 ... grow bigger and bigger or else the seminal fluid accumulated in her stomach will flow out .... a loss of emotional balance during the changes to their menstrual patterns ..... nursing, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Hocking, D.

  13. International Students in North America and Pastoral Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, Agostino

    2008-01-01

    Adaptation of a keynote speech delivered at the annual 2008 Rome Seminar. "Conducted and coordinated by ACCU senior staff and the staff of the Lay Centre at Foyer Unitas in Rome, the seminar offers a unique inside look at the Vatican and an inspiring experience of the Eternal City's spiritual treasures. Included are in-depth conversations…

  14. Biblical principles towards a pastoral strategy for poverty alleviation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-04-15

    Apr 15, 2014 ... now become involved in the process of mutual commitment to ... the government that were constructed by means of a literature study as well ... give poor young people in Uganda a vision and inspiration so as to empower them to ameliorate ..... Mutebi (2003:109) also gives a third type of teaching that is the.

  15. Seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in agro pastoral areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the sero-prevalence of bovine brucellosis in four districts of Jijjiga Zone, eastern. Ethiopia. ... animals and herds given the extensive production system prevailing in the area which may allow contact ... due to abortion, infertility and reduction in milk production. In addition, the ..... Epidemiology and surveillance. In: Nielsen, K.

  16. A pastoral narrative group developmental model for volunteers of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The first aim was to facilitate growth in understanding that every person was born in the “Narrative of God” (Ps. 139) and baptised in the name of God, Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit (Matthew 28:19). Each person therefore has value in Jesus Christ. A second aim was to facilitate the developing of lay-counselling skills by ...

  17. Philosophical counselling: Towards a 'new approach' in pastoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-25

    Jan 25, 2011 ... A model for the making of a spiritual existential analysis was proposed in ... The reason for this assumption resides in the fact that theories are ... psychology developed from philosophy. .... attention should be paid to the demand for paradigm shifts ... the practice of emotional probing and memory analyses.

  18. Epizootiological Survey of Bovine Brucellosis in Nomadic Pastoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They called bovine brucellosis (Bakkale) and described it as a cattle disease characterized by standing hair coat, fever, loss of appetite, swollen joints, and abortion and transmitted by ingestion and contact. The high prevalence observed calls for urgent government intervention towards public health enlightenment of ...

  19. Livestock disease threats associated with intensification of pastoral dairy farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Ij; Westwood, Ct; Playford, Mc

    2008-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of the changes in the pasture-based dairy systems of New Zealand and Australia that may influence the health of cattle. There are relatively few available data that can be used to quantify the effects of increased intensification of milk production on the health of cattle. There is evidence that increased production increases the risk of mastitis and culling for udder health. Increased risks of mastitis with treatment with somatotropin support these findings; however, the risk of mastitis may decrease with increased milking frequency. Larger herds with greater stocking density should increase the risk for infectious disease, but evidence to support this contention is sparse. Very intensive grazing patterns associated with higher grass yields achieved using better cultivars and greater use of fertilisers favour nematode parasites. There is some evidence of anthelmintic resistance in both nematodes and liver fluke. Veterinarians will need to be aware of the potential for these to reduce the productivity of cattle. There have been benefits of improved nutrition on the efficiency of energy use for dairy production. Diseases such as bloat and ketosis appear to be of lower prevalence. It also appears that mineral nutrition of pasture-fed cattle is being better addressed, with gains in the control of milk fever, hypomagnesaemia and trace-element deficiencies. However, acidosis is a condition with a high point prevalence in pasture-based dairy systems where cows are fed supplements; one study in Australia found a point prevalence of approximately 11% of cows with acidosis. There is evidence from this study that the neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in pasture-based diets may need to be higher than 30% of the diet to maintain rumen stability. Laminitis and acidosis are different conditions with a similar pathogenesis, specifically highly fermentable diets. The prevalence of lameness was 28% in herds in Australia, suggesting that this condition must be a focus for preventive medical approaches, including the design of laneways, feed pads and dairies.

  20. the dilemma of traditional and 21st century pastoral ministry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-09-03

    Sep 3, 2010 ... scientific approach, will be applied in search of constructive change in church and ... church is discussed; the role of religious pedagogy as a transversal model is ...... Dames, G.E., 1989, 'n Studie van kategetiese modelle met.

  1. Understanding relations between pastoralism and its changing natural environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamou, Charles

    2017-01-01

    The competition for land has become an issue of major concern and cause of conflict, especially between pastoralists and crop farmers, but also between pastoralists and nature conservation institutions. The Biosphere Reserve of W in Benin Republic (WBR) and its surrounding lands are located in

  2. Gender and climate change-induced conflict in pastoral communities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clitmate change-induced conflict is a major global threat to human security and the environment. It has been projected that there is going to be an increase in climate changes resulting in increased droughts and floods in northern Kenya. Climate change impacts will be differently distributed among different regions, ages, ...

  3. Marketing's contribution of the sustainability of pastoralism: evidence from Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tessema, W.K.

    2012-01-01

    Pastoralists are people who, for their livelihood, depend on livestock raising using the natural pasture. Sustainability of pastoralist production is important for their livelihood as well as to the supply of animal-based protein. However, concerns with the pastoralist production system have

  4. Geographical Labor Market Imbalances by Chiara Mussida and Francesco Pastore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela PASNICU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The book, entitled Geographical Labor Market Imbalances represents a collective volume of outstanding scientific papers concerning regional issues, which were presented at the XXVII National Conference of Labour Economics organized by AIEL (Italian Association of Labor Economics, the Department of Law of SecundaUniversità di Napoli and the Departments of Economic and Social Sciences of the UniversitàCattolica del SacroCuore (Piacenza, 27-28 September 2012.

  5. land use and cover change in pastoral systems of uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 22, Issue ... Bulindi Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute, P. O. Box 101, Hoima, Uganda .... latitudes 0o 57' 44.89" and 1o 40' 42.76" North and ..... Percent of small East African goat in herd.

  6. A pastoral evaluation of menopause in the African context | Baloyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Menopause, with its physical and emotional changes, appears to be an inevitable road for women to travel. The moment of choice for women at menopause involves not only whether they will embrace the new self or try to cling to identities from earlier life but also how the society in which they live views women after ...

  7. Pastoral conflict in Kenya: Transforming mimetic violence to mimetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    role has become voluntary for purposes of raiding, and is generally a large-scale community effort. .... Girard's theory. While cattle rustling ... and thus respond to mediation attempts in the same way as they do livestock raids. – by polarising ...

  8. The perfect drought? Constraints limiting Kalahari agro-pastoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFUOMA

    1Department of Agricultural Research, Animal Production and Range Research Division, P. O. Box 10275, Francistown, .... The long-term annual rainfall data for the study areas were sourced ... characteristics, socioeconomic status (e.g. income sources), land .... and allowances from the Old Age Pension Scheme were.

  9. An evaluation of the economic viability of commercial pastoralism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carrying capacity models and financial data from study group farmers were used to derive attainable net revenue per ha on veld in good, moderate and poor condition. From these data, minimum farm sizes required for a reasonable standard of living (R20 000 net personal income per annum) were estimated for each veld ...

  10. Panorama of agro-pastoralism in western Serengeti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavana, Pius Yoram; Mahonge, Christopher P.; Sangeda, Anthony Z.

    2017-01-01

    production, and fallowing land. Households form the basic units of production, which utilize land, family labour, livestock keeping and any capital at their disposal to meet their production goals. Livestock, especially cattle have great symbolic value regarded as a bank on hoves, and a basis for various...

  11. Socio – economic impact of pastoral activities in Olorunsogo Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 13, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Pastoral Techniques in the Modern Danish Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Klaus; Dalgaard, Susanne; Madsen, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, therapeutic techniques have played an increasingly significant role in Danish educational thinking. One way in which this therapeutic thinking discloses itself is in the ever-growing use of educational-therapeutic games as part of the educational practice. Inspired by Foucault, we argue that educational-therapeutic games can be…

  13. Pastoral Decision-Making: An Empirical Investigation of Rangeland Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPeak, J.

    1999-01-01

    Recent research in range ecology suggests that the process of resource degradation in African arid and semi-arid rangelands may be less reliant on how many animals are kept on the rangeland than on where these animals are kept. Analysis of pastoralist land use decisions indicated that rangeland condition influences livestock keeping. However, it was found that food and income production strategies, herd characteristics play critical roles in livestock keeping decisions

  14. Pastoral Settlement. Farming and Hierarchy in Norse Vatnahverfi, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Koch

    farming system relied on extensive land use practices organized around shielings, and apparently after unique Greenlandic patterns. A population estimate based on these settlement patterns implies an average population in Vatnahverfi of only ca. 225-550 people, and an average maximum population of ca...

  15. Cutaneous onchocerciasis in Dumbu, a pastoral area in the North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... bone in extra-skeletal sites leading to severe disability and eventually death. We present a sporadic case from Northern Tanzania with a minor unilateral hallux anomaly and the common ACVR1 c.617G>A mutation. Key words: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, heterotopic ossification, hallux valgus, recurrent ACVR1 ...

  16. Brucellosis in pastoral and confined livestock: prevention and vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, H. L.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional lifestyle and beliefs of pastoralists and small-scale farmers with confined livestock, together with certain farming environments, create favourable conditions for the spread and transmission of brucellosis. The risks associated with these practices are difficult to control because

  17. An Integrative Professional Theory and Practice Paper: Personal Reflections from the Journey through Clinical Pastoral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Gillian

    2015-12-01

    CPE is an experience-based approach to learning spiritual care which combines clinical care with qualified supervision, in-class education and group reflection (CASC--http://www.spiritualcare.ca/). Through didactic seminars, group presentations and personal reading there is opportunity for the student to acquire, apply and integrate relevant theoretical information into their practice. Written for my CPE Specialist application, this paper describes how, through the course of advanced CPE education, I learn to utilize and integrate theory into my clinical work. Beginning with three strands--authenticity, listening and storytelling--I then discuss how the behavioural sciences and theology inform my practice. Focusing on empathy, I speak of the application of disclosure, the use of counter-transference as a diagnostic tool, and the place of therapeutic termination. Group theory, family systems theory, theological reflection, liturgical ministry, and multi-faith practices are considered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Milking drylands : gender networks, pastoral markets and food security in stateless Somalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nori, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Milking Drylands research initiative addresses the critical issues of food security, market integration, gender roles and governance matters in a peculiar area of the world, the Somali ecosystem. The research aims at exploring interesting dynamics of ongoing social change, in order to stimulate

  19. Cyberbullying and Moral Disengagement: An Analysis Based on a Social Pedagogy of Pastoral Care in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Chris; Zuin, Antônio

    2016-01-01

    The practice of cyberbullying in its various forms carried out by pupils has increased substantially. Many pupils, on a daily basis, are now using electronic devices such as mobile phones, smart phones and tablets, to transmit distressing messages and images to their peers. These often include the use of publicly accessible social networking…

  20. Governing "Eco-Certified Children" through Pastoral Power: Critical Perspectives on Education for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideland, Malin; Malmberg, Claes

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses how "eco-certified children" are constructed as desirable subjects in teaching materials addressing education for sustainable development. We are interested in how discourses structure this cherished practice and how this practice has become "natural" and obvious for us. A discourse analysis is carried out…

  1. Men battering as the new form of domestic violence? A pastoral care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women by men'. Rather society must appreciate that gender battering is a reality across the gender divide, particularly in the 21st century Africa. In its methodology, the article has engaged a theophilosophical approach that involves a social, ...

  2. Pastors or Lawyers? The Role of Religion in the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G.J. Meiring

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available In  this  article, Piet Meiring who served as Committee Member on the TRC discusses the often disputed religious character of the Commission. Quoting examples from the TRC process he describes the debate that developed – on Archbishop Tutu’s religious way of handling the affairs of  the  Commission. Meiring discusses the TRC liturgy that was developed during the course of the process, as well as how important the role of religion proved to be in terms of three crucial issues: the process of remembering, the quest for truth, and the costliness of reconciliation.

  3. Proposal of environmental indicators of sustainability for ruminant pastoral production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Nahed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es la continuación de un estudio previo presentado por los autores en el Seminario FAO-CIEHAM (Organización para laAgricultura y la Alimentación- Centro Internacional de Altos Estudios Agronómicos Mediterráneos celebrado en Sevilla, España, en 2005, en el cual se realizó un análisis preliminar acerca del uso de los indicadores de la FAO-CIEHAM para evaluar la sustentabilidad de granjas con pequeños rumiantes. El artículo que se presenta ofrece una lista de 48 indicadores ambientales genéricos, adaptada a las granjas con pequeños rumiantes con relación a ocho aspectos: prácticas agrícolas, suelo, agua, paisaje, energía, residuos, bienestar animal y biodiversidad. Se necesita trabajo adicional para completar y perfeccionar esta lista, la cual se ha obtenido a partir de la consulta a expertos y de una revisión de metodologías existentes.

  4. A pastoral examination of the Christian Church's response to fears of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-24

    Feb 24, 2014 ... churches), the second is the African Independent Churches and the third is ..... Spiritual warfare is a lifestyle, not just an occasional event of .... and are mutually exclusive', The church leader in Africa: A training publication of.

  5. The provision of spiritual and pastoral care following stillbirth in Ireland: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzum, Daniel; Meaney, Sarah; O'Donoghue, Keelin

    2016-06-01

    The death of a baby is recognised as one of the most difficult bereavements with life-long impact for parents. How bereaved parents are cared for influences their grief journey. Optimal holistic care is provided when the physical, emotional, spiritual and social needs of parents are attended to. This study reviewed how spiritual care is provided to bereaved parents following stillbirth in maternity units in Ireland and the impact of stillbirth on healthcare chaplains. This was a mixed methods study using semistructured qualitative interviews with hospital chaplains in Irish maternity units. Quantitative data about the provision of services to bereaved parents were collated from the interviews. Qualitative data were analysed thematically to identify key themes. 20 chaplains from 17 units participated in the study (85% of Irish maternity units). 12 chaplains (60%) are formally accredited chaplains; only one has received specialist training in perinatal bereavement care. 11 chaplains (55%) provide follow-up bereavement care. Seven chaplains (35%) did not feel part of the multidisciplinary team. The main themes that emerged were the impact of stillbirth, suffering and the challenge to faith creating inner conflict and doubt. The provision of spiritual care following stillbirth in Ireland is diverse. Spiritual care in this specialised area by chaplains who are not professionally trained and accredited potentially impacts quality and depth of care. Chaplains experience considerable impact and challenge to personal faith and belief as they provide care. Recommendations are made for ongoing education and greater support for chaplains. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. OANA MĂTU, INMA PASTOR, Gender and Poverty in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁNGEL BELZUNEGUI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an analysis of the data retrieved from the Survey onIncome and Living Conditions. A gender-based poverty study was carried out, startingfrom the evolution of global taxes, together with factors that can explain thedifferences between the poverty variable affecting men and the poverty variableaffecting women in Spain. Considering these data, it was deemed necessary toexamine the concept of feminisation of poverty and its empirical basis. We concludethat, although slightly higher poverty levels can be noted in the case of women,compared with men, in accordance with the quantitative data, this difference is notsufficiently significant to indicate that we are dealing with a feminisation of poverty –understood as a process in which differences between poverty among women andpoverty among men increase incrementally. Based on our study, we consider that thesimple presence of a poverty differentiation between men and women is not sufficientto conclude that poverty is undergoing a process of feminization.

  7. Men battering as the new form of domestic violence? A pastoral care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-22

    May 22, 2015 ... status due to the cultural barriers and stigma attached to it. Others feel ..... Rather than just seeking help from the religious leaders, the police or .... again and again about self-sacrifice and a general concern for the 'other'.

  8. Factors Influencing Water Resource Governance among Pastoral Community at Mkondoa Sub-Catchment Morogoro Region Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeremia Yohana Masifia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of proper Water Resource Management with greater emphasis on ensuring sustainability quality accountability and community participation has become imminent as water resources increasingly become scarce Harvey et al 2007. Water resources management in Tanzania is governed under the National Water Policy of 2002 and Water Resources Management Act No.11 of year 2009. Other related legislations include Environmental Management Act No. 20 of year 2004 Forest Policy and Forest Act No. 14 of year 2002 and Water Supply Act No.12 of year 2009 among others. However the mechanisms processes and institutions through which all stakeholders articulate their priorities exercise their legal rights meet their obligations and mediate their differences is still missing. This study employed descriptive exploratory research design. Data collection was done by the use of both structured and semi structured interview to respondents who were both purpose and simple randomly selected observation and focus group discussion. Review of reports from Districts and Basin offices and internet to access relevant secondary information was done. Results show that WUAs LGAs and WSSAs lack relevant understanding capacities management and law enforcement as result water management generally remains non participatory inefficient and expensive and increased water user conflicts in Kisangata and Ilonga WUAs of Mkondoa sub catchment Morogoro region. The study propose participatory approaches best practices on water resource management at local level for embracement of Community- Based Water Resource Management as the only option of managing sub catchment water resources and reduce water related conflicts among water users. Awareness creation on policy and establishment of alternative economic activities like horticulture bee keeping and poultry is significant to give relief to land.

  9. Agro-pastoral diets in southern Italy from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arena, Fabiola; Mannino, Marcello; Philippsen, Bente

    . In particular, this method of palaeodietary reconstruction allows us to establish the ecosystem of origin of foods (terrestrial, freshwater and/or marine) and the type of diet (vegetarian, omnivorous or carnivorous). Our analyses on 33 human and 12 faunal bone collagen extracts attest that the diets......The period from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age was a time of considerable socio-cultural and economic change, which affected human diets. To improve our understanding of dietary change in communities living in the south of Italy during this period, we have undertaken stable carbon and nitrogen......), Basilicata (Murgia Timone, Grotta Funeraria and Toppo d’Aguzzo) and Apulia (Ipogeo dei Bronzi). Carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses inform us mainly on the intake of dietary protein, although, in diets characterized by limited meat consumption, they also provide us with information on plant consumption...

  10. FRAN KURELAC: »RUNJE / PAHULJICE« IRONICAL AND PASTORAL POEMS MOSTLY FROM DUBROVNIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldina Veronika Banaš

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces readers to the book of poems »Runje i Pahuljice« by Fran Kurelac giving details and preparations for the book to be published: from manuscript gathering to his editorial work. This paper presents a contribution in remembrance and honour to Fran Kurelac whose book »Fluminensia« has become a trade-mark for our review »Fluminensia«.

  11. Causes and trajectories of local conflict among pastoral peoples in Northeast Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Pastoralist societies in Africa are claimed to be prone to violence due to structural conditions of environmental vulnerability, scarcity of resources and decentralized sociopolitical organization. Their contacts with expanding State structures and with neighbouring groups in different socioeconomic

  12. Livelihood Diversification through Migration among a Pastoral People: Contrasting Case Studies of Maasai in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, J Terrence; Smith, Nicole M; Leslie, Paul W; Telligman, Amy L

    2014-01-01

    This paper brings together over two decades of research concerning the patterns and processes of livelihood diversification through migration among Maasai pastoralists and agro-pastoralists of northern Tanzania. Two case studies, one from the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and the other from the Simanjiro plains, jointly demonstrate the complexity of migration within a single ethnic group. We analyze the relationship between wealth and migration and examine some of the consequences of migration for building herds, expanding cultivation, and influencing political leadership. We further argue that migration in Maasai communities is becoming a cultural norm and not only a response to economic conditions.

  13. a triad of pastoral leadership for congregational health and well -being

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-04-20

    Apr 20, 2010 ... their different actions and reactions'. Every living system has ... broader involvement, the myth of the 'great man' leadership is dealt a deadly blow ... you are leading a group or an organization, you have to move from “what I ...

  14. Understanding God images and God concepts : Towards a pastoral hermeneutics of the God attachment experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Agina Victor

    2015-01-01

    The author looks at the God image experience as an attachment relationship experience with God. Hence, arguing that the God image experience is borne originally out of a parent–child attachment contagion, in such a way that God is often represented in either secure or insecure attachment patterns.

  15. Pastoral guidelines for unmarried Christians regarding pre-marital sex / Takalani Peter Mulovhedzi

    OpenAIRE

    Mulovhedzi, Takalani Peter

    2004-01-01

    The main problem which this study aims to address is; "How should Biblical views of sex be applied in the life of the unmarried Christians in the church of God?" In attempting to address this problem, the study will try to answer the following questions: - What are the Scriptural perspectives about Pre-marital sex? - What are the practical situations that unmarried Christians meet in their daily lives? - How can unmarried Christians be guided within Christian perspectives to abstain ...

  16. Attachment Theory, Teacher Motivation & Pastoral Care: A Challenge for Teachers and Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that an unconscious need for a corrective emotional experience (CEE) drives the choice to care for others was investigated via attachment style and feelings of anger at students and staff. Data were obtained from 750 pre-service and experienced teachers, including 179 principals, who completed one of two versions of the Experiences…

  17. Conserving biodiversity on Mongolian Rangelands: Implications for protected area development and pastoral uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard P. Reading; Donald J. Bedunah; Sukhiin Amgalanbaatar

    2006-01-01

    Mongolia is a sparsely populated country with over 80 percent of its land used by pastoralists for extensive livestock grazing. Mongolia’s wildlife and pastoralists have faced dramatic challenges with the recent rapid socioeconomic changes. Livestock numbers increased dramatically in the 1990s following the transition from communism to democracy and capitalism. Yet,...

  18. Envisioning Schoolhouse Nostalgia and the Pastoral Retreat: A Rural Landscape Approach to Educational History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The role of nostalgia has been identified by those interested in the unique impact of one-room schoolhouses on historical memory and present-day fascination with the structures. Most notably, educational historian Jonathan Zimmerman explored the issue in "Small Wonder: The Little Red Schoolhouse in History and Memory" (2009). Zimmerman…

  19. Revisiting the role of woman pastors in the church in Tshwane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-17

    Feb 17, 2011 ... Therefore, interviews were conducted with full-time woman ministers in the ... experiences before the interview focused more particularly on counselling. The aspect of .... This tendency, along with the high levels of violence and. HIV and AIDS ... Church leaders admit that they are uncertain of their role and.

  20. The pastoral implications of human freedom according to Juan Luis Segundo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paula Ferreira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to reflect the issue of human freedom based on the underlying principles of the Christian faith in a time of anthropological vulnerability, especially in Latin American. It holds that Christianity must insist on its proposal to promote universal goodwill, despite a human horizon marked by selfishness and lust for power and money. This approach presupposes a radical position of a listener of the divine mystery, revealed in Jesus Christ, as a way to fulfill the human condition. Theoretical framework: Liberation Theology, in the view of Juan Luis Segundo, and its well-established tradition of transforming realities of injustice through faith, comprises the core argument of this text. Findings: Christian salvation necessarily implies the kenosis (κένωσις of Jesus, i.e., Christ “emptied Himself” (Ph. 2:7, and through His humble dispossession, He broke with all closed systems of the world, and inaugurated a new venture of a liberated freedom: the agape of love. Conclusion: Christian praxis as daily care for the poorest and prophecy of forgiveness rescues the memory of the victims of all forms of human selfishness. 

  1. Partners in Catholic Education: Pastor, Professional, Parent. A Workbook for Leaders in Catholic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jane Wolford; Barnds, Mary Lynch

    Since the Vatican Council II, communities of the Catholic Church have accepted a in the modern world. With radical changes taking place in society, the introduction of the theme of interdependence by Pope John XXIII was both timely and prophetic. The evolution to a more collaborative church organizational style does not imply the elimination of…

  2. An Introduction of a Whole School Pastoral Care Approach: Circle Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, M. Sencer

    2004-01-01

    With the realisation of the importance that self-esteem has as a central role in children's success in school and furthermore for their future in the work place and their personal lives, educators identified some systems, which can be integrated into school life, that target self-esteem and social and emotional skills. One such model is Circle…

  3. Pastors and the "Perpetuum Mobile": The Dynamics of Professional Learning in Times of Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reite, Ingrid Chr.

    2015-01-01

    In a changing knowledge society, many workplaces experience a great number of reforms, implying improvement, new ways of working and professional learning. When a reform is introduced, however, does a professional act as an ever-moving machine--a "perpetuum mobile"--always learning with full energy? In this article, I ask the following:…

  4. Planning and costing agricultural adaptation to climate change in the pastoral livestock system of Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbo, S.; Mutabazi, K.; Kimambo, A.; Rwehumbiza, F.

    2011-08-15

    There is limited research on bottom-up adaptation economics in general – and climate change adaptation in animal agriculture in particular – to guide adaptation actions. This study therefore tries to address costing and planning of adaptation to climate change in animal agriculture in Tanzania. The study adopted a bottom-up costing of adaptation actions that were identified using a case study approach. A questionnaire interview involving a sample of pastoralists and agro-pastoralist was conducted to identify and quantify impacts due to climate change, and currently-used adaptation actions and costs, in some selected areas in Same, Chamwino and Mvomero districts. This was followed by key informants' interviews at district and national level to get insights on developmental and climate change policies and actions, and their costs. A mini-workshop was later conducted to establish priority adaptation actions and their costs. The workshop involved local-, district- and national-level stakeholders. A country feedback workshop was then held to present initial findings and get additional inputs from experts and other stakeholders. The case study findings showed that a changing climate has resulted in environmental shocks and extreme events such as drought, excessive rains, floods and high temperatures, which have caused inadequate supply of water and pasture, increases in disease incidences, and death of animals. It is probable that in the future such events are likely to have even more serious repercussions and therefore there is a compelling need to plan mitigation measures. Through this study, various adaptation actions envisioned to be capable of fostering resilience have been identified and categorised as addressing three levels: development deficit, climate variability, or climate change-related extremes and shocks. Current annual adaptation costs were estimated at 226.7 M US$ and up to 3,987.5 M US$ by 2030; some of these costs are already being incurred by farmers (such as those involving temporary and permanent migration). From this study, some policy-relevant recommendations have been formulated: 1. The need to establish an environmental section in the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development (MLFD). 2. The necessity for increased investment systems and structures for animal agriculture. 3. The need for increased investment in research, extension and training. 4. The requirement for more bottom-up studies on the economics of climate change in agriculture to be undertaken in order to fill knowledge gaps, apply existing and emerging methods, and improve the estimates.

  5. Subjetividades Políticas de Paz en Experiencias del Secretariado Nacional de Pastoral Social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Jairo Posada-Escobar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo buscamos exponer los efectos que tienen las condiciones socioeconómicas y el conflicto armado sobre los aprendizajes ciudadanos. Para ello, adoptamos un enfoque cuantitativo que nos permitió analizar cómo las condiciones económicas, sociales y de conflicto armado determinan el desarrollo de Competencias Ciudadanas. Lo anterior nos llevó a establecer que las variables socio-económicas tienen un impacto mayor en el desarrollo de acciones, actitudes y emociones favorables, mientras que las condiciones de conflicto armado están más asociadas a la construcción de ambientes democráticos.

  6. Subjetividades Políticas de Paz en Experiencias del Secretariado Nacional de Pastoral Social

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Jairo Posada-Escobar; Patricia del Pilar Briceño-Alvarado; Juliana Santacoloma-Alvarán*

    2016-01-01

    En este artículo buscamos exponer los efectos que tienen las condiciones socioeconómicas y el conflicto armado sobre los aprendizajes ciudadanos. Para ello, adoptamos un enfoque cuantitativo que nos permitió analizar cómo las condiciones económicas, sociales y de conflicto armado determinan el desarrollo de Competencias Ciudadanas. Lo anterior nos llevó a establecer que las variables socio-económicas tienen un impacto mayor en el desarrollo de acciones, actitudes y emociones favorables, mient...

  7. 1mamoune el himri; abdelouahad el himri ;; agustín pastor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Full-text Available Online at www.ajol.info and www.bioline.org.br/ja. INFLUENCE OF THE MEASUREMENT MEDIUM AND MATRIX MODIFIERS ON THE DETERMINATION OF SILICON. IN WATERS BY GRAPHITE FURNACE ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETRY. *1MAMOUNE EL HIMRI; ABDELOUAHAD EL HIMRI;; ...

  8. A pastoral evaluation on the issue of 'vat en sit' with special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-08

    Apr 8, 2016 ... mobile device to read online. .... youth's desire to experiment with sex before marriage. Implications of ... intention to marry at some point (pre-marital cohabitation). ... partner, even if they contributed to its purchase and upkeep.

  9. A pastoral response to the unhealed wound of gays exacerbated by indecision and inarticulacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Dreyer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The dodekapropheton: Twelve minor prophets or a larger unit? The Book of the Twelve or the twelve minor prophets received scholarly attention through the ages. Historical criticism pointed out that these prophets lived in different times, in different historical situations and articulated the “word of the Lord” for different circumstances. However, recent scholarship tends to read the corpus of the minor prophets as a structured whole. Such a reading raises a number of problems: the Twelve do not follow one another chronologically and the order of the Masoretic Text does not agree with that of the Septuagint, whilst Qumran follows yet another order. This article probes – albeit cursory – some of these questions from different perspectives. Eventually it appears that a continuous process of “Fortschreibug” shaped and reshaped prophetic messages to keep them alive for following generations. A unity is created by maintaining the tensions and differences amongst the Twelve, thereby reflecting the creative articulation and rearticulation of prophecy in the different times of the history of Judah and Israel.

  10. Planning and costing agricultural adaptation to climate change in the pastoral livestock system of Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumbo, S; Mutabazi, K; Kimambo, A; Rwehumbiza, F

    2011-08-15

    There is limited research on bottom-up adaptation economics in general – and climate change adaptation in animal agriculture in particular – to guide adaptation actions. This study therefore tries to address costing and planning of adaptation to climate change in animal agriculture in Tanzania. The study adopted a bottom-up costing of adaptation actions that were identified using a case study approach. A questionnaire interview involving a sample of pastoralists and agro-pastoralist was conducted to identify and quantify impacts due to climate change, and currently-used adaptation actions and costs, in some selected areas in Same, Chamwino and Mvomero districts. This was followed by key informants' interviews at district and national level to get insights on developmental and climate change policies and actions, and their costs. A mini-workshop was later conducted to establish priority adaptation actions and their costs. The workshop involved local-, district- and national-level stakeholders. A country feedback workshop was then held to present initial findings and get additional inputs from experts and other stakeholders. The case study findings showed that a changing climate has resulted in environmental shocks and extreme events such as drought, excessive rains, floods and high temperatures, which have caused inadequate supply of water and pasture, increases in disease incidences, and death of animals. It is probable that in the future such events are likely to have even more serious repercussions and therefore there is a compelling need to plan mitigation measures. Through this study, various adaptation actions envisioned to be capable of fostering resilience have been identified and categorised as addressing three levels: development deficit, climate variability, or climate change-related extremes and shocks. Current annual adaptation costs were estimated at 226.7 M US$ and up to 3,987.5 M US$ by 2030; some of these costs are already being incurred by farmers (such as those involving temporary and permanent migration). From this study, some policy-relevant recommendations have been formulated: 1. The need to establish an environmental section in the Ministry of Livestock and Fisheries Development (MLFD). 2. The necessity for increased investment systems and structures for animal agriculture. 3. The need for increased investment in research, extension and training. 4. The requirement for more bottom-up studies on the economics of climate change in agriculture to be undertaken in order to fill knowledge gaps, apply existing and emerging methods, and improve the estimates.

  11. 'Apo Poimen Eis Paidagogos: From Pastor into Schoolmaster--A Study of Maturing Servant Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    I have chosen to be a servant leader. Servant leadership is a style of leadership that encourages leaders to serve others by meeting needs. Many leaders are fortunate enough to adapt and maintain a particular leadership style over long periods of time because they stay in a particular field. Others have the opportunity to practice and test their…

  12. Análisis de viabilidad de la empresa "Azafranes Pastor, S.L."

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Sanz, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Los objetivos propuestos para este trabajo son: Estudiar el sector para saber si puede haber cuota de mercado. Analizar los clientes potenciales y los posibles competidores. Realizar un informe económico-financiero de la empresa. Hacer un plan de viabilidad, calculando los principales indicadores de rentabilidad. La metodología empleada en el presente trabajo se basa en un estudio teórico para situar el marco de análisis y un estudio empírico para demostrar la viabilidad de Azafranes Pasto...

  13. A biocultural framework for examining maternal cravings and aversions among pastoral women in east Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alyson G; Pike, Ivy L

    2012-01-01

    Food preferences during pregnancy result from a complex set of biocultural interactions with important implications for maternal and child health. This article explores the social context of maternal food choice in marginal environments of East Africa. Biocultural data collected among Turkana and Datoga women living in Kenya and Tanzania indicate there is a significant social context to food choice that influences the types of food that women report craving and the food that is consumed. Our framework argues for a deeper understanding of how culture shapes food preferences and how marginalization can constrain access to favored and healthy foods.

  14. Gendered character of barrenness in an African context: An African pastoral study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magezi E. Baloyi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of children for African people has been prioritised above many other reasons for marriage. Besides the fact that every childless marriage has only a slim chance of survival, women are the main objects of this pressure. Some African researchers have revealed that it is usually women who are traditionally held responsible for childlessness. It becomes evident when a man takes a second wife without first seeking medical proof of his wife’s barrenness. In other instances, suspicions force men to divorce women or claim their bride price back as a result of childlessness. Besides being a humiliation for women, it is also a gender inequality issue that deserves theological attention and research to make suggestions and advise on how to reduce or eliminate some practices that promote the subjection of women. The purpose of this article is to research how gender inequality and women abuse continue to manifest because of barrenness. A theoretical framework will direct the research methods – the reading of African-based books, articles, newspapers and other relevant media sources will be utilised.

  15. Politics of Territoriality in Ethiopia: the Case of the Pastoral Gabra of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the current explosion of identity politics in Ethiopia and its entanglement with territoriality. It explains how neighboring groups negotiate, contest, re/construct and deconstruct their politico-territorial positions. It focuses on the processes by which the rules of political participation produce and reinforce ...

  16. First evidence of agro-pastoral farming and anthropogenic impact in the Taman Peninsula, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewski, David; Giaime, Matthieu; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Otto, Thierry; Porotov, Alexey V.; Van Campo, Elise

    2015-04-01

    Debate on the complex coevolution that has shaped interactions between forested ecosystems and humans through constantly evolving land-use practices over the past millennia has long been centered on the Mediterranean because this area is seen as the cradle for the birth and growth of agricultural activities. Here, we argue that the transition from hunting-gathering by Mesolithic foragers to the food-producing economy of Neolithic farmers was a main trigger of biological changes not only in the Mediterranean but also in the Black Sea and Azov Sea coasts through woodcutting, herding, fire and agriculture. Although the ecological erosion was clearly focused on forested ecosystems, this process seems to have fostered an increased biodiversity. We show, by focusing on the fertile coast of the Azov Sea, that (i) the first evidence of cereal cultivation and human-induced fire occurred in southern Russia 7000 years ago; (ii) the early development of agriculture was a major but discontinuous process; (iii) the coastal ecosystems were rapidly disturbed by anthropogenic activities; and (iv) the Neolithic was a critical threshold for the forested ecosystems of the coastal area. The impact of early anthropogenic pressures seems to have been largely neglected or underestimated for the period encompassing the Neolithic cultural phase.

  17. Biblical principles towards a pastoral strategy for poverty alleviation amongst the youth in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asea Wilson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Over centuries, many churches in Uganda have failed to do justice to the gospel to the materially and socially robbed. Their preoccupation has been with the gospel to the sinners. But the salvation of sinners and the care for the materially and socially deprived are part of one and the same gospel. In other words, these churches could not handle the two gospels that are found in the Bible: the salvation of the sinners and care for the physical needs of the poor. It has a gospel for the ‘sinning’, but no gospel for the ‘sinned against’. The church in Uganda must now become involved in the process of mutual commitment to freedom, justice and care for the disadvantaged. It must develop a complete theology of the divine grace for sinners as well as the gospel for the materially and socially disadvantaged. Moreover, however, eradicating material poverty is not simply a matter of making more and better provisions available, but of expanding actual participation so that young people might fulfil their own roles in the whole society to which they belong. An attempt was made to define poverty and to discuss the characteristics of poverty through the exposition of the weak points of both the church and the government that were constructed by means of a literature study as well as qualitative interviews in contrast to the biblical strength that was determined through an exegetical study of texts that specifically dealt with issues of poverty. The views of churches with regard to poverty were taken into consideration. Last but not least, a possible means was developed that could be utilised to break down the persistent poverty amongst the youth in Uganda.

  18. Leontius von Neapolis und Symeon der Heilige Narr : ein Pastor als Hagiograph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstra, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Voor deze studie over de betekenis van de vita van Symeon de Heilige Dwaas in het hagiografisch oeuvre van Leontius van Neapolis wordt eerst positie gekozen in het hagiografisch debat in het algemeen. Moderne inzichten kunnen weliswaar helpen om een heilige te traceren in zijn sociaal-religieuze

  19. Factors Influencing Water Resource Governance among Pastoral Community at Mkondoa Sub-Catchment Morogoro Region Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Yeremia Yohana Masifia; Sarone Ole Sena

    2017-01-01

    The importance of proper Water Resource Management with greater emphasis on ensuring sustainability quality accountability and community participation has become imminent as water resources increasingly become scarce Harvey et al 2007. Water resources management in Tanzania is governed under the National Water Policy of 2002 and Water Resources Management Act No.11 of year 2009. Other related legislations include Environmental Management Act No. 20 of year 2004 Forest Policy and Forest Act No...

  20. Fragmenting pastoral mobility: Changing grazing patterns in Post-Soviet Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Kerven; Ilya Ilych Alimaev; Roy Behnke; Grant Davidson; Nurlan Malmakov; Aidos Smailov; Iain Wright

    2006-01-01

    Kazak nomads were seasonally mobile in the pre-Soviet period, in response to climate variability and landscape heterogeneity. The scale of these movements was interrupted during the Soviet period, but some degree of mobility remained. Mobility virtually ceased in the post-Soviet 1990s, but is reemerging as flock numbers rebound from the mid 1990s population crash.

  1. Impact of overgrazing on the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis in Tibetan pastoral communities of Sichuan Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qian; Xiao, Yong-fu; Vuitton, Dominique A; Schantz, Peter M; Raoul, Francis; Budke, Christine M; Campos-Ponce, Maiza; Craig, Philip S; Giraudoux, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Overgrazing was assumed to increase the population density of small mammals that are the intermediate hosts of Echinococcus multilocularis, the pathogen of alveolar echinococcosis in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. This research tested the hypothesis that overgrazing might promote

  2. Domestic Violence and Abuse Prevention Programmes in the Early Years Classroom: A Pastoral, Academic and Financial Priority?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Bronagh E.; Mason, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Prevention programmes underpin every child's right to "feel" safe and to "be" safe from all forms of harm. Delivered in schools across the globe, they aim to equip children with knowledge about safety and the skills to seek help early. By drawing upon international prevalence and impact research, as well as the legal, policy…

  3. Decadal Trend in Agricultural Abandonment and Woodland Expansion in an Agro-Pastoral Transition Band in Northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    Full Text Available Land use land cover (LULC changes frequently in ecotones due to the large climate and soil gradients, and complex landscape composition and configuration. Accurate mapping of LULC changes in ecotones is of great importance for assessment of ecosystem functions/services and policy-decision support. Decadal or sub-decadal mapping of LULC provides scenarios for modeling biogeochemical processes and their feedbacks to climate, and evaluating effectiveness of land-use policies, e.g. forest conversion. However, it remains a great challenge to produce reliable LULC maps in moderate resolution and to evaluate their uncertainties over large areas with complex landscapes. In this study we developed a robust LULC classification system using multiple classifiers based on MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data and posterior data fusion. Not only does the system create LULC maps with high statistical accuracy, but also it provides pixel-level uncertainties that are essential for subsequent analyses and applications. We applied the classification system to the Agro-pasture transition band in northern China (APTBNC to detect the decadal changes in LULC during 2003-2013 and evaluated the effectiveness of the implementation of major Key Forestry Programs (KFPs. In our study, the random forest (RF, support vector machine (SVM, and weighted k-nearest neighbors (WKNN classifiers outperformed the artificial neural networks (ANN and naive Bayes (NB in terms of high classification accuracy and low sensitivity to training sample size. The Bayesian-average data fusion based on the results of RF, SVM, and WKNN achieved the 87.5% Kappa statistics, higher than any individual classifiers and the majority-vote integration. The pixel-level uncertainty map agreed with the traditional accuracy assessment. However, it conveys spatial variation of uncertainty. Specifically, it pinpoints the southwestern area of APTBNC has higher uncertainty than other part of the region, and the open shrubland is likely to be misclassified to the bare ground in some locations. Forests, closed shrublands, and grasslands in APTBNC expanded by 23%, 50%, and 9%, respectively, during 2003-2013. The expansion of these land cover types is compensated with the shrinkages in croplands (20%, bare ground (15%, and open shrublands (30%. The significant decline in agricultural lands is primarily attributed to the KFPs implemented in the end of last century and the nationwide urbanization in recent decade. The increased coverage of grass and woody plants would largely reduce soil erosion, improve mitigation of climate change, and enhance carbon sequestration in this region.

  4. Updated distribution of Osmoderma eremita in Abruzzo (Italy and agro-pastoral practices affecting its conservation (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Giangregorio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New records of Osmoderma eremita (Scopoli, 1763 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae are reported for Abruzzo (Italy, together with a review of its distribution in this region. O. eremita is a saproxylic beetle dependent on the presence of hollow deciduous trees with abundant wood mould in their cavities. The major threats for the species are habitat loss and fragmentation. EU Habitats Directive requests to the member States its protection and the monitoring of its conservation status. Detection of its occurrence is the first step to protect the species. The surveys have been carried out in ten sites of Abruzzo by using black cross-windows traps baited with specific pheromone. The species has been recorded for the first time in the Sant’Antonio forest and its presence is confirmed in the Peligna Valley, after a decade. The populations seem to be confined to small patches of suitable habitats. At local level, the abandonment of the pollarding practice (willow and beech forests and the use of pollarded trees as biomass for fuel are the major threats for this species. Indeed some key actions, such as the protection of old hollow trees and the continuation of pollarding practice in rural landscape, could be key factors for the conservation strategies of the species in the study area.

  5. Adapting the Biome-BGC Model to New Zealand Pastoral Agriculture: Climate Change and Land-Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, E. D.; Baisden, W. T.; Timar, L.

    2011-12-01

    We have adapted the Biome-BGC model to make climate change and land-use scenario estimates of New Zealand's pasture production in 2020 and 2050, with comparison to a 2005 baseline. We take an integrated modelling approach with the aim of enabling the model's use for policy assessments across broadly related issues such as climate change mitigation and adaptation, land-use change, and greenhouse gas projections. The Biome-BGC model is a biogeochemical model that simulates carbon, water, and nitrogen cycles in terrestrial ecosystems. We introduce two new 'ecosystems', sheep/beef and dairy pasture, within the existing structure of the Biome-BGC model and calibrate its ecophysiological parameters against pasture clipping data from diverse sites around New Zealand to form a baseline estimate of total New Zealand pasture production. Using downscaled AR4 climate projections, we construct mid- and upper-range climate change scenarios in 2020 and 2050. We produce land-use change scenarios in the same years by combining the Biome-BGC model with the Land Use in Rural New Zealand (LURNZ) model. The LURNZ model uses econometric approaches to predict future land-use change driven by changes in net profits driven by expected pricing, including the introduction of an emission trading system. We estimate the relative change in national pasture production from our 2005 baseline levels for both sheep/beef and dairy systems under each scenario.

  6. A Gaudium et Spes e a Evangelii Gaudium: um estudo comparativo na perspectiva da conversão pastoral

    OpenAIRE

    Colletto, Raquel Maria de Paola

    2015-01-01

    A pesquisa volta-se para o atual contexto vivencial da Igreja, que sente grande dificuldade de transmitir a fé às novas gerações. Vive-se uma época de profundas mudanças. Constata-se que a crise na sociedade contemporânea e a crise eclesial não estão dicotomizadas, estão, na realidade, intimamente relacionadas. Encontra-se subjacente, nos documentos do Concílio Vaticano II, a necessidade de uma evangelização que conduza a um renovado empenho missionário. Esse processo está presente em toda tr...

  7. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on Rift Valley fever among agro pastoral communities in Kongwa and Kilombero districts, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Sasita S; Ezekiel, Mangi J; Mohamed, Mohamed; Moshiro, Candida S

    2015-08-21

    Rift valley fever (RVF) is a re-emerging viral vector-borne disease with rapid global socio-economic impact. A large RVF outbreak occurred in Tanzania in 2007 and affected more than half of the regions with high (47 %) case fatality rate. Little is known about RVF and its dynamics. A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding RVF in Kongwa and Kilombero districts, Tanzania. We conducted a cross sectional survey among a randomly selected sample of individuals in 2011. We administered questionnaires to collect data on demographic characteristics, knowledge on symptoms, mode of transmission, prevention, attitudes and health seeking practices. A total of 463 community members participated in this study. The mean (±SD) age was 39.8 ± 14.4 years and 238 (51.4 %) were female. Majority of respondents had heard of RVF. However, only 8.8 % knew that mosquitoes were transmitting vectors. Male respondents were more likely to have greater knowledge about RVF. A small proportion mentioned clinical signs and symptoms of RVF in animals while 73.7 % mentioned unhealthy practices related to handling and consumption of dead animals. Thorough boiling of milk and cooking of meat were commonly mentioned as preventive measures for RVF. Majority (74.6 %) sought care for febrile illness at health facilities. Few (24.3 %) reported the use of protective gears to handle dead/sick animal while 15.5 % were consuming dead animals. Our study highlights the need to address the limited knowledge about RVF and promoting appropriate and timely health seeking practices. Rift valley fever outbreaks can be effectively managed with collaborative efforts of lay and professional communities with a shared perception that it poses a serious threat to public and animal health. The fact that this study was conducted in "high risk transmission areas" warrants further inquiry in other geographic regions with relatively low risk of RVF.

  8. Seasonal Shifts in Primary Water Source Type: A Comparison of Largely Pastoral Communities in Uganda and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber L. Pearson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many water-related illnesses show an increase during the wet season. This is often due to fecal contamination from runoff, yet, it is unknown whether seasonal changes in water availability may also play a role in increased illness via changes in the type of primary water source used by households. Very little is known about the dynamic aspects of access to water and changes in source type across seasons, particularly in semi-arid regions with annual water scarcity. The research questions in this study were: (1 To what degree do households in Uganda (UG and Tanzania (TZ change primary water source type between wet and dry seasons?; and (2 How might seasonal changes relate to water quality and health? Using spatial survey data from 92 households each in UG and TZ this study found that, from wet to dry season, 26% (UG and 9% (TZ of households switched from a source with higher risk of contamination to a source with lower risk. By comparison, only 20% (UG and 0% (TZ of households switched from a source with lower risk of contamination to a source with higher risk of contamination. This research suggests that one pathway through which water-related disease prevalence may differ across seasons is the use of water sources with higher risk contamination, and that households with access to sources with lower risks of contamination sometimes choose to use more contaminated sources.

  9. Ecosystem Services are Social-ecological Services in a Traditional Pastoral System: the Case of California's Mediterranean Rangelands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Huntsinger

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available When attempting to value ecosystem services and support their production, two critical aspects may be neglected. The term "ecosystem services" implies that they are a function of natural processes; yet, human interaction with the environment may be key to the production of many. This can contribute to a misconception that ecosystem service production depends on, or is enhanced by, the coercion or removal of human industry. Second, in programs designed to encourage ecosystem service production and maintenance, too often the inter-relationship of such services with social and ecological processes and drivers at multiple scales is ignored. Thinking of such services as "social-ecological services" can reinforce the importance of human culture, perspectives, and economies to the production of ecosystem services. Using a social-ecological systems perspective, we explore the integral role of human activity and decisions at pasture, ranch, and landscape scales. Just as it does for understanding ecosystems, a hierarchical, multiscaled framework facilitates exploring the complexity of social-ecological systems as producers of ecosystem services, to develop approaches for the conservation of such services. Using California's Mediterranean rangelands as a study area, we suggest that using a multiscaled approach that considers the importance of the differing drivers and processes at each scale and the interactions among scales, and that incorporates social-ecological systems concepts, may help avoid mistakes caused by narrow assumptions about "natural" systems, and a lack of understanding of the need for integrated, multiscaled conservation programs.

  10. Life in the fast lane: Settled pastoralism in the Central Eurasian Steppe during the Middle Bronze Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Margaret A; Walker, Jessica L; Ventresca Miller, Alicia; Razhev, Dmitry; Epimakhov, Andrey V; Hanks, Bryan K

    2018-04-19

    We tested the hypothesis that the purported unstable climate in the South Urals region during the Middle Bronze Age (MBA) resulted in health instability and social stress as evidenced by skeletal response. The skeletal sample (n = 99) derived from Kamennyi Ambar 5 (KA-5), a MBA kurgan cemetery (2040-1730 cal. BCE, 2 sigma) associated with the Sintashta culture. Skeletal stress indicators assessed included cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, dental enamel hypoplasia, and tibia periosteal new bone growth. Dental disease (caries, abscess, calculus, and periodontitis) and trauma were scored. Results were compared to regional data from the nearby Samara Valley, spanning the Early to Late Bronze Age (EBA, LBA). Lesions were minimal for the KA-5 and MBA-LBA groups except for periodontitis and dental calculus. No unambiguous weapon injuries or injuries associated with violence were observed for the KA-5 group; few injuries occurred at other sites. Subadults (age. Skeletal stress markers and injuries were uncommon among the KA-5 and regional groups, but a MBA-LBA high subadult mortality indicates elevated frailty levels and inability to survive acute illnesses. Following an optimal weaning program, subadults were at risk for physiological insult and many succumbed. Only a small number of individuals attained biological maturity during the MBA, suggesting that a fast life history was an adaptive regional response to a less hospitable and perhaps unstable environment. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. a re-reading of john 8:1–11 from a pastoral liberative perspective on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-08-06

    Aug 6, 2010 ... silence under sophisticated male dominance. ... using the biblical passages to indicate how women were harassed and abused by ... workplace and elsewhere. ... sexual relations by employers remain as common in South.

  12. The simple living of Leo Tolstoy and the slippery slope of consumerism in a context of poverty: A pastoral guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah K. Tenai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The nature of consumerism, which manifests in the belief that excessive accumulation of material goods represents a fuller and more meaningful life, is a growing global phenomenon, and has an effect on both the ‘haves’ and the ‘have-nots’. In addition, poverty levels globally and in Kenya in particular, remain unacceptably high. The situation of poverty in Kenya is partly worsened by the trapping effects of consumerism. The life of a wealthy and prosperous writer, Leo Tolstoy, who succumbed to depression in spite of his fame and material wealth, is examined with a view to establish how he overcame his depression and found meaning in life. The lessons he learnt from turning to a study of the peasantry are extrapolated and proposed for the churches’ response to the challenge of consumerism in contexts of poverty.

  13. Malignant catarrhal fever in pastoral Maasai herds caused by wildebeest associated alcelaphine herpesvirus-1: An outbreak report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swai, Emanuel Senyael; Kapaga, Angolwise Mwakibete; Sudi, Francis; Loomu, Potari Meshack; Joshua, Gladyness

    2013-01-01

    An outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF), a fatal viral disease in indigenous Tanzanian shorthorn zebu in Ngorongoro district of Tanzania during the period of June 2004 has been described. The disease was diagnosed by clinical, post mortem findings and the virus was identified using molecular characterization study. The history and clinical features included pyrexia, cornel opacity, nasal discharges, multifocal buccal ulceration of varying size and general unthrifty. Pathological features showed that abomasum and intestine contents were blood tinged and their walls were congested and hyperemic with scattered hemorrhagic patches. Furthermore greenish-black longitudinal stripes in the caecum and ileo-caecal junction that disappeared upon opening of the intestine were a distinct feature. It has been concluded that as the wildebeest have a wide distribution throughout Tanzania, it is likely that MCF occurs in many parts of the country and therefore continuation of surveillance system seems necessary.

  14. Environmental implications of jatropha biofuel from a silvi-pastoral production system in central-west Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailis, Rob; Kavlak, Goksin

    2013-07-16

    We present a life cycle assessment of synthetic paraffinic kerosene produced from Jatropha curcas. The feedstock is grown in an intercropping arrangement with pasture grasses so that Jatropha is coproduced with cattle. Additional innovations are introduced including hybrid seeds, detoxification of jatropha seedcake, and cogeneration. Two fuel pathways are examined including a newly developed catalytic decarboxylation process. Sensitivities are examined including higher planting density at the expense of cattle production as well as 50% lower yields. Intercropping with pasture and detoxifying seedcake yield coproducts that are expected to relieve pressure on Brazil's forests and indirectly reduce environmental impacts of biofuel production. Other innovations also reduce impacts. Results of the baseline assessment indicate that innovations would reduce impacts relative to the fossil fuel reference scenario in most categories including 62-75% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, 64-82% reduction in release of ozone depleting chemicals, 33-52% reduction in smog-forming pollutants, 6-25% reduction in acidification, and 60-72% reduction in use of nonrenewable energy. System expansion, which explicitly accounts for avoided deforestation, results in larger improvements. Results are robust across allocation methodologies, improve with higher planting density, and persist if yield is reduced by half.

  15. Multiple and differentiated contributions to the male gene pool of pastoral and farmer populations of the African Sahel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bučková, J.; Černý, Viktor; Novelletto, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 151, č. 1 (2013), s. 10-21 ISSN 0002-9483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37998S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Y chromosome * nomadic pastoralists * sedentary farmers Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.514, year: 2013

  16. Malignant catarrhal fever in pastoral Maasai herds caused by wildebeest associated alcelaphine herpesvirus-1: An outbreak report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Senyael Swai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, a fatal viral disease in indigenous Tanzanian shorthorn zebu in Ngorongoro district of Tanzania during the period of June 2004 has been described. The disease was diagnosed by clinical, post mortem findings and the virus was identified using molecular characterization study. The history and clinical features included pyrexia, cornel opacity, nasal discharges, multifocal buccal ulceration of varying size and general unthrifty. Pathological features showed that abomasum and intestine contents were blood tinged and their walls were congested and hyperemic with scattered hemorrhagic patches. Furthermore greenish-black longitudinal stripes in the caecum and ileo-caecal junction that disappeared upon opening of the intestine were a distinct feature. It has been concluded that as the wildebeest have a wide distribution throughout Tanzania, it is likely that MCF occurs in many parts of the country and therefore continuation of surveillance system seems necessary.

  17. Short communication: Effects of summer rainfall variations on sheep body state and farming sustainability in sub-Mediterranean pastoral systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Scocco

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Mediterranean climate the grassland aboveground phytomass production peaks in late spring and drops in summer, when the decrease of the pasture feed value may lead to the worsening of the animal welfare. Our goal was to define the summer rainfall values leading to a decrease of semi-extensive farming system sustainability in sub-Mediterranean regions. Summer rainfall variations reflect in the aboveground phytomass production and on the sheep body state. Differences of body condition score (BCS among years were significant in late summer, which is the mating period for sheep. In the driest year the BCS of end August drops down to 2.1, largely below the value considered sufficient to ensure the animal breeding/milking performances (2.5. Reduction of summer rainfall greater than 15–20% compared to the normal average value (thus less than expected by the scenario of climate change might be detrimental for semi-extensive rearing sustainability in sub-Mediterranean climate.

  18. Distance no impediment for funerals: Death as a uniting ritual for African people � A pastoral study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magezi E. Baloyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An African funeral is a very social event for the entire community in which the deceased lived.Regardless of whether the deceased was a Christian or not, death has always been a reunion forlong-separated relatives, believers and non-believers. Nowadays, tents, cars and the gatheringof multitudes of people demonstrate how death can bring people together, irrespective ofdistance and relationships. Of course, this is not to deny the fact that death can be a cause ofdivision between relatives and friends. Nonetheless, the funeral itself is also a uniting factor;many people come together, regardless of distance, to pay their last tributes to the deceasedand to provide the bereaved family with emotional support. In this article, I argue that death,amongst other things, is a uniting factor that is able to bring people, who are separated bydistance and other factors, together. The aim of this article is to discuss how death invitespeople into a family, regardless of bad blood, flawed relationships and separation.

  19. Short communication: Effects of summer rainfall variations on sheep body state and farming sustainability in sub-Mediterranean pastoral systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scocco, P.; Piermarteri, K.; Malfatti, A.; Tardella, F.M.; Catorci, A.

    2016-11-01

    In sub-Mediterranean climate the grassland aboveground phytomass production peaks in late spring and drops in summer, when the decrease of the pasture feed value may lead to the worsening of the animal welfare. Our goal was to define the summer rainfall values leading to a decrease of semi-extensive farming system sustainability in sub-Mediterranean regions. Summer rainfall variations reflect in the aboveground phytomass production and on the sheep body state. Differences of body condition score (BCS) among years were significant in late summer, which is the mating period for sheep. In the driest year the BCS of end August drops down to 2.1, largely below the value considered sufficient to ensure the animal breeding/milking performances (2.5). Reduction of summer rainfall greater than 15–20% compared to the normal average value (thus less than expected by the scenario of climate change) might be detrimental for semi-extensive rearing sustainability in sub-Mediterranean climate. (Author)

  20. Factors affecting the reproductive performance of Bunaji cattle under different pastoral management systems in the Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eduvie, L.O.; Bawa, E.K.; Dawuda, P.M.; Oyedipe, E.O.; Olorunju, S.A.S.; Bales, J.O.; Sekoni, V.O.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of management on the productivity of Bunaji cattle were investigated on 6 farms using 38 post-partum cows and 8 heifers. General information obtained on management of the farms indicated differences in managements practices between farms. The screening of the animals in the various farms for blood and endo-parasites showed that some of the farms had problems of helminthiasis and fascioliasis. Uterine involution was complete within 25 days of calving in all post-partum cows. Intervals from calving to ovulation and conception were different between farms. The conception rates for all farms over a period of 730 days ranged from 60 to 100%. A higher percentage of heifers on farm A reached puberty at an earlier age than those in farm B. It was concluded that management affects reproductive performance and thus productivity of Bunaji cattle, with nutrition and disease being the major contributing factors. (author). 10 refs, 7 tabs

  1. New rules are not rules: Privatization of pastoral commons and local attempts at curtailment in southwest Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Friederike Goetter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the case of indigenous privatization of the important fodder tree samata (Euphorbia stenoclada and concurrent legal curtailment of this privatization among the Tanalana people of southwest Madagascar from a long-term perspective. Applying a framework for institutional change to empirical data derived from interviews conducted in 20 villages in the Mahafaly Plateau region, the study explores the process and mechanisms involved in creating and asserting private property rights to this common pool resource on the one hand, and the process of curtailment on the other. Implementation of the curtailing institutions is hampered by (1 the low bargaining power of village communities versus privatizers, which stems from the users’ preference for avoiding open conflicts and laissez faire ideology, (2 the low social acceptance and internalization of new curtailment rules, which are perceived as contradictory to customary resource privatization rights and the ideology of personal freedom restricted only by ancestral rules-in-use, and (3 ineffective self-governance and enforcement mechanisms based on pro-active monitoring of local users. Stressing the interplay between ideology and bargaining power in the context-specific constellation of actors, this paper contributes to the understanding of the transformation of property rights and institutional change in self-organized, traditional societies.

  2. Cooperation between In-Hospital Psychological Support and Pastoral Care Providers: Obstacles and Opportunities for a Modern Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proserpio, Tullio; Ferrari, Andrea; Veneroni, Laura; Arice, Carmine; Massimino, Maura; Clerici, Carlo Alfredo

    2017-09-01

    The meaning that patients with cancer attribute to life influences their expectations and their attitudes to the disease and its treatment. Over the centuries, religion has commonly been the answer encoded by the social setting when it came to matters of life and death. The present article analyzes the historical grounds for forms of cooperation between the scientific disciplines that focus on mental health and the approach of religion, centered on the Italian situation. Such cooperation was hard to imagine in the past, but the situation has changed considerably and cooperation is not only possible but extremely desirable. Acknowledgment of their spiritual needs helps patients to battle with their disease. The care of patients should include catering for their spiritual needs by ensuring the constant presence of a chaplain on hospital wards.

  3. Multiple-purpose trees for pastoral farming in New Zealand: with emphasis on tree legumes. [Lucerne Tree: Medick Tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, D J.G.; Macfarlane, R P

    1979-01-01

    The potential for soil conservation and agroforestry of several native and exotic legumes is discussed. Flowering period, chemical composition of leaves/pods, hardiness to frost and drought, timber value, forage potential for livestock and bees, ornamental value and other products are tabulated with information on up to 38 species. Two low-growing species that have proved useful for slope stabilization as well as forage are tree lucerne (Cytisus palmensis) and tree medick (Medicago arborea), the latter being shrubby and more suitable for cold districts. Gleditsia triacanthos is recommended as a shade and fodder tree for farm pasture.

  4. Hacia la construcción del gracioso: Carnaval y metateatralidad en los pastores de Bartolomé Torres Naharro

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Vélez-Sainz

    2009-01-01

    Resumen: Es común en la crítica del teatro áureo destacar la función metaliteraria del personaje del gracioso. Éste funcionaría como un elemento casi ficticio dentro de la ficción de la comedia (la “ilusión escénica”) y sus apartes dramáticos marcan el ritmo de ésta, lo que le serviría a los autores a ejercer una cierta crítica literaria a partir de estos personajes. El siguiente estudio plantea un acercamiento a los albores del teatro laico en la España pre-renacentista que desvela la metate...

  5. Conflicts between traditional pastoralism and conservation of Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) in the Trans-Himalayan mountains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagchi, S.; Mishra, C.; Bhatnagar, Y.V.

    2004-01-01

    There is recent evidence to suggest that domestic livestock deplete the density and diversity of wild herbivores in the cold deserts of the Trans-Himalaya by imposing resource limitations. To ascertain the degree and nature of threats faced by Himalayan ibex (Capra sibirica) from seven livestock

  6. Practising pastoralism in an agricultural environment: An isotopic analysis of the impact of the Hunnic incursions on Pannonian populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne E Hakenbeck

    Full Text Available We conducted a multi-isotope study of five fifth-century AD cemeteries in modern-day Hungary to determine relationships between nomadic-pastoralist incomers-the historically documented Huns and other nomadic groups-and the sedentary agricultural population of the late Roman province of Pannonia. Contemporary historical sources describe this relationship as adversarial and destructive for the late Roman population, but archaeological evidence indicates high levels of hybridity between different groups. We undertook carbon, nitrogen, strontium and oxygen isotope analyses of bone collagen, dentine and tooth enamel at Keszthely-Fenékpuszta, Hács-Béndekpuszta, Győr-Széchenyi Square, Mözs and Szolnok-Szanda to examine these relationships through past subsistence practices. The patterns at all sites indicate medium to high animal protein consumption with little evidence for a significant contribution of aquatic resources. All populations relied to a great extent on C4 plants, most likely millet. Within each population, diet was heterogeneous, with significant variations in terms of animal protein and C3 and C4 plant consumption. High levels of intra-population and individual variability suggest that populations made use of a range of subsistence strategies, with many individuals exhibiting significant changes over their lifetimes. Rather than being characterised only by violence, the historically-documented influx of nomadic populations appears to have led to widespread changes in subsistence strategies of populations in the Carpathian basin. Nomadic-pastoralist groups may have switched to smaller herds and more farming, and, conversely, local populations may have integrated with a new economic system based on animal herding.

  7. Brucellosis in cattle and micro-scale spatial variability of pastoral household income from dairy production in south western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina, Pius Mbuya; Mugisha, Samuel; Leirs, Herwig; Basuta, Gilbert Isabirye; Van Damme, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Brucellosis in cattle and humans has received world-wide research attention as a neglected and re-emerging zoonotic disease with many routes of transmission. Studies of brucellosis in Uganda have emphasized occupational exposures and also revealed variations in prevalence levels by region and cattle production systems. To date, research linking pastoralist household income from dairy production to brucellosis and its transmission risk pathways do not exist in Uganda. We assessed whether spatial differences in unit milk prices can be explained by brucellosis prevalence in cattle along a distance gradient from Lake Mburo National Park in Uganda. Semi-structured interviews administered to 366 randomly selected household heads were supplemented with serological data on brucellosis in cattle. Statistical analysis included Pearson correlation test, multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS version 17. Serological results showed that 44% of cattle blood samples were sero-positive for brucellosis. The results obtained from interviews put the statistical mean of household reported cattle abortions at 5.39 (5.08-5.70 at 95% CI, n=366). Post-hoc analysis of variance revealed that both sero-positive cattle and reported cattle abortions significantly were much lower when moving outwards from the park boundary (pbrucellosis management practices at the nexus of wildlife and livestock in Uganda. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Creating an In-School Pastoral System for Student Teachers in School-Based Initial Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Carey

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in initial teacher education (ITE) have produced a number of school-centred models. These mean that student teachers may now spend more of their time in schools than has historically been the case. In some of these models, student teachers are more clearly part of the school as an institution than might be the case in more…

  9. Spatial pattern of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, and analysis of related factors in an agro-pastoral zone in Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuyang; Chen, Yinping; Lian, Jie; Luo, Yongqing; Niu, Yayi; Gong, Xiangwen

    2018-01-01

    The spatial pattern of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) densities plays a profound important role in estimating carbon and nitrogen budgets. Naiman Banner located in northern China was chosen as research site, a total of 332 soil samples were taken in a depth of 100 cm from the low hilly land in the southern part, sandy land in the middle part and an alluvial plain in the northern part of the county. The results showed that SOC and TN density initially decreased and then increased from the north to the south, The highest densities, were generally in the south, with the lowest generally in the middle part. The SOC and TN densities in cropland were significantly greater than those in woodland and grassland in the alluvial plains and for Naiman as a whole. The woodland SOC and TN density were higher than those of grassland in the low hilly land, and higher densities of SOC and TN in grassland than woodland in the sandy land and low hilly land. There were significant differences in SOC and TN densities among the five soil types of Cambisols, Arenosols, Gleysols, Argosols, and Kastanozems. In addition, SOC and TN contents generally decreased with increasing soil depth, but increased below a depth of 40 cm in the Cambisols and became roughly constant at this depth in the Kastanozems. There is considerable potential to sequester carbon and nitrogen in the soil via the conversion of degraded sandy land into woodland and grassland in alluvial plain, and more grassland should be established in sandy land and low hilly land. PMID:29771979

  10. Repercusión del Clima Organizacional en la Calidad de Atención del Cliente Externo del Hospital I Samuel Pastor - Camaná. Arequipa, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Cano Vargas, Ana María

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente tesis es determinar la repercusión del Clima Organizacional en la Calidad de Atención del Cliente Externo del Hospital I Camaná, teniendo en cuenta la satisfacción de las necesidades de salud de sus usuarios con eficiencia y eficacia. El nivel del estudio fue explicativo y la técnica e instrumento que se utilizaron para medir el Clima Organizacional y la Calidad de Atención fueron el cuestionario y la cédula de preguntas, respectivamente. En el Personal Profesion...

  11. ‘Love Does Not Delight in Evil, but Rejoices With the Truth.’ A Theological and Pastoral Reflection On My Journey Away From A Homosexual Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doherty Sean

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article offers theological reflection on the author’s experience, initially as a celibate gay person and subsequently as someone who has chosen not to be defined as gay and who has married. It argues that faithfulness to the classic Christian teaching about sex and marriage is liberating rather than homophobic, and that the contemporary cultural tendency to conflate sexual desire with identity bears at least some of the blame for the gay experience of marginalisation. This conflation must be questioned. The article concludes by relating this to Dietrich Bonhoeffer’s critique of anthropocentric construals of ‘love’.

  12. Community Perceptions on Integrating Animal Vaccination and Health Education by Veterinary and Public Health Workers in the Prevention of Brucellosis among Pastoral Communities of South Western Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansiime, Catherine; Atuyambe, Lynn M.; Asiimwe, Benon B.; Mugisha, Anthony; Mugisha, Samuel; Guma, Victor; Rwego, Innocent B.; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of veterinary, public health, and economic significance in most developing countries, yet there are few studies that show integrated human and veterinary health care intervention focusing on integration at both activity and actors levels. The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore community perceptions on integration of animal vaccination and health education by veterinary and public health workers in the management of brucellosis in Uganda. Methods This study used a qualitative design where six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) that were homogenous in nature were conducted, two from each sub-county, one with the local leaders, and another with pastoralists and farmers. Five Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) with two public health workers and three veterinary extension workers from three sub-counties in Kiruhura district, Uganda were conducted. All FGDs were conducted in the local language and tape recorded with consent from the participants. KIIs were in English and later transcribed and analyzed using latent content data analysis method. Results All the groups mentioned that they lacked awareness on brucellosis commonly known as Brucella and its vaccination in animals. Respondents perceived improvement in human resources in terms of training and recruiting more health personnel, facilitation of the necessary activities such as sensitization of the communities about brucellosis, and provision of vaccines and diagnostic tests as very important in the integration process in the communities. The FGD participants also believed that community participation was crucial for sustainability and ownership of the integration process. Conclusions The respondents reported limited knowledge of brucellosis and its vaccination in animals. The community members believed that mass animal vaccination in combination with health education about the disease is important and possible if it involves government and all other stakeholders such as wildlife authorities, community members, local to national political leaders, as well as the technical personnel from veterinary, medical and public health sectors since it affects both humans and animals. PMID:26218368

  13. Learning large-scale dynamic discrete choice models of spatio-temporal preferences with application to migratory pastoralism in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding spatio-temporal resource preferences is paramount in the design of policies for sustainable development. Unfortunately, resource preferences are often unknown to policy-makers and have to be inferred from data. In this paper we consider the problem of inferring agents’ preferences fro...

  14. Community Perceptions on Integrating Animal Vaccination and Health Education by Veterinary and Public Health Workers in the Prevention of Brucellosis among Pastoral Communities of South Western Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Kansiime

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of veterinary, public health, and economic significance in most developing countries, yet there are few studies that show integrated human and veterinary health care intervention focusing on integration at both activity and actors levels. The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore community perceptions on integration of animal vaccination and health education by veterinary and public health workers in the management of brucellosis in Uganda.This study used a qualitative design where six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs that were homogenous in nature were conducted, two from each sub-county, one with the local leaders, and another with pastoralists and farmers. Five Key Informant Interviews (KIIs with two public health workers and three veterinary extension workers from three sub-counties in Kiruhura district, Uganda were conducted. All FGDs were conducted in the local language and tape recorded with consent from the participants. KIIs were in English and later transcribed and analyzed using latent content data analysis method.All the groups mentioned that they lacked awareness on brucellosis commonly known as Brucella and its vaccination in animals. Respondents perceived improvement in human resources in terms of training and recruiting more health personnel, facilitation of the necessary activities such as sensitization of the communities about brucellosis, and provision of vaccines and diagnostic tests as very important in the integration process in the communities. The FGD participants also believed that community participation was crucial for sustainability and ownership of the integration process.The respondents reported limited knowledge of brucellosis and its vaccination in animals. The community members believed that mass animal vaccination in combination with health education about the disease is important and possible if it involves government and all other stakeholders such as wildlife authorities, community members, local to national political leaders, as well as the technical personnel from veterinary, medical and public health sectors since it affects both humans and animals.

  15. Men of the Cloth: African-American Clergy's Knowledge and Experience in Providing Pastoral Care to African-American Elders with Late-Life Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Kim L.

    2011-01-01

    African-American clergy's ability to recognize late-life depression and their capacity to provide support with this illness have been neglected in the literature. Using a mental health literacy framework, the purpose of this research was to explore African-American clergy's knowledge of and treatments for late-life depression. In-depth interviews…

  16. Wild carnivore and wild bird deposits in an agro-pastoral community during the Bronze Age: Can Roqueta II (northeast Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albizuru, S., Maroto, J., Nadal, J., Majó, T., Sánchez Marco, A., Carlús, X., Rodríguez, A., Palomo, A.

    2015-01-01

    En este caso la identificación taxonómica indica la importancia de los animales domésticos seguramente debido a su papel en la economía, así como su uso en ofrendas alimentarias y también en ofrendas simbólicas que manifiestan el estatus de los muertos. Por el contrario, el estudio tafonómico indica la escasez de animales salvajes depositados intencionalmente –seis aves y dos carnívoros– y muestra el uso diferencial de estas especies respecto a las domésticas, ya que mientras los animales importantes en la alimentación humana fueron normalmente dispuestos como ofrendas de comida para los difuntos, los animales salvajes parecen estar más estrechamente relacionados con símbolos de la vida o totémicos.

  17. The fear of the Lord as key pastoral guidance, for a healing ministry to survivors of generational ritual abuse / by Karen Hayward

    OpenAIRE

    Hayward, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Generational ritual abuse within satanic or fertility (abusive witchcraft) cults is a controversial subject. This study shows that, while not all reported memories may be true, False Memory Syndrome is not an intrinsic scientific reality of generational ritual abuse. Recent publications under the editorial pens of Noblitt and Perskin Noblitt (2008), as well as Sachs and Galton (2008), describe the types of abuse and torture perpetrated in various forms of ritual abuse (including the results o...

  18. THE DIGNITY OF THE HUMAN PERSON AND HUMAN SOCIETY: A CONTEMPORARY READING OF VATICAN II’S PASTORAL CONSTITUTI ON «GAUDIUMET SPES» OF 1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PH. BORDEYNE

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This contribution discusses the topic of moral ethics as expounded by the Second Vatican Council in its dogmatic constitution «Gaudium et Spes». It off ers a consistent and detailed analysis of the principle ideas essential for the understanding of the Council’s doctrine on the dignity of the human person and which are based on a theological interpretation of the human person as a social being. In this way, the Council took an innovative stance on the subject of the human person in society and the Roman Catholic Church consequently for the fi rst time in history opened itself more completely to the exploration of a full range of social problems

  19. PASTORALISM AND THE ROMANIANS HISTORY 2. PEOPLE, LANGUAGES, GENES AND THE LOCAL SHEEP BREEDS, IN NORTH-EASTERN BLACK SEA STEPPE

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    Condrea DRĂGĂNESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 17 gubernyias of the former Russian Empire of 1740-1812-1918 years, was identified (1912-1924 some 7 breeds of the Romanian Walachian phyletic group, of sheep breeds and in some gubernyias the Romanian Tsigai breed. It seems that from the present Moldavian Republic to the rivers Bug and Dnieper the sheep production was of sedentary type, connected with some local Romanian inhabitants. It see also that over the Dnieper the breed presence was connected also with the transhumance practiced up to 1918 by the Transylvanian Romanian transhumance shepherds, some of them organizers after 1918 Romanian of sheep breeds association in Crimea and North Caucasus area. The official statistics from 1925 year registered in the former SSSR (without Bassarabia some 259,324 Romanians. Different historical sources estimated a higher number (1.2 million, 600,000 just in Siberia A possible explanation of founded sheep and man presence in this area can be the fact that it was the antique borderland between Thraco-Dacia and Scythia border, and the Walachian (=Romanian sheep were the sheep of Thraco-Geto-Dacs, Romanian ancestors. Transylvanian transhumance and Romanian from SE Romania introduced later Tsigai in North Pontic, this breed being introduced later by Roman in Carpathian bend.

  20. The Figure of Radha in Miniature Paintings: From the Pastoral to the Courtly, from Text to Visuality, from Polyphony to Normativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cattoni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses how Radha was depicted in miniature paintings between the 16th and 19th century in North India. Interrogating the link between text and image, contrasting poetry, style and historical settings with the visual representations of this central figure, the reflections focus on the changing nature of Radha. Through various examples from miniature paintings of different periods and schools, this article analyses the way the rich personality of Radha was transposed into images. In order to stress the changes brought to this female figure, she will be compared to Krishna, the masculine figure who is always at her side. The main goal of the article is to show the normative power of images on the figure of Radha, with normativity being understood as the simplification, iconisation, aestheticisation and stereotypification of a figure with polysemous references.