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Sample records for pastoral area northeast

  1. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/maize (Zea mays L.) intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

  2. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L./maize (Zea mays L. intercropping provides a feasible way to improve yield and economic incomes in farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoru Sun

    Full Text Available Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China.

  3. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)/Maize (Zea mays L.) Intercropping Provides a Feasible Way to Improve Yield and Economic Incomes in Farming and Pastoral Areas of Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoru; Peng, Yi; Yang, Hongyu; Li, Zhijian; Gao, Yingzhi; Wang, Chao; Yan, Yuli; Liu, Yanmei

    2014-01-01

    Given the growing challenges to food and eco-environmental security as well as sustainable development of animal husbandry in the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China, it is crucial to identify advantageous intercropping modes and some constraints limiting its popularization. In order to assess the performance of various intercropping modes of maize and alfalfa, a field experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with five treatments: maize monoculture in even rows, maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows, alfalfa monoculture, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows and maize intercropped with two rows of alfalfa in wide rows. Results demonstrate that maize monoculture in alternating wide and narrow rows performed best for light transmission, grain yield and output value, compared to in even rows. When intercropped, maize intercropped with one row of alfalfa in wide rows was identified as the optimal strategy and the largely complementary ecological niches of alfalfa and maize were shown to account for the intercropping advantages, optimizing resource utilization and improving yield and economic incomes. These findings suggest that alfalfa/maize intercropping has obvious advantages over monoculture and is applicable to the farming and pastoral areas of northeast China. PMID:25329376

  4. Theoretical Construction of Freedom and Pluralism Education in Pastoral Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuyan

    2009-01-01

    At beginning of the article, the author has a brief introduction of basic conditions in pastoral areas of Imperial Town, and interprets ethnic relations among Han, Tibetan, Mongolian, Yugur, Hui, Manchu and Tu mixed residence. After analysis of the internal and external factors that affect the specificity of pastoral education, the author…

  5. Path of Social Construction in Northwest Sichuan Plateau Pastoral Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of main contents of social construction and key points of construction,this paper analyzes features of conditions of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area.The social construction at current stage mainly includes social cause in narrow sense,and social management at meso-level.The northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area is faced with the best policy and development opportunity.However,there are still many weak aspects.Firstly,social structure is not coordinated with economic structure.Secondly,social construction ability of grass-roots government is weak.Thirdly,the ability to respond to public demands is low.Fourthly,there is a big gap in availability of basic public service.Finally,it presents path selection for social construction of northwest Sichuan plateau pastoral area:strengthen social construction ability of grass-roots government;promote social construction with livelihood projects as key projects;boost social construction taking advantage of ecological construction;develop basic public service with the aid of external forces;intensify evaluation system for supervision of social construction works.

  6. Seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis in agro pastoral areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the sero-prevalence of bovine brucellosis in four districts of Jijjiga Zone, eastern. Ethiopia. ... animals and herds given the extensive production system prevailing in the area which may allow contact ... due to abortion, infertility and reduction in milk production. In addition, the ..... Epidemiology and surveillance. In: Nielsen, K.

  7. Characterization of an abandoned pastoral area in the Northern Apennines, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argenti G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first results of an investigation carried out within the research project "Study and improvement of woods and shrubbery derived from abandoned agricultural areas" (RiSelvItalia Project. Changes occurred in the past 50 years in the pastoral area of S. Paolo in Alpe (Appennino Romagnolo, Northern Apennines, Italy were described on the grounds of photo-interpretation of three sets of aerial photos (1955, 1976, 1997. A high reduction of the surface of sowable lands and pastures (from 80% to 33% was pointed out, together with an increase of shrubbery (from 5% to 18% and woods (from 0 to 42%. The characterization of woods, shrubbery and pastures was performed through structural transects and phyto-sociological investigations. Thus it was possible to reconstruct the dynamic series of vegetation, from grasslands belonging to the association Centaureo bracteatae-Brometum erecti (Festuco-Brometea to woods referable to the association Aceri obtusati-quercetum cerridis (Querco-Fagetea. Investigations on meadows revealed also a good quality of pastures, not only in open grasslands (mean pastoral value - VP - of 30, but even in partially shrubby areas (VP 21. Some guidelines for a multi-purpose exploitation of the site are suggested, taking into account not only economic aspects, but also the conservation of environment and landscape.

  8. 7 CFR 1001.2 - Northeast marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Northeast marketing area. 1001.2 Section 1001.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE NORTHEAST MARKETING AREA Order Regulating...

  9. Computational Research on Mobile Pastoralism Using Agent-Based Modeling and Satellite Imagery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuto Sakamoto

    Full Text Available Dryland pastoralism has long attracted considerable attention from researchers in diverse fields. However, rigorous formal study is made difficult by the high level of mobility of pastoralists as well as by the sizable spatio-temporal variability of their environment. This article presents a new computational approach for studying mobile pastoralism that overcomes these issues. Combining multi-temporal satellite images and agent-based modeling allows a comprehensive examination of pastoral resource access over a realistic dryland landscape with unpredictable ecological dynamics. The article demonstrates the analytical potential of this approach through its application to mobile pastoralism in northeast Nigeria. Employing more than 100 satellite images of the area, extensive simulations are conducted under a wide array of circumstances, including different land-use constraints. The simulation results reveal complex dependencies of pastoral resource access on these circumstances along with persistent patterns of seasonal land use observed at the macro level.

  10. SD simulation study on degraded farmland policy on farming-pastoral area under the constrains of water resources-Taking Tongliao City of Inner Mongolia as example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D. P.; Zhao, B.; Li, T. S.; Zhu, J. W.; Yu, M. M.

    2017-08-01

    Water resources are the primary factor in restricting the sustainable development of farming-pastoral regions. To support the sustainable development of water resources, whether or not the land uses patterns of farming-pastoral areas is a reasonably important issue. This paper takes Tongliao city as example for the purpose of sustainably developing the farming-pastoral area in the north. Several scientific preductions and evaluations were conducted to study the farming-pastoral landuse pattern, which is the key problem that effects sustainable development of farming-pastoral areas. The paper then proposes that 1:7 landuse pattern is suitable for the sustainable development of farming-pastotal area. Based on the analysis of the research findings on sustainable development of farming-pastoral area, the paper established a suitability evaluation indicators system of degraded farmland policies in Tongliao city, and used an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method to determine the weight to run system dynamic (SD) model. The simulation results were then obtained on social economic ecological development in Tongliao city under different degraded farmland policies, and used the comprehensive evaluation model to optimize the results. It is concluded that stabilizing the policy of degraded farmland policy is the preferential policy in Tongliao, which provides useful theoretical research for the sustainable development of farming-pastoral area.

  11. Monitoring Water Resources in Pastoral Areas of East Africa Using Satellite Data and Hydrologic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, H.; Senay, G. B.; Velpuri, N.; Asante, K. O.

    2008-12-01

    The nomadic pastoral communities in East Africa heavily depend on small water bodies and artificial lakes for domestic and livestock uses. The shortage of water in the region has made these water resources of great importance to them and sometimes even the reason for conflicts amongst rival communities in the region. Satellite-based data has significantly transformed the way we track and estimate hydrological processes such as precipitation and evapotranspiration. This approach has been particularly useful in remote places where conventional station-based weather networks are scarce. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite data were extracted for the study region. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) data were used to extract the climatic parameters needed to calculate reference evapotranspiration. The elevation data needed to delineate the watersheds were extracted from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) with spatial resolution of 90m. The waterholes (most of which have average surface area less than a hectare) were identified using Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) images with a spatial resolution of 15 m. As part of National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) funded enhancement to a livestock early warning decision support system, a simple hydrologic water balance model was developed to estimate daily waterhole depth variations. The model was run for over 10 years from 1998 till 2008 for 10 representative waterholes in the region. Although there were no independent datasets to validate the results, the temporal patterns captured both the seasonal and inter-annual variations, depicting known drought and flood years. Future research includes the installation of staff-gauges for model calibration and validation. The simple modeling approach demonstrated the effectiveness of integrating dynamic coarse resolution datasets such as TRMM with

  12. Carbon Isotope Composition of Nighttime Leaf-Respired CO2 in the Agricultural-Pastoral Zone of the Songnen Plain, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Haiying; Wang, Yunbo; Jiang, Qi; Chen, Shiping; Ma, Jian-Ying; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Variations in the carbon isotope signature of leaf dark-respired CO2 (δ13CR) within a single night is a widely observed phenomenon. However, it is unclear whether there are plant functional type differences with regard to the amplitude of the nighttime variation in δ13CR. These differences, if present, would be important for interpreting the short-term variations in the stable carbon signature of ecosystem respiration and the partitioning of carbon fluxes. To assess the plant functional type differences relating to the magnitude of the nighttime variation in δ13CR and the respiratory apparent fractionation, we measured the δ13CR, the leaf gas exchange, and the δ13C of the respiratory substrates of 22 species present in the agricultural-pastoral zone of the Songnen Plain, northeast China. The species studied were grouped into C3 and C4 plants, trees, grasses, and herbs. A significant nocturnal shift in δ13CR was detected in 20 of the studied species, with the magnitude of the shift ranging from 1‰ to 5.8‰. The magnitude of the nighttime variation in δ13CR was strongly correlated with the daytime cumulative carbon assimilation, which suggests that variation in δ13CR were influenced, to some extent, by changes in the contribution of malate decarboxylation to total respiratory CO2 flux. There were no differences in the magnitude of the nighttime variation in δ13CR between the C3 and C4 plants, as well as among the woody plants, herbs and graminoids. Leaf respired CO2 was enriched in 13C compared to biomass, soluble carbohydrates and lipids; however the magnitude of enrichment differed between 8 pm and 4 am, which were mainly caused by the changes in δ13CR. We also detected the plant functional type differences in respiratory apparent fractionation relative to biomass at 4 am, which suggests that caution should be exercised when using the δ13C of bulk leaf material as a proxy for the δ13C of leaf-respired CO2. PMID:26356083

  13. 76 FR 12643 - Proposed Establishment of Helicopter Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... (RNAV) Routes; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... northeast corridor between the Washington, DC and New York City metropolitan areas. The FAA is proposing... northeast corridor between the New York City and Washington, DC, metropolitan areas. The routes would serve...

  14. Modeling the effects of different fuel treatment mosaics on wildfire spread and behavior in a Mediterranean agro-pastoral area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Michele; Del Giudice, Liliana; Arca, Bachisio; Ager, Alan A; Alcasena-Urdiroz, Fermin; Lozano, Olga; Bacciu, Valentina; Spano, Donatella; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2018-04-15

    Wildfire spread and behavior can be limited by fuel treatments, even if their effects can vary according to a number of factors including type, intensity, extension, and spatial arrangement. In this work, we simulated the response of key wildfire exposure metrics to variations in the percentage of treated area, treatment unit size, and spatial arrangement of fuel treatments under different wind intensities. The study was carried out in a fire-prone 625 km 2 agro-pastoral area mostly covered by herbaceous fuels, and located in Northern Sardinia, Italy. We constrained the selection of fuel treatment units to areas covered by specific herbaceous land use classes and low terrain slope (post-treatment wildfire behavior by the Minimum Travel Time (MTT) fire spread algorithm. The simulations replicated a set of southwestern wind speed scenarios (16, 24 and 32 km h -1 ) and the driest fuel moisture conditions observed in the study area. Our results showed that fuel treatments implemented near the existing road network were significantly more efficient than the other alternatives, and this difference was amplified at the highest wind speed. Moreover, the largest treatment unit sizes were the most effective in containing wildfire growth. As expected, increasing the percentage of the landscape treated and reducing wind speed lowered fire exposure profiles for all fuel treatment alternatives, and this was observed at both the landscape scale and for highly valued resources. The methodology presented in this study can support the design and optimization of fuel management programs and policies in agro-pastoral areas of the Mediterranean Basin and herbaceous type landscapes elsewhere, where recurrent grassland fires pose a threat to rural communities, farms and infrastructures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Snow cover monitoring model and change over both time and space in pastoral area of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Li, Suju; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Juan; Wen, Qi

    2014-11-01

    Snow disaster is a natural phenomenon owning to widespread snowfall for a long time and usually affect people's life, property and economic. During the whole disaster management circle, snow disaster in pastoral area of northern china which including Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Tibet has been paid more attention. Thus do a good job in snow cover monitoring then found snow disaster in time can help the people in disaster area to take effective rescue measures, which always been the central and local government great important work. Remote sensing has been used widely in snow cover monitoring for its wide range, high efficiency, less conditions, more methods and large information. NOAA/AVHRR data has been used for wide range, plenty bands information and timely acquired and act as an import data of Snow Cover Monitoring Model (SCMM). SCMM including functions list below: First after NOAA/AVHRR data has been acquired, geometric calibration, radiometric calibration and other pre-processing work has been operated. Second after band operation, four threshold conditions are used to extract snow spectrum information among water, cloud and other features in NOAA/AVHRR image. Third snow cover information has been analyzed one by one and the maximum snow cover from about twenty images in a week has been selected. Then selected image has been mosaic which covered the pastoral area of China. At last both time and space analysis has been carried out through this operational model ,such as analysis on the difference between this week and the same period of last year , this week and last week in three level regional. SCMM have been run successfully for three years, and the results have been take into account as one of the three factors which led to risk warning of snow disaster and analysis results from it always play an important role in disaster reduction and relief.

  16. Images of pastoral care

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-25

    Aug 25, 2017 ... pastoral work and demonstrate how we can avoid a sacrificial model of pastoral care. ... very important for all people offering pastoral care to be aware of their own power ... Good Samaritan is proposed in order to stimulate a life- .... and family. ... healthy balance of give and take in pastoral relationships.

  17. Pastoral care: marketing "high touch".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, M

    1986-01-01

    Marketing pastoral care skills is important both within and without the health care organization. To increase administrators' awareness of the value of the pastoral care department, for example, chaplains must be able to demonstrate that their activities can affect the bottom line. They must therefore develop a system of accountability that defines and measures their services in objective terms. Such a system would include the reporting of monthly visit statistics as well as the collection of data from patients and personnel on the adequacy of pastoral care services. Other awareness-building activities could include participation in nursing practice rounds, in-service presentations, involvement in hospital social events, and placement of articles about pastoral care in hospital publications. Activities that would help to foster good community relations and thereby improve census include participation in the area clergy association, work with local church groups that visit the sick and the homebound, providing speakers to community organizations, and sponsoring a memorial Mass for families of patients who have died at the hospital. Pastoral care staff should not feel threatened by the changing health care environment. Instead they must recognize the opportunity it provides to create ways to minister to a new mix of patients and to reach new groups.

  18. [A prevalence study on mild cognitive impairment among the elderly populations of Mongolian and Han nationalities in a pastoral area of Inner Mongolia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Riletemuer; Zhao, Shi-gang; Wang, De-sheng; Wen, Shi-rong; Niu, Guang-ming; A, Rong; Wang, Zhi-guang; Jiang, Ming-fang; Zhang, Chun-yu

    2012-04-01

    To understand the epidemiological characteristics and distribution of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in elderly populations from Mongolian and Han nationalities living in the pastoral areas of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China. According to the MCI clinical diagnostic criteria from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th revised edition (DSM-IV) by American Psychiatric Association, the individuals under study were at the age of 55 or over, with Mongolian or Han ethnicities and living in the pastoral area of Inner Mongolia. The crude MCI morbidity rates of Mongolian and Han of the study populations in the pastoral area of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China was 19.48% (1782/9146) and the standardization morbidity was 18.98%. The crude MCI morbidity rates of both Mongolian and Han ethnicities were 17.46% (the standardization morbidity was 16.99%) and 20.60% (the standardization morbidity was 19.98%), respectively. There showed a significant positive correlation between the crude morbidities and age, also significantly increasing with the latter. In the Mongolian population, the morbidity increased from 12.17% at the age 55-59 to 27.78% at 85 while in the Han population, the morbidity increased from 15.50% at the age 55-59 to 23.53% at 85. In both the populations of Mongolian and Han, there was a statistically difference found between the morbidities of MCI (χ2=13.229, P=0.000). The morbidity was higher in Hans than in the Mongolians. However, there was no statistically significant difference noticed between the morbidities of MCI in the Mongolian males and females (χ2=2.376, P=0.123). There was statistically significant difference found between the morbidities of MCI in the Han males and females, with females having higher risk than males (χ2=24.470, P=0.000). The morbidity of MCI in the elderly Mongolian and Han populations from the pastoral area of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China was considered to be quite high and

  19. Preliminary evaluation of the uranium favorability in the area northeast of Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, G.L.; Edmond, C.L.; D'Andrea, R.F. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    Rock and steam-sediment samples were collected to define areas favorable for uranium deposits northeast of Gunnison, Colorado. Areas considered most favorable for further exploration are: (1) the Bronco Mountain area, approximately 10 mi south of Taylor Park Reservoir, (2) the area near the Big Red mine, and (3) the area 5 mi north-northeast of Taylor Park Reservoir. On the basis of known deposits in the Marshall Pass and Cochetopa districts, fault contacts between Precambrian granites and Paleozoic or Mesozoic sedimentary rocks are favorable structural sites

  20. Pastoral ministry in a missional age: Towards a practical theological understanding of missional pastoral care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume H. Smit

    2015-03-01

    adequately mentored in their roles as coaches of nonequipped people. In taking the research to a further level of normative reflection, attention should be turned to developing specific areas of pastoral care:� formal clinical education and subsequent accreditation of pastors (in the South African context pastoral care is not legally recognised as a valid area of psychological therapy � specifically pertaining to Narrative Therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy� basic counselling skills for non-theologically trained congregational leaders� qualitative and quantitative research methods� organisational theory for congregational ministry� crisis counselling skills for congregation members serving in a community context� marriage and family therapy� emotional intelligence as outcome of a spiritual growth cycle� leadership development and personality assessment� personal growth by confronting and crossing emotional and cultural boundaries.

  1. Interactions of six SNPs in APOA1 gene and types of obesity on low HDL-C disease in Xinjiang pastoral area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinping; He, Jia; Guo, Heng; Mu, Lati; Hu, Yunhua; Ma, Jiaolong; Yan, Yizhong; Ma, Rulin; Li, Shugang; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Mei; Niu, Qiang; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Jingyu; Guo, Shuxia

    2017-10-02

    This study aims to investigate association between six single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) in APOA1 gene and types of obesity with the risk of low level HDL-C in the pastoral area of northwest China. A total of 1267 individuals including 424 patients with low HDL-C disease and 843 health subjects were analyzed based on matched for age, sex. SNPShot technique was used to detect the genotypes of rs670, rs5069, rs5072, rs7116797, rs2070665 and rs1799837 in APOA1 gene. The relationship between above six SNPs and types of obesity with low HDL-C disease was analyzed by binary logistic regression. Carriers with rs670 G allele were more likely to get low HDL-C disease (OR = 1.46, OR95%CI: 1.118-1.915; P = 0.005); The genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs5069, rs5072, rs7116797, rs2070665, rs1799837 revealed no significant differences between cases and controls (P obesity measured by BMI had 2.686 times (OR95%CI: 1.695-4.256; P obesity measured by WC had 1.925 times (OR95%CI: 1.273-2.910; P = 0.002) and abdominal obesity measured by WHR had 1.640 times (OR95%CI: 1.114-2.416; P = 0.012) risk to get low HDL-C disease; APOA1 rs670 interacted with obesity (no matter general obesity or abdominal obesity) on low HDL-C disease. APOA1 gene may be associated with low HDL-C disease in the pastoral area of northwest China; obesity was the risk factor for low HDL-C disease; the low HDL-C disease is influenced by APOA1, obesity, and their interactions.

  2. 77 FR 5733 - Proposed Modification of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route Q-62; Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Docket No. FAA-2011-1407; Airspace Docket No. 11-AGL-25 RIN 2120-AA66 Proposed Modification of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route Q-62; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...

  3. 77 FR 22282 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Determination of Equivalent Price Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [Doc. No. AMS-DA-10-0089; DA-11-01] Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Determination of Equivalent Price Series AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Determination of equivalent price series. SUMMARY: It has been...

  4. Pastores en el 'Quijote'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco López Estrada

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Alonso Quijano become to be don Quixote, when the reading of some books of knight-errantry makes him mad. But don Alonso reads also pastoral literature. Sancho confess the was a rustician shepherd. Dulcinea is a name nearly to the pastoral literature. Don Quixote pronounces a pastoral lecture, adressed to others shepherds. In Sierra Morena, during the Grisóstomo's funeral, Marcela enunciate & discourse in favor of love liberty. Don Quixote attends to Camacho's wedding and he intervenes in the facts of this act. Finally, Don Quixote regains his mind, and he dies like a christianman being Alonso Quijano.

  5. in the pastoral epistles?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    book-length project, into the spirituality of the Pastoral Epistles. In this larger ..... only three references in the Greek magical papyri.12 Nevertheless, there is a close link between the ..... Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University.

  6. Nursery areas and recruitment variation of Northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Kristensen, Kasper; Van der Kooij, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    There are currently no dedicated recruitment survey data available in support of the assessment of the abundance and distribution of Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel (Scomber scombrus), one of the most widespread and commercially important fish stocks in the North Atlantic. This is despite the f......, showing that the most important nursery areas are around Ireland, north and west of Scotland, in the northern North Sea north of 598Nand, to some extent, also in the Bay of Biscay....

  7. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyessar Turdi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively. The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y. Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element–induced health risk (including for DW adults was higher than acceptable (10−6 and lower than priority risk levels (10−4 (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B. For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10−4, higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10−4.

  8. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-09-23

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element-induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10(-6)) and lower than priority risk levels (10(-4)) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10(-4), higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10(-4)).

  9. Gubernamentalidad y poder pastoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Benente

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En sus trabajos de fines de la década de 1970 Michel Foucault abordó la noción de gubernamentalidad para dar cuenta del funcionamiento del gobierno de los hombres. En su genealogía de estas tecnologías de gobierno encuentra un antecedente remoto en el poder pastoral y afirma que el pastorado es ajeno al pensamiento político de la Grecia clásica. En este trabajo desarrollo algunos problemas en la presentación que realiza de la obra de Platón. Foucault estudia la aparición del poder pastoral en las obras políticas de Platón, en particular en Político, y afirma que allí se rechaza al pastor como clave para explicar la actividad de gobierno, pero creo que sus argumentos no alcanzan para realizar esta afirmación.

  10. Characteristics of surface O{sub 3} over Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Zhenxing, E-mail: zxshen@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Cao, Junji [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Zhang, Leiming [Air Quality Research Division, Environment Canada, Toronto (Canada); Zhao, Zhuzi [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Dong, Jungang [School of Architecture, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China); Wang, Linqing [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Wang, Qiyuan; Li, Guohui; Liu, Suixin [Key Lab of Aerosol, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an (China); Zhang, Qian [Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China)

    2014-12-01

    Surface O{sub 3} was monitored continuously during Aug. 12, 2010 to Jul. 21, 2011 at a high elevation site (3200 m above sea level) in Qinghai Lake area (36°58′37″N, 99°53′56″E) in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. Daily average O{sub 3} ranged from 21.8 ppbv to 65.3 ppbv with an annual average of 41.0 ppbv. Seasonal average of O{sub 3} followed a decreasing order of summer > autumn > spring > winter. Diurnal variations of O{sub 3} showed low concentrations during daytime and high concentrations during late night and early morning. An intensive campaign was also conducted during Aug. 13–31, 2010 to investigate correlations between meteorological or chemical conditions and O{sub 3}. It was found that O{sub 3} was poorly correlated with solar radiation due to the insufficient NO{sub x} in the ambient air, thus limiting O{sub 3} formation under strong solar radiation. In contrast, high O{sub 3} levels always coincided with strong winds, suggesting that stratospheric O{sub 3} and long range transport might be the main sources of O{sub 3} in this rural area. Back-trajectory analysis supported this hypothesis and further indicated the transport of air masses from northwest, northeast and southeast directions. - Highlights: • Surface O{sub 3} was measured in Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. • The O{sub 3} chemical formation was under a strong NOx-limited in Qinghai Lake areas. • Stratospheric O{sub 3} and transport might be the main sources of O{sub 3} in this area.

  11. Characteristics of surface O3 over Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Zhenxing; Cao, Junji; Zhang, Leiming; Zhao, Zhuzi; Dong, Jungang; Wang, Linqing; Wang, Qiyuan; Li, Guohui; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Surface O 3 was monitored continuously during Aug. 12, 2010 to Jul. 21, 2011 at a high elevation site (3200 m above sea level) in Qinghai Lake area (36°58′37″N, 99°53′56″E) in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. Daily average O 3 ranged from 21.8 ppbv to 65.3 ppbv with an annual average of 41.0 ppbv. Seasonal average of O 3 followed a decreasing order of summer > autumn > spring > winter. Diurnal variations of O 3 showed low concentrations during daytime and high concentrations during late night and early morning. An intensive campaign was also conducted during Aug. 13–31, 2010 to investigate correlations between meteorological or chemical conditions and O 3 . It was found that O 3 was poorly correlated with solar radiation due to the insufficient NO x in the ambient air, thus limiting O 3 formation under strong solar radiation. In contrast, high O 3 levels always coincided with strong winds, suggesting that stratospheric O 3 and long range transport might be the main sources of O 3 in this rural area. Back-trajectory analysis supported this hypothesis and further indicated the transport of air masses from northwest, northeast and southeast directions. - Highlights: • Surface O 3 was measured in Qinghai Lake area in Northeast Tibetan Plateau, China. • The O 3 chemical formation was under a strong NOx-limited in Qinghai Lake areas. • Stratospheric O 3 and transport might be the main sources of O 3 in this area

  12. Understanding pastoral mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    Based on a case study from Sahelian Senegal, this paper analyses how various actors perceive the importance of pastoral mobility and presents issues of importance for understanding the use of mobility among Fulani of Ferlo. One knowledge system is a scientific one, the 'new rangeland paradigm...... territory, which they consider their place, but are unwilling to employ large-scale mobility themselves. Mobility is not of importance for their ethnic identity and some use paid herders to care for their livestock. By looking at both knowledge systems, we achieve a better understanding of pastoral mobility...

  13. A study on reproductive performance and related factors of zebu cows in pastoral herds in a semi-arid area of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanuya, N L; Matiko, M K; Kessy, B M; Mgongo, F O; Ropstad, E; Reksen, O

    2006-06-01

    A prospective longitudinal study was carried out from September 2001 to June 2004 in three adjacent villages in a semi-arid area of Tanzania. The objectives of this study were to measure the intervals between calving and either resumption of cyclical activity or confirmation of pregnancy, to estimate calving intervals, and to investigate the effect of factors assumed to be related to postpartum reproductive performance. A total of 275 lactation periods from 177 Tanzanian Shorthorn Zebu cows managed in a traditional pastoral system in 46 households were initially included. Animals were initially screened for brucelosis and thereafter examined by palpation per rectum at 2-week intervals. Body condition score (scale 1 to 5) was assessed and girth measurement (cm) taken. Occurrence of other reproductive events such as calving, abortion, death of calf, culling and reason for culling were recorded. In a subset of 98 lactation periods from 91 cows milk samples for progesterone (P4) determination were collected twice per week from day 7 after calving to the time of confirmed pregnancy or until milk production ceased before pregnancy. The data were analysed both univariately and in multivariable Cox proportional hazard (frailty) models. The mean (+/-S.E.M.) calving interval was 500+/-13.6 days. Positive reactors in the brucellosis test were 15.6% of the tested animals. Milk P4 analysis showed the rate of abortion/late embryo loss to be 14.3%. Calf mortality rates varied between 14.6 and 17.4%. A positive relationship was found between the outcome variables likelihood of cyclical activity and likelihood of pregnancy in the Cox model, and the explanatory variables: parity and body condition score (BCS) at calving. A negative relationship was found between the outcome variables, and the explanatory variables: maximum BCS loss and calf survival/mortality. Calving in the rainy season was associated with an increased likelihood of pregnancy.

  14. 77 FR 57010 - Modification of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route Q-62; Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ...; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... proposed rulemaking to modify RNAV route Q-62 in Northeast United States by extending it further west (77...

  15. Preliminary geologic map of the Black Mountain area northeast of Victorville, San Bernardino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The Black Mountain area is in the Mojave Desert about 20 km northeast of Victorville, California. The geology of this area is of interest primarily for its excellent exposures of the early Mesozoic Fairview Valley Formation, a sequence of weakly metamorphosed sedimentary rocks including a thick, commercially important unit of limestone conglomerate that has been mined for cement at Black Mountain Quarry for several decades. Recent geochronologic work has shown that the Fairview Valley Formation is probably of Early Jurassic age. This preliminary geologic map of the Black Mountain area depicts the stratigraphic and structural relations of the Fairview Valley Formation and the associated rocks, most notably the overlying Sidewinder Volcanics of Early(?), Middle, and Late(?) Jurassic age. The map is based on new field studies by the author designed to clarify details of the stratigraphy and structure unresolved by previous investigations. The map is considered preliminary because the ages of some geologic units critical for a satisfactory understanding of the stratigraphic and structural framework remain unknown. The map area also includes a segment of the Helendale Fault, one of several faults of known or inferred late Cenozoic right-lateral displacement that make up the Eastern California Shear Zone. The fault is marked by aligned northeast-facing scarps in Pleistocene or older alluvial deposits and the underlying bedrock units. Relations in the map area suggest that right-lateral displacement on the Helendale Fault probably does not exceed 2 km, a conclusion compatible with previous estimates of displacement on this fault based on relations both within and outside the Black Mountain area.

  16. 76 FR 37261 - Establishment of Helicopter Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ...; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...) structure and designates two helicopter RNAV routes (TK-routes) in the northeast corridor between the... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish two helicopter RNAV routes in Northeast United States...

  17. 75 FR 10121 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Final Decision on Proposed Amendments to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... marketing areas. The other 8 orders have no similar route disposition limit. The 3 southeastern orders... Part IV Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Parts 1000, 1001, 1005, et al. Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Final Decision on Proposed Amendments to...

  18. The needs of the science teachers of Shenyang area, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao

    Purpose of the study. The purpose of this research was to survey those individuals teaching science in the middle schools of the Shenyang area, Northeast China. Specifically, the study attempted to differentiate between rural and nonrural teachers with respect to demographic differences, problem areas, instructional activities, and perceived needs. Procedure. A 100-item survey was used to collect data for this study. The sample consisted of 224 science teachers (Rural 114, nonrural 110) who taught at least science class in 1996--97 academic year in a middle school of Shenyang area, Northeast China. Frequencies and percentages presented the needs of the teachers. The differences between rural and nonrural groups were analyzed by Chi Square statistics. Findings. Almost three quarters (74.9%) of returns were younger than 41, and 43.9% of returns held no degree. Significant differences were fond between rural and nonrural groups according to age, classroom experience, school enrollment, lab activities, motivating students to learn science, using science test data bank, peer tutoring and evaluating your own instructional effectiveness as a science teacher. Rural and nonrural teachers shared 10 of 14 greatest needs. Conclusions. Teacher in-service program designers need to establish academic training programs which lead to entry level degrees and certificates and improve young teacher's instructional skills. Increased efforts should be given to meet the perceived needs addressed in this study in order to improve teachers' teaching and students' learning. Lack of person energy or motivation and program fail to meet teachers' needs were considered as barriers of attending inservice programs.

  19. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A. [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  20. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblik, V.; Kundel, H.; Raetsep, A.

    1995-01-01

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  1. Air quality management on the areas of North-East Estonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liblik, V; Kundel, H; Raetsep, A [Estonian Academy of Sciences, Tallinn (Estonia). North-East Estonian Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Most biggest polluters of atmospheric air among Estonian enterprises are located in the north-eastern part of republic. Volatile gases, vapours and fly ash from thermal power plants, chemical and other industries form a considerable aerotechnogenic load upon landscapes and dwelling regions, reaching also the areas of Gulf of Finland, and even the neighbouring states. Complicated pollution situation needs serious attention and systematic air quality control, assessing, forecasting and management, which is now organized on local, regional and state levels. It is well-known that for studies of various pollution situations the atmospheric dispersion models will be used. This present article deals with the special imitation system for maintenance of information about polluters and air contamination state in North-East (NE) Estonia, also for estimation of pollutants spreading and overground concentration fields by computer-based modelling. The system consists of regional Data Banks, imitation model for calculation of pollutants dispersion, common and application programs. (author)

  2. Terrestrial Species in Protected Areas and Community-Managed Lands in Arunachal Pradesh, Northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Velho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas (including areas that are nominally fully protected and those managed for multiple uses encompass about a quarter of the total tropical forest estate. Despite growing interest in the relative value of community-managed lands and protected areas, knowledge about the biodiversity value that each sustains remains scarce in the biodiversity-rich tropics. We investigated the species occurrence of a suite of mammal and pheasant species across four protected areas and nearby community-managed lands in a biodiversity hotspot in northeast India. Over 2.5 years we walked 98 transects (half of which were resampled on a second occasion across the four paired sites. In addition, we interviewed 84 key informants to understand their perceptions of species trends in these two management regimes. We found that protected areas had higher overall species richness and were important for species that were apparently declining in occurrence. On a site-specific basis, community-managed lands had species richness and occurrences comparable to those of a protected area, and in one case their relative abundances of mammals were higher. Interviewees indicated declines in the abundances of larger-bodied species in community-managed lands. Their observations agreed with our field surveys for certain key, large-bodied species, such as gaur and sambar, which generally occurred less in community-managed lands. Hence, the degree to which protected areas and community-managed lands protect wildlife species depends upon the species in question, with larger-bodied species usually faring better within protected areas.

  3. The oxymoron of American pastoralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Sayre

    2013-01-01

    Pastoralism has been variously defined in American literary studies. In European literature the pastoral persisted as a distinct genre and self-conscious literary tradition from Theocritus and Virgil through the eighteenth century. Major eighteenth and nineteenth-century American authors alluded to this tradition, but they could not really lay claim to it, for as this...

  4. Truck-mounted Area-wide Application of Pyriproxyfen Targeting Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Northeast Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    TRUCK-MOUNTED AREA-WIDE APPLICATION OF PYRIPROXYFEN TARGETING AEDES AEGYPTI AND AEDES ALBOPICTUS IN NORTHEAST FLORIDA1 CARL W. DOUD,2,3 ANTHONY M...truck-mounted ultra-low volume applications of pyriproxyfen against Aedes aegypti larvae in artificial water containers and wild adult Ae. albopictus...larval control, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus INTRODUCTION Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Asian tiger mosquito) and Ae. aegypti (L.) (yellow fever

  5. Sedimentology and geomorphology analysis of coastal area along pantai penarik, terengganu before and during northeast monsoon season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Tengku Ahmad Imran Ku; Shaufi Sokiman, Mohamad

    2017-10-01

    This research is conducted to understand the sedimentology and morphological change before and during the northeast monsoon at the east coast of peninsular Malaysia. The increase in wind speed, wave energy and rainfall during the northeast monsoon are believed to causes the coastal erosion to increase during the season. Rapid development along the east coast area might disrupt the sediments distribution which can increase the coastal erosion rate every year. The understanding on the sediments distribution, erosion and deposition as well as the morphological change can help to figure out if the coastal erosion can affect the infrastructure in the future. The result of the study can show the necessity to perform mitigation or any required action toward the problem that might happen

  6. Changes in the pastoral sheep systems of semi-arid Mediterranean areas: association with common agricultural policy reform and implications for sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Toro-Mujica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of sheep systems the Mediterranean region have been influenced by reforms coming from the Common Agricultural Policy, and the general economic evolution of markets. The aim of this study was the analysis of the structural changes that occurred between 1999 and 2009, and the identification of future implications for the sheep systems in Andalusia region, Spain. Analysis of the structural changes allowed the generation of strategic information, identified trends that should suggest new rural policies and changes that are likely to have social and environmental impacts, and lastly, prioritize future research. The application of multivariate methodology allowed clustering the farm population into four groups. The typology of these systems was determined by variables related to the sheep subsystem, by the set of agricultural activities, and by changes in swine husbandry, within a context of changes in land tenure and the drive for agricultural intensification. Major modifications of extant systems included a 42% reduction in the number of farms, a decrease in sheep numbers, replacement of native rangelands with improved pastures, olive trees and orchards, a reduction of traditional extensive pastoral activities, and increases in hog production in Dehesa grasslands. Given the historical economic and social importance of the sheep-cereal system, the observed substantial modifications of land use suggest a need to assess their consequences in terms of social and environmental impacts, as well as their implications for climate change.

  7. Changes in the pastoral sheep systems of semi-arid Mediterranean areas: association with common agricultural policy reform and implications for sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toro-Mujica, P.M.; Aguilar, C.; Vera, R.; Barba, C.; Rivas, J.; García-Martínez, A.

    2015-07-01

    The dynamics of sheep systems the Mediterranean region have been influenced by reforms coming from the Common Agricultural Policy, and the general economic evolution of markets. The aim of this study was the analysis of the structural changes that occurred between 1999 and 2009, and the identification of future implications for the sheep systems in Andalusia region, Spain. Analysis of the structural changes allowed the generation of strategic information, identified trends that should suggest new rural policies and changes that are likely to have social and environmental impacts, and lastly, prioritize future research. The application of multivariate methodology allowed clustering the farm population into four groups. The typology of these systems was determined by variables related to the sheep subsystem, by the set of agricultural activities, and by changes in swine husbandry, within a context of changes in land tenure and the drive for agricultural intensification. Major modifications of extant systems included a 42% reduction in the number of farms, a decrease in sheep numbers, replacement of native rangelands with improved pastures, olive trees and orchards, a reduction of traditional extensive pastoral activities, and increases in hog production in Dehesa grasslands. Given the historical economic and social importance of the sheep-cereal system, the observed substantial modifications of land use suggest a need to assess their consequences in terms. (Author)

  8. Street Pastors : on security, care and faith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steden, R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a study of Street Pastors in Cardiff, the capital city of Wales. Street Pastors are Christian volunteers who look after vulnerable people in the night-time economy. In this manner, they provide ‘securitas’ through empathy and care. The motives of Street Pastors for engaging with

  9. Practicing discernment: pastoral care in crisis situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landes, Scott D

    2010-01-01

    This article correlates a particular experience of providing pastoral care for a person in a crisis situation with a particular understanding of the practice of pastoral care. Through engaging in correlative practical theology, it highlights the need for practicing discernment when providing pastoral care for persons utilizing narratives to work through crisis situations.

  10. The Fulong coastal area in northeast Taiwan: Late Holocene sedimentary phases including destruction and aggradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boese, Margot; Luethgens, Christopher; Bauersachs, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Coastal areas are often subject to rapid morphological transformations owing to varying processes such as sea level changes, tectonic uplift, and geomorphological changes by catastrophic storm events, followed by phases of resilience. The study sites in northeast Taiwan at Fulong beach and adjacent areas, situated close to a nuclear power plant construction site, give evidence of an aggradational phase, a destructive phase, and resilience by a second aggradational phase. According to OSL data, a first aeolian accumulation started on top of marine and peri-marine/fluvial sediments at about 3 ka and lasted about 1500 years, interrupted by one palaeosoil. These data refer to an outcrop at a meander bluff at the southern bank of the Shuangsi river, not far from its present-day mouth. According to the morphological situation, this sand accumulation is only the remnant of a former greater dune system that has been eroded in its northern part. The former course of the Shuangsi and the location of its mouth are not known. The top of the outcrop is represented by two sand layers which are definitely younger than the lower sands as their deposition started about max. 630 years ago. The present-day dune system to the north of the river shows at least four dune ridges and the seaward aggradation is still continuing. The oldest dune ridge was sampled close to its top and dated to about 600 years ago (Dörschner et al. 2012). About 3 km upstream, a sedimentary sequence at the river bank has been studied, comprising a lower silty deposit with organic remnants and layered tree trunks at its top. This deposit is considered to be of marine origin, probably a peri-marine situation. This fine-grained sediment is covered by coarse fluvial gravels, indicating one or several catastrophic events in this morphological environment. Above the gravels, another fine-grained sediment related to flood events with low energy has been found. Radiocarbon analyses of organic material in both fine

  11. Reflection on pastoral care in Africa: Towards discerning emerging pragmatic pastoral ministerial responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral care takes different forms in responding to people’s needs in their context. Accordingly, over the centuries it has evolved in response to emerging needs. Historical developments in pastoral care are well-documented. However, pastoral care in Africa has a short and unsystematically documented history. Scholarly discussions on pastoral care concerning the continent tend to be considered under African theological frameworks. Notwithstanding the already existing weaknesses in African theological discussion, pastoral care in Africa has remained fragmented with diverse and seemingly knee-jerk approaches in guiding individuals who provide pastoral care. In view of this, this article firstly aims to provide a broad overview and initiate a discussion on the current challenges in pastoral care in Africa. Secondly, it aims to reveal some gaps worth pursuing by scholars in the discipline. Thirdly, it sheds some light on approaches employed by pastoral practitioners in pastoral ministry practice. In doing so, this article opens the lid on some perspectives adopted in ministry work on the frontlines, that is, providing pastoral care to people in their communities – particularly church communities. This article first outlines the problem to be addressed followed by an overview of pastoral care in Africa. It then proceeds to address potential research opportunities within the discipline. Finally, it highlights some emerging approaches in providing pastoral care in the communities. This article does not focus on one particular pastoral care issue, but gives an overview of the situation relative to pastoral care in Africa and the emerging responses.

  12. Explaining the Effects of Communities of Pastoral Care for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph; Holste, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This article explains how communities of pastoral care work. It presents an empirically forged theory in action. We examined theoretical and empirical work across the targeted area of personalization for students. We also completed what Hallinger (2012) refers to as "exhaustive review" of the field of school improvement writ large. We…

  13. Malaria among the pastoral communities of the Ngorongoro Crater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malaria among the pastoral communities of the Ngorongoro Crater Area, northern Tanzania. L.E.G Mboera, R.C Malima, P.E Mangesho, K.P Senkoro, V Mwingira. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. Fruit and Vegetables Consumption: A Pointer for Cholangiocarcinoma Prevention in Northeast Thailand, the Highest Incidence Area in the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songserm, Nopparat; Woradet, Somkiattiyos; Charoenbut, Pattaraporn

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) caused by opisthorchiasis is a specific public health problem in the Greater Mekong subregional countries. The Northeast Thailand is considered a world's prime area of CCA. Many epidemiological studies found the association between fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA, but their results were inconclusive. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to investigate the relationship between fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA prevention in the Northeast Thailand. The authors conducted a comprehensive search of scholarships on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS published during 1990 and 2015. Selected studies about fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA were analyzed. The fixed-effect model was used to estimate pool odds ratios for the consumption vs. nonconsumption. Based on a meta-analysis, consumption of mixed fruit [odds ratio (OR) = 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.96], mixed vegetables (OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.50-0.75), and combined fruit and vegetables (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.57-0.80) was associated with the reduction of CCA risk statistically. These findings support that fruit and vegetables consumption is associated with CCA risk reduction. If implemented in a larger geographical area, the study will shed light on possibilities to future reduction of CCA. Educators can replicate the study to solve CCA or other types of cancer and discover the best practice.

  15. Novel Solution for Low-Lying Land Areas Safe from Natural Hazards—Toward Reconstruction of Lost Coastal Areas in Northeast Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Nakajima

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The imminent fear of water-related hazards such as flooding hangs over low-lying areas, in particular now because climate changes have led to increased hazards, like storm surges, that could result in serious harm. This paper aims to provide a novel solution—namely “the floating platform”—that can transform dangerous low-lying areas into those safeguarded against potential hazards. Additionally, by utilizing this solution as a secure base for society to build atop this new artificial reservoir, we offer a better future role for such areas. Meanwhile, we propose adoption of our concept soon at two low-lying areas in northeast Japan hard-hit by the huge 11 March 2011 tsunami: Sendai’s Arahama coastal district and the still-devastated residential harbor area of Kesennuma, both cities in need of a fresh perspective.

  16. Recovery of uranium as a by product of phosphorites from Brazilian northeast area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzaga, M.; Abrao, A.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction and recobery of uranium contained in marine phosphates of northeast Brazil were investigated by treating ores with hydrochloric acid. The average content of uranium in the ore was found to be about 0,03 percent which corresponds to the highest worldly known content of uranium in phoshorite. The solutions obtained in laboratory, by leaching the phosphorite with hydrochloric acid, contained 40-70mg U/1. A method to control the uranium solubilization was outlined. A liquid-liquid extrction of uranium from these liquors was performed using a mixture of 3 percent di (2-ethyl hexyl)-phosphoric acid and 2.2 percent TBP in Kerosene. An overall uranium recovery of about 85 percent was reached

  17. Economic valuation of pastoral meat production system in Arusha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    system may well co-exists with pastoralism but the two need not be mutually exclusive. Keywords: pastoralism, livestock sector, value chain analysis, economic .... What is needed, then, is a dynamic economic model of pastoralism that ...

  18. Hydrogeology in the area of a freshwater lens in the Floridan aquifer system, northeast Seminole County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, G.G.; Rohrer, K.P.

    1987-01-01

    Northeast Seminole County, Florida, contains an isolated recharge area of the Floridan aquifer system that forms a freshwater lens completely surrounded by saline water. The freshwater lens covers an area of about 22 sq mi surrounding the town of Geneva, and generally is enclosed by the 25 ft land surface altitude contour. Thickness of the lens is about 350 ft in the center of the recharge area. The geohydrologic units in descending order consist of the post-Miocene sand and shell of the surficial aquifer; Miocene clay, sand, clay, and shell that form a leaky confining bed; and permeable Eocene limestones of the Floridan aquifer system. The freshwater lens is the result of local rainfall flushing ancient seawater from the Floridan aquifer system. Sufficient quantities of water for domestic and small public supply systems are available from the Floridan aquifer system in the Geneva area. The limiting factor for water supply in the area is the chemical quality of the water. Chloride concentrations range from recharge area to about 5,100 mg/L near the St. Johns River southeast of Geneva. Constituents analyzed included sulfate (range 1 to 800 mg/L), hardness (range 89 to 2,076 mg/L), and iron (range 34 to 6,600 mg/L). Because the freshwater lens results entirely from local recharge, the long-term sustained freshwater yield of the aquifer in the Geneva area depends on the local recharge rate. In 1982, recharge was about 13 inches (13.8 million gal/day). Average recharge for 1941 through 1970 was estimated to be about 11 inches (11.3 million gal/day). Freshwater that recharges the aquifer in the Geneva area is either pumped out or flows north and northeast to discharge near or in the St. Johns River. Average annual outflow from the lens is about 10 in/yr. No measurable change in the size or location of the freshwater lens has occurred since studies in the early 1950's. (Lantz-PTT)

  19. Hooded seal Cystophora cristata foraging areas in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean-Investigated using three complementary methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Vacquie-Garcia

    Full Text Available Identifying environmental characteristics that define the ecological niche of a species is essential to understanding how changes in physical conditions might affect its distribution and other aspects of its ecology. The present study used satellite relay data loggers (SRDLs to study habitat use by Northeast Atlantic hooded seals (N = 20; 9 adult females, 3 adult males, and 8 juveniles. Three different methods were used in combination to achieve maximum insight regarding key foraging areas for hooded seals in this region, which have decline by 85% in recent decades: 1 first passage time (FPT; 2 vertical transit rate and; 3 change in dive drift rate. Generalized additive mixed models (GAMM were applied to each method to determine whether specific habitat characteristics were associated with foraging. Separate models were run for the post-molting and the post-breeding seasons; sex and age classes were included in the GAMMs. All three methods highlighted a few common geographic areas as being important foraging zones; however, there were also some different areas identified by the different methods, which highlights the importance of using multiple indexes when analyzing tracking and diving data to study foraging behavior. Foraging occurred most commonly in relatively shallow areas with high Sea Surface Temperatures (SST, corresponding to continental shelf areas with Atlantic Water masses. All age and sex classes overlapped spatially to some extent, but the different age and sex groups showed differences in the bathymetry of their foraging areas as well as in their vertical use of the water column. When foraging, pups dove in the upper part of the water column in relatively deep areas. Adult females foraged relatively shallowly in deep water areas too, though in shallower areas than pups. Adult males foraged close to the bottom in shallower areas.

  20. Adaptation to New Climate by an Old Strategy? Modeling Sedentary and Mobile Pastoralism in Semi-Arid Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbinian P. Freier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In a modeling study we examine vulnerability of income from mobile (transhumant pastoralism and sedentary pastoralism to reduced mean annual precipitation (MAP and droughts. The study is based on empirical data of a 3410 km2 research region in southern, semi-arid Morocco. The land use decision model integrates a meta-model of the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC simulator to depict perennial and annual forage plant development. It also includes livestock dynamics and forward-looking decision making under uncertain weather. Mobile livestock in the model moves seasonally, sedentary livestock is restricted to pastures around settlements. For a reduction of MAP by 20%, our model shows for different experimental frequencies of droughts a significant decrease of total income from pastoralism by 8%–19% (p < 0.05. Looking separately at the two modes of pastoralism, pronounced income losses of 18%–44% (p < 0.05 show that sedentary pastoralism is much more vulnerable to dryer climate than mobile pastoralism, which is merely affected. Dedicating more pasture area and high quality fodder to mobile pastoralism significantly abates impacts from reduced MAP and droughts on total income by 11% (p < 0.05. Our results indicate that promotion of mobile pastoralism in semi-arid areas is a valuable option to increase resilience against climate change.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Changes in the Rice Planting Area and Their Relationship to Climate Change in Northeast China: A Model-Based Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, T.; Wu, W.; Zhou, Q.; Yu, Q.; Verburg, P.H.; Yang, P.; Lu, Z.F.; Tang, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Rice is one of the most important grain crops in Northeast China (NEC) and its cultivation is sensitive to climate change. This study aimed to explore the spatio-temporal changes in the NEC rice planting area over the period of 1980-2010 and to analyze their relationship to climate change. To do so,

  2. "Pastoral crisis intervention": toward a definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, G S

    2000-01-01

    The pastoral community represents a large and often untapped resource in times of crisis. It possesses a unique aggregation of characteristics that makes it uniquely valuable amidst the turmoil of a psychological crisis. In critical incidents such as terrorism, mass disasters, violence, the loss of loved ones, and any events wherein human actions result in injury, destruction, and/or death, the pastoral community may possess especially powerful restorative attributes. Unfortunately, heretofore, there has existed no generally recognized and accepted manner in which the healing factors inherent in pastoral care have been functionally integrated with the well-formulated principles of crisis intervention. This paper represents an initial effort to elucidate how the principles of pastoral care may be functionally integrated with those of crisis intervention. The amalgam shall heretofore be referred to as "pastoral crisis intervention" and is defined herein.

  3. Integrating the pastoral component in agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César de Faccio Carvalho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper aims to discuss the impact of the introduction of pastures and grazing animals in agricultural systems. For the purposes of this manuscript, we focus on within-farm integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS, typical of Southern Brazil. These ICLS are designed to create and enhance the synergisms and emergent properties have arisen from agricultural areas where livestock activities are integrated with crops. We show that the introduction of the crop component will affect less the preceding condition than the introduction of the livestock component. While the introduction of crops in pastoral systems represents increasing diversity of the plant component, the introduction of animals would represent the entry of new flows and interactions within the system. Thus, given the new complexity levels achieved from the introduction of grazing, the probability of arising emergent properties is theoretically much higher. However, grazing management is vital in determining the success or failure of such initiative. The grazing intensity practiced during the pasture phase would affect the canopy structure and the forage availability to animals. In adequate and moderate grazing intensities, it is possible to affirm that livestock combined with crops (ICLS has a potential positive impact. As important as the improvements that grazing animals can generate to the soil-plant components, the economic resilience remarkably increases when pasture rotations are introduced compared with purely agriculture systems, particularly in climate-risk situations. Thus, the integration of the pastoral component can enhance the sustainable intensification of food production, but it modifies simple, pure agricultural systems into more complex and knowledge-demanding production systems.

  4. Pentastomid, Raillietiella mottae Almeida, Freire and Lopes, 2008, infecting lizards in an area of caatinga, northeast, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WO. Almeida

    Full Text Available Pentastomids can infect the respiratory tract of lizards, causing their death and as a result influencing the population size of hosts. Despite this, studies on rates of pulmonary infection of Brazilian lizards, including those living in Caatinga ecosystems of northeastern Brazil are scarce. Active collections of lizards were performed from October to December 2004 in an area of Caatinga of the Estação Experimental de São João do Cariri - EESJC (07º 25' S and 36º 30' W, located in the state of Paraíba, Northeast of Brazil. Forty-five lizards inhabiting granite outcrops in an area of Caatinga were captured, belonging to the following species: Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825 (18 individuals, T. semitaeniatus (Spix, 1825 (15 individuals, Phyllopezus periosus Rodrigues, 1986 (6 individuals, and P. pollicaris (Spix, 1825 (6 individuals. Laboratory examination revealed that all species had some degree of pulmonary infection caused by Raillietiella mottae. The highest rates of prevalence (66.7% and mean intensity of infection (5.25 ± 2.01, range of 2-11 were observed in P. periosus. The results obtained in this study show that lizards of the Brazilian semi-arid region are infected by a generalist species of pentastomid. The most likely cause for such pattern is the similarity in lizards' diets (ants and termites. It is particularly noteworthy that T. semitaeniatus, P. periosus, and P. pollicaris represent new host records for R. mottae.

  5. Is there an Australian Pastoral Poetry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Taylor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Pastoral was common as a European literary genre from the Renaissance until the eighteenth century. It existed in other artistic forms as well, especially in the visual arts, and after its demise as a distinct genre elements of it persisted into the twentieth century, for example in music. With the colonial spread of European culture the pastoral influence also extended into other countries, with a mixed fate. Recently, the term Pastoral has come back into prominence in literature in English, not only in Great Britain but also, notably in the USA and Australia, with the growth of writing motivated by ecological involvement with the natural world, especially landscape. This has led to re-definitions of the term Pastoral in the last few decades. A number of Australian poets are looked at to see whether, and how, their writing about landscape might relate to, or incorporate elements of the Pastoral. The Australian poet John Kinsella, in particular, has been a widely published spokesperson for a new definition of Pastoral. His published works trace his move from a politically activist anti-colonialist redefinition of Pastoral towards a quieter, more harmonious, and essentially ethical engagement with the natural world.

  6. [Effects of climate and land use change on the changes of vegetation coverage in farming-pastoral ecotone of Northern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Hui; Gao, Ji-Xi

    2008-09-01

    Based on the remote sensing images and the meteorological data in 1986 and 2000, and by using the model of extracting vegetation coverage, the spatiotemporal changes of vegetation coverage in the farming-pastoral ecotone of Northern China in 1986-2000 were studied, with the effects of climate and land use change on the changes analyzed. The results showed that in this ecotone, the area with lower vegetation coverage was increasing, while that with higher vegetation coverage was in adverse. The regions with increasing vegetation coverage were mainly in the east of northeast section, the west of north section, and the west of northwest section of the ecotone, while the vegetation coverage in the other sections was obviously degraded. The vegetation coverage were positively correlated with precipitation and aridity index, but negatively correlated with temperature. The change direction and extent of the vegetation coverage varied with land use types.

  7. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI, hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention.

  8. Pastoralism in the drylands of Latin America: Argentina, Chile, Mexico and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünwaldt, J M; Castellaro, G; Flores, E R; Morales-Nieto, C R; Valdez-Cepeda, R D; Guevera, J C; Grünwaldt, E G

    2016-11-01

    This article discusses various aspects of pastoralism in the Latin American countries with the largest dryland areas. The topics covered include: social, economic and institutional issues; grasslands and their carrying capacity; production systems and productivity rates; competition for forage resources between domestic livestock and wildlife; and the health status of livestock and wildlife. Most grasslands exhibit some degree of degradation. The percentage of offspring reaching weaning age is low: 47-66% of calves and 40-80% of lambs. Some pastoralists adopt patterns of transhumance. In the main, pastoralists experience a high poverty rate and have poor access to social services. For many pastoralists, wildlife is a source of food and by-products. Argentina, Chile, Mexico and Peru have animal health control agencies, are members of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and have signed the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification. Pastoral systems subsist mainly on income unrelated to pastoral farming. The OIE recognises all four countries as free from infection with peste des petits ruminants virus, and from rinderpest and African horse sickness. It is difficult to predict the future of pastoralism in Latin America because the situation differs from country to country. For instance, pastoralism is more important in Peru than in Argentina, where it is a more marginal activity. In the future, lack of promotion and protection policies could lead to a decline in pastoralism or to an adverse environmental impact on drylands.

  9. Evaluation of the United States Department of Agriculture Northeast Area-Wide Tick Control Project by Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei, Brandon; George, John E.; Pound, J. Mathews; Miller, J. Allen; Daniels, Thomas J.; Falco, Richard C.; Stafford, Kirby C.; Schulze, Terry L.; Mather, Thomas N.; Carroll, John F.; Fish, Durland

    2009-01-01

    Abstract As part of the Northeast Area-wide Tick Control Project (NEATCP), meta-analyses were performed using pooled data on the extent of tick-vector control achieved through seven concurrent studies, conducted within five states, using U.S. Department of Agriculture “4-Poster” devices to deliver targeted-acaricide to white-tailed deer. Although reductions in the abundance of all life-stages of Ixodes scapularis were the measured outcomes, this study focused on metrics associated with I. scapularis nymphal tick densities as this measure has consistently proven to directly correlate with human risk of acquiring Lyme disease. Since independent tick sampling schemes were undertaken at each of the five environmentally distinct study locations, a meta-analytic approach permitted estimation of a single true control-effect size for each treatment year of the NEATCP. The control-effect is expressed as the annual percent I. scapularis nymphal control most consistent with meta-analysis data for each treatment year. Our meta-analyses indicate that by the sixth treatment year, the NEATCP effectively reduced the relative density of I. scapularis nymphs by 71% on the 5.14 km2 treatment sites, corresponding to a 71% lower relative entomologic risk index for acquiring Lyme disease. PMID:19650737

  10. Impact assessment of recent climate change on rice yields in the Heilongjiang Reclamation Area of north-east China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Li, Ning; Dong, Guanpeng; Wu, Wenxiang

    2013-08-30

    Investigating the degree to which climate change may have impacted on rice yields can provide an insight into how to adapt to climate change in the future. Meteorological and rice yield data over the period 1960-2009 from the Heilongjiang Reclamation Area of north-east China (HRANC) were used to explore the possible impacts of climate change on rice yields at sub-regional scale. Results showed that a warming trend was obvious in the HRANC and discernible climate fluctuations and yield variations on inter-annual scale were detected to have occurred in the 1980s and 1990s, respectively. Statistically positive correlation was observed between growing season temperature and rice yields, with an increase rate by approximately 3.60% for each 1°C rise in the minimum temperature during growing season. Such findings are consistent with the current mainstream view that warming climate may exert positive impacts on crop yields in the middle and higher latitude regions. Our study indicated that the growing season minimum temperature was a major driver of all the climatic factors to the recent increase trends in rice yield in HRANC over the last five decades. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Wildlife and pastoral society--shifting paradigms in disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Richard; Kebkiba, Bidjeh; Heinonen, Risto; Bedane, Berhanu

    2002-10-01

    The dramatic changes in the human and animal populations in Africa over the last century demand the re-examination of priorities and policies. The introduction of developed medical and other human technologies into the continent has contributed to increases in population and a rapid, unsustainable increase in the utilization of resources. This in turn has led to the destruction of flora and fauna on an unprecedented scale with little real improvement in the human condition. One factor in this has been the increase in livestock in line with human demographic growth, as it is a traditional livelihood of many African peoples. In recent years the growth in livestock populations has slowed owing to a cycle of degradation and disease, affecting especially traditional pastoral systems with a close physical association between people, livestock, and wild animals. Pathogens benefit hugely from the dynamic state created by animal migration, although to some extent the livestock and certainly wildlife show considerable tolerance to this. One of the grave economic consequences of this increase in disease has been collapse of the export trade. In order for Africa to fully benefit and share in world trade, the zoosanitary situation must show improvement. To do this without destroying the natural resource base and traditional pastoral systems, will require a careful, future-oriented land-use policy along ecologically sound criteria. Export livestock will have to be maintained in areas, probably free of ruminant wildlife, with strict veterinary controls. If this can be balanced with sufficient areas retained for traditional pastoralism and wildlife, with perhaps the main income from recreational tourism and local consumption, the benefits will be considerable. The answer may be community-based, low-cost, decentralized health systems for pastoral communities, with less stringent sanitary mandates, a private/parastatal sector servicing, with specialization in wildlife, dairy or

  12. Magmatism and mineralization ages from northeast area of La Sierra de San Luis, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulacco, Jose H

    2001-01-01

    Three igneous rock groups, characterized as pre, sin and post-kinematics, have intruded the crystalline basement of Sierra de San Luis, Argentina. The ore deposits are associated with Devonian to Carboniferous epizonal granite stocks and batholiths in an area underlain by metamorphic rocks. This granitoids are characterized as post-kinematics magmatism. Model lead ages on the ore deposits (338,8 - 292,1 Ma) are strongly supported by K-Ar ages of the intrusives. The bulk of the north Sierra de San Luis ore deposits are genetically related to late Carboniferous granite plutons. The ore bodies are tungsten veins with greisen envelopes, lead veins, epithermal fluorite veins and REE and Th deposit. A generalized scheme of ore bodies related to granites is proposed. The ore deposits and their lithotectonic setting are characteristic of Gondwana metallogenetic Epoch in the Sierra de San Luis (au)

  13. K-Ar ages of the Nyuto-Takakura volcanic products, southern part of the Sengan geothermal area, northeast Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suto, Shigeru; Uto, Kozo; Uchiumi, Shigeru

    1990-01-01

    The K-Ar age determination of the volcanic rocks from the Nyuto-Takakura volcano group, northeast Japan, was carried out. Nyuto-Takakura volcanoes are situated in the southern part of the Sengan geothermal area. And the Young Volcanic Rocks in the area were already divided into the Early stage volcanics (erupted in Matsuyama reversed epoch or more older epoch) and the Later stage volcanics (erupted in Brunhes normal epoch) by accumulated paleomagnetic and K-Ar age data. The results in this study are as follows; Nyuto Volcano: 0.63±0.06, 0.36±0.07 Ma, Sasamoriyama Volcano: 0.09±0.07, 0.3±0.3 Ma, Marumori Lava Dome: 0.4±0.3, 0.31±0.12 Ma, Mikadoyama Lava Dome: <1 Ma, Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama volcano: 1.4±0.5, 1.0±0.4, <0.4 Ma. The determinated ages are concordant with the volcanic stratigraphy and the paleomagnetic data. Nyuto Volcano, Sasamoriyama Volcano, Marumori Lava Dome, Mikadoyama Lava Dome and upper part of the Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama Volcano are interpreted to be erupted in Brunhes normal epoch. The volcanic rocks from the lower part of the Takakurayama-Kotakakurayama volcano show normal magnetic polarity, so they are interpreted to be erupted in Jaramillo normal polarity event. The Early stage volcanics and the Later stage volcanics in the studied area are tend to be distributed in the central part and the outer part of the area, respectively. But the determinated ages in this study show that there is no simple migration of the eruption center of the volcanic rocks from the central part to the peripheral part. There is no geothermal manifestation or alteration area around the Sasamoriyama Volcano and the Marumori Lava Dome, which are the youngest volcanoes in the studied area. So it is concluded that there is no direct correlation between the eruption age of the nearest volcano and the geothermal activity. (author)

  14. Risk Assessment of Maize Drought Disaster in Agro-Pastoral Transitional Zone in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, H.; Pan, D.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural drought is one of the focuses of global concern and one of the natural disasters that affect the agriculture production mostly in China. Farming-pastoral zones in China are located in the monsoon fringe area, precipitation of which is extremely unstable, and drought occurs frequently. The agro-pastoral transitional zone in North China is one of the main producing areas of northern spring maize in northern China, and maize is the second largest grain crop in the region. An assessment of the risk of drought disaster in this region is therefore important in ensuring a reduction in such disasters and an increase in food security. A risk assessment model, EPIC (Environmental Policy Integrated Climate) model, for maize drought disasters based on the Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator crop model is proposed for areas with the topographic characteristics of agro-pastoral transitional zone in North China. The results showed that the hazard risk level for the maize zone of agro-pastoral transitional zone in North China is generally high. Most hazard index values were between 0.4 and 0.5, accounting for 48.77% of total study area. The high-risk areas were mainly distributed in Ordos Plateau (South of Inner Mongolia Autonomous region), South of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and Center of Gansu Province. These results provide a scientific basis and support for the reduction of agricultural drought disasters and an increase in food security in the agro-pastoral transitional zone in North China.

  15. Helicopter-borne geophysical survey over the areas struck by the tsunami of March 11, 2011, in northeast Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, S.; Ueda, T.; Mitsuhata, Y.; Uchida, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Geological Survey of Japan, AIST conducted a helicopter-borne EM and magnetic survey over tsunami invaded areas in northeast Japan 15 months after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The purpose of the survey is to map the electrical resistivity of the ground intruded by seawater during the tsunami on March 11, 2011 for its reutilization as farming lands and water assessment of the area. The survey was flown in June 2012 at an altitude of 60m above ground with a speed of 50km/h along survey and traverse lines spaced 100m and 1,000m apart, respectively. The airborne EM system (Fuguro Airborne Surveys' RESOLVE system) was installed in a bird and towed 30m below the helicopter. This is a frequency-domain system operated at five frequencies (340, 1,500, 6,900, 31,000, 140,000 Hz) in a horizontal coplanar configuration and at a frequency (3,300 Hz) in a coaxial configuration. The survey area is located at the border of Miyagi and Fukushima Prefectures along the Pacific coast in the southern part of the Sendai Plain and is divided into two sub-areas: Watari-Yamamoto-Shinchi area (area A) and Matsukawa-ura Bay area (area B). The area A is known for its production of high-quality strawberries on beach ridges and much fresh groundwater has been used for irrigation of strawberries and warming of strawberry greenhouses by water curtain. However, the salinity of groundwater from shallow irrigation wells in this area increased dramatically after the tsunami (Mori et al., 2012). Since it still remains at high level, there is an urgent need to find new water resources. Whereas, the area B is characterized by a beautiful lagoon called the Matsukawa-ura which is preserved as one of prefectural parks of Fukushima Prefecture. Rice fields occupy the areas west of the Matsukawa-ura and most of them were covered by seawater during the attack of the tsunami. Desalinization of the rice fields is being conducted intensively to resume rice farming in these fields. The

  16. Inhabiting compassion: A pastoral theological paradigm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... to read online. ... Pastoral theologian Paul Ballard, drawing on the ..... biblical narrative in Luke's gospel, we read of the threefold ..... Vanier, J., 2008, Becoming human, 2nd edn., Harper Collins Press, Scarborough, ON.

  17. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Glanville; Yolanda Dreyer

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social) impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be awar...

  18. Knowledge and perception of pulmonary tuberculosis in pastoral communities in the middle and Lower Awash Valley of Afar region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamo Gezahegne

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Afar pastoralists live in the northeast of Ethiopia, confined to the most arid part of the country, where there is least access to educational, health and other social services. Tuberculosis (TB is one of the major public health problems in Afar region. Lack of knowledge about TB could affect the health-seeking behaviour of patients and sustain the transmission of the disease within the community. In this study, we assessed the knowledge and perception of apparently healthy individuals about pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB in pastoral communities of Afar. Methods Between March and May 2009, a community-based cross-sectional questionnaire survey involving 818 randomly selected healthy individuals was conducted in pastoral communities of Afar region. Moreover, two focus group discussions (FGDs, one with men and one with women, were conducted in each of the study area to supplement the quantitative study. Results The majority (95.6% of the interviewees reported that they have heard about PTB (known locally as "Labadore". However, the participants associated the cause of PTB with exposure to cold air (45.9%, starvation (38%, dust (21.8% or smoking/chewing Khat (Catha edulis (16.4%. The discussants also suggested these same factors as the cause of PTB. All the discussants and the majority (74.3% of the interviewees reported that persistent cough as the main symptom of PTB. About 87.7% of the interviewees and all the discussants suggested that PTB is treatable with modern drugs. All the discussants and the majority (95% of the interviewees mentioned that the disease can be transmitted from a patient to another person. Socio-cultural practices, e.g. sharing cups (87.6%, and house type (59.8% were suggested as risk factors for exposure to PTB in the study areas, while shortage of food (69.7% and chewing khat (53.8% were mentioned as factors favouring disease development. Almost all discussants and a considerable number (20.4% of the

  19. Satellite monitoring temperature conditions spawning area of the Northeast Arctic cod in the Norwegian Sea and assessment its abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyushin, George; Bulatova, Tatiana; Klochkov, Dmitriy; Troshkov, Anatoliy; Kruzhalov, Michail

    2013-04-01

    favorable conditions for development of the cod larvae and fry and provide them with food stock, finally, direct influence on forming total stock biomass of cod and helping its population forecast. Key words: satellite monitoring of SST, Northeast Arctic cod, spawning area, maps of SST, prognosis.

  20. Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2016-10-19

    OverviewThis study assessed lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes applying three approaches: statistical analysis, field study, and groundwater-flow modeling.  Statistical analyses of lake levels were completed to assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes. A field study of groundwater and surface-water interactions in selected lakes was completed to (1) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (2) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (3) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake.  Groundwater flow was simulated using a steady-state, groundwater-flow model to assess regional groundwater and surface-water exchanges and the effects of groundwater withdrawals, climate, and other factors on water levels of northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes.

  1. Plant species as a therapeutic resource in areas of the savanna in the state of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Manuele Eufrasio; Ulisses, Ana Vartan Ribeiro de Alencar; Ribeiro, Daiany Alves; de Oliveira, Liana Geraldo Souza; de Macêdo, Delmácia Gonçalves; de Sousa, Francisca de Fátima Silva; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Sampaio, Everardo Valadares de Sá Barretto; Souza, Marta Maria de Almeida

    2015-08-02

    Ethnobotanical studies have contributed significantly in research of plants with therapeutic potential. The aim of the present study was to learn about the use of native medicinal plants cited by the traditional population in "cerradão" (savanna woodland) areas in Northeast Brazil, providing data on therapeutic indications of the species used and their versatility. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on the basis of a standardized questionnaire designed for key informants selected using the "snowball" technique. The selection of plants species with therapeutic potential was performed on the basis of the relative importance (RI) and informant consensus fator (ICF). A total of 78 species were indicated for 87 therapeutic purposes. Of these, 11 species presented great versatility of use (RI>1), as e.g.including Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Hybanthus calceolaria (Mart.) Plumel., Heliotropium cf. indicum L., Croton zehntneri, Croton heliotropiifolius, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Stryphnodendro rotundifolium. Medicinal uses could be generalized Pax & K. Hoffm and Hymenaea courbaril L. The therapeutic indications were grouped into 14 use 15 categories with 594 species-category combinations. The largest number of medicinal species was indicated for illnesses or undefined pain, followed by diseases associated with respiratory, digestive and genitourinaryof body systems. The factor informant consensus highlighted the agreement in the use of plants and showed that the, of which Diseases of the Nervous System and, Diseases of the Circulatory System had the greatest agreement 1.0 and 0.87 repectively, Disorders of the Visual Sensory System - Eyes and Respiratory System Disorder showed the highest agreement of use. Most of the species cited by the key informants are well known scientifically, but it is interesting that some have been studied little or not all with regard to confirming their purported medicinal properties and can contribute substantially to pharmacological

  2. Epidemiological investigation and analysis of bronchial asthma in combat troops garrisoned in the cold areas of northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang SHI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the incidence and related risk factors of occurrence of bronchial asthma in troops garrisoned in the cold areas of northeast China, and explore the corresponding prevention strategy. Methods  A portion of the recruits enlisted in 2012 to Shenyang Command were enrolled as the subjects of the study with three questionnaires. The first questionnaire was carried out during training just after recruit. The second survey was carried out after winter training in selected recruits entering the army for two years, and the last questionnaire was carried out to select recruits just before their discharge from army. The final diagnosis of bronchial asthma in the suspected cases was established by pulmonary function test. Results  In the first period of the survey, the prevalence of asthma was found to be 3.55‰in the newly enlisted recruits; in the second survey 1067 cases were found to be suspicious to have asthma; in the last survey, 26 subjects were finally diagnosed to have asthma, the incidence was 1.73‰. The most common symptoms of the illness at first attack were cough (88.5% and wheeziness (56.3%, and the main inducing factors were respiratory tract infection (76.9% and exposure to cold air (65.4%, and it frequently appeared at early morning (30.8% and forenoon (23.1%. Asthmatic attack presented obvious seasonal predisposition, and it occurred in 19 of 26 patients (73.1% during winter, and 10 (38.5% during spring. The attacks of asthma could be increased by fatigue, allergy, exposure to cold air, chronic bronchitis, smoking, inhalation of gunpowder exhaust, or dysthymia. Conclusion  Fatigue may be the most frequent factor in inducing asthma, and allergy, exposure to cold air, chronic bronchitis, smoking, inhalation of gunpowder exhaust and dysthymia are the risk factors of asthmatic attack. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.04.13

  3. Ecological Land Fragmentation Evaluation and Dynamic Change of a Typical Black Soil Farming Area in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhan Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecological land is a land use category provided with considerable ecological value and a vital indicator reflecting regional eco-environmental quality. However, it has experienced severe fragmentation during the rapid urbanization in China which strongly threatened the regional ecological security, land use pattern and human living environment. Therefore, analysis of spatiotemporal change of ecological land use and ecological landscape pattern is particularly essential. In this paper, a case study was made in Nong’an County, which is a typical black soil farming area located in northeast China facing severe conflicts among cultivated land protection, urban expansion and ecological security. A landscape fragmentation evaluation model was proposed to measure the degree of regional ecological land fragmentation. We also determined the land use change features through the methods of dynamic change information exploration and by performing transfer trajectory analysis during the period from 1996 to 2014. The results showed that the ecological land in Nong’an County has experienced increasing fragmentation during the past 18 years. The statistical results showed that the land transition between ecological land and other land categories was quite frequent, and it especially appeared as a dramatic decline of grassland and severe increase of saline-alkali land. In addition, human interferences especially construction activities and cultivated land occupation were still the dominant factors to the fragmentation of ecological land and the frequent transition among the land use categories. The fragmentation degree showed a downward tendency at the end of the study, which indicated noticeable benefits of land use regulation and land protection policies directed towards land ecological value. This study aims to provide a scientific evaluation model for measuring ecological land fragmentation degree, and figure out the regional land use transition

  4. Assessment of wild boar rooting on ecological and pastoral values of alpine pyrenean grasslands

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    Bueno, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wild boar rooting is nowadays one of the main disturbances in Pyrenean alpine grasslands. Its consequences for the ecosystem are not perfectly understood yet despite alpine grasslands in the Pyrenees have an important economic role and a priority conservation interest. The ecosystem services of this habitat lay mainly on pastoral and ecological values that wild boar rooting seems to affect. In this study, we measured those ecological and pastoral values at different scales to improve our understanding of the reach of these disturbances in this sensitive ecosystem. At landscape and community scales we compare disturbed and undisturbed areas in pastoral, ecological and community maps of the study area by means of a geographic information system. At a local scale we compare ecological and pastoral values of different plant groups (based on species abundance, within and outside wild boar rootings. A preference for areas of high pastoral and intermediate ecological values was found for wild boar rooting at the landscape level. However at the community level, disturbances notably reduced pastoral and ecological values in all communities. At the local level, the ecological value of bulbs and the pastoral value of annual dicots increased within disturbances, suggesting that disturbances may favour functional group diversity. In sum, wild boar rooting affects Pyrenean alpine grasslands moderately, with higher affection to pastoral than ecological values at all levels, what should be considered for the management and preservation of these habitats since these disturbances are likely to increase.

    Las hozaduras de jabalí son una de las mayores perturbaciones actuales de los pastos supraforestales pirenaicos. Sus consecuencias para el ecosistema no están todavía perfectamente descritas, a pesar de ser uno de los hábitats de mayor interés de conservación y que juegan un importante papel en las economías locales. Los bienes y servicios que provee

  5. A three musketeering approach to pastoral care: Reflections on collaboration between pastoral care, narrative therapy and positive psychology

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    Alfred R. Brunsdon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current times of change, deconstruction and ever-growing relativisation, pastoral praxis finds itself in methodological limbo. Pastoral practitioners currently face the challenge of effectively reaching postmodern people through the pastoral process. This challenge is intensified by the innate tension between revelation and experience in pastoral theology as well as the philosophical migration from modernism to postmodernism, which necessitates an on-going rethinking of pastoral praxis. This research investigates a collaborative approach between pastoral care, narrative therapy and positive psychology as a possible method for dispensing pastoral care. A broad outline of these approaches as well as their underlying philosophical frameworks is contemplated in order to evaluate their suitability for a pastoral collaboration. Markers for a collaborative model are suggested where the narrative and positive psychology are employed as strategies in a so-called three- musketeering approach to pastoral care.

  6. Pastors as gewonde genesers: Outobiografiese pastoraat as heelmiddel vir emosionele verwonding en verlamming by pastors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Phillip Nolte

    2009-06-01

    In a previous article it was argued that pastors suffer from cognitive dissonance because of the paradigm shift from modernity to postmodernity, and the emotional woundedness that frequently results from their struggles to come to terms with the new world in which they have to live and minister. This article reflects on the way in which two further issues may exacerbate emotional woundedness in pastors. The one is church tradition, as it is reflected in several formularies used during church services in the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika (NHKA, as well as the Church Ordinance of the NHKA. The other issue is the way in which pastors view the Bible. The language and rhetoric used to reflect on these issues are discussed and evaluated. In its last paragraph the article reflects on the possibility of autobiographical pastorate as a way for pastors to achieve emotional wholeness.

  7. Geochemistry and tectonomagatic setting of Tertiary volcanic rocks of the Kangan area, northeast of Sarbisheh, southern Khorasan

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    Mahshid Malekian Dastjerdi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is located 12km away from the north east of Sarbisheh at the eastern border of the Lut block (Karimpour et al., 2011; Richards et al., 2012. The magmatic activity in the Lut blockhas begun in the middle Jurassic (165-162 Ma and reached its peak in the Tertiary age (Jung et al., 1983; Karimpour et al., 2011. Volcanic and subvolcanic rocks in the Tertiary age cover over half of the Lut block with up to 2000 m thickness and they were formed due to subduction prior to the collision of the Arabian and Asian plates (Jung et al., 1983; Karimpour et al., 2011. In the Kangan area, the basaltic lavas cropped out beyond the above intermediate to acid volcanic rocks. In this area, bentonite and perlite deposits have an economic importance. The main purpose of this paper is to present a better understanding of the tectono-magmatic settings of volcanic rocks in the northeast of Sarbisheh, east of Iran based on their geochemical characteristics. Materials and methods Fifteen samples were analyzed for major elements by inductively coupled plasma (ICP technologies and trace elements by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, following a lithium metaborate/tetraborate fusion and nitric acid total digestion, at the Acme laboratories, Vancouver, Canada. Results The Kangan area is located at the northeast of Sarbishe, Southern Khorasan and the eastern border of the Lut block. In this area, basaltic lavas have cropped out above intermediate to acid lavas such as andesite, dacite, rhyolite (sometimes perlitic .The main minerals in the basalt are plagioclase, olivine and pyroxene, in andesite contain plagioclase, pyroxene, biotite and amphibole and in acid rocks include plagioclase, quartz, sanidine, biotite and amphibole. Intermediate to acid rocks have medium to high-K calc-alkaline nature and basalt is alkaline. Enrichment in LREE relative to HREE (Ce/Yb= 21.14-28.7, high ratio of Zr/Y(4.79- 10.81, enrichment in LILE

  8. Using satellite data for monitoring temperature conditions in fishing areas of the Northeast Atlantic for improving prognosis of fishery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyushin, G.; Borisov, V.; Bogdanov, M.; Bulatova, T.

    2012-04-01

    The attempt to establish the relationship between current temperature conditions in fishing areas of the Northeast Atlantic (The Norwegian and Barents Seas) and the management of capelin fishery was made. The capelin stock depends on abundance of its predators, as well as on hydrological and climatic conditions, which affect the spawning success, the egg hatching, duration and direction of the larval drift, availability of micro and macrozooplankton food to capelin at its various life stages. Taking into account all these points and importance of capelin for Norwegian and Russian fisheries, we can easily understand an heightened interest in cause of the observed variations in capelin stocks. We are still inclined to see hydrology as the driving force of these variations. Hydrological conditions in concrete year influence on capelin directly, as well as its prey stocks and predators, which, in their turn, affect capelin. The sea surface temperature (SST) is the most suitable index of annual and seasonal variations in hydrological conditions. The temperature data were derived from satellite monitoring basically. Continuous long-term database on the sea surface temperature (SST) comprising results of regional satellite monitoring (the NOAA satellite data) is used to resolve several applied problems particularly for prognosis of fish recruitment strenght. The maps of SST were created with the satellite data, as well as information of vessels, buoies and coastal stations. Here we use the maps of SST in fishing areas of the Norwegian and Barents Seas to clarify impact which duration of warm and cold seasons has on successful survival of capelin during its first year of life. The identified relation between onset of these seasons and their duration can allow us to forecast strength of the next capelin year-classes. Seasonal dynamics of heat content water in areas of young capelin presence were analyzed by the time when the 5°C isotherm passed the 35°E meridian (from the

  9. Determinants of Livestock Prices in Ethiopian Pastoral Livestock Markets: Implications for Pastoral Marketing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Belayneh, Hailemariam Teklewold; Feye, Getachew Legese; Alemu, Dawit; Negassa, Asfaw

    2009-01-01

    The major objective of this paper is to identify determinants of market prices for cattle, sheep and goat in the export market value chain starting from pastoral markets to export abattoirs and live animal exporters. The study is based on the information generated through a formal survey conducted in the major pastoral livestock markets of Ethiopia with 128 collectors, small and big traders, feedlot operators, live animal and meat exporters. Hedonic price formation model was used to analyze t...

  10. AIDS: A theological and pastoral response

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    G. G. Miller

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available The anticipated A.I.D.S. crisis in Southern Africa presents an opportunity for the Christian church to respond positively rather than merely to react negatively. This requires both a theological understanding and a pastoral response. Theologically, A.I.D.S. may be seen as an object lesson in the interrelation of natural, personal and historical evil. Although both the Old Testament and the New Testament warn against a simplistic doctrine of individual retribution, there are also several different ways in which the A.I.D.S. crisis may indeed in some particular cases be seen as a judgement of God while in other cases it is rather a horrifying event. Other relevant issues include matters relating to justification and sanctification and the wider ethical issues of discrimination and human rights, of "public" and "private" morality. The Church's pastoral response should include both "corrective" education to remove irrational and fearful ignorance and also "preventative" education to encourage a monogamous lifestyle. Pastoral ministry must be "redemptive", appropriate to the varying needs of persons with A.I.D.S., of their families and friends and of professional care-providers. The Church cannot ignore the A.I.D.S. crisis, but must respond to it both Biblically and pastorally.

  11. The Prophetic Nature of Pastoral Counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Brian

    2001-01-01

    Explores the role of pastoral counseling in the light of the increasing interest among secular therapists in spirituality and the escalation in the number of clients presenting themselves with spiritual issues. Examines the central influence of Carl Rogers and argues that his late embracing of the spiritual dimension makes him a potential source…

  12. Pastoralism, sustainability, and marketing. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tessema, W.K.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Pastoralism is a highly traditional production system for livestock and livestock products. Under the surface of a seeming stability a variety of pressures of the modern time all seem to accumulate to put the sustainability of the pastoralist production system to the test. Population growth and

  13. Narcissism and motivation for the pastorate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondag, H.J.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes an empirical study of the relationship between narcissism and motivation for the pastorate. Narcissism has been a key concept in the psychology of personality in recent decades, in an age in which personal life has acquired central status. Motivation is a vital concept in the

  14. Pastors as gewonde genesers: Outobiografiese pastoraat as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as it is refl ected in several formularies used during church services in the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika (NHKA), as well as the Church Ordinance of the NHKA. The other issue is the way in which pastors view the Bible. The language and rhetoric used to refl ect on these issues are discussed and evaluated.

  15. The educational dimension of pastoral youth service

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    Dra. Miriam Gallego

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The educational dimension of pastoral youth service is highlighted by the fact that it is about education on faith. Faith education means taking a young person towards a personal encounter with God. This fact is also known as an experience with God or religious experience. The religious experience favors cognitive and affective development, desire of the absolute, relationships development, commitments with justice, and the construction of a personal life and social history; in this regard, the religious experience turns into an educational one.The evangelist deed in the pastoral youth service, does not occur through isolated actions but through a process, that is, through a set of educational dynamisms that bring the young person to open up to his/her personal and social reality, to search for answers to his/her questions, be active in society, and build a life project. In pastoral ministries each gesture is, at the same time and with the same intensity, an educational event and a proposal of youth’s lives about God’s mysteries. The pastoral youth service brings educational means —objectives, contents, educational sites, processes, methodologies, people responsible for education, etc.— that can be no doubt evaluated.

  16. Linkage of the king eider population in Northeast Greenland: Migration, moult and discovery of a new offshore wintering area at Spitsbergenbanken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Anders; Johansen, Kasper Lambert; Sonne, Christian

    In late July 2009, two female king eiders were caught on the breeding grounds in Myggbukta, Northeast Greenland and equipped with satellite transmitters. Both individuals were tracked for approximately two years. The birds remained in the Myggbukta area until the onset of the autumn migration...... arrival 6 April) where they stayed for some time before returning on the spring migration to Greenland. During a ship-based survey in the offshore winter location at Spitsbergenbanken in April 2013, a previously unknown wintering ground with approximately 10.000 king eiders was discovered. The birds were...... concentrated in a partly ice-covered area 79 km from shore and of about 20 m depth. The number of king eiders indicated that Spitsbergenbanken is a wintering area for both the East Greenland and the Svalbard breeding populations. The discovery has important conservation implications due to the expanding...

  17. The partially denuclearized area of North-East Asia. Status of ten years of informal 'new diplomacy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sionneau, B.; Dusclaud, M.

    2003-01-01

    In 1991, the G. Bush administration decided to remove away all US surface tactic nuclear weapons everywhere in the world in order to reduce the nuclear warfare risk. This decision has led to the ratification by both Northern Korea and Southern Korea of the declaration on the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula, followed the same year by Mongolia which has become nuclear weapons free. As a consequence of these initiatives, the Center for international strategy, technology and policy (CISTP) of the Georgia institute of technology (Atlanta, USA) has decided the creation of a 'limited nuclear weapons free zone North-East Asia'(LNWFZ), based on cooperation, arms control and non-proliferation. This article describes the genesis of this inter-governmental process of informal diplomacy: proposal of creation of a league for non-nuclear states for North-East Asia, of implementation of an inspection regime and of a cooperative security community, of establishment of confidence building measures and of economic incentives. Then it describes the main components of the LNWFZ project and the obstacles that must be cleared away before its official implementation. (J.S.)

  18. Ethno-Demographic Processes in the North-East Black Sea Area in the 19th – Early 21th Centuries (through the Example of Greater Sochi

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    Aleksandr A. Cherkasov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ethno-demographic processes in the north-east Black Sea area, more specifically the territory of Greater Sochi, in the 19th – early 21th centuries. In writing the article, the authors have relied on archive materials from the archives department of the administration of the city of Novorossiysk and the archives department of the administration of the city of Sochi. The authors have consulted reference pre-revolution literature, Soviet-era and present-day population censuses, as well as the findings of present-day research studies. The methodological basis of this study are the principles of historicism, objectivity, and systemicity, which helps to get an insight into the general patterns and regional peculiarities in the demographic development of the major ethnicities in the north-east Black Sea area in the 19th-20th centuries. The authors touch upon the process of colonization of the territory and its ethnic composition. In the end, the authors come to the conclusion that the ethno-demographic picture of Greater Sochi had been forming in a complicated fashion. As a consequence, in the second half of the 19th century, following the Caucasian War, the territory had to be repopulated. Resettlement flows from different locations in the Russian Empire and overseas had formed by 1917 an ethno-picture that featured Russians and Armenians as two principal ethnicities. The authors note that this picture has not changed in a major way to this day.

  19. What are the cultural effects on consumers' perceptions? A case study covering coalho cheese in the Brazilian northeast and southeast area using word association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Eveline K B; Esmerino, Erick A; Ferreira, Marcus Vinícius S; da Silva, Maria Aparecida A P; Freitas, Mônica Q; Cruz, Adriano G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of regional diversity aspects related to consumers' perceptions of coalho cheese, with Brazilian Northeast and Southeast consumers (n=400, divided equally in each area) using Word Association (WA) task. Different perceptions were detected for both Northeast and Southeast consumers, and among 17 categories elicited for describing coalho cheese, only 7 categories (positive feeling, social aspects, sensory characteristic, dairy product technology, negative feeling, and lack of quality standard) presented significant differences in the frequency of mention according to chi-square per cell approach. The application of the discriminant technique Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that the categories "Social", "Accompaniment", "Manufacturing method" were the main responsible for differentiating consumers' perceptions of both areas. Overall, the main dimensions involved in the consumers' perceptions of coalho cheese from different Brazilian regions were identified, thus obtaining comprehensive insights that can be used as a guideline for coalho cheese producers to develop marketing strategies considering the intra-cultural differences. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Comparative changes in density and demography of large herbivores in the Masai Mara Reserve and its surrounding human-dominated pastoral ranches in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhola, Nina; Ogutu, Joseph O.; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Said, Mohamed Y.; Reid, Robin S.; Hobbs, N. Thompson; Olff, Han

    Wildlife habitats in pastoral lands adjoining protected areas in east African savannas are getting progressively degraded, fragmented and compressed by expanding human populations and intensification of land use. To understand the consequences of these influences on wildlife populations, we

  1. Double Marginalized Livelihoods: Invisible Gender Inequality in Pastoral Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sileshi Mengistu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Achieving gender equality is the Third Millennium Development Goal, and the major challenge to poverty reduction is the inability of governments to address this at grass root levels. This study is therefore aimed at assessing gender inequality as it pertains to socio-economic factors in (agro- pastoral societies. It tries to explain how “invisible” forces perpetuate gender inequality, based on data collected from male and female household heads and community representatives. The findings indicate that in comparison with men, women lack access to control rights over livestock, land, and income, which are critical to securing a sustainable livelihood. However, this inequality remains invisible to women who appear to readily submit to local customs, and to the community at large due to a lack of public awareness and gender based interventions. In addition, violence against women is perpetuated through traditional beliefs and sustained by tourists to the area. As a result, (agro- pastoral woman face double marginalization, for being pastoralist, and for being a woman.

  2. A holistic approach to pastoral care and poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Janse van Rensburg

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The previous approaches to pastoral care are no longer adequate or effective for addressing the many issues related to poverty. The church has done wonderful work in terms of Christian charity. However, more needs to be done to improve the worsening situation of the poor significantly. The clear distinction between pastoral care and Christian charity is a luxury that is no longer affordable. Once we have a holistic understanding of pastoral care and counselling, we will find that we cannot possibly restrict our pastoral attention to encouraging the poor, to giving random advice and to praying. A holistic pastoral theology could lead to empowerment and should be a key concept in pastoral care with poor people and societies. The article offers a theological theory for a holistic approach and some implications of the praxis of counselling.

  3. Spatial transferability of habitat suitability models of Nephrops norvegicus among fished areas in the Northeast Atlantic: sufficiently stable for marine resource conservation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Lauria

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the spatial distribution and habitat associations of species in relation to the environment is essential for their management and conservation. Habitat suitability models are useful in quantifying species-environment relationships and predicting species distribution patterns. Little is known, however, about the stability and performance of habitat suitability models when projected into new areas (spatial transferability and how this can inform resource management. The aims of this study were to model habitat suitability of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus in five fished areas of the Northeast Atlantic (Aran ground, Irish Sea, Celtic Sea, Scotland Inshore and Fladen ground, and to test for spatial transferability of habitat models among multiple regions. Nephrops burrow density was modelled using generalised additive models (GAMs with predictors selected from four environmental variables (depth, slope, sediment and rugosity. Models were evaluated and tested for spatial transferability among areas. The optimum models (lowest AICc for different areas always included depth and sediment as predictors. Burrow densities were generally greater at depth and in finer sediments, but relationships for individual areas were sometimes more complex. Aside from an inclusion of depth and sediment, the optimum models differed between fished areas. When it came to tests of spatial transferability, however, most of the models were able to predict Nephrops density in other areas. Furthermore, transferability was not dependent on use of the optimum models since competing models were also able to achieve a similar level of transferability to new areas. A degree of decoupling between model 'fitting' performance and spatial transferability supports the use of simpler models when extrapolating habitat suitability maps to different areas. Differences in the form and performance of models from different areas may supply further information on the processes

  4. Vatican II and pluralism in pastoral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D A

    1978-01-01

    The documents of Vatican II imply that the ever increasing plurality of needs in the world and in Catholic health care institutions must be met by plurality in Christian response. Catholic hospitals should welcome onto their pastoral care teams people with diverse credentials and use them to promote the spiritual care of patients--Catholic and non-Catholic. In addition, this pluralistic ministry should extend itself beyond institutional walls toward the social needs of the community.

  5. Pastoral research: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, John J

    2004-01-01

    In healthcare environments of excellence, clinically trained chaplains are valued members of the medical treatment team. There are skills and values they hold in common with medicine and allied health disciplines: enhancing the health and well-being of the patient as a unity of body, mind, and spirit within a unique family and cultural system. This article examines the past, present, and future of pastoral research, including the chaplain's moral imperative to examine practice and to share what is found.

  6. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  7. Spousal rape: A challenge for pastoral counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Glanville

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the criticism regarding the pastoral counsellor’s dealings with spousal rape victims. It argues that counsellors should be sensitive not to be biased, either personally or theologically, and should have an understanding of the biopsychosocial (biological, psychological and social impact of spousal rape, such as rape-related post-traumatic stress and other related illnesses such as depression, victimisation and stigmatisation. The pastoral counsellors should be aware of the legal and medical ramifications of spousal rape and have knowledge of the correct referral resources and procedures (trusted professionals, shelters and support structures. They should be self-aware and understand the effect that gender or previous traumatic personal experiences may have on their reactions. The article consists of the following sections: the phenomenon ‘rape’; acquaintance rape; spousal rape; post-traumatic stress; post-traumatic stress disorder; rape trauma syndrome; cognitive behavioural therapy; spirituality; doctrinal matters; social system of patriarchy; a pastoral counselling model; self-care.

  8. Simulation and assessment of groundwater flow and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2003 through 2013: Chapter B of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Roth, Jason L.; Trost, Jared J.; Christenson, Catherine A.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Erickson, Melinda L.

    2017-09-05

    Water levels during 2003 through 2013 were less than mean water levels for the period 1925–2013 for several lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area in Minnesota. Previous periods of low lake-water levels generally were correlated with periods with less than mean precipitation. Increases in groundwater withdrawals and land-use changes have brought into question whether or not recent (2003–13) lake-water-level declines are solely caused by decreases in precipitation. A thorough understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges was needed to assess the effect of water-management decisions on lake-water levels. To address this need, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and the Minnesota Department of Health, developed and calibrated a three-dimensional, steady-state groundwater-flow model representing 2003–13 mean hydrologic conditions to assess groundwater and lake-water exchanges, and the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water levels of 96 lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area.Lake-water budgets for the calibrated groundwater-flow model indicated that groundwater is flowing into lakes in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area and lakes are providing water to underlying aquifers. Lake-water outflow to the simulated groundwater system was a major outflow component for Big Marine Lake, Lake Elmo, Snail Lake, and White Bear Lake, accounting for 45 to 64 percent of the total outflows from the lakes. Evaporation and transpiration from the lake surface ranged from 19 to 52 percent of the total outflow from the four lakes. Groundwater withdrawals and precipitation were varied from the 2003‒13 mean values used in the calibrated model (30-percent changes in groundwater withdrawals and 5-percent changes in precipitation) for hypothetical scenarios to assess the effects of groundwater withdrawals and precipitation on water budgets and levels in Big Marine Lake, Snail Lake

  9. Zoogeographical patterns of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes parasites in the Northeast Atlantic and the importance of the Portuguese coast as a transitional area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Ferreira Marques

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are recognised as an excellent source of information on the distribution of their hosts. Here, the macroparasite fauna of 20 species of Pleuronectiformes belonging to five different families and inhabiting the Portuguese coast was investigated and compared with that known in four other areas (the North Sea, north Northeast Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea and Northwest African coast in order to determine (1 their zoogeographical pattern and (2 the role of the Portuguese coast as an intermediate biogeographic province. Macroparasites infecting Pleuronectiformes sampled along the Portuguese coast were collected using standard parasitological techniques, whereas data on those in the other four areas were obtained from the literature, rendering a total of 73 macroparasite species. Both sets of data were then compiled in a presence/absence matrix. Hosts and macroparasites were placed into zoogeographical categories according to their known distribution, and patterns were evaluated using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The zoogeography of hosts and parasites was not entirely concordant, although that of endoparasites was generally consistent with the patterns for marine free-living species. On the other hand, only specific ectoparasites truly mirrored the distribution of their hosts. These differences reflect the importance of host ecology and dispersal and environmental factors on the patterns revealed. The Portuguese coast seems to play a significant role in the distribution of Pleuronectiformes’ parasites along the Northeast Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, due to its transitional character and to the sympatric occurrence of related hosts, both promoting the acquisition of new parasite species or the maintenance of historical host-parasite relationships.

  10. Pastoral suitability driven by future climate change along the Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Dibari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at evaluating the impacts of climate change on pastoral resources located along the Apennines chain. To this end, random forest machine learning model was first calibrated for the present period and then applied to future conditions, as projected by HadCM3 general circulation model, in order to simulate possible spatial variation/shift of pastoral areas in two time slices (centred on 2050 and 2080 under A2 and B2 SRES scenarios. Pre-existent spatial database, namely Corine land cover map and WorldClim, were integrated and harmonised in a GIS environment in order to extract climate variables (mean seasonal precipitation, mean maximum temperature of the warmest month and minimum temperature of the coldest month and response variables (presence/absence of pastures to be used as model predictors. Random forest model resulted robust and coherent to simulate pastureland suitability under current climatology (classification accuracy error=19%. Accordingly, results indicated that increases in temperatures coupled with decreases in precipitation, as simulated by HadCM3 in the future, would have impacts of great concern on potential pasture distribution. In the specific, an overall decline of pasturelands suitability is predicted by the middle of the century in both A2 (–46% and B2 (–41% along the entire chain. However, despite alarming reductions in pastures suitability along the northern (–69% and –71% under A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively and central Apennines (–90% under both scenarios by the end of the century, expansions are predicted along the southern areas of the chain (+96% and +105% under A2 and B2 scenarios, respectively. This may be probably due to expansions in pastures dominated by xeric and thermophiles species, which will likely benefit from warmer and drier future conditions predicted in the southern zone of the chain by the HadCM3. Hence, the expected climate, coupled with an increasing abandonment of the

  11. 33 CFR 165.540 - Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Dredging work within the RNA will be conducted in five distinct areas: Ocean Bar II, Horseshoe Shoal.... (e) Description of work areas in the RNA—(1) Ocean Bar II, mouth of Cape Fear. The work area includes..., ensure that they have sufficient propulsion and directional control to safely navigate the RNA under the...

  12. Pastoral care and healing in Africa: Towards an Adamic Christological practical theology imagination for pastoral healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that the challenge and need for relevant ministry models is critical for effective Christian ministry and pastoral ministry as practical life ministry. It establishes an Adamic Christological model as a paradigm that provides a practical effective ministerial approach in Africa, particularly within the context of pastoral care and healing. This framework reveals Christ’s complete identification with African Christians in their contextual sufferings as the New Adam without compromising authentic gospel reality. In employing the Adamic Christological framework as the anchor for African pastoral and healing ministry, a model for African Christians’ daily response to their various contextual sufferings is constructed. This responsive model bridges the gap between the ascension of Christ and the interim period of Christianity by instituting God’s ongoing personal presence in believers’ suffering through the Holy Spirit (pneumatology as an encouraging and comforting reality that should enable Christians to cope in their suffering. It is argued that this Adamic Christological framework provides a practical theological model that contributes to healing and hope in pastoral care through practical knowing that impacts and imparts meaning in life.

  13. An assessment of dispersing pollutants from the pre-harvest burning of sugarcane in rural areas in the northeast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Maria Gabriela L.; Henríquez, Jorge R.; Costa, José A. P.; de Lira Junior, José C.

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, the Brazilian government has been applying several restrictions with regard to preventing environmental pollution. Although Brazilian legislation is becoming stricter as to the pre-harvest burning of sugarcane, this practice is frequently used in order to assist manual harvesting. In the northeast region of Brazil, sugarcane is an important crop, which accounts for about 15% of the national production in a total area of 1,060,660 ha, the average production being 51,119 kg per hectare. The pre-harvest burning of sugarcane generates smoke, which has a high concentration of atmospheric pollutants such as carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (P.M. 2.5 and 10), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOX). This article estimates the volume of CO, P.M. 2.5 and NOX generated and how they are dispersed in the atmosphere when this arises from the burning of sugarcane biomass in rural areas of Northeast Brazil, and does so by using AERMOD VIEW® simulation software. Using the characteristics of the emissions and environmental (meteorological and topographical) data, quality air profiles based on pollutant dispersion were obtained. Three studies were taken into account in order to determine the relationship between pollutant dispersion and some parameters of the burning process, such as those for the spatial distribution of resources, the duration of pre-harvest burning and the influence of undertaking burning in different months. As to spatial distribution, to divide an area into small lots contributes to decreasing the maximum concentration of pollutants by 53% compared to burning a single area of equivalent size. The study of the burning duration indicated that doing so gradually (using a lengthier procedure) could decrease the maximum concentration of the pollutants by an inverse relation. The harvesting period in this region is between November and April. The pollutants

  14. Melanie Klein on mourning: Its relation to pastoral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, C W

    1991-09-01

    This paper connects the work of Melanie Klein on mourning to the pastor's work with the grief sufferer. Klein holds that mourning is an illness of manic depressive character rooted in infantile development. Klein's description of manic defenses in the face of loss has adult behavioral analogues with which the pastor must deal to bring mourning to resolution.

  15. Biometrical applications in tropical pasture and agro-pastoral research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amézquita, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    "Biometrical Applications in Tropical Pasture and Agro-pastoral Research" illustrates, through selected Case Studies, the contribution of Biometry to pasture and agro-pastoral research in Tropical Latin America ( TLA ) in the last

  16. A triad of pastoral leadership for congregational health and well ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    That ministry is to be given back to the laity is a laudable proposition. However, the level of development in many township and village communities is still such that a strong leadership and management facilitation role is demanded of the pastor. In such contexts, the pastor is also the only one who is always available for ...

  17. Pastoral Perspectives of Humor's Use in Ministry Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jonathan W.

    2012-01-01

    Results from a qualitative component of a mixed-methods research design are reported regarding the use of humor in pastoral ministry. Thirteen Southern Baptist (SB) pastors were interviewed, from a total of 37 exemplars identified in the quantitative component of the study, regarding their perspectives toward humor in ministry. Results overall…

  18. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI, Cd, As, and Pb analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I and Nemerow pollution index (NI. The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS. The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream.

  19. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream. PMID:26366176

  20. "I used to be as fit as a linnet" - beliefs, attitudes, and environmental supportiveness for physical activity in former mining areas in the North-East of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, Esther; Jones, Andy

    2015-02-01

    Studies of geographical variations in physical activity behaviours have suggested that activity levels are particularly low in areas that have undergone employment loss associated with the decline of industry. This is of concern given that affected populations are already at risk of poor health. Applying focus group methodology amongst 19 participants in four groups, this study aims to unpack how broader societal and environmental changes associated with industrial decline affect beliefs and attitudes towards physical activity in ex-mining communities in the North-East of England. Identified core themes comprise the direct impact of deindustrialisation on social and physical environments. Based on our findings, we provide evidence for mechanisms that operate via loss of occupational physical activity as well as the progressive development of environments that are not fit to support population activity levels. Particularly important was the loss of recreational facilities, public green spaces and sports facilities that were owned and organised by the miners themselves with support from the mining companies. Attitudes and beliefs directly related to the areas' industrial past were also seen to be key. We suggest that the development of interventions considering the socio-cultural history and socio-economic reality of communities could be a promising route to encourage more active lifestyles in deprived areas with particularly low levels of physical activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Radioactive status of seawater and its assessment in the northeast South China Sea and the Luzon Strait and its adjacent areas from 2011 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Li, Dongmei; Zhao, Li; Li, Haitao; Zhao, Feng; Zheng, Yuanlai; Fang, Hongda; Lou, Quansheng; Cai, Weixu

    2018-06-01

    To understand the impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident (FNA), 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 90 Sr, and gross beta were analyzed in the northeast South China Sea (NSCS), the Luzon Strait (LS) and its adjacent areas. 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and gross beta values in the NSCS were similar to those prior to the FNA. 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the LS and its adjacent areas were consistent with those in the NSCS. The high 137 Cs-peak values occurred at depth of 150 m whereas the high 90 Sr-peak values occurred at depth of 0.5 m. The 137 Cs and gross beta mean values in Cruise I were higher than those in Cruise II whereas the 90 Sr mean value was just the reverse. 134 Cs in all seawater were below the minimum detectable activity. The past and present data since the 1970s suggested 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the study areas still originated from global fallout and the FNA influence were negligible. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Economic Analysis of the Gypsy Moth Problem in the Northeast: III. Impacts on Homeowners and Managers of Recreation Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Moeller; Raymond Marler; Roger E. McCay; William B. White

    1977-01-01

    The economic impacts of a gypsy moth infestation on homeowners and on managers of recreation areas (commercial, public, and quasi-public) were determined from data collected via interviews with 540 homeowners and 170 managers of recreation areas in New York and Pennsylvania. The approach to measuring the impact of gypsy moth was to determine the interaction of a...

  3. Theoretical Foundations of Pastoral Care in Christian Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Agılkaya-Sahin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing academic and institutional interest in pastoral care and counseling raises attention day by day. However there is no institutionally established concept and practice of pastoral care in Turkey’s prevalent Islamic tradition. Therefore there is a lack of theoretical foundation for this service that wants to be developed and established in Turkey. In fact pastoral care services are quite well developed in Christian tradition. Especially in Germany pastoral care and counseling has a deep-rooted history and professional practice. Thus in this paper in order to give an insight into theoretical foundations of German pastoral care and counseling the concept is illustrated in terms of definition, characteristics, subjects, objects, aims, tasks and theology.

  4. Statistical analysis of lake levels and field study of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015: Chapter A of Water levels and groundwater and surface-water exchanges in lakes of the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, 2002 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Diekoff, Aliesha L.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; White, Eric A.; Erickson, Melinda L.; Morel, Daniel L.; Heck, Jessica M.

    2016-10-19

    Water levels declined from 2003 to 2011 in many lakes in Ramsey and Washington Counties in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota; however, water levels in other northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes increased during the same period. Groundwater and surface-water exchanges can be important in determining lake levels where these exchanges are an important component of the water budget of a lake. An understanding of groundwater and surface-water exchanges in the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area has been limited by the lack of hydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Metropolitan Council and Minnesota Department of Health, completed a field and statistical study assessing lake-water levels and regional and local groundwater and surface-water exchanges near northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. This report documents the analysis of collected hydrologic, water-quality, and geophysical data; and existing hydrologic and geologic data to (1) assess the effect of physical setting and climate on lake-level fluctuations of selected lakes, (2) estimate potential percentages of surface-water contributions to well water across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, (3) estimate general ages for waters extracted from the wells, and (4) assess groundwater inflow to lakes and lake-water outflow to aquifers downgradient from White Bear Lake. Statistical analyses of lake levels during short-term (2002–10) and long-term (1925–2014) periods were completed to help understand lake-level changes across the northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area. Comparison of 2002–10 lake levels to several landscape and geologic characteristics explained variability in lake-level changes for 96 northeast Twin Cities Metropolitan Area lakes. Application of several statistical methods determined that (1) closed-basin lakes (without an active outlet) had larger lake-level declines than flow-through lakes with an outlet; (2

  5. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory.

  6. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project ''Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory

  7. Modelling Local Sea-Breeze Flow and Associated Dispersion Patterns Over a Coastal Area in North-East Spain: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, M. R.; Arasa, R.; Merino, M.; Olid, M.; Ortega, S.

    2011-07-01

    The structure and evolution of the sea breeze in the north-west part of the Mediterranean (Catalonia, north-east Spain) is studied both experimentally and, predominantly, using numerical models to increase understanding of sea-breeze structure and three-dimensional (3D) pollution distributions in coastal environments. Sea-breeze components are modelled and analyzed using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University-National Centre for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5). The results show that the growth and structure of the sea-breeze circulation is modulated by the synoptic flow and especially by the complex topography of the area. 3D pollution transport in a sea breeze is modelled by coupling the MM5 to the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, with results indicating that topography and synoptic flow are the main factors modulating horizontal and vertical pollutant transport in sea-breeze episodes. In this way, horizontal dispersion is limited by the complex topography of the area, whilst the sea-breeze flow is intensified by anabatic upslope winds that contribute to vertical pollutant transport. The numerical model results also indicate that the sea-breeze circulation with a weak return flow at upper levels grows due to a synoptic onshore wind component. However, such a sea-breeze circulation is capable of transporting pollutants towards the coast.

  8. The drought risk of maize in the farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China based on physical vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Jiang, Jingyi; Ma, Qing

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is affecting every aspect of human activities, especially the agriculture. In China, extreme drought events caused by climate change have posed a great threat to food safety. In this work we aimed to study the drought risk of maize in the farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China based on physical vulnerability assessment. The physical vulnerability curve was constructed from the relationship between drought hazard intensity index and yield loss rate. The risk assessment of agricultural drought was conducted from the drought hazard intensity index and physical vulnerability curve. The probability distribution of drought hazard intensity index decreased from south-west to north-east and increased from south-east to north-west along the rainfall isoline. The physical vulnerability curve had a reduction effect in three parts of the farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China, which helped to reduce drought hazard vulnerability on spring maize. The risk of yield loss ratio calculated based on physical vulnerability curve was lower compared with the drought hazard intensity index, which suggested that the capacity of spring maize to resist and adapt to drought is increasing. In conclusion, the farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China is greatly sensitive to climate change and has a high probability of severe drought hazard. Risk assessment of physical vulnerability can help better understand the physical vulnerability to agricultural drought and can also promote measurements to adapt to climate change.

  9. Reindeer pastoralism in Sweden 1550-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Lundmark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the 16th century we get the first opportunity to a more detailed knowledge of reindeerpastoralism in Sweden. At that time the Sami lived in a hunter-gatherer economy. A family had in average about 10-20 domesticated reindeer, mainly used for transport. They could also be milked and used as decoys when hunting wild reindeer. During late 16th century the Swedish state and merchants bought large amounts of fur from the Sami. The common payment was butter and flour. This created a new prosperity, which lead to a considerable increase in population in Swedish Lapland. The population became too large for a hunter-gatherer economy. A crisis in early 17th century was the starting point for the transition to a large-scale nomadic reindeer pastoralism. Up to the middle of the 18th century intensive reindeer pastoralism was successful. But the pastoralism became gradually too intensive and diseases started to spread when the herds were kept too densely crowded for milking in summertime. During the first decades of the 19th century reindeer pastoralism in Sweden went through a major crisis. The number of reindeer herding mountain-Sami decreased considerably, mainly because they went to live permanently along the Norwegian coastline. Intensive reindeer pastoralism started to give way for extensive herding towards the end of the 19th century. In the north of Sweden influences from the Kautokeino Sami were an important factor, in the south extensive reindeer herding started to expand when the market for meat came closer to the Sami. During the 1920s the milking of reindeer ceased in Sweden, except in a few families. At that time Sami families from the north had been removed southwards. They further demonstrated the superiority of extensive herding to the Sami in mid- and southern Lapland. Reindeer pastoralism is basically a system of interaction between man and animal, but it has been heavily influenced by market forces and state intervention

  10. Outcrop - core correlation and seismic modeling of the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit, Fort McMurray area, northeast Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hein, F.J. [Alberta Geological Survey, Calgary, AB (Canada); Langenberg, C.W.; Cotterill, D.C.; Berhane, H. [Alberta Geological Survey, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Lawton, D.; Cunningham, J. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    A joint study between the Alberta Geological Survey and the University of Calgary was conducted which involved a detailed facies analysis of cores and outcrops from the Athabasca Oil Sands Deposit in Alberta`s Steepbank area. A unified facies classification for the deposit was developed. Larger scale facies associations were also determined, as well as proxy sonic logs for outcrops used in seismic modeling. The cores which were displayed exhibited detailed sedimentological and stratigraphic analysis of 10 outcrops in the area. 7 refs.

  11. 78 FR 9247 - Milk in the Northeast and Other Marketing Areas; Final Decision on Proposed Amendments to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... survey. All make allowances were adjusted for marketing costs. Nineteen proposals were published in the....0015 per pound marketing cost factor) the resulting make allowances should be: $0.1780 per pound for... manufacturing for the highest cost Federal order marketing area. The witness said that classified prices are...

  12. Hydrochemical and microbiological quality of groundwater in the Merdja area, Tébessa, North-East of Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehdi, Chemseddine; Rouabhia, Abdelkader; Mechai, Abdelbasset; Debabza, Manel; Abla, Khalida; Voudouris, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a preliminary assessment of the hydrochemical and microbial groundwater quality of the Merdja plain (Tébessa area). Twenty samples of groundwater collected from Bekkaria (Site 1) to Ain Chabro (Site 2) were assessed for their suitability for human consumption. Groundwater from the aquifer in the Merdja area can be divided into two major groups according to geographical locations and chemical compositions. Water in the center part of the study area is characterized by the dominance of chloride, sulfate, sodium, and potassium; whereas waters in the limestone aquifers in the west are dominated by the same cations but have higher concentrations of bicarbonate. Microbiological parameters were determined in 13 groundwater samples collected from the study area. Total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus spp., and P. aeruginosa were detected in 96.36, 88.18, 100, 47.5, 97.27, 96.7, and 75 % of the groundwater samples, respectively. The pollution of groundwater comes from a variety of sources, Ouadi El Kebir River, including land application of agricultural chemicals and organic wastes, infiltration of irrigation water, septic tanks, and infiltration of effluent from sewage treatment plants, pits, lagoons, and ponds used for storage.

  13. Parasitological and serological studies on Amoebiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in Recife and its suburban area, northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsu Okazaki

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological examinations were carried out during April to August, 1987, with 187 out-patients of the IMIP hospital, located in the center of Recife City, and 464 inhabitants of several villages around Cabo City, 50 Km southeast of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Approximately 71% of the IMIP patients and 92% of the Cabo inhabitants were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. There was minimum difference in the prevalence rate of Trichuris trichiura between two areas, whereas the prevalence rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and Entamoeba histolytica were higher in the inhabitants of the Cabo City area. Only Giardia lamblia was more prevalent in the out-patients of IMIP hospital. Test tube cultivation revealed that the prevalence rate of Necator americanus in both areas was much higher than that of Ancylostoma duodenale , and also that the prevalence rate of S. stercoralis of the IMIP patients and Cabo inhabitants were 4.5% and 9.6%, respectively. Six hundred and fifteen sera were serologically examined for amoebiasis by the gel diffusion precipitation test (GDP and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the antigen prepared from axenically cultured trophozoite of E. histolytica (strain HM-ITMSS. No positive reaction was observed in all of the sera as examined by GDP, while 32 out of 615 sera were positive on ELISA.

  14. Groundwater origin investigation with isotopic compositions for evaluation of high productive deep aquifers in Khon Kaen area, Northeast Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buaphan, C.; Yangme, W.; Wannakao, L.; Sriboonlue, V.; Tassanasorn, A.; Buapeng, S.

    1999-01-01

    Investigation of groundwater origin by using isotopic compositions for evaluation of high productive deep aquifers in Khon Kaen Province is emphasized on hydrogeology and isotopes technique. The study area consists of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks and unconsolidated sediments of Quaternary. Phu Tok aquifers in the southern part of the study area are mainly confined in very well sorted, fine grained sandstone as well as in fractures and joints. They extend from Ban Tha Pra to Ban Phai covering area 500 km 2 . Depth to the aquifers is from 20 to 250 m, while their piezometric surface ranges from 0.35 m to 15 m from the ground surface. Their thickness range from 50 to 100 m. The transmissivity is from 0.45 to 1,047 m 2 /d on the pumping rate of 48-1,200 m 3 /d with drawdown of less than 10% and rough annual safe yield is 83.34x10 6 m 3 . The water is very good in quality for drinking, except for the TDS and total hardness around aquifer boundary. The groundwater and surface water are analysed for stable and radioactive isotopes, including 2 H, 18 O, 3 H and 14 C. The results show that the shallow groundwater of the depth less than 50 m is originated by direct recharge of rainfall between 180 and 6,820 a. The groundwater flow is relatively rapid from west to east and northwest to southeast, the high productive deep aquifer of Phu Tok flow radiate from recharging area to all direction. However, the groundwater flow rate based on 14 C analyses for Phu Tok is 2 to 3 m/a. Within some areas the flow is about 8 m/a, while the unconsolidated aquifers along the Phong River give flow rate about 4 m/a. The deeper aquifers also have direct rain recharge the same as the above aquifers but the flow rate are lower, especially the deepest aquifer at the depth of nearly 200 m indicated no direct rain recharge with age of more than 20 000 a, which is confirmed with the amount of tritium less than 1.0 TU. (author)

  15. Soil respiration patterns for four major land-use types of the agro-pastoral region of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-use types and management practices are critical factors that affect soil CO2 efflux (Rs). In the agro-pastoral area of northern China, land-use types have changed considerably during the last 60 years due to changes in the social-economic status of the human population and associated changes i...

  16. Carbon sequestration in pastures, silvo-pastoral systems and forests in four regions of the latin American Tropics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amezquita, M.C.; Ibrahim, M.; Llanderal, T.; Buurman, P.; Amezquita, E.

    2005-01-01

    Tropical America (TA) holds 8% of the world's population, 11% of the world's continental area, 23% and 22%, respectively, of the world's forest and water resources, and 13% of the world's pasture and agro-pastoral land, this representing 77% of TA's agricultural land. Recent interest in carbon

  17. Pentastomid, Raillietiella mottae Almeida, Freire and Lopes, 2008, infecting lizards in an area of caatinga, northeast, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, WO.; Santana, GG.; Vieira, WLS.; Wanderley, IC.; Freire, EMX.; Vasconcellos, A.

    2008-01-01

    Pentastomids can infect the respiratory tract of lizards, causing their death and as a result influencing the population size of hosts. Despite this, studies on rates of pulmonary infection of Brazilian lizards, including those living in Caatinga ecosystems of northeastern Brazil are scarce. Active collections of lizards were performed from October to December 2004 in an area of Caatinga of the Estação Experimental de São João do Cariri - EESJC (07º 25' S and 36º 30' W), located in the state ...

  18. [Spatial-temporal pattern and obstacle factors of cultivated land ecological security in major grain producing areas of northeast China: a case study in Jilin Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Bo; Ma, Yan-Ji

    2014-02-01

    According to the cultivated land ecological security in major grain production areas of Northeast China, this paper selected 48 counties of Jilin Province as the research object. Based on the PSR-EES conceptual framework model, an evaluation index system of cultivated land ecological security was built. By using the improved TOPSIS, Markov chains, GIS spatial analysis and obstacle degree models, the spatial-temporal pattern of cultivated land ecological security and the obstacle factors were analyzed from 1995 to 2011 in Jilin Province. The results indicated that, the composite index of cultivated land ecological security appeared in a rising trend in Jilin Province from 1995 to 2011, and the cultivated land ecological security level changed from being sensitive to being general. There was a pattern of 'Club Convergence' in cultivated land ecological security level in each county and the spatial discrepancy tended to become larger. The 'Polarization' trend of cultivated land ecological security level was obvious. The distributions of sensitive level and critical security level with ribbon patterns tended to be dispersed, the general security level and relative security levels concentrated, and the distributions of security level scattered. The unstable trend of cultivated land ecological security level was more and more obvious. The main obstacle factors that affected the cultivated land ecological security level in Jilin Province were rural net income per capita, economic density, the proportion of environmental protection investment in GDP, degree of machinery cultivation and the comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid wastes.

  19. The identification of critical groups and its application to fish and shellfish consumers in the coastal area of the North-East Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, G.J.; Hewett, C.J.; Shepherd, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Control of radioactive waste disposal to the environment, based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), necessitates an identification of the critical group of members of the public exposed from a given practice. Criteria for identification of critical groups based mainly on ICRP recommendations are discussed. Methods existing up to 1974 are briefly reviewed in the light of these criteria. Two more recent methods are described and compared on the basis of previous data; these methods, which are complementary, are based on homogeneity considerations and satisfy the criteria generally rather better than do the earlier methods. The application of the newer techniques to recent surveys of fish and shellfish consumption in the coastal area of the North-East Irish Sea is described, in relation to discharges from the Windscale reprocessing plant. The results of this survey are presented, and estimates are given of the effective dose equivalent to members of these critical groups in recent years, to show the effect of liquid discharges from Windscale in terms of public radiation exposure. (author)

  20. Entrepreneurial orientation and religion: the Pastor as an entrepreneur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Silva Corrêa

    Full Text Available Abstract In recent decades Brazil has witnessed radical changes in its religious composition, with rapid expansion of Evangelical communities. Within these communities there exist various religious associations in which pastors play a key role. Using the theoretical framework of Entrepreneurial Orientation, and based on interviews with 20 Neopentecostal pastors in Belo Horizonte/Minas Gerais, this article shows that, in their work developing their churches, pastors exhibit characteristically entrepreneurial behavior (innovation, proactivity, competitive aggressiveness, risk-taking, autonomy. This study further demonstrates the importance and explanatory power of the Entrepreneurial Orientation theoretical framework and may open new research perspectives for social managers, social scholars and practitioners in related fields.

  1. Pastoralism and wildlife: historical and current perspectives in the East African rangelands of Kenya and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankester, F; Davis, A

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between pastoralists, their livestock, wildlife and the rangelands of East Africa is multi-directional, complex and long-standing. The tumultuous events of the past century, however, have rewritten the nature of this relationship, reshaping the landscapes that were created, and relied upon, by both pastoralists and wildlife. Presently, much of the interaction between wildlife and pastoralists takes place in and around protected areas, the most contentious occurring in pastoral lands surrounding national parks. In conservation terminology these areas are called buffer zones. In the past century buffer zones have been shaped by, and contributed to, restrictive conservation policies, expropriation of land, efforts to include communities in conservation, both positive and negative wildlife/livestock interactions, and political tensions. In this review paper, the authors outline the history that shaped the current relationship between pastoralists, livestock and wildlife in buffer zones in East Africa and highlight some of the broader issues that pastoralists (and pastoralism as an effective livelihood strategy) now face. Finally, they consider some of the sustainable and equitable practices that could be implemented to improve livelihoods and benefit wildlife and pastoralism alike.

  2. Geochemical and geophysical investigations, and fluid inclusion studies in the exploration area of Zafarghand (Northeast Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alaminia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Urumieh-Dokhtar Magmatic Arc (UDMA is a good prospective area for Cu, Cu-Mo and Cu-Au deposits (Fig. 1A and B. The Zafarghand district is located in the central part of the UDMA and the northeastern Isfahan. The present study concerns geological observations, alteration investigations, geochemical data and fluid inclusion studies. The purpose of the research is to identify geochemical anomalies and source of metals in this area. Geochemical anomalies for mineralizing elements and element associations were identified by using statistical analysis methods. Additionally, these results together suggest a site for exploration drilling in this study area. Materials and methods We collected 186 samples (rock along multi-cross sections oriented perpendicular to the strike of the South -Ardestan fault (Fig. 2.Trace element concentrations were determined by the ICP-MS technique in Amdel laboratory (Australia. Thin sections and doubly polished sections (100–200 µm thick from quartz veins were prepared from samples collected from the Zafarghand district in the University of Isfahan. Heating and freezing experiments on fluid inclusions were performed as defined (by Goldstein and Reynolds (1994 on a Linkam THM600 stage. Results Igneous rocks in the Zafarghand area are dominated by the Eocene and post Eocene acidic-intermediate rocks that include dacite, rhyodacite and andesite associated with diorite, quartz diorite and microdiorite intrusions. The present investigations indicate that all rocks of the Zafarghand district exhibit a variety of alterations. Hydrothermal alterations include phyllic, potassic, silicification, and argillic with widespread propylitic. The mineralization consists of malachite, azurite, hematite, and goethite, rare amounts of magnetite, pyrite, and chalcopyrite. Numerical traditional statistical analysis techniques have been applied to interpret the geochemical data of the study area. These methods are aimed at

  3. IMPROVING CONECTIVITY BETWEEN BARÓ DEVIVER ANDBON PASTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihong Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the description of the academic exercise of public space design on the Continuity of Ciutat Rambla de Asuncion in “Gestion de Proyectos” course, which is given to first know the background of the neighborhoods and their current situation, the phases followed in the design process and the end result presented as an annex to plans, sections, diagrams, views, etc. It also describes the aim of achieving unity and continuity together to improve the connectivity being the two neighborhoods through the design of the three major themes of group work are; a Continuity Rambla de la Ciutat de Asunción, b the walk Rivera Besos river, and c the industrial estate between Bon Pastor and Baró de Viver.

  4. Inhabiting compassion: A pastoral theological paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil C. Zylla

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by the vision of care in Vincent van Gogh’s depiction of the parable of the Good Samaritan, this article offers a paradigm for inhabiting compassion. Compassion is understood in this article as a moral emotion that is also a pathocentric virtue. This definition creates a dynamic view of compassion as a desire to alleviate the suffering of others, the capacity to act on behalf of others and a commitment to sustain engagement with the suffering other. To weave this vision of compassion as a habitus rather than a theoretical construct, the article develops three phases of compassion: seeing, companioning and sighing. This framework deepens and augments a pastoral theological paradigm of compassion with the aim of inculcating an inhabited compassion in caregivers and the communities in which they participate.

  5. Assessment of trace metal contamination in groundwater in a highly urbanizing area of Shenfu New District, Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yintao; Zang, Xinghua; Yao, Hong; Zhang, Shichao; Sun, Shaobin; Liu, Fang

    2018-01-01

    Shenfu New District, located between two old industrial cities, Shenyang and Fushun, is a typical area undergoing industrialization and urbanization in China. The sources and distributions of heavy metals were analyzed in groundwater by multivariate analysis and GIS, and the impact of urbanization on the aqueous distribution of these metals was investigated. The results indicated that the mean contents of zinc (Zn), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) in the wet periods were about two times of those in the dry period. Nickel (Ni) and chromium (Cr) were considered to be associated with the same anthropogenic origins (i.e., wastewater from agricultural processing). The concentration of Zn was high under natural conditions, but was also affected by human activities (e.g., wastewater from foundry and instrument manufacturers). As, Cd, and Pb are likely derived from both anthropogenic and natural sources (agricultural and water-rock interactions). The spatial distributions of heavy metals in groundwater were region-specific, with the highest concentrations mostly along the Hun River. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) values from the dry and wet periods showed similar trends at different sampling sites. Only one site's HPI was above the critical value of 100. These results provide information that can be used to understand potential threats to the groundwater resources of other developing cities.

  6. Nutritional status of underfive children in a pastoral community in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: nutrition, children, pastoral community, Tanzania. Introduction. Nutritional ... adequate diet, availability of education, health services and healthy environment ..... improve growth or hemoglobin status of rural. Tanzanian infants from ...

  7. Economic valuation of pastoral meat production system in Arusha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    53. Independent consultant, email: esitayo@yahoo.com ... increasing climate variability and incidence of extreme events (droughts, floods), there are .... If at all accounted in national statistics, official data on pastoralism set focus exclusively on.

  8. Vulnerability of the Tibetan Pastoral Systems to Climate and Global Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate and global change on Tibetan pastoral systems have become increasingly evident. Thus, a significant research endeavor is to explore the combined effects of these changes on the livelihoods of herder households and communities, on the adaptation strategies they adopted to respond to the current and expected risks associated with these changes, and on the emerging opportunities that can strengthen their resilience and adaptive capacity. We performed an integrated analysis of the dynamics of Tibetan pastoral systems influenced by climate and global changes by using the analytical framework developed by Ostrom. Climate and global changes have significantly altered the attributes of and the interactions within Tibetan pastoral systems, thus posing great challenges to their sustainable development. We used Nagqu County, a remote area of the northern Tibetan Plateau of China, as a case study to analyze the adaptation strategies adopted by local herders to respond to multiple stressors, as well as the emerging opportunities that they can take advantage of to increase their adaptive capacity. Findings show that although local herders have developed various adaptation strategies, such as planting forage grass, buying fodder from the market, renting pastures, joining formal or informal cooperatives, and diversifying livelihoods, social, cultural, and institutional challenges still exist. To enhance the adaptive capacity of herders and to reduce their vulnerability, we recommend that future rangeland policies and programs promote: (1 comprehensive support for formal or informal pastoral cooperatives, (2 development of the rangeland economy to take advantage of the multifunctionalities of rangeland ecosystems, and (3 revitalization of the mobility paradigm to allow the flexible use of rangelands.

  9. The Good Pastoring Mother: how Female Pastors in Norway and the United States Balance Work and Home

    OpenAIRE

    Ophoff, Brooke

    2017-01-01

    Pastoral work is a unique vocation, which blurs the lines between personal and professional life to an extreme degree. While this dynamic has been examined from many angles, very little time has been spent determining specifically how women navigate this complicated relationship. Similarly, while there is a great deal of literature focused on how women fulfill their roles at home and in the workplace, such studies do not usually focus on women in pastoral work, instead generally centering o...

  10. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting

    OpenAIRE

    Heino, Mikko

    2010-01-01

    Heino, M. 2010. Northeast Atlantic blue whiting. In Life cycle spatial patterns of small pelagic fish in the Northeast Atlantic, pp. 59-64. Ed by P. Petitgas. ICES Cooperative Research Report 306. ICES, Copenhagen.

  11. Regional Approach for Managing for Resilience Linking Ecosystem Services and Livelihood Strategies for Agro-Pastoral Communities in the Mongolian Steppe Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D. S.; Togtohyn, C.; Qi, J.; Galvin, K.

    2011-12-01

    Dramatic changes due to climate and land use dynamics in the Mongolian Plateau are affecting ecosystem services and agro-pastoral livelihoods in Mongolia and China. Recently, evaluation of pastoral systems, where humans depend on livestock and grassland ecosystem services, have demonstrated the vulnerability of the social-ecological system to climate change. Current social-ecological changes in ecosystem services are affecting land productivity and carrying capacity, land-atmosphere interactions, water resources, and livelihood strategies. Regional dust events, changes in hydrological cycle, and land use changes contribute to changing interactions between ecosystem and landscape processes which then affect social-ecological systems. The general trend involves greater intensification of resource exploitation at the expense of traditional patterns of extensive range utilization. Thus we expect climate-land use-land cover relationships to be crucially modified by the socio-economic forces. The analysis incorporates information of the socio-economic transitions taking place in the region which affect land-use, food security, and ecosystem dynamics. The region of study extends from the Mongolian plateau in Mongolia and China to the fertile northeast China plain. Sustainability of agro-pastoral systems in the region needs to integrate the impact of climate change on ecosystem services with socio-economic changes shaping the livelihood strategies of pastoral systems in the region. Adaptation strategies which incorporate landscape management provides a potential framework to link ecosystem services across space and time more effectively to meet the needs of agro-pastoral land use, herd quality, and herder's living standards. Under appropriate adaptation strategies agro-pastoralists will have the opportunity to utilize seasonal resources and enhance their ability to process and manufacture products from the available ecosystem services in these dynamic social

  12. FALLECIMIENTO DEL DOCTOR ALFONSO AGUSTI PASTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Pedraza M.

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Palabras del Profesor Héctor Pedraza M., en el Cementerio Central de Bogotá.


    Señores Académicos, colegas, señoras, señores:

    El doctor Hernando Groot, Presidente de la Academia Nacional de Medicina, nos encomienda que pronunciemos algunas palabras frente al féretro que contiene los despojos mortales del Académico Alfonso Agusti Pastor, Miembro Numerario de nuestra ilustre corporación, Médico ejemplar en el ejercicio profesional y Profesor Agregado por concurso en la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Nacional, para que hagamos breve elogio de quien fue sobresaliente en aquel plantel por su caballerosidad y consagración al estudio,
    por lo cual obtuvo, desde entonces, merecidas distinciones.

    Su temperamento observador y analítico lo condujo a ejercer la medicina en el dificil campo de la siquiatría, la cual exige cualidades especiales de sabiduría, templanza y equilibrio en el razonamiento y el concepto. Poseedor de estas cualidades pudo cuidar con éxito y humanidad a sus pacientes que estaban sumergidos en la tinieblas de la demencia
    y de otras afecciones menores, que en este tiempo alteran cada vez con mayor frecuencia el siquismo, y que estorban o impiden vivir en paz consigo y con sus semejantes. El doctor Alfonso Agusti Pastor fue de los primeros en nuestro medio con el Profesor Maximiliano Rueda, en aplicar el shock, para ciertas enfermedades mentales; por tal motivo obtuvo merecido renombre.

    En la Academia de Medicina nos deleitó con magníficas semblanzas de sus ilustres maestros profesores: Edmundo Rico, Julio Manrique, Maximiliano Rueda y Alfonso Esguerra Gómez, dando así prueba de su generosidad y agradecimiento y de su compromiso con Hipócrates.

    Felizmente tales escritos quedaron consignados en la Revista "Medicina", órgano de publicidad de la Academia...

  13. The Chinese perspective on pastoral resource economics: a vision of the future in a context of socio-ecological vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L; Farrell, K N

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews institutional changes in pastureland use in China over the last 30 years and discusses their impacts on pastoral communities, drawing evidence from case studies of two agro-pastoralist and two pastoralist communities. Those who rely directly on pastureland for their livelihood are vulnerable to the joint effects of pastureland degradation and climate change. The authors argue that a 'top-down' governance structure with no participation from local communities and a 'one size fits all' institutional solution are a poor fit for pastoralism management. The authors conclude that the current institutional environment in China may be leading to decreasing populations, reduced livestock rearing, impoverishment and increasing inequality within pastoral communities. Bearing in mind that pastoral systems have characteristics that are specific to their areas and tailored to their local context, the authors recommend paying greater attention to 'bottom-up', locally specified strategies which can be combined with long-term institutional arrangements that have historically provided pastoralists and agro-pastoralists with the resources to adapt to change.

  14. Nuclear policies in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, A.

    1995-01-01

    In Northeast Asia, states have tried to enhance their security through unilateral means rather than cooperative ones. In this area, there is no regional multilateral security dialogue of significance. In the nuclear age, security is not something to be built for oneself irrespective of others. Security is something to be built together with one's opponents. The arms build-up in Northeast Asia is very substantial. Defence budgets are growing almost as fast as are the national economies. Still, there is no arms race, i.e. no interacting patterns of arms acquisitions and force deployments. There is a real risk, however, that the arms build-up might spill over into an arms race. Hence the case for cooperative policies - for confidence-building measures and arms control in particular - to prevent this from happening. The end of the Cold War has brought about profound changes in the international political and economic environment. There is a noticeable tendency towards political reconciliation and cooperation among states and an increasing interdependence and globalization. On the other hand, one cannot miss some worrisome phenomena, including the resurgence of nationalism, the multiplication of ethnic conflicts and the dangers associated with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This is particularly true of the Northeast Asian region. Although some changes in the regional security outlook are favourable, there are also sources of insecurity and uncertainty in Northeast Asia, not least being the disturbing trend towards a regional arms build-up. In today's Northeast Asia weapons proliferation is a source of growing concern. The major purpose of this volume is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the dimensions of the various nuclear problems and their interrelationships in Northeast Asia. A second purpose is to explore practical approaches to regional non-proliferation, to see how they may be strengthened and made mutually supportive of the global non

  15. [Monitoring temporal dynamics in leaf area index of the temperate broadleaved deciduous forest in Maoershan region, Northeast China with tower-based radiation measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fan; Wang, Chuan Kuan; Wang, Xing Chang

    2016-08-01

    Broadband vegetation indices (BVIs) derived from routine radiation measurements on eddy flux towers have the advantage of high temporal resolutions, and thus have the potential to obtain detailed information of dynamics in canopy leaf area index (LAI). Taking the temperate broadleaved deciduous forest around the Maoershan flux tower in Northeast China as a case, we investigated the controlling factors and smoothing method of four BVI time-series, i.e., broadband norma-lized difference vegetation index (NDVI B ), broadband enhanced vegetation index (EVI B ), the ratio of the near-infrared radiation reflectance to photosynthetically active radiation reflectance (SR NP ), and the ratio of the shortwave radiation reflectance to photosynthetically active radiation reflectance (SR SP ). We compared the seasonal courses of the BVIs with the LAI based on litterfall collection method. The values for each BVI were slightly different among the three calculation methods by Huemmrich, Wilson, and Jenkins, but showed similar seasonal patterns. The diurnal variations in BVIs were mainly influenced by the solar elevation and the angle between the solar elevation and slope, but the BVIs were relatively stable around 12:30. The noise of daily BVI time-series could be effectively smoothed by a threshold of clearness index (K). The seasonal courses of BVIs for each time of day around the noon had similar patterns, but their thresholds of K and the percen-tages of remaining data were different. Therefore, the daily values of BVIs might be optimized based on the smoothing and the proportion of remaining data. The NDVI B was closely correlated linearly with the LAI derived from the litterfall collection method, while the EVI B , SR NP , and SR SP had a logarithmic relationship with the LAI. The NDVI B had the advantage in tracking the seasonal dyna-mics in LAI and extrapolating LAI to a broader scale. Given that most eddy flux towers had equipped with energy balance measurements, a

  16. High altitude survival: conflicts between pastoralism and wildlife in the Trans-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : Pastoralism, agriculture, wildlife, Himalaya, competition, bharal, yak, livestock, snow leopard, wolf, herbivore, ungulate, resource, rangeland, steppe, mountain

    How harmonious is the coexistence between pastoralism and

  17. Self-Disclosure and Spiritual Well-Being in Pastors Seeking Professional Psychological Help

    OpenAIRE

    Salwen, Erik D.; Underwood, Lee A.; Dy-Liacco, Gabriel S.; Arveson, Kathleen R.

    2017-01-01

    Pastoral mental health is a topic that has only rarely been researched empirically in the psychological literature, yet a pastor?s mental health can have a significant impact on churches, communities, and even nations (Royal and Thompson, Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 31(3), 195?204, 2012). One of the thoughts prompting this research is that evangelical pastors might be expected to resist the findings of psychological research and lack understanding of specific mental illnesses they...

  18. Management of agro-pastoral dams in Benin: stakeholders, institutions and rehabilitation research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpéra, G.N.; Aarts, N.; Saïdou, A.; Tossou, R.C.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.; Mensah, G.A.; Sinsin, B.A.; Kossou, D.K.; van der Zijpp, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Agro-pastoral dams are waterholes constructed to provide water for livestock and for agricultural development. In Benin, agro-pastoral dams are managed by dam management committees. This study seeks to (1) characterize the stakeholders involved in agro-pastoral dam use and management, (2) identify

  19. Arid waste? Reassessing the value of dryland pastoralism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Ced; MacGregor, James

    2009-06-15

    East Africa has a huge hidden asset – but risks throwing it away in the quest for economic development. This is its millions-strong herds of dryland livestock managed by pastoralists. New findings show that pastoralism has immense potential value for reducing poverty, managing the environment, promoting sustainable development and building climate resilience. In Kenya alone, the sector is worth an estimated three-quarters of a billion dollars a year. Yet pastoralism is seen by many as archaic, economically inefficient, chaotic and environmentally destructive – perceptions that are not evidence-based, yet drive much regional policy. Inadequate, inaccurate national statistics on pastoralism do little to alter this view. Persistent undervaluation has effectively trapped up to 20 million dryland pastoralists in a cycle of poverty, conflict and environmental degradation. Now, with climate change biting, the time is ripe for a conceptual framework that captures the total economic benefits of this livelihood.

  20. Inner change in the Corpus Paulinum: pointers for pastoral counselling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Campbell-Lane

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to establish what perspectives exist on inner change within the “Corpus Paulinum” and how it should be applied in pastoral counselling. The Scriptural guidelines of change that will be examined for the purposes of this article, are found in the following references: Ephesians 4:22-24, Colos- sians 3:8-10, and Romans 12:1-2. The work of the Holy Spirit as “Agent of change” will also be discussed and finally some pointers on inner change and the implications for pastoral counselling will be proposed.

  1. Pastoral counselling: towards a diagnostic and interpretational approach in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective pastoral counselling is influenced by appropriate pas- toral diagnosis. A pastoral diagnosis or assessment in Africa should focus on socio-cultural systems thinking, which entails an understanding of the people’s worldview of distress embed- ded in stories. Thus, the process of assessment in Africa should concentrate, among other factors, on the constructive and de- structive role of the community and the strength of beliefs in supernatural causes of distress in order to focus the probing and interpretation of the conversation.

  2. Cutaneous onchocerciasis in Dumbu, a pastoral area in the North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... bone in extra-skeletal sites leading to severe disability and eventually death. We present a sporadic case from Northern Tanzania with a minor unilateral hallux anomaly and the common ACVR1 c.617G>A mutation. Key words: Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, heterotopic ossification, hallux valgus, recurrent ACVR1 ...

  3. Fitting the Stocking Rate with Pastoral Resources to Manage and Preserve Mediterranean Forestlands: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bianchetto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasture practices have affected Mediterranean forest ecosystems for millennia, and they are still quite widespread in mountainous areas. Nevertheless, in the last decades, the stability of forest ecosystems has been jeopardized due to the abandonment of traditional agro-pastoral practices, so that the gradual reduction of open areas due to progressive succession processes has caused a high increase of grazing pressure by livestock and wild ungulates feeding on forest areas. This paper aims at showing a methodological approach for evaluating the effect of applying measures in order to improve the grazing value of grasslands and ecotonal patches and lower the grazing impact on native woodlands. A protected area in Sicily (Italy is considered as a representative case study. The analysis of remotely sensed imagery and several field surveys enabled to identify and map six different land use units subject to grazing, i.e., (1 forests; (2 grasslands (pastures dominated by palatable herbs and grasses; (3 overgrazed grasslands (dominated by poisonous and/or thorny herbs and forbs, not palatable; (4 encroached pastures; (5 roadside firebreaks (dominated by palatable herbs with no shrubs; and (6 wooded/ encroached roadside firebreaks. Several data were collected through sample plots selected within each land use unit, in order to assess their pastoral value. These data have been used to define current and optimal animal stock rates aiming at addressing pasture management planning towards a sustainable use of forestland and shrubland.

  4. Causes and trajectories of local conflict among pastoral peoples in Northeast Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Pastoralist societies in Africa are claimed to be prone to violence due to structural conditions of environmental vulnerability, scarcity of resources and decentralized sociopolitical organization. Their contacts with expanding State structures and with neighbouring groups in different socioeconomic

  5. Pastoral mobility as a response to climate variability in African drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    1999-01-01

    The article outlines aspects of ‘the new paradigm’ for dryland ecosystems and pastoral production systems. Rationality of pastoralism was claimed by parts of the research community for decades, but especially among policy and development planners pastoralism was perceived as an irrational and des...... in West Africa. In an example from Ferlo, Senegal, different types of pastoral mobility are discussed with special focus on the importance of scale. It is concluded that pastoral mobility is a rational response to climate variability and unpredictability in African drylands....

  6. Leading God's People: Perceptions of Influence Among African-American Pastors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Brook E; Strayhorn, Shaila; Webb, Benjamin L; Hébert, James R

    2018-01-31

    Religious leaders, particularly African-American pastors, are believed to play a key role in addressing health disparities. Despite the role African-American pastors may play in improving health, there is limited research on pastoral influence. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American pastors' perceptions of their influence in their churches and communities. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 African-American pastors and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Three themes emerged: the historical role of the church; influence as contextual, with pastors using comparisons with other pastors to describe their ability to be influential; and a reciprocal relationship existing such that pastors are influenced by factors such as God and their community while these factors also aid them in influencing others. A conceptual model of pastoral influence was created using data from this study and others to highlight factors that influence pastors, potential outcomes and moderators as well as the reciprocal nature of pastoral influence.

  7. Medicinal plants potential and use by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Erer Valley of Babile Wereda, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belayneh Anteneh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethiopian plants have shown remarkably effective medicinal values for many human and livestock ailments. Some research results are found on medicinal plants of the south, south west, central, north and north western parts of Ethiopia. However, there is lack of data that quantitatively assesses the resource potential and the indigenous knowledge on use and management of medicinal plants in eastern Ethiopia. The main thrust of the present ethnobotanical study centres around the potential and use of traditional medicinal plants by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Babile Wereda (district of eastern Ethiopia. The results can be used for setting up of conservation priorities, preservation of local biocultural knowledge with sustainable use and development of the resource. Materials and methods Fifty systematically selected informants including fifteen traditional herbalists (as key informants participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews, discussions and guided field walk constituted the main data collection methods. Techniques of preference ranking, factor of informant consensus and Spearman rank correlation test were employed in data analysis. Medicinal plant specimens were collected, identified and kept at the National Herbarium (ETH of Addis Ababa University and Haramaya University Herbarium. Results Fifty-one traditional medicinal plant species in 39 genera and 28 families were recorded, constituting 37% shrubs, 29% trees, 26% herbs, 6% climbers and 2% root parasites. Leaves contributed to 35.3% of the preparations, roots (18.8% and lower proportions for other parts. Formulations recorded added to 133 remedies for 54 human ailments, in addition to some used in vector control. The majority of remedies were the juice of single species, mixtures being generally infrequent. Aloe pirottae, Azadirachta indica and Hydnora johannis were the most cited and preferred species. Aloe pirottae, a species endemic to Ethiopia

  8. Prison hospice and pastoral care services in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, John F; Knauf, Keith; Enders, Sheila R; Meyers, Frederick J

    2002-12-01

    Hospice at the California Medical Facility (CMF) Vacaville dates back to the mid-1980s, when the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic began to be felt throughout California's Department of Corrections. Vacaville has served for decades as the principal location for delivering health services to California's incarcerated men. Informal hospice-like services were inspired by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross and through inmate and community calls for more humane care for dying inmates. By 1990, efforts to formally establish a hospice were under way. In 1996, a 17-bed, state-licensed hospice began caring for dying inmates. An interdisciplinary team plans and delivers the care, meeting weekly to admit and review patients. The Pastoral Care Services (PCS) inmate volunteer program, with more than 50 trained participants, provides care and comfort to dying patients in hospice and to ill patients on the general medicine service. PCS volunteers perform many duties, including sitting vigil with actively dying inmates. Inmates enrolling in hospice have to forgo further curative therapy, consent to the program in writing, and have a 6-month or less survival prognosis; patients are not required to have a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order, but are encouraged to consider one. Training for physicians, staff and PCS volunteers is provided by the University of California, Davis faculty of the West Coast Center for Palliative Education. Bereavement services are provided for PCS volunteers, other inmate "family" and staff. Family and friends of the deceased in the free community are followed by phone, mail, and primarily through referral to resources in their local area.

  9. Spiritual Dryness in Non-Ordained Catholic Pastoral Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt Büssing

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We wondered whether “spiritual dryness” as a specific phase of “spiritual crisis” or insecurity is mostly a matter only of Catholic priests or can also be found in other pastoral professionals. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, we measured the prevalence of spiritual dryness in non-ordained Catholic pastoral workers, and identified relevant predictors. Results: In a sample of 3.277 pastoral workers, 50% would occasionally experience phases of spiritual dryness, while 13% experience it often or even regularly. There were no significant differences between women and men, professions, or age groups. The best predictors of spiritual dryness were low transcendence perception and a low sense of coherence (both are resources, as well as depressive symptoms and stress perception (both are demands or stressors, which would explain 41% of the variance. Self-efficacy expectation and social support were not among the significant predictors. Conclusion: Both the proportions and the main predictors are similar compared to Catholic priests. It is thus not the underlying profession or vocation and the related life situation or differences in social support, but predominantly specific perceptions, feelings, and attitudes that are related to the phenomenon of spiritual dryness—and these can be found in all pastoral professionals who seriously live their spirituality.

  10. Vegetation Cover Changes in Selected Pastoral Villages in Mkata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arid and semi-arid savannah ecosystems of Tanzania are subjected to increasing pressure from pastoral land-use systems. A spatial temporal study involving analysis of satellite imageries and range surveys was carried out to determine the effects of high stocking levels on savannah vegetation cover types in Mkata plains.

  11. Gender and climate change-induced conflict in pastoral communities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    30 juin 2011 ... Climate change poses serious challenges to the already precarious livelihoods of pastoral communities in East Africa. Now, climate-related resource scarcities are increasing the likelihood of violent conflict. Women are often most vulnerable to such violence. Understanding the drivers of this environmental ...

  12. Anonymous pastoral care for problems pertaining to sexuality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Drie, A.; Ganzevoort, R.R.; Spiering, M.

    2014-01-01

    Anonymous pastoral care is one of the options for help in problems pertaining to sexuality. This paper explores the topics they seek help for, the religious aspects involved, and the relation between the normativity of their church tradition on the one hand and sexual and spiritual health criteria

  13. The perfect drought? Constraints limiting Kalahari agro-pastoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural Kalahari agro-pastoral communities of Southern Africa have been exposed to drought shocks throughout history and have adapted their livelihoods accordingly. Yet, drought continues to disrupt or threaten to disrupt their production systems. With semi arid Botswana as a case study, this paper hence sought to unearth ...

  14. Nutritional status of underfive children in a pastoral community in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Simanjiro district in northern Tanzania to determine the nutritional status of underfive children in a pastoral community. Weight and height measurements were carried out on 250 children and that of mean upper arm circumference (MUAC) on 226 children. The z-scores of weight-for-age, ...

  15. Philosophical counselling: Towards a 'new approach' in pastoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article it was argued that philosophical counselling opens up new avenues for pastoral care and counselling. Philosophical counselling probes into the realm of different schemata of interpretation. A model for the making of a spiritual existential analysis was proposed in order to detect the impact of the Christian ...

  16. Pastoral Conventions in Martino Filetico’s De Vita Theocriti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Trine Arlund

    2015-01-01

    Martino Filetico (1430–1490) recounts the life of Theocritus in De Vita Theocriti, a brief text of thirty verses. In the traditional description of Renaissance pastoral poetry, Virgil is considered the primary model and the best example, and the authoritative commentators praise his qualities...

  17. An embodied spirituality: Perspectives for a bodily pastoral anthoplogy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As part of a re-described spiritual embodied anthropology, it is claimed that the mind-body dualism is outdated and that the roots of human corporeality are to be rediscovered. The article investigates the effect of an emphasis on the biological for a pastoral anthropology in terms of its implications for one's concept of God, ...

  18. Pastoral productivity and intensification | PdV | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Pasture Scientist is primarily concerned with maximizing the productivity of pastoral lands. In conducting his research and expressing the results of his work he had not always appreciated that in order to have most meaning to agricultural industry his levels of productivity should be expressed in terms of the economic ...

  19. Northeast Church Rock Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeast Church Rock Mine, a former uranium mine 17 miles northeast of Gallup, NM in the Pinedale Chapter of the Navajo Nation. EPA is working with NNEPA to oversee cleanup work by United Nuclear Corporation, a company owned by General Electric (GE).

  20. Northeast project/CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, R.N.; Ribeiro, G.F.; Lima, J.O.V.; Dornelles, G.H.; Laborne, J.J.; Sakamoto, L.H.; Lemos Junior, O.F.

    1987-10-01

    The subprojects from the Northeast/CNEN project, that aims to disseminate the benefits of nuclear energy are described. Those subprojects are the following: food conservation, energy, health, hydric resources, mineral and agriculture, all of them have as goal to improve the socio-economical conditions of the northeast population in Brazil. (E.G.) [pt

  1. Determinants of institutional delivery service utilization among pastorals of Liben Zone, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zepro NB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nejimu Biza Zepro,1 Ahmed Tahir Ahmed2 1College of Health Sciences, Samara University, Samara, Afar, Ethiopia; 2College of Health Science, Jigjiga University, Jigjiga, Somali, Ethiopia Abstract: Maternal health service utilizations are poorly equipped, inaccessible, negligible, and not well documented in the pastoral society. This research describes a quantitative and qualitative study on the determinants of institutional delivery among pastoralists of Liben Zone with special emphasis on Filtu and Deka Suftu woredas of Somali Region, Ethiopia. The study was funded by the project “Fostering health care for refugees and pastoral communities in Somali Region, Ethiopia”. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during November 2015. Interviews through a questionnaire and focus group discussions were used to collect the data. Proportional to size allocation followed by systematic sampling technique was used to identify the study units. The major determinants of institutional delivery in the study area were as follows: being apparently healthy, lack of knowledge, long waiting time, poor quality services, cultural beliefs, religious misconception, partner decision, and long travel. Around one-third (133, 34.5% of the women had visited at least once for their pregnancy. More than half (78, 58.6% of the women had visited health facilities due to health problems and only 27 (19.9% women had attended the recommended four antenatal care visits. Majority (268, 69.6% of the pregnant women preferred to give birth at home. Women who attended antenatal care were two times more likely to deliver at health facilities (AOR, 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.38, 1.065–4.96. Women whose family members preferred health facilities had 14 times more probability to give birth in health institutions (AOR, 95% CI =13.79, 5.28–35.8. Women living in proximity to a health facility were 13 times more likely to give birth at health facilities than women

  2. How did Humans Adapt in the Eastern Farming-pastoral zone during the Medieval Warm Period?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X.

    2017-12-01

    With its extremely warm climate, the "medieval warm period" is considered analogous to the climate change humans are likely to face due to future global warming. Thus, the ability of humans to adapt to an extremely warm climate during the medieval period in Eurasia's farming-pastoral zone has attracted some attention. The warmth of the climate during this period (900-1300 BC) is demonstrated by evidence of bamboo in charcoal remains and phytoliths found in the settlement sites and tomb murals of the Western Liao river basin in Northeast China. This warmth probably promoted agricultural diversification, as the presence of foxtail millet, broomcorn millet, wheat, barley, soybean, hemp, and buckwheat in this region can be seen in plant seeds and phytoliths found in archaeological sites. The bones of deer and birds also provide evidence of hunting, and the practice of animal husbandry is indicated in pig, dog, cattle, ovicaprid, horse and camel bones. Diversity in food structures is also shown in stable isotopes from human and animal bones. Competence in animal husbandry and hunting, and the availability of stable food resources may have contributed to the rise of the Liao people in military prowess and power, and promoted the expansion of Khitan-Liao culture.

  3. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Bathymetry Model - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a bathymetry model of the seafloor of Northeast Puerto Rico that contains the shallow water area (0-35m deep) of the Northeast Ecological Reserve:...

  4. [Application of Landsat ETM+ in monitoring of desertification in agro-pastoral ecotone of northern China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Jia; Wang, Kun; Wang, Hong-mei

    2011-03-01

    Agro-pastoral ecotone of northern China is a transitional and interlaced zone of agricultural cultivation region and grazing region The ecotone is a complex containing several ecosystems. Soil desertification has become a serious problem that endangered sustainable development in the ecotone. The area of desertification land has been increasing year after year in agro-pastoral ecotone of northern China. This problem concerns the ecological environment, economic development and living quality of people in northern and central eastern of China. For these reasons, ecotone has recently become a focus of research of restoration ecology and global climate change. Remote sensing monitoring of desertification land is a key technique to collect the status and development of sandy land, providing scientific bases for the national desertification control. Landsat ETM+ is an advanced multispectral remote sensing system for the research of regional scale and has been widely used in many fields, such as geologic surveys, mapping, vegetation monitoring, etc. In the present, the authors introduce that spectral characteristics, desertification information extraction, desertification classification and development analyses in detail, and summarizes the study progresses discusses the problems and trends.

  5. The Detection of Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia DNA in Tick Samples From Pastoral Communities in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koka, Hellen; Sang, Rosemary; Kutima, Helen Lydia; Musila, Lillian

    2017-05-01

    In this study, ticks from pastoral communities in Kenya were tested for Rickettsia spp. infections in geographical regions where the presence of tick-borne arboviruses had previously been reported. Rickettsial and arbovirus infections have similar clinical features which makes differential diagnosis challenging when both diseases occur. The tick samples were tested for Rickettsia spp. by conventional PCR using three primer sets targeting the gltA, ompA, and ompB genes followed by amplicon sequencing. Of the tick pools screened, 25% (95/380) were positive for Rickettsia spp. DNA using the gltA primer set. Of the tick-positive pools, 60% were ticks collected from camels. Rickettsia aeschlimannii and R. africae were the main Rickettsia spp. detected in the tick pools sequenced. The findings of this study indicate that multiple Rickettsia species are circulating in ticks from pastoral communities in Kenya and could contribute to the etiology of febrile illness in these areas. Diagnosis and treatment of rickettsial infections should be a public health priority in these regions. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Establishing an operational waterhole monitoring system using satellite data and hydrologic modelling: Application in the pastoral regions of East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Gabriel B.; Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Alemu, Henok; Pervez, Shahriar Md; Asante, Kwabena O; Karuki, Gatarwa; Taa, Asefa; Angerer, Jay

    2013-01-01

    Timely information on the availability of water and forage is important for the sustainable development of pastoral regions. The lack of such information increases the dependence of pastoral communities on perennial sources, which often leads to competition and conflicts. The provision of timely information is a challenging task, especially due to the scarcity or non-existence of conventional station-based hydrometeorological networks in the remote pastoral regions. A multi-source water balance modelling approach driven by satellite data was used to operationally monitor daily water level fluctuations across the pastoral regions of northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data were used for mapping and estimating the surface area of the waterholes. Satellite-based rainfall, modelled run-off and evapotranspiration data were used to model daily water level fluctuations. Mapping of waterholes was achieved with 97% accuracy. Validation of modelled water levels with field-installed gauge data demonstrated the ability of the model to capture the seasonal patterns and variations. Validation results indicate that the model explained 60% of the observed variability in water levels, with an average root-mean-squared error of 22%. Up-to-date information on rainfall, evaporation, scaled water depth and condition of the waterholes is made available daily in near-real time via the Internet (http://watermon.tamu.edu). Such information can be used by non-governmental organizations, governmental organizations and other stakeholders for early warning and decision making. This study demonstrated an integrated approach for establishing an operational waterhole monitoring system using multi-source satellite data and hydrologic modelling.

  7. Early Human Occupation on the Northeast Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode, D.; Madsen, D.; Brantingham, P.; Perrault, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau presents great challenges for human occupation: low oxygen, high ultraviolet radiation, harsh seasonal climate, low overall biological productivity. How and when early humans were able to cope physiologically, genetically, and behaviorally with these extremes is important for understanding the history of human adaptive flexibility. Our investigations of prehistoric human settlement on the northeast Tibetan Plateau focus on (a) establishing well-dated evidence for occupation of altitudes >3000 m, (b) the environmental context of high altitude adaptation, and (c) relations of hunting and pastoralism to lower-altitude agrarian systems. We observe two major prehistoric settlement patterns in the Qinghai Lake area. The earliest, ~15,000-7500 yr old, consists of small isolated firehearths with sparse associated stone tools and wild mammal remains (1). Numerous hearths often occur in the same localities, indicating repeated short-duration occupations by small hunting parties. A second pattern, ~9000-4000 yr old, was established during the Holocene climatic optimum. These sites represent prolonged seasonal residential occupation, containing dark anthropogenic midden, hearth and pit constructions, abundant stone tools, occasional ceramics, and abundant diverse faunal remains (including medium-large mammals but lacking domestic sheep/yak)(2). These Plateau-margin base camps allowed greater intensity of use of the high Plateau. Residential occupation was strongly influenced by nearby lower-altitude farming communities; development of the socioeconomic landscape along the Yellow River likely played at least as great a role in Plateau occupation patterns as did Holocene environmental changes. Holocene vegetation changes in the NE Tibetan Plateau have been attributed to climate (3) or anthropogenic modification (4). Our results document changes in shrub/tree presence from ~12,000-4000 BP, similar to pollen records, that likely reflect climate rather than

  8. The onset of alpine pastoral systems in the Eastern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeggl, Klaus; Festi, Daniela; Putzer, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Since the discovery of the Neolithic glacier mummy "Ötzi" in the nival belt of the main Alpine ridge, the onset of alpine pasture is matter of a highly controversial debate both in archaeology and in palaeo-ecology of the Eastern Alps. The implication is that his sojourn in the high-altitudes of the Alps is considered to be connected with pastoral nomadism. Regrettably any archaeological evidence for the existence of such Neolithic alpine pastoral systems is missing up to now and the assumption is based on palynological data only. However, also the palynological record is ambiguous, because pasture indicators in the alpine regions react positive on grazing as well as on fertilization induced by a higher runoff of precipitation. Thus alpine pasture indicators reflect both grazing pressure and climatic change. Anyhow, alpine pastoral systems are a common practice in Alpine animal husbandry, but from an economic point of view such a seasonal vertical transhumance is costly. There are three main reasons for its practice: i) climatic, ii) economic (mainly in connection with population pressure or mining activities), and iii) cultural ideology. In this study we tested the above mentioned reasons in an interdisciplinary study on the beginning of pastoral activities in high altitudes in the central part of the Eastern Alps. This is conducted by palynological analyses of peat deposits situated in the vicinity of the timberline (1600 - 2400 m a.s.l.) combined with archaeological surveys. The investigated sites are located in traditional Alpine transhumance regions and aligned on a transect through the central part of the Eastern Alps. The studies reveal that grazing pressure is reflected since the Bronze Age, which is corroborated by archaeological findings in the vicinity of the investigated sites.

  9. Child Abuse and Neglect: A Manual for the Pastoral Counselor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual was developed to help the pastor identify, evaluate, and counsel families experiencing child abuse situations. Precise data is presented...agencies involved in treating child abuse . The causal factors - parent, child, and environment are discussed. A practical viewpoint and analysis of the legal...ramifications of child abuse are presented. This manual presents a biblical bases for the counseling model which determine intervention strategies

  10. Pastoral transformation : Shifta-war, livelihood, and gender perspectives among the Waso Borana in Northern Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Khalif, Zeinabu Kabale

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the analysis of external and internal drivers of pastoral transformation (i.e. conflicts), their long-term impact on the pastoral livelihood, and community response mechanisms. The thesis examines the roles of a secessionist war and subsequent banditry and violent conflicts in the socio-economic transformation of the Waso Borana pastoralists of Northern Kenya. The thesis shows that a drastic decline in pastoral production following socio-political upheavals in th...

  11. Revisiting the role of woman pastors in the church in Tshwane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C. Wagner-Ferreira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to obtain feedback from women pastors in and around the Tshwane metropole in South Africa on their experiences of their role as pastors. The question at stake was: are woman pastors more often approached for counselling? Therefore, half structured interviews were conducted in order to explore their life stories. The four core tasks of practical theological interpretation, according to Richard Osmer, were used as the framework for this article.

  12. With Doug: an Eastern Orthodox--Gestalt framework for pastoral psychotherapy in the armed forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David

    2013-01-01

    In military behavioral healthcare, a short-term, solutions-focused system often privileges cognitive techniques over existential, affective, or psychodynamic approaches to care. Pastoral psychotherapy, which often privileges existential and person-centered care, has the potential to prove a pivotal complement in treating the whole person. This article offers an existential approach to pastoral psychotherapy in the military using integrated concepts and applications from Gestalt Therapy and Eastern Orthodox pastoral care.

  13. Deficiencies in pastoral care with prisoners in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham K. Akih

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cameroon celebrated fifty years of independence from colonial rule on 20 May 2010. Major problems facing the nation are economic, social and political crises and the appalling condition of its prisons. This article focuses on pastoral care with prisoners in Cameroon. Most churches in Cameroon have no pastoral care programme for prisoners. The churches in general are not yet committed to this kind of work. The article argues that changes and reform of the penitential system will be difficult if not impossible without collaboration with other institutions and resources, which include the different faith communities and faith based organisations. The focus should be on the care and well-being of those within its walls if successful rehabilitation is to take place. Spiritual care will contribute to the general well-being of prisoners. The article gives a broad overview of the situation of prisons and prisoners in Cameroon and presents a pastoral care approach that could contribute to the overall improvement of the lives of people in Cameroon prisons.

  14. AGS-pastore se belewenis van hulle teologiese opleiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard P Mar�

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Theological training is in a crisis worldwide. Although the role that Theological Seminaries have fulfilled is acknowledged, there is a growing concern about the ability of these institutions to serve the upcoming generations of Christian leaders. Some warn they may not be well tailored for our post-modern age. Many people feel that the Seminary as an institution is in danger of extinction due to irrelevancy. Seminaries, in general, are perceived as not connecting to the needs of today� s church. The� Auckland Park Theological Seminary (ATS, whose training is the subject of this research, is not excluded from this concern of the Church for relevant theological training. Many pastors of the AFM of SA are of the opinion that the training offered at the ATS does not effectively train pastors for the ministry. The purpose of this article is to investigate and describe how pastors who studied at the ATS experienced their theological training, as well as to offer guidelines to the Church and the ATS to develop a more effective model for theological training.

  15. The Pastoral Power of Technology. Rethinking Alienation in Digital Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Giritli Nygren

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to bring Foucault’s elaboration on ‘the pastoral modalities of power’ into play in order to rethink alienation in digital culture. Pastoral power is not displacing other conceptions of power, but provides another level of analysis involved in the forging of reasonable responsible subjects willing and able to sustain other conceptions of power. We will draw particularly on the early writings of Marx and the more recent poststructuralist developments concerning hegemony and superstructure in relation to technology. Technology as such is analysed in terms of repercussions of ‘design of the machine’ in industrial technological contexts and ‘design of digital culture’ in digital technological contexts. Pastoral power not only directs our focus to the making of technologies, but also to the making of individuals capable of taking on the responsibilities of technologies. This means that it is necessary to take on the notion of effective power of ideologies and their material reality.

  16. Climate change and pastoralism: impacts, consequences and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M; Addison, J; Bedelian, C; Carabine, E; Havlík, P; Henderson, B; Van De Steeg, J; Thornton, P K

    2016-11-01

    The authors discuss the main climate change impacts on pastoralist societies, including those on rangelands, livestock and other natural resources, and their extended repercussions on food security, incomes and vulnerability. The impacts of climate change on the rangelands of the globe and on the vulnerability of the people who inhabit them will be severe and diverse, and will require multiple, simultaneous responses. In higher latitudes, the removal of temperature constraints might increase pasture production and livestock productivity, but in tropical arid lands, the impacts are highly location specific, but mostly negative. The authors outline several adaptation options, ranging from implementing new technical practices and diversifying income sources to finding institutional support and introducing new market mechanisms, all of which are pivotal for enhancing the capacity of pastoralists to adapt to climate variability and change. Due to the dynamism of all the changes affecting pastoral societies, strategies that lock pastoral societies into specified development pathways could be maladaptive. Flexible and evolving combinations of practices and policies are the key to successful pastoral adaptation.

  17. Genotyping of Trypanosoma cruzi Sublineage in Human Samples from a North-East Argentina Area by Hybridization with DNA Probes and Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Cristina; Lorenz, Virginia; Ortiz, Silvia; Gonzalez, Verónica; Racca, Andrea; Bontempi, Iván; Manattini, Silvia; Solari, Aldo; Marcipar, Iván

    2010-01-01

    We have evaluated blood samples of chronic and congenital Trypanosoma cruzi-infected patients from the city of Reconquista located in the northeast of Argentina where no information was previously obtained about the genotype of infecting parasites. Fourteen samples of congenital and 19 chronical patients were analyzed by hybridization with DNA probes of minicircle hypervariable regions (mHVR). In congenital patients, 50% had single infections with TcIId, 7% single infections with TcIIe, 29% mixed infections with TcIId/e, and 7% had mixed infections with TcIId/b and 7% TcIId/b, respectively. In Chronical patients, 52% had single infections with TcIId, 11% single infections with TcIIe, 26% had mixed infections with TcIId/e, and 11% had non-identified genotypes. With these samples, we evaluated the minicircle lineage-specific polymerase chain reaction assay (MLS-PCR), which involves a nested PCR to HVR minicircle sequences and we found a correlation with hybridization probes of 96.4% for TcIId and 54.8% for TcIIe. PMID:20064998

  18. Seasonal movements of wildlife and livestock in a heterogenous pastoral landscape: Implications for coexistence and community based conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tyrrell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rangelands across the world are home to millions of pastoral people and vast wildlife populations, which create a complex landscape for conservation. Community based conservation has been used to promote human-wildlife coexistence on pastoral lands, protecting wildlife outside of official protected areas. With the spread of community based conservation within the rangelands there is a need for more information on successful management practices. This study provides an example of this in the South Rift, Kenya, where seasonal movements of pastoralists aid coexistence. We used Density Surface Modelling (DSM, a novel tool for conservation managers in the rangelands, to predict wildlife and livestock abundance across the landscape and seasons. Wildlife grazers, zebra (Equus burchelli and wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus, follow expected metabolic patterns, feeding on short grass outside the conservation area in the wet season, before returning to the taller-lower quality grazing in the conservation areas during the drought. Browsing wildlife, impala (Aepyceros melampus and Grant’s gazelle (Nanger granti, move from open grassland and bushland areas into thicker, denser browse as the seasons progress towards the drought. Livestock, both shoats (Ovis aries, and Capra aegagrus hircus and cattle (Bos indicus, are managed by community grazing committees, who enforce a grazing plan that creates spatial–temporal separation between wildlife and livestock. They exploit the high-quality grazing in the livestock area during the wet season while conserving pasture in the conservation area, which is utilized only as forage is depleted. This ensures that wildlife has access to a diverse resource base across all seasons and potentially reduces competition, allowing for a diverse and abundant wildlife community to coexist with livestock. This highlights the importance of the presence and maintenance of spatial and temporal heterogeneity of forage resources

  19. Psicología pastoral. Aproximaciones teóricas y tendencias actuales (pastoral psychology, theoretical approaches, and current tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique León Arbelaéz Castaño

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente artículo pretende mostrar la importancia que en los últimos tiempos ha cobrado la psicología en el ámbito de la pastoral, y es por esto que se hará un recuento de los principales autores que han abordado este tema, para luego adentrarnos en aspectos psicopatológicos que se aplican a este campo. ABSTRACT: This current article aims to show the importance that, in the last few years, psychology has had in the pastoral setting, and that is why an inventory of the main authors, in this issue, will be made. Then, we will go into some psychopathological aspects, which apply in this field

  20. Seasonal and inter-annual variation of Beryllium-7 deposition in birch-tree leaves and grass in the northeast upland area of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeschl, Michael, E-mail: poschl@mendelu.c [Department of Molecular Biology and Radiobiology, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 61300 Brno (Czech Republic); Brunclik, Tomas, E-mail: brunclik@georadis.co [Georadis s.r.o., Hudcova 56b, 621 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Hanak, Jaromir, E-mail: jaromir.hanak@geology.c [Czech Geological Survey, Department of Environmental Geology and Geophysics, Leitnerova 22, 658 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2010-09-15

    The activity concentrations of Beryllium-7 ({sup 7}Be), a naturally occurring radioisotope produced in the atmosphere, were measured in leaves of birch-trees, above-ground parts of grass, soil and rainwater in the mountain massive Kralicky Sneznik (the northeast of the Czech Republic, altitude about 750 m) in the years of 2005, 2006 and 2007. Dried and ground samples of the plants and soils, and water samples from wet deposition were used to determine the {sup 7}Be content using a semiconductor gamma spectrometer. The {sup 7}Be values ranged from 147.0 to 279.6 Bq kg{sup -1}, from 48.7 to 740.8 Bq kg{sup -1}, from 2.1 to 8.7 Bq kg{sup -1}, and from 0.6 to 1.9 Bq kg{sup -1} in birch-tree leaves, grass samples, soils, and rainwater, respectively. Insignificant inter-annual variations but significant increase in the {sup 7}Be activity concentrations during the spring and summer months were observed in birch-tree leaves and grass samples. The seasonal variation of the {sup 7}Be concentrations in grass samples correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.4663 and 0.6489) with precipitation. No similar correlation was found for {sup 7}Be in birch-tree leaves. Beryllium-7 content in birch-tree leaves and in aerial parts of grass was mainly caused by direct transport of {sup 7}Be from wet deposition into aerial parts of the observed plants.

  1. 40 CFR 81.216 - Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.216 Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Indiana Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (Indiana) consists of the territorial area...

  2. 40 CFR 81.237 - Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.237 Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  3. 40 CFR 81.139 - Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.139 Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  4. 40 CFR 81.251 - Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.251 Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Kansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the...

  5. 40 CFR 81.162 - Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.162 Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Plateau Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (California) consists of the territorial area...

  6. 77 FR 67792 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Northeast Region Permit Family of Forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Northeast Region Permit Family of Forms AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... offered in the Northeast region. Exemption programs may allow a vessel to fish in an area that is limited.... Vessels are also required to request gillnet and lobster tags through the Northeast region permit office...

  7. Fulani herdsmen's pastoral activities, conflict and conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LGA) of Oyo state Nigeria had come with some challenges over the years of interacting with their host community. This study was aimed at determining the effects of nomadic farming in the study area attendant conflicts and conflict management ...

  8. Transitions through Pastoral Peer Mentoring: A Qualitative Analysis of the Challenges and Successes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenedy, Robert; Monty, Vivienne; Lambert-Drache, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    Pastoral peer mentoring often benefits both mentors and mentees through promoting a successful academic postsecondary transition. Based on interviews and focus groups with 36 York University mentors and mentees, this qualitative study highlights the successes and challenges of university pastoral peer mentoring and leadership. Major findings…

  9. Refleksie op twee pastorale modelle, Deel 2: Die pastor as luisteraar - die storiemodel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Drever

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Reflection on two pastoral models, Part 2: The pastor as listener - the narrative model. This study focuses on pastoral interaction with women. Pastoral care and counselling with women takes place within hierarchical societal and church structures. In such societies those higher up in the hierarchy exercise power over others. The male perspective has been the dominant one. This article is a critical description and evaluation of Julian Miiller's narrative model for pastoral counselling. The premise of this model is that identity and story are related. This forms part of what is known in a broader context as the hermeneutics of conversation. In pastoral interaction the life stories of people are associated or disassociated with stories in the Bible. The article pleads for symmetrical interaction in pastoral counselling. This means that women should not be sold out to patriarchal narratives in the Bible that devalue them. Contra-narratives in the Bible according to which women have equal access to God could play an important role in pastoral interaction.

  10. Loss and fragmentation of habitat for pastoral people and wildlife in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little of the current focus on landscape fragmentation has focused on rangelands or pastoral lands. This paper investigates the existing evidence for causes and processes of fragmentation in pastoral lands and its effects of landscapes and peoples. More conceptual work is needed on the definition of loss and fragmentation ...

  11. The Training of Semiliterate Rural Pastors in the Northwest Region Ethiopian Kale Heywet Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, Timothy Steven

    2014-01-01

    A common plea in missions is the need to train pastors and church leaders for the rapidly multiplying churches in the Majority World, resulting in numerous formal and nonformal theological education training programs. In spite of these efforts, many rural churches remain without pastors. Using appreciative inquiry and participatory…

  12. Leadership and Spirituality: The Indivisible Leadership of African American School Administrators as Pastors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anthony D., Sr.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the role that spirituality plays in the leadership of African American men who are both a pastor and a public school administrator. Very little has been written about the role of African American spirituality in educational leadership or about school administrators who are also pastors.…

  13. Action and Church : Pastoral Work as the Focal Point of a Liberating Ecclesiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Först, Johannes; Dillen, Annemie; Wolfteich, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Pastoral work is the church in action. That is perhaps the most concise definition of pastoral work. Despite its briefness, however, it offers an ingenious point of departure for reflecting on key issues concerning the church and its task in the world. Based on this short definition, the current

  14. 'n Hoofstuk in die (outo)biografie van die predikant (pastor?) | van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... but to the pastoral duty as well. The development of the metaphor “wounded healer” and the associative networks it awakens, are important in the establishment of these accents in a new life text. This perspective ought to be articulated in the further development of metaphors for the description of the identity of the pastor.

  15. ANALYSIS ON TEMPORAL-SPATIAL CHANGES OF VEGETATION CVERRGE IN FARMING-PASTORAL ECOTONE OF INNER MONGOLIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Yan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chen Barag Banner is located in the typical farming-pastoral ecotone of Inner Mongolia, and it is also the core area of Hulunbuir steppe. Typical agricultural and pastoral staggered production mode so that the vegetation growth of the region not only determines the local ecological environment, and animal husbandry production, but also have a significant impact on the whole Hulunbuir ecological security and economic development. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the change of vegetation in this area. Based on 17 MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI images, the authors reconstructed the dynamic change characteristics of Fraction vegetation coverage(FVC)in Chen Barag Banner from 2000 to 2016. In this paper, first at all, Pixel Decomposition Models was introduced to inversion FVC, and the time series of vegetation coverage was reconstructed. Then we analyzed the temporal-spatial changes of FVC by employing transition matrix. Finally, through image analyzing and processing, the results showed that the vegetation coverage in the study area was influenced by effectors including climate, topography and human actives. In the past 17 years, the overall effect of vegetation coverage showed a downward trend of fluctuation. The average vegetation coverage decreased from 58.81 % in 2000 to 48.14 % in 2016, and the area of vegetation cover degradation accounts for 40.09 % of the total change area. Therefore, the overall degradation trend was obvious.

  16. Analysis on Temporal-Spatial Changes of Vegetation Cverrge in Farming-Pastoral Ecotone of Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Li, J.; Yang, Z.

    2018-04-01

    Chen Barag Banner is located in the typical farming-pastoral ecotone of Inner Mongolia, and it is also the core area of Hulunbuir steppe. Typical agricultural and pastoral staggered production mode so that the vegetation growth of the region not only determines the local ecological environment, and animal husbandry production, but also have a significant impact on the whole Hulunbuir ecological security and economic development. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the change of vegetation in this area. Based on 17 MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images, the authors reconstructed the dynamic change characteristics of Fraction vegetation coverage (FVC) in Chen Barag Banner from 2000 to 2016. In this paper, first at all, Pixel Decomposition Models was introduced to inversion FVC, and the time series of vegetation coverage was reconstructed. Then we analyzed the temporal-spatial changes of FVC by employing transition matrix. Finally, through image analyzing and processing, the results showed that the vegetation coverage in the study area was influenced by effectors including climate, topography and human actives. In the past 17 years, the overall effect of vegetation coverage showed a downward trend of fluctuation. The average vegetation coverage decreased from 58.81 % in 2000 to 48.14 % in 2016, and the area of vegetation cover degradation accounts for 40.09 % of the total change area. Therefore, the overall degradation trend was obvious.

  17. Pastoral care in a time of global market capitalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, James

    2004-01-01

    The author defines pastoral theology as "the study of the micro-world of intrapsychic and interpersonal interactions with the tools of theology and the social sciences for the purpose of support and healing. In a typical class or supervisory session, we analyze the words, voice inflection, pace, and gestures of an intimate conversation between two people, looking for clues to the deep structure of personality and intimate relationships. The hope of such study is that we will see the revelation of God is love and power in action to validate and challenge the theological traditions that give us eyes to see and invite us to see more clearly."

  18. Bon Pastor (Barcelona un territori en construcció

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Salas Ramos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available L'article desenvolupa alguns dels aspectes de la tesi doctoral de l'autor (Sales, 2015. Es planteja una anàlisi de l'evolució del territori en el qual es troba el barri del Bon Pastor (Barcelona, posant l'accent en l'entorn construït. Per a això, la narrativa històrica es complementa amb documentació gràfica, part d'ella a partir dels diversos tallers de participació que l'autor ha desenvolupat i continua desenvolupant-se en aquest barri, en cooperació amb l'Associació de Veïns i l'Ajuntament de Barcelona (Districte de Sant Andreu amb l'objectiu de desenvolupar intervencions en l'espai públic de la zona en relació amb la preservació de la memòria cívica de Bon Pastor i en el context d'avançar en els processos de governaza urbana basada en la participació creativa dels veïns  Alhora s'organitzaven els primers processos participatius, vam començar a documentar la història de Bon Pastor. També a fer rutes pel barri per veure les seves característiques urbanes actuals i recopilar informació sobre els plans urbanístics vigents. Els següents paràgrafs són una síntesi del relat literari de la història de Bon Pastor i les seves principals característiques urbanes. Com va succeir amb Baró de Viver, és un relat que s'haurà d'anar completant a mesura que es desenvolupin els diferents processos participatius amb els relats de les vivències de la població, així com la diferent documentació que ens puguin aportar

  19. Women and leadership from a pastoral perspective of friendship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolande Dreyer

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to describe leadership from the perspective of friendship. This perspective highlights a  pastoral rather than a power oriented approach to leadership. Such an approach would be compatible with an attitude of service as an essential characteristic of the church. It could also contribute to the healing of church  structures that have become entangled in power games. It could lead to the healing of women and other disempowered groups who have for centuries been the victims of the power struggles of church institutions.

  20. Perspectives of Taiwanese pastoral counselors on the use of scripture and prayer in the counseling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Pan, Peter Jen; Deng, Liang-Yu F; Tsai, Shiou Ling; Yuan, S S Jenny

    2015-04-01

    Interviews were carried out with 10 Christian pastoral counselors to explore their perspectives on the use of Scripture and prayer in the counseling process. Grounded Theory was utilized. Five main categories including a theological framework of pastoral counseling, counselors' considerations of using Scripture and prayer, preparation for Christian spiritual intervention, implications of spiritual resources, and ethical issues in the pastoral counseling process were generated. The results suggest the theological framework of pastoral counseling is crucial to the use of Scripture and prayer, and the issue of a neutral response should first be clarified for clients. Basic guidelines for ethically using Scripture and prayer for working with Christian clients are proposed for further pastoral counselor training, practice, and research.

  1. Impacto da Pastoral da Criança sobre a nutrição de menores de cinco anos no Maranhão: uma análise multinível Impact of Pastoral da Criança on the nutrition of children under 5 years of age in Maranhão: a multi-level analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson A. Neumann

    2002-04-01

    ,63 respectivamente, ambas com pBACKGOUND: Pastoral da Criança monitors more than 1.5 million children monthly in the promotion of mother-child health. Independent assessments are necessary in order to evaluate its impact. OBJECTIVE: To compare child nutrition indicators in communities served by Pastoral da Criança and in control communities through traditional and multi-level analysis. OUTLINE: Quasi-experimental study, comparing conglomerates of children monitored by 60 community leaders of Pastoral and control conglomerates. SITE: Urban and rural areas (cities of São Luís and Timbiras in Maranhão. PARTICIPANTS: 60 conglomerates in each group (Pastoral and Control and an average of 14 children per conglomerate. The study effectively included 1,629 children, of whom 820 were monitored by Pastoral. RESULTS: Result analysis was conducted by using traditional methods, which do not consider data hierarchy structure, and by considering intra-group correlations by means of multi-level analysis. The latter showed that the regression model variability was distributed along all 4 levels studied. In the traditional analysis of the height-for-age Z-score, Pastoral children were, on average, 0.184 Z-score shorter than control children (P=0.03. After adjustment for the confounding factors score, this difference increased. However, the effect decreased when adjusted for children's ages and was no longer significant. The multi-level analysis did not reveal a significant effect of Pastoral on any of the adjustment models, differently from the traditional analysis. Both traditional and multi-level analyses were similar as to the results of exclusive or predominant breastfeeding up to the third month of life, both showing a positive Pastoral da Criança influence, both in the general and adjusted analyses (odd ratios of 4.37 and 4.63 respectively, both with p<0.001. CONCLUSION: The assessment showed that, by not considering intra-class correlations, traditional analysis may present different

  2. Industrial Pastoral: Lake Macquarie Coal Miners’ Holidays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell McDougall

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available As Stephen Page and Joanne Connell note in their mapping of the field, leisure studies is a largely post-war development, evolving internationally out of geography, economics, sociology and a range of other disciplines mostly in the social sciences rather than the humanities. Historians have not ignored the subject – there are plenty of historical studies of sports and recreation, the development of national parks, and so on. Yet, while leisure clearly has a vital and dynamic relation to work – culturally, politically, psychologically – labour historians in Australia appear to have been less interested in this area of research. We, the authors of this article, are primarily literary scholars rather than historians, but we have been puzzled by this apparent neglect. It is not our brief to examine the contemporary meanings of ‘leisure’ in relation to ‘work’ (or ‘forced labour,’ to adopt Guy Standing’s important twenty-first century distinction. Instead, our own study of coal miners’ holidays around Lake Macquarie from the late nineteenth and into the second half of the twentieth century considers the bygone rituals and activities of their holidaying from the vantage point of our own present location in an age where ‘simulation and nostalgia lie at the heart of everyday life.’ The article includes memoir and creative writing along with theory and analysis.

  3. Achieving Development Impact among Pastoral and Agro-Pastoral People: Lessons Learned in Southern Ethiopia, 2000-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Coppock, D. Layne; Tezera, Seyoum; Desta, Solomon; Gebru, Getachew

    2012-01-01

    The outreach and action-research component of the Pastoral Risk Management (PARIMA) project began with a focus on the Borana Plateau of southern Ethiopia in 2000. Our goal was to use participatory methods to learn about development needs and apply the knowledge gained to benefit local communities. Today it is clear that the project has had positive impacts on the lives of thousands of people. This report helps tell this story by emphasizing the process we used. At the start we knew that th...

  4. Using Coupled Simulation Models to Link Pastoral Decision Making and Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall B. Boone

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Historically, pastoral people were able to more freely use the services their semi-arid and arid ecosystems provide, and they adapted to changes in ways that improved their well-being. More recently, their ability to adapt has been constrained due to changes from within and from outside their communities. To compare possible responses by pastoral communities, we modeled ecosystem services and tied those services to decisions that people make at the household level. We created an agent-based household model called DECUMA, joined that model with the ecosystem model SAVANNA, and applied the linked models to southeastern Kajiado District, Kenya. The structure of the new agent-based model and linkages between the models are described, and then we demonstrate the model results using a scenario that shows changes in Maasai well-being in response to drought. We then explore two additional but related scenarios, quantifying household well-being if access to a grazing reserve is lost and if access is lost but those most affected are compensated. In the second scenario, households in group ranches abutting the grazing reserve that lost access had large declines in livestock populations, less food energy from animal sources, increased livestock sales and grain purchases, and increased need for supplemental foods. Households in more distant areas showed no changes or had increases in livestock populations because their herds had fewer animals with which to compete for forage. When households neighboring the grazing reserve were compensated for the lease of the lands they had used, they prospered. We describe some benefits and limitations of the agent-based approach.

  5. The relationships between anglers' risk perception, sensation-seeking, and fishing site choice along the northeast and Yilan Coast Scenic Area, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng-Ping Wang

    2009-01-01

    The northeastern coast is one of the best fishing areas in Taiwan, but the terrain, weather, and tides can create a dangerous and even deadly environment. This study examines the relationships between anglers' risk perceptions, sensation seeking, and fishing site choices. Results from a survey conducted at Long-Don in 2005 were analyzed for four dimensions of...

  6. Wife beating amongst Africans as a challenge to pastoral care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magezi E. Baloyi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional African people are known for respecting their marriage. Even though marriage is so highly regarded, it is astonishing to realise that wife beating has become an extremely common practice amongst them. It therefore becomes an important research question to ask about the extent to which deeply-seated traditional customs regarding wife beating as a form of stamping down authority and of trying to keep the household in order, will have to be confronted with what is deemed to be good practice from the perspective of the law, community and pastoral caregivers. There are women who live with scars on their faces and bodies, having been beaten by their husbands. Although there are many forms of abuse towards women in family situations, this article aims particularly to focus on wife beating that is practiced for traditional as well as other related reasons. This research will involve itself with establishing whether the reasons for wife beating are part of the traditional system for keeping the household in order and interrogate both legal and pastoral interventions that attempt to eliminate or avoid such behaviour.

  7. Market access and community size influence pastoral management of native and exotic livestock species : a case study in communities of the Cordillera Real in Bolivia's high Andean wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Struelens, Quentin; Pomar, K. G.; Herrera, S. L.; Huanca, G. N.; Dangles, Olivier; Rebaudo, François

    2017-01-01

    Grazing areas management is of utmost importance in the Andean region. In the valleys of the Bolivian Cordillera Real near La Paz, pastoralism constitutes the traditional way for people to insure food security and economical sustainability. In these harsh mountains, unique and productive wetlands sustained by glacial water streams are of utmost importance for feeding cattle herds during the dry season. After the colonization by the Spanish, a shift in livestock species has been observed, with...

  8. Spatiotemporal changes of land use patterns in high mountain areas of Northeast Turkey: a case study in Maçka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Gokhan; Bayramoglu, Mahmut M; Toksoy, Devlet

    2015-08-01

    High mountain forests (HMFs) have an important significance in forest ecosystems, but the benefits from such ecosystems have been compromised in recent years. In Turkey, HMFs constitute significant portions of Turkish forests because they cover 4% of Turkey; 15% of all Turkish forest areas are HMFs. The Eastern Black Sea region has a particular importance for HMFs due to its biological diversity and the rich presence of endemic species. This study analyzes the changes in spatial and temporal patterns of forest cover in HMF from 1973 to 2008 in the town of Maçka, which is located at the center of the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. The spatial and temporal change patterns of land use are quantified by interpreting spatial data. Remote sensing (RS), geographical information system (GIS), and a spatial pattern analysis program for categorical maps (FRAGSTATS) have been used for data collection, analysis, and presentation. The results showed that the HMF areas had biphasic growth from 1973 to 2008. Despite a net increase of 200.6 ha in forested areas between 1984 and 2008, there was an overall decrease from 1973 to 2008. The annual percentage of forestation for the forest areas within the study period was 0.04% in Maçka. The amount of aggregated forest area fragments rose from 388 in 1973 to 711 in 2008. The increase in the HMF of Maçka can be explained to some extent by the change in the demographic structure of Maçka and its plateaus, which contributed to changes in the daily life of the population of Maçka and its villages, such as changes in annual incomes, their lifestyles, decrease in transhumance and stockbreeding, decrease in the time of dwelling on the plateaus, and changes in the traditional architectural style.

  9. Self-Disclosure and Spiritual Well-Being in Pastors Seeking Professional Psychological Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwen, Erik D; Underwood, Lee A; Dy-Liacco, Gabriel S; Arveson, Kathleen R

    2017-01-01

    Pastoral mental health is a topic that has only rarely been researched empirically in the psychological literature, yet a pastor's mental health can have a significant impact on churches, communities, and even nations (Royal and Thompson, Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 31 (3), 195-204, 2012). One of the thoughts prompting this research is that evangelical pastors might be expected to resist the findings of psychological research and lack understanding of specific mental illnesses they are potentially facing. Combined with historical and cultural dynamics that could influence resistance to professional psychological help, evangelical pastors have personal, internal factors that could also strengthen resistance, including the researched issues of self-disclosure flexibility and spiritual well-being. A correlational research design with multivariate regression was used to determine potentially significant or predictive relationships between the relevant factors. Among evangelical seminary students ( N  = 251) preparing for parish-based pastoral ministry, this research determined that no significant relationship, predictive or otherwise, existed between self-disclosure flexibility, spiritual well-being, and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Implications include a shift in focus toward external factors influencing pastors' help-seeking attitudes, such as the need for the mental health community to develop connections with evangelical pastors and the development of more support for Christian mental health professionals in the larger evangelical community.

  10. Biomphalaria species distribution and its effect on human Schistosoma mansoni infection in an irrigated area used for rice cultivation in northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmany Moitinho Barboza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of irrigated areas for the spread of schistosomiasis is of worldwide concern. The aim of the present study was to investigate the spatial distribution of the intermediate snail host Biomphalaria in an area highly endemic for schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni, evaluating the relationship between irrigation and types of natural water sources on one hand, and the influence of place and time of water exposure on the intensity of human infection on the other. A geographical information system (GIS was used to map the distribution of the intermediate snail hosts in Ilha das Flores, Sergipe, Brazil, combined with a clinical/epidemiological survey. We observed a direct correlation between the intensity of human infection with S. mansoni and irrigation projects. Malacological studies to identify snail species and infection rates showed that B. glabrata is the main species responsible for human schistosomiasis in the municipality, but that B. straminea also plays a role. Our results provide evidence for a competitive selection between the two snail species in rice fields with a predominance of B. glabrata in irrigation systems and B. straminea in natural water sources.

  11. Assessment of area, volume and ELA of glacial systems in Northeast Russia from satellite images in the beginning of XXI century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ananicheva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper compares remotely sensed glacier inventories of the Byrranga, Suntar-Khayata, and Chersky ranges (2003, Koryak Highland and Chukotka mountains (2008 with data from the Inventory of Glaciers of the USSR (1945–1985. We studied changes in glacier area since the Inventory, which was primarily based on aerial photos and field research. The glaciers have been classified by orientation (aspect and morphological type. Overall the glacierization of the Chersky Range (1970–2003, Suntar-Khayata (1945–2003, Byrranga (1967–2003, Koryak Highland (1950–2003 and Meynypilginsky Range (1984–2008 reduced by about 30, 20, 15, 60 (debatable value and 25% respectively due to summer temperature rise. Calculation of glacier volumes for the dates indicated in the USSR Glacier Inventory and satellite imagery: during this period in sum for 5 studied glacier regions the area, covered by ice, has decreased by 225.2 km², and ice volume – by 8.7 Gtg. Construction of spatial patterns (maps of current ELA for 3 different by climate mountain regions – the Suntar-Khayata Mountains– Chersky Range, and Meynypilgynsky Range ( North Far East, showed that despite of retreat of the glaciers, the mean ELA change for the first studied region is not large compared with the data from the Glacier Inventory (100 m , and significant for the second (100–150 m.

  12. [Simulating climate change effect on aboveground carbon sequestration rates of main broadleaved trees in the Xiaoxing'an Mountains area, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Bu, Rencang; Deng, Hua-Wei; Hu, Yuan-Man; Qin, Qin; Han, Feng-Lin

    2014-09-01

    LANDIS Pro 7.0 model was used to simulate the dynamics of aboveground biomass of ten broadleaved tree species in the Xiao Xing' an Mountains area under current and various climate change scenarios from 2000 to 2200, and carbon content coefficients (CCCs) were coupled to cal- culate the aboveground carbon sequestration rates (ACSRs) of these species. The results showed that in the initial year of simulation, the biomasses and their proportions of Fraxinus mandshurica, Phellodendron amurense, Quercus mongolica, Ulmus propinqua, and Acer mono were relatively low, while those of Betula costata, Betula platyphylla, and Populus davidiana were higher. A trend of rise after decline occurred in ACSR for pioneer species in the mid and late periods of simulation years, but ACSRs for the other broadleaved tree species were considerably complex. The ACSRs of Q. mongolica and Tilla amurensis fluctuated in the ranges of -0.05-0.25 t · hm(-2) · 10 a(-1) and 0.16-1.29 t · hm(-2) · 10 a(-1) in simulation years, respectively. The ACSRs of F. mandshurica, U. propinqua, A. mono, and B. costata showed a trend of decline after rise in late simulation years. There were significant differences in ACSR for P. amurense and B. davurica among various climate change scenarios in the periods of 2050-2100 and 2150-2200, while no significant difference in ACSR for the other species would be detected. Difference of sensitivity of various species in ACSR for future climate scenarios in the Small Khingan Mountains area existed. However, the un- certainty of future climates would not yield significant difference in ACSR for most broadleaved tree species. Moreover, a time lag would exist in the process of climate change effects on temperate forest's ACSR.

  13. Gedagtes oor die arbeidsregtelike posisie van predikante, pastore en priesters as werknemers van die kerk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanie van Jaarsveld

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Thoughts on the labor law position of pastors and priests as employees of the church. The issue of labour-law relationships between pastors or priests and their employers (churches is controversial because they (pastors or priests are often regarded as employees and often not. These issues are discussed on the basis of problems in the South-African positive law and English law. In discussing the question about the nature of this labour-law relationship, a two-stage approach is suggested, especially when bearing in mind that the employment contract forms the basis of the labour-law relationship between the two parties.

  14. The Influence of Pastors' Ideologies of Homosexuality on HIV Prevention in the Black Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Young, Staci

    2016-10-01

    Young, Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV, and Black Churches may be a source of stigma which can exacerbate HIV risk and contribute to negative health and psychosocial outcomes. Findings from this study are based on 21 semi-structured interviews with pastors and ethnographic observation in six Black Churches. Interview transcripts and field notes were analyzed in MAXQDA using thematic content analysis. Although pastors espoused messages of love and acceptance, they overwhelmingly believed homosexuality was a sin and had difficulty accepting YBMSM into their churches. The tension around homosexuality limited pastors' involvement in HIV prevention efforts, although there still may be opportunities for some churches.

  15. Analysis on the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jinfang; Tian, Feng; Mi, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The accommodation and curtailment of renewable energy in northeast China have attracted much attention with the rapid growth of wind and solar power generation. Large amount of wind power has been curtailed or abandoned in northeast China due to several reasons, such as, the redundancy of power supplies, inadequate power demands, imperfect power structure with less flexibility and limited cross-regional transmission capacity. In this paper, we use multi-area production simulation to analyse the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China by 2020. Furthermore, we suggest the measures that could be adopted in generation, grid and load side to reduce curtailment of renewables.

  16. [An emergy-ecological footprint model based evaluation of ecological security at the old industrial area in Northeast China: A case study of Liaoning Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing; Lu, Cheng Peng; Zhou, Feng; Geng, Yong; Jing, Hong Shuang; Ren, Wan Xia; Xue, Bing

    2016-05-01

    Based on the integrated model of emergy-ecological footprint approaches, the ecological security of Liaoning Province, a typical case for the old industrial area, was quantitatively evaluated from 2003 to 2012, followed by a scenario analysis on the development trend of the ecological secu-rity by employing the gray kinetic model. The results showed that, from 2003 to 2012, the value of emergy ecological-capacity per capita in Liaoning Province decreased from 3.13 hm 2 to 3.07 hm 2 , while the emergy-ecological footprint increased from 13.88 hm 2 to 21.96 hm 2 , which indicated that the ecological deficit existed in Liaoning Province and the situation was getting worse. The ecological pressure index increased from 4.43 to 7.16 during the studied period, and the alert level of ecological security changed from light to middle level. According to the development trend, the emergy ecological capacity per capita during 2013-2022 would correspondingly decrease from 3.04 hm 2 to 2.98 hm 2 , while the emergy ecological footprint would increase from 22.72 hm 2 to 35.87 hm 2 , the ecological pressure index would increase from 7.46 to 12.04, and the ecological deficit would keep increasing and the ecological security level would slide into slightly unsafe condition. The alert level of ecological security would turn to be middle or serious, suggesting the problems in ecological safety needed to be solved urgently.

  17. Kenyan pastors' perspectives on communicating about sexual behaviour and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann Neville; Kizito, Mary N; Mwithia, Jesica Kinya; Njoroge, Lucy; Ngula, Kyalo Wa; Davis, Kristin

    2011-09-01

    The article presents an analysis of in-depth interviews with 18 leaders of Christian churches in Nairobi, Kenya, regarding the content and context of messages they disseminate to their congregations about sexual behaviour and HIV. The content of messages was nearly consistent across the different denominations. However, three sorts of tensions were identified within pastoral communication about these topics: the need to discuss sex and HIV versus societal taboos against speaking about those issues from the pulpit; traditional cultural norms versus current lifestyles; and the ideals of abstinence and fidelity versus the reality of congregants' sexual behaviour. Although some of the religious leaders accepted the idea of condom use, no denominational patterns were noted on that subject, except with respect to Catholic priests. Pentecostal leaders were notable for describing proactive strategies to address both the ideal/real dilemma and the tension between church norms and current media content about sexuality and HIV.

  18. Školski pastoral kao doprinos školskoj kulturi

    OpenAIRE

    Kaupp, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Nakon 1990. godine u većini njemačkih biskupija razvijaju se planovi i programi "školskog pastorala". Školski pastoral obuhvaća kršćanski angažman u školi kao mjestu učenja, a organiziraju ga crkve. Riječ je o slobodnoj ponudi koja je namijenjena učenicima, nastavnom osoblju i roditeljima. Za razliku od toga, školski vjeronauk je u gotovo svim njemačkim saveznim pokrajinama redoviti školski predmet u svim vrstama škola, za koji su zajednički odgovorne država i škola. Školski vjeronauk predaju...

  19. Alternative Visions for Pastoral Work with LGBTQ Individuals, Families, and Communities: A Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Joretta L

    2017-03-01

    Multiple theological perspectives provide frameworks for pastoral work with lesbian, gay, bisesxual and trans individuals, families, and communities. One model is offered by those who argue for celibacy or heterosexual marriages for those who self-identify as part of LGBTQ communities. This article names other theologically grounded perspectives with the goal of inviting practitioners to broaden their understandings and wrestle with the implications of their theological and ethical stances. When reflecting on the intersection of spirituality and sexuality, the meaning of theological terms such as sin, contributions from queer theologians and pastoral counselors, and the limitations of binary categories common in our theological history, this article encourages pastoral counselors and spiritual care providers to re-examine theological assumptions they bring to their work. The article ends with questions and opportunities for ongoing pastoral theological work and reflection.

  20. The pastoral letter on war and peace emdash the challenge of peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This pastoral letter explains the criteria for distinguishing a just from an unjust war. It also contains a commentary on the conduct of war, including the use of nuclear weapons; and an assessment of the current US deterrence policy

  1. Transhumant Pastoralism in the Context of Socioeconomic and Climate Change in the Mountains of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popular Gentle

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research explored how transhumant pastoralism has been sustained and promoted in the context of socioeconomic and climate change in the mountain regions of Nepal. Based on case study research conducted in Nepal’s western mountains, the status, opportunities, and constraints of transhumant pastoralism in the changing context were analyzed. We found that indigenous and traditional knowledge, feelings of cultural identity, collective ownership, income, and mutual benefits have acted as motivating factors in sustaining transhumant pastoralism for generations. The continuation of this practice is threatened by the following challenges: the impacts of climate change on mountain ecosystems, socioeconomic changes, market influence on livelihood decisions, youth migration and labor shortage, low motivation of local people to engage in livestock rearing, and conflicts between herder and nonherder communities and institutions, as well as inadequate policy support and institutional arrangements. We conclude that unless there are positive policy and institutional arrangements to support transhumant pastoralism, the age-old practice will disappear.

  2. Ecology, mobility and labour: dynamic pastoral herd management in an uncertain world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, B

    2016-11-01

    In this review, the author discusses how pastoralism, and its many constituent components, is increasingly being recognised as in tune with the changing political and ecological nature of rangelands. He describes ways in which the literature reflects this changing attitude, outlines how rangelands respond to changes in climate and explores the evolving use of livestock resources. In addition, he describes the growing recognition of factors other than livestock density that affect rangeland vegetation (i.e. density-independent relationships). The author explains how terms such as 'carrying capacity', 'overgrazing' and 'desertification' are often taken out of their social and political context when describing rangeland pastoralism. Next, he describes the growing recognition by the development community of the importance of the mobility model, particularly in relation to changing ecologies and politics. Finally, he outlines how labour, a central focus of pastoral herd management, is a fluid component of pastoral systems in response to changing political and ecological circumstances.

  3. The cultural heritage of pastoralism - local knowledge, state identity and the global perspective: the example of local breeds in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hounet, Y; Brisebarre, A-M; Guinand, S

    2016-11-01

    Over the past few decades, the heritage designation process has come to impact on the way of life of many nomadic pastoralists across the world. Since the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage was adopted in 1972, policies for the conservation of protected areas have been implemented under the aegis of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), especially in countries of the South, with a varying impact on the practices and perceptions of pastoral communities. Heritage policies were further extended by the establishment of the list of Intangible Cultural Heritage (the Convention was adopted by the UNESCO General Conference in October 2003 and came into force in 2006) and the list of Cultural Landscapes (adoption in 1992, with the first site listed in 1993). This enthusiasm for heritage, which is felt by States and local communities alike, provides an opportunity to study the contradictions and changing perceptions of the nomadic and pastoral identity. In this context of wholesale heritage designation, it is interesting to examine how local knowledge - especially that on hardy animal breeds - is promoted and safeguarded. The authors focus on the case of Morocco, where the national association of sheep and goat breeders (ANOC) oversees breed selection and health policy for local breeds, in order to demonstrate that greater recognition of farmers' knowledge and their ability to identify hardy animals can ensure the sustainability of farms in both South and North from a socio-economic, genetic and health standpoint.

  4. O serviço de referência online nas bibliotecas virtuais da região nordeste Service of reference online in the libraries online of the Northeast area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzira Karla Araújo da Silva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifica as bibliotecas virtuais da Região Nordeste do Brasil diagnosticando o serviço de referência online e sua estrutura. Destaca os tipos de bibliotecas e o papel da biblioteca virtual omo guia e orientador dos usuários remotos da Internet, através do atendimento pelo correio eletrônico. Ressalta o Serviço de Referência Virtual como um serviço que permite a interação entre informação-bibliotecário-usuário no ambiente virtual. Tem como abordagem metodológica um estudo qualitativo, realizado através da observação dos sites da Biblioteca Central Reitor Macedo Costa (Bahia, Biblioteca Temática do Empreendedor–SEBRAE (Paraíba, Sistema de Bibliotecas da Universidade Federal da Paraíba (Paraíba e Biblioteca da Universidade de Fortaleza – Unifor (Ceará e das informações coletadas a partir de um questionário respondido pelos responsáveis por essas bibliotecas. Os resultados apontam a presença do serviço de referência e do bibliotecário nas duas primeiras bibliotecas virtuais e apenas do bibliotecário nas duas últimas. Confirma o fato de que nas bibliotecas virtuais da Região Nordeste os serviços de referência online estão ganhando espaço e utilizando as ferramentas tecnológicas, com destaque para o correio eletrônico. Fortalece a afirmação de que essas bibliotecas precisam do uso das novas tecnologias, a fim de atender as solicitações dos usuários remotos com eficiência e precisão. Contribui para a análise e futuras implantações de serviços de referência online e para o repensar do papel do serviço nas bibliotecas virtuais.It identifies the libraries online of the Northeast Area of Brazil diagnosing the service of reference online and its operation structure. It highlights the types of libraries and the paper of librarie online as guide the remote users' of the Internet, through the attendance by mail electronic. It stands out the Service of Reference Online as a service that allows the

  5. Lutheran Clergy in an Orthodox Empire. The Apppointment of Pastors in the Russo-Swedish Borderland in the 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Räihä Antti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The history of the parishioners’ right to participate in and influence the choice of local clergy in Sweden and Finland can be taken back as far as the late Medieval Times. The procedures for electing clergymen are described in historiography as a specifically Nordic feature and as creating the basis of local self-government. In this article the features of local self-government are studied in a context where the scope for action was being modified. The focus is on the parishioners’ possibilities and willingness to influence the appointment of pastors in the Lutheran parishes of the Russo-Swedish borderlands in the 18th century. At the same time, this article will offer the first comprehensive presentation of the procedures for electing pastors in the Consistory District of Fredrikshamn. The Treaty of Åbo, concluded between Sweden and Russia in 1743, ensured that the existing Swedish law, including the canon law of 1686, together with the old Swedish privileges and statutes, as well as the freedom to practise the Lutheran religion, remained in force in the area annexed into Russia. By analysing the actual process of appointing pastors, it is possible to discuss both the development of the local political culture and the interaction between the central power and the local society in the late Early Modern era.

  6. Enabling sustainable pastoralism: policies and investments that optimise livestock production and rangeland stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, R; Davies, J

    2016-11-01

    Pastoralism is a system of dynamically managing livestock and land for economic, social and environmental benefit. To a large extent, pastoralism is an adaptation to ecological and climatic variability and is not simply a livestock production system but provides significant environmental services to humanity. Evidence from a range of national contexts shows that sustainable pastoralist development requires an understanding of the dual environmental and economic roles of pastoralism and an adaptation of policies and investments to support both. The current paper examines three cornerstones that have proven to be crucial for sustainable pastoralist development and for maximising the links between livestock production and environmental stewardship: strengthening pastoral capabilities and institutions, securing land tenure and natural resource governance, and ensuring equitable markets for pastoral diversity. To effectively support the dual economic-environmental roles of pastoralism requires not only optimisation of the production of ecosystem services through extensive livestock production, but also a major overhaul of the way we approach pastoralist development, and major investment in the people who are central to the system. As long as pastoralists remain marginalised, with weak rights and little access to services, their future will remain uncertain.

  7. THE PASTORAL ROAD TO EXTINCTION - COMPETITION BETWEEN WILDLIFE AND TRADITIONAL PASTORALISM IN EAST-AFRICA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PRINS, HHT

    1992-01-01

    In some developing countries there is a call to open-up protected areas and even National Parks for low-intensity use by the local population to alleviate the pressure of the rapidly increasing human population, or because conservationists have been able to 'take' too much land according to others.

  8. Economic assessment of the performance of trypanotolerant cattle breeds in a pastoral production system in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.W. Maichomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cattle are the major source of food security and income for pastoral farmers in sub-Saharan Africa. However, infectious and parasitic diseases remain a major constraint to improved cattle productivity in the region. The use of animal health economics to support decision-making on cost-effective disease control options is increasingly becoming important in the developing world. Trypano-tolerant indigenous Orma / zebu cattle in a trypanosomosis-endemic area of Kenya were evaluated for economic performance using gross-margin analysis and partial-farm budgeting. Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu cross-bred cattle were exposed to similar husbandry practices and monitored for growth rate, incidence of common infections (trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis, babesiosis, East Coast Fever and helminthosis and the cost of treatment assessed. Interview questionnaires were also used to assess the preference rating of the 2 breeds. Results indicated that incidence of infection was trypanosomosis 3 %, anaplasmosis 58 %, babesiosis 11 %, East Coast Fever 22 % and helminthosis 28 %, with no significant difference between breeds. The Orma / zebu and Sahiwal / zebu breeds had comparable economic benefits, hence a pastoralist in Magadi division is likely to get similar returns from both breeds. This study therefore recommends adoption of not only the Sahiwal / zebu but also the Orma / zebu breed for cattle improvement in trypanosomosis endemic areas and conservation of indigenous genetic resources.

  9. Wife beating amongst Africans as a challenge to pastoral care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magezi E. Baloyi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional African people are known for respecting their marriage. Even though marriage is so highly regarded, it is astonishing to realise that wife beating has become an extremely common practice amongst them. It therefore becomes an important research question to ask about the extent to which deeply-seated traditional customs regarding wife beating as a form of stamping down authority and of trying to keep the household in order, will have to be confronted with what is deemed to be good practice from the perspective of the law, community and pastoral caregivers. There are women who live with scars on their faces and bodies, having been beaten by their husbands. Although there are many forms of abuse towards women in family situations, this article aims particularly to focus on wife beating that is practiced for traditional as well as other related reasons. This research will involve itself with establishing whether the reasons for wife beating are part of the traditional system for keeping the household in order and interrogate both legal and pastoral interventions that attempt to eliminate or avoid such behaviour. Tradisionele Afrikane is nog altyd daarvoor bekend dat hulle die instelling van die huwelik respekteer. Verbasend genoeg is vroueslanery egter ’n ou gevestigde gebruik wat vandag algemeen onder Afrikane voorkom. Die mate waartoe diepgewortelde gebruike soos vroueslanery as ’n manier om gesag af te dwing en orde in die huis te handhaaf, gekonfronteer sal moet word met wat as goeie praktyk beskou word vanuit die gesigspunt van die reg, die gemeenskap en pastorale versorgers, is dus ’n belangrike navorsingsvraag. Baie vroue dra fisiese en emosionele littekens wat deur hulle eggenote veroorsaak is. Alhoewel daar baie vorme van vrouemishandeling in familiesituasies voorkom, fokus hierdie artikel veral op vroueslanery wat om tradisionele en verwante redes beoefen word. Hierdie navorsing probeer vasstel of die redes vir

  10. Modelling global change impacts on soil carbon contents of agro-silvo-pastoral Mediterranean systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2016-04-01

    To assess the impact of climate change on soil organic C (SOC) stocks in agro-silvo-pastoral environments, different models have been applied worldwide at local or regional scales, such as as RothC (Francaviglia et al., 2012) or CENTURY (Alvaro-Fuentes et al., 2012). However, some of these models may require a high number of input parameters or can underestimate the effect of soil depth. CarboSOIL (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013) is an empirical model based on regression techniques and developed to predict SOC contents at standard soil depths (0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm) under a range of climate and/or land use change scenarios. CarboSOIL has been successfully applied in different Mediterranean areas ,e.g. Southern Spain (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013; Abd-Elmabod et al., 2014), Northern Egypt (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2014) and Italy (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2015). In this study, CarboSOIL was applied in the Cardeña and Montoro mountain range Natural Park. This area covers 385 km2 and is located within Sierra Morena (Córdoba, South Spain) and has a semiarid Mediterranean climate. It is characterized by agro-silvo-pastoral systems. The Mediterranean evergreen oak woodland (MEOW-dehesa) is savanna-like open woodland ecosystem characterized by silvopastoral uses, being an ancient human modified Mediterranean landscape (Corral-Fernández et al., 2013; Lozano-García and Parras-Alcántara 2013). The most representative soils in the Cardeña and Montoro mountain range Natural Park are Cambisols, Regosols, Leptosols and Fluvisols. These soils are characterized by low fertility, poor physical conditions and marginal capacity for agricultural use, together with low organic matter (OM) content due to climate conditions (semiarid Mediterranean climate) and soil texture (sandy). The model was applied at different soil depths: 0-25, 25-50 and 50-75 cm (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015) considering land use and climate changes scenarios based on available global climate models (IPPC, 2007). A

  11. Impact study of oil spill on mangrove areas of Sergipe State, Brazilian northeast; Estudo de impacto do derramamento de oleo em areas de manguezal do estado de Sergipe, nordeste do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Solange A. [ADEMA, Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Results of studies during six years, on oil spills, Cotinguiba River region, caused by an accident on the Fazenda Santa Cruz, Sergipe, are presented. The environmental impacts, oil spill consequences on the mangrove areas affected by the accident, its flora and fauna development, Water Ph measurement, and environmental characteristics are also debated. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. O ideário taylorista, a gestão da subjetividade e o poder pastoral Taylorist ideology, subjectivity management, and pastoral power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Eduardo Procopiuk Walter

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este ensaio tem por objetivo analisar o ideário taylorista concernente à relação entre operários e gestores a partir da categoria do poder pastoral, proposta por Michel Foucault. Se o poder disciplinar incide sobre o corpo, o poder pastoral incide sobre a alma do indivíduo, implicando - por meio de técnicas confessionais - a direção de consciência. No âmbito do taylorismo, pode-se concluir, tal poder se manifesta, mas não com um sentido parhesiastico, revelando no taylorismo um processo de configuração de verdades a respeito do sujeito operário, ou trabalhador, que o coloca em condição de objeto da gestão nas relações estabelecidas entre a gestão e o operário.This essay aims to analyze the Taylorist ideology concerning the relation between laborers and managers through the pastoral power category, proposed by Michel Foucault. If the disciplinary power is focused on the body, the pastoral power is focused on the individual's soul, implying - through confessional techniques - the direction of consciousness. Under Taylorism, one may conclude, such power manifests itself, but not in a parrhesiastic sense, revealing in Taylorism a truth configuration process with regard to the working subject, or laborer, which puts him in a condition of management object in the relations established between management and laborer.

  13. Public pastoral leaders: The purpose of theological training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Malan Nel

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a follow-up of an article in which I attempted to gain insight into the corporate nature of being called to ministry. The mentioned article was also aimed at discerning the specifics of the ministry of the “public pastoral leader”. While the question is even asked whether theological training is necessary at all, I accept, as point of departure, the critical need for such training. What is of more importance is the discernment of what I call in this article the “teleological core” of theological education. I purposefully chose to explore the contributions of a number of well-known scholars who devoted much of their research to this field: Schner, Farley, Wood, Hough and Cobb, Heitink, Van der Ven and a few others. The ultimate finding is that some consensus about the telos of theological education does exist. The nature of the telos is phrased differently, but the different dimensions identified are indeed complementary. Concepts like “vision and discernment”, “critical reflection” “reflective practitioner”, “hermeneutical-communicative com- petence” and others are discussed as they relate to the core research problem. Attention is also given to the necessity of training a “basic pastor” as well as to the importance of “limited specialisation” in theological training.

  14. The Northeast Greenland Shelf as a Potential Habitat for the Northeast Arctic Cod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjersti O. Strand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations (1978–1991 of distributions of pelagic juvenile Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua L. show that up to 1/3 of the year class are dispersed off the continental shelf and into the deep Norwegian Sea while on the way from the spring-spawning areas along the Norwegian coast to the autumn-settlement areas in the Barents Sea. The fate of this variable fraction of pelagic juveniles off-shelf has been an open question ever since Johan Hjort's (1914 seminal work. We have examined both the mechanisms causing offspring off-shelf transport, and their subsequent destiny using an individual-based biophysical model applied to quantify growth and dispersal. Our results show, consistently with the observations, that total off-shelf transport is highly variable between years and may be up to 27.4%. Offspring from spawning grounds around Lofoten have a higher chance of being displaced off the shelf. The off-shelf transport is dominated by episodic events where frequencies and dates vary between years. Northeasterly wind conditions over a 3–7-day period prior to the off-shelf events are a good proxy for dispersal of offspring off the shelf. Offspring transported into the open ocean are on average carried along three following routes: back onto the adjacent eastern shelves and into the Barents Sea (36.9%, recirculating within the Lofoten Basin (60.7%, or drifting northwest to the northeast Greenland shelf (2.4%. For the latter fraction the transport may exceed 12% depending on year. Recent investigations have discovered distributions of young cod on the northeast Greenland shelf indicating that conditions may support survival for Northeast Arctic cod offspring.

  15. Understanding the role of local management in vegetation recovery around pastoral settlements in northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roba, Hassan G; Oba, Gufu

    2013-04-01

    The recent greening of the Sahel region and increase in vegetation cover around pastoral settlements previously described as "man-made deserts", have raised important questions on the permanency of land degradation associated with the over-exploitation of woody plants. Evidence presented is mostly on increased wetness, while management by local communities has received limited attention. This study evaluated changes in woody vegetation cover around the settlements of Kargi and Korr in northern Kenya, using satellite imagery (1986/2000), ecological ground surveys and interviews with local elders, in order to understand long-term changes in vegetation cover and the role of local community in vegetation dynamics. At both settlements, there were increments in vegetation cover and reduction in the extent of bare ground between 1986 and 2000. At Kargi settlement, there were more tree seedlings in the centre of settlement than further away. Mature tree class was more abundant in the centre of Korr than outside the settlement. The success of the regeneration and recovery of tree cover was attributed to the actions of vegetation management initiative including stringent measures by the local Environmental Management Committees. This study provides good evidence that local partnership is important for sustainable management of resources especially in rural areas where the effectiveness of government initiative is lacking.

  16. Land use influences arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in the farming-pastoral ecotone of northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dan; Verbruggen, Erik; Hu, Yajun; Veresoglou, Stavros D; Rillig, Matthias C; Zhou, Wenping; Xu, Tianle; Li, Huan; Hao, Zhipeng; Chen, Yongliang; Chen, Baodong

    2014-12-01

    We performed a landscape-scale investigation to compare the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities between grasslands and farmlands in the farming-pastoral ecotone of northern China. AMF richness and community composition were examined with 454 pyrosequencing. Structural equation modelling (SEM) and multivariate analyses were applied to disentangle the direct and indirect effects (mediated by multiple environmental factors) of land use on AMF. Land use conversion from grassland to farmland significantly reduced AMF richness and extraradical hyphal length density, and these land use types also differed significantly in AMF community composition. SEM showed that the effects of land use on AMF richness and hyphal length density in soil were primarily mediated by available phosphorus and soil structural quality. Soil texture was the strongest predictor of AMF community composition. Soil carbon, nitrogen and soil pH were also significantly correlated with AMF community composition, indicating that these abiotic variables could be responsible for some of the community composition differences among sites. Our study shows that land use has a partly predictable effect on AMF communities across this ecologically relevant area of China, and indicates that high soil phosphorus concentrations and poor soil structure are particularly detrimental to AMF in this fragile ecosystem. © 2014 The Author. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Institutional development: from legal pluralism to institutional bricolage in West African pastoralism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokou, G; Bonfoh, B

    2016-11-01

    Pastoralists in Africa are increasingly vulnerable to the effects of globalisation, climate change and changes in land use. They are confronted with problems related to access to scarce natural resources and their regulation, the management of mobility, and too little investment in health systems, livestock production and social service delivery. However, this paper focuses on positive trends and vital innovations in pastoral societies. These rely on robust institutions and policy frameworks that contribute to economically secure, politically stable, and environmentally sustainable livelihoods for African pastoral societies. The authors analyse ways in which internal and external efforts can improve the economic viability and social aspects of pastoralism. The institutions that manage natural resources and their effects on livelihoods and access to social services must be critically reviewed. The authors suggest that a new model for the economic and social development of African pastoralism should be positioned between donor- or governmentdriven development (in other words, 'seeing like a state') and the autonomous development goals of pastoralists ('seeing like a pastoralist'). Pastoralists are resourceful, entrepreneurial and innovative people, fully able to support new institutional systems and services which recognise their way of life and production systems. It seems evident that African pastoralism will maintain its vitality and creativity through a process of 'bricolage', with institutional and policy innovations based on a constant renegotiation of norms, the reinvention or transformation of tradition, the importance of legitimate authority and the role of the people themselves in shaping such arrangements.

  18. Northeast Snowfall Impact Scale (NESIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — While the Fujita and Saffir-Simpson Scales characterize tornadoes and hurricanes respectively, there is no widely used scale to classify snowstorms. The Northeast...

  19. Climate risk management information, sources and responses in a pastoral region in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Egeru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastoralists in East Africa face a range of stressors, climate variability and change being one of them. Effective climate risk management involves managing the full range of variability and balancing hazard management with efforts to capitalise on opportunity; climate risk management information is central in this process. In this study, pastoralists’ perceptions of climate change, climate risk management information types, sources and attendant responses in a pastoral region in East Africa are examined. Through a multi-stage sampling process, a total of 198 heads of households in three districts were selected and interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. In addition, 29 focus group discussions and 10 key informant interviews were conducted to generate qualitative information to supplement survey data. Descriptive and thematic analysis were utilised in summarizing the data. Ninety-nine percent of the pastoralists noted that the climate had changed evidenced by high but erratic rainfall, occurrence of floods and variation in rainfall onset and cessation among other indicators. This change in climate had led to emergence of ‘new’ livestock and crop diseases, crop failure and low yields leading to frequent food shortages, water shortages, poor market access, and variation in pasture availability among other effects. Climate risk management information was received from multiple sources including; radio, diviners, community meetings, shrine elders, humanitarian agencies, and Uganda People’s defence forces (UPDF. Community meetings were however perceived as most accessible, reliable and dependable sources of information. Shifting livestock to dry season grazing and watering areas, selling firewood and charcoal, seeking for military escorts to grazing areas, purchasing veterinary drugs, shifting livestock to disease ‘free’ areas, and performing rituals (depending on the perceived risk constituted a set of responses undertaken in

  20. Becoming Bioethically Confident: The Contribution of Learning Experiences in Seminary and Congregational Ministry to Evangelical Pastors' Wise Leadership on Bioethical Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Paige Comstock

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the factors that contribute to evangelical pastors becoming bioethically confident leaders of their congregation. This basic qualitative study invited twenty-five pastors who have a M.Div. or similar seminary degree to share their experiences of theological education, congregational ministry, and their views of pastoral moral…

  1. Pastoral Care Functional Approach as Panacea For Involuntary Childlessness Among Christian Couples In Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Oladele Ayankeye

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of involuntary childlessness is a serious one in Africa where parenthood is given a pride of place. The fact that there is a high population growth has not removed the trauma associated with inability to reproduce from the African society. The weight of the crisis cuts across socio-economic and religious boundaries. Little wonder why studies continue to emerge from various fields on the issue. This paper focused on the application of some functions of pastoral care that can be of help while pastoral caregivers and counsellors are caring for childless couples in Africa. The functions are educating healing and sustaining. The intention, since there have been several papers on causes and effects of childlessness, is to avail pastoral caregivers with a handy guideline in the process of ministering to the involuntarily childless couples in Africa

  2. The Gendering of Pastors in Contemporary Nordic Films: Norms, Conventions and Contemporary Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Sjö

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article examines how Lutheran pastors are gendered in six well-known Nordic films. Building on the theory of mediatisation of religion, the study argues for the need to look at how media shapes religion and gender for a thorough understanding of viewson religion today. The film analyses show a connection between female pastors and less problematised forms of religion, but also traditional ways of undermining women in films. The films are argued to present a problematised religious view on sexuality, mostly connected to male pastors. Both aspects of gendering religion are tied to larger debates and discussions of religion and gender in the Nordic countries today. The article suggests that media have the potential to challenge traditional religious norms and to present their own norms, and highlights the need for further comparative studies.

  3. Philosophical counselling: Towards a ‘new approach’ in pastoral care and counselling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Louw

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The practice of pastoral counselling was dominated for several decades by the Rogerian techniques of empathetic listening. To a large extent, healing was predominately related to the realm of feelings (the affective dimension. Rational Emotive Therapy opened up other avenues. However, besides Logotherapy, the realm of meaning and its connectedness to world views and ideas (Plato: forms remained uncharted in many theories for pastoral care and counselling. In this article it was argued that philosophical counselling opens up new avenues for pastoral care and counselling. Philosophical counselling probes into the realm of different schemata of interpretation. A model for the making of a spiritual existential analysis was proposed in order to detect the impact of the Christian spiritual schema of interpretation on the dynamics of existential networking.

  4. 33 CFR 165.530 - Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. 165.530 Section 165.530 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.530 Safety Zone: Cape Fear and Northeast Cape Fear Rivers, NC. (a) Location. The following area is...

  5. 33 CFR 110.70a - Northeast River, North East, Md.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast River, North East, Md. 110.70a Section 110.70a Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.70a Northeast River, North East, Md. The water...

  6. Internal diversification of non-Sub-Saharan haplogroups in Sahelian populations and the spread of pastoralism beyond the Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichová, Iva; Fernandes, Verónica; Deme, Alioune; Nováčková, Jana; Stenzl, Vlastimil; Novelletto, Andrea; Pereira, Luísa; Černý, Viktor

    2017-10-01

    Today, African pastoralists are found mainly in the Sahel/Savannah belt spanning 6,000 km from west to east, flanked by the Sahara to the north and tropical rainforests to the south. The most significant group among them are the Fulani who not only keep cattle breeds of possible West Eurasian ancestry, but form themselves a gene pool containing some paternally and maternally-transmitted West Eurasian haplogroups. We generated complete sequences for 33 mitogenomes belonging to haplogroups H1 and U5 (23 and 10, respectively), and genotyped 16 STRs in 65 Y chromosomes belonging to haplogroup R1b-V88. We show that age estimates of the maternal lineage H1cb1, occurring almost exclusively in the Fulani, point to the time when the first cattle herders settled the Sahel/Savannah belt. Similar age estimates were obtained for paternal lineage R1b-V88, which occurs today in the Fulani but also in other, mostly pastoral populations. Maternal clade U5b1b1b, reported earlier in the Berbers, shows a shallower age, suggesting another possibly independent input into the Sahelian pastoralist gene pool. Despite the fact that animal domestication originated in the Near East ∼ 10 ka, and that it was from there that animals such as sheep, goats as well as cattle were introduced into Northeast Africa soon thereafter, contemporary cattle keepers in the Sahel/Savannah belt show uniparental genetic affinities that suggest the possibility of an ancient contact with an additional ancestral population of western Mediterranean ancestry. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Handling of pastoral misconduct and discipline: Evidence from the Apostolic Faith Mission in Zimbabwe church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Chivasa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Misconduct has permeated almost every community across the globe and Christian churches have not been spared either. The two basic questions that the current study addresses were what are some of the reported behaviours of male pastors that constitute misconduct in the Apostolic Faith Mission (AFM in Zimbabwe church?; and is there any policy framework in the AFM in Zimbabwe designed to repair distressed relationships between offending pastors and the church? Results showed that in the AFM in Zimbabwe, pastoral misconduct is seen as a negative force that militates against sustaining harmony in the church. As such, whenever a male pastor commits an act of misconduct, disciplinary action is taken against him. It was also found that constructive dialogue to address misconduct is still a blind spot in the church under review. And because there is no policy framework to amend distressed relationships after administering discipline, social interactions between offending pastors and the church remain antagonistic. In view of the identified problem, this study proposed that the AFM in Zimbabwe might need to embrace a peace building framework because it has the propensity to repair broken relationships and to build friendships, social networks and trust between people. This framework can be instrumental in repairing distressed relations between offending pastors and the church at large. The strength of peace building lies in the values of brotherly love, forgiveness, reconciliation and relationship building, which are compatible with Christianity.

  8. Chance Encounters: Rap Music as a Relational and Pedagogical Resource in Clinical Pastoral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Jeremy

    2018-03-01

    Music has long been regarded as a valuable tool for educators. Over the last three decades, rap music has grown to become a global phenomenon. However, due to historical and cultural factors, rap music is often underutilized in Clinical Pastoral Education. This article discusses the social significance of rap music, highlights how rap music informed my supervision of a clinical pastoral education student, and examines Chance the Rapper's mixtape Coloring Book as a case study on the utilization of rap music as a relational and pedagogical resource in spiritual education.

  9. A pastoral evaluation and responses to the challenge of spiritual insecurity in African pastoral ministry and Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2017-01-01

    article discusses African spiritual worldview and its implications to practical Christianity. It is an interdisciplinary theological article that integrates African Christian theology and pastoral care. It contributes to the discussion on contextualising Christian practical ministry in Africa.

  10. Integrating local pastoral knowledge, participatory mapping, and species distribution modeling for risk assessment of invasive rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora in Ethiopia's Afar region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W. Luizza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The threats posed by invasive plants span ecosystems and economies worldwide. Local knowledge of biological invasions has proven beneficial for invasive species research, but to date no work has integrated this knowledge with species distribution modeling for invasion risk assessments. In this study, we integrated pastoral knowledge with Maxent modeling to assess the suitable habitat and potential impacts of invasive Cryptostegia grandiflora Robx. Ex R.Br. (rubber vine in Ethiopia's Afar region. We conducted focus groups with seven villages across the Amibara and Awash-Fentale districts. Pastoral knowledge revealed the growing threat of rubber vine, which to date has received limited attention in Ethiopia, and whose presence in Afar was previously unknown to our team. Rubber vine occurrence points were collected in the field with pastoralists and processed in Maxent with MODIS-derived vegetation indices, topographic data, and anthropogenic variables. We tested model fit using a jackknife procedure and validated the final model with an independent occurrence data set collected through participatory mapping activities with pastoralists. A Multivariate Environmental Similarity Surface analysis revealed areas with novel environmental conditions for future targeted surveys. Model performance was evaluated using area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC and showed good fit across the jackknife models (average AUC = 0.80 and the final model (test AUC = 0.96. Our results reveal the growing threat rubber vine poses to Afar, with suitable habitat extending downstream of its current known location in the middle Awash River basin. Local pastoral knowledge provided important context for its rapid expansion due to acute changes in seasonality and habitat alteration, in addition to threats posed to numerous endemic tree species that provide critical provisioning ecosystem services. This work demonstrates the utility of integrating local

  11. Francisco de Aguiar y Seijas, pastor del rebaño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Herrera, Rocío

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Which was the pastoral profile of Francisco de Aguiar y Seijas, archbishop of Mexico? Through the dates of the Book of visit in his fourth journey in the regions of Chalco, Amilpas, Xochimilco and Coyoacan from december 4th 1686 to april 9th 1687, and making use of the thematic biography as method, the answer to the initial question has arrived. After the Council of Trent, the bishop had the duty to promote the reform of customs in his diocese; the pastoral visit was a privileged way to achieve it. The archbishop Aguiar, educated from the tridentine discipline in the archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela, made of his pastoral visit a really popular mission among the people. He takes a small itinerant curia, to govern and discharging justice in a delegated manner. A disciplined, austere and conciliator man, he served as a souls shepherd more than a court official.¿Cuál fue el perfil pastoral de Francisco de Aguiar y Seijas, arzobispo de México? A través de los datos que aporta el Libro de visita de su cuarta salida a las regiones de Chalco, Amilpas, Xochimilco y Coyoacán del 4 de diciembre de 1686 al 9 de abril de 1687, y utilizando la metodología de la biografía temática, se ha dado respuesta a la pregunta inicial. Luego del Concilio de Trento, el obispo tenía el grave deber de suscitar la reforma de las costumbres en su diócesis; la visita pastoral fue un medio privilegiado para lograrlo. El arzobispo Aguiar, formado bajo la disciplina tridentina en la arquidiócesis compostelana, hizo de su visita pastoral una verdadera misión popular entre la gente. Acompañado de una pequeña curia itinerante, gobernó e impartió justicia con características de delegación de poder. Hombre disciplinado, austero y de carácter conciliador se dirigió más como pastor de almas que como funcionario real. [gl] Cal foi o perfil pastoral de Francisco de Aguiar e Seijas, arcebispo de México? A través dos datos que achega o libro de visita da s

  12. O jogo do PE: luzes examinantes para o além-mundo da Pastoral Educativa EP game: examining lights toward the beyond-world of Educative Pastoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Corazza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O jogo do PE (Pastoral Educativa: 1 aproveita as quatro partes que compõem Also Sprach Zarathustra, de Nietzsche, para desenhar a própria configuração; 2 utiliza a maioria dos subtítulos de Also Sprach..., sem necessariamente fazer corresponder-lhe o que ali Zaratustra falou; 3 solicita licença para propor a esta fala - pelo amor antigo que lhe tem - outros aforismos, idéias e considerações, mesmo que extemporâneos, para montar o tabuleiro onde possa jogar o PE; 4 entende "jogo" do mesmo modo que Foucault, ou seja, como um conjunto de regras de produção da verdade; 5 descreve esse jogo imediatamente, sem mais delongas.The EP (Educative Pastoral game: 1 makes good use of the four parts which constitute Also Sprach Zarathustra, by Nietzsche, to outline its own configuration; 2 uses most of the subtitles of Also Sprach…, without necessarily making it correspond with what Zarathustra spoke there; 3 asks for permission to propose this speech - due to the old love devoted to it - other aphorisms, ideas and considerations, even if extemporaneous, to build the board where EP (Educative Pastoral game can be played; 4 understands "game" the same way Foucault does, that is, as a set of rules of truth-production; 5 describes this game immediately, without any delay.

  13. H2USA: Siting Refueling Stations in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, Marc W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zuboy, Jarett [Consultant; Ellis, Steve [Honda

    2017-11-01

    To achieve cost-effective deployment of both fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) and hydrogen stations, the number of vehicles and public stations must grow together in areas of highest demand. This fact sheet introduces two advanced modeling tools and presents preliminary analysis of the hydrogen refueling station locations needed to support early consumer demand for FCEVs in the Northeast United States. United States.

  14. Tidal Movement of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden Glacier, Northeast Greenland: Observations and Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels; Mayer, C.; Olesen, O. B.

    2000-01-01

    Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden glacier is a > 60 km long and 20 km wide floating outlet glacier located at 79 degrees 30' N, 22 degrees W, draining a large area of the northeast Greenland ice sheet. Climate, mass-balance and dynamics studies were carried out on the glacier in three field seasons in 1996...

  15. Anticipating Vulnerability to Climate Change in Dryland Pastoral Systems: Using Dynamic Systems Models for the Kalahari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Dougill

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is vitally important to identify agroecosystems that may cease functioning because of changing climate or land degradation. However, identifying such systems is confounded on both conceptual and methodological grounds, especially in systems that are moving toward thresholds, a common trait of dryland environments. This study explores these challenges by analyzing how a range of external pressures affect the vulnerability of dryland pastoral systems in the Kalahari. This is achieved by employing dynamic systems modeling approaches to understand the pathways by which communities became vulnerable to drought. Specifically, we evaluate how external pressures have changed: (1 different agroecosystems' abilities to tolerate drought, i.e., ecosystem resilience; (2 rural communities' abilities to adapt to drought, mediated via their access to assets; and (3 the ability of institutions and policy interventions to play a role in mediating drought-related crises, i.e., socio-political governance. This is done by reanalyzing ecological and participatory research findings along with farm-scale livestock offtake data from across the Kalahari in Botswana. An iterative process was followed to establish narratives exploring how external drivers led to changes in agroecosystem resilience, access to assets, and the institutional capacity to buffer the system. We use "causal loop diagrams" and statistical dynamic system models to express key quantitative relationships and establish future scenarios to help define where uncertainties lie by showing where the system is most sensitive to change. We highlight how that greater sharing of land management knowledge and practices between private and communal land managers can provide 'win-win-win' benefits of reducing system vulnerability, increasing economic income, and building social capital. We use future scenario analyses to identify key areas for future studies of climate change adaptation across the Kalahari.

  16. Understanding complexity in managing agro-pastoral dams ecosystem services in Northern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpera, G.N.

    2015-01-01

    Key words: conflict, water quality, crocodile, fish diversity, vegetable, watershed management, institutional changes, innovation system.

    Understanding complexity in managing agro-pastoral dams ecosystem services in Northern Benin

    Gnanki

  17. Intrapersoonlike transformasie by pastors – die paradoks van emosionele verwonding as bron tot genesing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Philip Nolte

    2009-09-01

    This article reflects upon the way in which the interplay between reason and emotion influences pastors’ lives and ministry. It studies the process of inner transformation as a meaningful way for pastors to become ‘healed healers’. Inner transformation is described in terms of Aristotle’s phronēsis and Paul Ricoeur’s movement from mimēsis1 to mimēsis3. The article agrues that ‘healing’ in no way purports that pastors are able to heal others in a literal sense, but merely that by being conscious of their own wounds, pastors can experience the paradox that their own wounds could become a source of healing. This approach to woundedness is interpreted from two distinct perspectives. Firstly, it is seen from the perspective of Jesus as the human face of God. Jesus’ emotional disposition towards the nobodies of his time is seen as paradigmatic for pastors’ relationships with others. Secondly, woundedness is seen within the context of the metaphor of the wounded healer as narrated in ancient Greek mythology, and used by Carl Jung in a psychiatric setting. It is not only pastors’ knowledge of the Bible, theological tradition and different pastoral and other therapeutic theories, models and methods that facilitates meaningful interaction between themselves and others. Central to pastors’ role as wounded healers is their conscious acknowledgement of their own humanity and therefore their own woundedness.

  18. Cyberbullying Bystanders and Moral Engagement: A Psychosocial Analysis for Pastoral Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Chris; Zuin, Antônio

    2018-01-01

    One of the new challenges facing pastoral care in schools is dealing with the rapid growth of cyberbullying by school-aged children. Within digital cyberspace, cyberbullies are finding more opportunities to express their aggression towards others as social networks become technologically more sophisticated. An important feature of cyberbullying is…

  19. Enhancing the economic viability of pastoralism: the need to balance interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueff, H; Rahim, I

    2016-11-01

    Extensive mobile pastoral systems do not follow conventional marketing optimisation models, since they must deal with the factors of mobility, erratic environments, dependency on natural resources, seasonality, and distance to markets. While pastoralist systems contribute substantially to national economies, government investment to support pastoralism remains limited or non-existent. Pastoralists are becoming increasingly integrated into larger market systems and therefore need investment and specially adapted policies to supply a growing demand for livestock products and to support their livelihoods. In this paper, the authors show that investment and technology can support and empower pastoralist marketing strategies in supplying higher-value and more stable livestock products. Furthermore, the authors demonstrate that pastoralists also supply services, broadening the marketing landscape within which they operate to include more players and trading options. Pastoralists are undeniably the custodians of rangelands and provide a wide range of ecosystem services. These new market prospects nevertheless require structuring (e.g. regulation, infrastructure) and adjustments in the trading environment of stakeholders all along the value chain. There is, however, an inherent risk in intervening in pastoral marketing and production processes. Too many or ill-adapted interventions can have severe effects on these systems, resulting in over-intensification and reduced mobility. Finding the right level of intervention to support extensive pastoral systems is important when developing policy, since it is about the only form of land use that can keep a third of the world's land surface in food production without additional inputs.

  20. Leadership Role Expectations and Relationships of Principals and Pastors in Catholic Parochial Elementary Schools: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Duane F.

    2004-01-01

    Parish elementary schools in the United States have a governance structure that often precipitates conflict. The principal is the designated leader of the school, the educational administrator, and the supervisor of the faculty and students. By canon law, however, the pastor of the parish remains ultimately responsible for the spiritual and…

  1. Archaeology, archaeozoology and the study of pastoralism in the Near East (Review Article)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Çakirlar, Canan

    2017-01-01

    Sheep and goat herding, the basis of pastoralism in the Near East, has been integral to the social organisation, diet, economy, religion and environment of the region since the beginnings of animal domestication. Interestingly, this omnipresent factor of life in the Near East has not been a popular

  2. "Holy Cow! This Stuff Is Real!" from Imagining Ministry to Pastoral Imagination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Reed, Eileen R.; Scharen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    How do seminarians move from imagining ministry to embodying pastoral imagination? Stories gathered from seminarians in their final year of study show the complexity of shifting from classroom work, which foregrounds theory and intellectual imagination, to more embodied, relational, and emotionally intense engagements of ministry. Stories about…

  3. n hoofstuk in die (outo)biografie van die predikant (pastor?) 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    biografie van die dominee (pastor?), spreek om verskeie redes boekdele. Die gebruik van die onbepaalde lidwoord is eerstens 'n bevestiging dat die artikel slegs 'n verdere bydrae (hoofstuk) tot die bestaande en steeds voortgaande gesprek (boek) oor die biografie van die dominee is (Heitink 2001). Tweedens plaas ek ...

  4. Pastoral community organization, livelihoods and biodiversity conservation in Mongolia's Southern Gobi Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabine M. Schmidt

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I describe processes and impacts of collective action by mobile pastoralist communities, and of external support strategies to strengthen local institutions and cooperation in Mongolia’s southern Gobi. The need for pastoral mobility triggered the processes leading to community organization, and the emergence, or re-emergence, of local informal...

  5. the problem of cultural stereotyping in the pastoral care of a suicidal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By global culture we mean the fusion of cultures as a result of immigration and ... individualism in the European context: “the importance of self-expression and the .... interdependence and growth. .... exchange of cultures and religious/spiritual experience in pastoral care. .... Medical students in this study were to explore.

  6. A re-reading of John 8:1–11 from a pastoral liberative perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article intends to unmask collusion with patriarchal societies including the Jewish society in Jesus' time by mapping out the forms of harassment and embarrassment inflicted upon women. The study shows how pastoral care can help victims of oppression. A re-reading of John 8:1–11 will inform the, how can the verses ...

  7. The Lenten Pastoral Letter: a first public declaration of the hidden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finally, it has been recorded that when asked about the origins of the Pastoral. Letter, one of.the ... voice of the poor. This state of affairs would explain ... discusses the terms 'public' and 'hidden' in the context of power relations and discourse.

  8. Small ruminant production in smallholder and pastoral/extensive farming systems in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosgey, I.S.; Rowlands, G.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Baker, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    A survey was conducted by way of personal interviews with 562 respondents comprising 459 farmers and 103 butchers/traders in selected districts in the central and western parts of Kenya, consisting of three predominantly smallholder and four predominantly pastoral/extensive districts. The study

  9. The hearthhold in pastoral Fulbe society, central Mali : social relations, milk and drought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de M.E.

    1997-01-01

    In pastoral Fulbe society in central Mali women had, and to some degree still have, an important social and economic role, concentrated on a 'milk economy' organized through a female-headed, women-centred unit, called 'fayannde' or 'hearthhold'. In a society of seminomadic pastoralists who live most

  10. Local land management in Benin with special reference to pastoral groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo); T. Djedjebi

    2000-01-01

    textabstractA review of local land management experiences in West Africa reveals that the resolution of conflicts over the uses of resources between herders and farmers depends on factors like land and water rights, promotion of the interests of pastoral groups and the Intervention of

  11. Towards sustainable vegetable production around agro-pastoral dams in Northern Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpéra, G.N.; Segnon, Alcade C.; Saïdou, Aliou; Mensah, Guy A.; Aarts, Noelle; Zijpp, van der Akke J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rehabilitation and optimized utilization of agro-pastoral dams (APDs), especially for vegetable production, has been recently promoted to boost agricultural production and ensure food security in Benin. However, little information was available on APDs' agricultural potentials and

  12. Pastoral care and gays against the background of same-sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of the article is to show how the hegemony of heteronormativity compromises attempts at gay-friendly pastoral care and counselling with sexual minorities. Ecclesial resolutions with regard to same-sex relationships are based on Biblical propositions, theologies of heterosexual marriage, and often also on social ...

  13. Envisioning the future of transhumant pastoralism through participatory scenario planning: a case study in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oteros Rozas, E.; González, J.A.; Martín-López, B.; López, C.A.; Palomo, I.; Sotelo Montes, C.

    2013-01-01

    Transhumance is a practice of nomadic pastoralism that was once common in Mediterranean Europe. This livestock-rearing system is associated with the maintenance of cultural landscapes and the delivery of a wide range of ecosystem services. Although transhumance is still practised in Spain on a small

  14. The Paradox of Being a Wounded Healer: Henri J.M. Nouwen’s Contribution to Pastoral Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Philip Nolte

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first in a series of two dealing with Henri Nouwen’s contribution to pastoral care. The present article focuses on the impact of cognitive dissonance and the role it plays in pastors becoming constrained in their ministry. The point of departure is that during the past two decades, pastors have been subjected to profound changes. While pastors view their involvement with people in the social and faith communities in which they live and work as guiding people towards a life of wholeness and integrity, they themselves, because of their own inner woundedness, struggle to live a life of wholeness. This article investigates how pastors can act congruently and with integrity in a world that has been profoundly changed by a shift from a modern to a postmodern paradigm. This reflection explores the ancient Greek mythological origins of the concept ‘wounded healer’. It also shows that, in its utilisation by the Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, the concept became a metaphor. This insight leads to a discussion of how Henri Nouwen applied the significance of the metaphor to pastoral ministry. The discussion takes on the form of certain relevant biographical side notes on Nouwen’s contribution to pastoral theology. The article concludes with an exposition of Nouwens’s use of the metaphor in his book, The wounded healer: Ministry in contemporary society.

  15. Northeast MPA Valuation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The design of marine protected areas (MPAs) generates much discussion among marine scientists. Ecological studies have suggested that protecting 10 to 40% of...

  16. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island Principle Component Analysis - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a representation of seafloor topography in Northeast Puerto Rico derived from a bathymetry model with a principle component analysis (PCA). The area...

  17. Northeast Puerto Rico and Culebra Island World View 2 Satellite Mosaic - NOAA TIFF Image

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This GeoTiff is a mosaic of World View 2 panchromatic satellite imagery of Northeast Puerto Rico that contains the shallow water area (0-35m deep) surrounding...

  18. The USA and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    United States policy on proliferation in Northeast Asia poses a test of balance between general US global non-proliferation goals and specific US regional security goals for Northeast Asia. US policy on proliferation in Northeast Asia further poses a test of priorities for US bilateral relations with the key Northeast Asian states, as non-proliferation and regional security goals must be weighed against other (e.g., economic, human rights) declared US policy goals. The result is a US policy equation for Northeast Asia proliferation that is considerably more complex in execution than might be expected from the simple statement of the US goal to avoid nuclear proliferation in Northeast Asia. The question of security assurances - both negative and positive - may be closely related to US policies to avoid proliferation in Northeast Asia

  19. The Interactive Play and a Persuasive God: A Psychoanalytic Approach to Re-envisioning Pastoral Care and Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jung Eun

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a sketch of a new image of pastoral care and counseling, which reflects the psychoanalytic understanding of the interacting transference and countertransference matrix, along with a process view of God in a mutually influencing relationship with creatures. A more effective approach in pastoral care and counseling can be conceptualized as the interactive play in which pastoral caregivers and receivers co-create a therapeutic relationship with their own past experiences and their creative capabilities. The interactive play is a concept of describing the mutually influencing relationship in the transference and countertransference interchange. The article introduces the concept of a persuasive God as a new image of pastoral care and counseling which includes aspects of the mutually interacting process in play. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Socioeconomic determinants of schistosomiasis in an urban area in the Northeast of Brazil Determinantes socioeconómicos de la esquistosomiasis en un área urbana del nordeste de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ximenes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify and quantify the socioeconomic determinants of schistosomiasis in the urban section of São Lourenço da Mata, a town in the Northeast of Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1988 to measure the prevalence of schistosomiasis in São Lourenço da Mata among individuals aged 10-25 years and to estimate the socioeconomic characteristics of the households of those individuals. Household aggregation was tested. The data were analyzed on two levels, the family level and the individual level. On the family level we estimated the odds ratios for the association of schistosomiasis and socioeconomic variables related either to the head of the family or to the household. On the individual level we investigated if for the infected individuals there were differences in the intensity of infection (mean egg count for the different levels of the socioeconomic variables. RESULTS: We found a significant degree of household aggregation of schistosomiasis (allowing for sex and area of residence (neighborhoods with similar socioeconomic conditions, according to census data. In the analysis on the family level, better socioeconomic indicators for the place in the productive process (occupation, economic sector, and position in production of the head of the family, plus family income and better socioeconomic indicators for patterns of consumption (level of education of the head of the family, type of housing, household possessions, water supply for the home, sanitation (that is, excreta collection, and family access to medical care were all associated with a lower risk of schistosomiasis. The estimation of the probability of schistosomiasis for different levels of the socioeconomic variables showed a lower risk (0.072 for individuals whose households were at the top (best levels of the indicators relative to the risk (0.715 for individuals whose households were at the baseline (lowest levels of the indicators. Infected

  1. Is multifunctionality the future of mountain pastoralism? Lessons from the management of semi-natural grasslands in the Pyrenees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-i-Gelats, F.; Rivera-Ferre, M.G.; Madruga-Andreu, C.; Bartolomé-Filella, J.

    2015-07-01

    Land abandonment is pervasive in mountainous Europe. In the present situation of price-cost squeeze on pastoral households and general shift in the role of farming, the development of farming abandonment risk regions is generally associated with adoption of new multifunctional rural development strategies, such as farm tourism, which in the end entail less time being devoted to farming practices. We explored the effects of such developmental scheme on the preservation of semi-natural grasslands, in particular, and on the sustainability of mountain pastoralism, in general. While the effects on the preservation of semi-natural grasslands of full abandonment have been extensively explored, this is not the case of partial abandonment. Results showed that the adoption of simplified and low-cost management regimes, associated with partial abandonment and the increased adoption of part-time farming, immerses semi-natural grasslands in processes of secondary succession that undermine both their conservation and pastoral functions. This points the need for caution when endorsing multifunctional developmental schemes in farming abandonment risk regions, particularly when those imply less labor being devoted to pastoral practices. In conclusion, we stress that in farming abandonment risk regions it is possible to guarantee both viable pastoralism and diversified rural economy. However, it is necessary to implement developmental strategies that are centered on stimulating synergies between pastoralism and other economic activities, rather than promoting activities that depend on additional farmers’ polyvalence. (Author)

  2. Is multifunctionality the future of mountain pastoralism? Lessons from the management of semi-natural grasslands in the Pyrenees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-i-Gelats, F.; Rivera-Ferre, M.G.; Madruga-Andreu, C.; Bartolomé-Filella, J.

    2015-01-01

    Land abandonment is pervasive in mountainous Europe. In the present situation of price-cost squeeze on pastoral households and general shift in the role of farming, the development of farming abandonment risk regions is generally associated with adoption of new multifunctional rural development strategies, such as farm tourism, which in the end entail less time being devoted to farming practices. We explored the effects of such developmental scheme on the preservation of semi-natural grasslands, in particular, and on the sustainability of mountain pastoralism, in general. While the effects on the preservation of semi-natural grasslands of full abandonment have been extensively explored, this is not the case of partial abandonment. Results showed that the adoption of simplified and low-cost management regimes, associated with partial abandonment and the increased adoption of part-time farming, immerses semi-natural grasslands in processes of secondary succession that undermine both their conservation and pastoral functions. This points the need for caution when endorsing multifunctional developmental schemes in farming abandonment risk regions, particularly when those imply less labor being devoted to pastoral practices. In conclusion, we stress that in farming abandonment risk regions it is possible to guarantee both viable pastoralism and diversified rural economy. However, it is necessary to implement developmental strategies that are centered on stimulating synergies between pastoralism and other economic activities, rather than promoting activities that depend on additional farmers’ polyvalence. (Author)

  3. Is multifunctionality the future of mountain pastoralism? Lessons from the management of semi-natural grasslands in the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliu López-i-Gelats

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Land abandonment is pervasive in mountainous Europe. In the present situation of price-cost squeeze on pastoral households and general shift in the role of farming, the development of farming abandonment risk regions is generally associated with adoption of new multifunctional rural development strategies, such as farm tourism, which in the end entail less time being devoted to farming practices. We explored the effects of such developmental scheme on the preservation of semi-natural grasslands, in particular, and on the sustainability of mountain pastoralism, in general. While the effects on the preservation of semi-natural grasslands of full abandonment have been extensively explored, this is not the case of partial abandonment. Results showed that the adoption of simplified and low-cost management regimes, associated with partial abandonment and the increased adoption of part-time farming, immerses semi-natural grasslands in processes of secondary succession that undermine both their conservation and pastoral functions. This points the need for caution when endorsing multifunctional developmental schemes in farming abandonment risk regions, particularly when those imply less labor being devoted to pastoral practices. In conclusion, we stress that in farming abandonment risk regions it is possible to guarantee both viable pastoralism and diversified rural economy. However, it is necessary to implement developmental strategies that are centered on stimulating synergies between pastoralism and other economic activities, rather than promoting activities that depend on additional farmers’ polyvalence.

  4. A House Full of Trap Doors. Identifying barriers to resilient drylands in the toolbox of pastoral development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krätli, Saverio; Kaufmann, Brigitte; Roba, Hassan; Hiernaux, Pierre; Li, Wenjun; Easdale, Marcos H.; Huelsebusch, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The theoretical understanding of drylands and pastoral systems has long undergone a U-turn from the initial perspective rooted in classical ecology. The shift has hinged on the way to represent asymmetric variability, from a disturbance in an ecosystem that naturally tends towards uniformity and stability, to a constitutive part of a dynamic ecosystem. Operationalising the new reversed perspective, including the need to update the methodological infrastructure to plan around drylands and pastoral development, remains a challenge. Underlying assumptions about stability and uniformity, that are a legacy of equilibrium thinking, remain embedded in the toolbox of pastoral development, starting from the technical language to talk about the subject. This effectively gets in the way of operationalizing state of the art understanding of pastoral systems and the drylands. Unless these barriers are identified, unpacked and managed, even the present calls for increasing the rigour and intensity of data collection - for example as part of the ongoing global process to revise and improve agricultural data - cannot deliver a realistic representation of pastoral systems in statistics and policy making. This contribution presents the case for understanding variability as an asset, and provides a range of examples of methodological barriers, including classifications of livestock systems, scale of observation, key parameters in animal production, indicators in the measurement of ecological efficiency, concepts of ecological fragility, natural resources, and pastoral risk. The need to update this legacy is a pressing challenge for policy makers concerned with both modernisation and resilience in the drylands.

  5. Northeast natural gas market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denhardt, R.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation included several charts and graphs depicting the major pipeline projects, including the Alliance Pipeline, to move gas from the U.S. midwest (14.5 Bcfd) to the northeast (11.6 Bcfd). Alliance is expected to add 1.6 Bcfd of capacity and supplies could ultimately expand to 4 Bcfd. The addition of the Vector Pipeline could create excess capacity to eastern Canada. The major cause for increased power demand is power generation. For example, proposed gas combined cycle plants in Ontario equal 3.2 GW about 720 MMcfd at 90 per cent capacity, while environmental regulations have put 9.4 GW of coal at risk in Michigan. It was noted that U.S. northeast market growth is not likely to absorb all the proposed pipeline capacity, but potential capacity additions to the New England market are very significant compared to the market size. tabs., figs

  6. El pastor Quijótiz by Camón Aznar and Unamuno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Fernández Rivera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In El pastor Quijótiz (1969, Camón Aznar resorted to the antagonism ideal vs. reality, characteristic of many recreations of Cervantes’ masterpiece, to explore the problem he had in combining the ideas of his freethinking youth with his later role as an active intellectual under Franco.  El pastor Quijótiz is an attempt at saving the liberal intellectuals’ utopianism of the early 20th century by transforming it into a form of private spirituality that serves as a comforter in the face of the surrounding social injustice. Camón Aznar builds upon the figure of the rebellious Don Quixote created by Unamuno, who he had admired in his youth. However, he changes the figure by adding a resigned victimization of Stoic- Christian origin.

  7. Community healing and the role of pastoral care of the ill and suffering in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Magezi

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The extended family (community in Africa plays a crucial role in the process of healing. However, while the role of the community is invaluable, many scholars overlook its other side. This article argues for a critical consideration of the healing role of the community in Africa and offers a critique of African community healing in the light of pastoral healing. Pastoral healing as a spiritual and faith perspective is juxtaposed with the healing process within African traditional communities. Since these two communities operate from different perspectives, in many cases they are competing forces in the process of healing – a difference that aggravates pain. This article thus carefully describes the process of healing both within a faith community (with its acts of “koinonia” and the African traditional community, and concludes by proposing a healthy integration of these systems.

  8. A political project by instruction: a hundred years of the Pastoral Letter of D. Leme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Corrêa Martins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The rereading of the centennial Pastoral Letter of greeting from D. Leme to diocesans in the Archdiocese of Olinda, in 1916, allows to understand, from historical and historiographical aspects, the composition between ultramontanism and traditionalism in the text of strong politicalbias, in which the archbishop intended a project of religious instruction for the catholicpeople. The analysis points out some aspects of the text in the educational and ideological issues of the period of its production, highlighting the separation between education and instruction in the text. The theoretical framework in the concept of temporality of Paul Ricoeur, beyond the beddings of the philosophy of the history of this author, for its phenomenological entail, allowed a specific understanding of proposals of the archbishop. It was about a bibliographical study in which the Pastoral Letter is a document and a vestige of that time, studied along with some papal encyclicals, also treated documentarily.

  9. Genetic Structure of Pastoral and Farmer Populations in the African Sahel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Viktor; Pereira, L.; Musilová, E.; Kujanová, M.; Vašíková, A.; Blasi, P.; Garofalo, L.; Soares, P.; Diallo, I.; Brdička, R.; Novelletto, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 9 (2011), s. 2491-2500 ISSN 0737-4038 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1587 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : African Sahel * pastoralism * archaeogenetics Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 5.550, year: 2011 http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/9/2491

  10. Statistical analysis of nitrous oxide emission factors from pastoral agriculture field trials conducted in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelliher, F.M.; Cox, N.; Weerden, T.J. van der; Klein, C.A.M. de; Luo, J.; Cameron, K.C.; Di, H.J.; Giltrap, D.; Rys, G.

    2014-01-01

    Between 11 May 2000 and 31 January 2013, 185 field trials were conducted across New Zealand to measure the direct nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission factors (EF) from nitrogen (N) sources applied to pastoral soils. The log(EF) data were analysed statistically using a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. To estimate mean EF values for each N source, best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) were calculated. For lowland soils, mean EFs for dairy cattle urine and dung, sheep urine and dung and urea fertiliser were 1.16 ± 0.19% and 0.23 ± 0.05%, 0.55 ± 0.19% and 0.08 ± 0.02% and 0.48 ± 0.13%, respectively, each significantly different from one another (p 12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. Thus, urine and dung EFs should be disaggregated for sheep and cattle as well as accounting for terrain. -- Highlights: • Nitrous oxide emission factors (EFs) for pastoral soils measured in 185 field trials. • For lowland, the mean (±standard error) urea nitrogen fertiliser EF was 0.5 ± 0.1%. • For lowland, mean dairy cattle urine and dung EFs were 1.2 and 0.2%, respectively. • For lowland, mean sheep urine and dung EFs were 0.6 and 0.1%, respectively. • For pastoral soils in terrain with slopes >12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. -- From 185 field trials, mean nitrous oxide emission factors for pastoral soils were 0.1% for sheep dung up to 1.2% for dairy cattle urine, while that for urea fertiliser was 0.5%

  11. The Evolution of Research Paradigms in Pastoral/Spiritual Care, Counseling, and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, John C

    2015-12-01

    This partially autobiographical article is presented as a chapter in the narrative of the evolution of research methodology in the social sciences and the impact that evolution has had on pastoral/spiritual care research as the author has experienced and observed it during the latter part of the 20th century and the early years of the 21st century. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Pinus mugo Krummholz Dynamics During Concomitant Change in Pastoralism and Climate in the Central Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dai

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of Pinus mugo krummholz during concomitant change in pastoral land use and climate in central Italy since the mid-20th century was investigated. Krummholz dynamics were detected using sequential aerial photography and fitted to a logistic regression model with elevation, grazing, proximity to beech forest, and proximity to krummholz as explanatory variables. Dendrochronological series were correlated with temperature and precipitation and fitted to a linear model. During this period krummholz doubled in extent and migrated 35–65 m upslope. Expansion was positively associated with krummholz proximity, residual pastoral grazing, and proximity to beech forest beyond 10 m and negatively associated with elevation and beech forest closer than 10 m. The logistic regression model forecasts krummholz migration by an additional 30 m upslope by 2060. During the 20th century, winter and spring minimum temperatures increased but did not result in increased radial stem growth of P. mugo. The combined evidence suggests that krummholz dynamics can be explained by the legacy of summer pastoralism and the dispersal limitations of P. mugo, rather than by climate change.

  13. Random demographic household surveys in highly mobile pastoral communities in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Daniel; Béchir, Mahamat; Hattendorf, Jan; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2011-05-01

    Reliable demographic data is a central requirement for health planning and management, and for the implementation of adequate interventions. This study addresses the lack of demographic data on mobile pastoral communities in the Sahel. A total of 1081 Arab, Fulani and Gorane women and 2541 children (1336 boys and 1205 girls) were interviewed and registered by a biometric fingerprint scanner in five repeated random transect demographic and health surveys conducted from March 2007 to January 2008 in the Lake Chad region in Chad. Important determinants for the planning and implementation of household surveys among mobile pastoral communities include: environmental factors; availability of women for interviews; difficulties in defining "own" children; the need for information-education-communication campaigns; and informed consent of husbands in typically patriarchal societies. Due to their high mobility, only 5% (56/1081) of registered women were encountered twice. Therefore, it was not possible to establish a demographic and health cohort. Prospective demographic and health cohorts are the most accurate method to assess child mortality and other demographic indices. However, their feasibility in a highly mobile pastoral setting remains to be shown. Future interdisciplinary scientific efforts need to target innovative methods, tools and approaches to include marginalized communities in operational health and demographic surveillance systems.

  14. Random demographic household surveys in highly mobile pastoral communities in Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béchir, Mahamat; Hattendorf, Jan; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem Reliable demographic data is a central requirement for health planning and management, and for the implementation of adequate interventions. This study addresses the lack of demographic data on mobile pastoral communities in the Sahel. Approach A total of 1081 Arab, Fulani and Gorane women and 2541 children (1336 boys and 1205 girls) were interviewed and registered by a biometric fingerprint scanner in five repeated random transect demographic and health surveys conducted from March 2007 to January 2008 in the Lake Chad region in Chad. Local setting Important determinants for the planning and implementation of household surveys among mobile pastoral communities include: environmental factors; availability of women for interviews; difficulties in defining “own” children; the need for information-education-communication campaigns; and informed consent of husbands in typically patriarchal societies. Relevant changes Due to their high mobility, only 5% (56/1081) of registered women were encountered twice. Therefore, it was not possible to establish a demographic and health cohort. Lessons learnt Prospective demographic and health cohorts are the most accurate method to assess child mortality and other demographic indices. However, their feasibility in a highly mobile pastoral setting remains to be shown. Future interdisciplinary scientific efforts need to target innovative methods, tools and approaches to include marginalized communities in operational health and demographic surveillance systems. PMID:21556307

  15. Knowledge and perceptions of brucellosis in the pastoral communities adjacent to Lake Mburo National Park, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic infections globally. Lack of knowledge about brucellosis may affect the health-seeking behavior of patients, thus leading to sustained transmission in these communities. Our study assessed knowledge and perceptions of brucellosis among pastoral communities adjacent to Lake Mburo National Park (LMNP), Kiruhura District, Uganda. Methods A community cross-sectional questionnaire survey involving 371 randomly selected household heads from three sub-counties neighboring LMNP were interviewed between June and August 2012. Data collected included communities’ knowledge on causes, symptoms, transmission, treatment, prevention and risk factors of brucellosis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to explore strength of association between overall knowledge of brucellosis and various individual factors using odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results Only 70 (19%) knew the symptoms of brucellosis in animals, and three quarters (279, 75.5%) mentioned joint and muscle pain as a common symptom in humans. Almost all participants (370, 99.3%) had ever heard about brucellosis, majority (311, 84.7%) believed it affects all sexes and two thirds (67.7%) of the respondents believed close proximity to wildlife contributes to the presence of the disease. Almost all (352, 95.4%) knew that brucellosis in humans could be treatable using modern drugs. The main routes of infection in humans such as consumption of unpasteurized dairy products were known by 97% (360/371); eating of half-cooked meat by 91.4% and eating contaminated pasture in animals by 97.4%. There was moderate overall knowledge of brucellosis 197 (53.1%). Factors associated with higher overall knowledge were being agro-pastoralists (aOR: 2.08, CI: 1.17-3.71) compared to pure pastoralists while those who reported that the disease was a health problem (aOR: 0.18, CI: 0.06-0.56) compared to those who said it was not were less likely to be

  16. Maternidade, cuidados do corpo e "civilização" na Pastoral da Criança Motherhood, body care and "civilization" in the Pastoral da Criança

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele dos Anjos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este texto é uma análise de como a Pastoral da Criança, organismo da Igreja Católica, procura definir identidades femininas pela difusão de práticas relativas ao uso e cuidado do corpo. As técnicas de exame e cuidado do corpo presentes nos manuais da Pastoral da Criança são usadas para desenvolver uma auto-identificação como mãe entre as atendidas e uma identificação das 'líderes' com o papel de educadoras. Este trabalho possibilita à Pastoral da Criança apresentar uma ideologia contraposta aos feminismos e concorrer com estes em fóruns governamentais em que são definidas políticas relativas ao uso do corpo.This paper is an analysis of how the Pastoral da Criança (Children's Pastoral, organization of the Catholic Church, seeks to define women's identities by disseminating practices related to the use and care of the body. The techniques utilized to examine and care for the body found in the handbooks of the Pastoral da Criança are used to develop women's self-identification as mothers among the women seen by the service and the "líderes" (leaders as educators. This work enables the Pastoral da Criança to present an ideology opposed to feminist activities and compete with the later in government spheres in which policies related to the use of the body are defined.

  17. 1946: The Transition of the Kuomintang Government’s Policies towards Korean Immigrants in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muyun Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Northeast China, which witnessed many controversial incidents, was the arena of Korea, China and Japan in the modern history. Meanwhile, Korean immigrants in Northeast China were the target to be won over by various political powers during the twentieth century. When the World War Ⅱended, nearly five-sixths of Korean immigrants lived in the liberated areas (the Communist Party of China- controlled areas. Some young Korean immigrants were mobilized by the CPC to join the Chinese civil war. To strengthen its reign and gain support, KMT government changed the policies of settling Korean on June 10th of 1946 and established the Northeast Korean Immigrants Department to address the problems in the fields of education, welfare and repatriation in 1947.This paper, with careful analysis of the historical documents, aims to build the ground for future research on the Korean immigrants in Northeast China.

  18. Conserving biodiversity on Mongolian Rangelands: Implications for protected area development and pastoral uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard P. Reading; Donald J. Bedunah; Sukhiin Amgalanbaatar

    2006-01-01

    Mongolia is a sparsely populated country with over 80 percent of its land used by pastoralists for extensive livestock grazing. Mongolia’s wildlife and pastoralists have faced dramatic challenges with the recent rapid socioeconomic changes. Livestock numbers increased dramatically in the 1990s following the transition from communism to democracy and capitalism. Yet,...

  19. Seamount physiography and biology in the north-east Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Morato, T.; Kvile, K. Ø.; Taranto, G. H.; Tempera, F.; Narayanaswamy, B. E.; Hebbeln, D.; Menezes, G. M.; Wienberg, C.; Santos, R. S.; Pitcher, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    This work aims at characterising the seamount physiography and biology in the OSPAR Convention limits (north-east Atlantic Ocean) and Mediterranean Sea. We first inferred potential abundance, location and morphological characteristics of seamounts, and secondly, summarized the existing biological, geological and oceanographic in situ research, identifying examples of well-studied seamounts. Our study showed that the seamount population in the OSPAR area (north-east Atlantic) and in the Medite...

  20. Seamount physiography and biology in North-East Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    T. Morato; K. Ø. Kvile; G. H. Taranto; F. Tempera; B. E. Narayanaswamy; D. Hebbeln; G. Menezes; C. Wienberg; R. S. Santos; T. J. Pitcher

    2012-01-01

    This work aims at characterising the seamount physiography and biology in the OSPAR Convention limits (North-East Atlantic Ocean) and Mediterranean Sea. We first inferred potential abundance, location and morphological characteristics of seamounts, and secondly, summarized the existing biological, geological and oceanographic in-situ research, identifying examples of well-studied seamounts. Our study showed that the seamount population in the OSPAR area (North-East Atlantic) and in Mediterran...

  1. Market integration of pastoral systems in the south of Chad : case of the milk trade in Moundu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Duteurtre

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 1980, livestock husbandry has steadily increased in the south of Chad, particularly because of transhumant herd moves from the center to the south of the country. Supplying cities and villages with dairy products is an important trade for the breeders. This trade was the foundation for pastoral breeders to settle down around the city of Moundu. Can such a livestock system respond in a sustainable way to the quickly growing demand of the population? Does it change as a result of integrating the market? Suburban dairy producers, dairy processors, salespersons and consumers were surveyed to better understand the organization of this subsector. Results show that the traditional dairy product trade is dynamic. More than 5000 liters originating from suburban Fulani settlements reach city markets every day. The livestock system is also adapting itself well to the new trade environment, while keeping its intrinsic mobility, even on short distances. In addition, urban dairy processors (cheesemakers and dairy bars boost this subsector. Finally, there is not much competition with imports due to the area being enclosed and consumers’ preference for traditional products. However, Fulani pastoralist settlements generate some conflicts on land use. This study shows the need to initiate more talks between livestock breeders and cotton producers, to reorganize the cotton oilseed cake market, and to develop small dairy-processing units.

  2. Study on Enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jounghoon; Heo, Chul

    2015-01-01

    Regional and global cooperation in nuclear security was urged. Nevertheless, it is hard to seek a successful example of regional cooperation in nuclear security, with the exception of EURATOM. Northeast Asia which includes China, Russia, Japan, ROK and, DPRK has many nuclear issues. For example, the concerns of the international community were raised when the DPRK has conducted three nuclear tests. Countries in this region also possess many nuclear power plants and materials. However, there has been no attempt at creating a community or organization for multinational security in this region. In this paper, we discuss various ways of enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia. We begin with an examination of current global, regional and national nuclear security cooperation efforts. We then discuss directions and strategies for nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia, and offer some detailed cooperation agendas to be considers. Northeast Asia countries have tried to cooperate in many areas such as energy, environment, economy, and policy. However, nuclear security issues have not been discussed seriously. We need to start cooperating on nuclear security issues, because a nuclear security event may affect several countries. One country may not be able to respond to such an event independently. In order to gain cooperate in nuclear security, we have to be able to suggest pertinent agendas to Northeast Asia countries. R and D, education and training of nuclear security may be a good suggestion for starting cooperation. And more practical and detailed agendas such as joint response and information sharing may be suggested for cooperation strengthening

  3. Study on Enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jounghoon; Heo, Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Regional and global cooperation in nuclear security was urged. Nevertheless, it is hard to seek a successful example of regional cooperation in nuclear security, with the exception of EURATOM. Northeast Asia which includes China, Russia, Japan, ROK and, DPRK has many nuclear issues. For example, the concerns of the international community were raised when the DPRK has conducted three nuclear tests. Countries in this region also possess many nuclear power plants and materials. However, there has been no attempt at creating a community or organization for multinational security in this region. In this paper, we discuss various ways of enhancing nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia. We begin with an examination of current global, regional and national nuclear security cooperation efforts. We then discuss directions and strategies for nuclear security cooperation in Northeast Asia, and offer some detailed cooperation agendas to be considers. Northeast Asia countries have tried to cooperate in many areas such as energy, environment, economy, and policy. However, nuclear security issues have not been discussed seriously. We need to start cooperating on nuclear security issues, because a nuclear security event may affect several countries. One country may not be able to respond to such an event independently. In order to gain cooperate in nuclear security, we have to be able to suggest pertinent agendas to Northeast Asia countries. R and D, education and training of nuclear security may be a good suggestion for starting cooperation. And more practical and detailed agendas such as joint response and information sharing may be suggested for cooperation strengthening.

  4. Maritimes and northeast pipeline update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langan, P.

    1998-01-01

    Efforts made by Maritimes and Northeast Pipelines to bring the benefits of natural gas to the Maritime's economy was discussed. Some background on the developments that have brought the company to where they are today and an update on all their activities were presented. These activities and operations are expected to impact and affect the region's economy in a positive way. Particular attention was paid to the company's policy on laterals and the positive effects of that policy on the development of natural gas service and future natural gas distribution business in the Maritimes

  5. 76 FR 34139 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Meeting Postponement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    .... 2] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Meeting Postponement AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration... announced the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a Federal Advisory Committee... future date. DATES: The meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee scheduled to commence on...

  6. 77 FR 3326 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    .... 3] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of Northeast Corridor Safety Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FRA announced the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a Federal...

  7. 76 FR 32391 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    .... 1] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: FRA announces the first meeting of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee, a...

  8. Pastoral power in HIV prevention: Converging rationalities of care in Christian and medical practices in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, P; Worth, H; Travaglia, J; Kelly-Hanku, A

    2017-11-01

    In his conceptualisation of pastoral power, Michel Foucault argues that modern healthcare practices derive a specific power technique from pastors of the early Christian church. As experts in a position of authority, pastors practise the care of others through implicitly guiding them towards thoughts and actions that effect self-care, and towards a predefined realm of acceptable conduct, thus having a regulatory effect. This qualitative study of healthcare workers from two Christian faith-based organisations in Papua New Guinea examines the pastoral rationalities of HIV prevention practices which draw together globally circulated modern medical knowledge and Christian teachings in sexual morality for implicit social regulation. Community-based HIV awareness education, voluntary counselling and testing services, mobile outreach, and economic empowerment programs are standardised by promoting behavioural choice and individual responsibility for health. Through pastoral rationalities of care, healthcare practices become part of the social production of negative differences, and condemn those who become ill due to perceived immorality. This emphasis assumes that all individuals are equal in their ability to make behavioural choices, and downplays social inequality and structural drivers of HIV risk that are outside individual control. Given healthcare workers' recognition of the structural drivers of HIV, yet the lack of language and practical strategies to address these issues, political commitment is needed to enhance structural competency among HIV prevention programs and healthcare workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The perfect drought? Constraints limiting Kalahari agro-pastoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFUOMA

    1Department of Agricultural Research, Animal Production and Range Research Division, P. O. Box 10275, Francistown, .... The long-term annual rainfall data for the study areas were sourced ... characteristics, socioeconomic status (e.g. income sources), land .... and allowances from the Old Age Pension Scheme were.

  10. Northeast Waste Management Alliance (NEWMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goland, A.N.; Kaplan, E.

    1993-11-01

    Funding was provided to Brookhaven National Laboratory in the fourth quarter of FY93 to establish a regional alliance as defined by Dr. Clyde Frank during his visit to BNL on March 7, 1993. In collaboration with the Long Island Research Institute (LIRI), BNL developed a business plan for the Northeast Waste Management Alliance (NEWMA). Concurrently, informal discussions were initiated with representatives of the waste management industry, and meetings were held with local and state regulatory and governmental personnel to obtain their enthusiasm and involvement. A subcontract to LIRI was written to enable it to formalize interactions with companies offering new waste management technologies selected for their dual value to the DOE and local governments in the Northeast. LIRI was founded to develop and coordinate economic growth via introduction of new technologies. As a not-for-profit institution it is in an ideal position to manage the development of NEWMA through ready access to venture capital and strong interactions with the business community, universities, and BNL. Another subcontract was written with a professor at SUNY/Stony Brook to perform an evaluation of new pyrolitic processes, some of which may be appropriate for development by NEWMA. Independent endorsement of the business plan recently by another organization, GETF, with broad knowledge of DOE/EM-50 objectives, provides a further incentive for moving rapidly to implement the NEWMA strategy. This report describes progress made during the last quarter of FY93

  11. Pastoral Perceptions of the Learning and Developing Individual Exercise Skills (L.A.D.I.E.S.) Intervention: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Chandra R.; Gross, Tyra T.; Harvey, Idethia S.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.

    2017-01-01

    African-American women experience higher rates of obesity compared to other racial/ethnic groups. High levels of reported church attendance among African-Americans have led to the proliferation of faith-based health programs. Pastors can influence success for faith-based programs. The purpose of this study was to assess pastors' perceptions of the…

  12. Cognitive Development and Home Environment of Rural Paraguayan Infants and Toddlers Participating in Pastoral del Nino, an Early Child Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peairson, Shannon; Austin, Ann M. Berghout; de Aquino, Cyle Nielsen; de Burro, Elizabeth Urbieta

    2008-01-01

    Participants included 106 infants and toddlers living in rural Paraguay and their primary caregiver. Children ranged in age from birth to 24 months and belonged to two distinct groups, including 46 children who had never participated in Pastoral del Nino, an early child development program, and 60 children who had participated in Pastoral for at…

  13. Resiliencia, inculturación y sincretismo religioso. Notas etnográficas acerca de la pastoral afrocolombiana - Resilience, Inculturation and Religious Syncretism. Ethnographic Notes about the Afro-colombian Pastoral Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Alì

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to describe some aspects of the Afro-American culture in Colombia starting from the observation of its religious manifestations. The ethnographic analysis of the activities carried out within the framework of the Afro-Colombian Catholic pastoral care allows us to reflect on the importance of the notions of identity, corporeality and spirituality for the descendants of former African slaves in Colombia. From an anthropological point of view, the Afro-Colombian pastoral can be analyzed as a peculiar form of religious syncretism which demonstrates the resilience of African descendants faced with the pressure of the enculturation process led by the Catholic Church.

  14. A re-reading of John 8:1–11 from a pastoral liberative perspective on South African women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah M. Baloyi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The inception of democracy in South Africa faced the oppression of women as one of the challenges. The duty to improve women’s position in society is not the responsibility of a few people alone, but of everyone. According to the researcher, the church has not done enough pastorally in this regard. In denouncing the oppression of women, the Christian community should also support the victims of abuse. This article intends to unmask collusion with patriarchal societies including the Jewish society in Jesus’ time by mapping out the forms of harassment and embarrassment inflicted upon women. The study shows how pastoral care can help victims of oppression. A re-reading of John 8:1–11 will inform the, how can the verses above be used in counselling the victims of gender oppression. This study will formulate pastoral guidelines from Jesus’ response to the Pharisees, the Scribes and the woman.

  15. A systematic review of zoonotic enteric parasitic diseases among nomadic and pastoral people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber N Barnes

    Full Text Available Zoonotic enteric parasites are ubiquitous and remain a public health threat to humans due to our close relationship with domestic animals and wildlife, inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene practices and diet. While most communities are now sedentary, nomadic and pastoral populations still exist and experience unique exposure risks for acquiring zoonotic enteric parasites. Through this systematic review we sought to summarize published research regarding pathogens present in nomadic populations and to identify the risk factors for their infection.Using systematic review guidelines set forth by PRISMA, research articles were identified, screened and summarized based on exclusion criteria for the documented presence of zoonotic enteric parasites within nomadic or pastoral human populations. A total of 54 articles published between 1956 and 2016 were reviewed to determine the pathogens and exposure risks associated with the global transhumance lifestyle.The included articles reported more than twenty different zoonotic enteric parasite species and illustrated several risk factors for nomadic and pastoralist populations to acquire infection including; a animal contact, b food preparation and diet, and c household characteristics. The most common parasite studied was Echinococcosis spp. and contact with dogs was recognized as a leading risk factor for zoonotic enteric parasites followed by contact with livestock and/or wildlife, water, sanitation, and hygiene barriers, home slaughter of animals, environmental water exposures, household member age and sex, and consumption of unwashed produce or raw, unprocessed, or undercooked milk or meat.Nomadic and pastoral communities are at risk of infection with a variety of zoonotic enteric parasites due to their living environment, cultural and dietary traditions, and close relationship to animals. Global health efforts aimed at reducing the transmission of these animal-to-human pathogens must incorporate

  16. Managing Stress and Burnout among Helpers in Rural Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, John C.

    Individuals who work in the helping professions (physicians, counselors, nurses, pastors, and social workers) often work with individuals in stressful crisis situations. In addition to working in high stress situations, helpers in rural areas also suffer from isolation from support networks and peers that are available to urban helpers. This…

  17. From nature tourism to ecotourism? The case of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan. Charnley

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines what is needed to transform nature tourism to protected areas into ecotourism, having genuine social benefits and serving as a tool for sustainable community development. It draws on the case of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania's most visited protected area, and a multiple land use zone inhabited by the pastoral Maasai peoples. I...

  18. The impact of spousal violence on the children: A pastoral care approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luvuyo G. Sifo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the impact of spousal violence on children. Spousal violence in the home affects children negatively and its impact goes beyond their childhood years into adulthood. Some children become dysfunctional in life as a result of their exposure to violence between their parents. These children may exhibit symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD later on in life. A case study of a family exposed to violence was undertaken. Findings from this case scenario were measured against existing literature. A pastoral care method of responding to the victims is proposed in order for them to be healed.

  19. Pastoral counselling of persons with homosexual tendencies in a heterosexual marriage / by Louis Antonie Gerber

    OpenAIRE

    Gerber, Louis Antonie

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of marriages failing as a result of one member of the couple having a homosexual relationship has increased since the rewriting of the law on human rights. This resulted in a heightened need for pastoral care of members of the family that were affected by this tendency. Of cardinal importance to this study and in light of the constant debate about homosexuality in the church, a Scriptural foundation is found in the handling in cases of marriage breaking up as a resu...

  20. Universities' expectations of pastoral care: trends, stressors, resource gaps and support needs for teaching staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Thomas A; Fiedler, Brenton A

    2012-10-01

    Since the mid-90s, the university environment has challenged the motivation of academic staff to engage in pastoral care. A literature review revealed five themes that aligned with analysis of interview data from a previous study (Laws and Fiedler, 2010). The key themes were i) staff were often disturbed by unplanned intrusions of students who exhibited behavioural problems or sought emotional support, ii) the management of emotions in face-to-face encounters was stressful, iii) staff felt under-equipped for dealing with Mental Health (MH) issues, iv) standards and control needed updating and v) counselling and disability services did not meet academics' need to know about 'at risk' students. Having identified the incidence of mental health issues among Australian University students, this study aims to locate literature that describes how well current university policies/protocols are supported by Evidence Based Practice in the management of MH problems in the student population. Findings from a content analysis of the literature were triangulated with verbatim comments recorded during a previous study that utilised semi structured interviews with 34 academics at the School of Nursing and Midwifery and the School of Commerce at the University of South Australia (Laws and Fiedler, 2010). Lack of clarity on role boundaries around promotion of students' well-being was not clearly defined. The Higher Education (HE) institutions' slowness in responding to mental health needs of students combined with the increasing expectations of academics' performance monitoring has lead staff to avoid deep investment in their students' well-being. The literature indicates that students are in need of psychological support, but pastoral care remains ill-defined despite enduring expectations held by university administrators. Teacher motivation is diminished by time spent with students in need of emotional support which is not acknowledged in workloads. Staff stress is increased by

  1. The early Browning: Pastoral care in a pluralistic age and the method of practical moral inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hestenes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The past president of the International Academy of Practical Theology, Prof. Donald Browning, has written books and articles across a wide variety of topics concerning the correlation of many great fields of knowledge, including theology, psychology, philosophy, sociology, practical theology, ethics, family therapy and ecology over the past 40 years. Prof. Browning passed away on 03 June 2010. This left the author of this article with a desire to begin to reassess some of Browning’s earlier reflections regarding his vision of pastoral care in a pluralistic age and the importance of his method of practical moral inquiry.

  2. Assesment of wild boar rooting on ecological and pastoral values of alpine pyrenean grasslands

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, C. Guillermo; Barrio, Isabel C.; García-González, Ricardo; Alados, Concepción L.; Gómez García, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    [ES] Las hozaduras de jabalí son una de las mayores perturbaciones actuales de los pastos supraforestales pirenaicos. Sus consecuencias para el ecosistema no están todavía perfectamente descritas, a pesar de ser uno de los hábitats de mayor interés de conservación y que juegan un importante papel en las economías locales. Los bienes y servicios que provee dicho hábitat están claramente relacionados tanto con su valor ecológico como pastoral, los cuales parecen estar afectados p...

  3. An investigation into the use of music as a part of pastoral counselling of the adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    du Plessis, Amanda L; de Beer, Janene

    2014-01-01

    Pastoral counselling of the adolescent could be a challenge, because adolescence is a period characterised by emotional fluctuation. During this period of the individual's life, he or she begins to form his or her own identity and searches for a place in society, apart from the protection of their parents. Adolescents often do not have the necessary skills to deal with repressed emotions. Research shows that music has been used for many centuries in the healing process and that it has had a g...

  4. Radiometric Characterization of Sand in Northeast Sinai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, Kh.A.; Badran, H.M.; Ramadan, Kh.A.; Seddeek, M.K.; Sharshar, T.

    2009-01-01

    Thirty-eight locations covering an area of 350 km 2 in northeast Sinai were investigated by gamma-ray spectroscopy using a 50% HPGe detector. The limits of area are Al-Arish North, El-Hasana South, El-Oga East, and El- Gifgafa West. The range of activity concentrations of 238 U, 234 Th, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K are 0.6-35.2, 3.9-22.6, 4.7-29.6, 4.7-23.9, and 108-295 Bq/kg for sands, respectively. 137 Cs in the region ranged from 0.1-8.0 Bq/kg. No major difference between the studied area and that previously investigated in the costal area in North Sinai. Reliable correlations (R2 = 0.8-0.9) among 238 U, 234 Th, and 226 Ra isotopes was obtained. On the other hand, low correlation (R 2 = 0.6-0.7) was obtained from the analysis of the isotopes of 238 U-seies and 232 Th. No evidence of correlation between the concentrations of radioisotopes and pH contents, TOM, and grain size were found. The soil-plant transfer factor are 226 Ra and 232 Th, 40 K, and 137 Cs, respectively. The wild vegetations collected from the studied area have average concentrations of 1.9, 1.4, 1.3, 254, and 0.3 for 234 Th, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, and 137 Cs, respectively. The average concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K in water samples collected from five wells are 0.02, 0.02, and 1.1 Bq/l, respectively. The average absorbed dose rate for the sand samples were calculated to be 19.4 n Gy h-1. The Raeq activities of the sands are lower than the recommended maximum value of 370 Bq kg-1 criterion limit of Raeq activity for building materials

  5. Regional Approach for Linking Ecosystem Services and Livelihood Strategies Under Climate Change of Pastoral Communities in the Mongolian Steppe Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, D. S.; Galvin, K.; Togtohyn, C.

    2012-12-01

    Dramatic changes due to climate and land use dynamics in the Mongolian Plateau affecting ecosystem services and agro-pastoral systems in Mongolia. Recently, market forces and development strategies are affecting land and water resources of the pastoral communities which are being further stressed due to climatic changes. Evaluation of pastoral systems, where humans depend on livestock and grassland ecosystem services, have demonstrated the vulnerability of the social-ecological system to climate change. Current social-ecological changes in ecosystem services are affecting land productivity and carrying capacity, land-atmosphere interactions, water resources, and livelihood strategies. The general trend involves greater intensification of resource exploitation at the expense of traditional patterns of extensive range utilization. Thus we expect climate-land use-land cover relationships to be crucially modified by the social-economic forces. The analysis incorporates information about the social-economic transitions taking place in the region which affect land-use, food security, and ecosystem dynamics. The region of study extends from the Mongolian plateau in Mongolia. Our research indicate that sustainability of pastoral systems in the region needs to integrate the impact of climate change on ecosystem services with socio-economic changes shaping the livelihood strategies of pastoral systems in the region. Adaptation strategies which incorporate integrated analysis of landscape management and livelihood strategies provides a framework which links ecosystem services to critical resource assets. Analysis of the available livelihood assets provides insights to the adaptive capacity of various agents in a region or in a community. Sustainable development pathways which enable the development of these adaptive capacity elements will lead to more effective adaptive management strategies for pastoral land use and herder's living standards. Pastoralists will have the

  6. Les séries du carbonifère inférieur de la région d'Adarouch, NE du Maroc central: lithologie et biostratigraphieEarly carboniferous series of the Adarouch area, northeast central Morocco: lithology and biostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhli, M.; Vachard, D.; Paicheler, J.-C.

    2001-05-01

    The early Carboniferous series of the Adarouch area (northeast central Morocco) are subdivided into three sedimentological and biostratigraphical units. The first unit, which belongs to the Late Visean zones V3bβ and V3bγ, was deposited on shallow carbonate platforms. The second unit belongs to the Late Visean zone, V3c, and incudes terrigenous deposits, such as turbidites, shales and olistostromes. The third unit belongs to the Serpukhovian stage and consists of sandstones and limestones. A new biostratigraphical analysis, which is based on foraminiferal, algae and pseudoalgae, allows an accurate dating of the units. The deposits of the zones V3bβ and V3bγ contain characteristic calcareous microfossils, such as Stacheoides sp., Pseudoendothyra sp. and Ungdarella uralica. The V3c zone (300-400 m) is shown in two oolitic beds of the Mouarhaz and Akerchi Formations, respectively, with Janischewskina sp. and Asteroarchaediscus sp. The Serpukhovian stage is characterised by the disappearance of the algae Koninckopora and the appearance of the brachiopod Titanaria. The new data from the Adarouch area confirm the Moroccan biostratigraphical scale of the Moroccan meseta.

  7. Northeast market view : Millennium Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentzien, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    The potential for growth in the U.S. northeast natural gas markets was discussed. In presenting a forecast for natural gas consumption, the growth in demand was attributed primarily to the planned conversion of coal and oil-fired electric generation plants to gas-fired ones, combined with nuclear plant shutdowns, and more stringent environmental policies. An overview of the development of the Millennium Pipeline bringing natural gas from the Alberta border all the way to New York City was also provided, with an update on the current status of the project. Assuming no unreasonable delays in the present schedule, the line should be in service sometime in the year 2000. figs

  8. Carbonatite magmatism in northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, D.; Mamallan, R.; Dwivedy, K. K.

    The Shillong Plateau of northeast India is identified as an alkaline province in view of the development of several carbonatite complexes e.g. the Sung Valley (Jaintia Hills), Jasra (Karbi-Anglong), Samchampi and Barpung (Mikir Hills) and lamprophyre dyke swarms (Swangkre, Garo-Khasi Hills). On the basis of limited KAr data, magmatic activity appears to have taken place over a protracted period, ranging from the Late Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. The carbonatite complexes of the Shillong Plateau share several common traits: they are emplaced along rift zones, either within Archaean gneisses or Proterozoic metasediments and granites, and exhibit enrichment in the light rare-earth elements, U, Th, Nb, Zr, Ti, K and Na. The enrichment in incompatible trace elements can best be accounted for if the parental magmas were of alkali basaltic type (e.g. mela-nephelinite or carbonate-rich alkali picrite).

  9. Pastoral Group Counselling at a High Security Prison in Israel: Integrating Pierre Janet's Psychological Analysis with Fritz Perls' Gestalt Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Paul; Brown, Marta

    2015-03-01

    This is a report of a short-term, pastoral counselling group conducted with Jewish internees in a high security prison in Israel. It was held as an adjunct to daily secular individual and group counselling and rehabilitation run by the Department of Social Work. Pastoral counselling employed spiritual and psychosocial methodologies to reduce anger, improve prisoner frustration tolerance, and develop a sense of self-efficacy and communal identity. It combined semi-didactic scriptural input with Pierre Janet's personality model, Fritz Perls' gestalt therapy, and analysis of the group process. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Proyecto educativo y pastoral para los niños trabajadores en el mercado mayorista del sur de Quito

    OpenAIRE

    Ibarra Sandoval, Fredy

    2005-01-01

    El presente trabajo investigativo: “Proyecto Educativo y Pastoral para los niños trabajadores en el Mercado Mayorista del sur de Quito”, fue seleccionado con el objetivo de presentar una parte de la realidad actual educativa y pastoral por la que atraviesan los niños que trabajaban en el Mercado Mayorista, ubicado al Sur de Quito. La Educación es un derecho y un deber de todo ciudadano, por tanto creo imprescindible hacer respetar y apoyar para que esta gestión sea diligente...

  11. Spatiotemporal characteristics and water budget of water cycle elements in different seasons in northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周杰; 赵俊虎; 何文平; 龚志强

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the spatiotemporal characteristics of precipitable water, precipitation, evaporation, and water–vapor flux divergence in different seasons over northeast China and the water balance of that area. The data used in this paper is provided by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The results show that the spatial distributions of precipitable water, precipitation, and evaporation feature that the values of elements above in the southeastern area are larger than those in the northwestern area;in summer, much precipitation and evaporation occur in the Changbai Mountain region as a strong moisture convergence region;in spring and autumn, moisture divergence dominates the northeast of China;in winter, the moisture divergence and convergence are weak in this area. From 1979 to 2010, the total precipitation of summer and autumn in northeast China decreased significantly; especially from 1999 to 2010, the summer precipitation always demonstrated negative anomaly. Additionally, other elements in different seasons changed in a truly imperceptible way. In spring, the evaporation exceeded the precipitation in northeast China; in summer, the precipitation was more prominent;in autumn and winter, precipitation played a more dominating role than the evaporation in the northern part of northeast China, while the evaporation exceeded the precipitation in the southern part. The Interim ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) data have properly described the water balance of different seasons in northeast China. Based on ERA-Interim data, the moisture sinks computed through moisture convergence and moisture local variation are quite consistent with those computed through precipitation and evaporation, which proves that ERA-Interim data can be used in the research of water balance in northeast China. On a seasonal scale, the moisture convergence has a greater influence than the local moisture variation on a moisture sink, and the latter is

  12. Spatiotemporal characteristics and water budget of water cycle elements in different seasons in northeast China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jie; Zhao Jun-Hu; He Wen-Ping; Zhi-Qiang Gong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the spatiotemporal characteristics of precipitable water, precipitation, evaporation, and water–vapor flux divergence in different seasons over northeast China and the water balance of that area. The data used in this paper is provided by the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The results show that the spatial distributions of precipitable water, precipitation, and evaporation feature that the values of elements above in the southeastern area are larger than those in the northwestern area; in summer, much precipitation and evaporation occur in the Changbai Mountain region as a strong moisture convergence region; in spring and autumn, moisture divergence dominates the northeast of China; in winter, the moisture divergence and convergence are weak in this area. From 1979 to 2010, the total precipitation of summer and autumn in northeast China decreased significantly; especially from 1999 to 2010, the summer precipitation always demonstrated negative anomaly. Additionally, other elements in different seasons changed in a truly imperceptible way. In spring, the evaporation exceeded the precipitation in northeast China; in summer, the precipitation was more prominent; in autumn and winter, precipitation played a more dominating role than the evaporation in the northern part of northeast China, while the evaporation exceeded the precipitation in the southern part.The Interim ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) data have properly described the water balance of different seasons in northeast China. Based on ERA-Interim data, the moisture sinks computed through moisture convergence and moisture local variation are quite consistent with those computed through precipitation and evaporation, which proves that ERA-Interim data can be used in the research of water balance in northeast China. On a seasonal scale, the moisture convergence has a greater influence than the local moisture variation on a moisture sink, and the latter is

  13. Spatial and temporal variations of wind erosion climatic erosivity in the farming-pastoral zone of Northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Shuping; Yang, Ruixin; Yan, Yechao; Yang, Zhengwei; Wang, Dandan

    2018-03-01

    Wind erosion climatic erosivity is an important parameter to assess the possible effects of climatic conditions on wind erosion. In this paper, the wind erosion climatic factor (C-factor), which was used to quantify the wind erosion climatic erosivity, was calculated for the period 1960-2014 based on monthly meteorological data collected from 101 stations in the farming-pastoral zone of Northern China. The Mann-Kendall (M-K) test, trend analysis, and geostatistical analysis methods were used to explore the spatial and temporal characteristics of the wind erosion climatic erosivity in this region. The result suggests that the annual C-factor, with a maximum of 76.05 in 1969 and a minimum of 26.57 in 2007, has a significant decreasing trend over the past 55 years. Strong seasonality in the C-factor was found, with the highest value in spring, which accounts for a significant proportion of the annual C-factor (41.46%). However, the coefficient of variation of the seasonal C-factor reaches a maximum in winter and a minimum in spring. The mean annual C-factor varies substantially across the region. Areas with high values of the mean annual C-factor (C ≥ 100) are located in Ulanqab and Dingxi, while areas with low values (C ≤ 10) lie in Lanzhou, Linxia, Dingxi, Xining, and Chengde. Spatial analysis on the trend of the C-factor reveals that 81% of the stations show statistically significant decreases at a 90% confidence level. An examination of the concentration ratio of the C-factor shows that the wind erosion climatic erosivity is concentrated in spring, especially in April, which makes this period particularly important for implementing soil conservation measures.

  14. The Teatro Guindalera Project. An Interview with Juan Pastor MilletFernandez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª-Yolanda Fernández-Suárez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Juan Pastor Millet was born in Alicante in 1943. He has a degree in Drama and did his training with William Layton and Arnold Taraborrelli in Laboratorio T.E.I. Till 1980 he worked as a theatre, cinema and TV actor. As an independent director he has produced plays by both Spanish and foreign contemporary authors, and also by classic ones like Calderón de la Barca, Shakespeare, Cervantes, Molière, Ibsen, Strindberg and Brecht. From 1987 till 2006 he combined his job as a director with his job as a Drama teacher at RESAD (Real Escuela Superior de Arte Dramático. In November 2003 he opened his own Studio and Theatre House in Madrid – Guindalera. From then on he devotes all his time to the family project Guindalera Escena Abierta  together with his wife Teresa Valentín-Gamazo and their daughter, the actress María Pastor. In 2009 while they were celebrating Brian Friel’s 80th anniversary staging three of his plays – El Juego de Yalta, Molly Sweeney and Bailando en Lughnasa – they were awarded the prestigious “Premio Ojo Crítico de Teatro” for their commitment to new authors and their pedagogical character.

  15. The paths to last in pastoral sheep farming in the Cevennes in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dedieu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In a context of uncertainty of future conditions, which are the sustainable paths? We described the long-term action logics relied upon by the farmers to develop their farms or adapt them to their environment. These logics are based on choices related to increasing the farm size, specializing, the techniques used, marketing, production project debts, and technology incorporation. The data comes from sheep farms in the Cevennes, a pastoral Mediterranean region of Southern France, based on trajectory surveys of families, farming, and sheep management over 30 years (1982–2012. Although sheep farming hardly changed over this period, three different long-term action logics were identified: a clannish logic that gives the opportunity for the children to settle on the farm or nearby; a logic centered on sheep tradition with a focus on increasing the herd size; a multiphase logic, i.e. two or three successive sheep management types or combined household activities are explored. The identified action logics were similar to those described in other studies, except that they did not include logics based on increasing herd productivity by use of technologies, an option too removed from the kind of pastoralism practiced in the Cevennes.

  16. Pathways towards to improve the feasibility of dairy pastoral system in La Pampa (Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Angón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, pastoral systems have been intensified in response to an increasing demand for meat and milk, by generating environmental and social problems due to its high dependence on external inputs. The objective of this research was to analyze the economic feasibility of dairy pastoral system in La Pampa (Argentina. The main successful factors were identified through technical efficiency analysis, and subsequently improvement actions were suggested. The technique data envelopment analysis creates efficiency indexes by comparing the performance of each farm with the best practice, which defines the production frontier. The farms were classified attending to two criteria: first, the level of efficiency, second, the regular use of supplementation feed. The results showed that about 40% of the farms were efficient and the efficiency rate of the farms without supplementary feed was 80%. A 70% of the farms uses their own grassland resources adjusting milk yield to the capacity of the pasture. The technical efficiency for this group is 14% higher than the rest. Inefficient farms can adopt different strategies to enhance by practicing benchmarking. One of the examples studied shows two ways to do it: on the one hand the extensification by producing at a minimum cost; on the other hand, the technification, linked to the increase of stocking rate and the use of strategic supplementation. Finally, small changes in the management of the farms positively impact on performance, use of resources, and the sustainability of the system.

  17. The pastoral care of preaching and the trauma of HIV and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F J Streets

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available There is within the history of Christian worship practices a long tradition of someone offering a sermon to those gathered for worship. The primary means for many Christians throughout the world of receiving Christian education and guidance is by listening to sermons. There is generally embedded in all Christian preaching some attempt on the part of the preacher to share a worldview based upon the his or her biblical and theological interpretation of the meaning of faith and their application to daily living. This article explores how the sermon can be a source of religious instruction and aspect of pastoral caring for those infected and affected by HIV and AIDS. The article also suggests that such sermons can be a form of advocating social justice for those who are stigmatized because of their HIV status. Note: The people mentioned in this article, are real but, their names, Rob, Inspiration and Pastor Able are fictitious for reasons of confidentiality.�My Africa is fading and no one sees or cares that it is happening.�

  18. Innovations and diverse livelihood pathways: alternative livelihoods, livelihood diversification and societal transformation in pastoral communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler-Rollefson, I

    2016-11-01

    Pastoralists have a rich tradition of 'innovation', as continuous adaptation to new ecological and economic scenarios has been a prerequisite for their survival through the millennia. One of their greatest assets is the large number of locally adapted livestock breeds they have developed, which represent a major resource for climate change adaptation as well as mitigation. Pastoralists are beginning to position themselves as providers of ecological services as well as of livestock products that represent a healthy and eco-friendly alternative to the products from industrial production systems. Nevertheless, many governments continue with antagonistic policies, being unaware of the ecological and economic significance of their pastoral populations. Biocultural Community Protocols, as specified in the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-Sharing to the Convention on Biological Diversity, are emerging as an important tool for setting the record straight about the role of pastoralists in food security and biodiversity conservation. There is a need for increased recognition of the inherent 'modernity' of pastoralism and the role it can play in creating a more green economy. If this recognition is forthcoming and is rewarded appropriately with government support, this may also overcome the current problem of finding enough capable young people interested in pursuing pastoralist careers.

  19. Exodus of clergy: A practical theological grounded theory exploration of Hatfield Training Centre trained pastors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Joynt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a shortage of clergy, at least in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestant churches in general are experiencing more of a distribution or placement challenge than a shortage. The two greatest hindrances to addressing the Protestant clergy distribution challenge are a lack of adequate compensation for clergy and the undesirable geographical location of a number of churches, as perceived by clergy. Influences such as secularisation, duality of vocation, time management, change in type of ministry, family issues, congregational and denominational conflict, burnout, sexual misconduct, divorce or marital problems, and suicide, affect clergy. Studies on the shortage of clergy have been conducted mostly in the USA and Europe and not in South Africa. This article focuses on the research gap by means of a practical theological grounded theory exploration of the exodus of clergy. Grounded theory methodology is used to identify the reasons why clergy trained at a Bible college of a Protestant charismatic mega church leave full-time pastoral ministry. Findings correspond to previous studies with two reasons appearing more frequently than others: responding to a call and leadership related issues. Firstly, respondents differed in their replies with respect to reconciling their exit from full-time pastoral ministry with their call. The replies included not being called, a dual call, or called but left anyway. Secondly, respondents indicated that leadership influence was mostly negative with regard to affirming their call.

  20. Application of geoinformatics for landscape assessment and conserving forest biodiversity in northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish Kumar; Bruce G. Marcot; Gautam Talukdar; P.S. Roy

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we summarize our work, within forest ecosystems of Garo Hills in northeast India, on mapping vegetation and land cover conditions, delineating wildlife habitat corridors among protected areas, evaluating forest conservation values of influence zones bordering protected areas, analyzing dispersion patterns of native forests, and determining potential effects of...

  1. Strategy for reducing ozone levels in the northeast United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the northeast USA, ozone episodes are frequent during the summer; most of these episodes last 3-4 days. The duration and frequency of these episodes is mainly determined by weather conditions. The persistence of ozone episodes in the region is explained by the fact that emissions of ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOC)) are like those of other regions of the USA affected by acute ozone problems. The population density, industry, and use of automobiles are other factors contributing to the difficulty of maintaining acceptable ozone levels. The ozone problem is especially severe in the New York metropolitan area and most of New Jersey. Strategies for combating ozone precursors have relied entirely on reducing emissions of VOCs, while little has been done to reduce NOx, except for automobile emissions. The Clean Air Act of 1990 provides for significant reductions of NOx and VOC from mobile sources and insists on VOC emissions reductions from stationary sources. In California, stricter emission standards for VOC and NOx have been implemented for new vehicles, requiring wider use of low- or zero-emission vehicles. The Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) organization, formed by the state agencies responsible for air quality, is aiding the northeast states to evaluate the advantages of adopting California standards for vehicles. Twelve northeast states propose to adopt the Californian low-emission vehicle program and are examining other options such as reformulated gasolines, improved maintenance and verification programs, and measures to reduce the number of miles travelled. 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Northeast Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A series of expenditure surveys have been done both regionally and nationally. This data pertains to the Northeast U.S. states that was collected in 1998....

  3. Northeast Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0163799)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northeast Pacific (NEP) new regional climatology is derived from the NCEI World Ocean Database archive of temperature and salinity and covers a time period from...

  4. MARS and its applications at Northeast Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Y.F.; Raines, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The MAAP Accident Response System (MARS) for Northeast Utilities Millstone Unit 1 (MP-1) has been jointly developed by Northeast Utilities (NU) and Fauske ampersand Associates, Inc. (FAI). Millstone Unit 1 is a 2011-MW(thermal) boiling water reactor (BWR)/3 with a Mark-I containment. MARS/MP1 is user-friendly computer software that is structured to provide Northeast Utilities management and engineering staff with key insights during actual or simulated accidents. Times to core uncovery, vessel failure, and containment failure are among the figures of merit that can be obtained from this system. MARS/MP1 can predict future conditions of the MP-1 plant based on current plant data and their trends (time-dependent plant data). The objective of this paper is to present the research and development effort of the MARS/MP1 software at Northeast Utilities

  5. Northeast Economic Add-On Data 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. This data is for the Northeast...

  6. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom [Pace Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants; Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business; Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings; Lower regional energy costs; Strengthened energy security; Enhanced consumer choice; Reduced price risks for end-users; and Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops, conferences

  7. Northeast Solar Energy Market Coalition (NESEMC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabago, Karl R. [Pace Energy and Climate Center Pace University School of Law

    2018-03-31

    The Northeast Solar Energy Market Coalition (NESEMC) brought together solar energy business associations and other stakeholders in the Northeast to harmonize regional solar energy policy and advance the solar energy market. The Coalition was managed by the Pace Energy and Climate Center, a project of the Pace University Elisabeth Haub School of Law. The NESEMC was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative as a cooperative agreement through 2017 as part of Solar Market Pathways.

  8. Diverse effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production in the agro-pastoral transitional zone of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jianmin; Yu, Deyong; Wang, Qianfeng; Liu, Yupeng

    2018-06-01

    Both crop distribution and climate change are important drivers for crop production and can affect food security, which is an important requirement for sustainable development. However, their effects on crop production are confounded and warrant detailed investigation. As a key area for food production that is sensitive to climate change, the agro-pastoral transitional zone (APTZ) plays a significant role in regional food security. To investigate the respective effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production, the well-established GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was adopted with different scenario designs in this study. From 1980 to 2010, the crop distribution for wheat, maize, and rice witnessed a dramatic change due to agricultural policy adjustments and ecological engineering-related construction in the APTZ. At the same time, notable climate change was observed. The simulation results indicated that the climate change had a positive impact on the crop production of wheat, maize, and rice, while the crop distribution change led to an increase in the production of maize and rice, but a decrease in the wheat production. Comparatively, crop distribution change had a larger impact on wheat (-1.71 × 106 t) and maize (8.53 × 106 t) production, whereas climate change exerted a greater effect on rice production (0.58 × 106 t), during the period from 1980 to 2010 in the APTZ. This study is helpful to understand the mechanism of the effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production, and aid policy makers in reducing the threat of future food insecurity.

  9. The Climate-Population Nexus in the East African Horn: Emerging Degradation Trends in Rangeland and Pastoral Livelihood Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pricope, N. G.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Lopez-Carr, D.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing climate variability and extreme weather conditions along with declining trends in both rainfall and temperature represent major risk factors affecting agricultural production and food security in many regions of the world. We identify regions where significant rainfall decrease from 1979-2011 over the entire continent of Africa couples with significant human population density increase. The rangelands of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia in the East African Horn remain one of the world's most food insecure regions, yet have significantly increasing human populations predominantly dependent on pastoralist and agro-pastoralist livelihoods. Vegetation in this region is characterized by a variable mosaic of land covers, generally dominated by grasslands necessary for agro-pastoralism, interspersed by woody vegetation. Recent assessments indicate that widespread degradation is occurring, adversely impacting fragile ecosystems and human livelihoods. Using two underutilized MODIS products, we observe significant changes in vegetation patterns and productivity over the last decade all across the East African Horn. We observe significant vegetation browning trends in areas experiencing drying precipitation trends in addition to increasing population pressures. We also found that the drying precipitation trends only partially statistically explain the vegetation browning trends, further indicating that other factors such as population pressures and land use changes are responsible for the observed declining vegetation health. Furthermore, we show that the general vegetation browning trends persist even during years with normal rainfall conditions such as 2012, indicating potential long-term degradation of rangelands on which approximately 10 million people depend. These findings have serious implications for current and future regional food security monitoring and forecasting as well as for mitigation and adaptation strategies in a region where population is expected

  10. Diverse effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production in the agro-pastoral transitional zone of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jianmin; Yu, Deyong; Wang, Qianfeng; Liu, Yupeng

    2017-07-01

    Both crop distribution and climate change are important drivers for crop production and can affect food security, which is an important requirement for sustainable development. However, their effects on crop production are confounded and warrant detailed investigation. As a key area for food production that is sensitive to climate change, the agro-pastoral transitional zone (APTZ) plays a significant role in regional food security. To investigate the respective effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production, the well-established GIS-based Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model was adopted with different scenario designs in this study. From 1980 to 2010, the crop distribution for wheat, maize, and rice witnessed a dramatic change due to agricultural policy adjustments and ecological engineering-related construction in the APTZ. At the same time, notable climate change was observed. The simulation results indicated that the climate change had a positive impact on the crop production of wheat, maize, and rice, while the crop distribution change led to an increase in the production of maize and rice, but a decrease in the wheat production. Comparatively, crop distribution change had a larger impact on wheat (-1.71 × 106 t) and maize (8.53 × 106 t) production, whereas climate change exerted a greater effect on rice production (0.58 × 106 t), during the period from 1980 to 2010 in the APTZ. This study is helpful to understand the mechanism of the effects of crop distribution and climate change on crop production, and aid policy makers in reducing the threat of future food insecurity.

  11. Internal diversification of non-Sub-Saharan haplogroups in Sahelian populations and the spread of pastoralism beyond the Sahara

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kulichová, I.; Fernandes, V.; Deme, A.; Nováčková, Jana; Stenzl, V.; Novelletto, A.; Pereira, L.; Černý, Viktor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 164, č. 2 (2017), s. 424-434 ISSN 0002-9483 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-37998S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Fulani * mtDNA * pastoralism * phylogeography * Y chromosome Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology Impact factor: 2.552, year: 2016

  12. Water quality as an indicator of the health status of agro-pastoral dams' ecosystems in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kpéra, G.N.; Mensah, G.A.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Based on a study in three agro-pastoral dams in Nikki, Sakabansi and Fombawi in northern Benin, this article aims to characterize their physical, chemical and microbiological water quality. The ecosystem services framework underlies this article. Water of the three dams was sampled in the field and

  13. The Pastoral Care of International Students in New Zealand: Is It More Than a Consumer Protection Regime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawir, Erlenawati; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Rawlings-Sanaei, Felicity

    2009-01-01

    Student security is a composite social practice that includes the domains of consumer rights, entitlement to a range of welfare supports and pastoral care, and freedom from exploitation and discrimination. Three traditions shape the systems used for managing and regulating international student security in the nations that export education:…

  14. Agro-pastoral expansion and land use/land cover (LU/LC) change dynamics in Central-western Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga-Ngoie, K.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Brazil, large-scale land cover changes following extensive deforestations are expected to generate big impacts onto the climate and the environment over this area, with eventually many negative feedbacks on the global scale. Mato Grosso State, located in the central western Brazil, is known to be the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate. Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes have been reported to occur over large areas in this state due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and uncontrolled slash-and-burn cultivation since the 1980s. In this study, we specifically aim at doing more detailed analysis for the causes of deforestation and savannization in this area, with special attention to agriculture and cattle ranching industry at the municipal district level in this state. Using GIS techniques and remotely-sensed NOAA/AVHRR data, we created 5-year Digital Vegetation Model Maps characterizing LU/LC features for every five years during the 1981-2001 periods using the PCA first components of the NOAA/AVHRR multi-spectral data. Our results make it clear that: (1) LU/LC changes among the phases are of the following 3 major types: degradation, recovery or transition; (2) The changes in LU/LC features are concomitant with the advance of cattle ranching and corn production activities toward the northern parts of the state, and with the expansion of soybean production in the central and western Mato Grosso; (3) Most of the agro-pastoral business are found in the southern Mato Grosso where about 46% of the state's deforestation during the 1981-2001 period occurred; (4) Rates of vegetation change are larger over non-inhabited areas (56%), especially in the north, than over the populated zones in the south (42%). Moreover, this work sheds some new light on the patterns of the changes in LU/LC features (deforestation and savannization) for each municipal district of Mato Grosso. In general, the following activities

  15. The Northeast Stream Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Coles, James F.

    2016-04-22

    In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) is assessing stream quality in the northeastern United States. The goal of the Northeast Stream Quality Assessment (NESQA) is to assess the quality of streams in the region by characterizing multiple water-quality factors that are stressors to aquatic life and evaluating the relation between these stressors and biological communities. The focus of NESQA in 2016 will be on the effects of urbanization and agriculture on stream quality in all or parts of eight states: Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.Findings will provide the public and policymakers with information about the most critical factors affecting stream quality, thus providing insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region. The NESQA study will be the fourth regional study conducted as part of NAWQA and will be of similar design and scope to the first three, in the Midwest in 2013, the Southeast in 2014, and the Pacific Northwest in 2015 (http://txpub.usgs.gov/RSQA/).

  16. Indoor thoron studies along the northeast coast of Andhra Pradesh, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinay Kumar Reddy, K.; Sudarshan, A.; Gopal Reddy, Ch.; Yadagiri Reddy, P.; Rama Reddy, K.

    2013-01-01

    The beach sands of the northeast coast of Andhra Pradesh are well known for heavy metal mineralization. The process of extraction of the metals can enhance the natural background radiation levels and hence it is essential to establish the radiological base-line data to take necessary remedial action to preserve and protect the coastal environment. The assessment of indoor radioactivity levels has been carried out by choosing 13 villages long the northeast coast of Andhra Pradesh covering around 150 km from Vishakapattanam to Kalingapattanam. The present paper discusses the indoor thoron levels in the areas along the northeast coast of Andhra Pradesh. The SSNTD based twin chamber dosimeters were employed for the assessment of the concentration of thoron and its progeny levels. The average indoor thoron concentrations in this area are found to be 44.1 ± 28.2 Bq.m -3 . The inhalation dose due to thoron has been evaluated using equilibrium factors and discussed in detail. (author)

  17. A Subnational Perspective for Comparative Research: Education and Development in Northeast Brazil and Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Gerald; Kempner, Ken

    1996-01-01

    Case studies of northeast Brazil and northeast Thailand highlight the importance of a subnational approach to comparative research. Compares geographic and economic conditions, regional culture, ethnicity and gender issues, migration patterns, religion, literacy, and educational underdevelopment. Points out that neglect of a region and its people…

  18. Importance of individual analysis of environmental and climatic factors affecting the density of Leishmania vectors living in the same geographical area: the example of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus in northeast Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ballart

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the role of specific environmental and climatic factors affecting the distribution and density of Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus, the proven vectors for Leishmania infantum in Spain. An entomological study was carried out in July 2006 in the province of Lleida with sticky traps set in their diurnal resting places at altitudes ranging from 86 to 1,755 m above the mean sea level (339 sites were sampled. Bivariate analysis revealed that factors such as altitude, bioclimatic zone, temperature, precipitation, sampling site (site relative to settlement, site situation, site category, wall vegetation, particular environment (in this case a natural park, general environment, adjacent natural vegetation and land cover were significantly associated with sand fly densities. The multivariate model for P. perniciosus revealed that its density was affected by site and land cover. Specifically, paved driveways correlated negatively with vector density (Incidence Risk Ratio (IRR: 0.41 and arable land cover correlated positively (IRR: 4.59. In the case of P. ariasi, a significant correlation was observed with the altitude and bioclimatic zone, with density increasing at >800 m above the mean sea level (IRR: 3.40 and decreasing in the meso-Mediterranean bioclimatic zone (IRR: 0.08. Both species were mostly found in agricultural and forest areas far from domestic environments. However, the two species correlated differently with altitude, bio-climate, vegetation, temperature and precipitation, which emphasises the importance of their individual analysis in studies regarding risk of leishmaniasis transmission.

  19. A new order in northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    The fate of northeast Asia is central to the global balance of power. But just as the Cold War took a different course in northeast Asia than it did in its central battleground in Europe, so the post-Cold War world in northeast Asia is taking on a different shape. In Europe, formal arms control was a feature of the political landscape both before and after sweeping changes began altering the face of the continent in 1989. In contrast, northeast Asia saw only informal arms control measures before 1989. But in the post-Cold War world, the opportunity for more formal accords seems to be growing as the changing political environment makes them possible. In the rapidly developing virtuous circle of detente in northeast Asia, the prospects for arms control progress are better than ever, although considerable obstacles remain in the way. One of the unique features of northeast Asia is the convergence of interests of four of the world's most powerful nations - the US, the Soviet Union, Japan, and China. But unlike Europe, where the interests of the Soviet Union and the US have intermingled with those of the diverse members of the European Community (EC) and resulted in far-reaching arms reduction and confidence-building accords, northeast Asia has known only limited regional efforts at reducing tension and enhancing regional security. Nevertheless, unilateral moves and bilateral discussions among the four powers have produced a Sino-Soviet detente, reductions in US and Soviet forces in the Pacific region, the beginning of a Soviet-Japanese dialogue aimed at normalizing relations, and an overall trend toward closer diplomatic and economic relations throughout the region

  20. Hepatic fascioliasis in Mashhad, Northeast Iran: first report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Badirzadeh

    Full Text Available Abstract Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease caused by a leaf-like worm (fluke called Fasciola. Herein, we present a case of human hepatic fascioliasis. A 57-year-old man was referred to the hospital for ambiguous gastrointestinal symptoms with suspected hemangioma. Hepatic fascioliasis was diagnosed using abdominal computed tomography and serology. He tested positive for the IgG antibody against Fasciola hepatica. The patient was treated successfully with triclabendazole. This is the first published report on the occurrence of fascioliasis in Northeast Iran, a non-endemic area for fascioliasis. Our results suggest the emergence of a new focus in the region.

  1. Hepatic fascioliasis in Mashhad, Northeast Iran: first report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badirzadeh, Alireza; Sabzevari, Sadaf

    2017-01-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic disease caused by a leaf-like worm (fluke) called Fasciola. Herein, we present a case of human hepatic fascioliasis. A 57-year-old man was referred to the hospital for ambiguous gastrointestinal symptoms with suspected hemangioma. Hepatic fascioliasis was diagnosed using abdominal computed tomography and serology. He tested positive for the IgG antibody against Fasciola hepatica. The patient was treated successfully with triclabendazole. This is the first published report on the occurrence of fascioliasis in Northeast Iran, a non-endemic area for fascioliasis. Our results suggest the emergence of a new focus in the region.

  2. El reto de reinventar la vida. Acompañamiento pastoral a mujeres en la adversidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Becerra Melo*

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article narrates the testimony of rape and forced displacement of a woman in the context of the Colombian armed conflict. The hermeneutical method and the approach to gender will help clarify the question brought up by the text whether this woman is capable of experiencing God’s salvation after she has suffered this infamy. The answer is evidenced through Mileidys’ testimony and the pragmatic study of the Parable of the Good Samaritan, where a pastoral of compassion is based on the sensitivity faced by human suffering. Mileidys’ experiences salvation when she discovers compassion on the suffering face of another woman who leads her to act in a different manner, giving a new sense to her life which makes her become a compassionate human being who has experienced the salvation of God.

  3. Urinary diseases and ethnobotany among pastoral nomads in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Aref

    2005-08-02

    This article is derived from a broad, twenty-year study of ethnobotany and folk medicine among pastoral nomads in the Middle East which took place from 1984 to 2004. The article presents examples of different treatments of diseases and disorders of the urinary tract carried out by healer herbalists. The preparation of remedies includes boiling infusions, extraction of dry or fresh leaves, flowers, seeds or whole plants. Some of these plants were used both as food and as medicine, by ingesting different parts of the plants, such as leaves, flowers, fruits, and so on, either while soft, cooked or dried. Data were collected by using unstructured interviews and by observation. These plants were identified by healers, patients, and university botanists. This paper identified eighty-five plant species, which belong to thirty-six families. The most representative families are: Asteraceae (8), Brassicaceae (6), Poaceae (6), Umbelliferae (6).

  4. URBAN COHESION. IMPROVING CONECTIVITY BETWEEN BARÓ DE VIVER AND BON PASTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Equipo Docente Taller Gestión de Proyectos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the description of the academic exercise of public space design on the Continuity of Ciutat Rambla de Asuncion in “Gestion de Proyectos” course, which is given to first know the background of the neighborhoods and their current situation, the phases followed in the design process and the end result presented as an annex to plans, sections, diagrams, views, etc. It also describes the aim of achieving unity and continuity together to improve the connectivity being the two neighborhoods through the design of the three major themes of group work are; a Continuity Rambla de la Ciutat de Asunción, b the walk Rivera Besos river, and c the industrial estate between Bon Pastor and Baró de Viver.

  5. Urinary diseases and ethnobotany among pastoral nomads in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Aref

    2005-01-01

    This article is derived from a broad, twenty-year study of ethnobotany and folk medicine among pastoral nomads in the Middle East which took place from 1984 to 2004. The article presents examples of different treatments of diseases and disorders of the urinary tract carried out by healer herbalists. The preparation of remedies includes boiling infusions, extraction of dry or fresh leaves, flowers, seeds or whole plants. Some of these plants were used both as food and as medicine, by ingesting different parts of the plants, such as leaves, flowers, fruits, and so on, either while soft, cooked or dried. Data were collected by using unstructured interviews and by observation. These plants were identified by healers, patients, and university botanists. This paper identified eighty-five plant species, which belong to thirty-six families. The most representative families are: Asteraceae (8), Brassicaceae (6), Poaceae (6), Umbelliferae (6). PMID:16270930

  6. Use of local pastoral species to increase fodder production of the saline rangelands in southern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tlili, Abderrazak; Tarhouni, Mohamed; Cardà, Artemi; Neffati, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    Climate changes associated with multiple destructive human activities accelerate the degradation process of the natural rangelands around the world and especially the vulnerable areas such as the dryland ecosystems (Anaya-Romero et al., 2015; Eskandari et al., 2016; Muños Rojas et al., 2016; Vicente-Serrano et al., 2016). The vegetation cover and the biomass production of these ecosystems are decreasing and this is resulting in land degradation due to the soil erosion and changes in soil quality due to the abuse and misuse of the soil resources (Cerdà et al., 2016; Prosdocimi et al., 2016; Keesstra et al., 2016). To cope with such threats, it is necessary to develop some management techniques (restoration, plantation…) to enhance the biomass production and the carbon sequestration of the degraded rangelands (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2016; Tarhouni et al., 2016). The valorization of saline water by planting pastoral halophyte species in salt-affected soils as well as the marginal areas are considered among the valuable tools to increase the rangeland production in dry areas. In this work, the ability of four plants (Atriplex halimus L. (Amaranthaceae), Atriplex mollis Desf. (Amaranthaceae), Lotus creticus L. (Fabaceae) and Cenchrus ciliaris L. (Poaceae)) to grow and to produce are tested under a field saline conditions (water and soil). Non-destructive method (Vegmeasure) is used to estimate the biomass production of these species. Chemical (crude protein, moisture and ash contents) and biochemical analyses (sugars, tannins and polyphenols contents) are also undertaken. Two years after plantation, the obtained results showed the ability of the four species to survive and to grow under high salinity degree. A strong positive correlation was obtained between the canopy cover and the dry biomass of the four studied species. Hence, the restoration of saline soils can be ensured by planting local halophytes. Acknowledgements. The research leading to these results has

  7. Wild carnivore and wild bird deposits in an agro-pastoral community during the Bronze Age: Can Roqueta II (northeast Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albizuru, S., Maroto, J., Nadal, J., Majó, T., Sánchez Marco, A., Carlús, X., Rodríguez, A., Palomo, A.

    2015-01-01

    En este caso la identificación taxonómica indica la importancia de los animales domésticos seguramente debido a su papel en la economía, así como su uso en ofrendas alimentarias y también en ofrendas simbólicas que manifiestan el estatus de los muertos. Por el contrario, el estudio tafonómico indica la escasez de animales salvajes depositados intencionalmente –seis aves y dos carnívoros– y muestra el uso diferencial de estas especies respecto a las domésticas, ya que mientras los animales importantes en la alimentación humana fueron normalmente dispuestos como ofrendas de comida para los difuntos, los animales salvajes parecen estar más estrechamente relacionados con símbolos de la vida o totémicos.

  8. Impacts of a Changing Climate and Land Use on Reindeer Pastoralism: Indigenous Knowledge and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, N. G.; Oskal, A.; Turi, A.; Mathiesen, J. M.; Eira, S. D.; Yurchak, I. M. G.; Etylin, B.; Gebelein, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic is home to many indigenous peoples, including those who depend on reindeer herding for their livelihood, in one of the harshest environments in the world. For the largely nomadic peoples, reindeer not only form a substantial part of the Arctic food base and economy, but they are also culturally important, shaping their way of life, mythologies, festivals and ceremonies. Reindeer pastoralism or husbandry has been practiced by numerous peoples all across Eurasia for thousands of years and involves moving herds of reindeer, which are very docile animals, from pasture to pasture depending on the season. Thus, herders must adapt on a daily basis to find optimal conditions for their herds according to the constantly changing conditions. Climate change and variability plus rapid development are increasingly creating major changes in the physical environment, ecology, and cultures of these indigenous reindeer herder communities in the North, and climate changes are occurring significantly faster in the Arctic than the rest of the globe, with correspondingly dramatic impacts (Oskal, 2008). In response to these changes, Eurasian reindeer herders have created the EALAT project, a comprehensive new initiative to study these impacts and to develop local adaptation strategies based upon their traditional knowledge of the land and its uses - in targeted partnership with the science and remote sensing community - involving extensive collaborations and coproduction of knowledge to minimize the impacts of the various changes. This chapter provides background on climate and development challenges to reindeer husbandry across the Arctic and an overview of the EALAT initiative, with an emphasis on indigenous knowledge, remote sensing, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and other scientific data to 'co-produce' datasets for use by herders for improved decision-making and herd management. It also provides a description of the EALAT monitoring data integration and sharing

  9. Pythiosis in dogs in the semiarid region of Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T.S. Frade

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: We describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological features of five cases of pythiosis in dogs in northeast semiarid. The disease occurred in dogs with age between one and three years, females and males of different breeds. The dogs were created in urban areas, but were occasionally taken to the countryside and then had contact with wetlands. The main clinical signs were weight loss, vomiting, diarrhea and tenesmus. Macroscopically there were intestinal wall thickening with irregular firm masses with yellowish granular areas interspersed with a whitish tissue, involving the duodenum, colon and rectum, extending to the lymph nodes and pancreas, and the vagina and liver. In the skin there were areas of alopecia and irregular ulcerations, some containing small cavitations with serosanguineous secretion. Microscopically there were pyogranulomatous inflammation and in one case also there were eosinophilic necrosis associated with negative images tubuliformes by hematoxylin and eosin, strongly stained by GMS and weakly by PAS. Hyphae were strongly marked by immunohistochemistry with polyclonal anti-Pythium insidiosum. The disease occurs sporadically in dogs in the semiarid Northeast, however should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic diseases and proliferative aspect of the gastrointestinal system, and front skin lesions of difficult treatment.

  10. Seamount physiography and biology in the north-east Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Morato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at characterising the seamount physiography and biology in the OSPAR Convention limits (north-east Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. We first inferred potential abundance, location and morphological characteristics of seamounts, and secondly, summarized the existing biological, geological and oceanographic in situ research, identifying examples of well-studied seamounts. Our study showed that the seamount population in the OSPAR area (north-east Atlantic and in the Mediterranean Sea is large with around 557 and 101 seamount-like features, respectively. Similarly, seamounts occupy large areas of about 616 000 km2 in the OSPAR region and of about 89 500 km2 in the Mediterranean Sea. The presence of seamounts in the north-east Atlantic has been known since the late 19th century, but overall knowledge regarding seamount ecology and geology is still relatively poor. Only 37 seamounts in the OSPAR area (3.5% of all seamounts in the region, 22 in the Mediterranean Sea (9.2% of all seamounts in the region and 25 in the north-east Atlantic south of the OSPAR area have in situ information. Seamounts mapped in both areas are in general very heterogeneous, showing diverse geophysical characteristics. These differences will likely affect the biological diversity and production of resident and associated organisms.

  11. Mediaciones para un método de teología pastoral, a partir de la teología práctica de Karl Rahner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Vigueras Cherres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una comprensión de la teología práctica de Karl Rahner como una teología pastoral en perspectiva escatológica, y teniendo como plano de fondo el problema del carácter teológico del análisis de la situación presente, presentamos algunas posibles mediaciones para un método de teología pastoral, a saber, mirar el futuro desde la "futuridad del presente", conocer desde los otros, la narratividad, la corporeidad y la "indiferencia".Based on understanding of Karl Rahner's practical theology as a pastoral theology in an eschatological perspective, and having as a background the theological problem of analyzing the present situation, we present some possible mediations for a pastoral theology method, namely, looking at the future from a "futurity of the present," knowing from others, narrative, corporeality and "indifference."

  12. Fire assisted pastoralism vs. sustainable forestry--the implications of missing markets for carbon in determining optimal land use in the wet-dry tropics of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockwell, David; Lovett, Jon C

    2005-04-01

    Using Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia as a case study, this paper combines field sampling of woody vegetation with cost-benefit analysis to compare the social optimality of fire-assisted pastoralism with sustainable forestry. Carbon sequestration is estimated to be significantly higher in the absence of fire. Integration of carbon sequestration benefits for mitigating future costs of climate change into cost-benefit analysis demonstrates that sustainable forestry is a more socially optimal land use than fire-assisted pastoralism. Missing markets for carbon, however, imply that fire-assisted pastoralism will continue to be pursued in the absence of policy intervention. Creation of markets for carbon represents a policy solution that has the potential to drive land use away from fire-assisted pastoralism towards sustainable forestry and environmental conservation.

  13. A sero-survey of rinderpest in nomadic pastoral systems in central and southern Somalia from 2002 to 2003, using a spatially integrated random sampling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempia, S; Salman, M D; Keefe, T; Morley, P; Freier, J E; DeMartini, J C; Wamwayi, H M; Njeumi, F; Soumaré, B; Abdi, A M

    2010-12-01

    A cross-sectional sero-survey, using a two-stage cluster sampling design, was conducted between 2002 and 2003 in ten administrative regions of central and southern Somalia, to estimate the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of rinderpest (RP) in the study area, as well as to identify potential risk factors for the observed seroprevalence distribution. The study was also used to test the feasibility of the spatially integrated investigation technique in nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoral systems. In the absence of a systematic list of livestock holdings, the primary sampling units were selected by generating random map coordinates. A total of 9,216 serum samples were collected from cattle aged 12 to 36 months at 562 sampling sites. Two apparent clusters of RP seroprevalence were detected. Four potential risk factors associated with the observed seroprevalence were identified: the mobility of cattle herds, the cattle population density, the proximity of cattle herds to cattle trade routes and cattle herd size. Risk maps were then generated to assist in designing more targeted surveillance strategies. The observed seroprevalence in these areas declined over time. In subsequent years, similar seroprevalence studies in neighbouring areas of Kenya and Ethiopia also showed a very low seroprevalence of RP or the absence of antibodies against RP. The progressive decline in RP antibody prevalence is consistent with virus extinction. Verification of freedom from RP infection in the Somali ecosystem is currently in progress.

  14. Genetic population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles baimaii in north-east India using mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Devojit K; Prakash, Anil; O'Loughlin, Samantha M; Bhattacharyya, Dibya R; Mohapatra, Pradumnya K; Bhattacharjee, Kanta; Das, Kanika; Singh, Sweta; Sarma, Nilanju P; Ahmed, Gias U; Walton, Catherine; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2012-03-20

    Anopheles baimaii is a primary vector of human malaria in the forest settings of Southeast Asia including the north-eastern region of India. Here, the genetic population structure and the basic population genetic parameters of An. baimaii in north-east India were estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sub unit II (COII) gene. Anopheles baimaii were collected from 26 geo-referenced locations across the seven north-east Indian states and the COII gene was sequenced from 176 individuals across these sites. Fifty-seven COII sequences of An. baimaii from six locations in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand from a previous study were added to this dataset. Altogether, 233 sequences were grouped into eight population groups, to facilitate analyses of genetic diversity, population structure and population history. A star-shaped median joining haplotype network, unimodal mismatch distribution and significantly negative neutrality tests indicated population expansion in An. baimaii with the start of expansion estimated to be ~0.243 million years before present (MYBP) in north-east India. The populations of An. baimaii from north-east India had the highest haplotype and nucleotide diversity with all other populations having a subset of this diversity, likely as the result of range expansion from north-east India. The north-east Indian populations were genetically distinct from those in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand, indicating that mountains, such as the Arakan mountain range between north-east India and Myanmar, are a significant barrier to gene flow. Within north-east India, there was no genetic differentiation among populations with the exception of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area that was significantly differentiated from other populations. The high genetic distinctiveness of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area of the north-east India should be confirmed and its epidemiological significance further

  15. Genetic population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles baimaii in north-east India using mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Devojit K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles baimaii is a primary vector of human malaria in the forest settings of Southeast Asia including the north-eastern region of India. Here, the genetic population structure and the basic population genetic parameters of An. baimaii in north-east India were estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sub unit II (COII gene. Methods Anopheles baimaii were collected from 26 geo-referenced locations across the seven north-east Indian states and the COII gene was sequenced from 176 individuals across these sites. Fifty-seven COII sequences of An. baimaii from six locations in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand from a previous study were added to this dataset. Altogether, 233 sequences were grouped into eight population groups, to facilitate analyses of genetic diversity, population structure and population history. Results A star-shaped median joining haplotype network, unimodal mismatch distribution and significantly negative neutrality tests indicated population expansion in An. baimaii with the start of expansion estimated to be ~0.243 million years before present (MYBP in north-east India. The populations of An. baimaii from north-east India had the highest haplotype and nucleotide diversity with all other populations having a subset of this diversity, likely as the result of range expansion from north-east India. The north-east Indian populations were genetically distinct from those in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand, indicating that mountains, such as the Arakan mountain range between north-east India and Myanmar, are a significant barrier to gene flow. Within north-east India, there was no genetic differentiation among populations with the exception of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area that was significantly differentiated from other populations. Conclusions The high genetic distinctiveness of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area of the north-east India should be

  16. 78 FR 41772 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-11

    ... States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Proposed Rule To Allow Northeast Multispecies Sector Vessels.... ADDRESSES: A copy of the accompanying environmental assessment is available from the NMFS Northeast Regional.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Amendment 16 to the Northeast Multispecies Fisheries Management Plan...

  17. One Year of Monthly N and O Isotope Measurements in Nitrate from 18 Streamwater Monitoring Stations Within the Predominantly Pastoral Upper Manawatu Catchment, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisden, W. T.; Douence, C.

    2010-12-01

    New Zealand's intensive pastoral agricultural systems have a significant impact on water quality due to nitrogen loading in rivers. A research programme has been designed to develop indicators of the sources and denitrification losses of nitrate in streamwater. This work describes the results of one year of monthly measurements at ~18 monitoring locations in the 1260 square km upper Manawatu River catchment. The catchment was chosen for study because it is among the most pastoral catchments in New Zealand, with little non-pastoral agriculture and limited forest area outside of the Tararua mountain range on the west side of the catchment. The use of N and O isotope ratios in nitrate has considerable potential to elucidate the sources and fate of nitrate with greater precision than in most other nations due to the lack of nitrate in atmospheric deposition and the lack of nitrates used as fertilizer. We measured N and O isotope ratios in nitrate plus nitrite using cadmium and azide chemical denitrification method, and refer to the results as nitrate for brevity due to low nitrite concentrations. When examined as annual averages at each monitoring site, we found the lowest N and O isotope ratios in our only site draining native forest. All agricultural monitoring sites sit approximately on a 1:1 line, enriched in N-15 and O-18 by 2-6 per mil relative to the native forest subcatchment. The three main effluent point sources in the catchment demonstrated unexpected variability in isotope ratios. Two modern sewage treatment ponds had N and O isotope ratios close to those found in agricultural catchments, while a closed meat freezing factory effluent pond had isotope ratios strongly enriched in N-15 and O-18. The lack of summer low flows during monitoring period, combined with the variability in isotope ratios from point source, appeared to be responsible for our inability to clearly detect the effect of point sources in the isotope data from stations upstream and

  18. El acompañamiento pastoral para jóvenes desde la comprensión psicológica y pedagógica humanista

    OpenAIRE

    Segarra Sánchez, Edgar Iván

    2014-01-01

    The pastoral care for youth involves treating the theological, educational, psychological dimensions and teaching, the latter presents the associative array as the central experience of evangelizing youth ministry proposal for the integral growth of the young, who are accompanied by pastoralists with a basic profile to make, with vocation and professionalism, this task entrusted by the Church. El acompañamiento pastoral para jóvenes implica tratar las dimensiones teológica, educat...

  19. Adapting maize production to drought in the Northeast Farming Region of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Xiaogang; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the most prominent crop in the Northeast Farming Region of China (NFR), and drought has been the largest limitation for maize production in this area during recent decades. The question of how to adapt maize production to drought has received great attention from policy...

  20. Postglacial recolonization and the biogeography of Palmaria mollis (Rhodophyta) along the Northeast Pacific coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindstrom, S.C; Olsen, J.L.; Stam, W.T.

    1997-01-01

    We used random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers to examine the distribution of genotypes of Palmaria mollis (Setchell et Gardner) van der Meer et Bird, a red alga. We sampled populations along the Northeast Pacific coast from northern Washington to southwestern Alaska, an area extensively

  1. Northeast Utilities' participation in the Kaman/NASA wind power program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotker, M.

    1975-01-01

    The role of Northeast Utilities in the Kaman/NASA large wind generator study is reviewed. The participation falls into four principal areas: (1) technical assistance; (2) economic analysis; (3) applications; and (4) institutional and legal. A model for the economic viability of wind power is presented.

  2. The Year in Forestry State and Private Forestry in the Northeast and Midwest Fiscal Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northeastern Area State and Private Forestry

    2006-01-01

    The geographic region we call the Northeast and Midwest stretches from Maine to Minnesota, south to Missouri, and east to Maryland and the District of Columbia. Nearly half of the Nation's population lives here on slightly less than 20 percent of the Nation's land area. Representing one of the largest concentrations of privately owned forests in the world,...

  3. Distribution, abundance, and habitat use of territorial male Boreal Owls (Aegolius funereus) in northeast Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Lane; David E. Andersen; Thomas H. Nicholls

    1997-01-01

    We conducted nocturnal auditory surveys from 1987-1992 to determine the distribution, abundance, and habitat use of Boreal Owls (Aegolius funereus) in northeast Minnesota. We concentrated our efforts in areas where documented nesting attempts by the owls had occurred, along roadways maintained for winter-time access by motor vehicles, and by...

  4. Sustainable environmental flow management in an agricultural watershed in northeast Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods The Delaware watershed, an area of land in northeast Kansas of over 1110 square miles, has degraded water quality due to intensive cultivation of crops and subsequent nutrient enrichment and erosion. The current conditions may be further aggravated by ...

  5. 14. Meeting of the North and Northeast physicists. Program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    These proceedings contain abstracts of oral and panel presentations carried out during the 14 Meeting of physicists of North and Northeast held in Aracaju, State of Sergipe, Brazil. While covering different areas of physics, they emphasized the condensed matter, statistical physics and nuclear physics in their theoretical and experimental aspects

  6. PIEDRA WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Steven M.; Brown, S. Don

    1984-01-01

    The Pedra Wilderness Study Area, located approximately 30 mi northeast of Durango, Colorado, was evaluated for its mineral-resource potential. Geochemical and geophysical studies indicate little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in this area. This conclusion is supported by the findings of the earlier study and is suggested by the absence of significant mining activity in the area.

  7. Photovoltaic applications for rural areas in North-East Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Faninger-Lund, H. [Solpros Ay, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The photovoltaic (PV) markets have grown in the EU by ca 25 % per year during the past decade. World-wide the production of photovoltaic cells has exceeded the 80 MW{sub e}/a limit. The costs of PV modules have dropped by a factor of 5 during the last ten years and is now at the level of 4-5 USD/W{sub p}. The cost reductions mean on the hand new market segments for PV in the future. The market potential of photovoltaics, the financial issues connected to this, the PV system technology, the basic system design and the examples of typical projects are discussed in the presentation

  8. Photovoltaic applications for rural areas in North-East Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.; Faninger-Lund, H.

    1997-01-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) markets have grown in the EU by ca 25 % per year during the past decade. World-wide the production of photovoltaic cells has exceeded the 80 MW e /a limit. The costs of PV modules have dropped by a factor of 5 during the last ten years and is now at the level of 4-5 USD/W p . The cost reductions mean on the hand new market segments for PV in the future. The market potential of photovoltaics, the financial issues connected to this, the PV system technology, the basic system design and the examples of typical projects are discussed in the presentation

  9. Photovoltaic applications for rural areas in North-East Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Faninger-Lund, H [Solpros Ay, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The photovoltaic (PV) markets have grown in the EU by ca 25 % per year during the past decade. World-wide the production of photovoltaic cells has exceeded the 80 MW{sub e}/a limit. The costs of PV modules have dropped by a factor of 5 during the last ten years and is now at the level of 4-5 USD/W{sub p}. The cost reductions mean on the hand new market segments for PV in the future. The market potential of photovoltaics, the financial issues connected to this, the PV system technology, the basic system design and the examples of typical projects are discussed in the presentation

  10. Destabilization of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, N. J.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjaer, K. H.

    . Here, we reveal that the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS), which extends more than 600 km into the interior of the ice sheet, is now undergoing dynamic thinning after more than a quarter of a century of stability. This sector of the GrIS is of particular interest in sea level projections, because...... the glacier flows into a large submarine basin with a negative bed slope near the grounding line. Our findings unfold the next step in mass loss of the GrIS as we show a heightened risk of rapid sustained loss from Northeast Greenland on top of the thinning in Southeast and Northwestern Greenland....

  11. 77 FR 73734 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    .... 5] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of a Northeast Corridor Safety... Committee is made up of stakeholders operating on the [[Page 73735

  12. 78 FR 23815 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    .... 6] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast Corridor Safety Committee (NECSC) Meeting. [[Page 23816

  13. Perspectives of Sustainable Development of Tourism in the North-East Region of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Liviu Scutariu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose to highlight the tourism evolution and its intensity in the North-East region of Romania, compared to two regions with similar touristic potential from the Eastern European Union: Subcarpathia from Poland and Central Slovakia. We analysed if the EU attachment of Romania, Poland, and Slovakia had some effects on tourism development in the three regions mentioned. Issues arising from the analysis of the current situation of tourism will allow us to draw some sustainable development directions of tourism in the North-East region based on conserving and capitalizing the uniqueness of the area. We will consider the experience of the other two regions, trying to adapt them to the situation of the North-East region. Based on the analysis we have made, we consider that other countries can inspire us by authorities’ initiatives in supporting tourism, good human resources training, entrepreneurship stimulation, and assistance in accessing financial resources, including EU ones.

  14. Diversity and phylogeography of Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (Anura, Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bao-Tian; Zhou, Yu; Min, Mi-Sook; Matsui, Masafumi; Dong, Bing-Jun; Li, Pi-Peng; Fong, Jonathan J

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the species diversity and phylogeography of the Northeast Asian brown frogs allied to Rana dybowskii (the R. dybowskii species complex: R. dybowskii, R. pirica, and R. uenoi) using four mitochondrial and three nuclear loci. Phylogenetic analyses confirmed the existence of three distinct species in this complex; using extensive molecular data, we confirm the validity of Rana uenoi recognized as a distinct species, and infer R. dybowskii and R. pirica to be sister species. Also, we included populations from previously unsampled regions in Northeast China, and identified them to be R. dybowskii. While many species in Northeast Asia diverged due to Pleistocene glaciation, divergence-dating analyses inferred older, Miocene speciation in the R. dybowskii species complex. Ancestral area reconstruction identified the orogenic movement of the Changbai Mountain Range and the opening of the Sea of Japan/East Sea being major events influencing allopatric speciation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The paradoxical evolution of runoff in the pastoral Sahel: analysis of the hydrological changes over the Agoufou watershed (Mali) using the KINEROS-2 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Laetitia; Grippa, Manuela; Hiernaux, Pierre; Pons, Léa; Kergoat, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    In recent decades, the Sahel has witnessed a paradoxical increase in surface water despite a general precipitation decline. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as the Sahelian paradox, is not completely understood yet. The role of cropland expansion due to the increasing food demand by a growing population has been often put forward to explain this situation for the cultivated Sahel. However, this hypothesis does not hold in pastoral areas where the same phenomenon is observed. Several other processes, such as the degradation of natural vegetation following the major droughts of the 1970s and the 1980s, the development of crusted topsoils, the intensification of the rainfall regime and the development of the drainage network, have been suggested to account for this situation. In this paper, a modeling approach is proposed to explore, quantify and rank different processes that could be at play in pastoral Sahel. The kinematic runoff and erosion model (KINEROS-2) is applied to the Agoufou watershed (245 km2), in the Gourma region in Mali, which underwent a significant increase of surface runoff during the last 60 years. Two periods are simulated, the past case (1960-1975) preceding the Sahelian drought and the present case (2000-2015). Surface hydrology and land cover characteristics for these two periods are derived by the analysis of aerial photographs, available in 1956, and high-resolution remote sensing images in 2011. The major changes identified are (1) a partial crusting of isolated dunes, (2) an increase of drainage network density, (3) a marked decrease in vegetation with the nonrecovery of tiger bush and vegetation growing on shallow sandy soils, and (4) important changes in soil properties with the apparition of impervious soils instead of shallow sandy soil. The KINEROS-2 model was parameterized to simulate these changes in combination or independently. The results obtained by this model display a significant increase in annual discharge between the

  16. A note on the distribution and abundance of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus in the Central and Northeast North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Pike

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus was assessed from ship surveys conducted in the Central and Northeast Atlantic in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001. Blue whales were most commonly sighted off western Iceland, and to a lesser extent northeast of Iceland. They were very rare or absent in the Northeast Atlantic. Sightings were combined over all surveys to estimate the detection function using standard line transect methodology, with the addition of a covariate to account for differences between surveys. Total abundance was highest in 1995 (979, 95% CI 137-2,542 and lowest in 1987 (222, 95% CI 115-440. Uncertainty in species identity had little effect on estimates of abundance. There was a significant positive trend in abundance northeast of Iceland and in the total survey area.

  17. Um personagem da memória campo-bonense?: o emblemático pastor Klingelhoeffer, soldado Farroupilha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza, José Edimar de

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa analisa os motivos que teriam levado um “cura de almas” a empunhar armas contra o Império. Friedrich Christian Klinglhoeffer, popularmente conhecido como Pastor Farrapo, com seu envolvimento na Revolução Farroupilha transforma-se em pastor mártir da causa republicana no Rio Grande do Sul. Na busca das justificativas deste fato avalia-se a situação política da Europa (Alemanha no século XIX, bem como o Brasil e o Rio Grande do Sul à época da imigração de Klingelhoeffer. Neste contexto, se desenvolve a trajetória e importante participação de Klingellhoeffer na Revolução Farroupilha e, principalmente, no desenvolvimento de Campo Bom e para o progresso do Vale dos Sinos

  18. O ideário taylorista, a gestão da subjetividade e o poder pastoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Eduardo Procopiuk Walter

    Full Text Available Este ensaio tem por objetivo analisar o ideário taylorista concernente à relação entre operários e gestores a partir da categoria do poder pastoral, proposta por Michel Foucault. Se o poder disciplinar incide sobre o corpo, o poder pastoral incide sobre a alma do indivíduo, implicando - por meio de técnicas confessionais - a direção de consciência. No âmbito do taylorismo, pode-se concluir, tal poder se manifesta, mas não com um sentido parhesiastico, revelando no taylorismo um processo de configuração de verdades a respeito do sujeito operário, ou trabalhador, que o coloca em condição de objeto da gestão nas relações estabelecidas entre a gestão e o operário.

  19. Pastoral theory and practice in the team approach to treatment of scrupulosity as a component of obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennemer, Darren L

    2007-01-01

    The statistical estimates of the prevalence of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in the general population have increased dramatically in recent years. "Blasphemous" obsessions and religious compulsions dominate the clinical picture of many sufferers of OCD. Freud proposed that religion might be a contributing factor for many patients with mental illness. He hedged, however, that observation--something that many of his followers have not done. Others have noted the pathoplasticity of strict religious upbringing and images of God as vindictive or otherwise harsh. Only recently--since the 1970s--has much clinical attention been focused on this disorder by the other disciplines within the mental health community. The church, however, is ahead of the curve in diagnosis and treatment of scrupulosity. It has long been a concern for pastoral counselors--particularly pre-Vatican II Roman Catholic priests. Pathological religion influences OCD and pastoral counseling, the author proposes, can contributes to recovery.

  20. ‘We Don’t Need No Education’. A Case Study About Pastoral Datoga Girls in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bihariová Emília

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper reflects the reasons why formal education is not in accord with Datoga pastoral life in Tanzania and why this marginalized Nilotic tribe hesitates to send children to schools. In an attempt to grasp different reasons of avoiding education, the paper is focused especially on education of girls, which is less preferred than that of boys. The discussion reveals the impact of formal/informal education on traditional life of mobile Datoga and how norms, habits are slowly weakened. The suggestion is offered that unless the communication between pastoral Datoga and the government regarding school attendance and better conditions takes the cultural context, Datoga will remain outside the schooling process and their marginal position in the society will not change and neither their image of savage people.

  1. 77 FR 20690 - Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    .... 4] Northeast Corridor Safety Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Announcement of the Northeast Corridor Safety... NECSC is made up of stakeholders operating on the Northeast Corridor (NEC), and the purpose of the...

  2. 33 CFR 117.829 - Northeast Cape Fear River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Cape Fear River. 117... BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.829 Northeast Cape... the Seaboard System Railroad Bridge across the Northeast Cape Fear River, mile 27.0, at Castle Hayne...

  3. How useful are bounded online chat rooms as a source of pastoral support in a sixth-form college?

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Since the introduction of chat technology there has been resistance within education to fully engage with it partly due to policy making that has left teachers disempowered (UCLAN 2002:66). Unlike other innovative technologies, its use has been limited. Pastoral support has developed significantly in education but in some instances, like chat rooms, has been viewed with scepticism. One reason for this scepticism may be that a clear measurable link between support and achievement is not easily...

  4. Vocational Leadership: A Faith Perspective. A Training Program for U.S. Navy Chaplains in Pastoral Care and Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-06

    Collins Publishers, 1981), p. 3. 19 Ibid. p. 4. 32 as the father of the psychosocial school, Erik Erikson . With the inclusion of his understanding of...hift in the study of human development . Dr. Fowler asserts that there exist at least seven stages of faith or ways of knowing the world and...1984. iowler, .ames W, FAITH DEVELOPMENT AND PASTORAL CARE, Philadelphia, PA: Fortress Press, 1975. Fcwler, James W. STAGES OF FAITH: THE PSYCHOLOGY OF

  5. Northeast Electronic Reporting System (NERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/NEFSC Study fleets are a subset of fishing vessels from which high quality, self-reported data on fishing effort, area fished, gear characteristics, catch,...

  6. Subverting the pastoral: the transcendence of space and place in J.M. Coetzee’s Disgrace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Smit-Marais

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates how J.M. Coetzee’s “Disgrace” (1999 – portrayed as a postcolonial and postmodern fictional event – embodies, problematises and subverts the vision of the pastoral farm novel tradition by transcending traditional configurations of space and place. The novel offers a rather bleak apocalyptic vision of gender roles, racial relationships and family relations in post-apartheid South Africa and expresses the socio-political tensions pertaining to the South African landscape in terms of personal relationships. As a fictional reworking of the farm novel, “Disgrace” draws on the tradition’s anxieties about the rights of (white ownership, but within a post-apartheid context. As such, “Disgrace” challenges the pastoral farm novel’s “dream topography” (Coetzee, 1988:6 of the family farm ruled by the patriarch – a topography inscribed – with the help of the invisible labour of black hands – as a legacy of power and ownership to be inherited and cultivated in perpetuity. Accordingly, the concept “farm” is portrayed as a contested and liminal space inscribed with a history of violence and dispossession – a dystopia. This article therefore conceptualises “Disgrace” as an antipastoral farm novel that reconfigures the concept “farm” – within the context of the South African reality – by subverting, inverting and parodying the structures of space and place postulated by the pastoral farm novel.

  7. As I see it: a study of African American pastors' views on health and health education in the black church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Michael L; Isaac-Savage, E Paulette

    2014-08-01

    The Black Church is the only institution that has consistently served the interest of African Americans, and there is no other institution in the African American community that rivals its influence (Camara, 2004). The spiritual well-fare, social support, health, and well-being of its people have been one of its main goals. With health disparities of African Americans still at an alarming rate, the Black Church has used informal education as a means to impart knowledge on health, as well as other non-religious and religious topics. One of the avenues least researched within the Black Church is the pastor's perception of its educational role in health and wellness and its efforts to reduce health discrimination and health disparities between African American and European Americans in the U.S. Since social justice appears as a theme and concern in the traditions of many churches, it is only appropriate that, among other things, the Black Church should address the issue of health education and interventions. The purpose of this study was to explore African American pastors' perceptions of the role of the Black Church in providing health care, health education, and wellness opportunities to African Americans. Many pastors reported their church provided some form of health education and/or health screenings. Their perceptions about the important issues facing their congregants versus African Americans in general were quite similar.

  8. From "Animal Machines" to "Happy Meat"? Foucault's Ideas of Disciplinary and Pastoral Power Applied to 'Animal-Centred' Welfare Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew

    2011-01-11

    Michel Foucault's work traces shifting techniques in the governance of humans, from the production of 'docile bodies' subjected to the knowledge formations of the human sciences (disciplinary power), to the facilitation of self-governing agents directed towards specified forms of self-knowledge by quasi-therapeutic authorities (pastoral power). While mindful of the important differences between the governance of human subjects and the oppression of nonhuman animals, exemplified in nonhuman animals' legal status as property, this paper explores parallel shifts from disciplinary to pastoral regimes of human-'farmed' animal relations. Recent innovations in 'animal-centred' welfare science represent a trend away from the 'disciplinary' techniques of confinement and torture associated with 'factory farms' and towards quasi-therapeutic ways of claiming to know 'farmed' animals, in which the animals themselves are co-opted into the processes by which knowledge about them is generated. The new pastoral turn in 'animal-centred' welfare finds popular expression in 'happy meat' discourses that invite 'consumers' to adopt a position of vicarious carer for the 'farmed' animals who they eat. The paper concludes that while 'animal-centred' welfare reform and 'happy meat' discourses promise a possibility of a somewhat less degraded life for some 'farmed' animals, they do so by perpetuating exploitation and oppression and entrenching speciesist privilege by making it less vulnerable to critical scrutiny.

  9. Contributions of climate change to the boundary shifts in the farming-pastoral ecotone in northern China since 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, W.; Liu, Y.; Shi, X.

    2017-12-01

    Critical transitions of farming-pastoral ecotone (FPE) boundaries can be affected by climate change and human activities, yet current studies have not adequately analyzed the spatially explicit contributions of climate change to FPE boundary shifts, particularly those in different regions and periods. In this study, we present a series of analyses at the point (gravity center analysis), line (boundary shifts detected using two methods) and area (spatial analysis) levels to quantify climate contributions at the 1 km scale in each ecological functional region during three study periods from the 1970s to the 2000s using climate and land use data. Both gravity center analysis and boundary shift detection reveal similar spatial patterns, with more extensive boundary shifts in the northeastern and southeastern parts of the FPE in northern China, especially during the 1970s-1980s and 1990s-2000s. Climate contributions in the X- and Y-coordinate directions and in the directions of transects along boundaries show that significant differences in climate contributions to FPE boundary shifts exist in different ecological regions during the three periods. Additionally, the results in different directions exhibit good agreement in most of the ecological functional regions during most of the periods. However, the contribution values in the directions of transects along the boundaries (with 1-17%) were always smaller than those in the X-and Y-coordinate directions (4-56%), which suggests that the analysis in the transect directions is more stable and reasonable. Thus, this approach provides an alternative method for detecting the climate contributions to boundary shifts associated with land use changes. Spatial analysis of the relationship between climate change and land use change in the context of FPE boundary shifts in northern China provides further evidence and explanation of the driving forces of climate change. Our findings suggest that an improved understanding of the

  10. Grassland production under global change scenarios for New Zealand pastoral agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, E. D.; Baisden, W. T.; Timar, L.; Mullan, B.; Clark, A.

    2014-10-01

    We adapt and integrate the Biome-BGC and Land Use in Rural New Zealand models to simulate pastoral agriculture and to make land-use change, intensification of agricultural activity and climate change scenario projections of New Zealand's pasture production at time slices centred on 2020, 2050 and 2100, with comparison to a present-day baseline. Biome-BGC model parameters are optimised for pasture production in both dairy and sheep/beef farm systems, representing a new application of the Biome-BGC model. Results show up to a 10% increase in New Zealand's national pasture production in 2020 under intensification and a 1-2% increase by 2050 from economic factors driving land-use change. Climate change scenarios using statistically downscaled global climate models (GCMs) from the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report also show national increases of 1-2% in 2050, with significant regional variations. Projected out to 2100, however, these scenarios are more sensitive to the type of pasture system and the severity of warming: dairy systems show an increase in production of 4% under mild change but a decline of 1% under a more extreme case, whereas sheep/beef production declines in both cases by 3 and 13%, respectively. Our results suggest that high-fertility systems such as dairying could be more resilient under future change, with dairy production increasing or only slightly declining in all of our scenarios. These are the first national-scale estimates using a model to evaluate the joint effects of climate change, CO2 fertilisation and N-cycle feedbacks on New Zealand's unique pastoral production systems that dominate the nation's agriculture and economy. Model results emphasise that CO2 fertilisation and N-cycle feedback effects are responsible for meaningful differences in agricultural systems. More broadly, we demonstrate that our model output enables analysis of decoupled land-use change scenarios: the Biome-BGC data products at a national or regional level can be re

  11. Poder pastoral, acomodo y territorialidad en las Cartas Annuas jesuitas de Quito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinosa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las Cartas Annuas jesuitas entre 1586 y 1660 que hacen refe-rencia a la Audiencia de Quito. Esta fuente poco consultada se utiliza para son-dear las estrategias jesuitas de evangelización y el régimen de administración de sacramentos de la orden en Quito. El artículo propone que las estrategias de evangelización jesuita dieron un giro al pasar de un encuentro con la religión nativa que incluyó un interés en mitos prehispánicos y extirpación de idolatría a un enfoque tabula rasa que se centraba en la administración de sacramentos. El artículo atribuye este giro a la transferencia del Colegio jesuita de Quito de la provincia jesuita de Perú a la provincia del Nuevo Reino (Nueva Granada. El artículo contextualiza el encuentro jesuita con la cultura nativa y la operación del régimen sacramental con referencia al concepto de las dos evangelizaciones de Juan Carlos Estenssoro, la noción de poder pastoral de Michel Foucault y la idea de la confesionalización perteneciente a la historiografía de la modernidad temprana europea. The article looks at the Jesuit Annual Letters concerning the Audiencia of Quito between 1586 and 1660. This virtually unexplored source is employed to analyze the conversion strategies and sacramental regime of the Jesuits in Quito. The article contends that the Jesuit conversion strategies shifted from an early enga-gement with native religion that included an interest in native myths, and ex-tirpation of idolatry to a tabula rasa approach centered on the administration of sacraments. The article attributes this shift to the transfer of the Colegio de Quito from the Jesuit province of Peru to that of the New Kingdom (New Granada. The article contextualizes the Jesuit engagement with native culture in Quito and the operation of the administration of sacraments with reference to Juan Carlos Estenssoro’s notion of the two conversions as well as with reference to Michel Foucault

  12. Tennessee Williams’s post-pastoral Southern gardens in text and on the movie screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taïna Tuhkunen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the representation of the American South in the film adaptations of five plays by the Mississippi-born playwright, Tennessee Williams: A Streetcar Named Desire (Elia Kazan, 1951, Baby Doll (Elia Kazan, 1956, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (Richard Brooks, 1958, Suddenly Last Summer (Joseph L. Mankiewicz, 1959 and The Night of the Iguana (John Huston, 1964. The article focuses on the disrespectful representations of the paradigmatic Southern garden which remains dynamic while maintaining some of its classic or biblical features. By relying on the conception of the pastoral garden as theorized by Leo Marx in The Machine in the Garden (1964, the author pays specific attention to the way mid-xxth century cinema kept recreating Williams’s Southern gardens as a corrupted and dehumanized space pierced through by disquieting shrieks.Cette étude se penche sur la représentation du Sud états-unien dans l’adaptation cinématographique de cinq pièces du dramaturge américain originaire du Mississippi, Tennessee Williams: Un tramway nommé désir (Elia Kazan, 1951, La poupée de chair (Elia Kazan, 1956, La chatte sur un toit brûlant (Richard Brooks, 1958, Soudain l’été dernier (Joseph L. Mankiewicz, 1959, et La nuit de l’iguane (John Huston, 1964. L’article met en évidence, chez Williams, la représentation irrévérencieuse du paradigmatique jardin sudiste qui, s’il conserve certains de ses attributs classiques et bibliques, ne s’avère pas moins dynamique. En s’appuyant sur la conception du jardin pastoral théorisé par Leo Marx dans The Machine in the Garden (1964, l’auteur s’attarde sur la façon dont le cinéma du milieu du xxe siècle cherchait à recréer le jardin williamsien comme un lieu corrompu et déshumanisé, traversé de cris inquiétants.

  13. Connecting above and below: the impacts of large wildlife loss and pastoralism on savanna carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, E. S.; Young, H. S.; Young, T.; Schimel, J.

    2016-12-01

    There is widespread evidence that large wildlife species contribute to ecosystem carbon efflux; however, their influence is not incorporated into traditional carbon models. As large wildlife loss continues in the Anthropocene and in the face of climate change, it becomes increasingly important to understand the impacts of their loss on ecosystem carbon. The charismatic, threatened wildlife in central Kenya's savanna provide an ideal framework for these questions. We compared differences in carbon efflux in the presence or absence of native herbivores and/or cattle, as a proxy for wildlife loss and the interaction of pastoralism. We measured carbon dynamics in situ with a closed-chamber system and microbial respiration rates in lab by incubating sampled soil. We discovered a significant effect of herbivore presence/absence on carbon efflux: incubated soils collected from plots with cattle only exhibit greater carbon accumulation and faster initial respiration rates than soils collected from plots with native herbivores and no cattle, native herbivores and cattle, and neither native herbivores nor cattle. When measured in situ, plots with no herbivores show higher efflux than plots with only native herbivores, and plots with both. The data also suggest that grazing pressure results in successively lower efflux. The differences in these studies imply that the impacts of large wildlife loss differ on microbial respiration as an isolated mechanism in ecosystem carbon exchange, and total carbon efflux. This is most likely because in situ efflux measurements encompass environmental variables as well as soil microbial respiration. The lab data suggest that cattle as the only herbivore causes greater soil microbial efflux compared to native herbivores alone, native herbivores with cattle, or no herbivores. The in situ data show that no herbivores results in increased carbon efflux, and suggest that increasing numbers of herbivores lowers efflux.These studies demonstrate

  14. Parasites as biological tags for stock identification of blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo, in Portuguese northeast Atlantic waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Hermida

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the following parasites were selected as biological tags for the identification of blackspot seabream (Pagellus bogaraveo stocks in the northeast Atlantic: Diphterostomum vividum (Digenea: Zoogonidae, Anisakis simplex s.l., A. physeteris, Anisakis sp. PB-2010 (Nematoda: Anisakidae, and Bolbosoma sp. (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae. These parasite species point to the existence of three blackspot seabream stocks in the northeast Atlantic: one in the Azores region (ICES Area X, one in continental Portuguese shelf/slope waters (ICES Area IXa, and one in the waters around Madeira (sub-area 1.2 of FAO 34, central-eastern Atlantic.

  15. Estudio de las comunidades de interés pascícola en un puerto de montaña: I. Estructura y valor pastoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, I.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of grazing plant communities in mountainous areas: I. Structure and grass quality. The study of the structure of the mountainous grassland communities, as the main factor involved in the ingestive behaviour of herbivores, is presented in this work. The pressure on these communities depends on the selection exercised by the grazing animal and this, in turn, depends on the plant value or pastoral value for the herbivore. The "complex" method was used to determine this value. The results are compared with those of other authors. The "life forms" based on Raunkiaer's classification complete this study of the vegetal communities, defined from the point of view of their pastoral value.

    [es] En este trabajo se presenta un estudio de la estructura de las comunidades de pasto de montaña, como factor determinante del comportamiento ingestivo de los herbívoros. El mayor o menor impacto sobre estas comunidades depende de la selección que ejercen los animales, y ésta, a su vez, depende del valor que las plantas tienen para el herbívoro. El método aplicado en este caso para determinar este valor es el método "complex". Los resultados obtenidos se comparan con los de otros autores. La caracterización de las comunidades desde el punto de vista de su interés pascícola se completa con el estudio de los tipos biológicos basados en la clasificación de Raunkiaer.
    [fr] Étude des communautés de pâturage dans un port de montagne: I. Structure et valeur pastoral. Dans ce travail on présente l'étude de la structure des communautés de pâturage de montagne comme un facteur déterminant du comportement ingestive des herbivores. La grandeur de l'impact sur ces communautés dépend de la sélection faite par les animaux et, celle-ci en même temps, dépend de la valeur qu'ont les plantes pour l'herbivore. La méthode appliquée dans ce cas pour déterminer cette valeur est la méthode "complex". Les résultats obtenus sont compar

  16. Associations between milking practices, somatic cell counts and milk postharvest losses in smallholder dairy and pastoral camel herds in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier B. Kashongwe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available On-farm hygienic practices are important in assuring quality and safety of milk for consumers and for reducing losses at production and at post-harvest. This study investigated the relationship between milking practices, mastitis as well as milk somatic cell counts (SCC and the effects of high SCC on milk production and post-harvest losses (PHL in smallholder dairy (n = 64 and pastoral camel (n = 15 herds in Kenya. The collected data included milking practices, mastitis test on udder quarters (n = 1236 and collection of milk samples for laboratory analyses: SCC, detection of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus species. Production losses were computed as a proportion of cows and herds with SCC (>200,000 cells/mL and PHL as quantity of milk exceeding 4 × 105 cells/mL. Practices associated with production herds included hands, udder washing and drying, and milk let down stimulation with calves suckling or manually (p < 0.001. Udder drying was only applied in peri-urban herds (100%. Herd level prevalence of mastitis was lower in smallholder than in pastoral herds (60.7% vs 93.3%. Mastitis positive samples had higher prevalence of S.aureus than of Streptococcus species in both smallholder (57.9% vs 23.7% and pastoral (41.6% vs 36.5% herds. Moreover, SCC was significantly affected by presence of mastitis and S.aureus (p < 0.001. Milk PHL from high SCC was higher in smallholder rural herds (27% compared to peri-urban (7% and in pastoral peri-urban (81% compared to rangelands (76%. Milking practices may have contributed to maintain mastitis pathogens in herds. This has led to substantial pre and postharvest milk losses in smallholder and pastoral herds. Therefore teat dipping, dry cow period and herd level mastitis treatment may complement current practices for lower SCC and milk PHL.

  17. Husbandry, breeding practices, and production constraints of camel in the pastoral communities of Afar and Somali, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Tadesse

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper were to identify and describe husbandry practices, herd structure, owners’ trait preferences, breeding practices, and production constraints of camel in the two major camel rearing pastoral communities, viz. Afar and Somali, to generate baseline information that would help to plan possible breed improvement strategies and options for the different camel populations. The study sites were selected purposively while households from each of the sites randomly. Data were collected using formal questionnaires and focus group discussion. Results showed that average camel population per household was higher in Mille (28.06±2.27, Gode (27.51±2.02, and Moyale (24.07±2.13 districts. Female camel populations with age of >1 year contributes 78-83% of the total camel herd population in all the study districts. Higher number of female animals in the herd in the arid environment means providing continuous supply of milk and allows a rapid recovery of herd numbers after a disease outbreak or drought occurrence. This shows that pastoralists breeding objectives are in relation to the arid environment and female population in the herd. Most of the pastoral communities utilize a single breeding male camel per 40-50 female camels and this will affect productivity and heterogeneity of camel population. With regard to trait preference, all pastoral communities ranked milk yield as the first trait of choice, except Liben district in which adaptation trait was the primary preference. Growth trait ranked second in Mille, Gode, Liben, and Jijiga pastoral communities where as adaptation trait ranked second in Amibara and Shinille pastoral communities. The major camel production constraints were feed, diseases, and lack of water in that order and the major cause of the constraints was the recurrent drought occurred during the past 2-3 decades in the two regions. Therefore, in planning and implementation of the breeding strategies for small

  18. Climate change - New directions for the Northeast: background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This background paper was developed in preparation for a workshop to bring forward action options to be used for developing an action plan for the consideration of the next meeting of New England Governors/ Eastern Canadian Premiers Conference in September 2001. The background paper is the product of the cooperative effort of all eleven jurisdictions. The paper examines climate science in its global and regional aspects; climate changes impacts, identifying environmental, natural resources and infrastructure issues; monitoring of emission levels and progress in reductions; policy processes, such as leadership, cooperation, emission trading and Kyoto mechanisms; mitigation action options to reduce emissions in the Northeast context, adaptation options and their effects on the natural environment, such a coastal and forestry concerns; infrastructure development; and common Northeast issues and opportunities. A series of options in each of these areas have been identified, including gaps in options. Attention is drawn to the need to consider social and ecological objectives which will become more acute as more climate change policies and programs are implemented. 45 refs

  19. Oceanic control of Northeast Pacific hurricane activity at interannual timescales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaguru, Karthik; Ruby Leung, L; Yoon, Jin-ho

    2013-01-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is not the only oceanic parameter that can play a key role in the interannual variability of Northeast Pacific hurricane activity. Using several observational data sets and the statistical technique of multiple linear regression analysis, we show that, along with SST, the thermocline depth (TD) plays an important role in hurricane activity at interannual timescales in this basin. Based on the parameter that dominates, the ocean basin can be divided into two sub-regions. In the Southern sub-region, which includes the hurricane main development area, interannual variability of the upper-ocean heat content (OHC) is primarily controlled by TD variations. Consequently, the interannual variability in the hurricane power dissipation index (PDI), which is a measure of the intensity of hurricane activity, is driven by that of the TD. On the other hand, in the Northern sub-region, SST exerts the major control over the OHC variability and, in turn, the PDI. Our study suggests that both SST and TD have a significant influence on the Northeast Pacific hurricane activity at interannual timescales and that their respective roles are more clearly delineated when sub-regions along an approximate north–south demarcation are considered rather than the basin as a whole. (letter)

  20. A community needs responsive management training model: Re-envisioning management training for pastors of the International Assemblies of God Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malesela J. Masenya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organisations (NGO�s play an important role in helping satisfy society�s many needs. Churches, for example, are called upon to address critical challenges facing the South African society such as discrepancies in life chances, unemployment and corruption. It largely depends on the management skills of leaders of such organisations to succeed in their endeavour to meet community needs. In order to improve these skills, this study sought to redefine the initial training of student pastors, including their management training, at the colleges of the International Assemblies of God Church (IAG. A qualitative research approach was followed. Two focus group interviews and seven individual interviews were conducted. Interviews included members of the national and provincial executive committees of the IAG, serving pastors, directors of training colleges, pastor trainees in their final year of study, and a newly graduated student. The findings of the study support the importance of formal management training for pastors before being employed in the service of the IAG. This Church has moved away from accepting ministers for service based on their faith and profession of a call to ministry only. The investigation revealed shortcomings in the initial training programmes of pastors; for example, the emphasis on theological courses at the expense of courses that are responsive to community needs and management training issues. Leaders with the competency to respond to community needs are required. The implementation of a transformational management framework, which includes community responsive courses, is recommended as a way to effectively train church leaders.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Although this article is written within the framework of Educational Management, it touches on other fields like Practical Theology and Curriculum Development. It reflects on the perceived need to include management training in

  1. Pastoral care and religious support as a part of treatment of religious patient with the severe form of osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Religious needs of patients are consistently being neglected in the clinical medicine. Pastoral care is a religious support which a religious patient receives from priests, chaplains, imams, rabbis or other religious authorities. Religious support, in terms of clinical medicine, is a spiritual support which religious patients obtain from religious and trained medical workers. The aim of this report was to present the effects of pastoral care and religious support in hospital treatment of a 73-year-old patient with the severe form of osteoarthritis. Case report. The 73- year-old, highly religious patient with severe form of osteoarthritis was admitted at the Clinic for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Military Medical Academy in Belgrade, due to heterogeneous problems in the activities of daily living. The patient walked with difficulty using a stick, suffered pain, and was anxious and depressive. In order to objectively demonstrate effects of both pastoral care and religious support in this patient we performed multiple treatment with reversal design, in which the basic treatment consisting of hospital care, pharmacotherapy and physical therapy (the treatment A was alternatively changed with the treatment that included combination of the basic treatment and religious support provided by religious physiatrist and physiotherapist (the treatment B or combination of the basic treatment and pastoral care provided by military priest (the treatment C. The treatment A was applied three times and lasted two weeks, every time. Treatments B and C were applied once and lasted three weeks, each. The order of the treatments was: A→B→A→C→A. During the whole treatment period the patient’s condition was assessed by several measuring scale: the level of depression by The Hamilton Rang Scale for Depression and The Zung Self Rating Depression Scale; the level of anxiety by The Zung Self Rating Anxiety Scale; the functional capability of

  2. Pastoral care to or with sex-starved pregnant women in an African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magezi E. Baloyi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to highlight some African women’s problematic sex life, even in their married lives, as a result of prescribed and lengthy periods of abstinence from sex – especially during pregnancy. Literature studies, especially on Yoruba sexual practices, showed that forced abstinence from sexual activity during pregnancy is rife and that many women seem content with the situation, probably as a result of their internalisation of patriarchal beliefs and values, prescribed as a means of socialisation. This phenomenon of abstinence from sexual intercourse during pregnancy by the women in some African societies is the focus of the study. The article examined the following: views of sex amongst Black African people, medical views of sex and views of sex in Christian tradition. Also examined at length was the phenomenon of abstinence from sex in an African context. The findings led to a critical evaluation of the phenomenon and a search for pastoral guidelines that could facilitate transformation, intimacy and committed sexual life in African families.

  3. Is it possible to bring together pastoral youth service with the academic learning process?

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    Pedro Soto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Is it possible a dialogue between the dynamics of youth ministry and academic learning process. As animated by the adult personnel of the school helps to guarantee a correct initiation or pedagogy of the proper imprint in the academic world for the evangelizer, and involves students in the work of evangelization whereby they connect the four pillars of education treated in the Delors Report with the three levels of evangelization under the guidance of the Church. Youth ministry, which is an organized action of the Church, is carried out by young men and women who involve themselves with Jesus Christ and his message and become protagonists of a civilization of fraternity, thus fulfilling the mandate of Jesus: “Go into the whole world and proclaim the Gospel to every creature (Mk. 16, 15. When the school moves thus, it is to say that it becomes a school of “pastoral importance”; one that, despite difficulties encountered from the various points of view, employs stragies for inserting the seeds of the Gospel into different scholastic environments, which often results in high academic learning and at the same time a robust living of the values of the Gospel.

  4. The Pastoral aspects of the inspiration, the Divine revelation and the truth in the Bible

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    Roman Bogacz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the document published in 2014 by the Pontifical Biblical Commission and called: The Inspiration and Truth of Sacred Scripture. The Word that comes from God and speaks of God for the salvation of the world. The purpose of publishing was to reach the priests, the people studying the Bible as well as the laity. By the discovering the biblical truth everybody can understand better oneself, the creation and God. Everybody can concisely grow in one’s faith. According to the document, the Divine inspiration is revealed to us when we read the Holy Scriptures. On the pages of Bible we can meet God himself. The message shared with us in the Bible explains the truth about God, about a man, our salvation and about a world. Even though it has some elements of the science or history, it is not a source of the science knowledge or chronicle of the historic facts. Besides we always have to include the genre and style of the ancient authors. This document can have amazing impact on the pastoral work, helping people to get interested in the Bible and to find the answers for many questions they have about it.

  5. Sidama Agro-Pastoralism and Ethnobiological Classification of its Primary Plant, Enset (Ensete ventricosum

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    Marsha B. Quinlan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Enset is an essential plant for the Ethiopian Sidama system of agropastoralism. Sidama agropastoralism and the folk taxonomy of enset is presented here in ethnographic context. One of several societies of Ethiopia’s enset complex, the highland Sidama are among the most wholly reliant on enset and maintain more enset varieties in their gardens than other groups. Sidama agro-pastoral systems revolve around human-enset-cattle interaction: Sidama eat low-protein parts of enset; cattle eat high-protein parts of enset; Sidama get protein from dairy; Sidama fertilize enset with cattle manure. In the Sidama language, enset offers an example of Hunn’s generic elevation within the framework of Berlinian perceptual-taxonomic theory. Weesho (enset may serve both as a folk generic taxon and a life-form taxon depending on the frame of reference. Such expansion allows for an intermediate taxa translating to “male” or “female” ensets, followed by generic and specific taxa for kinds or “breeds” of enset. Generic elevation offers descriptive magnification of nomenclature for enset, a most salient species among Sidama people.

  6. Trapping or tethering stones (TS: A multifunctional device in the Pastoral Neolithic of the Sahara.

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    Marina Gallinaro

    Full Text Available The Pierres de Ben Barour, also known as trapping or tethering stones (TS, are stone artefacts with notches or grooves usually interpreted as hunting devices on the basis of rock art engravings. Though their presence is a peculiar feature of desert landscapes from the Sahara to the Arabian Peninsula, we know little about their age, context and function. Here we present a new approach to the study of these artefacts based on a large dataset (837 items recorded in the Messak plateau (SW Libya. A statistically-based geoarchaeological survey carried out between 2007 and 2011 in Libya, alongside landscape and intra-site analyses of specific archaeological features (such as rock art, settlement and ceremonial contexts, reveal that these artefacts were used for a prolonged period, probably from the early Holocene. This was followed by a multifunctional use of these devices, particularly during the Pastoral Neolithic phase (ca. 6400-3000 cal BC, with the highest concentrations being found near ceremonial contexts related to cattle burials.

  7. Teachers’ Pastoral Role in Response to the Needs of Orphaned Learners

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    Teresa Auma Ogina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a study that explored the way teachers perceive and describe their roles in responding to the needs of orphaned learners. The participants in the study comprised three secondary and two primary school teachers. The data on the teachers’ experiences were collected through semi-structured interviews, and the findings revealed that, although some of the teachers attempted to fulfill some of the orphaned learners’ needs, most were unable to cope with the combined roles of teaching and learning and care giving. The study identified a lack of material, social, and emotional support for grieving learners. The findings indicate that there is a need for teacher development in terms of preparing teachers to provide pastoral care for orphaned learners. For the teachers’ efforts to be more fruitful, there is also an urgent need for supportive school leadership. In addition, the study highlights the need for counsellors and social workers to be appointed to work in collaboration with the teachers in providing for the needs of the learners.

  8. Understanding God images and God concepts: Towards a pastoral hermeneutics of the God attachment experience

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    Victor Counted

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author looks at the God image experience as an attachment relationship experience with God. Hence, arguing that the God image experience is borne originally out of a parent�child attachment contagion, in such a way that God is often represented in either secure or insecure attachment patterns. The article points out that insecure God images often develop head-to-head with God concepts in a believer�s emotional experience of God. On the other hand, the author describes God concepts as indicators of a religious faith and metaphorical standards for regulating insecure attachment patterns. The goals of this article, however, is to highlight the relationship between God images and God concepts, and to provide a hermeneutical process for interpreting and surviving the God image experience.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Given that most scholars within the discipline of Practical Theology discuss the subject of God images from cultural and theological perspectives, this article has discussed God images from an attachment perspective, which is a popular framework in psychology of religion. This is rare. The study is therefore interdisciplinary in this regards. The article further helps the reader to understand the intrapsychic process of the God image experience, and thus provides us with hermeneutical answers for dealing with the God image experience from methodologies grounded in Practical Theology and pastoral care.

  9. MEDELLÍN: FERTILE SEEDS OF PASTORAL CONVERSION IN THE UNITED STATES

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    Allan Figueroa Deck

    2018-04-01

    RESUMO: Este artigo investiga a forma pela qual tanto o evento como o documento de Medellín tiveram papel significativo na evolução dos ministérios pastorais e sociais da população de origem latino-americana dos Estados Unidos nos últimos cinquenta anos. A recepção de Medellín nos Estados Unidos, dentro do contexto mais amplo que se seguiu ao Concílio Vaticano II, foi ampla e profunda, e é aqui delineada em seus muitos desdobramentos. Naquelas comunidades de origem latino-americana, na forma de organizações comunitárias de base conforme a tra­dição de Saul Alinsky, os ministérios sociais de cunho confessional foram influen­ciados pela opção pelos pobres e pela pastoral de conjunto lançadas por Medellín. Vários outros exemplos do impacto causado por Medellín são aqui situados no seu contexto histórico mais amplo da última metade de século, período no qual a população de origem latino-americana despontou como majoritária entre todos os católicos norte-americanos na faixa etária até 35 anos.

  10. Reasserting the commons: Pastoral contestations of private and state lands in East Africa

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    John G. Galaty

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The theory that land holding is inexorably evolving from common to private or state tenure is challenged by facts on the ground that this paper will examine. ‘Tenure’ is interpreted both in terms of formal law and informal practices. While the association between privatization and land fragmentation is clear, property theory has influenced privatization so the process cannot be used to validate the evolutionary model of transitions from open access to common property to private property. Although in many settings common and state property has given way to privatization, in other cases private or state property has reverted to common holdings. A dynamic tenure model would demonstrate the conditions under which tenure transitions occur between common, private and state property, as the balance between transaction and exclusion costs shifts, or when the boundaries of tenure forms weaken to allow open access to occur. Examining three scenes of tenure transitions involving Kenyan pastoralists (Laikipia County, the Rift Valley, Narok County and Kajiado County, this paper examines cases in which transaction and exclusion dynamics – which are metaphors for the institutional effects of social and territorial relations- lead to changing land-use practices and tenure transitions. In semi-arid pastoral regions, we find more fluid systems of tenure than the inexorable spread of privatization through formalized land rights and increasing land fragmentation would have suggested should occur in the 21st century.

  11. Challenges and Alternatives to Sustainable Management of Agriculture and Pastoral Ecosystems in Asian Drylands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, J.

    2015-12-01

    There is no question that human must produce additional 70% food to feed the new 2.2 billion of people on the planet by 2050, but the question is where to grow the additional food. The demand for the additional food lies not only in producing the basic resources needed to sustain a healthy lifestyle, but also from a changing diet, especially in rapidly developing countries in the dryland regions around the world. It is forecast that this demand for meat will require an additional 0.2 billion tons per year by 2050, which is almost a doubling of present meat consumption. These new demands create mounting pressures on agriculture and pastoral ecosystems and the reported trajectory of warmer and drier climate in the future increases uncertainties in food security, adding further stresses to the already stressed nations in the Asian dryland belt. Different approaches are being either proposed or practiced in the region but the question is whether or not the current practices are sustainable or optimal in addressing the emerging issues. Given the complexity and interplay among the food, water and energy, what are alternatives to ensure a sustainable trajectory of regional development to meet the new food demand? This presentation reviews existing practices and proposes alternative solutions, by specifically examining the trade-offs between different ecosystem services that drylands in Asian may provide. Preliminary analysis suggested that the current trajectory of meat and milk production is likely not on a sustainable pathway.

  12. Comparison of the impacts of climate change on potential productivity of different staple crops in the agro-pastoral ecotone of North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianzhao; Wang, Jing; He, Di; Huang, Mingxia; Pan, Zhihua; Pan, Xuebiao

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the impacts of climate change on the potential productivity and potential productivity gaps of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus), potato (Solanum tuberosum), and spring wheat ( Triticumaestivum Linn) in the agro-pastoral ecotone (APE) of North China. A crop growth dynamics statistical method was used to calculate the potential productivity affected by light, temperature, precipitation, and soil fertility. The growing season average temperature increased by 0.47, 0.48, and 0.52°C per decade ( p < 0.05) for sunflower, potato, and spring wheat, respectively, from 1981 to 2010. Meanwhile, the growing season solar radiation showed a decreasing trend ( p < 0.05) and the growing season precipitation changed non-significantly across APE. The light-temperature potential productivity increased by 4.48% per decade for sunflower but decreased by 1.58% and 0.59% per decade for potato and spring wheat. The climate-soil potential productivity reached only 31.20%, 27.79%, and 20.62% of the light-temperature potential productivity for sunflower, potato, and spring wheat, respectively. The gaps between the light-temperature and climate-soil potential productivity increased by 6.41%, 0.97%, and 1.29% per decade for sunflower, potato, and spring wheat, respectively. The increasing suitability of the climate for sunflower suggested that the sown area of sunflower should be increased compared with potato and spring wheat in APE under future climate warming.

  13. Comparison of evapotranspiration components and water-use efficiency among different land use patterns of temperate steppe in the Northern China pastoral-farming ecotone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuzhe; Fan, Jiangwen; Hu, Zhongmin; Shao, Quanqin; Harris, Warwick

    2016-06-01

    Water-use efficiency (WUE), which links carbon and water cycles, is an important indicator of assessing the interactions between ecosystems and regional climate. Using chamber methods with and without plant removal treatments, we investigated WUE and evapotranspiration (ET) components in three ecosystems with different land-use types in Northern China pastoral-farming ecotone. In comparison, ET of the ecosystems with grazing exclusion and cultivating was 6.7 and 13.4 % higher than that of the ecosystem with free grazing. The difference in ET was primarily due to the different magnitudes of soil water evaporation (E) rather than canopy transpiration (T). Canopy WUE (WUEc, i.e., the ratio of gross primary productivity to T) at the grazing excluded and cultivated sites was 17 and 36 % higher than that at the grazing site. Ecosystem WUE (WUEnep, i.e., the ratio of net ecosystem productivity to ET) at the cultivated site was 34 and 28 % lower in comparison with grazed and grazing excluded stepped, respectively. The varied leaf area index (LAI) of different land uses was correlated with microclimate and ecosystem vapor/carbon exchange. The LAI changing with land uses should be the primary regulation of grassland WUE. These findings facilitate the mechanistic understanding of carbon-water relationships at canopy and ecosystem levels and projection of the effects of land-use change on regional climate and productivity.

  14. Land use change and its driving forces toward mutual conversion in Zhangjiakou City, a farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Xu, Yueqing; Sun, Piling; Huang, An; Zheng, Weiran

    2017-09-14

    Land use/cover change (LUCC), a local environmental issue of global importance, and its driving forces have been crucial issues in geography and environmental research. Previous studies primarily focused on major driving factors in various land use types, with few explorations of differences between driving forces of mutual land use type conversions, especially in fragile eco-environments. In this study, Zhangjiakou City, in a farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China, was taken as an example to analyze land use change between 1989 and 2015, and explore the driving forces of mutual land use type conversions using canonical correlation analysis. Satellite images and government statistics, including social-economic and natural data, were used as sources. Arable land, forestland, and grassland formed the main land use structure. From 1989 to 2015 forestland, orchard land, and construction land significantly increased, while arable land, grassland, unused land, and water areas decreased. Conversions from grassland to forestland; from arable land to orchard land, forestland and construction land; and from unused land to grassland and forestland were the primary land use changes. Among these, the conversion from grassland to forestland had the highest ranking. Average annual precipitation and per capita net income of rural residents positively affected the conversion of arable land to forestland and unused land to grassland. GDP, total population, and urbanization rate contributed most significantly to converting arable land to construction land; total retail sales of social consumer goods, average annual temperature, and GDP had important positive influences in converting arable land to orchard land.

  15. Market access and community size influence pastoral management of native and exotic livestock species: A case study in communities of the Cordillera Real in Bolivia's high Andean wetlands.

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    Quentin Struelens

    Full Text Available Grazing areas management is of utmost importance in the Andean region. In the valleys of the Bolivian Cordillera Real near La Paz, pastoralism constitutes the traditional way for people to insure food security and economical sustainability. In these harsh mountains, unique and productive wetlands sustained by glacial water streams are of utmost importance for feeding cattle herds during the dry season. After the colonization by the Spanish, a shift in livestock species has been observed, with the introduction of exotic species such as cows and sheep, resulting in a different impact on pastures compared to native camelid species-llamas and alpacas. Here we explored some of the social-economical and environmental drivers that motivate Bolivian pastoralists to prefer exotic over native livestock species, based on 36 household surveys in the Cordillera Real. We constructed a Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model in order to assess the relationships between these drivers. Our results suggest that the access to market influenced pastoralists to reshape their herd composition, by increasing the number of sheep. They also suggest that community size increased daily grazing time in pastures, therefore intensifying the grazing pressure. At a broader scale, this study highlights the effects of some social-economical and environmental drivers on mountain herding systems.

  16. Market access and community size influence pastoral management of native and exotic livestock species: A case study in communities of the Cordillera Real in Bolivia's high Andean wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struelens, Quentin; Gonzales Pomar, Karina; Loza Herrera, Susi; Nina Huanca, Gaby; Dangles, Olivier; Rebaudo, François

    2017-01-01

    Grazing areas management is of utmost importance in the Andean region. In the valleys of the Bolivian Cordillera Real near La Paz, pastoralism constitutes the traditional way for people to insure food security and economical sustainability. In these harsh mountains, unique and productive wetlands sustained by glacial water streams are of utmost importance for feeding cattle herds during the dry season. After the colonization by the Spanish, a shift in livestock species has been observed, with the introduction of exotic species such as cows and sheep, resulting in a different impact on pastures compared to native camelid species-llamas and alpacas. Here we explored some of the social-economical and environmental drivers that motivate Bolivian pastoralists to prefer exotic over native livestock species, based on 36 household surveys in the Cordillera Real. We constructed a Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Model in order to assess the relationships between these drivers. Our results suggest that the access to market influenced pastoralists to reshape their herd composition, by increasing the number of sheep. They also suggest that community size increased daily grazing time in pastures, therefore intensifying the grazing pressure. At a broader scale, this study highlights the effects of some social-economical and environmental drivers on mountain herding systems.

  17. Russia and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    For Russia, security, including non-proliferation, in Northeast Asia means in particular the maintenance of stability. Progress in arms control and non-proliferation may enhance regional stability. A common regional approach is proposed. Russia recognizes the US alliances with Japan and republic of Korea and is searching for a new cooperation framework in the region, namely further development of relations with China and reasonable rapprochement with Japan

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Dental Caries in an Elderly Population in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Min; Li, Yan; Cheng, Ruibo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65–74 years) from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed-filled teeth (DFT) indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197). T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs). Results 67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40), and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (Pcaries accounted for 2.08% with a rate higher in urban areas (Pdental insurance (OR 2.050; 95% CI 1.120–3.754) with dental caries. Conclusions The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries. PMID:24260129

  19. Prevalence and correlates of dental caries in an elderly population in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Min; Li, Yan; Cheng, Ruibo

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China. A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65-74 years) from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed-filled teeth (DFT) indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197). T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs). 67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40), and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (Ppopulation in urban areas (OR 1.713; 95% CI 1.337-2.195), smoking (OR 1.779; 95% CI 1.384-2.288), and individuals without dental insurance (OR 2.050; 95% CI 1.120-3.754) with dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries.

  20. Constitución pastoral Gozo y Esperanza: memoria y profecía ((Pastoral Constitution, Joy and Hope: Memory and Prophecy - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n24p1301

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Parra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl artículo dirige su atención a la dimensión pastoral del Vaticano II, comprendida como una relación de ida y vuelta entre Iglesia y sociedad. Corroborando esta perspectiva el texto construye una memoria del Concilio, partiendo de algunas charlas de los Papas Juan XXIII y Pablo VI, así como de diversos pasajes de la Constitución Pastoral Gaudium et Spes. El foco insiste en la reciprocidad implicativa del orden secular y del orden de la gracia; rompe con las dicotomías; afirma el ministerio teológico como lectura creyente del devenir histórico. También destaca las exigencias  de la Iglesia para acatar valores “modernos”, como la libertad de consciencia de los fieles, la pluralidad de opiniones y la autonomía de la investigación científica incluso en el ámbito religioso. En un segundo momento, contraponiéndose a una crítica ingenua de la modernidad, dirige su reflexión a la perspectiva profética de la Gaudium et Spes que preconizó la urgencia –para la Iglesia y para la sociedad- de romper con las normativas totalizadoras y hegemónicas para abrirse a las relaciones plurales.Palabras clave: Iglesia. Vaticano II. Gaudium et Spes AbstractThis article focuses on the pastoral dimension of Vatican II, understood as a two-way relationship between Church and society. In support of this view, the text builds a memory of the council from the understanding of some speeches of Pope John XXIII and Paul VI and  also analyzes some passages of the Pastoral Constitution ´Gaudium et Spes`. The reflection emphasizes the reciprocity of the secular order and the order of grace, breaking with all dichotomies and thus reaffirming the theological task as an understanding of historical events. The article also emphasizes the requirements of the Church to accept "modern" values such as freedom of conscience of their followers, the plurality of opinions, the autonomy of scientific research, even in the religious sphere. Secondly, in

  1. U.S. northeast and Maritime markets : a marketer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadfoot, M.

    1998-01-01

    A 1998 profile of Engage Energy Canada was presented as an illustration of gas marketing opportunities in eastern Canada and the northeastern United States from the point of view of the gas marketer. Engage Energy is a joint venture company of Westcoast Energy Inc., and the Coastal Corporation. The company's annual gross revenues equal $US 4.0 billion involving an annual natural gas volume of 8 Bcf/day and an annual electricity volume of 40 million MWh. The functions of marketers and the characteristics of this particular market area were described, paying attention also to commodity volatility. The role of energy marketers in the Maritimes and the northeast USA was defined as 'partnering' between energy users and marketing firms to manage the energy users' needs through a rapidly changing energy market. The expertise that marketers bring to this task was also described. 7 figs

  2. Radiocaesium in mushrooms from Northeast Italy, 1986-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovani, C.; Garavaglia, M.; Scruzzi, E.

    2004-01-01

    Late in the summer of 1986, the Health Physics Depts. of Pordenone, Udine and Trieste, entrusted with monitoring radioactivity in the environment and food as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, started noticing high concentrations of radionuclides - especially radiocaesium - in mushroom samples coming from different areas of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region (northeast Italy). To date, the authors have conducted 14 annual rounds of sampling and gamma spectrometry measurements on mushrooms, generating a total of over 2250 samples belonging to more than 300 species, which were picked in about 30 stations in the region. This surveys the main results from 15 years of macro-mycetes radio-contamination analysis in the region, the still unsolved problems, and hypotheses for future work. (authors)

  3. Radioactivity in mushrooms in northeast Italy following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battiston, G.A.; Degetto, S.; Gerbasi, R.; Sbrignadello, G.

    1989-01-01

    Radionuclide activities in common edible mushrooms, collected in northeast Italy following the Chernobyl accident, are reported. The highest levels were found in Clitocybe infundibuliformis, Cantharellus lutescens and Boletus cavipes. In addition, a large number of soil samples was collected in the same area. From the 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratios, its was possible to differentiate the radiocesium contribution from pre-Chernobyl fallout in both fungi and soil. The contour maps for 137 Cs and 134 Cs distributions are reported. The radioactivity detected in the mushrooms is not related in a simple manner to the contamination level of the corresponding soil. Some species tend to concentrate cesium and silver nuclides, whilst others show little affinity for these and other nuclides. Explanations for the different behavioral characteristics of the species are suggested. (author)

  4. Serologic detection of coccidioidomycosis antibodies in northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Fechine, Maria Auxiliadora Bezerra; Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha; da Costa, Ana Karoline Freire; Nagao, Maria Aparecida Tiemi Dias; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa

    2009-04-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a systemic infection caused by Coccidioides spp. The disease is endemic in Brazil but its incidence is underreported as it is not a notifiable disease. This article presents the results of a serologic survey carried out with 229 volunteers in northeast Brazil by the immunodiffusion (ID) test with commercial Coccidioides spp. antigens. The commercial ID test detected 15 individuals without clinical diagnosis of the disease and two individuals in treatment for coccidioidomycosis. Regarding the epidemiological data, most of the positive individuals were male, between 18 and 65 years of age and were engaged in armadillo hunting. Three women who had never participated in armadillo hunts also displayed positive results for coccidioidal antibodies. Besides armadillo hunts, exposure to environmental dust in endemic areas may account for the serologic response detected in the study. The data from this study suggest the importance of performing epidemiological surveys for coccidioidomycosis in order to understand the prevalence of this disease in Brazil.

  5. Improving the implementation of marine monitoring in the northeast Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrell, W R

    2018-03-01

    Marine monitoring in the northeast Atlantic is delivered within identifiable monitoring themes, established through time and defined by the geographical area and policy drivers they serve, the sampling methodologies they use, their assessment methodologies, their funding and governance structures and the people or organisations involved in their implementation. Within a monitoring theme, essential components for effective monitoring are governance, strategy and work plan, sampling protocols, quality assurance, and data and assessment structures. This simple framework is used to analyse two monitoring theme case studies; national ecosystem health monitoring, and regional fish stock monitoring. Such essential component analyses, within marine monitoring themes, can help improve monitoring implementation by identifying gaps and overlaps. Once monitoring themes are recognised, explicitly defined and streamlined, travel towards integrated monitoring may be made easier as the current lack of clarity in thematic marine monitoring implementation is one barrier to integration at both national and regional scales. Copyright © 2018 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Relaciones suelo-planta-herbívoro en un sistema pastoral de montaña

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    Alonso, I.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil characteristics of six communities with pastoral interest in León mountain (Spain and the Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, N, K and Na contents of soils and vegetation were analysed in relation with the nutritional characteristics of herbivores' diet. The communities were named after the most representative species: Nardus stricta, Bromus erectus. Genista florida. Erica australis. Genista occidentalis and Calluna vulgaris. Soils showed in general good conditions for vegetal growth. There were no relationships between soil and plants mineral contents. Ca and Cu were deficient in some moments during the stay of the animals in the mountain. Mineral concentrations in vegetation communities varied seasonally due to maturity processes and physiological changes in plants, depending on the kind of plant and the microenvironment where they grew.

    [es] Se analizaron las características edáficas de seis comunidades de interés pastoral.en la montaña de León denominadas en función de la especie más representativa (Nardus stricta, Bromus erectus, Genista florida. Erica australis, Genista occidentalis, Calluna vulgaris, así como las concentraciones minerales de Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, N, Ky Na en suelos y pastos por su influencia sobre las características nutritivas de la dieta de los herbívoros. Según los resultados obtenidos, los suelos presentaron en general unas buenas condiciones para el desarrollo vegetal. No se apreció ninguna relación entre la concentración de minerales en suelos y plantas. Las cantidades de Ca y Cu presentes en la vegetación fueron insuficientes para el mantenimiento de los herbívoros domésticos al menos durante parte de su estancia en el puerto. Las concentraciones minerales en la vegetación sufrieron variaciones estacionales debido a procesos de madurez y cambios fisiológicos, en mayor o menor medida según el tipo de planta y el ambiente en que se encuentre. [de] Die Bodeneigenschaften von sechs

  7. Assessment of drought during corn growing season in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Hu, Zhenghua

    2018-04-01

    Northeast China has experienced extensive climate change during the past decades. Corn is the primary production crop in China and is sensitive to meteorological disasters, especially drought. Drought has thus greatly endangered crop production and the country's food security. The majority of previous studies has not highlighted farming adaptation activities undertaken within the changed climate, which should not be neglected. In this study, we assessed drought hazard in the corn vegetation growing period, the reproductive growing period, and the whole growing period based on data for yearly corn phenology, daily precipitation, and temperature gathered at 26 agro-meteorological stations across Northeast China from 1981 to 2009. The M-K trend test was used to detect trends in sowing date and drought. The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) was used to describe drought. Drought frequency and intensity were used to assess the drought hazard in the region. We found that the sowing date was delayed in the southern part of the study area, coupled with a trend towards a shorter and more humid vegetation growing period. In the northern part of the study area, an earlier sowing date increased the length of the vegetation growing period and the reproductive growing period, while drying trends occurred within the two corn growing periods. We assessed the drought hazard during each growing period: the reproductive growing period faced a more severe drought hazard and was also the period where corn was most sensitive to water stress. Drought hazard during the total growing period was closely related to corn yield.

  8. Rickettsia felis in fleas from Catalonia (Northeast Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueras, María-Mercedes; Pons, Immaculada; Ortuño, Anna; Lario, Sergio; Segura, Ferran

    2011-05-01

    Rickettsia felis produces a syndrome indistinguishable from murine typhus, which has been described in Spain. R. felis is transmitted to humans by fleas. Although no clinical case has been described so far, serologic evidence of infections in humans, cats, and dogs has been obtained in our area. However, no study has been conducted regarding its presence in vectors. Recognition of routes of transmission is of great importance to prevent infection in humans. Taking into account these results, R. felis seems to be present in animals that are in contact with humans. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of R. felis in the fleas of cats and dogs from Northeast Spain, to show the presence of peridomestic cycle in our area. Between May 2006 and July 2008, 78 fleas were collected. Sixty-three fleas were recovered from kennels. Most of them were collected from cages and a few of them on dogs and cats living in kennels. Fifteen fleas were collected from dogs and cats attended at a veterinary clinic. Fleas were rinsed with ethanol, dried, identified, and stored at 4°C. DNA was extracted from each flea individually. Rickettsial DNA was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. OmpB-specific primers and molecular beacon probes targeting specifically R. felis were used. All 78 fleas were identified as Ctenocephalides felis. R. felis was detected in 34 (43.6%) fleas. No nucleic acids were amplified from negative controls and expected results were obtained from positive controls. Eight positive samples were also confirmed by sequencing. R. felis was found in a high percentage of Ct. felis from cats and dogs. It seems that there is a peridomestic cycle in Northeast Spain, which would allow contact of R. felis with humans.

  9. Genetic Origins of Lactase Persistence and the Spread of Pastoralism in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranciaro, Alessia; Campbell, Michael C.; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Ko, Wen-Ya; Froment, Alain; Anagnostou, Paolo; Kotze, Maritha J.; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Nyambo, Thomas; Omar, Sabah A.; Tishkoff, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    In humans, the ability to digest lactose, the sugar in milk, declines after weaning because of decreasing levels of the enzyme lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, encoded by LCT. However, some individuals maintain high enzyme amounts and are able to digest lactose into adulthood (i.e., they have the lactase-persistence [LP] trait). It is thought that selection has played a major role in maintaining this genetically determined phenotypic trait in different human populations that practice pastoralism. To identify variants associated with the LP trait and to study its evolutionary history in Africa, we sequenced MCM6 introns 9 and 13 and ∼2 kb of the LCT promoter region in 819 individuals from 63 African populations and in 154 non-Africans from nine populations. We also genotyped four microsatellites in an ∼198 kb region in a subset of 252 individuals to reconstruct the origin and spread of LP-associated variants in Africa. Additionally, we examined the association between LP and genetic variability at candidate regulatory regions in 513 individuals from eastern Africa. Our analyses confirmed the association between the LP trait and three common variants in intron 13 (C-14010, G-13907, and G-13915). Furthermore, we identified two additional LP-associated SNPs in intron 13 and the promoter region (G-12962 and T-956, respectively). Using neutrality tests based on the allele frequency spectrum and long-range linkage disequilibrium, we detected strong signatures of recent positive selection in eastern African populations and the Fulani from central Africa. In addition, haplotype analysis supported an eastern African origin of the C-14010 LP-associated mutation in southern Africa. PMID:24630847

  10. Genetic origins of lactase persistence and the spread of pastoralism in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranciaro, Alessia; Campbell, Michael C; Hirbo, Jibril B; Ko, Wen-Ya; Froment, Alain; Anagnostou, Paolo; Kotze, Maritha J; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Nyambo, Thomas; Omar, Sabah A; Tishkoff, Sarah A

    2014-04-03

    In humans, the ability to digest lactose, the sugar in milk, declines after weaning because of decreasing levels of the enzyme lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, encoded by LCT. However, some individuals maintain high enzyme amounts and are able to digest lactose into adulthood (i.e., they have the lactase-persistence [LP] trait). It is thought that selection has played a major role in maintaining this genetically determined phenotypic trait in different human populations that practice pastoralism. To identify variants associated with the LP trait and to study its evolutionary history in Africa, we sequenced MCM6 introns 9 and 13 and ~2 kb of the LCT promoter region in 819 individuals from 63 African populations and in 154 non-Africans from nine populations. We also genotyped four microsatellites in an ~198 kb region in a subset of 252 individuals to reconstruct the origin and spread of LP-associated variants in Africa. Additionally, we examined the association between LP and genetic variability at candidate regulatory regions in 513 individuals from eastern Africa. Our analyses confirmed the association between the LP trait and three common variants in intron 13 (C-14010, G-13907, and G-13915). Furthermore, we identified two additional LP-associated SNPs in intron 13 and the promoter region (G-12962 and T-956, respectively). Using neutrality tests based on the allele frequency spectrum and long-range linkage disequilibrium, we detected strong signatures of recent positive selection in eastern African populations and the Fulani from central Africa. In addition, haplotype analysis supported an eastern African origin of the C-14010 LP-associated mutation in southern Africa. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Competencias laborales orientadas a la competitividad empresarial en la comunidad educativa Diocesana el Buen Pastor Lima-2015

    OpenAIRE

    Noblecilla Saavedra, Brenda Verónica

    2015-01-01

    El crecimiento de la comunidad educativa el Buen pastor en Lima – Perú, ha traído una alta demanda de mano de obra con competencias laborales que mejoren la competitividad de la misma, premisa que no se cumple a totalidad por las carencias de dichas competencias que traen los nuevos empleados, siendo este el tema de estudio de la presente investigación, teniendo como objetivo fundamental analizar como el desarrollo de competencias laborales influyen en la competitividad de l...

  12. The effects of pastoralism and protection on lion behaviour, demography and space use in the Mara Region of Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Niels L.; Oguto, Joseph O.; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Contraction of their historic geographic ranges and conflicts with humans underpins declines in large carnivore populations worldwide. These declines, which characterize pastoral systems where carnivores, people and livestock live in close contact, may be paralleled by changes in carnivore...... the three prides except when the ranch lions were severely disturbed and became more nocturnal and inactive. The reserve lions ate their kills on open plains and returned to them often but the ranch lions did so only inside bushes and abandoned unfinished kills during a drought in 2005. The reserve lions...

  13. In Situ Thermal NAPL Remediation at the Northeast Site Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhlin, R.; Butherus, M.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting thermal remediation to remove non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from the subsurface at the Northeast Site that is part of the Pinellas Environmental Restoration Project. The Northeast Site is located on the Young - Rainey Science, Technology, and Research (STAR) Center in Largo, Florida. The STAR Center was formerly a DOE facility. The NAPL remediation was performed at Area A and is currently being performed at Area B at the Northeast Site. The remediation at Area A was completed in 2003 and covered an area of 900 m 2 (10,000 ft 2 ) and a depth of remediation that extended to 10.7 m (35 ft) below ground surface. Cleanup levels achieved were at or below maximum contaminant levels in almost all locations. The remediation project at Area B is ongoing and covers an area of 3,240 m 2 (36,000 ft 2 ), a volume of 41,300 m (54,000 yd 3), and a depth of remediation to 12 m (40 ft) below ground surface. In addition, a portion of the subsurface under an occupied building in Area B is included in the remediation. The cleanup levels achieved from this remediation will be available in the Area B Final Report that will be posted on the DOE Office of Legacy Management web site (www.lm.doe.gov/land/sites/fl/ pinellas/pinellas.htm) in January 2007. Electrical resistive heating and steam were the chosen remediation methods at both areas. Lessons learned from the Area A remediation were incorporated into the Area B remediation and could benefit managers of similar remediation projects. (authors)

  14. Multi-agent modeling and simulation of farmland use change in the farming-pastoral zone: A case study of Qianjingou Town in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H.

    2015-12-01

    Farmland is the most basic material conditions for guaranteeing rural livelihoods and national food security, and exploring management strategies that take both of the sustainable rural livelihoods and sustainable farmland use into account has vital significance of theory and practice. Farmland is a complex and self-adaptive system that couples human and natural systems together, and natural factors and social factors that are related to its changing process need to be considered when modeling farmland changing process. This paper takes Qianjingou Town in Inner Mongolia farming-pastoral zone as study area. From the perspective of the relationship between households' livelihoods and farmland use, this study builds the process mechanism of farmland use change based on questionnaires data, and constructs multi-agent simulation model of farmland use change with the help of Eclipse and Repast toolbox. Through simulating the relationship between natural factors (with geographical location) and households' behaviors, this paper systematically simulates households' renting and abandoning farmland behaviors, and truly describes dynamic interactions between households' livelihoods and factors related to farmland use change. These factors include natural factors (net primary productivity, road accessibility, slope and relief amplitude) and social factors (households' family structures, economic development and government policies). In the end, this study scientifically predicts farmland use change trend in the future 30 years. The simulation results show that, the number of abandoned and sublet farmland plots has a gradually increasing trend, the number of non-farm households and pure-outwork households has a remarkable increasing trend, and the number of part-farm households and pure-farm households shows a decreasing trend. Households' livelihoods sustainability in the study area is confronted with increasing pressure, and households' nonfarm employment has an increasing

  15. Multi-Agent Modeling and Simulation of Farmland Use Change in a Farming–Pastoral Zone: A Case Study of Qianjingou Town in Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehong Bai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Farmland is the most basic material condition for guaranteeing rural livelihoods and national food security, and exploring management strategies that take both stable rural livelihoods and sustainable farmland use into account has vital significance in theory and practice. Farmland is a complex and self-adaptive system that couples human and natural systems, and natural and social factors that are related to its changing process need to be considered when modeling farmland changing processes. This paper uses Qianjingou Town in the Inner Mongolian farming–pastoral zone as a study area. From the perspective of the relationship between household livelihood and farmland use, this study establishes the process mechanism of farmland use change based on questionnaire data, and constructs a multi-agent simulation model of farmland use change using the Eclipse and Repast toolbox. Through simulating the relationship between natural factors (including geographical location and household behavior, this paper systematically simulates household farmland abandonment and rent behaviors, and accurately describes the dynamic interactions between household livelihoods and the factors related to farmland use change. These factors include natural factors (net primary productivity, road accessibility, slope and relief amplitude and social factors (household family structures, economic development and government policies. Ultimately, this study scientifically predicts the future farmland use change trend in the next 30 years. The simulation results show that the number of abandoned and sublet farmland plots has a gradually increasing trend, and the number of non-farming households and pure-outworking households has a remarkable increasing trend, whereas the number of part-farming households and pure-farming households has a decreasing trend. Household livelihood sustainability in the study area is confronted with increasing pressure, and household non

  16. Distribution of the longhorned beetle Callipogon relictus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Northeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dae-Am; Kuprin, Alexander V; Bae, Yeon Jae

    2018-01-02

    The distribution of the longhorned beetle Callipogon (Eoxenus) relictus Semenov, 1899 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Northeast Asia was summarized for the first time, based on the examination of comprehensive material. Callipogon relictus is the only representative of the genus Callipogon in the Palearctic region. Its distribution ranges from Shanxi province (China) in the south, northward through the Korean Peninsula to Amur Oblast (Russia), and from Inner Mongolia (China) in the west to the coastal area of the Russian Far East.

  17. Ethnotaxonomical considerations and usage of ichthyofauna in a fishing community in Cear? State, Northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, M?rcia Freire; Mour?o, Jos? da Silva; Alves, R?mulo Romeu N?brega

    2013-01-01

    Background Artisanal fishery is one of the most important economic activities for human populations living in coastal areas. The traditional knowledge that fishermen have of fishes is of utmost importance for the establishment of conservation strategies for many species. This study aimed to analyse the knowledge of and utilization of fishes by the artisanal fishermen in a fishing community on the coast of Cear? State (Northeast Brazil). Methods In 2011, a number of semi-structured interviews ...

  18. Emerging Scenario of Trade Potentialities of North-East India: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Krishna Mandal

    2009-01-01

    The North-East Region (NER) of India which comprises of eight states, namely Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura shares most of its boundary with China, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Myanmar. The NER accounts for about eight per cent of the country's geographical area and about four per cent of population. Tribals account for more than 30 per cent of the total population of NER. Inadequate and poor infrastructure, inhospitable terrain and a com¬parativ...

  19. Northeast Asian economy cooperation: study on energy resource cooperation in Northeast Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Woo Jin [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In Northeast Asian region, there are East Russia with abundant resources, Japan a large energy consumption country, Korea and China with rapidly increasing energy consumption due to their economic development, but the utilization rate of East Russian resources are very low and the resource trading and investment among Korea, China and Japan are also low. Korea and Japan use most of energy imported from Middle East. It is expected that import of petroleum and gas except coal will be increasing in China and most of imported energy will be imported mainly from the Middle East. For Korea, with not much energy resources and foreign-oriented economic system, if investment on resource development among Northeast Asian countries is active and energy transportation among these countries is liberalized, the enhancement of energy cooperation in Northeast Asia has a high possibility to provide North and South Korean energy cooperation as well as to secure energy security and to develop energy industry. Therefore, Korean government needs to promote Northeast Asian energy cooperation by taking its lead. (author). 28 refs., 8 figs., 44 tabs.

  20. Nutrition surveys in Burma and northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, George E

    2005-05-01

    Participation of the author in the Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense sponsored nutrition surveys of Burma and northeast Brazil is described. These surveys not only collected important data on nutritional status but also guided the subsequent research interests of the author. The Brazil survey results contributed to the creation of legislation that mandated the addition of water-dispersible vitamin A to skimmed-milk powder products. This additive has greatly diminished the likelihood of vitamin A deficiency syndrome occurring in children after famine relief efforts.

  1. The Northeast Utilities generic plant computer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitzner, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    A variety of computer manufacturers' equipment monitors plant systems in Northeast Utilities' (NU) nuclear and fossil power plants. The hardware configuration and the application software in each of these systems are essentially one of a kind. Over the next few years these computer systems will be replaced by the NU Generic System, whose prototype is under development now for Millstone III, an 1150 Mwe Pressurized Water Reactor plant being constructed in Waterford, Connecticut. This paper discusses the Millstone III computer system design, concentrating on the special problems inherent in a distributed system configuration such as this. (auth)

  2. 78 FR 16220 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; 2013 Sector Operations Plans and Contracts and Allocation of Northeast Multispecies Annual Catch Entitlements AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National..., provide allocations of Northeast (NE) multispecies to these sectors, and grant regulatory exemptions. We...

  3. 78 FR 25591 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; 2013 Sector Operations Plans and Contracts and Allocation of Northeast Multispecies Annual Catch Entitlements AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... year (FY) 2013, providing allocations of Northeast (NE) multispecies to these sectors, and granting 23...

  4. Literature based species occurrence data of birds of northeast India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Narwade

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The northeast region of India is one of the world’s most significant biodiversity hotspots. One of the richest bird areas in India, it is an important route for migratory birds and home to many endemic bird species. This paper describes a literature-based dataset of species occurrences of birds of northeast India. The occurrence records documented in the dataset are distributed across eleven provinces of India, viz.: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The geospatial scope of the dataset represents 24 to 29 degree North latitude and 78 to 94 degree East longitude, and it comprises over 2400 occurrence records. These records have been collated from scholarly literature published between1915 and 2008, especially from the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society (JBNHS. The temporal scale of the dataset represents bird observations recorded between 1909 and 2007. The dataset has been developed by employing MS Excel. The key elements in the database are scientific name, taxonomic classification, temporal and geospatial details including geo-coordinate precision, data collector, basis of record and primary source of the data record. The temporal and geospatial quality of more than 50% of the data records has been enhanced retrospectively. Where possible, data records are annotated with geospatial coordinate precision to the nearest minute. This dataset is being constantly updated with the addition of new data records, and quality enhancement of documented occurrences. The dataset can be used in species distribution and niche modeling studies. It is planned to expand the scope of the dataset to collate bird species occurrences across the Indian peninsula.

  5. Morphology, Composition, and Mixing State of Individual Aerosol Particles in Northeast China during Wintertime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Northeast China is located in a high latitude area of the world and undergoes a cold season that lasts six months each year. Recently, regional haze episodes with high concentrations of fine particles (PM2.5 have frequently been occurring in Northeast China during the heating period, but little information has been available. Aerosol particles were collected in winter at a site in a suburban county town (T1 and a site in a background rural area (T2. Morphology, size, elemental composition, and mixing state of individual aerosol particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Aerosol particles were mainly composed of organic matter (OM and S-rich and certain amounts of soot and K-rich. OM represented the most abundant particles, accounting for 60.7% and 53.5% at the T1 and T2 sites, respectively. Abundant spherical OM particles were likely emitted directly from coal-burning stoves. Soot decreased from 16.9% at the T1 site to 4.6% at the T2 site and sulfate particles decrease from 35.9% at the T2 site to 15.7% at the T1 site, suggesting that long-range transport air masses experienced more aging processes and produced more secondary particles. Based on our investigations, we proposed that emissions from coal-burning stoves in most rural areas of the west part of Northeast China can induce regional haze episodes.

  6. A practical-theological reflection on the usage of symbols and metaphors in intercultural pastoral care in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Du Plessis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The African continent is associated with a variety of problems. Irrespective of having achieved a new democracy more than two decades ago, South Africa still seems to suffer the same fate as the rest of the continent because of the inability to solve its innate challenges. However, at grass roots level South Africans are desperately seeking ways of moving away from this problem-focused paradigm to a more constructive and assertive paradigm where South Africans can truly be reconciled as a ‘rainbow nation’ despite the different cultures. Scholars who have written about this intercultural challenge are of the opinion that intercultural hermeneutics no longer works with a split between Christ and culture, but rather with the interconnectedness between Christ and culture, without the sacrifice of the culture’s uniqueness. One cannot understand religion, faith and spirituality without understanding culture. This article investigates the church’s responsibility to provide pastoral care to the people of South Africa within an intercultural paradigm by using different symbols and metaphors. The research question concentrates on the interconnectedness of the Christian faith and the different cultures in South Africa. It examines how a pastoral approach, using symbols and metaphors, could contribute to the avoidance of the mere ‘Christianisation’ of the culture, resulting in an approach where Christ is the authentic transformer of culture.

  7. Pastoral care to or with sex-starved pregnant women in an African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magezi E. Baloyi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to highlight some African women’s problematic sex life, even in their married lives, as a result of prescribed and lengthy periods of abstinence from sex – especially during pregnancy. Literature studies, especially on Yoruba sexual practices, showed that forced abstinence from sexual activity during pregnancy is rife and that many women seem content with the situation, probably as a result of their internalisation of patriarchal beliefs and values, prescribed as a means of socialisation. This phenomenon of abstinence from sexual intercourse during pregnancy by the women in some African societies is the focus of the study. The article examined the following: views of sex amongst Black African people, medical views of sex and views of sex in Christian tradition. Also examined at length was the phenomenon of abstinence from sex in an African context. The findings led to a critical evaluation of the phenomenon and a search for pastoral guidelines that could facilitate transformation, intimacy and committed sexual life in African families. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om die problematiese seksuele lewens van sommige vrouens in Afrika na vore te bring. Die probleme kom voor ten spyte van die feit dat hulle getroud is omdat lang tydperke van onthouding, veral tydens swangerskap, vir hulle voorgeskryf word. ’n Literatuurstudie, veral oor die Yoruba se seksuele praktyke, dui daarop dat gedwonge onthouding van seksuele aktiwiteite gedurendede swangerskap heersend is. Verder kom dit ook voor asof baie vrouens nie daarmee probleme ervaar nie, waarskynlik as gevolg van hulle geïnternaliseerde patriargale oortuigings en waardes, wat vir sosialiseringsdoeleindes voorgeskryf word. Hierdie studie fokus op die verskynsel van onthouding van geslagsomgang gedurende swangerskap deur vrouens in sommige Afrika-gemeenskappe. Die artikel ondersoek die volgende: Swart Afrikane se tradisionele seksbeskouing, die mediese seksbeskouing

  8. Ethnobotanical knowledge acquisition during daily chores: the firewood collection of pastoral Maasai girls in Southern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaojie

    2017-01-13

    Researchers considering children's traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) highlighted the importance of examining children's daily activities as empirical contexts for its acquisition. Many of them evaluated children's TEK acquisition linearly as gain or loss, and paid less attention to the adaptive nature of this knowledge system and the social relationships arising from its acquisition processes. This study approaches children's TEK acquisition considering these abovementioned aspects. I utilize pastoral Maasai girls' firewood collection as a case study, and analyze the personal, interpersonal and cultural institutional aspects of girls' Ethnobotanical knowledge (EK) acquisition within this chore. Participant observation and unstructured interviews were used for data collection. I joined 12 girls (6 to 15 years old) on day trips for firewood collection, and documented their participation and performance during this chore. I observed interactions among girls and between girls and women concerning this activity, and investigated girls' perceptions of local wood species via their descriptions. I also informally interviewed 15 women, between 20 and 80 years old on their evaluation of the wood species to be used as firewood. Current diet change and gender-age roles in chore participation in Maasai society require females to continually participate in firewood collection. Within this social context, girls intensively participated in day trips of firewood collection during the long-term vacation in the dry season. They collected a sizable amount from 24 plant species, and generated EK through personal sensual experiences, such as fragrance, hardness, and heaviness of different wood species. They acquired local taxonomy and terminology of different wood species, and learned others preferences for wood species used as fuel through interpersonal communication. These personal and interpersonal aspects, together with current diet change and division of labor within gender

  9. Bereavement healing ministry amongst Abaluyia: Towards a ‘circle for pastoral concern’ as a healing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Shikwati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article formulates a new integrated pastoral care approach to bereavement healing ministry in Africa, termed a circle for pastoral concern. In pursuit of this, the article highlights the pastoral challenge brought about by the occurrence of death and bereavement within the cultural and Christian intermix. Using the example of the Abaluyia of western Kenya, traditional cultural bereavement healing approaches are assessed against the backdrop of Christian influence on the understanding and response to death and bereavement healing and the resultant tension. The article juxtaposes the Abaluyia cultural concept of okhukura [to encircle with loving care] with the biblical koinōnia [fellowship, communion] as springboard for building culturally sensitive and biblically sound Christian caring communities. It is hoped that the juxtaposition helps to establish and promote meaningful engagement between therapeutic traditional beliefs and practices, and the gospel. The gospel-culture engagement within a local church setting provides the context in which bereavement healing and individual growth after the death of a significant other takes place. The juxtaposition is necessitated by the rampant practice in African pluralistic societies where Christians consciously, or otherwise, lurch back to cultural approaches in their effort to provide or find healing when faced with death and bereavement. The ‘circle for pastoral concern’ model encourages inclusiveness by enlisting the means and talents of the community of believers, both ordained and lay. The principle of inclusion ensures that the load of pastoral care is shared and assumes a deeper response due to diversity of gifts and talents within the caring community.’n Nuwe integrale benadering vir pastorale hulpverlening en berading tydens rousmart word voorgestel, naamlik ’n omsirkelingsmodel vir pastorale omgee-uitreiking met die oog op treurbediening binne ’n Afrika-konteks. Die vraagstuk van

  10. Bereavement healing ministry amongst Abaluyia: Towards a ‘circle for pastoral concern’ as a healing model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Shikwati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article formulates a new integrated pastoral care approach to bereavement healing ministry in Africa, termed a circle for pastoral concern. In pursuit of this, the article highlights the pastoral challenge brought about by the occurrence of death and bereavement within the cultural and Christian intermix. Using the example of the Abaluyia of western Kenya, traditional cultural bereavement healing approaches are assessed against the backdrop of Christian influence on the understanding and response to death and bereavement healing and the resultant tension. The article juxtaposes the Abaluyia cultural concept of okhukura [to encircle with loving care] with the biblical koinōnia [fellowship, communion] as springboard for building culturally sensitive and biblically sound Christian caring communities. It is hoped that the juxtaposition helps to establish and promote meaningful engagement between therapeutic traditional beliefs and practices, and the gospel. The gospel-culture engagement within a local church setting provides the context in which bereavement healing and individual growth after the death of a significant other takes place. The juxtaposition is necessitated by the rampant practice in African pluralistic societies where Christians consciously, or otherwise, lurch back to cultural approaches in their effort to provide or find healing when faced with death and bereavement. The ‘circle for pastoral concern’ model encourages inclusiveness by enlisting the means and talents of the community of believers, both ordained and lay. The principle of inclusion ensures that the load of pastoral care is shared and assumes a deeper response due to diversity of gifts and talents within the caring community. ’n Nuwe integrale benadering vir pastorale hulpverlening en berading tydens rousmart word voorgestel, naamlik ’n omsirkelingsmodel vir pastorale omgee-uitreiking met die oog op treurbediening binne ’n Afrika-konteks. Die vraagstuk

  11. Soil acidification increases metal extractability and bioavailability in old orchard soils of Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Lianzhen; Wu, Huifeng; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; Allen, Herbert E.

    2014-01-01

    The bioavailability of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from field-aged orchard soils in a certified fruit plantation area of the Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula in China was assessed using bioassays with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and chemical assays. Soil acidity increased with increasing fruit cultivation periods

  12. Changes in forest habitat classes under alternative climate and land-use change scenarios in the northeast and midwest, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian G. Tavernia; Mark D. Nelson; Michael E. Goerndt; Brian F. Walters; Chris Toney

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale and long-term habitat management plans are needed to maintain the diversity of habitat classes required by wildlife species. Planning efforts would benefit from assessments of potential climate and land-use change effects on habitats. We assessed climate and land-use driven changes in areas of closed- and open-canopy forest across the Northeast and Midwest...

  13. The Impact of Visual Disability on the Quality of Life of Older Persons in Rural Northeast Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Grow, Steven; Sudnongbua, Supaporn; Boddy, Julie

    2011-01-01

    A high rate of self-reported visual disability was found among a sample of persons aged 60 and older in the course of a study that assessed the impact of feelings of abandonment among older persons in a remote rural area in northeast Thailand (Sudnongbua, La Grow, & Boddy, 2010). This study assessed the impact of self-reported visual…

  14. 7 CFR 956.4 - Production area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production area. 956.4 Section 956.4 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.4 Production area. Production area...

  15. Migration strategies of Swan Geese Anser cygnoides from northeast Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batbayar, Nyambayar; Takekawa, John Y.; Newman, Scott H.; Prosser, Diann J.; Natsagdorj, Tseveenmyadag; Xiao, Xiangming

    2011-01-01

    In 2006–2008, 25 Swan Geese Anser cygnoides were marked with solar-powered GPS satellite transmitters in northeast Mongolia to examine the timing and pathways of their migration. Most geese began their autumn migration in August, flying southeast toward a staging area at the Yalu River Estuary on the China-North Korea border. After staging for several weeks, the Swan Geese continued to their wintering grounds at wetlands along the Yangtze River Basin of eastern China in December. Spring migration commenced in late February, and the birds following either a same-route or loop migration to arrive at the breeding grounds in mid April. Swan Geese used a larger number of staging areas for a longer duration when they were north of 42°N latitude; they seemed to avoid staging for extended periods in the highly urbanised areas of eastern China. Further research should examine threats and disturbances to the geese in relation to human population growth and increasing urbanisation.

  16. The partially denuclearized area of North-East Asia. Status of ten years of informal 'new diplomacy'; La zone partiellement denuclearisee de l'Asie du Nord-Est. Bilan de dix annees de 'nouvelle diplomatie' informelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sionneau, B. [Bordeaux-4 Univ.- Montesquieu, Centre d' Analyse Politique Comparee, de Geostrategie et de Relations Internationales, 33 (France); Ecole de Management, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Dusclaud, M. [Bordeaux-4 Univ.- Montesquieu, Centre d' Analyse Politique Comparee, de Geostrategie et de Relations Internationales, 33 (France); Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 33 (France)

    2003-07-01

    In 1991, the G. Bush administration decided to remove away all US surface tactic nuclear weapons everywhere in the world in order to reduce the nuclear warfare risk. This decision has led to the ratification by both Northern Korea and Southern Korea of the declaration on the denuclearization of the Korean peninsula, followed the same year by Mongolia which has become nuclear weapons free. As a consequence of these initiatives, the Center for international strategy, technology and policy (CISTP) of the Georgia institute of technology (Atlanta, USA) has decided the creation of a 'limited nuclear weapons free zone North-East Asia'(LNWFZ), based on cooperation, arms control and non-proliferation. This article describes the genesis of this inter-governmental process of informal diplomacy: proposal of creation of a league for non-nuclear states for North-East Asia, of implementation of an inspection regime and of a cooperative security community, of establishment of confidence building measures and of economic incentives. Then it describes the main components of the LNWFZ project and the obstacles that must be cleared away before its official implementation. (J.S.)

  17. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Final Siting Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Montgomery

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  18. How applicable is even-aged silviculture in the northeast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph H. Griffin

    1977-01-01

    The applicability of even-aged silviculture in the management of forest stands in the Northeast is examined through consideration of the forest stand, stand development, intermediate cuttings, and regeneration methods. It is concluded that even-aged silviculture is quite applicable in the management of forest stands in the Northeast.

  19. The paradoxical evolution of runoff in the pastoral Sahel: analysis of the hydrological changes over the Agoufou watershed (Mali using the KINEROS-2 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, the Sahel has witnessed a paradoxical increase in surface water despite a general precipitation decline. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as the Sahelian paradox, is not completely understood yet. The role of cropland expansion due to the increasing food demand by a growing population has been often put forward to explain this situation for the cultivated Sahel. However, this hypothesis does not hold in pastoral areas where the same phenomenon is observed. Several other processes, such as the degradation of natural vegetation following the major droughts of the 1970s and the 1980s, the development of crusted topsoils, the intensification of the rainfall regime and the development of the drainage network, have been suggested to account for this situation. In this paper, a modeling approach is proposed to explore, quantify and rank different processes that could be at play in pastoral Sahel. The kinematic runoff and erosion model (KINEROS-2 is applied to the Agoufou watershed (245 km2, in the Gourma region in Mali, which underwent a significant increase of surface runoff during the last 60 years. Two periods are simulated, the past case (1960–1975 preceding the Sahelian drought and the present case (2000–2015. Surface hydrology and land cover characteristics for these two periods are derived by the analysis of aerial photographs, available in 1956, and high-resolution remote sensing images in 2011. The major changes identified are (1 a partial crusting of isolated dunes, (2 an increase of drainage network density, (3 a marked decrease in vegetation with the nonrecovery of tiger bush and vegetation growing on shallow sandy soils, and (4 important changes in soil properties with the apparition of impervious soils instead of shallow sandy soil. The KINEROS-2 model was parameterized to simulate these changes in combination or independently. The results obtained by this model display a significant increase in annual

  20. Livestock induces strong spatial heterogeneity of soil CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions within a semi-arid sylvo-pastoral landscape in West Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed H ASSOUMA; Dominique SER(C)A; Frédéric GU(E)RIN; Vincent BLANFORT; Philippe LECOMTE; Ibra TOUR(E); Alexandre ICKOWICZ

    2017-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the surface soils and surface water receiving animal excreta may be important components of the GHG balance of terrestrial ecosystems,but the associated processes are poorly documented in tropical environments,especially in tropical arid and semi-arid areas.A typical sylvo-pastoral landscape in the semi-arid zone of Senegal,West Africa,was investigated in this study.The study area (706 km2 of managed pastoral land) was a circular zone with a radius of 15 km centered on a borehole used to water livestock.The landscape supports a stocking rate ranging from 0.11 to 0.39 tropical livestock units per hectare depending on the seasonal movements of the livestock.Six landscape units were investigated (land in the vicinity of the borehole,natural ponds,natural rangelands,forest plantations,settlements,and enclosed plots).Carbon dioxide (CO2),nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) fluxes were measured with static chambers set up at 13 sites covering the six landscape units,and the 13 sites are assumed to be representative of the spatial heterogeneity of the emissions.A total of 216 fluxes were measured during the one-year study period (May 2014 to April 2015).At the landscape level,soits and surface water emitted an average 19.8 t C-CO2 eq/(hm2·a) (CO2:82%,N2O:15%,and CH4:3%),but detailed results revealed notable spatial heterogeneity of GHG emissions.CO2 fluxes ranged from 1148.2 (±91.6) mg/(m2·d) in rangelands to 97,980.2 (±14,861.7) mg/(m2·d) in surface water in the vicinity of the borehole.N2O fluxes ranged from 0.6 (±0.1) mg/(m2·d) in forest plantations to 22.6 (±10.8) mg/(m2·d) in the vicinity of the borehole.CH4 fluxes ranged from-3.2 (±0.3) mg/(m2·d) in forest plantations to 8788.5 (±2295.9) mg/(m2·d) from surface water in the vicinity of the borehole.This study identified GHG emission "hot spots" in the landscape.Emissions from the surface soilts were significantly higher in the landscape units most frequently