Aislamiento e identificación de cepas de Azospirillum sp. en pasto guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. del Valle del Cesar Isolation and identification of Azospirillum sp. in Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. of the Valle del Cesar
Diana M Cárdenas
Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de factores ambientales del Valle del Cesar y el manejo agronómico del pasto guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq., sobre la población bacteriana del género Azospirillum en medios de cultivo semisólidos NFb y LGI, para lo cual se utilizó un diseño experimental en parcelas divididas con un arreglo factorial de 2 (épocas climáticas: lluvia y sequía x 2 (manejos agronómicos: agroecólogico y extractivo x 3 (muestras analizadas: suelo rizosférico, raíces y hojas. Los resultados no revelaron diferencias estadísticas significativas, lo que indica que esta bacteria puede mantener su población en condiciones de estrés por diferentes mecanismos fisiológicos. A partir de estas muestras se obtuvieron 16 aislamientos pertenecientes al género Azospirillum, a los cuales se les evaluó su actividad de reducción de acetileno como indicador de la fijación biológica de nitrógeno y su capacidad en la producción de compuestos indólicos como promotores del crecimiento vegetal. Se seleccionaron las cepas SRGM2, SRGM3 y SRGM4 obtenidas de muestras de suelo rizosférico de pasto guinea de la Estación Experimental Motilonia de Corpoica, municipio Agustín Codazzi, departamento del Cesar. Estos aislamientos se caracterizaron molecularmente por el gen 16S rRNA y según el análisis BLAST en la base de datos del GenBank y presentaron 93% de similitud con A. lipoferum (SRGM2 y SRGM3 y 94% con A. brasilense (SRGM4.The effect of environmental factors of the Valle del Cesar and the agronomic management of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq., on the bacterial population of the Azospirillum genus in semisolid NFb and LGI culture media was evaluated, for which an experimental design was used in divided plots with a 2 (climatic seasons: rainy and dry x 2 (agronomic managements: agroecological and extractive x 3 (analyzed samples: rhizospheric soil, roots and leaves factorial arrangement. The results did not reveal significant statistical
Bertín Maurilio Joaquín Torres; Miguel Angel Moreno Carrillo; Santiago Joaquín Cancino; Alfonso Hernández Garay; Jorge Pérez Pérez; Armando Gómez Vázquez
El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4 en el rendimiento y calidad de semilla en Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. El experimento se realizó durante el 2001 en Tejupilco, Estado de México. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron, T1=testigo, T2=4 mg L-1 de ingrediente activo (i.a.) aplicados al inicio de antesis, T3=4 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados antes del espigamiento e inicio de antesis, T4=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados al inicio de antesis, T5=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados ante...
Joaquín Torres, Bertin Maurilio; Moreno Carrillo, Miguel Angel; Joaquín Cancino, Santiago; Hernández Garay, Alfonso; Pérez Pérez, Jorge; Gómez Vázquez, Armando
El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4 en el rendimiento y calidad de semilla en Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. El experimento se realizó durante el 2001 en Tejupilco, Estado de México. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron: T1=testigo; T2=4 mg L-1 de ingrediente activo (i.a.) aplicados al inicio de antesis; T3=4 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados antes del espigamiento e inicio de antesis; T4=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados al inicio de antesis; T5=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados ante...
Bertín Maurilio Joaquín Torres
Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4 en el rendimiento y calidad de semilla en Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. El experimento se realizó durante el 2001 en Tejupilco, Estado de México. Los tratamientos evaluados fueron, T1=testigo, T2=4 mg L-1 de ingrediente activo (i.a. aplicados al inicio de antesis, T3=4 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados antes del espigamiento e inicio de antesis, T4=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados al inicio de antesis, T5=8 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados antes del espigamiento e inicio de antesis y T6=12 mg L-1 de i.a. aplicados únicamente al inicio de antesis. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar, con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó el rendimiento de semilla total (RST, rendimiento de semilla pura (RSP, número de panículas m-2, longitud de panícula, semillas producidas y cosechadas por panícula, peso de 1,000 semillas y germinación. Se detectaron diferencias (P0.05 entre tratamientos. Se concluye que la fitohormona esteroidal cidef-4 incrementó el rendimiento de semilla de P. maximum cv. tanzania, independientemente de la concentración y momento de aplicación. La calidad de la semilla, no fue afectada por ninguno de los tratamientos evaluados.
Full Text Available En un suelo Pardo sialítico del subtipo Cambisol cálcico, localizado en la Empresa Pecuaria «Calixto García», en la provincia de Holguín, se estudio la producción de semilla de guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq. en un sistema intensivo de ceba de ganado vacuno, en condiciones de riego. Los tratamientos fueron cinco variedades del pasto guinea: A Común; B Likoni; C Mombasa; D Tanzania; y E Tobiatá. Los siguientes métodos se consideraron a su vez como subtratamientos: 1 Siembra con semilla gámica; 2 Plantación por macollas; y 3 Por vía de trasplante. La carga se mantuvo ajustada a 2 UGM/ha. En la producción de semillas existieron interacciones favorables entre los métodos de siembra y las variedades: semilla gámica-guinea Likoni; macolla-guinea Mombasa, Tanzania y Tobiatá; trasplante-guinea Común. En todo el sistema de explotación se obtuvo un aporte adicional superior a los $1 000/ha por concepto de producción de semilla, sin afectar la producción animal, en la que se obtuvieron ganancias superiores a los 800 g/animal/día y producciones promedio de 46 212 t de carne en pie por ciclo de ceba. Se considera factible la producción de semilla del pasto guinea en sistemas intensivos de ceba de ganado vacuno.On a sialitic Brown soil of the calcic Cambisol subtype, located at the «Calixto García» Livestock Production Enterprise, in the Holguín province, the production of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. was studied in an intensive cattle fattening system, with irrigation. The treatments were five varieties of Guinea grass: A Common; B Likoni; C Mombasa; D Tanzania; and E Tobiatá. The following methods were considered, in turn, sub-treatments: 1 Seeding with gamic seed; 2 Planting with tillers; and 3 Transplanting. The stocking rate remained adjusted at 2 animals/ha. In seed production there were favorable interactions between the planting methods and the varieties: gamic seed-Guinea grass Likoni; tiller-Guinea grass
The objectives of this experiment were to determine dry matter yield and competitiveness of alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) in intercropping. The experiment was arranged in factorial combinations of four planting proportions, two levels of nitrogen fertilization and three harvesting intervals with three replications. Planting proportions were 0, 33.3, 66.7, and 100% of alang-alang (planting densities of 0, 1, 2 and 3 plants/pot) combined with 100, 66.7, 33...
Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar la composición y degradabilidad ruminal in vitro de la materia seca, materia orgánica y materia inorgánica de los ensilajes de pasto saboya con los tratamientos T1: Pasto saboya 90%+cáscara de maracuyá 10%; T2: Pasto saboya 80%+cáscara de maracuyá 20%; T3: Pasto saboya 70%+cáscara de maracuyá 30% y T4: Pasto saboya 60%+cáscara de maracuyá 40%. Se utilizó el método de microensilaje (silos PVC de 3 kg de capacidad provistos de una válvula bunsen y mecanismo de extracción de efluentes y la técnica de degradación in vitro con el sistema de incubación DAISY II, empleando el líquido ruminal de bovinos brahman de 500±25 kg de peso promedio. Se aplicó un Diseño Completamente al Azar con seis repeticiones. El nivel de inclusión de maracuyá mejoró el contenido de nutrientes en el ensilaje, incrementando la materia orgánica, la proteína bruta y la grasa bruta y disminuyendo las fracciones de fibra. La degradabilidad de la materia seca, materia orgánica y materia inorgánica fue superior (p
Lajonchere, G.; Mesa, A.R.; Prieto, M.; Sánchez-Quiroz, E.
In order to select the adequate radiosensibility criterion and useful dosis were studied the effects of gamma radiation on the embryogenic callus of guinea cv. K-249. The application dosages were 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 and 400 Gy and the measures evaluated were: increase of fresh mass of the callus in fresh medium, number of shoots, plantlets and total by callus and by gram of callus in regeneration medium. It was determined that the curves shaped with the number of shoots, plantlets and total by callus and by gram of callus were more radiosensible than that shoped with increase of fresh mass of the callus; as criterion of radiosensibility in this cultivar the total number of shoots and plantlets from gram of callus was selected for it's simplicity and veracity as much as in the evaluation and in the results. The useful dosis that determined one GR 10, 20, 50 and 70 percent were 16, 20, 29 and 160 Gy respectively. Albino shoots were also observed whose values were randomizely showed and it was observed albinism in 0 dosis. (author) [es
Juan Humberto Avellaneda Cevallos
Full Text Available Se evaluó la degradabilidad in vitro de la materia seca (MS de las hojas, tallos y planta completa de cuatro variedades de pasto Guinea (Panicum maximum: Común, Tanzania, Enano y Tobiata en cuatro edades de cosecha (21, 42, 63 y 84 d. Se evaluó la composición química de las variedades. Para la digestibilidad in vitro, se empleó la primera fase de la técnica de Tilley y Terry, para lo cual se extrajo líquido ruminal de dos bovinos Brown Swiss canulados a rumen. Se evaluaron seis periodos de incubación (3, 6, 12, 24, 48 y 72 h. Para la cinética de degradación in vitro, se aplicó un diseño de bloques completos al azar (DBCA, utilizando a la corrida (2 como criterio de bloqueo y repetición; se usó una incubadora DaisyII 200 y una bolsita de degradabilidad por corrida. Se observó que la mejor degradabilidad in vitro se presenta en los primeros estadios fenológicos, y que las hojas demuestran mayores características nutricionales, seguida de la planta completa y tallos. Se demostró que las diferencias en degradabilidad no están fuertemente asociadas con la variedad de Panicum maximum, sino más bien con la edad de cosecha. Por lo que se concluye, que la degradabilidad in vitro de las variedades de pasto Guinea, difieren en función del estado de madurez de la planta.
Acumulación de hojarasca en un pastizal de Panicum maximum y en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala Litter accumulation in a Panicum maximum grassland and in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes "Indio Hatuey", Matanzas, Cuba, con el objetivo de determinar la acumulación de la hojarasca en un pastizal de Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Likoni y en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham. En los pastizales de P. maximum de ambos sistemas se determinó la acumulación de la hojarasca según la técnica propuesta por Bruce y Ebershon (1982, mientras que la hojarasca de L. leucocephala acumulada en el sistema silvopastoril se determinó según Santa Regina et al. (1997. De forma general, los resultados demostraron que en ambos pastizales la guinea acumuló una menor cantidad de hojarasca durante el período junio-diciembre, etapa en la que se produce su mayor desarrollo vegetativo. En la leucaena la mayor producción de hojarasca ocurrió en el período de diciembre a enero, asociada con la caída natural de sus hojas que se produce por efecto de las temperaturas más bajas y la escasa humedad en el suelo. En el sistema silvopastoril la hojarasca de leucaena representó el mayor porcentaje de peso dentro de la producción total, con un contenido más alto de nitrógeno y de calcio que el de la hojarasca del estrato herbáceo. En la guinea la lluvia fue el factor climático que mayor correlación negativa presentó con la producción de hojarasca en ambos sistemas, y en la leucaena la mayor correlación negativa se encontró con la temperatura mínima.A study was carried out at the Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages "Indio Hatuey", Matanzas, Cuba, with the objective of determining the litter accumulation in a pastureland of Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Likoni and in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham. In the P. maximum pasturelands of both systems the litter accumulation was determined by means of the technique proposed by Bruce and Ebershon (1982, while
Jiamjitrpanich, Waraporn; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Laurent, François; Kosanlavit, Rachain
This study was designed to compare the initial method for phytoremediation involving germination and transplantation. The study was also to determine the tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum (Purple guinea grass) and Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil. It was found that the transplantation of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus was more suitable than germination as the initiate method of nano-phytoremediation potting test. The study also showed that Panicum maximum was more tolerance than Helianthus annuus in TNT and nZVI-contaminated soil. Therefore, Panicum maximum in the transplantation method should be selected as a hyperaccumulated plant for nano-phytoremediation potting tests. Maximum tolerance dosage of Panicum maximum to TNT-concentration soil was 320 mg/kg and nZVI-contaminated soil was 1000 mg/kg in the transplantation method.
Ingestion et digestibilité in vivo du Panicum maximum associé à trois compléments: tourteau de Jatophra curcas, tourteau de coton Gossypium hirsutum et Euphorbia heterophylla chez le cobaye Cavia porcellus L
Full Text Available The Intake and the in vivo Digestibility of Panicum maximum Associated with Three Supplements: Jatophra curcas Cake, Gossypium hirsutum Cake and Euphorbia heterophylla (Euph in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.. The intake and the in vivo digestibility of Panicum maximum associated with three supplements: Jatropha curcas cake, Gossypium hirsutum cake and Euphorbia heterophylla (Euph in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus L. pigs, its association with Panicum maximum could be popularized wherever its abundance has been reported. In order used weed Euphorbia heterophylla in guinea pigs diet, comparative study of the intake and the in vivo digestibility of four treatments, Panicum maximum (Pan, Panicum maximum and Gossypium hirsutum cake (Pancoton, Panicum maximum and Euphorbia heterophylla (Paneuph and Panicum maximum and Jatropha curcas cake (Panjatro, in male guinea pigs were conducted in Yamoussoukro (Ivory Coast. The means of the intake (g DM/d were 64.8 ± 12.5; 74.3 ± 12.9; 73.7 ± 17.8 and 69.1 ± 12.3 respectively for Pan, Pancoton, Paneuph and Panjatro. Pancoton and Paneuph were significantly better ingested than Pan and Panjatro. Euphorbia heterophylla was significantly better ingested than the other two supplements (P< 0.05 and the mean daily weight gain with its association with Panicum maximum of 3.1 ± 0.6 g/d. The rate of substitution of Panicum maximum by Euphorbia heterophylla was nearly to one (1. The apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC for dry (68.0 ± 10.5% and organic matter (84.1 ± 5.2% of Paneuph were significantly higher (P< 0.05 than the ADC's for the other three treatments. Given the nutritional value of Euphorbia heterophylla in guinea pigs, its association with Panicum maximum could be popularized wherever its abundance has been reported.
Etude comparative de la digestibilité in vivo de l'herbe de guinée (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée aux feuilles et tiges de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (régime Panipo) ou à l'herbe de lait (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) (régime Paneuph) chez le lapin (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) et le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.)
Kouakou, NGDV.; Kouba, M.; Thys, E.
Digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (Panipo diet) or poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L.) (Paneuph diet) in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L.) and in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.). A comparative study of in vivo digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) (Panipo diet) or with poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L.)...
Juenger, Thomas [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Integrative Biology; Wolfrum, Ed [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Our DOE funded project focused on characterizing natural variation in C4 perennial grasses including switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and Hall’s panicgrass (Panicum hallii). The main theme of our project was to better understand traits linked with plant performance and that impact the utility of plant biomass as a biofuel feedstock. In addition, our project developed tools and resources for studying genetic variation in Panicum hallii. Our project successfully screened both Panicum virgatum and Panicum hallii diverse natural collections for a host of phenotypes, developed genetic mapping populations for both species, completed genetic mapping for biofuel related traits, and helped in the development of genomic resources of Panicum hallii. Together, these studies have improved our understanding of the role of genetic and environmental factors in impacting plant performance. This information, along with new tools, will help foster the improvement of perennial grasses for feedstock applications.
Jan 31, 2012 ... A true measure of forage quality is animal ... The anti-nutritional contents of a pasture could be ... nutrient factors in P. maximum; (2) assess the effect of nitrogen ..... 3. http://www.clemson.edu/Fairfield/local/news/quality.
Descomposición de la hojarasca en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: I. Influencia de su composición química Litter decomposition in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: I. Influence of their chemical composition
Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la descomposición de la hojarasca y su relación con la composición química de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala en un sistema silvopastoril, se realizó este experimento en la EEPF "Indio Hatuey". La descomposición de la hojarasca se determinó como la pérdida de biomasa a través del tiempo, con relación al peso inicial. Para el estudio de la dinámica de la descomposición se utilizó el método de bolsas de hojarasca (litter bags. En cada especie se presentó un patrón diferente de descomposición de la hojarasca; la tasa promedio de descomposición de la hojarasca en leucaena fue mayor que en la guinea. En ambas especies se encontró una rápida pérdida de peso durante los primeros 30 días y después el proceso fue más lento. Este comportamiento puede estar relacionado con la composición química de los pastos, pues el porcentaje de biomasa perdida de la hojarasca de L. leucocephala presentó una mayor correlación con las concentraciones del contenido celular, la relación lignina/nitrógeno, la celulosa y el Nt. Se observó una dependencia significativa y negativa de la hojarasca de P. maximum con las concentraciones de la FND y la hemicelulosa; mientras que se relacionó de forma positiva con las de N-FND y la relación lignina/nitrógenoWith the objective of determining the litter decomposition and its relationship to the chemical composition of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala in a silvopastoral system, this trial was conducted at the EEPF «Indio Hatuey». Litter decomposition was determined as biomass loss through time, with regards to initial weight. For studying the decomposition dynamics, the method of litter bags was used. In each species a different litter decomposition pattern appeared; the average litter decomposition rate was higher in leucaena than in Guinea grass. Rapid weight loss was found in both species during the first 30 days and afterwards the process was slower
Full Text Available Effect of Panicum maximum on Productivity of Primiparous Females during Reproduction Cycle in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.. In Ivory Coast, Guinea pigs reared for meat (Cavia porcellus L. are mainly fed with Panicum maximum. To assess the effect of the latter during pregnancy and lactation (RC of these animals, primiparous dams were fed ad libitum, Panicum maximum alone during the RC (MOD1 or associated with pellets for rabbits during lactation (MOD2, or associated with pellets for rabbits during the last part of the pregnancy period and the lactation (MOD3, or associated with pellets for rabbits during the entire RC (MOD4. The number of corpora lutea per female was 1.3 ± 0.5 and 2.0 ± 0.0 respectively for MOD1 and MOD4. No pre-embryonic mortality was recorded. The mean weight of the young guinea pigs of MOD1 (54.7 ± 10. g was only 55% of that of MOD4 (98.6 ± 13.6 g. At weaning, the average weight gain of young guinea pigs of MOD1 (40.5 ± 22.2 g represented a third of those obtained with other diets that did not significantly differ. At the end of RC, the weight gain of dams was 17 ± 13.3% for MOD1 compared to 50% for MOD2, MOD3 and MOD4. Feeding Panicum maximum alone induces chronic malnutrition which in turn is responsible of the low ovulation rate and reduced growth in guinea pig breeding.
Ospina S. Claudia Marcela
Full Text Available Los colémbolos son artrópodos muy pequeños, sin alas, similares a los insectos y extremadamente abundantes en gran cantidad de hábitat, siendo uno de los grupos de hexápodos mejor representados en el mundo. Son muy importantes por su influencia sobre la estructura de algunos suelos, no pocos viven en el dosel de las selvas tropicales y algunos actúan como dispersores de esporas dentro de los troncos en descomposición. En Colombia existen muy pocos estudios de reconocimiento de colémbolos. En la literatura se registran 12 especies en dos localidades cerca de Buenaventura, agrupadas en 5 familias; así mismo, han sido reconocidas en diferentes estudios otras 7 especies que actúan como plagas en Musáceas y en flores cultivadas. Con el fin de contribuir al conocimiento de las familias de Collembola asociadas con suelos de pastos cultivados en el departamento de Antioquia se hicieron muestreos en tres zonas de vida de Holdridge (bh-P, bh-MB y bs-T en pastos Guinea ( Panicum maximum, Ángleton
Los colémbolos son artrópodos muy pequeños,
sin alas, similares a los insectos y extremadamente
abundantes en gran cantidad de hábitat, siendo
uno de los grupos de hexápodos mejor representados
en el mundo. Son muy importantes por su influencia
sobre la estructura de algunos suelos, no pocos viven en
el dosel de las selvas tropicales y algunos actúan como
dispersores de esporas dentro de los troncos en descomposición.
En Colombia existen muy pocos estudios de
reconocimiento de colémbolos. En la literatura se registran
12 especies en dos localidades cerca de Buenaventura,
agrupadas en 5 familias; así mismo, han sido
reconocidas en diferentes estudios otras 7 especies que
actúan como plagas en Musáceas y en flores cultivadas.
Con el fin de contribuir al conocimiento de las familias
de Collembola asociadas con suelos de pastos cultivados
en el departamento de Antioquia se hicieron muestreos
en tres zonas de vida de Holdridge (bh-P, bh-MB
y bs-T en pastos Guinea (
Panicum maximum, Ángleton
H. M. Bacab
Full Text Available Una de las prácticas importantes de manejo en los sistemas de Leucaena leucocephala asociada con pastos tropicales, como Panicum maximum, es la poda; en la actualidad se continúan los estudios para determinar los efectos de esta práctica en el componente arbóreo y herbáceo. Por todo ello, en el presente trabajo se evaluó el efecto de tres alturas de poda en Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham y su influencia en la pastura asociada (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania. El estudio se realizó en la época poco lluviosa del año (marzo a mayo de 2010, se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar con cuatro repeticiones. Al inicio del experimento se asignaron los tratamientos (alturas de poda de 20, 40 y 60 cm sobre el nivel del suelo para Leucaena leucocephala. En el caso de Panicum maximum, se realizó una poda a 5 cm sobre el nivel del suelo en todas las parcelas experimentales. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que la poda de la leguminosa a 40 y 60 cm permitió obtener brotes de mayor talla, sin afectar a la gramínea asociada. De igual manera, al incrementar la altura de poda, la leguminosa presentó mayor rendimiento y proporción de forraje comestible; sin embargo, se afectó negativamente a la pastura asociada. Ante ello, considerándose el aspecto animal, se recomienda no reducir la altura de poda de Leucaena leucocephala a menos de 40 cm, ya que se reduce significativamente el rendimiento y la proporción de forraje comestible de esta leguminosa, el cual es de mayor calidad para la alimentación animal.
Marcos Weber do Canto
Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar alturas de manejo do pasto (20, 40, 60 e 80 cm em capim-tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq., em regime de lotação contínua, nas características do dossel e acúmulo de matéria seca. Os animais utilizados foram novilhos Nelore (Bos indicus, e a taxa de lotação foi variável. Foram avaliados: a massa de forragem, a massa de lâmina de folha verde, a razão folha:colmo, a composição morfológica e a taxa de acúmulo de matéria seca. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. A massa de forragem aumentou linearmente com o aumento da altura do pasto. As médias de massa de forragem foram 2.767, 3.105, 3.657 e 4.436 kg ha-1, respectivamente, para as alturas de 20, 40, 60 e 80 cm. As taxas de acúmulo de matéria seca, a 20, 40, 60 e 80 cm, foram, respectivamente, 104, 108, 90 e 81 kg ha-1 por dia, o que indica que houve redução dessas taxas com a elevação da altura do pasto. A razão folha:colmo decresceu linearmente com o aumento da altura do pasto. Pastagens de capim-tanzânia, sob lotação contínua ao final da primavera e durante o verão, devem ser utilizadas entre 40 e 60 cm de altura.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate different sward height (20, 40, 60 e 80 cm in Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. pastures managed under continuous stocking. The animals used were Nellore steers, and the control of sward height was done with put-and-take techniques. Evaluations were made for: forage mass, green leaf mass, leaf:stem ratio, morphological composition and dry matter accumulation rate. The experimental design was completely randomized with two replications. Forage mass increased linearly with sward height with overall mean of 2,767, 3,105, 3,657 and 4,436 kg ha-1 at sward heights 20, 40, 60 and 80 cm, respectively. Rates of dry matter accumulation decreased with increasing sward heights and were 104, 108, 90 and 81 kg ha-1 per day for sward
Omar RamÃrez Reynoso
Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar el flujo de tejidos y rendimiento por corte del pasto Mombaza (Panicum maximum Jacq., cosechado a tres intervalos de corte (IC: 3, 5 y 7 semanas, durante un aÃ±o, en las Ã©pocas de sequÃa (10-nov-2006 a 09-jun-2007 y lluvias (10-jun a 06-nov-2007. Los tratamientos (IC se distribuyeron en 12 parcelas de 17.5 m2, mediante un diseÃ±o de bloques completos al azar, con cuatro repeticiones. El IC de 3 semanas promediÃ³ mayor tasa de apariciÃ³n de hojas (0.185 hojas tallo-1 d-1 durante el estudio (P
Valéria Pacheco Batista Euclides
Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar o consumo de matéria seca de animais pastejando três cultivares de Panicum maximum e relacioná-lo com ganho de peso, tempo de pastejo (TP e algumas características químicas e estruturais do pasto. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com três tratamentos e três repetições. O consumo voluntário de matéria seca (CVMS foi estimado em quatro ocasiões (maio, setembro, novembro e fevereiro. Para calcular a produção de fezes, foi usado o óxido crômico como marcador externo. Foram estimados a digestibilidade in situ da matéria seca e o tempo de pastejo, respectivamente, por intermédio de extrusas e tacógrafos. Foram estimadas as disponibilidades da forragem e dos componentes da planta. Apesar de os CVMS pelos animais terem sido semelhantes entre as cultivares, foram observadas maiores diferenças nos ganhos de peso, para os animais pastejando o capim Tanzânia, seguidos daqueles pastejando os capins Colonião e Tobiatã. Diferenças também foram observadas entre as cultivares para TP, que foi menor para os animais em pasto de Tobiatã, quando comparados aos que pastejaram as outras duas cultivares. O aumento no TP observado durante o período da seca não foi suficiente para impedir queda no consumo de forragem neste período. O CVMS foi correlacionado (r² = 0,77 com ganho diário de peso. As características estruturais das pastagens, disponibilidade de folhas e relação material verde:material morto, influenciaram mais o CVMS, ganho de peso diário e TP que os valores nutritivos das mesmas.The objectives of this work were to estimate the dry matter intake by animals grazing three cultivars of Panicum maximum, and to relate it to live weight gain, grazing time (GT and some structural and chemical characteristics of the pastures. The experimental design was the randomized block with three treatments and three replicates. The dry matter voluntary intake (DMVI was
Full Text Available Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. is a tropical African grass often used to feed beef cattle, which is an important economic activity in Brazil. Brazil is the leader in global meat exportation because of its exclusively pasture-raised bovine herds. Guinea grass also has potential uses in bioenergy production due to its elevated biomass generation through the C4 photosynthesis pathway. We generated approximately 13 Gb of data from Illumina sequencing of P. maximum leaves. Four different genotypes were sequenced, and the combined reads were assembled de novo into 38,192 unigenes and annotated; approximately 63% of the unigenes had homology to other proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Functional classification through COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups, GO (Gene Ontology and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses showed that the unigenes from Guinea grass leaves are involved in a wide range of biological processes and metabolic pathways, including C4 photosynthesis and lignocellulose generation, which are important for cattle grazing and bioenergy production. The most abundant transcripts were involved in carbon fixation, photosynthesis, RNA translation and heavy metal cellular homeostasis. Finally, we identified a number of potential molecular markers, including 5,035 microsatellites (SSRs and 346,456 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the complete leaf transcriptome of P. maximum using high-throughput sequencing. The biological information provided here will aid in gene expression studies and marker-assisted selection-based breeding research in tropical grasses.
Martins, Douglas F.; Vieira, Julia G.; Pasquini, Daniel
In this work are presented studies of the extraction of cellulose whiskers from Panicum grass fibers (Panicum maximum) by acid hydrolysis performed with H 2 SO 4 11.22 M. The fibers used in the hydrolysis process were previously purified and the efficiency of the purification process was evaluated by determining the lignin content by Klason method, before and after purification. The hydrolysis was performed at 40 degree C for 30 minutes. The whiskers were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was verified a reduction in the crystallinity index and also a reduction of the degradation temperature of the whiskers in relation to the purified grass Panicum fibers. (author)
Morphogenic and structural characteristics of guinea grass pastures submitted to three frequencies and two defoliation severities Características morfogênicas e estruturais de pastos de capim-tanzânia submetidos a três frequências e duas severidades de desfolhação
Rodrigo Amorim Barbosa
Full Text Available It was evaluated the morphogenic and structural characteristics of guinea grass under rotational at three grazing intervals and two defoliation intensities. Grazing intervals corresponded to the time needed by the forage canopy to reach 90, 95 or 100% of incident light interception during regrowth and they were evaluated combined to two defoliation severities (post-grazing conditions, 25 and 50 cm of height, being allocated to experimental units according to a complete randomized design, with three replicates and 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. The experiment was conducted from July 2003 to May 2004. For evaluation of morphogenetic and structural characteristics, ten tillers per experimental unit were selected. Morphogenetic and structural characteristics were strongly influenced by seasons of the year inasmuch as leaf elongation rate increased 3.5 fold from winter to summer. In addition to year season effect, there was also an effect of defoliation frequencies on tiller population density, which was greater in the defoliation period corresponding to 90% of light interception, especially if evaluated in relation to the interval corresponding to 100% of light interception. Defoliation frequency is determinant in expression of phenotypic plasticit, acting on the control of stem elongation.Foram avaliadas as características morfogênicas e estruturais do capim-tanzânia sob lotação rotativa em três intervalos de pastejo e duas severidades de desfolhação. Os intervalos de pastejo corresponderam aos tempos necessários para que o dossel forrageiro atingisse 90, 95 ou 100% de interceptação da luz incidente, durante a rebrotação e foram avaliados em combinação a duas severidades de desfolhação (condições pós-pastejo, 25 e 50 cm de altura, sendo alocados às unidades experimentais segundo um delineamento de blocos completos casualizados, com três repetições e arranjo fatorial 3 × 2. O experimento foi realizado de julho de 2003 a maio
Several grasses in the Panicum genus have been reported to cause hepatogenous photosensitization in animals throughout the world. In the United States, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been reported to cause hepatogenous photosensitization in lambs and horses. In Brazil, cultivars of Panicum ...
Panicum maximum Jacq. is an important forage grass of African origin largely used in the tropics. The genetic breeding of this species is based on the hybridization of sexual and apomictic genotypes and selection of apomictic F1 hybrids. The objective of this work was to identify molecular markers linked to apomixis in P.
... decrease the starch level. These observations are discussed in relation to the photosynthetic characteristics of P. maximum. Keywords: accumulation; botany; carbon assimilation; co2 fixation; growth conditions; mesophyll; metabolites; nitrogen; nitrogen levels; nitrogen supply; panicum maximum; plant physiology; starch; ...
Sumarsih, S.; Sulistiyanto, B.; Utama, C. S.
The aim of the research was to evaluate microbiological quality of Panicum maximum grass silage with addition Lactobacillus sp as starter. The completely randomized design was been used on this research with 4 treaments and 3 replications. The treatments were P0 ( Panicum maximum grass silage without addition Lactobacillus sp ), P1 ( Panicum maximum grass silage with 2% addition Lactobacillus sp), P2 (Panicum maximum grass silage with 4% addition Lactobacillus sp) and P3 (Panicum maximum grass silage with 6% addition Lactobacillus sp).The parameters were microbial populations of Panicum maximum grass silage (total lactic acid bacteria, total bacteria, total fungi, and Coliform bacteria. The data obtained were analyzed variance (ANOVA) and further tests performed Duncan’s Multiple Areas. The population of lactic acid bacteria was higher (PMicrobiological quality of Panicum maximum grass silage with addition Lactobacillus sp was better than no addition Lactobacillus sp.
Equatorial Guinea is situated on the Gulf of Guinea along the west African coast between Cameroon and Gabon. The people are predominantly of Bantu origin. The country's ties with Spain are significant; in 1959, it became the Spanish Equatorial region ruled by Spain's commissioner general. Recent political developments in Equatorial Guinea include the formation of the Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea in July of 1987 and the formation of a 60-member unicameral Chamber of Representatives of the People in 1983. Concerning the population, 83% of the people are Catholic and the official language is Spanish. Poverty and serious health, education and sanitary problems exist. There is no adequate hospital and few trained physicians, no dentists, and no opticians. Malaria is endemic and immunization for yellow fever is required for entrance into the country. The water is not potable and many visitors to the country bring bottled water. The tropical climate of Equatorial Guinea provides the climate for the country's largest exports and source of economy; cacao, wood and coffee. Although the country, as a whole, has progressed towards developing a participatory political system, there are still problems of governmental corruption in the face of grave health and welfare conditions. In recent years, the country has received assistance from the World Bank and the United States to aid in its development.
Etude comparative de la digestibilité in vivo de l'herbe de guinée (Panicum maximum Jacq. associée aux feuilles et tiges de patate douce (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (régime Panipo ou à l'herbe de lait (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (régime Paneuph chez le lapin (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. et le cobaye (Cavia porcellus L.
Full Text Available Digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (Panipo diet or poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Paneuph diet in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. and in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus L.. A comparative study of in vivo digestibility of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. associated with sweet potato leaves and stems (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam (Panipo diet or with poison milk (Euphorbia heterophylla L. (Paneuph diet was conducted involving 16 rabbits and 16 weaned guinea pigs fed ad libitum. Paneuph was significantly better ingested (P0.05 for guinea pigs. Poison milk was better ingested than the leaves and stems of sweet potato (P0.05. The ADC of DM, OM and MAT of Paneuph exceeded 80% and were higher than those of Panipo in rabbits and guinea pigs (P<0.05. Based on the results obtained, the effects of the distribution of the Guinea grass associated with the poison milk during rabbits growing have to be further studied before recommending this new diet to farmers in areas where poison milk and Guinea grass are present and rabbit breeding enough developed.
Bystrzejewska-Nowacka, G.; Nowacka, R.
The plant of three species (Zea mays L., Panicum miliaceum L. and Panicum maximum Jacq.) were grown on the soil contaminated with 0.3 mM CsCl solution traced with 137 Cs, in greenhouse. For all the species, the fresh-to-dry weight ratio was equal in the cesium-treated plants and in the central group after 3 weeks of culture. The shoot-to root fresh weight and dry weight ratios were decreased in maize, unchanged in Panicum miliaceum and increased in Panicum maximum, comparing to the control without cesium treatment. The shoot/soil and also root/soil transfer (TF) for 137 Cs (measured by means of Na I gamma spectrometer) were always the highest in maize, then lower in Panicum miliaceum and the lowest in Panicum maximum. All the plants seem to be hyperaccumulators of cesium. The root/soil Tf was especially high in maize, i.e. 55 (kBq kg -1 biomass)/kBq Kg -1 soil). The shoot/root concentration factor (CF) for 137 Cs was the lowest in maize, higher in Panicum miliaceum and highest in Panicum maximum. The proved ability of the investigated plants for phytoextraction of the soil cesium points to the (author). The detectability and reliin soil bioremediation. From this point of view, Panicum maximum seems to be the most useful plant because it accumulates cesium mainly in the shoot, and maize would be the least useful spices since it has the highest accumulation in root. (author)
Densidade e qualidade dos estratos de forragem do capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. Cv. Tanzânia-1 manejado em diferentes alturas, sob pastejo Density bulk and quality of Tanzania grass layers (Panicum maximum Jacq.cv. Tanzania-1, at different heights in grazing
Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos
Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 e 78 cm do pasto sobre a qualidade de forragem e estrutura do perfil do capim-Tanzânia, (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia – 1 (Poaceae. Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore sob pastejo com carga animal variável, por meio da técnica put and take. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. A densidade de matéria seca total (DMT aumentou com o avanço no período experimental, enquanto a densidade de matéria seca de lâminas (DML não foi influenciada pelo período e pela altura do pasto. O estrato superior da pastagem foi a porção de maior qualidade, apresentando maior DML e maior teor de PB. Os estratos inferiores apresentaram menor qualidade, devido à maior DMT e menor DML, acarretando em maiores valores de FDA e FDN e menores teores de PB. O conteúdo de minerais das lâminas foi superior aos colmos, mantendo-se inalterado com relação aos estratos da pastagem.The effect of different sward heights (24; 26; 43; 45; 52; 62; 73 and 78 cm on forage quality and profile structure Tanzania grass, Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania – 1 (Poaceae is provided. Nelore steers were used in grazing at variable stocking rates with put and take technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two replications. Total dry matter bulk densitity (TDMD increased during experimental period, while the leaf blade dry matter bulk density (LDMD was not influenced by period on by sward height. The upper layers had the best quality with higher LDMD and CP levels. Lower layers had the worst quality, due the higher TDMD and lower LDMD. This fact caused higher ADF and NDF levels and lower CP levels. Leaf blade mineral content was higher than that of stem, and remained unaltered in relation to the different layers.
Francisco José da Silva Lédo
Full Text Available Objetiva-se com este trabalho estimar a repetibilidade para caracteres forrageiros de Panicum, e determinar o número de cortes de avaliação necessários para a seleção de genótipos de Panicum, com confiabilidade. Utilizaram-se os dados de um ensaio conduzido no período de 21/11/2002 a 08/04/2005, no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Gado de Leite, localizado em Valença-RJ, onde foram realizados 15 cortes de avaliação. No ensaio, foram avaliados 23 genótipos de Panicum maximum, em parcelas experimentais, dispostas no delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três repetições. Foram estimados os coeficientes de repetibilidade para as características produção de matéria verde de forragem (PMV; produção de matéria seca de forragem (PMS e de folhas (PMSF; porcentagem de folhas na PMS (%FOL e altura da planta (AP, utilizando os métodos da análise de variância, componentes principais e análise estrutural. Para todas as características avaliadas os efeitos de genótipos, cortes e interação genótipos x cortes foram significativos (PThe objective of this work was to estimate the repeatability for forage characters of Panicum and to determinate the necessary number of evaluation cuts to select Panicum genotypes with confidence. Data of a trial with 15 cuts, carried out between 21/11/2002 and 08/04/2005 in the experimental station of Embrapa Gado de Leite located in Valença, RJ, Brazil, were used. In this study. 23 genotypes of " Panicum maximum" were evaluated, in a complete randomized block, with three replications. The coefficient of repeatability for fresh forage production (PMV, total plant dry matter production (PMS and leaves dry matter production (PMSF were recorded along with leaves percentage in PMS (%FOL and plant hight (AP, using the variance analysis, main components and structural analysis methods. For all evaluated parameters the effects of genotype, cut and genotype x cut interaction were significant (P<0.01. When
Edwin Giovanny Córdoba-Paz
Full Text Available Este trabajo es resultado de una investigación de corte cuantitativo y de tipo descriptivo-transversal, que buscó describir y asociar factores sociodemográficos con consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en estudiantes de una universidad privada en la ciudad de Pasto, Colombia. Para cumplir el objetivo, se diseñó y validó un cuestionario que luego se aplicó a 242 estudiantes. Los resultados mostraron que el 21,9 % ha consumido algún tipo de sustancia psicoactiva y 12,4 % reporta haberlas consumido simultáneamente con alcohol. La marihuana es la droga más consumida (11,2 %, seguida de cocaína (9,1 %. El consumo de sustancias psicoactivas se asoció significativamente con sexo, siendo los hombres quienes más consumen (p < 0,05. También se asoció con semestre y estrato socioeconómico, es decir, que el consumo de sustancias psicoactivas varía en función de estas variables. Los datos advierten que la marihuana es la principal sustancia de consumo entre universitarios, simultánea al consumo de alcohol. El impacto preventivo debe focalizarse en variables como sexo y semestre.
Hernández Rangel, Juanita del Pilar
Objetivo: determinar los factores sociales, demográficos, y de salud que se asocian al riesgo nutricional de los adultos mayores no institucionalizados de la ciudad de Pasto en el año 2016. Metodología: estudio de prevalencia analítico a partir del análisis secundario de los datos para la ciudad de Pasto de la encuesta “Índice de vulnerabilidad de los adultos mayores, en tres ciudades de Colombia, 2016”. Se utilizó la Iniciativa del Tamizaje Nutricional (NSI) con la escala DETERMINE para l...
Produção de forragem do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 pastejado em diferentes alturas Forage production of Tanzaniagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 grazed at different heights
Clovenilson Cláudio Perissato Cano
Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este experimento, avaliar a massa de forragem (MF, massa de lâmina verde (MLV, massa de colmo + bainha verde (MCV, massa de material morto (MMM, massa de forragem verde (MFV, relação folha/colmo (F/C, taxa de acúmulo de massa seca (TAMS, acúmulo de massa de forragem (AMF, índice de área foliar (IAF, porcentagem de solo descoberto (SD e porcentagem de solo coberto com liteira (SCL em pastagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 manejada em quatro alturas do dossel forrageiro (20, 40, 60 e 80 cm. O método de pastejo utilizado foi o de lotação contínua e taxa de lotação variável, com novilhos da raça Nelore com peso médio de 340 kg. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com duas repetições e realizaram-se cinco avaliações. MLV, MCV, MMM, MFV, MF, IAF, TAMS e AMF aumentaram com o avanço da altura do dossel, sendo que a porcentagem de SD, SCL e material morto diminui em pastos mais altos. O manejo do capim-Tanzânia nas alturas de 40 e 60 cm, apresentou as melhores respostas de composição morfológica, garantindo boa oferta de folhas, de cobertura do solo e taxa de acúmulo de massa seca. As alturas de 20 e 80 cm não devem ser recomendadas para o manejo do capim-Tanzânia quando o objetivo for produção com qualidade e quantidade.This experiment was conducted out to evaluate the forage mass (FM, green leaf lamina mass (GLLM, green stem + leaf sheath mass (GSSM, mass of dead material (MDM, green forage mass (GMF, total forage mass (TFM, leaf/stem ratio (L/S, dry matter accumulation rate (DMAR, leaf area index (LAI, % of bare soil (BS and litter cover percentage (LCP in Tanzaniagrass pasture (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 managed at four different sward heights (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm. The grazing method was the continuous stocking with variable stocking rate, and the grazing animals were Nellore steers with average weight of 340 kg. The completely
Full Text Available Panicum repens e Paspalum repens são espécies infestantes de ambientes úmidos e alagados, freqüentes em margens de lagos, reservatórios, canais de irrigação e drenagem. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de diferentes herbicidas no controle dessas duas espécies. O experimento foi conduzido no Núcleo de Pesquisas Avançadas em Matologia, do Departamento de Produção Vegetal, pertencente à Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas/UNESP, campus de Botucatu-SP. As plantas foram cultivadas em caixas d'água e as pulverizações foram realizadas utilizando-se um pulverizador costal pressurizado a CO2. Os tratamentos testados foram: glyphosate a 2.400, 3.360 e 4.320 g e.a. ha-1 + Aterbane 0,5% v/v, glyphosate a 2.400, 3.360 e 4.320 g e.a. ha-1 + Silwet 0.1% v/v, imazapyr a 750 e 1.500 g e.a. ha-1 e diquat a 400 e 800 g i.a. ha-1 (em aplicações seqüenciais de 200+200 g i.a. ha-1 e 400+400 g i.a. ha-1, além de uma testemunha sem aplicação de herbicidas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Avaliações visuais de controle foram realizadas, sendo a massa seca das plantas determinada ao final do estudo. O herbicida glyphosate na dose de 4.320 g e.a. ha-1, independentemente do adjuvante utilizado, assim como na dose de 3.360 g e.a. ha-1 com Aterbane, proporcionou bom controle de Panicum repens e, em todas as doses e adjuvantes testados, promoveu controle excelente de Paspalum repens. O herbicida imazapyr, independentemente da dose testada, apresentou resultados insatisfatórios no controle das plantas de Panicum repens, porém promoveu um excelente controle de Paspalum repens; o herbicida diquat, apesar das duas aplicações e independentemente da dose utilizada, mostrou-se ineficiente para controle das duas espécies.Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the susceptibility of Panicum repens and Paspalum repens Bergius to different herbicides applied in
Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos
Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of nitrogen levels (N and plant density (D on the tillering dynamics of Tanzania guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with 12 treatments and two replicates in a factorial scheme (4 × 3 with four levels of N (0, 80, 160 or 320 kg ha-1 N and three plant densities (9, 25, and 49 plant m-². Higher number of tillers was observed in the treatment with 9 plants m-² and under higher levels of N, especially in the second and third generations. Still, the N influenced quadratically the appearance rate of basal and total tillers, which were also affected by plant density and interaction N × D. However, the appearance rate of aerial tiller was not influenced by factors evaluated. The mortality rate of total tiller was influenced quadratically by the nitrogen levels and plant densities. The mortality rate of basal tiller responded quadratically to plant density, whereas the mortality rate of aerial tiller increased linearly with fertilization. Pastures with low or intermediate densities fertilized with nitrogen, presented a more intense pattern of tiller renewal. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de doses de nitrogênio (N e densidades de plantas (D sobre a dinâmica de perfilhamento do capim-tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq.. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com 12 tratamentos e duas repetições em esquema fatorial 4 × 3, com quatro doses de N (0, 80, 160 ou 320 kg ha-1 ano-1 e três densidades de plantas (9, 25 ou 49 plantas m-². O número de perfilhos foi maior na densidade de 9 plantas m-² e nas maiores doses de N, principalmente na segunda e terceira gerações. O N influenciou quadraticamente as taxas de aparecimento de perfilhos basilares e totais, que também foram influenciadas pela densidade de plantas e pela interação N × D. A taxa de aparecimento de perfilhos aéreos, no entanto, não foi influenciada pelos fatores
Paulo Francisco Dias
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de mudas sem proteção (de cercas ou estacas de quatro espécies de leguminosas arbóreas e uma mistura eqüitativa dessas espécies, introduzidas em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, na presença de gado. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x5, duas gramíneas (marandu e tanzânia e quatro espécies de leguminosas (Mimosa artemisiana, Pseudosamanea guachapele, Enterolobium contortisiliquum, Acacia farnesiana e uma mistura dessas espécies, com três repetições. Avaliaram-se: altura da muda, diâmetro do caule, diâmetro da copa, sobrevivência da muda, freqüência de pastejo e ocorrência de formigas. As diferenças estatísticas entre as médias da variável canônica principal, pelo teste de Scott-Knott, indicaram a formação de três agrupamentos, tendo-se destacado o grupo formado pelos tratamentos M. artemisiana e mistura de leguminosas, nos dois pastos, mais E. contortisiliquum e A. farnesiana, nos pastos dos capins marandu e tanzânia, respectivamente. Diferenças entre as médias dos tratamentos relativas a cada variável, calculadas por meio de intervalos de confiança de Bonferroni, mostraram que mudas de M. artemisiana apresentaram maior altura e sobrevivência em pasto de capim-marandu. Mudas dessa leguminosa, sem proteção, são indicadas para ser introduzidas, nas pastagens de capim-marandu da região, na presença do gado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of nonprotected (by fences or pickets seedlings of leguminous tree species and an equitable mix of these species, introduced in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, in the presence of cattle. The experimental design was a completely randomized one, in a 2x5 factorial arrangement, with two grasses (marandu and tanzânia and four leguminous species (Mimosa artemisiana
Makino, D.L.; Day, J.; Larson, S.B.; McPherson, A.
Three new crystal forms of satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) were grown and their structures solved from X-ray diffraction data using molecular replacement techniques. The crystals were grown under conditions of pH and ionic strength that were appreciably different then those used for the original structure determination. In rhombohedral crystals grown at pH 8.5 and low ionic strength PEG 3350 solutions, Fourier syntheses revealed segments, ten amino acid residues long, of amino-terminal polypeptides not previously seen, as well as masses of electron density within concavities on the interior of the capsid, which appeared in the neighborhoods of icosahedral five- and threefold axes. The densities were compatible with secondary structural domains of RNA, and they included a segment of double helical RNA of about four to five base pairs oriented, at least approximately, along the fivefold axes. The distribution of RNA observed for SPMV appears to be distinctly different than the encapsidated nucleic acid conformation previously suggested for another satellite virus, satellite tobacco mosaic virus. This study further shows that analysis of viruses in crystals grown under different chemical conditions may reveal additional information regarding the structure of encapsidated RNA
Simone Meredith Scheffer-Basso
Full Text Available This work evaluated some of the morphophysiological and bromatological aspects of torpedograss (Panicum repens L. through the quantification of accumulation, allocation and chemical composition of dry matter (DM during spring-summer. Four destructive harvests of aerial and underground parts were carried out on 23 October 2003, 3 December 2003, 22 January 2004 and 20 February 2004, corresponding to 31, 73, 123 and 152 days after the start of the spring. In these harvests, the DM accumulation was respectively 1,650; 4,470; 10,900 and 14,540 kg/ha in the aerial part, with leaf percentages between 45% (first harvest and 35% (last harvest. The crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF changed between the first and the last harvest, from 9.9 to 7% (CP, 63.9% to 70.3% (FDN, and 37% to 40.8% (FDA, in samples composed by leaves, culms, inflorescences and stolons. The DM allocation to rhizomes (Rh, roots (R, leaves (L, culms+stolons (C and inflorescences (I changed, between the first and the last harvest, from 42 to 19% (Rh, 10 to 7% (R, 22 to 27% (L, 25 to 44% (C, and 0 to 2% (I.
Valor nutritivo do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzânia-1 manejado em alturas de pastejo - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.205 Nutritive value of tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq cv. Tanzania-1 handled in different pasture heights - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.205
Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos
Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de diferentes alturas do pasto (24cm e 26cm; 43cm e 45cm; 52cm e 62cm; 73cm e 78cm e períodos de avaliação (28, 56, 84 e 112 dias em capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia - 1 nos teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS, Ca, P, K e Mg nas porções lâmina e colmo. Foram utilizados novilhos da raça Nelore (em pastejo contínuo com taxa de lotação variável pela técnica put and take. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado com 2 repetições. O aumento na altura de manejo provocou redução dos teores de PB e aumento dos níveis de FDA e FDN nas lâminas e nos colmos. As melhores alturas de manejo, de acordo com os resultados relativos à qualidade da forragem, variaram de 40cm e 60cm.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of different pasture heights (24cm and 26cm; 43cm and 45cm; 52cm and 62cm; 73cm and 78cm and sampling periods (28, 56, 84 and 112 days in Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia - 1 on content of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVMD, Ca, P, K and Mg on leaf blade and stem part. Nelore steers were used (in continuous grazing with variable stocking rates, using put and take technique. The experimental design was completely randomized, with two replications. The increments on the pasture height decreased CP content and increased ADF and NDF contents, both to the leaf blade and to the stems. The leaf blade quality was also influenced by different sampling times. The best pasture management height according to forage quality were between 40cm to 60cm.
Full Text Available Common mycorrhizal networks (CMNs formed by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF interconnect plants of the same and/or different species, redistributing nutrients and draining carbon (C from the different plant partners at different rates. Here, we conducted a plant co-existence (intercropping experiment testing the role of AMF in resource sharing and exploitation by simplified plant communities composed of two congeneric grass species (Panicum spp. with different photosynthetic metabolism types (C3 or C4. The grasses had spatially separated rooting zones, conjoined through a root-free (but AMF-accessible zone added with 15N-labeled plant (clover residues. The plants were grown under two different temperature regimes: high temperature (36/32°C day/night or ambient temperature (25/21°C day/night applied over 49 days after an initial period of 26 days at ambient temperature. We made use of the distinct C-isotopic composition of the two plant species sharing the same CMN (composed of a synthetic AMF community of five fungal genera to estimate if the CMN was or was not fed preferentially under the specific environmental conditions by one or the other plant species. Using the C-isotopic composition of AMF-specific fatty acid (C16:1ω5 in roots and in the potting substrate harboring the extraradical AMF hyphae, we found that the C3-Panicum continued feeding the CMN at both temperatures with a significant and invariable share of C resources. This was surprising because the growth of the C3 plants was more susceptible to high temperature than that of the C4 plants and the C3-Panicum alone suppressed abundance of the AMF (particularly Funneliformis sp. in its roots due to the elevated temperature. Moreover, elevated temperature induced a shift in competition for nitrogen between the two plant species in favor of the C4-Panicum, as demonstrated by significantly lower 15N yields of the C3-Panicum but higher 15N yields of the C4-Panicum at elevated as
Jimmy K Triplett
Full Text Available Polyploidy poses challenges for phylogenetic reconstruction because of the need to identify and distinguish between homoeologous loci. This can be addressed by use of low copy nuclear markers. Panicum s.s. is a genus of about 100 species in the grass tribe Paniceae, subfamily Panicoideae, and is divided into five sections. Many of the species are known to be polyploids. The most well-known of the Panicum polyploids are switchgrass (Panicum virgatum and common or Proso millet (P. miliaceum. Switchgrass is in section Virgata, along with P. tricholaenoides, P. amarum, and P. amarulum, whereas P. miliaceum is in sect. Panicum. We have generated sequence data from five low copy nuclear loci and two chloroplast loci and have clarified the origin of P. virgatum. We find that all members of sects. Virgata and Urvilleana are the result of diversification after a single allopolyploidy event. The closest diploid relatives of switchgrass are in sect. Rudgeana, native to Central and South America. Within sections Virgata and Urvilleana, P. tricholaenoides is sister to the remaining species. Panicum racemosum and P. urvilleanum form a clade, which may be sister to P. chloroleucum. Panicum amarum, P. amarulum, and the lowland and upland ecotypes of P. virgatum together form a clade, within which relationships are complex. Hexaploid and octoploid plants are likely allopolyploids, with P. amarum and P. amarulum sharing genomes with P. virgatum. Octoploid P. virgatum plants are formed via hybridization between disparate tetraploids. We show that polyploidy precedes diversification in a complex set of polyploids; our data thus suggest that polyploidy could provide the raw material for diversification. In addition, we show two rounds of allopolyploidization in the ancestry of switchgrass, and identify additional species that may be part of its broader gene pool. This may be relevant for development of the crop for biofuels.
Britto de Assis Prado, Carlos Henrique; Haik Guedes de Camargo-Bortolin, Lívia; Castro, Érique; Martinez, Carlos Alberto
Panicum maximum Jacq. 'Mombaça' (C4) was grown in field conditions with sufficient water and nutrients to examine the effects of warming and elevated CO2 concentrations during the winter. Plants were exposed to either the ambient temperature and regular atmospheric CO2 (Control); elevated CO2 (600 ppm, eC); canopy warming (+2°C above regular canopy temperature, eT); or elevated CO2 and canopy warming (eC+eT). The temperatures and CO2 in the field were controlled by temperature free-air controlled enhancement (T-FACE) and mini free-air CO2 enrichment (miniFACE) facilities. The most green, expanding, and expanded leaves and the highest leaf appearance rate (LAR, leaves day(-1)) and leaf elongation rate (LER, cm day(-1)) were observed under eT. Leaf area and leaf biomass were higher in the eT and eC+eT treatments. The higher LER and LAR without significant differences in the number of senescent leaves could explain why tillers had higher foliage area and leaf biomass in the eT treatment. The eC treatment had the lowest LER and the fewest expanded and green leaves, similar to Control. The inhibitory effect of eC on foliage development in winter was indicated by the fewer green, expanded, and expanding leaves under eC+eT than eT. The stimulatory and inhibitory effects of the eT and eC treatments, respectively, on foliage raised and lowered, respectively, the foliar nitrogen concentration. The inhibition of foliage by eC was confirmed by the eC treatment having the lowest leaf/stem biomass ratio and by the change in leaf biomass-area relationships from linear or exponential growth to rectangular hyperbolic growth under eC. Besides, eC+eT had a synergist effect, speeding up leaf maturation. Therefore, with sufficient water and nutrients in winter, the inhibitory effect of elevated CO2 on foliage could be partially offset by elevated temperatures and relatively high P. maximum foliage production could be achieved under future climatic change.
Oever, van den M.J.A.; Elbersen, H.W.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Klerk-Engels, de B.
In this study the switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a biomass crop being developed in North America and Europe, was tested as a stiffening and reinforcing agent in polypropylene (PP) composites with and without maleic anhydride grafted PP (MAPP) as a compatibiliser and to evaluate the effect of
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has been identified for development into an efficient and environment friendly biomass energy crop. A recent five-year study demonstrated that switchgrass grown for biofuel production produced 540 percent more energy than what is needed to grow, harvest and process...
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a native perennial dominant of the prairies of North America, has been targeted as a model herbaceous species for biofeedstock development. A flow-cytometric survey of a core set of 11 primarily upland polyploid switchgrass accessions indicated that there was con...
The bedding system used for stalled horses can impact their health and well-being. This study examined the saponin concentration in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) straw, and bedding pellets made from switchgrass straw. Further, this study determined the palatability of bedding pellets made from sw...
Yesenia Alejandra Narváez
Full Text Available El pago por servicios ambientales (PSA, es la disponibilidad que tiene un individuo o grupo social para aprovechar o conservar la oferta ambiental natural. Este estudio se realizó en cuenca alta del río Pasto, donde el principal servicio ambiental, es la provisión hídrica del 85% de los habitantes de Pasto, Nariño, convirtiéndolo en un ecosistema estratégico que requiere de alternativas viables para su conservación y manejo. El objetivo fue evaluar los procesos relacionados con PSA, adelantados por algunas Instituciones; para ello, se diseñó una entrevista estructurada, aplicada a funcionarios de cuatro instituciones, que contemplaba las variables: institución, conocimiento normativo, recursos financieros, apoyo técnico, actividades realizadas actualmente y posibles alternativas para PSA. Con el programa Decisión Explorer 3.3 y con integrantes de las instituciones se propusieron alternativas para mejorar el PSA. Se pudo determinar que en el corregimiento de Cabrera se están ejecutando las alternativas: implementación de sistemas agroforestales, familias guardabosques y adquisición de predios para avanzar en PSA. Se concluyó que en la Cuenca Alta del río Pasto, el PSA aún es incipiente pero promisorio, hay poco conocimiento institucional y los procesos se han centrado en la compra de tierras para la conservación de fuentes abastecedoras de acueductos rurales y de cabeceras municipales.
Hernández Guzmán, Filogonio Jesús
Para incrementar la probabilidad de establecimiento de pastos, en siembras de temporal en zonas semiáridas, se caracterizaron física y fisiológicamente semillas de Banderita, Navajita; Buffel y Rhodes y, en base a dimensiones y utilizando tamiz, se clasificaron por tamaño de cariópside (TC) en chicos (Cch), medianos (CM) y grandes (CG). En Banderita y Buffel, los diámetros de tamiz para CG, CM y Cch fueron de 0.70, 0.59 y 0.50 mm y para Navajita y Rhodes, 0.59, 0.50 y 0.42 mm, respectivamente...
Antonio Bastidas Unigarro
Este artículo aborda la aplicación de las distintas normas de carrera administrativa (Leyes 27 de 1992, 446 de 1998 y 909 de 2004) en la Alcaldía Municipal de Pasto, en cuanto al sistema de talento humano se refiere y muestra los resultados de la investigación frente a procesos de ingreso, capacitación y estímulos, evaluación del desempeño y motivación del personal inscrito en carrera administrativa, abarcando el análisis histórico desde 1994, pero particularmente haciendo énfasis en los ...
Julio César Riascos
Full Text Available En el documento se analiza la situación laboral de los profesionales de la ciudad de Pasto. Se estudian las características generales de un profesional tomado al azar y se mide la tasa de desempleo, la tasa de ocupación, la tasa general de participación y la tasa de subempleo. Asimismo se identifican los retornos en educación por área de conocimiento y se determinan los principales factores que explican los niveles de ingreso y la probabilidad de empleo formal y estable.
This discussion of Guinea-Bissau focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government and political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Guinea-Bissau. In 1983 the population was estimated at 827,000 with an annual estimated growth rate of 2.2%. 87% of the population was rural, with 13% living in urban areas. The infant mortality rate is 200/1000 with a life expectancy of 42 years. The population comprises several diverse tribal groups, each with its own language, customs, and social organization. Most people are farmers and follow the traditional religious beliefs of their forebears. Most of the nonindigenous population consists of a significant Cape Verdian ethnic community, a small Portuguese community engaged primarily in commerce and civil service, and a few foreign technical consultants. Guinea-Bissau is a small enclave on the west coast of Africa, bounded by Senegal and on the south and east by Guinea (Conakry). Portugal claimed Portuguese Guinea in 1446 when the fleet of Nuno Tristao arrived on the west coast of Africa. In 1956 the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) was organized clandestinely by the Amilcar Cabral and Raphael Barbosa. The PAIGC moved its headquarters to Conakry in 1960 and began an armed rebellion in 1961. Despite the presence of more than 30,000 Portuguese troops, the PAIGC exercised influence over much of the country by 1972. It established civilian rule in the territory that it controlled and elections took place for a National Assembly. The National Assembly of the PAIGC declared the independence of Guinea-Bissau on September 24, 1973. Portugal granted "de jure" independence on September 10, 1974, when the US recognized the new nation. Guinea-Bissau is a 1-party state. Until May 1984, power was held by a provisional government responsible to a Revolutionary Council. In May 1984 the Revolutionary Council was dissolved, and the 150-member National
Renata Gebara Sampaio Dória
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Dória R.G.S., Freitas S.H., Laskoski L.M., Carvalho M.B., Monteiro A.O.N., Camplesi A.C. & Valadão C.A.A. [Clinical evaluation and evolution of colic cases associated with Panicum maximum in Mato Grosso State, Brazil.] Avaliação clínica e da evolução dos casos de cólica associados a Panicum maximum no Estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(4:303-308, 2015. Departamento de Medicina Veterinária, Curso de Medicina Veterinária, Faculdade de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Duque de Caxias Norte, 225, Centro, Pirassununga, SP 13635-900, Brasil. E-mail: email@example.com An acute disease characterized by colic and timpanism was reported in Pará and Rondônia after horses fed with Panicum maximum cultivars Momba- ça, Tanzânia and Massai pasture grazing. In this study an acute abdomen case was experimentally reproduced after the ingestion of Panicum maximum var Massai pasture based on twenty two clinic and surgical cases of acute timpanic colic cases reported in a farm in the city of Cuiabá – MT, fed with Panicum maximum var Massai pasture, confirming the etiology and accompanying the clinical evolution of the disease. A horse kept in a stall fed only with Massai pasture was daily evaluated and it was verified that the animal presented as result a clinic perfil of pain, high cardiac frequency, respiratory difficulty, intestinal motility absence and exaggerated distention of the stomach and bowels by gas, seeing during the necropsy the stomach and bowels fully distended by gas with liquefied content except by small colon where the feces presented dry and with mucus characterizing the intestinal atony. The necessity of studies that search the identification of the agent responsible for the intestinal atony and gas accumulation in horses fed with Panicum maximum is exposed.
Full text: Mutant plants are useful tools for studying developmental processes in defined genetic backgrounds by comparing them with their respective wild type forms. In this sense, developmental mutants or mutations involved in the establishment of certain leaf or flower specific traits are of special interest. In particular, the evolution of C 4 photosynthesis from C 3 precursors was accompanied by severe developmental changes in leaf morphology and anatomy. Our search of such mutants was followed by the idea to approach the evolution of the C 4 syndrome from a mutagenic point of view. Variants affecting normal development of the C 4 leaf anatomy may, in fact, represent possible regressive steps in C4 photosynthesis. Seeds of the C4 grass Panicum maximum Jacq. were mutagenized using ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) and putative variants were isolated in the M2 generation by visual inspection. Main selection characteristics were whole plant, leaf morphology and pigmentation, and growth characteristics. The choice of a polyploid species for mutagenesis experiments was based on the need of detecting rare mutants, which are possibly lethal when using a diploid plant species. These variants could be of regulatory nature, affecting both morphology and physiology of C 4 photosynthesis early in leaf development. In total, nearly 100 variants were isolated and grown to maturity. Main isolated variants, which conforms to the prediction mentioned above, were as following: large interveinal space-1 and -3 (lis1, lis3), abnormal bundle sheath (abs), midribless (mbl) and variegated leaf -1 (var1). The variant lis1 was a short plant with leaves smaller than the wild type, and had a leaf lamina with a crinkly surface. Photosynthetically, lis1 indicates a clear regression from the C 4 to the C 3 photosynthesis type, which was correlated in the leaf lamina with an increase in the distance between small veins. The variant lis3 was not similar phenotypically to lis1, but it also had very
Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue medir la tasa de vulnerabilidad de las familias en el municipio de Pasto, Colombia. En una muestra de 270 familias de todos los estratos socioeconómicos, 239 en áreas urbanas y 31 en las zonas rurales, se realizó una investigación de carácter confidencial, utilizando el índice de vulnerabilidad, consistente en cinco dimensiones: demográfica, social, económica, ambiental y geográfica, así como previsión y prevención. Las familias estrato 1 y 2, así como los hogares del centro, oeste, noroeste y nordeste del área urbana del municipio, presentaron alta vulnerabilidad, incluso más que aquellas en áreas rurales. Un 50% de las familias estaban localizadas dentro de baja vulnerabilidad y un 42% estaban en nivel medio. Las familias más pobres fueron las más vulnerables, sin embargo, las familias pobres también eran vulnerables en el municipio de Pasto.
Daniel Jurado Fajardo
Full Text Available Introduction: Intrauterine fetal mortality (IUFM is a public health problem because of its high rates worldwide and in low-and middle-income populations. However, it is a little-studied event and lacks visibility in public health policies, plans and programs. Objective: To analyze the sociodemographic and clinical determinants associated with IUFM in Pasto-Colombia. Materials and methods: A study, that includes 88 fetal deaths as cases and 88 live births as controls occurred in third level hospitals in Pasto-Colombia during 2010 and 2012, was carried out to determine the relationship between fetal mortality, clinical conditions (complications of pregnancy, gestational age, birth weight, prenatal controls, pathological and toxic medical history, or abortion and sociodemographic conditions (age, ethnicity, occupation, marital status, stratum, area of residence , schooling, parity, displacement condition, planned pregnancy. Results: It was identified that the risk of fetal mortality is significantly lower with the increase in gestational age (OR ajustado = 0.76 IC95% 0.62; 0.93 and birth weight (OR ajustado = 0.99 IC95% 0.98; 0.99. Other clinical and sociodemographic variables were not associated. Conclusion: The results provide evidence for planning intervention plans that prioritize women whose fetus has a lower-than-normal weight and a risk of premature birth.
Hozaien, Hoda E; El-Tantawy, Walid Hamdy; Temraz, Abeer; El-Gindi, Omayma D; Taha, Kamilia F
The diuretic activity of ethanolic extract of Panicum repens was investigated in rats. A single oral dose of 500 mg/kg of P. repens extract were given to rats, after 24 h, urine volume, its sodium and potassium concentrations were estimated. Treatment with P. repens extract caused a significant increase in tested parameters as compared to their corresponding controls, p < 0.05.
Luiz Antonio Ferraro Júnior
Full Text Available O artigo recupera as razões históricas para o surgimento da categoria dos fundos de pasto. Nele, são utilizados dados secundários recolhidos de relatórios governamentais e obtidos em entrevistas com técnicos, agentes pastorais e comunidades pastoris. Os fundos de pasto eram apenas áreas não-cercadas de Caatinga, utilizadas para pastoreio comunal. Esse padrão de ocupação, que se desenvolveu em todo o semiárido nordestino, foi progressivamente usurpado em um processo similar aos enclosures ingleses. Na Bahia, com os avanços do capital sobre essas áreas, a partir da década de 1970, houve articulações regionais e apoios institucionais que estimularam resistências diversas. Assim, "Fundo de Pasto" passou a designar não só as áreas, mas os grupos sociais que as defendiam por delas depender. O termo Fundo de Pasto, antes regional, generalizou-se por todo o estado, principalmente após sua citação na constituição baiana. Os vínculos familiares dessas comunidades também concorreram para a resistência dessa forma de ocupação.
Érika Alexandra Vásquez Arteaga
Full Text Available Objetivo: El presente artículo es el resultado de una investigación finalizada desarrollada en tres escuelas públicas de San Juan de Pasto. El objetivo general se dirigió a develar las manifestaciones de las conductas prosociales de los niños para el diseño e implementación de una estrategia psicopedagógica. Método: La metodología se abordó desde el paradigma cualitativo, con un enfoque crítico social, de tipo investigación-acción. El presente artículo corresponde a la fase hermenéutica de la investigación en donde se emplearon como técnicas de recolección de información: narrativas, entrevistas focalizadas, observaciones participantes y sociodramas. Resultados: Los resultados indicaron que la empatía puede ser vista como una señal de debilidad o como una constante necesaria de interacción; en las conductas de ayuda hay manifestaciones principalmente no altruistas y la cooperación se presenta de manera intermitente según los estímulos ambientales.
Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) is a parasitic disease that is limited to remote, rural villages in 13 sub-Saharan African countries that do not have access to safe drinking water. It is one the next diseases targeted for eradication by the World Health Organization. Guinea worm disease is transmitted by drinking water containing copepods (water fleas) that are infected with Dracunculiasis medinensis larvae. One year after human ingestion of infected water a female adult worm emerges, typically from a lower extremity, producing painful ulcers that can impair mobility for up to several weeks. This disease occurs annually when agricultural activities are at their peak. Large proportions of economically productive individuals of a village are usually affected simultaneously, resulting in decreased agricultural productivity and economic hardship. Eradication of guinea worm disease depends on prevention, as there is no effective treatment or vaccine. Since 1986, there has been a 98% reduction in guinea worm disease worldwide, achieved primarily through community-based programs. These programs have educated local populations on how to filter drinking water to remove the parasite and how to prevent those with ulcers from infecting drinking-water sources. Complete eradication will require sustained high-level political, financial and community support.
Andersen, Klaus Ejner
Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...
Jesús Alirio Bastidas
Full Text Available English teaching in Colombian primary schools became a requirement because of the promulgation of the Law of Education in 1994. Taking into account that this decision produced some difficulties in the schools, a study was conducted to diagnose the state of English language teaching in primary schools in Pasto, Colombia. Data were gathered through classroom observation, a questionnaire, and interviews. The results showed that teachers are not well versed either in methodology or in the command of the English language; there was no English syllabus; didactic materials were nonexistent; and the children’s lack of motivation was the most critical problem. Teachers, institutions and the government have to take into account these findings in order to improve English learning in primary schools.
Beatriz Londoño Toro
Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación que evidencia la gravedad de la situación de violencia contra la mujer con un examen específico de este fenómeno en las relaciones de pareja. El aporte de las investigadoras radica en la documentación de los principales problemas referidos a la dinámica de las vulneraciones, tipologías de agresores, formas de violencia e incluso períodos en que se incrementan estos fenómenos a partir de las cifras de los Observatorios Regionales de Cali, Pasto y Cartagena (Colombia. Finaliza con unas propuestas relacionadas con el fortalecimiento de las políticas públicas, respuesta estatal e institucional y diseño de mecanismos de acceso a la justicia para las mujeres.
Fabiola Estrada Herrera
Full Text Available La autora interpreta el papel de la construcción de caminos y la exploración agrícola-comercial en el Suroccidente del actual Departamento de Cundinamarca durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. En este recorrido, llama la atención sobre cómo el ideario republicano de civilización conllevó a una tala irracional del bosque primario y a la introducción de nuevas especies de pastos, dos agentes de transformación que estuvieron al servicio de los ritmos que la élite decimonónica impuso a la economía local, la posesión de tierras, el control social y los proyectos agroexportadores.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar si hay un tipo de micrositio específico para el establecimiento de Bouteloua gracilis, con patrones recurrentes, en dos diferentes tipos de comunidades vegetales. El pasto navajita azul es una especie perenne de alto valor forrajero y resistente a la sequía. Para ello se realizó un recorrido por tres matorrales y tres pastizales del Altiplano Mexicano; los sitios estudiados fueron elegidos con base en los reportes de ejemplares colectados y herborizados. Los resultados muestran, por un lado, que en los pastizales se presentan micrositios más de tipo funcional que físico, que determinan el establecimiento de B. gracilis, debido principalmente a los altos requerimientos de humedad edáfica de las semillas para germinar y desarrollarse. El micrositio más frecuente que determina el reclutamiento de los individuos provenientes de semilla es el suelo cercano a individuos adultos de su propia especie. Por otro lado, en los matorrales se detectaron, de manera recurrente, varias condiciones de micrositio para la especie y se observó que el tipo de micrositio es determinante, tanto para el establecimiento como para el crecimiento de este y otros pastos; también, el estudio mostró que en comunidades de matorral existe una mayor diversidad de micrositios que en los pastizales, por lo que se concluye que los individuos de B. gracilis, en los matorrales, crecen asociados a micrositios específicos que le brindan protección contra la desecación.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la polinización libre y la autopolinización en el pasto Buffel. El estudio se realizó en el invernadero y en el campo de la Unidad Académica Multidisciplinaria Agronomía y Ciencias (UAMAC en el Municipio de Victoria, Tamaulipas. Se utilizaron cuatro variedades de pasto Buffel (Común, Nueces, T-1754 y Formidable las cuales fueron sometidas a dos tipos de polinización (libre y auto. Se utilizó un diseño en bloques completos al azar. Se midieron los días a floración de los órganos masculinos y femeninos. Se clasificó el polen (fértil, intermedio e infértil y los efectos de la autopolinización y polinización libre sobre las características de las semillas. No se observaron efectos sobre los días a floración de los órganos femeninos (P = 0,54, pero sí en los órganos masculinos (P < 0,03, donde las plantas de la variedad Formidable tardaron 2,3 días en madurar. El número de granos de polen fértil, intermedio e infértil no fueron afectados por la polinización ni por la variedad. En cuanto a los componentes de la semilla, todos fueron afectados (P < 0,01 por el tipo de polinización, las plantas sometidas a autopolinización mostraron las mejores características. La polinización afectó las características de la semilla.
Cardona, Doris; Segura, Ángela; Segura, Alejandra; Muñoz, Diana; Jaramillo, Daniel; Lizcano, Douglas; Agudelo, Maite Catalina; Arango, Catalina; Morales, Santiago
Introducción. La vulnerabilidad puede entenderse como la carencia de recursos materiales e inmateriales que impide el aprovechamiento de oportunidades en distintos aspectos de la vida. Estos recursos de bienestar evitan el deterioro de la calidad de vida.Objetivo. Construir un índice de vulnerabilidad con las características de los capitales físico, humano, social y funcional de los adultos mayores de tres ciudades de Colombia en el 2016, y determinar los factores asociados con esta condición.Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio transversal con información primaria mediante 1.514 encuestas a personas de 60 años o más de Medellín, Barranquilla y Pasto. En la construcción del índice se usó el análisis factorial con los métodos de componentes principales y de rotación ortogonal varimax.Resultados. Las condiciones que generaban vulnerabilidad se relacionaron principalmente con el capital humano (calidad de vida, salud mental y hábitos); los demás capitales aportaron un solo componente, así: capital físico (ocupación), capital social (acompañamiento) y capital funcional (independencia funcional). La vulnerabilidad fue mayor en los residentes de Pasto. Los factores asociados con la vulnerabilidad fueron la ciudad de residencia, el sexo, el nivel educativo y el rol en el hogar.Conclusión. En el 58,55 % de las personas mayores, la vulnerabilidad se explicó por el uso del tiempo, la independencia funcional y el bienestar subjetivo. Estos hallazgos aportan elementos para el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida, principalmente en cuanto a la capacidad funcional para mantener la independencia, estar ocupados y fortalecer la salud mental.
Polo, Giovanni Andrés; Benavides, Carmenza Janneth; Astaiza, Juan Manuel; Vallejo, Dario Antonio; Betancourt, Patricia
Currently, vegetables like lettuce are widely recommended as part of the daily diet given their high nutritional value; however, while consumers feel attracted to the benefits provided by the vegetable, they may also be exposed to parasitic intestinal infections. To determine the presence or absence of enteroparasites in lettuce (Lactuca sativa) grown in the rural area in the municipality of Pasto, and to analyze associated factors based on the characterization of the lands. We conducted a descriptive double blind cross-sectional study. We took a total of 105 samples from 21 properties from June to December, 2013, and we processed them by sedimentation and flotation tests. Additionally, the owners were surveyed in order to obtain information about the possible variables influencing the occurrence of enteroparasites. We detected contamination in 100% of the lettuce samples and we found parasite eggs and larvae as follows: 95.25% with Entamoeba spp. cysts; 71.43% with Isospora spp. oocysts; 61.90% with Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (L3); 28.57% with Toxocara spp. eggs, and 4.76% with Eimeria spp. oocysts. Using the chi-square test we found association between Entamoeba spp. and ditches (p=0.008), dogs (p=0.008) and septic tanks (p=0.029); between Isospora spp. and compost (p=0.0001), dogs (p=0.0001) and slugs (p=0.002); between S. stercoralis and handling (p=0.003), and between Toxocara spp. and no use of biodigesters (p= 0.002). We found contamination with enteroparasites in lettuce samples from growing areas in the municipality of Pasto with animal and human sources as their main reservoirs, although others were present in the environment.
Full Text Available El nitrógeno es el nutriente de mayor importancia en la producción de pasturas y las dosis de fertilización utilizadas deben optimizar la producción de biomasa de alto valor nutricio - nal con un bajo costo y mínima afectación al medio ambiente. Se realizó un estudio con pasto alpiste (P halaris arundinacea L. cosechado cada 70 días en una finca comercial productora de leche ubicada en el distrito de Santa Rosa de Oreamuno, en la provincia de Cartago entre noviembre de 2010 a enero de 2012. Se aplicó 3 dosis de fertilización nitrogenada (100, 200 y 300 kg.ha -1 y se evaluó su respuesta produc - tiva en biomasa y valor nutricional por medio de un diseño de bloques completos al azar. La producción de materia seca no fue estadística - mente diferente (p≥0,05 entre las dosis menor y mayor (2956 y 3347 kg.ha -1 , respectivamente, mientras que mostró valores menores y mayores (p≤0,0001 entre los muestreos de febrero y abril (1632 y 4323 kg.ha -1 , respectivamente. Los ran - gos de concentraciones de proteína cruda (14,62- 19,20%, fibra detergente neutro (54,50-70,70% y energía neta de lactancia (1,14-1,32 Mcal.kg -1 MS fueron el resultado de los cambios significa - tivos (p≤0,0001 que se presentaron a lo largo del año en el alpiste forrajero. Estrategias de ajustes en carga animal y suplementación del ganado lechero deben considerarse para llenar las limitantes estacionales encontradas en la biomasa y el valor nutricional del pasto alpiste durante el año.
Composión trófica de la comunidad insectil en dos agroecosistemas ganaderos con Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de wit y Panicum maximum Jacq. Trophic composition of the insect community in two livestock production agroecosystems with Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de wit and Panicum maximum Jacq.
Full Text Available Con el objetivo de definir los principales grupos funcionales en la comunidad de insectos presentes en dos áreas compuestas por la asociación de Leucaena leucocephala cv. Perú y Panicum maximum cv. Likoni (un sistema silvopastoril y un campo de semilla, respectivamente, ambas localizadas en la Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes "Indio Hatuey", se muestrearon cada 15 días, durante tres años, las hojas, las inflorescencias y las legumbres de la leguminosa y el follaje de la gramínea, para colectarlos. La clasificación de los grupos se realizó a partir de: la identificación de cada especie insectil, la información que ofrece la literatura acerca de su hábito principal de alimentación y las observaciones realizadas en el campo. Con estos elementos se definieron los fitófagos y los benéficos, y como subgrupos de estos últimos: los depredadores, los parasitoides, los polinizadores, los descomponedores de la materia orgánica, los coprófagos y los micófagos. En total se identificaron 113 especies de insectos, 63 con hábitos fitófagos y los 50 restantes benéficos. En el estrato arbóreo se encontraron 88 especies, 49 fitófagas (56% y 39 benéficas (44%; y 103 en el herbáceo, 59 insectos fitófagos (57% y 44 benéficos (43%; 78 especies coincidieron en los dos estratos. Se destaca que en ambos predominaron los depredadores y los parasitoides de los órdenes Hymenoptera, Coleoptera y Diptera, tales como: Cycloneda sanguinea limbifer Casey, Coccinella maculata (De Geer, Chilocorus cacti Linnaeus, Conura sp., Pimpla marginella (Brullé y Rogas sp. Se concluye que la estructura y función de la comunidad de insectos mostró un número relativamente mayor de insectos fitófagos con respecto a los benéficos; sin embargo, fue importante el predominio de los enemigos naturales, responsables de la actividad reguladora de las poblaciones de fitófagos, a las que mantienen por debajo del umbral de daño económico en el cultivo de la
Avaliação de três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. sob pastejo: composição da dieta, consumo de matéria seca e ganho de peso animal Evaluation of three varieties of Panicum maximum Jacq. under grazing: diet composition, dry matter intake and animal weight gain
Patrícia Amarante Brâncio
Full Text Available Três cultivares de Panicum maximum Jacq. submetidos a pastejo rotativo foram avaliados ao longo do ano, antes e após o período de pastejo, quanto à composição botânica e química da dieta, consumo de matéria seca e ganho de peso animal. Os tratamentos constituíram em: 1 cv. Tanzânia + 50 kg/ha de N, 2 cv. Tanzânia + 100 kg/ha de N, 3 cv. Mombaça + 50 kg/ha de N, e 4 cv. Massai + 50 kg/ha de N. As dietas selecionadas pelos animais na cv. Massai tenderam a apresentar os menores valores de digestibilidade e proteína bruta e os maiores de fibra em detergente neutro, enquanto na cv. Mombaça as dietas continham, em geral, maiores teores de sílica. Os animais selecionaram, em média, 92,4% de folhas verdes, independentemente do tratamento e da época de amostragem. Os animais consumiram semelhantes quantidades de forragem nos diversos tratamentos, apresentando, em média, consumos de 1,9; 2,8; 3,4; e 2,3 kgMS/100kgPV, respectivamente, em junho, setembro e novembro de 1998 e março de 1999. Os piores resultados quanto ao ganho de peso por animal foram verificados na cv. Massai, mas, devido a sua alta capacidade de suporte na época chuvosa, superou a cv. Mombaça e cv. Tanzânia + 50 kg/ha de N, em termos de ganho de peso por área. A participação de folhas, a altura do pasto, o teor de proteína bruta da dieta selecionada pelos animais e o tamanho de bocado foram os fatores que mais influenciaram positivamente o ganho de peso animal.Three varieties of Panicum maximum Jacq. were evaluated by measuring the botanical and chemical composition of the diet, and the dry matter intake and weight gain of the animal under rotational grazing, before and after a period of grazing. The treatments were: 1 v. Tanzânia + 50 kg N/ha, 2 v. Tanzânia + 100 kg N/ha, 3 v. Mombaça + 50 kg N/ha, and 4 v. Massai + 50 kg N/ha. Of the diets selected by the animals, v. Massai tended to show lower values for digestibility and crude protein, and higher values
Ana Cristina Mafla
Full Text Available Introducción: Las lesiones maxilofaciales son una condición frecuente en diferentes países, sin embargo, están asociadas a diversas causas. Metodología: Un estudio descriptivo fue realizado de Enero de 2001 a Diciembre de 2006 en tres hospitales y una institución de Pasto, Nariño, Colombia. 701 pacientes consecutivos del "Hospital San Pedro", "Hospital Universitario Departamental de Nariño", "Hospital Infantil Los Ángeles", y el Instituto de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses Seccional Nariño - Putumayo fueron evaluados. Variables como año, género, distribución anatómica de la fractura, se incluyeron. Análisis descriptivos fueron usados para determinar porcentajes e intervalos de confianza. Resultados: Las causas más comunes fueron violencia, con 350 (49,9%, accidentes en motos con 104 (14,8%, en autos con 93 (13,3 %, y caídas con 66 (9,4%. Existió un incremento substancial de violencia en los años 2003 a 2004. Los niños de 0 a 6 años presentaron más caídas, mientras los jóvenes de 15 a 24 años se asociaron con violencia, al igual que accidentes en motos y automóviles. La violencia fue relacionada con fracturas de huesos propios de la nariz, caídas con lesiones naso-orbito-etmoidales, y accidentes en motos y automóviles con politraumatismo y fracturas panfaciales. Conclusiones: Debido a que la violencia, accidentes en motos y automóviles son las principales causas de lesiones maxilofaciales en la juventud, las políticas públicas deben ser dirigidas a ésta Salud UIS 2009; 41: 142-148Introduction: Maxillofacial injuries are a frequent condition in different countries; however, they are associated to different causes. Methodology: A descriptive study was performed from January 2001 to December 2006 at three hospitals and one institution from Pasto, Nariño, Colombia. 701 consecutive patients at "Hospital Los Angeles", "Hospital San Pedro", "Hospital Universitario Departamental de Nariño" and "Instituto de Medicina
Andi Lagaligo Amar
Full Text Available A research study was undertaken to study the grass layer across a mini landscape dominated by tree legume Albizia lebbeck to explore the nutritional differences of two introduced grasses, guinea grass (Panicum maximum and sabi grass (Urochloa mosambicensis, paying particular attention to the presence or absence of tree legume canopy of Albizia lebbeck. The two grass species showed a tendency to replace the native spear grass (Heteropogon contortus; their dominance was more or less complete under tree canopies but was increasing in open areas between trees. Nutritional differences were examined by nitrogen concentration and dry matter digestibility. For comparison, Heteropogon contortus, a native species only found in the open, was included in the nutritional determination using the same methods as the guinea and sabi grasses. The quality parameters of the pasture species were statistically compared (LSD, P=0.05. The quality of herbage was different between the species. Urochloa mosambicensis was better than Panicum maximum. In the open, sabi grass has higher N content (0.62% than guinea grass (0.55%, but they were similar when grown under the canopy (0.69% and 0.72%, respectively. Sabi grass has consistently higher dry matter digestibility (41.39% and 36.83%, respectively under the canopy and in the open, than guinea grass (27.78% and 24.77%. These two species are much higher in both N concentration and dry matter digestibility than the native spear grass. The native species has contained 0.28% N, and 17.65% digestible dry matter. The feeding values of herbage were influenced by the canopy factor. Both guinea and sabi grasses have better quality when grown under the tree canopies than in between canopies. Nitrogen concentration and dry matter digestibility of the guinea grass under canopy were, 0.72% and 27.78%, respectively, significantly higher than those from the open area, 0.55% and 24.77%. Similarly, herbage of sabi grass under canopy has 0
Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D
14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid...... was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the skin...
Leandro Coelho de Araujo
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Climate, soil and management are the main drives for growth and production of tropical pastures. Thus, a better understanding of the effects of these factors and their interactions under climate conditions is required to obtain effective management options. Here, we used data from two field trials to research on climate and management interactions on the production seasonality of Panicum maximum Jacq. Treatments included four sampling times (250, 500, 750, and 1000 °C accumulated during eight regrowth period, under irrigated and rainfed conditions and, cuts were made to simulate grazing intensity. All treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with four replications. At each sampling time, basal tillers were sampled to observe meristematic differentiation and were linked with the respective daylength. Soil moisture was determined, and the water availability index (WAI was calculated. The dry matter production (DMP was taken and relative productivity was calculated. Soil moisture was the key seasonal drive in spring-summer and the WAI could be used to adjust the maximum production for that season. The major drive for DMP in fall was the daylength, which was found at 11.81 h. For all seasons, DMP correlated better with the residues in early regrowth phase (r = 0.82 and p < 0.0001 and with degree-days at final regrowth phase (r = 0.73 p < 0.01. Applying these critical values to management guidelines should make Guinea grass DMP more efficient on tropical farms.
Eduardo Vicente Ruano Rosero
Full Text Available Los indicadores del desempleo en Pasto han sido, históricamente, superiores al promedio nacional, situación que es motivo de preocupación para miles de personas en el Municipio. Pensar en una salida en el largo plazo, es una tarea que requiere incorporar en una Política Pública, no solo el reconocimiento a fondo de sus más destacadas características; sino también, adoptar una postura teórica que a de ser articulada a una decidida voluntad política y participación ciudadana e institucional. Este documento pretende aportar algunos de esos elementos teóricos y prácticos en el horizonte de formular una Política Pública de Empleo para Pasto.
The situation of the island archipelago nation of Papua New Guinea is reviewed in terms of its geography, people, history, government, politics economy and foreign relations. Papua New Guinea consists of the eastern half of the main island of New Guinea (the western portion is Indonesia), and several island groups, all located northeast of Australia. The island has extreme geographical variations, ranging from precipitous mountains to extensive swamps and river valleys, all in a monsoon cimate. As a result, there are hundreds of small groups each with unique cultures and languages; over 650 languages, many unrelated to each other. The population is estimated at 3.5 million, growing at about 2.5% per year. Historically, the region has been occupied by Germany, Britain, Japan, and the U.S. The country came under the international trusteeship system in 1949, and now has a vigorous parliamentary government. The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, but is buttressed by resources such as gold, copper, and other metals, oil, timber, tropical agricultural products, fish. The only indusry is local production, since the minimum wage is too high to compete with Asian labor.
Pyle, Jesse D; Monis, Judit; Scholthof, Karen-Beth
Over six decades ago, panicum mosaic virus (PMV) was identified as the first viral pathogen of cultivated switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). Subsequently, PMV was demonstrated to support the replication of both a satellite RNA virus (SPMV) and satellite RNA (satRNA) agents during natural infections of host grasses. In this study, we report the isolation and full-length sequences of two PMV satRNAs identified in 1988 from St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum) and centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides) hosts. Each of these satellites have sequence relatedness at their 5'- and 3'-ends. In addition, satC has a region of ∼100 nt complementary to the 3'-end of the PMV genome. These agents are associated with purified virions of SPMV infections. Additionally, satS and satC RNAs contain conserved in-frame open reading frames in the complementary-sense sequences that could potentially generate 6.6- and 7.9-kDa proteins, respectively. In protoplasts and plants satS is infectious, when co-inoculated with the PMV RNA alone or PMV+SPMV RNAs, and negatively affects their accumulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) consensus map was developed that combined data from two mapping populations and integrated recombination data from both parents of this largely obligate outcrossing species. The consensus map consisted of 1,321 loci and spanned 2,122 cM. An analysis of the distri...
An experiment was conducted at the University of Kentucky Spindletop Farm in Lexington, Kentucky between October and November, 2009 to evaluate the effect of different percentages of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) as mixtures in switchgrass (Panicum virgatus) and bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) silages. ...
Effet de l'herbe de Guinée ( Panicum maximum Jacq.) associée à l'herbe de lait ( Euphorbia heterophylla L.) ou aux feuilles de patate douce ( Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) sur la croissance des lapins ( Oryctolagus cuniculus L.)
Jeraldine Milena Matabajoy-Montilla
Full Text Available Introduction: Workers in the organization play a fundamental role in meeting the corporate objectives. In this sense, it is important to identify the processes of human talent development in the health sector since they contribute to human and organizational development. Objective: The processes of human talent development training, quality of work life, occupational health, organizational climate and performance evaluation were characterized in a specialty clinic in the city of Pasto, Colombia. Materials and methods: The study was addressed from the quantitative paradigm of descriptive type with a sample of 211 collaborators. The scale called "perception of human talent development processes" was built, whose Alfa de Cronbach was 0.97. Results: The results were systematized in the statistical program IBM SPSS statistics. Statistically significant differences were found in the training category (in the categories of needs detection, plan and programmes, training evaluation and follow-up, quality of working life (in the sub-categories: meaning of work and labor commitment and performance evaluation (in the subcategories: methods and results. Conclusions: The need to continue strengthening the processes of training, quality of work life and evaluation of performance is recognized.
Claudia Magali Solarte Solarte
Full Text Available Este documento es producto de una investigación, cuyo objetivo general fue analizar las motivaciones que impulsan al cambio de trayectoria vital en los emprendedores de la ciudad de Pasto. Se trabajó con creadores de microempresas y pequeñas empresas, con quienes, bajo el enfoque de investigación cuantitativo, método empírico-analítico y tipo descriptivo, a través de una encuesta, se identificaron dichas motivaciones y se determinó cuáles de ellas tuvieron mayor incidencia. Para un mejor manejo de la información, se clasificaron las motivaciones de emprendimiento según la adaptación realizada por Rodrigo Varela sobre la teoría de Albert Shapero en cuanto a la clasificación de impulsos positivos, neutros y negativos, en la cual se tienen en cuenta componentes socioculturales, educativos e investigativos que constituyen niveles de apreciación para desentrañar motivaciones particulares que hacen posible una acción empresarial, a partir de conocimientos, valores, aptitudes, actitudes y competencias.
Full Text Available The planting of crops in degraded pasture areas is a formula used for decades by farmers to recover the productive capacity of pastures and soils. The integrated crop-livestock (ICL consists of different production systems of grains, fibers, wood, meat, milk and agro-deployed in the same area, in intercrop, rotation or succession. Typically this integration mainly involves the planting of grain and pasture in the recovery or deployment. This work aimed to evaluate the macronutrients leaf contents of irrigated corn intercropped with forages of the genus Panicum and Urochloa simultaneously to sown corn. The experiment was conducted at the Farm for Teaching, Research and Extension, Faculty of Engineering - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in Savannah conditions, in experimental area that had a history of no-tillage to 8 years (previous crop corn. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown simultaneously (CTS corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown simultaneously (CMS to corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraes sown simultaneously (CBS corn; Urochloa ruziziensis sown simultaneously (CRS to corn, and corn without intercropping (CWI. The seeds of grasses were sown in spacing of 0.34 m, being sown with a seed drill with disc coulters mounted mechanism for no-tillage system at a depth of 0.03 m. There was no significant difference between the single corn tillage and intercropping with different modalities of forage genus Panicum and Urochloa to the leaf contents of N, P, K, Ca and Mg, demonstrating the non-compete forages with corn in a intercrop on the absorption of these nutrients. In respect to S, CTS presented higher content of S foliar when compared to CWI (Table 1. The absorption of nutrients by corn are not affect by the intercrop with forages of the genus Panicum and Urochloa, in simultaneously sown.
Descomposición de la hojarasca en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: II. Influencia de los factores climáticos Litter decomposition in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: II. Influence of climatic factors
Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la descomposición de la hojarasca en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala y su relación con algunos factores del clima, se realizó este experimento en la EEPF «Indio Hatuey». La descomposición de la hojarasca se determinó como la pérdida de biomasa a través del tiempo, con relación al peso inicial. Para el estudio de la dinámica de la descomposición se utilizó el método de bolsas de hojarasca (litter bags; se registró diariamente el comportamiento de la temperatura media, la humedad relativa, la precipitación y los días con lluvias, en la estación metereológica situada a 1 km del área experimental. Se utilizó el análisis de correlación y regresión para conocer la interrelación entre las variables y los modelos de mejor ajuste. Se consideró, como variables independientes, los factores climáticos estudiados, y como variable dependiente el porcentaje de biomasa perdida. De forma general, los resultados demostraron que el comportamiento de la descomposición de la hojarasca, tanto en la guinea como en la leucaena, estuvo relacionado con los factores climáticos que prevalecieron durante el período experimental y, por tanto, es posible explicar este proceso en ambos pastizales a partir de la acción conjunta de la temperatura, la humedad relativa y la precipitación.With the objective of determining the litter decomposition in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala and its relationship to some climate factors, this trial was conducted at the EEPF «Indio Hatuey». Litter decomposition was determined as the loss of biomass through time, with regards to initial weight. For studying the decomposition dynamics the method of litter bags was used; the performance of mean temperature, relative humidity, rainfall and days with rain, was daily recorded at the meteorological station located 1 km away from the experimental area. . The
Acid Fostatase Activity in soils croping with potato and pastures from the Catambuco, Pasto, Colombia Actividad de fosfatasa ácida en suelos cultivados con papa y praderas del corregimiento de Catambuco, Pasto-Colombia
Full Text Available To estimated the acid phosphatase activity (APA in soil covered with potato and prairie in Catambuco, place Pasto, Colombia; located to 2820 msnm and with average temperature of 12.4oC. The acid phosphatase activity obtained the biggest values in soil covered with prairie in winter time, in addition to that, there were high correlations between the APA and the organic matter off the soil. In the factors sampling times and use of the soil, there were significance statistical differences, with the most significance in soil covered with prairie and with recent use in potato cultivation. The APA obtained the biggest percentage in soil covered with prairie, in front of the soil cultivated with potato for the two evaluated times. Key words: Acid phosphatase activity, use of land, Solanum tuberosumCon el objetivo de estimar y comparar la actividad de la fostatasa ácida (AFA en suelos sembrados con papa y con pastos, se realizó la presente investigación en suelos del corregimiento de Catambuco, municipio de Pasto, Colombia (2.820 msnm, 12.4oC. La mayor actividad de la fosfatasa ácida ocurrió en pradera en época de invierno; además se encontraron altas correlaciones entre AFA y el contenido de materia orgánica. Para los factores épocas de muestreo y uso del suelo hubo diferencias estadísticas altamente significativas y para suelos cubiertos con pradera y con uso reciente en el cultivo de papa. La AFA alcanzó el mayor porcentaje en suelos cubiertos con pradera, frente a los suelos cultivados con papa, para las dos épocas evaluadas. Palabras claves: Actividad fosfatasa ácida, uso del terreno, Solanum tuberosum
Lowry, David B; Purmal, Colin T; Meyer, Eli; Juenger, Thomas E
We developed microsatellites for Panicum hallii for studies of gene flow, population structure, breeding experiments, and genetic mapping. Next-generation (454) genomic sequence data were used to design markers. Eighteen robust markers were discovered, 15 of which were polymorphic across six accessions of P. hallii var. hallii. Fourteen of the markers cross-amplified in a P. capillare accession. For the 15 polymorphic markers, the total number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 26 (mean: 11.0) across six populations (11-19 individuals per population). Observed heterozygosity (mean: 0.031) was 13.7 times lower than the expected heterozygosity (mean: 0.426). The deficit of heterozygous individuals is consistent with P. hallii having a high rate of self-fertilization. These markers will be useful for studies in P. hallii and related species.
Kanai, R; Kashiwagi, M [Saitama Univ., Urawa (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering
Light and electron microscopic observations of the leaf tissue of Panicum milioides showed that bundle sheath cell contained a substanital number of chloroplasts and other organelles. The radial arrangement of chlorenchymatous bundle sheath cells, designated as Kranz leaf anatomy, has been considered to be specific to C/sub 4/ plants. However, photosynthetic /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse-and-chase experiments revealed that the reductive pentosephosphate pathway was the main route operating in leaves of p. milioides. The interveinal distance of the leaves was intermediate between C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ Gramineae species. These results indicate that P. milioides is a natural plant species having characteristics intermediate between C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ types.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dormant stratovolcano in Papua New Guinea suddenly exploded in 1951. Nuees ardentes (glowing avalanches) shot down the mountain at 100 km per hour, devastated...
Jesús Enrique Chavarría Párraga
Full Text Available La investigación se desarrolló en el sitio Garrapata, Parroquia Santa Rita, provincia Manabí; durante la época seca del año 2015. El estudio consistió en evaluar la restricción hídrica en la producción del pasto king grass morado (Pennisetum sp bajo riego por aspersión. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completos al azar, formado de tres tratamientos y seis repeticiones. Los tratamientos consistieron en aplicar tres láminas de reposición de agua 80% ETc, 100% ETc, 120% ETc, calculados a partir de los registros diarios de evaporación en un tanque evaporímetro tipo A y afectados por el coeficientes Kp (Coeficiente de tina, método FAO 33,1980. Las variables evaluadas fueron altura de planta a los 15 y 30 días del corte de igualación del pasto, altura de planta a la cosecha (m, rendimiento de forraje verde por parcela y hectárea (kg y materia seca (%. Los resultados indican que el tratamiento lámina de riego al 120% de la ETc (T3, respondió de manera favorable en altura de planta a la cosecha (2.08 m, rendimiento (53000 kg.ha-1; el tratamiento lámina de riego al 100% de la ETc (T2 obtuvo mayor contenido de materia seca (19.86%. El pasto king grass morado regado con una lámina de riego al 120% de la ETc, constituye una modalidad que mejora el rendimiento productivo y rentable del cultivo y podría aplicarse en la zona.
Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto del picado sobre las características nutricionales y fermentativas de ensilajes elaborados con 3 pastos (kikuyo, rye-grass perenne y alpiste forrajero. Se elaboraron 2 microsilos de cada pasto en bolsas de polieti-leno con capacidad para 1 kg, aplicando 2 trata-mientos (picado y sin picar; se adicionó a cada microsilo 3% de melaza y 0,1% de un inóculo artesanal (hecho de leche agria, suero de queso y melaza. La especie de pasto tuvo el mayor impacto sobre las características nutricionales y fermentativas de los microsilos, mientras que el picado no mostró tendencia clara sobre los parámetros evaluados. El contenido de PC (14,40 a 19,35%, FDN (46,25 a 63,16% y la DIVMS (46,15 a 65,55% en los ensilados es indicador de su potencial para llenar gran parte de los requerimientos nutricionales del ganado lechero. El pasto ryegrass ensilado alcanzó los niveles de pH (4,41 a 4,83 menores y el pasto kikuyo los valores menores de capacidad amor-tiguadora (79,12 a 81,17 mEq NaOH 100 g-1 MS y de nitrógeno amoniacal (1,03 a 1,33%. Los ensilajes elaborados con pastos pueden uti-lizarse como suplementos con valor nutricional superior a los henos utilizados en las raciones de ganado lechero en zonas altas.
Scarlet Sotomayor Tacuri
Full Text Available La categorización de víctima constituye una estrategia de participación política de los sectores LGBTI de la ciudad de Pasto. El fin de esta autodefinición es continuar la lucha por la ciudadanía plena y su reconocimiento en el departamento de Nariño, Colombia. Este colectivo es heterogéneo y tiene dificultades a la hora de construir una identidad colectiva que permita su consolidación. Sin embargo, durante los dieciséis años que lleva funcionando se ha fortalecido, mediante las luchas constantes de activistas y las transformaciones constitucionales. Se tienen en cuenta los debates feministas y de los estudios de género sobre víctimas y ciudadanía, planteándolas como definiciones opuestas; no significa que sean en sí mismas un antagonismo, sino una estrategia de movilización política en el marco de la Ley 1448 de 2011 y en los acuerdos de paz realizados entre el gobierno nacional y las Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia -FARC- durante los últimos cuatro años. Esto ha permitido la visibilización de sus problemáticas, a nivel social y cultural en las zonas rurales, donde se recrudece el conflicto y, en la zona urbana donde los estereotipos y estigmas son parte de la cotidianidad y se reproducen para discriminar a lesbianas, gays, bisexuales, trans e intersexuales.
Filogonio Jesús Hernández-Guzmán
Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue determinar los patrones de variación en los componentes de la productividad forrajera del pasto ovillo (Dactylis glomerata L. bajo pastoreo. En Montecillo, Texcoco, Estado de México, México, de junio 2005 a junio 2006, se estudió la combinación de tres frecuencias (21, 28 y 35 días y dos intensidades (5-7 y 9-11 cm en el forraje residual de pastoreo, en un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. Se evaluó el rendimiento anual y la distribución estacional de forraje, tasa de crecimiento, composición botánica y morfológica y densidad de tallos. La frecuencia de pastoreo de 35 días superó a las de 21 y 28 (P<0,05 en el rendimiento anual, durante primavera y verano. Independientemente de la frecuencia e intensidad de pastoreo, el rendimiento estacional se distribuyó de la siguiente forma: 49,5, 31,6, 14,1 y 4,8% para primavera, verano, invierno y otoño, respectivamente. La mayor tasa de crecimiento se registró en primavera al pastorear cada 35 días y la menor en otoño al pastorear cada 28 días (P<0,01. Durante invierno se dio mayor presencia de otras especies, siendo el pastoreo cada veintiún días a una intensidad ligera el que originó un aporte al rendimiento de otras especies del 60%. No se presentaron efectos de intensidad ni de frecuencia de pastoreo en la densidad de tallos. El mayor rendimiento y tasa de crecimiento se obtuvieron al pastorear cada 35 días.
Noé Durán Puga
Full Text Available Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron determinar las temperaturas cardinales de desarrollo (temperatura umbral mínima Tb, temperatura óptima To y temperatura umbral máxima Tu, e identificar un método que estime con precisión los requerimientos térmicos para la etapa siembra-emergencia (E de 11 pastos forrajeros. Ciento veinte (120 semillas de cada uno se sembraron en recipientes en condiciones controladas con un diseño experimental completamente al azar y tres repeticiones a temperaturas constantes de 15 hasta 46 ºC, en cámaras de ambiente controlado del Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP en Guadalajara, Jalisco, México. Las temperaturas cardinales y requerimiento térmico se estimaron mediante el método bilineal (MB y el método curvilíneo (MC, se evaluó su ajuste mediante comparación directa con los valores de desarrollo observados en ambiente controlado y coeficiente de variación de la duración de E expresada en términos de unidades calor acumuladas (UCA. Los resultados mostraron que el MB fue mejor para estimar Tb y To, y el MC fue mejor para estimar Tu. Los valores de Tb, To, Tu y UCA, fueron, Lolium perenne 9, 31, 41, 80, Festuca arundinacea 10, 31, 41, 78, Hyparrhenia rufa 12, 32, 42, 62, Eragrostis curvula 13, 32, 47, 40, Chloris gayana 13, 31, 47, 40, Melinis minutiflora 13, 31, 43, 50, Pennisetum clandestinum 12, 32, 43, 65, Brachiaria mutica 14, 32, 43, 57, Andropogon gayanus 12, 37, 48, 66, Cynodon dactylon 14, 29, 44, 48, Pennicetum ciliare 13, 30, 42, 61.
Full Text Available Different species of Panicum, including P. dichotomiflorum,have been reported as a cause of photosensitization in sheep, horses, cattle and goats. An outbreak of hepatogenous photosensitization occurred in 3 flocks of hair sheep in the Brazilian semiarid region. Eighty one out of 365 sheep were affected and 39 died. The main affected animals were nursing lambs and sheep younger than one year old. Donkeys, goats and cattle grazing in the same pasture were not affected. Clinical signs were edema of the head, followed by dermatitis, mainly in the face, ears, and croup, ocular discharge, corneal opacity with blindness, and redness of the coronary band and hoof. At necropsy of one affected lamb the liver was yellowish. Upon histologic examination scattered necrotic hepatocytes were observed in the liver and focal areas of necrosis of myocytes appeared in the heart. Samples of P. dicotomiflorum were analyzed by TLC and those containing saponins were isolated by HPLC using RP-C18 column and eluted with a mixture of MeOH and H2O. The isolated compounds were submitted to ¹H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Reactions were positive to furostanol saponins with the same Rf of the standard protodioscin (0.21 and methylprotodioscin (0.32. The spectroscopic results indicated a mixture of (25R- and (25S-protodioscin isomers in a proportion of 3:1, and methylprotodioscin.Diferentes espécies de Panicum, incluindo P. dichotomiflorum,causam fotossensibilização em ovinos, eqüinos, bovinos e caprinos. Um surto de fotossensibilização hepatógena ocorreu em 3 rebanhos de ovinos no município de Casa Nova, Bahia. Oitenta e um de 365 ovinos adoeceram e 39 morreram. Cordeiros lactentes e ovinos de menos de um ano foram mais afetados. Jumentos, cabras e bovinos que permaneciam nas mesmas pastagens não foram afetados. Clinicamente observou-se edema da face, seguido por dermatite, principalmente da face, orelhas e garupa, corrimento ocular, opacidade da córnea com cegueira
Larissa Rodrigues Fabris
Full Text Available The sanitary quality of 26 lots commercial seeds of tropical forages, produced in different regions (2004-05 and 2005-06 was analyzed. The lots were composed of seeds of Panicum maximum ('Massai', 'Mombaça' e 'Tanzânia' and stylo ('Estilosantes Campo Grande' - ECG. Additionally, seeds of two lots of P. maximum for exportation were analyzed. The blotter test was used, at 20ºC under alternating light and darkness in a 12 h photoperiod, for seven days. The Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Rhizopus genus consisted the secondary or saprophytes fungi (FSS with greatest frequency in P. maximum lots. In general, there was low incidence of these fungus in the seeds. In relation to pathogenic fungi (FP, it was detected high frequency of contaminated lots by Bipolaris, Curvularia, Fusarium and Phoma genus. Generally, there was high incidence of FP in P. maximum seeds. The occurrence of Phoma sp. was hight, because in 81% of the lots showed incidence superior to 50%. In 'ECG' seeds it was detected FSS (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Penicillium genus and FP (Bipolaris, Curvularia, Fusarium and Phoma genus, usually, in low incidence. FSS and FP were associated to P. maximum seeds for exportation, with significant incidence in some cases. The results indicated that there was a limiting factor in all producer regions regarding sanitary quality of the seeds.Sementes comerciais de forrageiras tropicais, pertencente a 26 lotes produzidos em diferentes regiões (safras 2004-05 e 2005-06, foram avaliadas quanto à sanidade. Foram analisadas sementes de cultivares de Panicum maximum (Massai, Mombaça e Tanzânia e de estilosantes (Estilosantes Campo Grande – ECG. Adicionalmente, avaliou-se a qualidade sanitária de dois lotes de sementes de P. maximum destinados à exportação. Para isso, as sementes foram submetidas ao teste de papel de filtro em gerbox, os quais foram incubados a 20ºC, com fotoperíodo de 12 h, durante sete dias. Os fungos saprófitos ou
Beltrán López, Sergio; García Díaz, Carlos Alberto; Loredo Osti, Catarina; Urrutia Morales, Jorge; Hernández Alatorre, José Antonio; Gámez Vázquez, Héctor Guillermo
RESUMEN: El pasto buffel (Pennisetum ciliare) es una gramínea perenne, originaria de Sud África, de buen valor forrajero que se adapta bien a una amplia gama de suelos y condiciones climáticas. Las variedades de pasto buffel Titán y buffel Regio provienen de colectas realizadas en el centro y norte de México. Fueron evaluadas en zonas áridas y semiáridas, en temporal y riego desde 1986 hasta la obtención del registro en el año 2008. Los registros definitivos otorgados por parte del Sistema Na...
Olea Márquez de Prado, L.; Jiménez Mozo, J.
Se presentan los resultados de aportaciones de P, K, Mg + Ca, Mo + Mn y Cu + Co sobre pastizales artificiales de leguminosas + gramíneas y pastos naturales en varias zonas de Extremadura. En pastizales artificiales la fertilización previa al establecimiento con 75-95 u. de P2O5 /Ha, duplica la producción. En pastos naturales la fertilización anual con 46 u. de P2 O5, duplica la producción y el porcentaje de leguminosas. Los mayores incrementos se consiguen con aportaciones anuales de 40 u. de...
Muller, E.; Ader, M.; Gérard, E.; Virgone, A.; Gaucher, E.; Bougeault, C.; Durlet, C.; Moreira, M. A.; Virgile, R.; Vennin, E.; Agogué, H.; Hugoni, M.
The Cretaceous Presalt travertinoid deposits of the South Atlantic are usually considered as "strange deposits" having poor equivalents in modern environments. Pastos Grandes Laguna, which is located in a 2.9 Ma caldera on the andean-bolivian Altiplano (at 4450 m), is intersected by active faults with hydrothermal fluids and presents a spherulitic plateform with similar sedimentological facies to the Presalt: halite and bedded evaporites, shrub-shaped calcites, ooids, pisolites and various stromatolites. Pastos Grandes Laguna is certainly one of the best modern analog of the Presalt for investigating the on going processes of carbonate deposition and diagenesis and the influence of biology. During two expeditions, we recovered samples of gas, water and microbial mats from the hydrothermal sources to the evaporating zones on the spherulitic plateform. These samples are being analyzed to determine 1) the influence of the gases emitted at the hydrothermal sources (chemical and isotopic composition) on the chemistry of the Laguna and the mineralogy of its sediments and 2) the role of ecosystems that develop in this environment on carbonate formation. Preliminary results on gas composition, corrected for the atmospheric contribution, indicates a magmatic source of CO2 partly mantellic associated with a small crustal contribution. Other initial results have so far indicated that CO2 gas emissions, evaporation, as well as photosynthesis and respiration play a role on water chemistry and carbonate precipitation. This study will contribute to the overall understanding of the role of organisms in sedimentation and the predictive diagenetic evolution of hydrothermal and lacustrine deposits.
Full Text Available : It was studied the dynamics of total amylase\\'s activity in millet (Panicum miliaceum and bristle grass (Setaria glauca during the germination period. The enzymatic activity was determined by the Noelting - Brenfeld method, the results obtained being expressed in M maltose / g. In both millet and bristle grass, it was evidenced that both parameters taken into study (the species and the germination time do influence the enzymatic activity, although to a different extent.
Full Text Available Background: Hippocampus organization is a part of temporal lobe, which consists of several sections including hippocampal body, dentate gyrus and subiculum. Panicum miliaceum L. contains proteins, vitamins and antioxidants for human health. This study was conducted to examine the effect of the alcoholic extract of the seed of Panicum miliaceum L. plant on hippocampus neuronal density. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 24 male mice were divided into 4 groups (n=6, each group. The alcoholic extract of the seed of the Panicum miliaceum L. plant was prepared by soxhlet extraction. Three doses of the extract 25, 50, 75 mg/kg were intraperitoneally injected to 3 treatment groups for 21 days and the control group received normal saline injection. At the end of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized and after perfusion, their brains were removed from the skull. After tissue processing, slices of the brain were prepared and stained. Then, different regions of the hippocampus were photographed and neuronal densities were evaluated. Results: Results showed that the neuronal density in the CA1, CA3 regions of the group treated with 50 mg/kg of the alcoholic extract and in all regions of hippocampus (CA1,CA2,CA3 in groups treated with dose of 75 mg/kg of the alcoholic extract had a significant increase compared to the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: The present study shows that the alcoholic extract of the seed of Panicum miliaceum L. plant increases neuronal density and induces neurogenesis in the mouse hippocampus.
Felipe Mandelli Terrassi
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of probiotic Proenzime ®, added to the mineral salt, the weight of cattle kept on pasture. We used 30 animals, males Nelore (Bos indicus at approximately 10 months of age in Panicum maximum supplemented with mineral salt (CG, n = 15 animals and mineral salt added probiotic (GT = 4 g probiotic / day, n = 15 animals. The animals of the TG were linear and significant increase (P <0.01 in weight over the GC. Therefore, adding probiotic, mineral salt increases the weight in Nelore cattle raised on pasture.
Thiago Perez Granato
Full Text Available The productivity of forage grasses is due to continuous emission of leaves and tillers, ensuring the restoration of leaf área after cutting or grazing, thus ensuring the sustainability of forage. This study aimed to asses the total number tillers in different acessions of Panicum maximum Jacq. The experiment was carried in field belonging to the Instituto de Zootecnia located in Nova Odessa / SP. Evaluated two new accesses Panicum maximum, and two commercial cultivars. The cultivars tested were Aruana, Milenio, NO 2487, NO 78, and the two latter belonging to the Germoplasm Collection of the IZ. The experimental desing was in randomized complete block with four replications. The experimental area consisted of 16 plots of 10 m2 (5 x 2 m each. The experimental area was analyzed and according to the results, received dolomitic limestone corresponding 2t /ha, two months before the implementation of the experiment. Sowing was made by broad costing together with 80 kg/ha of P2O5 in the form of single superphosfate. After 60 days of implantation of the experiment it was a made a leveling of the plots to a height of about 15 cm. After this it was applied 250g of the 20-00-20 fertilizer/plot. Thirty days after the standardization it was evaluated the total number of tillers of the cultivars, using a metal frame of 0.5 x 0.5m which was thrown at random on each of the 16 plots, leaving one meter of each extremitly, and all tillers which were within the frame counted. After finished the counting of all tillers, the plots cut again at a height of approximately 15 cm. The second evaluation took place after thirty days, and it was again counted the total number of tillers following the same procedure. The results were analyzed by Tukey test at 5% after transforming the data to log(x. For the first evaluation there was no statistical difference in the total number of tillers between cultivars. But, in the second evaluation, the total number of tillers of NO 78
Full Text Available Em duas áreas de 1.200m² de capim Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça, acompanhou-se a evolução do perfilhamento, da biomassa, do índice de área foliar (IAF, da interceptação da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa (IRFA e da eficiência de uso da radiação (EUR no verão e outono. Para melhor compreesão do crescimento do dossel, realizou-se também análise do crescimento, estimando-se a taxa de crescimento relativo (TCR, a taxa assimilatória líquida (TAL e a razão de área foliar (RAF da gramínea. Para todas as variáveis, foram consideradas estimativas semanais, realizadas aos 7º, 14º, 21º, 28º, 35º, 42º e 49º dias de rebrotação da gramínea, após pastejo de uniformização. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições e duas áreas experimetais: uma no verão e outra no outono. No verão e no outono, foram visualizados, respectivamente, 28 e 24 pontos, sorteados pelos tratamentos experimentais, semelhantes quanto à altura do dossel e à cobertura do solo, após intenso pastejo de uniformização. O perfilhamento da gramínea, intenso na primeira semana, decresceu nas duas semanas seguintes e praticamente cessou a partir da quarta semana. A IRFA evoluiu assintoticamente, atingindo valores de 96% em ambas as estações. O IAF apresentou o mesmo padrão de resposta, com valores de 8 e 4 no verão e no outono, respectivamente. Em ambas as estações, a biomassa evoluiu de forma quadrática com o decorrer da rebrotação. A EUR, mais alta no verão que no outono, decreceu e seus respectivos valores foram 1,76 e 0,54gMS/MJ, em razão da menor precipitação pluviométrica desse período. A eficiência de crescimento do dossel, medida pela TCR, mais alta no verão que no outono e decresceu assintoticamente durante a rebrotação, em ambos os períodos. Enquanto a TAL reduziu durante o período de rebrotação, a RAF aumentou até um ponto de máximo, tanto no verão como no outono
Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la temperatura y el pH en la viabilidad celular de la cepa Azospirillum brasilense C16. Se estudiaron cinco temperaturas (entre 28 y 36°C y cinco pH (de 4,5 a 8,5. El efecto de la temperatura se evaluó mediante la medición del crecimiento radial (mm de la cepa, sobre un papel de filtro en medio batata. En el caso del pH se utilizó un fermentador de tanque agitado -con una configuración tipo Rushton- para cuantificar la velocidad de crecimiento, la producción de biomasa y el tiempo de duplicación de la cepa; las condiciones de fermentación fueron: 400 rpm, 1 Lpm y 30°C, durante 24 horas. El pH y la temperatura influyeron significativamente (p < 0,05 en la producción de A. brasilense C16. La temperatura de 30°C fue la más favorable para que se multiplicara la cepa, con 23,21 mm de crecimiento radial; mientras que la mayor o igual a 34°C inhibió su crecimiento. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron con un pH de 6,8, con diferencias significativas (p < 0,05 respecto al resto. Con esta condición se obtuvieron los valores más altos de velocidad de crecimiento (1,79 h-1 y producción de biomasa (8,65 log10 UFC mL-1, y el valor más bajo del tiempo de duplicación (1,09 h-1. Estos resultados poseen aplicabilidad biotecnológica, y son de gran importancia en el momento de definir y controlar las condiciones de producción masiva de biomasa de A. brasilense C16 para futuras formulaciones como biofertilizante en diversos cultivos de interés en Colombia.
McLaughlin, Samuel B.; Adams Kszos, Lynn
A 10-year US Department of Energy-sponsored research program designed to evaluate and develop switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), a native perennial warm-season grass, as a dedicated energy crop is reviewed. The programmatic objectives were to identify the best varieties and management practices to optimize productivity, while developing an understanding of the basis for long-term improvement of switchgrass through breeding and sustainable production in conventional agroecosystems. This research has reduced the projected production cost of switchgrass by about 25% ($8-9 Mg -1 ) through yield increases of about 50% achieved through selection of the best regionally adapted varieties; through optimizing cutting frequency and timing; and by reducing the level (by about 40%) and timing of nitrogen fertilization. Breeding research has made further gains in productivity of switchgrass that exceed the historical rate of yield improvement of corn. Studies of soil carbon storage under switchgrass indicate significant carbon sequestration will occur in soils that will improve soil productivity and nutrient cycling and can substantially augment greenhouse gas reductions associated with substituting renewable energy for fossil energy. Collaborative research with industry has included fuel production and handling in power production, herbicide testing and licensing, release of new cultivars, and genetic modifications for chemical coproduct enhancement. Economically based life cycle analyses based on this research suggest that switchgrass produced for energy will compete favorably both as an agricultural crop and as fuel for industry
Francisco Duarte Fernandes
Full Text Available The narrow genetic variability of grasslands and the incidence of new biotic and abiotic stresses have motivated the selection of new Panicum maximum genotypes for use as forage for beef cattle in the Brazilian savannah. This study aimed to evaluate forage yield and nutritive value of P. maximum genotypes including 14 accessions (PM30 to PM43, four intraspecific hybrids (PM44 to PM47 and six cultivars (Aruana, Massai, Milênio, Mombaça, Tanzania and Vencedor, examining 24 genotypes over two years (2003 and 2004. Milênio cultivar was the genotype with the highest dry matter yield (DMY in both years (18.4 t ha-1 and 20.9 t ha-1, respectively although it presented a high proportion of stems (~ 30%. Genotypes that showed higher Leaf DMY in both years were the accession PM34 (14.7 t ha-1 and the hybrid PM46 (14.0 t ha-1, while Mombaça and Tanzania yielded 12.5 and 11.0 t ha-1, respectively. Leaf organic matter digestibility and leaf DMY for PM40 and PM46 genotypes exceeded the mean (> 656 g kg-1 and > 11.7 t ha-1, respectively. For this reason, PM40 and PM46 can be considered promising P. maximum genotypes for use as forage for grazing systems in the Brazilian savannah.
Lorena V. Armando
Full Text Available Panicum coloratum var. makarikariense, a perennial grass native to Africa, is adapted to a wide range of soil and climatic conditions with potential to be used as forage in tropical and semi-arid regions around the world. Our objective was to understand how the pollination mode affects viable seed production and further survival of the progeny. We evaluated self- and open-pollinated progenies from different accessions by measuring the seed production of the parents and their germination performance, germination rate and seedling survival. Parents and progeny were also fingerprinted with Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR. Progeny produced through open-pollination resulted in significantly more filled seeds and superior seedling survival than self-pollination. These results indicate that accessions studied here rely heavily on cross-pollination, whereas the contribution of self-pollinated offspring to the population is likely to be low. SSR profiles showed that, on average, 85% of the progeny (arising from cross-pollination possessed paternal specific markers and 100% of them were genetically different from the maternal genotype. All plants examined had 4x = 36 chromosomes. Overall, our findings indicate that var. makarikariense is able to generate highly polymorphic progeny through segregation and recombination. This study provides reference information for the formulation of appropriate strategies for pasture germplasm management, conservation and development of breeding programs.
Nathan A. Palmer
Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L is perennial, C4 grass with great potential as a biofuel crop. An in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that control mineral uptake, distribution and remobilization will benefit sustainable production. Nutrients are mobilized from aerial portions to below-ground crowns and rhizomes as a natural accompaniment to above-ground senescence post seed-set. Mineral uptake and remobilization is dependent on transporters, however, little if any information is available about the specific transporters that are needed and how their relative expression changes over a growing season. Using well-defined classes of mineral transporters, we identified 520 genes belonging to 40 different transporter classes in the tetraploid switchgrass genome. Expression patterns were determined for many of these genes using publically available transcriptomic datasets obtained from both greenhouse and field grown plants. Certain transporters showed strong temporal patterns of expression in distinct developmental stages of the plant. Gene-expression was verified for selected transporters using qRT-PCR. By and large these analyses confirmed the developmental stage-specific expression of these genes. Mineral analyses indicated that K, Fe, Mg, Co and As had a similar pattern of accumulation with apparent limited remobilization at the end of the growing season. These initial analyses will serve as a foundation for more detailed examination of the nutrient biology of switchgrass.
Assaeed, Abdulaziz M; Al-Faifi, Sulieman A; Migdadi, Hussein M; El-Bana, Magdy I; Al Qarawi, Abdulaziz A; Khan, Mohammad Altaf
The genetic diversity of 177 accessions of Panicum turgidum Forssk, representing ten populations collected from four geographical regions in Saudi Arabia, was analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. A set of four primer-pairs with two/three selective nucleotides scored 836 AFLP amplified fragments (putative loci/genome landmarks), all of which were polymorphic. Populations collected from the southern region of the country showed the highest genetic diversity parameters, whereas those collected from the central regions showed the lowest values. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 78% of the genetic variability was attributable to differences within populations. Pairwise values for population differentiation and genetic structure were statistically significant for all variances. The UPGMA dendrogram, validated by principal coordinate analysis-grouped accessions, corresponded to the geographical origin of the accessions. Mantel's test showed that there was a significant correlation between the genetic and geographical distances ( r = 0.35, P < 0.04). In summary, the AFLP assay demonstrated the existence of substantial genetic variation in P. turgidum . The relationship between the genetic diversity and geographical source of P. turgidum populations of Saudi Arabia, as revealed through this comprehensive study, will enable effective resource management and restoration of new areas without compromising adaptation and genetic diversity.
Full Text Available In order to evaluate millet (Panicum miliaceum L. and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. intercropping, an experiment was conducted during 2008-2009 at Agriculture Research Center of Zabol University, Iran. The experiment was as randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatment s consisted of sole crop of millet, sole crop of cowpea, 25% millet + 100% cowpea, 50% millet + 50% cowpea, 75% millet + 100% cowpea and 100% millet + 100% cowpea. The results showed that intercropping treatments had significant effect (P < 1% on millet and bean seed yield, LER, dry matter of weeds, PAR, temperature and (P < 5% on soil moisture content. The highest seed yield of millet and cowpea obtained from treatments of sole crops. The LER for most intercrops was greater than one which indicated that intercropping had advantage over sole crop. For weeds management and control the results indicated that weed suppressing effects in intercropping treatments is better than sole crops treatment, so that the lowest dry matter of weeds obtained from 100% millet + 100% cowpea treatment. PAR in all of stages showed that the highest PAR interception obtained from intercropping treatments specially 100% millet + 100% cowpea treatment. In addition to the lowest of soil moisture content and temperature obtained from this treatment.
Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Wu, Naiqin; Liu, Kam-Biu; Xu, Deke; Li, Quan
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and Common millet (Panicum miliaceum) are the oldest domesticated dry farming crops in Eurasia. Identifying these two millets in the archaeobotanical remains are still problematic, especially because the millet grains preserve only when charred. Phytoliths analysis provides a viable method for identifying this important crop. However, to date, the identification of millet phytoliths has been questionable, because very little study has been done on their morphometry and taxonomy. Particularly, no clear diagnostic feature has been used to distinguish between Foxtail millet and Common millet. Here we examined the anatomy and silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from the inflorescence bracts in 27 modern plants of Foxtail millet, Common millet, and closely related grasses, using light microscopy with phase-contrast and microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that five key diagnostic characteristics in phytolith morphology can be used to distinguish Foxtail millet from Common millet based on the presence of cross-shaped type, regularly arranged papillae, Omega-undulated type, endings structures of epidermal long cell, and surface ridgy line sculpture in the former species. We have established identification criteria that, when used together, give the only reliable way of distinguishing between Foxtail millet and Common millet species based on their phytoliths characteristics, thus making a methodological contribution to phytolith research. Our findings also have important implications in the fields of plant taxonomy, agricultural archaeology, and the culture history of ancient civilizations.
Full Text Available Foxtail millet (Setaria italica and Common millet (Panicum miliaceum are the oldest domesticated dry farming crops in Eurasia. Identifying these two millets in the archaeobotanical remains are still problematic, especially because the millet grains preserve only when charred. Phytoliths analysis provides a viable method for identifying this important crop. However, to date, the identification of millet phytoliths has been questionable, because very little study has been done on their morphometry and taxonomy. Particularly, no clear diagnostic feature has been used to distinguish between Foxtail millet and Common millet. Here we examined the anatomy and silicon structure patterns in the glumes, lemmas, and paleas from the inflorescence bracts in 27 modern plants of Foxtail millet, Common millet, and closely related grasses, using light microscopy with phase-contrast and microscopic interferometer. Our research shows that five key diagnostic characteristics in phytolith morphology can be used to distinguish Foxtail millet from Common millet based on the presence of cross-shaped type, regularly arranged papillae, Omega-undulated type, endings structures of epidermal long cell, and surface ridgy line sculpture in the former species. We have established identification criteria that, when used together, give the only reliable way of distinguishing between Foxtail millet and Common millet species based on their phytoliths characteristics, thus making a methodological contribution to phytolith research. Our findings also have important implications in the fields of plant taxonomy, agricultural archaeology, and the culture history of ancient civilizations.
Hunt, Harriet V; Campana, Michael G; Lawes, Matthew C; Park, Yong-Jin; Bower, Mim A; Howe, Christopher J; Jones, Martin K
Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is one of the world's oldest cultivated cereals, with several lines of recent evidence indicating that it was grown in northern China from at least 10 000 cal bp. Additionally, a cluster of archaeobotanical records of P. miliaceum dated to at least 7000 cal bp exists in eastern Europe. These two centres of early records could either represent independent domestications or cross-continental movement of this cereal that would predate that of any other crop by some 2 millennia. Here, we analysed genetic diversity among 98 landrace accessions from across Eurasia using 16 microsatellite loci, to explore phylogeographic structure in the Old World range of this historically important crop. The major genetic split in the data divided the accessions into an eastern and a western grouping with an approximate boundary in northwestern China. A substantial number of accessions belonging to the ‘western’ genetic group were also found in northeastern China. Further resolution subdivided the western and eastern genepools into 2 and 4 clusters respectively, each showing clear geographic patterning. The genetic data are consistent with both the single and multiple domestication centre hypotheses and add specific detail to what these hypotheses would entail regarding the spread of broomcorn millet. Discrepancies exist between the predictions from the genetic data and the current archaeobotanical record, highlighting priorities for investigation into early farming in Central Asia. PMID:22004244
Joshua W. Campbell
Full Text Available Intensively-managed pine (Pinus spp. have been shown to support diverse vertebrate communities, but their ability to support invertebrate communities, such as wild bees, has not been well-studied. Recently, researchers have examined intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, a native perennial, within intensively managed loblolly pine (P. taeda plantations as a potential source for cellulosic biofuels. To better understand potential effects of intercropping on bee communities, we investigated visitation of bees within three replicates of four treatments of loblolly pine in Mississippi, U.S.A.: 3–4 year old pine plantations and 9–10 year old pine plantations with and without intercropped switchgrass. We used colored pan traps to capture bees during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We captured 2507 bees comprised of 18 different genera during the two-year study, with Lasioglossum and Ceratina being the most common genera captured. Overall, bee abundances were dependent on plantation age and not presence of intercropping. Our data suggests that switchgrass does not negatively impact or promote bee communities within intensively-managed loblolly pine plantations.
Campbell, Joshua W; Miller, Darren A; Martin, James A
Intensively-managed pine ( Pinus spp.) have been shown to support diverse vertebrate communities, but their ability to support invertebrate communities, such as wild bees, has not been well-studied. Recently, researchers have examined intercropping switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum ), a native perennial, within intensively managed loblolly pine ( P. taeda ) plantations as a potential source for cellulosic biofuels. To better understand potential effects of intercropping on bee communities, we investigated visitation of bees within three replicates of four treatments of loblolly pine in Mississippi, U.S.A.: 3-4 year old pine plantations and 9-10 year old pine plantations with and without intercropped switchgrass. We used colored pan traps to capture bees during the growing seasons of 2013 and 2014. We captured 2507 bees comprised of 18 different genera during the two-year study, with Lasioglossum and Ceratina being the most common genera captured. Overall, bee abundances were dependent on plantation age and not presence of intercropping. Our data suggests that switchgrass does not negatively impact or promote bee communities within intensively-managed loblolly pine plantations.
Lipka, Alexander E.; Lu, Fei; Cherney, Jerome H.; Buckler, Edward S.; Casler, Michael D.; Costich, Denise E.
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a perennial grass undergoing development as a biofuel feedstock. One of the most important factors hindering breeding efforts in this species is the need for accurate measurement of biomass yield on a per-hectare basis. Genomic selection on simple-to-measure traits that approximate biomass yield has the potential to significantly speed up the breeding cycle. Recent advances in switchgrass genomic and phenotypic resources are now making it possible to evaluate the potential of genomic selection of such traits. We leveraged these resources to study the ability of three widely-used genomic selection models to predict phenotypic values of morphological and biomass quality traits in an association panel consisting of predominantly northern adapted upland germplasm. High prediction accuracies were obtained for most of the traits, with standability having the highest ten-fold cross validation prediction accuracy (0.52). Moreover, the morphological traits generally had higher prediction accuracies than the biomass quality traits. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the quality of current genomic and phenotypic resources available for switchgrass is sufficiently high for genomic selection to significantly impact breeding efforts for biomass yield. PMID:25390940
Hasseldine, Benjamin P J; Gao, Chao; Collins, Joseph M; Jung, Hyun-Do; Jang, Tae-Sik; Song, Juha; Li, Yaning
The common millet (Panicum miliaceum) seedcoat has a fascinating complex microstructure, with jigsaw puzzle-like epidermis cells articulated via wavy intercellular sutures to form a compact layer to protect the kernel inside. However, little research has been conducted on linking the microstructure details with the overall mechanical response of this interesting biological composite. To this end, an integrated experimental-numerical-analytical investigation was conducted to both characterize the microstructure and ascertain the microscale mechanical properties and to test the overall response of kernels and full seeds under macroscale quasi-static compression. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to examine the microstructure of the outer seedcoat and nanoindentation was performed to obtain the material properties of the seedcoat hard phase material. A multiscale computational strategy was applied to link the microstructure to the macroscale response of the seed. First, the effective anisotropic mechanical properties of the seedcoat were obtained from finite element (FE) simulations of a microscale representative volume element (RVE), which were further verified from sophisticated analytical models. Then, macroscale FE models of the individual kernel and full seed were developed. Good agreement between the compression experiments and FE simulations were obtained for both the kernel and the full seed. The results revealed the anisotropic property and the protective function of the seedcoat, and showed that the sutures of the seedcoat play an important role in transmitting and distributing loads in responding to external compression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hou, Siyu; Sun, Zhaoxia; Li, Yaoshen; Wang, Yijie; Ling, Hubin; Xing, Guofang; Han, Yuanhuai; Li, Hongying
Proso millet ( Panicum miliaceum ; Poaceae) is a minor crop with good nutritional qualities and strong tolerance to drought stress and soil infertility. However, studies on genetic diversity have been limited due to a lack of efficient genetic markers. Illumina sequencing technology was used to generate short read sequences of proso millet, and de novo transcriptome assemblies were used to develop a de novo assembly of proso millet. Genic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were identified and used to detect polymorphism among 56 accessions. Population structure and genetic similarity coefficient were estimated. In total, 25,341 unique gene sequences and 4724 SSR loci were obtained from the transcriptome, of which 229 pairs of SSR primers were validated, which resulted in 14 polymorphic genic SSR primers exhibiting 43 total alleles. According to the ratio of polymorphic markers (6.1%, 14/229), there are potentially 288 polymorphic genic SSR markers available for genetic assay development in the future. Bayesian population analyses showed that the 56 accessions comprised two distinct groups. A genetic structure and cluster assay indicated that the accessions from the Loess Plateau of China shared a high genetic similarity coefficient with those from other regions and that there was no correlation between genetic diversity and geographic origin. The transcriptome sequencing data and millet-specific SSR markers developed in this study establish an excellent resource for gene discovery and may improve the development of breeding programs in proso millet in the future.
Hou, Siyu; Sun, Zhaoxia; Li, Yaoshen; Wang, Yijie; Ling, Hubin; Xing, Guofang; Han, Yuanhuai; Li, Hongying
Premise of the study: Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum; Poaceae) is a minor crop with good nutritional qualities and strong tolerance to drought stress and soil infertility. However, studies on genetic diversity have been limited due to a lack of efficient genetic markers. Methods: Illumina sequencing technology was used to generate short read sequences of proso millet, and de novo transcriptome assemblies were used to develop a de novo assembly of proso millet. Genic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were identified and used to detect polymorphism among 56 accessions. Population structure and genetic similarity coefficient were estimated. Results: In total, 25,341 unique gene sequences and 4724 SSR loci were obtained from the transcriptome, of which 229 pairs of SSR primers were validated, which resulted in 14 polymorphic genic SSR primers exhibiting 43 total alleles. According to the ratio of polymorphic markers (6.1%, 14/229), there are potentially 288 polymorphic genic SSR markers available for genetic assay development in the future. Bayesian population analyses showed that the 56 accessions comprised two distinct groups. Discussion: A genetic structure and cluster assay indicated that the accessions from the Loess Plateau of China shared a high genetic similarity coefficient with those from other regions and that there was no correlation between genetic diversity and geographic origin. The transcriptome sequencing data and millet-specific SSR markers developed in this study establish an excellent resource for gene discovery and may improve the development of breeding programs in proso millet in the future. PMID:28791202
Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N
The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.
Respostas morfológicas do capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 irrigado à intensidade de desfolha sob lotação rotacionada Morphological responses of irrigated Tanzaniagrass (Panicum Maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 to grazing intensity under rotational stocking
Alexandre Carneiro Leão de Mello
Full Text Available Objetivando quantificar respostas morfológicas de dosséis de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia-1 sob três intensidades de pastejo, lotação rotacionada e irrigação, foi conduzido um experimento em delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram três intensidades de pastejo, representados pelas quantidades de massa seca verde residual pós-pastejo (T1=1000; T2=2500 e T3=4000 kg MSV/ha. Durante oito ciclos de pastejo (rebrotas de 33 dias após três dias de pastejo em cada ciclo, foram realizadas avaliações de altura média do dossel, índice de área foliar (IAF, interceptação luminosa (IL e ângulos foliares médios, em quatro dias dentro do período de rebrota (1, 11, 22 e 33 dias após a saída dos animais. A análise de correlações parciais indicou correlações entre altura e IL, bem como entre IAF e IL. Com o progresso da estação de pastejo, da primavera-verão para outono-inverno, houve reduções nos valores de IAF médio. Valores médios de IAF crítico (95% IL de 3,6 (T1, 4,0 (T2 e 4,5 (T3, foram alcançados por volta do 22º dia das rebrotas. A maior intensidade de pastejo (menor resíduo alterou a estrutura da pastagem no que diz respeito à arquitetura do dossel, evidenciada pela redução nos ângulos foliares médios (folhas mais horizontais ao longo das estações, com plantas passando a interceptar mais luz por unidade de área foliar. Os IAFs críticos medidos sugerem a necessidade de períodos de descanso menores que 33 dias em pastos de capim-Tanzânia, quando submetido a pastejo intensivo sob lotação rotacionada e irrigação.The objective of this research was to quantify morphological responses of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 under three grazing intensities in an irrigated, rotationally stocked setting. Treatments consisted of three grazing intensities represented by three post-graze forage masses (T1=1,000; T
Miguel Angel Suárez Russi
Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo, transversal, en la población adulta, mayor de 20 años, hombres y mujeres, habitantes de la zona urbana de la ciudad de Pasto, localizada en la zona suroccidental de Colombia, sus características son similares en alimentación y hábitos culturales al mayor porcentaje de los habitantes de Colombia de las zonas montañosas andinas, con una altura sobre el nivel del mar de 2.650 metros y una temperatura promedio de 11 grados centígrados. De una población adulta mayor de 20 años se seleccionó una muestra aleatoria sistemática de 1.430 personas. Aceptaron participar en forma voluntaria, aprovechando la estratificación de salud que tiene este municipio, distribuidos en seis sectores, sin una delimitación clara de clases sociales. Se realizó una encuesta domiciliaria sobre antecedentes familiares de diabetes y obesidad. Además se evaluaron otras variables como peso, talla, índice de masa corporal, escolaridad, para posteriormente citarlos y realizar una prueba de tolerancia a los carbohidratos, con una carga estándar de 75 gramos de glucosa, en 720 personas. Se determinó la glicemia mediante técnica de glucosa oxidasa en un equipo semiautomático cuantificando la pre y postcarga. Se emplearon para la evaluación los criterios de la OMS y National Diabetes Data Group. Al 6,0% de la población se le detectó diabetes mellitus, distribuidos en el 3,6% para mujeres y el 2,4% para los varones, siendo mayor la proporción de diabéticos entre la cuarta y quinta década. El 54,6% de los diabéticos tenían un IMC superior a 25, mientras que el 6,8% tenían problemas de obesidad con IMC superior a 30. Hubo intolerancia a los carbohidratos en el 5,3% de la población cuando se evaluó este factor aceptando la recomendación mundial de valores de glicemia entre 7,8 mmol y 11,1 mmol de glucosa en sangre venosa. El 22,5% de los sujetos diabéticos tenía antecedente materno de diabetes y paterno del 9
Dr. Mark Eberhard, a retired parasitologist and CDC guest researcher, discusses Guinea worm infection in a wild-caught frog. Created: 3/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 3/9/2017.
DIANA LEGARDA - LOPEZ
Full Text Available El presente trabajo se realizó en el corregimiento de Catambuco, municipio de Pasto, localizado a 01°06'33 N y 77°19 '07.8 WO; con el objeto de conocer El presente trabajo se realizó en el corregimiento de Catambuco, municipio de Pasto, localizado a 01°06 '33 N y 77°19´07.8 WO; con el objeto de conocer con tres repeticiones y 10 tratamientos distribuidos en dosis altas, medias y bajas de NPK (Altas: 529 kg/ha de úrea, 72 kg/ha de SFT, 160 kg/ha de KCl. Medias: 397 kg/ha de urea, 54 kg/ha de SFT, 120 kg/ha de KCl. Bajas: 265 kg/ha de úrea, 36 kg/ha de SFT, 80 kg/ha de KCl contrastadas con dosis altas, medias y bajas de Si (Alta 100 kg/ha, media 75 kg/ha, baja 50 kg/ha de SiO2 y un testigo sin fertilización con Si. El Si en dosis alta y NPK alto, presentó mejores resultados en altura de planta (101cm, producción de forraje verde (167,2 Ton/ha/año, materia seca (27,44 Ton/ha/año, concentraciones de P (parte aérea 0,53%y raíz 0,42%,de K (parte aérea 3,11% y raíz 2,27%. Al aplicar dosis altas y medias en el suelo,la concentración de P y K disminuyó. El tratamiento dosis alta de NPK y alta de Si presentó el mayor beneficio económico, seguido del tratamiento dosis media de NPK y alta de Si.
Jesús Miguel Calzada-Marín
Full Text Available El objetivo de este experimento fue realizar un análisis de crecimiento del pasto “Maralfalfa” ( Pennisetum sp. desde la siembra hasta determinar el momento óptimo de cosecha. La morfología de la planta (MP, tas a de crecimiento (TC, altura, radiación interceptada (RI, relación hoja/tallo (H:T, hoja/no hoja (H:NH y la acumulación de biomasa aérea, se evaluaron a intervalos de 15 días, en un periodo de 180 días, a excepción de lo s dos primeros muestreos que fueron mensuales. Los datos se analizaron mediante el procedimiento GLM de SA S, bajo un diseño experimental de bloques al azar, con medidas repetidas en el tiempo, con tres repeticiones . La MP varió de manera significativa ( P <0.01 a través de los diferentes estados fisiológicos. La máxima producción de biomasa aérea y TC se alcanzó a los 151 días después de la siemb ra con 37,297 kg MS ha -1 y 247 kg MS ha -1 d -1 , respectivamente. También se registró el mayor porcentaje de RI (97.4 %, con una altura de 2.3 m aproximadamente. La producción de biomasa de tallos y la producción de material muerto del pasto mar alfalfa, están correlacionadas de manera positiva con el incremento en la edad de la planta. La máxima tasa d e crecimiento, coincide con la máxima producción de hojas y de tallos, y con la mayor producción de bi omasa total.
Liu, Yang; Merrick, Paul; Zhang, Zhengzhi; Ji, Chonghui; Yang, Bing; Fei, Shui-Zhang
The CRISPR/Cas9 system has become a powerful tool for targeted mutagenesis. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a high yielding perennial grass species that has been designated as a model biomass crop by the U.S. Department of Energy. The self-infertility and high ploidy level make it difficult to study gene function or improve germplasm. To overcome these constraints, we explored the feasibility of using CRISPR/Cas9 for targeted mutagenesis in a tetraploid cultivar 'Alamo' switchgrass. We first developed a transient assay by which a non-functional green-fluorescent protein gene containing a 1-bp frameshift insertion in its 5' coding region was successfully mutated by a Cas9/sgRNA complex resulting in its restored function. Agrobacterium-mediated stable transformation of embryogenic calli derived from mature caryopses averaged a 3.0% transformation efficiency targeting the genes of teosinte branched 1(tb1)a and b and phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM). With a single construct containing two sgRNAs targeting different regions of tb1a and tb1b genes, primary transformants (T0) containing CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations were obtained at frequencies of 95.5% (tb1a) and 11% (tb1b), respectively, with T0 mutants exhibiting increased tiller production. Meanwhile, a mutation frequency of 13.7% was obtained for the PGM gene with a CRISPR/Cas9 construct containing a single sgRNA. Among the PGM T0 mutants, six are heterozygous and one is homozygous for a 1-bp deletion in the target region with no apparent phenotypical alterations. We show that CRISPR/Cas9 system can generate targeted mutagenesis effectively and obtain targeted homozygous mutants in T0 generation in switchgrass, circumventing the need of inbreeding. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hamid R. ESHGHIZADEH
Full Text Available Identifying the physiological traits associated with salt tolerance is important in optimal management of biosaline systems and optimum utilization of saline water resources in dry and saline areas. Therefore, some indices of photosynthetic activity, dry matter production and accumulation of sodium and potassium ions in Blue panicgrass (Panicum antidotale Retz were evaluated in five levels of salinity treatment (0, 70, 140, 210 and 280 mM NaCl solution under greenhouse conditions. The results showed that at 28 and 35 days after salt stress, plant leaf area reduced in the highest salinity treatment, 93 and 96% respectively, compared with control. Leaf stomatal conductance, CO2 fixation and quantum efficiency of photosystem II were decreased by increasing salinity. It caused also a reduction in chlorophyll content (Chl a, Chl b in leaves of Blue panicgrass. Content of carotenoids showed binary patterns to different salinity levels, slightly increased in 70-140 mM NaCl and decreased again in 210-280 mM, respectively. Increasing levels of salinity, increased sodium content in both roots and shoots but the shoots potassium content decreased. Decline in photosynthesis indices caused the reduction of root and shoot dry weight. This decrease resulted from lower leaf area (r=0.91**, lower stomatal conductance (r=0.78**, lower CO2 fixed in photosynthesis (r=0.63**, lower quantum efficiency of photosystem II (r=0.54** and lower Chl a (r=0.45**, respectively. Data analysis base on using stepwise regression introduced leaf area (?=0.560, chlorophyll a content (?=0.245 and shoot potassium content (?= 0.264 as main effective components of salinity tolerance in Blue panicgrass.
Douglas Mochi Victor
Full Text Available The silvopastoral system is a viable technological alternative to extensive cattle grazing, however, for it to be successful, forage grass genotypes adapted to reduced light need to be identified. The objective of this study was to select progenies of Panicum maximum tolerant to low light conditions for use in breeding programs and to study the genetic control and performance of some traits associated with shade tolerance. Six full-sib progenies were evaluated in full sun, 50% and 70% of light reduction in pots and subjected to cuttings. Progeny genotypic values (GV increased with light reduction in relation to plant height (H and specific leaf area (SLA. The traits total dry mass accumulation (DM and leaf dry mass accumulation (LDM had GV higher in 50% shade and intermediate in 70% shade. The GV of tiller number (TIL and root dry mass accumulation (RDM decreased with light reduction. The highest positive correlations were obtained for the traits H and RDM with SLA and DM; the highest negative correlations were between TIL and SLA and RDM, and H and LDM. The progenies showed higher tolerance to 50% light reduction and, among them, two stood out and will be used in breeding programs. It was also found that it is not necessary to evaluate some traits under all light conditions. All traits had high broad sense heritability and high genotypic correlation between progenies in all light intensities. There is genetic difference among the progenies regarding the response to different light intensities, which will allow selection for shade tolerance
Full Text Available Soil salt-alkalization is a major limiting factor for crop production in many regions. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. is a warm-season C4 perennial rhizomatous bunchgrass and a target lignocellulosic biofuel species. The objective of this study was to evaluate relative alkali-salt tolerance among 30 switchgrass lines. Tillers of each switchgrass line were transplanted into pots filled with fine sand. Two months after transplanting, plants at E5 developmental stage were grown in either half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution with 0 mM Na+ (control or half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution with 150 mM Na+ and pH of 9.5 (alkali-salt stress treatment for 20 d. Alkali-salt stress damaged cell membranes [higher electrolyte leakage (EL], reduced leaf relative water content (RWC, net photosynthetic rate (Pn, stomatal conductance (gs, and transpiration rate (Tr. An alkali-salt stress tolerance trait index (ASTTI for each parameter was calculated based on the ratio of the value under alkali-salt stress and the value under non-stress conditions for each parameter of each line. Relative alkali-salt tolerance was determined based on principal components analysis and cluster analysis of the physiological parameters and their ASTTI values. Significant differences in alkali-salt stress tolerance were found among the 30 lines. Lowland lines TEM-SEC, Alamo, TEM-SLC and Kanlow were classified as alkali-salt tolerant. In contrast, three lowland lines (AM-314/MS-155, BN-13645-64 and two upland lines (Caddo and Blackwell-1 were classified as alkali-salt sensitive. The results suggest wide variations exist in alkali-salt stress tolerance among the 30 switchgrass lines. The approach of using a combination of principal components and cluster analysis of the physiological parameters and related ASTTI is feasible for evaluating alkali-salt tolerance in switchgrass.
Zhang, Chao; Peng, Xi; Guo, Xiaofeng; Tang, Gaijuan; Sun, Fengli; Liu, Shudong; Xi, Yajun
Switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) is a model biofuel plant because of its high biomass, cellulose-richness, easy degradation to ethanol, and the availability of extensive genomic information. However, a little is currently known about the molecular responses of switchgrass plants to dehydration stress, especially multiple dehydration stresses. Studies on the transcriptional profiles of 35-day-old tissue culture plants revealed 741 dehydration memory genes. Gene Ontology and pathway analysis showed that these genes were enriched in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and plant hormone signal transduction. Further analysis of specific pathways combined with physiological data suggested that switchgrass improved its dehydration resistance by changing various aspects of its responses to secondary dehydration stress (D2), including the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) and jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signal transduction, the biosynthesis of osmolytes (l-proline, stachyose and trehalose), energy metabolism (i.e., metabolic process relating to photosynthetic systems, glycolysis, and the TCA cycle), and lignin biosynthesis. The transcriptional data and chemical substance assays showed that ABA was significantly accumulated during both primary (D1) and secondary (D2) dehydration stresses, whereas JA accumulated during D1 but became significantly less abundant during D2. This suggests the existence of a complicated signaling network of plant hormones in response to repeated dehydration stresses. A homology analysis focusing on switchgrass, maize, and Arabidopsis revealed the conservation and species-specific distribution of dehydration memory genes. The molecular responses of switchgrass plants to successive dehydration stresses have been systematically characterized, revealing a previously unknown transcriptional memory behavior. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms of dehydration stress responses in plants. The genes and
С. П. Полторецький
Full Text Available Purpose. Determination and analysis of relationship of sowing qualities and yield properties of millet seed (Panicum meliaceum L. to be formed by the action of predecessors and conditions of mineral nutrition in the context of unstable moistening in the Right-Bank Forest-Steppe zone of Ukraine. Methods. Mathematico-statistical ones (correlation, regression. Results. The use of correlation pleiades method allowed to analyze multifactor relations of sowing qualities and yield properties of millet seed and establish that there was a direct correlation relationship of medium strength (r = 0.52 ± 0.01 between yielding of maternal and millet plants of the first seed progeny. It was found that maternal plants yielding is strongly correlated with laboratory and technological indicators of seed quality that interrelated through integrated quality parameter of seed material (r = 0.56 ± 0.01 and millet output (r = 0.98 ± 0.00. Integrated quality parameter as well as each of the studied laboratory parameters of seed material quality taken separately have a high-level (r = 0.87…0.96 ± 0.00 effect on the formation of grain yield of the first seed progeny plants. Such physical and technological parameters of the quality of maternal plants yield as a content of protein and fat in seed, seed weight, its uniformity can directly, and millet output, thousand-grain weight and hull content – indirectly indicate peculiarities of forming future grain yield of plants of the first seed progeny. Conclusions. The use of the correlation pleiades method allows to analyze objectively the sowing qualities of millet seed and predict the yield properties in the next generation.
Hu, Guofu; Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Xunzhong; Yao, Fengjiao; Huang, Yan; Ervin, Erik H; Zhao, Bingyu
Soil salt-alkalization is a major limiting factor for crop production in many regions. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm-season C4 perennial rhizomatous bunchgrass and a target lignocellulosic biofuel species. The objective of this study was to evaluate relative alkali-salt tolerance among 30 switchgrass lines. Tillers of each switchgrass line were transplanted into pots filled with fine sand. Two months after transplanting, plants at E5 developmental stage were grown in either half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution with 0 mM Na+ (control) or half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution with 150 mM Na+ and pH of 9.5 (alkali-salt stress treatment) for 20 d. Alkali-salt stress damaged cell membranes [higher electrolyte leakage (EL)], reduced leaf relative water content (RWC), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs), and transpiration rate (Tr). An alkali-salt stress tolerance trait index (ASTTI) for each parameter was calculated based on the ratio of the value under alkali-salt stress and the value under non-stress conditions for each parameter of each line. Relative alkali-salt tolerance was determined based on principal components analysis and cluster analysis of the physiological parameters and their ASTTI values. Significant differences in alkali-salt stress tolerance were found among the 30 lines. Lowland lines TEM-SEC, Alamo, TEM-SLC and Kanlow were classified as alkali-salt tolerant. In contrast, three lowland lines (AM-314/MS-155, BN-13645-64) and two upland lines (Caddo and Blackwell-1) were classified as alkali-salt sensitive. The results suggest wide variations exist in alkali-salt stress tolerance among the 30 switchgrass lines. The approach of using a combination of principal components and cluster analysis of the physiological parameters and related ASTTI is feasible for evaluating alkali-salt tolerance in switchgrass.
Martín , Giraldo; Milera , Milagros; Simón , Lionel; Hernández , David; Hernández , Ismael; Iglesias , Jesus; Gonzalez Garcia , Eliel
[début du texte]La Estación Experimental de Pastos y Forrajes “Indio Hatuey” es la primera institución científica de la ramaagropecuaria creada por la Revolución cubana y fue fundada el 8 de marzo de 1962, con el objetivo detransferir y desarrollar tecnologías de alimentación y producción animal destinadas al Plan Ganadero CostaNorte de Cuba.
Denise Baptaglin Montagner
Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to analyze the tillering dynamics of the species Panicum maximum cv. Mombaca subjected to three post-grazing heights: residue of 30 cm (30; residue of 50 cm (50; and residue of 50 cm during spring and summer, lowered to 40 cm in the first fall season grazing and to 30 cm in the following grazing cycle, resuming to 50 cm after the first grazing of the following spring season (50-30. Grazings were initiated whenever the swards intercepted 95% of the incident light. The post-grazing heights were allocated in the experimental units in a completely randomized block design with three replications. The density of basal tillers did not vary between the residual heights evaluated. Swards managed with variable residual height (50-30 presented higher rates of appearance and mortality of basal tillers during the summer of 2007, indicating high tiller renovation. Regardless of the post-grazing height evaluated, lower rates of appearance of basal tillers were found in the spring of 2006. The stability index of guinea grass cv. Mombaca was close to 1.0 throughout the experimental period. Swards managed with variable post-grazing present structural changes able to improve the regrowth vigor, which may be important to maximize the use of the forage species in the production system.
Caracterización de fincas adoptadoras del pasto Andropogon gayanus en el departamento del Cesar, Colombia Caracterización de fincas adoptadoras del pasto Andropogon gayanus en el departamento del Cesar, Colombia
Full Text Available La razón expuesta por ganaderos para adoptar el pasto A. gayanus es la de poseer una especie que les provea forraje en la época seca. Quienes mayor éxito han obtenido, hasta el momento, son los adoptadores de suelos arenosos o de sabana en la parte central del departamento. En dicha zona se presentan factores de suelo como acidez, existencia de aluminio, texturas arenosas y buenos drenajes; la temperatura promedio es de 26°C, precipitaciones anuales entre 1200 y 2500 mm con una época seca (150 días sumamente fuerte. El comportamiento del pasto está limitado en la parte sur del departamento por exceso de humedad y en el norte por la presencia de bases y pH elevados. Desde el punto de vista económico, el éxito de la introducción de A. gayanus está relacionado con factores como el bajo costo de oportunidad de las tierras, la baja inversión adicional en ganados, los bajos costos de establecimiento, la complementaridad con otras pasturas en tierras mejores en la misma finca y la elevada rentabilidad marginal de la tecnología que posibilita la adopción aún en años sin incentivos para invertir en ganadería.This study was carried out in the Cesar Department, Colombia, to identify factors that have led to the adoption of A. gayanus. The expressed reason of r a n e hers is the need for a species that will supply forage during the dry season. Adopters on sandy soils in the middle part of the Zone are up to now those that most succes have been. Soils in this region are characterized by its acidity, presence of aluminum, sandy textures and good drainage. Mean annual temperatures are of 26°C with annual rainfall ranging between 1200 and 2500 mm with a marked dry season (150 days. In the south of the department rainfall is excessive while in the north high base saturation and pH of the soils do not allow the grass success fully competence. Economically, the success of promoting A. gayanus is in relation to some factors such as low opportunity
Full Text Available In this study, effluents from 11 food processing industries from various sectors were characterized through analysis of physical and chemical parameters. In general, effluents pHs are between 4.07 and 7.63. Lead (Pb2+ and cadmium (Cd+ concentrations range from 0.083 to 1.025 mg/l and 0.052–0.158 mg/l respectively. The biodegradability of the effluent is very low. The principal component analysis (PCA grouped industries according to their organic matter levels; thus, stillage, livestock, molasses and sugar refinery effluents show some similarities, as well as confectionery, oil mill, dairy and brewery effluents. Forms of nitrogen measured show low levels of nitrites (NO2−, high levels of nitrates (NO3−, ammonium (NH4+ and Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN. Among these effluents, a treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes and Panicum maximum was applied to stillage effluent from Fermencam distillery. The results show that Panicum maximum and Eichhornia crassipes reduce pollutant loads of Fermencam's wastewater.
Qi Dong; Omarov, Rustem T.; Scholthof, Karen-Beth G.
Satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV) depends on its helper Panicum mosaic virus for replication and movement in host plants. The positive-sense single-stranded genomic RNA of SPMV encodes a 17-kDa capsid protein (CP) to form 16-nm virions. We determined that SPMV CP accumulates in both cytosolic and non-cytosolic fractions, but cytosolic accumulation of SPMV CP is exclusively associated with virions. An N-terminal arginine-rich motif (N-ARM) on SPMV CP is used to bind its cognate RNA and to form virus particles. Intriguingly, virion formation is dispensable for successful systemic SPMV RNA accumulation, yet this process still depends on an intact N-ARM. In addition, a C-terminal domain on the SPMV CP is necessary for self-interaction. Biochemical fractionation and fluorescent microscopy of green fluorescent protein-tagged SPMV CP demonstrated that the non-cytosolic SPMV CP is associated with the cell wall, the nucleus and other membranous organelles. To our knowledge, this is the first report that a satellite virus CP not only accumulates exclusively as virions in the cytosol but also is directed to the nucleolus and membranes. That SPMV CP is found both in the nucleus and the cell wall suggests its involvement in viral nuclear import and cell-to-cell transport
Shivashankar, G.; Mahishi, D.M.; Kulkarni, R.S.
Full text: Suppression of flowering has many advantages in a forage crop. Such genotypes are not only expected to give more yield but also to be more nutritious. Non-flowering plants also remain fresh and green for a longer period in the field compared to the flowering types. Green panic (Panicum maximum var. trichoglume) is a high yielding, nutritious, fast growing and drought tolerant grass that has a potential to grow even under partial shade conditions. However, the major drawback of this grass is that it flowers early and profusely, with the result that most of the nutrients are diverted towards panicle formation. With an objective to suppress the panicle initiation a mutation breeding programme was taken up. Seeds of green panic grass were subjected to gamma ray treatment with doses of 40, 50 and 60 krad. From the large spectrum of variation observed for flowering habit quite a few non-flowering plants were isolated and of these the one from 40 krad treatment was prominent. This non-flowering plant yielded more green foliage than the flowering type and recorded an increase to the extend of 10.5% and 22.5% in monthly and bi-monthly harvests respectively. The increase in green foliage yield was directly attributable to an increase in the number of tillers and concomitant reduction in culm weight. Unlike in the flowering types the mutant had more accumulation of dry matter in the leaves rather than the stem. Further nutritional analysis of leaves showed that the non-flowering plant is superior with 6.04% crude protein which represents 100% increase over that of flowering type. The calcium content (0.5%) was also double and the moisture content (11.70%) was higher in the non-flowering plant. The crude fibre content was reduced by 2%. Inhibition of flowering is a common feature in mutagen treated material, but it is seldom inherited. In sugarcane non-arrowing mutants have been induced with advantage to increase the sugar content (Walker and Sisodia, 1969). The
Camarero, J. J.
Full Text Available We describe the structure of a subalpine forest-alpine pasture ecotone in the Central Pyrenees, that includes altitudinal timberline and treeline, and it is dominated by Pinus uncinata Ram. We measured for each P. uncinata 21individual located inside a rectangular plot parallel to the slope: the location and several structural and groivth form variables (number and type of stems per individual. Then, P. uncinata individuals were classified according to their size (adults, poles, saplings and seedlings and growth form (krummholz —shrubby and multistemmed individuals—, krummholz with vertical stems. The ecotone structure was described through the study of groivth form and size changes of P. uncinata individuals across the ecotone and related to the area climate, that is characterized by maximum snow thickness in spring (April and strong N-NW-W winds. Most of living individuals were krummholz, located above the timberline in the area where seedlings were abundant. Bigger, vertical and unistemmed individuals predominated in the forest. The structure or growth form changes were sharp across the ecotone. Crown injuries due to wind effects were evident in shrubby individuals and predominated in those directions that showed stronger winds during the year. The snow-wind interaction can explain partially the location of the studied timberline that could be considered a local phenomenon. The spatial location of the different classes of individuals, the spatial interaction between seedlings and krummholz individuals, and the changes of growth form (from arborescent to shrubby or vice versa can modify the response of these P. uncinata populations to climate changes.
[es] Describimos la estructura de un ecotono bosque subalpino-pastos alpinos en los Pirineos Centrales, que incluye los límites altitudinales del bosque y del árbol y está dominado por Pinus uncinata Ram. Para cada individuo de
Full Text Available Se analizó el valor nutricional del pasto estrella africana ( Cynodon nlemfuensis a lo largo de 2 años en muestreos bimensuales, en 4 fincas comerciales de ganado lechero ubicadas en los cantones de Tilarán y Central (latitud 10°20’ N, longitud 84°50’, altitud 800 a 1200 msnm de las provincias de Guanacaste y Puntarenas, respectivamente. Las muestras se recolectaron en el aparto siguiente a ser pastoreado y se utilizó una altura de cosecha de 10 cm, para simular el pastoreo que hacen los animales. La composición nutricional promedio para los 2 años de evalua - ción fue de 23,57% MS, 20,27% PC, 2,67% EE, 10,97% cenizas, 64,21% FDN, 34,95% FDA, 4,06% lignina y 68,02% DIVMS y su contenido energético para las variables de TND, ED, EM, EN L (3X y EN G fue 61,37%; 2,71; 2,05; 1,25 y 0,78 Mcal.kg -1 de MS, respectivamente. El valor nutricional del pasto estrella africana varió a lo largo del año como resultado de la climatología de la zona de Monteverde, siendo las fincas con influencia de la vertiente del Pacífico las de menor afectación en la calidad del forraje. El pasto estrella africana mostró un contenido de PC superior a lo reportado para dicha especie y, en general, para pastos tropicales, por lo cual no es limitante para la producción láctea, y la suplementación del ganado lechero en la zona debe utilizar fuentes que permitan una utiliza - ción eficiente del N soluble a nivel ruminal. La rotación del pasto estrella cada 25 días debe ser flexible para permitir, en conjunto con programas de fertilización, optimizar la productividad de las pasturas y su persistencia.
Kraemer, A; Mueller, R S; Werckenthin, C; Straubinger, R K; Hein, J
The frequency of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. To determine the frequency and types of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. First, 2153 samples collected from pet Guinea pigs (n=1132) and rabbits (n=1021) with suspected dermatophytosis and submitted to three different laboratories for fungal culture were analysed. Subsequently, healthy Guinea pigs and rabbits, animals with skin lesions and with noncutaneous diseases were examined prospectively for dermatophytes. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was the most common fungal species isolated (91.6% and 72.3% of positive cultures from Guinea pigs (n=431) and rabbits (n=83), respectively). Animals with positive fungal culture did not show any gender predisposition, but affected animals were younger than those with negative fungal culture (PGuinea pigs and 0/140 healthy rabbits. In addition, fungal cultures of Guinea pigs with skin lesions (n=26) and other diseases (n=25) were positive in 7.7% and 8.0% respectively. Samples collected from 17 rabbits with skin lesions and 32 rabbits with noncutaneous disease were all negative in culture. T. mentagrophytes is the most common dermatophyte in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits, asymptomatic carriers are regularly seen in Guinea pigs, but not in rabbits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hafner, L. M.; Rush, C. M.; Timms, P.
The vaginae of four guinea pigs were swabbed and samples cultured aerobically on horse blood agar, in 5 per cent carbon dioxide on MRS agar or anaerobically on anaerobic horse blood agar. Vaginal microbiota consisted almost exclusively of gram-positive bacteria including Corynebacterium, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Lactobacillus species.Keywords: guinea pigs, vaginal microbiota, vaginal vaccines.
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Barman, Charles R.
Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)
Deinum, B.; Sulastri, R.D.; Zeinab, M.H.J.; Maassen, A.
Effects of light intensity on growth, histology and anatomy, and nutritive value were studied in seedlings of two shade tolerant species: Brachiaria brizantha and Panicum maximum var. trichoglume. They were studied under greenhouse conditions in pots with sandy soil and sufficient N and cut after a
José Diomedes Barbosa
Full Text Available Uma condição com aumento da fenda bucal de eqüinos por lesão na comissura labial foi estudada. Este aumento tinha extensão variável e era uni ou bilateral. Na mucosa da bochecha da comissura labial exposta havia pequenas erosões. Durante a mastigação havia perda de pequena quantidade de capim e saliva pela fenda bucal aumentada. Os animais apresentavam bom estado nutricional. O exame histopatológico de tecido retirado da comissura labial revelou epidermite superficial. Nas quatro propriedades onde se verificou o problema, constatou-se que os eqüinos eram mantidos em sistema extensivo de criação em pastagem de Panicum maximum (variedades Tanzânia, Mombaça, Tobiatã e Colonião, com folhas maduras, altas, lignificadas e de bordos cortantes. De acordo com os dados epidemiológicos, com os achados clínicos e histopatológicos, concluí-se que essas lesões foram causadas pela ação cortante das folhas de Panicum maximum, associada à forma de apreensão da pastagem alta e mastigação pelos eqüinos.A condition with enlargement of the oral cleft in horses was studied. The enlargement of varied extension was uni or bilateral. The cheek mucosa of the labial commissure showed slight erosions. During chewing there was loss of small amounts of grass and saliva through the oral cleft. The affected horses were in good nutritional condition. Histopathological studies of tissues obtained by biopsia, revealed a superficial epidermitis. The pastures consisted of Panicum maximum grass (varieties Tanzânia, Mombaça, Tobiatã and Colonião which was mature, tall, lignified, with leaves of cutting edges. Based on epidemiological, clinical and histopathological data, it was concluded that the lesions were caused by the hard grass, favored by the way horses pull the tall grass and chew it.
Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg
Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hoch-Ligeti, C.; Congdon, C.C.; Deringer, M.K.; Stewart, H.L.
Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder developed in 17 of 68 untreated and in 26 of 83 irradiated guinea pigs of inbred strains 2 and 13. The carcinomas spread widely by direct extension and through lymphatic and blood vessels to lymph nodes, mesenteries, omenta, abdominal wall, liver, lungs, bones, and spleen. Whole-body exposure to gamma or x radiation increased both the number of tumors and metastases in male inbred guinea pigs but not in females. Significantly fewer (9 of 98) noninbred than inbred guinea pigs developed gallbladder carcinomas after irradiation. In 9 untreated noninbred guinea pigs gallbladder carcinomas were not found. Inasmuch as the effect of irradiation was not dose-dependent, an indirect systemic effect of irradiation was postulated. This is the first report on the occurrence of spontaneous gallbladder adenocarcinomas in guinea pigs
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the animals...
Coral E, Dilia M; Bonilla C, Carmen R
The following investigation was carried out in order to evaluate the biomass, abundance, vertical distribution and diversity of the species it compared the results in three sites: a secondary forest, a field kikuyu and an onion crop field all at the Refugio Cristalino Natural Reserve, Pasto, Narino. The investigation followed the recommendations of the tropical soil biology and fertility program at the some way samples were taken to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of the sites. The results showed that the greatest abundance of organisms were found in the litter and 0-10 cm layer of soil in the secondary forest; of this abundance the Myriapodans formed the greatest part in number and in biomass. These was greater species diversity here than in the others sites, possibly due to the prime feeding and habitat conditions, notable in the organic matter in different stages of decomposition. In the Kikuyu and onion fields earthworms found in the first 10 cm profile principally represented the abundance and biomass. in general the use of the land affects the presence or absence of organisms that are fundamental in the process of soil evolution
Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 126 vacas zebu primíparas, mantidas a pasto durante a estação de monta, divididas em dois grupos, suplementado (72 animais e controle (54 animais, com o objetivo de estudar a influência da suplementação com cromo (Cr sobre algumas características reprodutivas. Utilizou-se como fonte de cromo a levedura Sacharomices cerevisae adicionada à mistura mineral (0,017% Cr. Não houve diferença significativa nos pesos das crias ao nascer e ao final do experimento. O peso final das vacas foi maior no grupo suplementado (428,5kg vs. 380,5kg. A porcentagem de animais em estro foi maior no grupo suplementado (98,6% vs. 88,7% e a porcentagem total de prenhez apresentou apenas tendência em ser maior no grupo suplementado (87,5% vs. 75,47%. O intervalo parto-primeiro cio foi menor nos animais que receberam Cr (120,5 dias vs. 142,8 dias. O número de doses de sêmen por vaca inseminada (1,57 e por vaca gestante (1,85 no grupo controle foi semelhante ao de vacas inseminadas (1,69 e gestantes (1,90 no grupo suplementado.
María del Pilar Bohada R.
Full Text Available El conflicto armado en Colombia ha dejado más de 3,3 millones de personas desplazadas que buscan refugio en las ciudades. Los estudios sobre desplazamiento en el país valoran las pérdidas ocasionadas a las víctimas, pero poco analizan sus efectos sobre las condiciones de vida de las comunidades de destino. Este estudio valora los efectos del desplazamiento sobre la población residente en zonas de estrato 1 y 2 de la ciudad de Pasto, Nariño, con técnicas de evaluación de impacto. Los resultados indican que sus efectos son mixtos: negativos en seguridad y vulnerabilidad alimentaria, y positivos en confianza e infraestructura social. Lo que indica que la población desplazada no sólo genera tensiones en las comunidades de asentamiento sino que también aporta a la solución de viejos problemas sociales como la falta de infraestructura de educación y salud.
NELSON JOSÉ VIVAS-QUILA
Full Text Available La investigación se llevó a cabo en la granja Los Naranjos ubicada en la Vereda La Venta del Municipio de Cajibío del Departamento del Cauca. La sombra de los árboles no permite el progreso del forraje cultivado en su entorno y no se conocen especies tolerantes a la sombra que se adapten a las condiciones de clima medio y suelos de mediana a baja fertilidad.Teniendo en cuenta lo anterior se adelantó el estudio sobre el manejo agronómico y potencial forrajero del pasto palmera (Setaria poiretiana bajo tres ambientes diferentes de sombra. La evaluación se desarrolló bajo el diseño en bloques completos al azar con 3 tratamientos y 4 repeticiones. Los tratamientos en diferentes porcentajes de sombríoartificial utilizando polisombra (libre exposición, semisombra y sombra con 0,44 y 70% de sombríoy las repeticiones (bloques fueron las condiciones de sombra dadas por el sombrío del bosque en torno al proyecto. El tratamiento que mejor comportamiento agronómico presentó en cuanto a producción de materia seca fue el T1 (libre exposición; no se encontraron diferencias estadísticas para las variables vigor, cobertura, altura, porcentaje de materia seca
Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C
Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs. © The Author(s) 2014.
Malgorzata J. Kacprzak
Full Text Available The effect of land application of biomaterials based on two strains of Trichoderma fungus on phytoremediation processes was studied. Six metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni were analysed in soil and soil leachate as well as in plant tissues. The translocation index (Ti and metal bioconcentration factors (BCF calculated for the inoculated plants were increased compared to the noninoculated control, except for Pb and Salix sp. Simultaneously, the mobilisation of metals in soil solution as an effect of biomaterials was noted. The highest values of Ti—339% (for Cr, 190% (for Ni, and 110% (for Cu—were achieved for the combination Miscanteus giganteus and Trichoderma MSO1. The results indicated that the application of fungus has positive effects on increasing the biomass, soil parameters (C, N, and P, and solubility of heavy metals in soil and therefore in enhancing phytoextraction for Miscanthus giganteus L., Panicum virgatum L., Phalaris arundinacea L., and Salix sp.
Determinantes de la utilización de los servicios de salud bucal en estudiantes universitarios del municipio de Pasto, 2011 / Determinants of dental health service use among university students in the Pasto municipality, 2011
Full Text Available Objetivo: identificar los factores determinantes de la utilización de los servicios de salud bucal en hombres y mujeres universitarios del municipio de Pasto, Departamento de Nariño (Colombia. Metodología: en una muestra de 338 estudiantes de una universidad, se aplicó una encuesta confidencial, elaborada con base en estudios previos utilizando un modelo comportamental de uso de servicios de salud. Resultados: la prevalencia de utilización de los servicios de salud bucal fue del 57%. Se encontró con respecto a factores de predisposición, que más de la mitad de la población encuestada eran adultos jóvenes entre 20-24 años; que asistían más a la consulta los estudiantes de semestres académicos superiores y menos los de mayor edad; que la mitad pertenecían a un estrato socioeconómico medio y que una décima parte poseían un bajo apoyo social. Se encontró sobre factores de capacidad que las tres cuartas partes que respondieron tener un buen estado de salud, eran los que más utilizaban los servicios de salud bucal; que los que respondieron estar satisfechos con la apariencia de sus dientes, eran los que menos utilizaban los servicios de salud bucal; que una tercera parte había tenido un mal estado de salud bucodental y que casi la mitad tuvo problemas dentales. Sobre los factores de necesidad se encontró que cuando un estudiante tiene afectada su calidad de vida por minusvalía asiste más a la consulta odontológica en el último año. Conclusión: existen leves diferencias por sexo en la utilización de los servicios de salud bucal y que si bien en esta población el resultado fue mayor que en otros estudios, no necesariamente este resultado garantiza que tengan una mejor salud bucal. Objective: to identify the determinant factors of dental health service use among university students in the municipality of Pasto (located in the Nariño Department, Colombia. Methodology: a confidential survey was used on a sample of 338
Full Text Available Introduction: The Pan American Health Organization (PHO and the World Health Organization (WHO accepted, since the year 1993 and 1996 respectively, that violence is a public health problem, a situation that is corroborated in the report on violence and health, in which Latin America presented a homicide rate of 18 per 100,000 people, and it is considered one of the most violent regions in the world. Objective: To detect criminal patterns with data mining techniques in the Crime Observatory of the municipality of Pasto (Colombia. Materials and methods: Cross Industry Standard Process for Data Mining (CRISP-DM was applied, which is one of the methodologies used in the development of data mining projects in academic and industrial environments. The source of information was the Crime Observatory of the municipality of Pasto, where the historical clean and transformed figures on the injuries of external cause (fatal and nonfatal recorded in 11 years are stored. Results: A decision tree-based classification model was built that allowed the discovery of patterns of deaths from external causes. In the case of homicide, these happened mostly in the commune 5 in Pasto under the following circumstances: during the weekends, in the early morning, in the second semester of the year and in the public thoroughfare; besides, the victims were adult men of various professions; and the cause of the homicides were quarrels and they were produced with a fire gun. Conclusion: The generated knowledge will help government and security agencies make effective decisions regarding the implementation of crime prevention and citizen security plans
Amilvia Yanett Ortiz Villa
Full Text Available Los subproductos sólidos de carácter orgánico generados por los procesos de tratamiento de aguas residuales municipales son utilizados comúnmente como fuente de nutrientes para tratamiento de suelos. Estos biosólidos contienen nutrientes contaminantes inorgánicos como el mercurio, el cual es empleado para el estudio, por el conocimiento ampliamente documentado de su toxicidad en sistemas vivos y sus efectos en seres humanos. En este mismo sentido, y puesto que las plantas constituyen la base de la cadena trófica, se centra la atención sobre el pasto, debido a su fácil crecimiento y uso como pastura de ganadería. El mercurio en pasto fue cuantificado mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica utilizando la técnica de generador de hidruros con vapor frío. Se verificaron algunos parámetros de validación con criterios de aceptación deseables tales como linealidad (r² = 0,999, exactitud (R = 93,14-96,12%, precisión (CV = 1,11-1,69%, límites de detección y cuantificación (0,001-0,003 ppb. Se evidenció que las concentraciones de mercurio se encuentran por debajo de los valores máximos permitidos por la normatividad Internacional, presentando el biosólido como fuente confiable de nutrientes para el agro. De esta forma se establece una metodología que puede ser una buena herramienta para la determinación analítica de mercurio en pastos.
Luis Alejandro Ariza A
Full Text Available Los pastos marinos son ecosistemas costeros de alta productividad, con gran diversidad y abundancia de peces, la cual es aprovechada por pescadores artesanales. En este estudio se analizó la estructura comunitaria íctica de praderas de Thalassia testudinum en Manzanillo (M y La Brea (LB, costa noroeste del Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela. También, se realizaron muestreos mensuales (11-2006 al 10-2007, con la utilización de una red playera. Se capturaron 34 810 organismos agrupados en 13 órdenes, 36 familias y 83 especies. En ambas zonas, el número de especies fue similar, aunque el número de organismos vario, y se encontró para M un total de 55 especies y 13 210 organismos y para LB 58 especies y 21 600 organismos. Las especies más abundantes y de mayor biomasa en el área muestreada fueron: Nicholsina usta, Haemulon boschmae, H. steindachneri, Harengula jaguana, Halichoeres bivittatus y Hemiramphus brasiliensis. Los visitantes ocasionales fue el componente comunitario más frecuente con 59%, los cíclicos y los residentes permanentes obtuvieron 22 y 19%, respectivamente. En M la H’n fue de 1.71±0.64bits/ind; entretanto en LB fue 1.95±0.51bits/ind. Los valores de la diversidad estuvieron relacionados directamente con la equitabilidad e inversamente con la dominancia. Los bajos valores del índice de similaridad, entre localidades permite establecer que estas comunidades ícticas son disimiles, debido quizás a la estructuración de cada pradera de Thalassia y a la conectividad con otros sistemas.
Jorge Armando Villareal González
Full Text Available El objetivo fue determinar el rendimiento y calidad del pasto ovillo ( Dactylis glomerata L., al variar la frecuencia e intensidad de pastoreo. Se evaluaron tres frecuencias (2, 3 y 4 semanas en primavera y verano y 4, 5 y 6 semanas durante otoño y dos intensidades de pastoreo (severa: 3 a 5 cm y ligera: 6 a 8 cm de altura de forr aje residual. Se evaluó el rendimiento de forraje, tasa de acumulación neta de forraje (TANF, composición morfoló gica y calidad del forraje. El mayor rendimiento acumulado y TANF se presentaron con pastoreo severo cada 4 y 6 sem anas y en ambas intensidades cada 3 y 5 semanas. El mayor rendimiento estacional (7,844; 7,699; 7114 kg MS ha -1 se presentó en verano en las mismas frecuencias e intensidades de pastoreo, respectivamente ( P <0.05. Durante primavera no se observaron dife rencias en rendimiento y TANF entre frecuencias de pastoreo. En otoño la frecuencia de 5 semanas superó a la de 4 ( P <0.05, pero no diferente a la de 6 semanas. En todas las estaciones del año la intensidad de pastoreo severo superó a la ligera, siendo diferentes en primavera y verano ( P <0.05. En general, el contenido de proteína total y digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca tendieron a disminuir conforme aumentó el intervalo de pastoreo, siendo en promedio de 20 y 65 %, respectivamente. Se concluye que para obtener el mayor re ndimiento y calidad de forraje, los pastoreos deben realizarse cada 4 semanas durante primavera-verano y cada 5 semanas en otoño, a una intensidad severa.
Sánchez-Ortega, Claudia; Suárez, Narváez Karen; Yépez-Chamorro, Maria; Guerrero-Flórez, Milena
Introducción. El cáncer de cuello uterino (CCU) asociado a la infección por VPH se considera un importante problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. En Colombia, es la segunda causa de muerte por cáncer en mujeres. En el municipio de Pasto (N) ubicado al suroccidente de Colombia, la tasa de incidencia es de 27,3/100.000 habitantes. Profundizar en la historia natural de la infección por VPH permitiría mejorar las estrategias de control y diagnóstico temprano para evitar la progresión de este ...
Avalos, Percy; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú.; Flores, Enrique; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima, Perú.
Se condujo un experimento para estudiar la dinámica forrajera, y el contenido de proteínas y energía de una pastura con el propósito de conocer el balance forrajero para un módulo de vacunos lecheros pastoreando una asociación de ryegras-trébol. El área de estudio estuvo localizada a 4200 msnm en Conocancha, SAIS Pachacutec, Junín. La tasa de crecimiento del pasto, y la temperatura y humedad del suelo fueron medidas mensualmente usando jaulas, lapiacos, cuadrantes y termómetros medio-ambienta...
Alany Moisa Bezerra Almeida
Full Text Available O efeito residual da adubação anterior em cultivos subsequente é de suma importância, uma vez que a fertilização do solo em uma atividade tão intensa, como a olericultura, aumentaria o custo de produção sempre que fosse implantada uma nova cultura. Este trabalho foi conduzido na Fazenda Experimental Rafael Fernandes, localizada no distrito de Alagoinha, zona rural de Mossoró-RN, no período de novembro a dezembro de 2011. Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito residual da jitirana, flor-de-seda e mata-pasto no cultivo da rúcula em sucessão a beterraba. A beterraba foi plantada em parcelas de 1,2 x 1,2 m e adubado com espécies espontâneas, nas quantidades: 0,6; 1,2; 1,8; 2,4 e 3,0 kg m-2 de canteiro. Após a retirada da beterraba, semearam-se sementes de rúcula nas parcelas referente aos tratamentos acima citados. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com três repetições, no esquema fatorial 5 x 3, sendo cinco quantidades e três tipos de adubos verdes (jitirana; flor-de-seda e mata-pasto. A cultivar de rúcula plantada foi a Cultivada. As características avaliadas foram: altura e número de folhas por planta, massa fresca, número de molho de rúcula e massa seca. Houve interação dos fatores estudados para massa fresca de rúcula e número de molhos. O efeito residual na quantidade de 3,0 kg m-2 de canteiro contribuiu para a massa fresca de rúcula da ordem de 762; 684 e 713 g m-2 de canteiro, equivalente a 6,0; 5,0 e 5,0 molhos de rúcula para jitirana, flor-de-seda e mata-pasto, respectivamente. Jitirana, flor-de-seda e mata-pasto são espécies promissoras para ser utilizadas como adubo verde na produção de hortaliças.
In less than a decade, Equatorial Guinea has transformed itself from an African backwater into one of the world's fastest growing economies and a sought-after political partner in the Gulf of Guinea. The sole reason for this transformation has been the discovery of oil and gas. This article outlines the rise of Equatorial Guinea as one of Africa's leading oil-producing countries and investigates the political, economic and social effects of becoming a petro-state. The article is based on the author's field research in Equatorial Guinea in the autumn of 2003 and interviews with senior oil company staff, government officials and staff of international organizations as well as secondary sources. This research demonstrates how reliance on oil and gas exports can lead to profound changes in a country's political economy. (author)
Chertkov, K.S.; Mosina, Z.M.; Khramchenkova, S.P.
In the experiments with irradiated guinea-pigs, a therapeutic action of prodigiosan has been detected. A parenteral administration of the preparation (125 to 500 μg/kg) within the interval from 15 min to 6 hours after a short-term exposure increased the survival of animals to 50%. Prodigiosan administered to guinea-pigs given prolonged irradiation failed to affect the survival rate
Impacts of Panicum maximum Jacq. invasion and its manual weeding on the wood plant regeneration in the understory of a restoration site Efeitos da invasão por Panicum maximum Jacq. e do seu controle manual sobre a regeneração de plantas lenhosas no sub-bosque de um reflorestamento
Gabriela Ribeiro de Andrade
Full Text Available Responsible for considerable annual losses of biodiversity in natural ecosystems, invasive alien species cause important conservation problems, leading native species to local extinction. This study examined the relationship among the coverage of Guinea-grass (Panicum maximum Jacq., its manual weeding and the woody plant diversity of a restoration site. The site is a reforestation created using native species but due to spacing and species composition grass still dominates its understory more than 17 years after. Preliminary results showed that it is a barrier to the establishment of native species. In this study, we established 20 plots of 5m x 5m divided into two treatments, control and removal of P. maximum, to investigate the impact of manual weeding on the understory in a period of 90 days. Grass cover and canopy openness were also recorded. The grass cover had negative correlation with the abundance of plants, with the species richness and abundance of tree species. Canopy openness had a negative influence on the species richness, on abundance and richness of tree species, but not showed correlation with P. maximum. After grass removal, both abundance of seedling and species richness had no significant differences, so the manual weeding did not cause a negative impact in short time on the regeneration of the understory due to accidental native plant uprooting. However, a positive impact is expected only after a longer period of observation, after successive removals of invasive herbaceous and increased chance of colonization of the area by regenerating seedlings.Responsáveis por perdas anuais consideráveis na biodiversidade dos ecossistemas naturais, as espécies exóticas invasoras causam sérios problemas à conservação, levando muitas espécies à extinção local. Este estudo analisou o efeito da cobertura de capim-colonião (Panicum maximum Jacq. no sub-bosque de um reflorestamento dominado há mais de 17 anos por essa gram
Tok Pisin, New Guinea Pidgin English, is becoming increasingly important as a "lingua franca" in Papua New Guinea, even though English is the country's official language. Urban versus rural and spoken versus written varieties of the pidgin are examined, and the influence of English on Tok Pisin is investigated. 73 references. (Author/CB)
Řezáčová, Veronika; Slavíková, Renata; Konvalinková, Tereza; Hujslová, Martina; Gryndlerová, Hana; Gryndler, Milan; Püschel, David; Jansa, Jan
Roč. 62, May 2017 (2017), s. 48-55 ISSN 0031-4056 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LK11224; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-19191S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) Fellowship J. E. Purkyně Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Arbuscular mycorrhiza * Panicum * Plant biomass Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.000, year: 2016
Deisy Lorena Guerrero Ceballos
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficiency in the reduction of chromium in a Batch treatment type, using municipal residual water substrate inoculated with a wild bacterium. Materials and methods: The reduction percentage of hexavalent chromium of three wild bacteria previously isolated from residual water from the Pasto River was verified at laboratory scale (Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Paenibacillus sp.; the isolated that showed the highest percentage of reduction of Cr was selected and was subjected to different treatments. The analysis of results was done using descriptive statistics. Results: B. thuringiensis, B. amyloliquefaciens, and Paenibacillus sp., presented percentages of reduction of Cr (VI of 82,01%; 80,85% and 79,27%, respectively. It was determined that the third treatment (nonsterile water from the Pasto River with B. thuringiensis presented significant differences with regard to the other (p = 0.0001 α = 0.05, concluding that B. thuringiensis reduces in greater proportion the Cr (VI. The results found in this research are promising in the field of bioremediation of contaminated effluents with Chrome since they may be taken as the basis for implementing strategies of bioremediation on a large scale. Conclusion: The bacteria B. thuringiensis presented high efficiency in the reduction of hexavalent chromium (99.42% when implemented in a treatment at laboratory scale of residual nonsterile water.
Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos
Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar as características estruturais da Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk. Foram avaliadas quatro alturas de plantas (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm dentro de uma mesma pastagem, em um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com duas repetições. A variação na altura inicial das plantas no pasto de capim-braquiária apresentou resposta linear e negativa. As massas de lâmina foliar verde, colmo verde, material morto, forragem verde e forragem total aumentaram linearmente com a altura das plantas no pasto. Contrariamente, houve redução linear na relação lâminas foliares verdes/colmos verdes com a altura das plantas no pasto (de 1,16 para 0,58. A altura das plantas no pasto teve efeito mais pronunciado sobre o aumento das massas de colmo verde e material morto que sobre a massa de lâmina foliar verde. A densidade volumétrica de lâminas foliares verdes decresceu (de 97,09 para 39,07 kg/cm.ha de MS com a altura das plantas no pasto. Mesma resposta ocorreu para as densidades volumétricas de forragem verde (de 181,62 para 107,85 kg/cm.ha de MS e forragem total (de 283,39 para 195,72 kg/cm.ha de MS. Por outro lado, não houve efeito da altura das plantas no pasto sobre as densidades volumétricas de colmos verdes e material morto, que apresentaram valores médios de 80,95 e 95,61 kg/cm.ha de MS, respectivamente. A altura das plantas no pasto teve efeito quadrático sobre a interceptação de luz pelo dossel. Áreas da pastagem com alturas de 10, 20, 30 e 40 cm apresentaram valores de interceptação luminosa de 56,15; 85,16; 93,39 e 96,57%, respectivamente. Ocorre variação espacial e temporal na estrutura do pasto de B. decumbens manejado sob lotação contínua.This study was carried out aiming to evaluate the structural characteristics of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture. Four heights of plants (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm were evaluated within the same grazing area in a randomized block
The Star Mountains of New Guinea are situated at the geographic center of the Island of New Guinea extending on both sides of the Indonesian-Papua New Guinea border. Access to these mountains from either side of the border which divides the island is relatively difficult and as a result few
Development of a Guinea Pig Lung Deposition Model Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. January...4 Figure 2. Particle deposition in the lung of the guinea pig via endotracheal breathing...Particle deposition in the lungs of guinea pigs via nasal breathing. ......................................... 12 v PREFACE The research work
Isom, H.C.; Mummaw, J.; Kreider, J.W.
Guinea pig cells were malignantly transformed in vitro by ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV). When guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers were infected with uv-irradiated GPCMV, three continuous epithelioid cell lines which grew in soft agarose were established. Two independently derived GPCMV-transformed liver cells and a cell line derived from a soft agarose clone of one of these lines induced invasive tumors when inoculated subcutaneously or intraperitoneally into nude mice. The tumors were sarcomas possibly derived from hepatic stroma or sinusoid. Transformed cell lines were also established after infection of guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or simian virus 40 (SV40). These cell lines also formed colonies in soft agarose and induced sarcomas in nude mice. It is concluded that (i) GPCMV can malignantly transform guinea pig cells; (ii) cloning of GPCMV-transformed cells in soft agarose produced cells that induced tumors with a shorter latency period but with no alteration in growth rate or final tumor size; and (iii) the tumors produced by GPCMV-and HCMV-transformed guinea pig cells were more similar to each other in growth rate than to those induced by SV40-transformed guinea pig cells
Full Text Available The influence of treatment of millet (Panicum miliaceum L. seeds with the solutions of salicylic and succinic acids on the heat resistance of plantlets and activity of antioxidant enzymes – superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and peroxidase – in them have been investigated. In the micro-field experiment the influence of these acids on the millet yield was estimated. The action of salicylic (10 μM and succinic (1 mM acids caused the increase of plantlets resistance to the damaging heating that expressed in the rise of relative quantity of survived plantlets in 5 days after heating at the temperature of 47°С and in the reduced content of lipid peroxidation product malonic dialdehyde during the poststress period. The increase of activity of SOD, catalase and peroxidase took place in millet plantlets under the influence of salicylic and succinic acids. The increase of productivity of millet grain under the action of salicylic and succinic acids on 13,3-52,0 and 6,4-38,8% respectively depending on weather conditions in the field experiments was noted.
Habiyaremye, Cedric; Matanguihan, Janet B; D'Alpoim Guedes, Jade; Ganjyal, Girish M; Whiteman, Michael R; Kidwell, Kimberlee K; Murphy, Kevin M
Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum L. ) is a warm season grass with a growing season of 60-100 days. It is a highly nutritious cereal grain used for human consumption, bird seed, and/or ethanol production. Unique characteristics, such as drought and heat tolerance, make proso millet a promising alternative cash crop for the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States. Development of proso millet varieties adapted to dryland farming regions of the PNW could give growers a much-needed option for diversifying their predominantly wheat-based cropping systems. In this review, the agronomic characteristics of proso millet are discussed, with emphasis on growth habits and environmental requirements, place in prevailing crop rotations in the PNW, and nutritional and health benefits. The genetics of proso millet and the genomic resources available for breeding adapted varieties are also discussed. Last, challenges and opportunities of proso millet cultivation in the PNW are explored, including the potential for entering novel and regional markets.
Shui, Junfeng; An, Yu; Ma, Yongqing; Ichizen, Nobumasa
This study investigated allelopathy and its chemical basis in nine switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) accessions. Perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) were used as test species. Undiluted aqueous extracts (5 g plant tissue in 50 ml water) from the shoots and roots of most of the switchgrass accessions inhibited the germination and growth of the test species. However, the allelopathic effect of switchgrass declined when extracts were diluted 5- or 50-fold. Seedling growth was more sensitive than seed germination as an indicator of allelopathic effect. Allelopathic effect was related to switchgrass ecotype but not related to ploidy level. Upland accessions displayed stronger allelopathic potential than lowland accessions. The aqueous extract from one switchgrass accession was separated into phenols, organic acids, neutral chemicals, and alkaloids, and then these fractions were bioassayed to test for allelopathic potential. Alkaloids had the strongest allelopathic effect among the four chemical fractions. In summary, the results indicated that switchgrass has allelopathic potential; however, there is not enough evidence to conclude that allelopathic advantage is the main factor that has contributed to the successful establishment of switchgrass on China’s Loess Plateau.
Nascimento, Alex Favaro; Pires, Fábio Ribeiro; Chagas, Kristhiano; de Oliveira Procópio, Sergio; Oliveira, Marcelo Antonio; Cargnelutti Filho, Alberto; Belo, Alessandra Ferreira; Egreja Filho, Fernando Barboza
This study aimed to evaluate the herbicidal activity of picloram on the biomass of the remediation plants Eleusine coracana and Panicum maximum after cultivation in a soil contaminated with this herbicide. These species were grown in three soils, differentiated based on texture (clayish, middle, and sandy, with 460, 250, and 40 g kg(-1) of the clay, respectively), previously contaminated with picloram (0, 80, and 160 g ha(-1)). After 90 days, the plants were harvested and an extract was produced by maceration of leaves and stems of these plants. It was applied to pots containing washed sand, comprising a bioassay in a growth chamber using soybean as a bioindicator for picloram. Soil and plant samples were analyzed by HPLC. The results showed the presence of picloram or metabolites with herbicidal activity in the shoots of E. coracana and P. maximum at phytotoxic levels with regard to soybean plants, indicating that they work only as phytoextractors and that the presence of straw on the soil surface can promote recontamination within the area. It is not recommended to cultivate species susceptible to picloram in areas where it was reported remediation by E. indica and P. maximum and still present residues of these species.
Liu, Minxuan; Xu, Yue; He, Jihong; Zhang, Shuang; Wang, Yinyue; Lu, Ping
Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.), one of the first domesticated crops, has been grown in Northern China for at least 10,000 years. The species is presently a minor crop, and evaluation of its genetic diversity has been very limited. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of 88 accessions of broomcorn millet collected from various provinces of China. Amplification with 67 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers revealed moderate levels of diversity in the investigated accessions. A total of 179 alleles were detected, with an average of 2.7 alleles per locus. Polymorphism information content and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.043 to 0.729 (mean = 0.376) and 0.045 to 0.771 (mean = 0.445), respectively. Cluster analysis based on the unweighted pair group method of mathematical averages separated the 88 accessions into four groups at a genetic similarity level of 0.633. A genetic structure assay indicated a close correlation between geographical regions and genetic diversity. The uncovered information will be valuable for defining gene pools and developing breeding programs for broomcorn millet. Furthermore, the millet-specific SSR markers developed in this study should serve as useful tools for assessment of genetic diversity and elucidation of population structure in broomcorn millet. PMID:26985894
Cuda, J.P.; Dunford, J.C.; Leavengood, J.M. Jr.
Torpedograss, Panicum repens L., is an adventive, rhizomatous grass species that has become an invasive weed of terrestrial, wetland, and aquatic environments in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. Until recently, strategies for controlling torpedograss in the USA have focused almost exclusively on mechanical and chemical methods, either alone or in combination, with varied results. A survey of the arthropods and nematodes currently associated with the plant in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, was conducted as part of a feasibility study to determine whether torpedograss is an appropriate target for a classical biological control program. Overall, approximately 4,000 arthropods and 400 nematode specimens were collected. Sweep, clipped vegetation, and soil core samples were dominated by representatives of the arthropod orders Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Acari. Lesion nematodes of the genus Pratylenchus were commonly associated with the roots of torpedograss. None of the organisms collected were torpedograss specialists. Although classical biological control of torpedograss is feasible based on the extent of the infestation, economic losses, resistance to conventional controls, and the report of a potentially host specific natural enemy in India, the botanical position of this grass weed will require a formal risk assessment before proceeding with a classical biological control program. (author) [es
Three West African dwarf rams fitted with rumen cannula, were used in a completely randomized design for degradation of crude protein (CP) of groundnut cake (GNC), Panicum maximum, rumen epithelial scraping (RES), and diets containing increasing levels of RES. Concentrate diets were formulated such that 0% (A), ...
Full Text Available La dosis letal (DL 50 y reducción media del crecimiento (RC 50 son parámetros utilizados para seleccionar dosis de irradiación adecuadas e inducir mutaciones para realizar mejoramiento genético vegetal. El objetivo fue determinar la DL 50 y RC 50 para conocer la dosis ó p tima de irradiación c on Co 60 en semilla de pasto llorón, buffel, banderita y navajita. Se evaluaron seis dosis de irradiación con Co 60 en semilla : 100, 200, 300, 450, 600 y 900 Gray (Gy y un tratamiento control (T - 0, sin irradiación. Las variables evaluadas fueron : porcentaj e de germinación (%GE, índice de velocidad de germinación (IVG, longitud de plúmula (LP y longitud de radícula (LR. Se realizó análisis de regresión y comparación de medias con la prueba de Dunnett. Mediante la ecuación de regresión se estimó la DL 50 p ara el %GE, así como RC 50 para el resto de las variables. La DL 50 se ponderó con 55%, mientras que la RC 50 se ponderó en 15% para cada una de las tres variables restantes. En general, los valores de las variables disminuyeron (P<0.05 conforme se incremen tó la dosis de irradiación, lo cual permitió determinar la DL 50 y RC 50 para cada especie. La media ponderada se obtuvo a los 628 Gy, 712 Gy, 698 Gy y 411 Gy para pasto llorón, buffel, banderita y navajita, respectivamente. Se recomiendan las dosis plantead as en este estudio, ya que esto permitirá plantear las bases para realizar mejoramiento genético a través de mutagénesis con irradiación gamma en los pastos evaluados.
Full Text Available El cultivo de arroz siempre estuvo presente en el rol de culturas practicadas en el cerrado brasileño, en especial, en el Mato-grossense. Dado a esa particularidad, éste estudio busca comprender mejor las relaciones existentes entre la producción de arroz con las áreas plantadas de soya, y, propiamente, con la área plantada de arroz en Mato Grosso, en el período de 1979 a 2007. Debido a la gran extensión territorial del estado, el cultivo de arroz fue siendo realizado a lo largo de los años como frontera agrícola, para apertura de nuevas áreas, con variedades adecuadas a tierras, inicialmente, con baja fertilidad. Con el desarrollo tecnológico y la posibilidad de nuevas actividades productivas, esa realidad viene se alterando y la área plantada de arroz disminuyó a lo largo de los años, perdiendo espacio para la soya y pastos. Como instrumento metodológico, se empleó un modelo de regresión múltiple, estimada por el Método de Mínimos Cuadrados Ordinarios (MQO, en que los resultados apuntan las correlaciones existentes entre las categorías mencionadas, lo que permite analizar con más propiedad lo que está ocurriendo con el segmento. Las principales conclusiones obtenidas confirman la influencia positiva de la producción de arroz con relación a suya área plantada, sin embargo, negativa para las áreas plantadas de soya, pastos y arroz en Mato Grosso. Aunque venga perdiendo espacio para soya y pastos, el cultivo de arroz, mismo con menor productividad y calidad inferior del grano, aún es practicado debido a su capacidad de adaptación en nuevas áreas, o mismo, en áreas degradadas
Issaka-Tinorgah, A.; Magnussen, P.; Bloch, P.
The effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm was tested in a single-blind placebo-controlled trial; 400 adults were randomly allocated to a single dose of ivermectin (150 µg/kg) or placebo. Fifty-four of the 385 participants who were followed for 15 months developed a total of 69 emergent...... guinea-worms. There was no significant differencein the proportion of persons with emergent guinea-worms between the 2 treatment groups; 58% appeared in males. 80% of emergent guinea-worms were located below the knee. Migration of guinea-worms in the tissues was not affected. It is concluded...
Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Trueba, Gilberto Perez; Poulsen, Henrik E.
Neonates are particularly susceptible to malnutrition due to their limited reserves of micronutrients and their rapid growth. In the present study, we examined the effect of vitamin C deficiency on markers of oxidative stress in plasma, liver and brain of weanling guinea pigs. Vitamin C deficiency...... increased, while protein oxidation decreased (P¼0003). The results show that the selective preservation of brain ascorbate and induction of DNA repair in vitamin C-deficient weanling guinea pigs is not sufficient to prevent oxidative damage. Vitamin C deficiency may therefore be particularly adverse during...
Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo avaliar a velocidade e intensidade de ação do hexazinone isolado e em mistura com outros inibidores do fotossistema II, através da eficiência fotossintética de Panicum maximum em pós-emergência. O ensaio foi constituído de seis tratamentos: hexazinone (250 g ha-1, tebuthiuron (1,0 kg ha-1, hexazinone + tebuthiuron (125 g ha-1 + 0,5 kg ha-1, diuron (2.400 g ha-1, hexazinone + diuron (125 + 1.200 g ha-1, metribuzin (1.440 g ha-1, hexazinone + metribuzin (125 + 720 g ha-1 e uma testemunha. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após a aplicação dos tratamentos, as plantas foram transportadas para casa de vegetação sob condições controladas de temperatura e umidade, onde ficaram durante o período experimental, sendo realizadas as seguintes avaliações: taxa de transporte de elétrons e análise visual de intoxicação. A avaliação com o fluorômetro foi realizada nos intervalos de 1, 2, 6, 24, 48, 72, 120 e 168 horas após a aplicação, e as avaliações visuais, aos três e sete dias após a aplicação. Os resultados demonstraram diferença nos tratamentos, enfatizando a aplicação do diuron, que reduziu lentamente o transporte de elétrons comparado com os outros herbicidas e, em mistura com hexazinone, apresentou efeito sinérgico. Verificou-se com o uso do fluorômetro a intoxicação antecipada em plantas de P. maximum após a aplicação de herbicidas inibidores do fotossistema II de forma isolada e em mistura.This work aimed to evaluate the speed and intensity of action of hexazinone applied alone and in combination with other photo-system II inhibitors on the photosynthetic efficiency of Panicum maximum in post-emergence. The assay consisted of six treatments: hexazinone (250 g ha-1, tebuthiuron (1.0 kg ha-1, hexazinone + tebuthiuron (125 g ha-1+ 0.5 kg ha-1, diuron (2,400 g ha-1, hexazinone + diuron (125 + 1,200 g ha-1, metribuzin
Alam, S M Khorshed; Konno, Toshihiro; Rumi, M A Karim; Dong, Yafeng; Weiner, Carl P; Soares, Michael J
Prolactin (PRL) is a multifunctional hormone with prominent roles in regulating growth and reproduction. The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) has been extensively used in endocrine and reproduction research. Thus far, the PRL cDNA and protein have not been isolated from the guinea pig. In the present study, we used information derived from the public guinea pig genome database as a tool for identifying guinea pig PRL and PRL-related proteins. Guinea pig PRL exhibits prominent nucleotide and amino acid sequence differences when compared with PRLs of other eutherian mammals. In contrast, guinea pig GH is highly conserved. Expression of PRL and GH in the guinea pig is prominent in the anterior pituitary, similar to known expression patterns of PRL and GH for other species. Two additional guinea pig cDNAs were identified and termed PRL-related proteins (PRLRP1, PRLRP2). They exhibited a more distant relationship to PRL and their expression was restricted to the placenta. Recombinant guinea pig PRL protein was generated and shown to be biologically active in the PRL-responsive Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay. In contrast, recombinant guinea pig PRLRP1 protein did not exhibit PRL-like bioactivity. In summary, we have developed a new set of research tools for investigating the biology of the PRL family in an important animal model, the guinea pig.
Anderson de Moura Zanine
Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de bezerros em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha e Brachiaria decumbens, no sistema de lotação contínua com taxa de lotação variável. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com dois pastos representando os tratamentos, cada um com cinco repetições. O período experimental foi de 30 dias, sendo 20 para adaptação dos animais e 10 para avaliações, que consistiram de três, com duração de 24h cada, em intervalos de cinco dias. Os bezerros pastejaram menos tempo no pasto de Brachiaria brizantha, com tempo de 9,75h, enquanto que o pastejo na Brachiaria decumbens foi de 11,3h. Comportamento diferente foi observado para o tempo de ruminação: 6,8 e 6,4 para os pastos de Brachiaria brizantha e Brachiaria decumbens, respectivamente. O número de bocados por minuto foi menor para a Brachiaria decumbens, 31,15, enquanto que, para a Brachiaria brizantha, os bezerros pastejaram com uma taxa de bocados de 34,91 bocados por minuto. Os bezerros tiveram um ganho de peso médio diário superior no pasto de Brachiaria brizantha (390g dia-1, enquanto que, para a Brachiaria decumbens, o ganho diário foi de 340g dia-1.An experiment was carried out to evaluate the ingestive behavior of calves on Brachiaria brizantha and Brachiaria decumbens pastures, under continuous stocking with variable stocking rate. The experimental design was entirely randomized, with two treatments (two pastures, and five replicates per treatment. The experimental period lasted 30 days, consisting of days 20 for adaptation of animals and 10 for behavioral evaluations that consisted of three periods of 24:00h each, in intervals of five days. The calves spent less time grazing Brachiaria brizantha pasture (9,8h than they did on the Brachiaria decumbens (11,3h. Different rumination times had been observed, 6,8 and 6,4 h for the animals grazing Brachiaria brizantha and Brachiaria decumbens
Jairo Gutiérrez Ramos
Full Text Available This article will sketch the antecedents and the context in which Indian peasants from Pasto and its surroundings established the links of ethnic solidarity and strategies of political action that would surface during the anti-republican rebellions that occurred between 1822 and 1825. It starts with the supposition that the peasant mobilization that made these rebellions possible was not led by the traditional elite, but was rather a remarkable expression of the indigenous communities' autonomy and the centrality of their actions. It will examine the experiences that made possible the building of social, ethnic, and political networks whose greatest expression occurred during the explosion of rural violence that shocked southern New Granada and northern Ecuador in the decisive period of the war against Spanish dominance.
Full Text Available A partir de consideraciones de tipo económico y matemático se especifican dos funciones de oferta y demanda de la papa en el municipio de Pasto; utilizando series de tiempo del periodo 1999 a 2010 se describen los datos de las variables empleadas para cada función a estimar; con ayuda de programas computacionales como Excel (2007 Statgraphics Centurion y Gretl (versión libre, se realizan las estimaciones de los modelos de oferta y demanda, posteriormente se desarrollan técnicas econométricas y estadística para validarlos. Finalmente, aplicando el concepto de elasticidad se analiza el efecto de cada variable con la variable en estudio. Se observó que variables como el precio y costos de producción son, en porcentaje, las que más determinan las decisiones de los ofertantes y consumidores de papa.
Oscanoa, Luis; Ph.D. (c) Investigador asociado, The Mountain Institute – Laboratorio Pastizales UNALM, Lima Perú.; Flores, Enrique; Ph.D. Manejo de Pastizales, Profesor Principal EPG UNALM, Lima Perú.
Se investigaron los pastos naturales degradados de la comunidad campesina Cordillera Blanca, Huaraz – Perú. El objetivo fue estudiar la influencia de las técnicas de mejora (T) sobre el estado ecológico (Ee), recuperación hidrológica (H) y control de la erosión (Er) del pastizal de condición muy pobre. El diseño experimental fue completamente al azar con arreglo factorial (3 técnicas x 6 épocas por parámetro de estudio). La investigación duró dos años, etapa en la cual se estudiaron el Ee (ve...
Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. is a North American grass that exhibits vast genetic diversity across its geographic range. In the Northeastern US, local switchgrass populations were restricted to a narrow coastal zone before European settlement, but current populations inhabit inland road verges raising questions about their origin and genetics. These questions are important because switchgrass lines with novel traits are being cultivated as a biofuel feedstock, and gene flow could impact the genetic integrity and distribution of local populations. This study was designed to determine if: 1 switchgrass plants collected in the Long Island Sound Coastal Lowland coastal Level IV ecoregion represented local populations, and 2 switchgrass plants collected from road verges in the adjacent inland regions were most closely related to local coastal populations or switchgrass from other geographic regions. The study used 18 microsatellite markers to infer the genetic relationships between 122 collected switchgrass plants and a reference dataset consisting of 28 cultivars representing ecotypes, ploidy levels, and lineages from North America. Results showed that 84% of 88 plants collected in the coastal plants were most closely aligned with the Lowland tetraploid genetic pool. Among this group, 61 coastal plants were similar to, but distinct from, all Lowland tetraploid cultivars in the reference dataset leading to the designation of a genetic sub-population called the Southern New England Lowland Tetraploids. In contrast, 67% of 34 plants collected in road verges in the inland ecoregions were most similar to two Upland octoploid cultivars; only 24% of roadside plants were Lowland tetraploid. These results suggest that cryptic, non-local genotypes exist in road verges and that gene flow from biofuels plantations could contribute to further changes in switchgrass population genetics in the Northeast.
Full Text Available High biomass production and wide adaptation has made switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. an important candidate lignocellulosic bioenergy crop. One major limitation of this and other lignocellulosic feedstocks is the recalcitrance of complex carbohydrates to hydrolysis for conversion to biofuels. Lignin is the major contributor to recalcitrance as it limits the accessibility of cell wall carbohydrates to enzymatic breakdown into fermentable sugars. Therefore, genetic manipulation of the lignin biosynthesis pathway is one strategy to reduce recalcitrance. Here, we identified a switchgrass Knotted1 transcription factor, PvKN1, with the aim of genetically engineering switchgrass for reduced biomass recalcitrance for biofuel production. Gene expression of the endogenous PvKN1 gene was observed to be highest in young inflorescences and stems. Ectopic overexpression of PvKN1 in switchgrass altered growth, especially in early developmental stages. Transgenic lines had reduced expression of most lignin biosynthetic genes accompanied by a reduction in lignin content suggesting the involvement of PvKN1 in the broad regulation of the lignin biosynthesis pathway. Moreover, the reduced expression of the Gibberellin 20-oxidase (GA20ox gene in tandem with the increased expression of Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2ox genes in transgenic PvKN1 lines suggest that PvKN1 may exert regulatory effects via modulation of GA signalling. Furthermore, overexpression of PvKN1 altered the expression of cellulose and hemicellulose biosynthetic genes and increased sugar release efficiency in transgenic lines. Our results demonstrated that switchgrass PvKN1 is a putative ortholog of maize KN1 that is linked to plant lignification and cell wall and development traits as a major regulatory gene. Therefore, targeted overexpression of PvKN1 in bioenergy feedstocks may provide one feasible strategy for reducing biomass recalcitrance and simultaneously improving plant growth characteristics.
Full Text Available Intercropping is considered for increasing and stability of yield in per unit. In order to study the effects of soybean (Glycine max L. and millet (Panicum miliaceum L. replacement intercropping on agronomic traits, diversity of weeds and soil biological activity, an experiment was conducted at the Research Station of Agricultural Faculty, of Bu-Ali Sina University, in 2014. The experiment was carried out as a randomized complete block design with three replications. The replacement intercropping series consisted of monoculture of soybean, monoculture of millet, 75% soybean+ 25% millet, 50% soybean+ 50% millet and 25% soybean+ 75% millet. The results showed that the highest seed yield of 219.8 and 171.9 gm-2 belonged to monoculture of soybean and monoculture of millet, respectively. Intercropping reduced maximum leaf area index of soybean and millet but leaf chlorophyll content of soybean and millet were increased. The highest number of pods per plant, number of seeds per plant in soybean and panicle number per plant in millet were obtained in 50S:50M ratio. Mean soil respiration rate in intercropping treatments was 4 and 8 % higher than the monoculture of soybean and millet, respectively. Intercropping patterns of 50S:50M and 25S:75M were successful in reducing weed plant density and diversity in comparison with soybean monoculture. Results showed that in all intercropping treatments, land equivalent ratio was more than one. Maximum value of land equivalent ratio (2.20 was achieved in 50S:50M treatment. Soybean and millet intercropping at different levels of replacement, didn’t have actual yield loss. Calculating the aggressivity showed that millet was more dominate than soybean. The maximum relative crowding coefficient of soybean was observed in 75S:25M, however that of millet was obtained in 25S:75M and 50S:50M intercroppings indicating that millet is more competitor than soybean.
Costa, R L D; Bueno, M S; Veríssimo, C J; Cunha, E A; Santos, L E; Oliveira, S M; Spósito Filha, E; Otsuk, I P
The daily live weight gain (DLWG), faecal nematode egg counts (FEC), and packed cell volume (PCV) of Suffolk, Ile de France and Santa Inês ewe lambs were evaluated fortnightly for 56 days in the dry season (winter) and 64 days in the rainy season (summer) of 2001-2002. The animals were distributed in two similar groups, one located on Aruana and the other on Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum), in rotational grazing system at the Instituto de Zootecnia, in Nova Odessa city (SP), Brazil. In the dry season, 24 one-year-old ewe lambs were used, eight of each breed, and there was no difference (p > 0.05) between grasses for DLWG (100 g/day), although the Suffolk had higher values (p < 0.05) than the other breeds. In the rainy season, with 33 six-month-old ewe lambs, nine Suffolk, eight Ile de France and 16 Santa Inês, the DLWG was not affected by breed, but it was twice as great (71 g/day, p < 0.05) on Aruana as on Tanzânia grass (30 g/day). The Santa Inês ewe lambs had the lowest FEC (p < 0.05) and the highest PCV (p < 0.05), confirming their higher resistance to Haemonchus contortus, the prevalent nematode in the rainy season. It was concluded that the best performance of ewe lambs on Aruana pastures in the rainy season is probably explained by their lower nematode infection owing to the better protein content of this grass (mean contents 11.2% crude protein in Aruana grass and 8.7% in Tanzania grass, p < 0.05) which may have improved the immunological system with the consequence that the highest PCV (p < 0.05) observed in those animals.
Tigunova O. O.
Full Text Available The aim of this work was to enlarge accumulation of butanol from switchgrass Panicum virgatum L. biomass using strains-producers obtained from grounds and silts of Kyiv lakes. The objects of the study were strains of C. acetobutylicum ІМВ B-7407 (IFBG C6H, Clostridium acetobutylicum IFBG C6H 5М and Clostridium tyrobutyricum IFBG C4B from the "Collections of microbial strains and lines of plants for food and agricultural biotechnology" of the Public Institution "Institute of Food Biotechnology and Genomics" of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. Gas chromatography was used to determine the alcohol concentration at the stage of solvent synthesis. To determine the effect of butanol precursors during cultivation, butyric, lactic and acetic acids were used. Optimization of processing parameters, which was based on the needs of cultures, allowed us to increase the yield by 20 and 50% for the initial and mutant strain respectively. Using synthetic precursors (such as lactic, butyric and acetic acid during cultivation increased total concentration of butanol by 1.7 times. To optimize the process, a study was carried out using acetone- butyl grains. Using of acetone-butyl grains in concentrations up to 60% does not affect the synthesis of butanol by C. acetobutylicum IFBG C6H 5M. Increasing the concentration of grains led to decrease in accumulation of butanol. Almost double increase in accumulation of the target product (butanol was achieved using two-stage fermentation and/or precursors of synthesis. It was shown the possibility of using acetone-butyl grains in fermentation. As a result the mass fraction of the waste was reduced.
Koslowsky, S D; Boener, R E
The effects of Al on Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), a widespread perennial grass, were determined in relation to factors which might interact with Al in the soil. Plants were grown for 8 weeks in sand culture and were treated with 3 Al levels (0.5, 2.0, 5.0 mM), 2 P levels (0.065, 0.161 mM), 2 inoculum types (vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) inoculum or VAM-free soil inoculum) and 2 inoculum sources (a high Al forest in NY or a low Al forest in Ohio) in a factorial design. Plant growth decreased with increasing Al and increased with increasing P, but the Al effect was less at high P than low P. VAM-inoculated plants outgrew non-VAM plants, especially at low and medium Al levels. Total P and Ca uptake decreased with increasing Al concentration, especially at low P levels. VAM inoculation did not result in increased P uptake at any Al level though VAM plants took up significantly more Ca than non-VAM plants at any Al level. VAM plants had lower tissue Al concentrations and took up less Al than non-VAM plants; Al uptake increased with increasing soil Al in non-VAM plants but not in VAM plants. Plants given inoculum from the high Al site had significantly lower tissue Al than plants given the low Al site inoculum, regardless of VAM status. We conclude that the presence of a VAM infection, moderate levels of soil P, and the source of the inoculum can reduce the effects of soluble Al. We discuss potential physiological and edaphic mechanisms by which Al may be immobilized and Ca availability increased in the presence of VAM fungi and other soil microflora.
Cook, Bruce L.
Reports the major findings of a study that investigated the effectiveness of using pictures of different art styles (stick figures, faceless outline drawings, detailed black-and-white, detailed black-and-white with watercolor wash, and black-and-white photographs) with 423 new readers in Papua New Guinea. (JD)
Womersley, J.S.; Botanist, Forest
A short account of the establishment of the Herbarium of the Department of Forests, Papua and New Guinea appeared on p. 61, no 3, volume I of Flora Malesiana Bulletin. This Herbarium has now been firmly established and is constantly receiving collections of plants from various parts of Papua and New
Ruppert, Sabine; Vormberge, Thomas; Igl, Bernd-Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Michael
During preclinical drug development, monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is an important part of cardiac safety assessment. To detect potential pro-arrhythmic liabilities of a drug candidate and for internal decision-making during early stage drug development an in vivo model in small animals with translatability to human cardiac function is required. Over the last years, modifications/improvements regarding animal housing, ECG electrode placement, and data evaluation have been introduced into an established model for ECG recordings using telemetry in conscious, freely moving guinea pigs. Pharmacological validation using selected reference compounds affecting different mechanisms relevant for cardiac electrophysiology (quinidine, flecainide, atenolol, dl-sotalol, dofetilide, nifedipine, moxifloxacin) was conducted and findings were compared with results obtained in telemetered Beagle dogs. Under standardized conditions, reliable ECG data with low variability allowing largely automated evaluation were obtained from the telemetered guinea pig model. The model is sensitive to compounds blocking cardiac sodium channels, hERG K(+) channels and calcium channels, and appears to be even more sensitive to β-blockers as observed in dogs at rest. QT interval correction according to Bazett and Sarma appears to be appropriate methods in conscious guinea pigs. Overall, the telemetered guinea pig is a suitable model for the conduct of early stage preclinical ECG assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, Jørgen
The mesothelial cells of Reissner's membrane in guinea pigs were found to be connected by junctional complexes. No cell discontinuities or gaps were observed by scanning or transmission electron microscopy. These results are not in accordance with previous studies. They were achieved by in vivo...
Guinea lahes lokkava piraatluse põhjused ja tegurid, mis seda soodustavad: seaduselüngad, looduslikud tingimused, ebapädev korrakaitse, poliitiline olustik, kultuuriline vastuvõetavus, majanduslik tasuvus. Sõjalised ja mittesõjalised meetmetest, mida rakendatakse piraatlusevastases võitluses
Mazensky, David; Flesarova, Slavka
The aim of this study was to describe origin, localization, and variations of renal arteries in guinea pig. The study was carried out on 26 adult guinea pigs. We prepared corrosion casts of the guinea pig arterial system. Batson's corrosion casting kit no. 17 was used as the casting medium. In 57.7% of specimens, a. renalis dextra was present as a single vessel with different level of its origin from aorta abdominalis. In 38.5% of specimens, two aa. renales dextrae were present with variable origin and arrangement. The presence of three aa. renales dextrae we found in one specimen. In 76.9% of specimens, a. renalis sinistra was present as a single vessel with different level of its origin from aorta abdominalis and variable arrangement. In 23.1% of specimens, we found two aa. renales sinistrae with variable origin and arrangement. The anatomical knowledge of the renal arteries, and its variations are of extreme importance for the surgeon that approaches the retroperitoneal region in several experiments, results of which are extrapolated in human. This is the first work dealing with the description of renal arteries arrangement in guinea pig. Anat Rec, 300:556-559, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The study examined the farmers' access to information and their manageriability of the intervention programme in the study area. To achieve the objective, there was need to determine farmers' information accessibility and manageriability of guinea worm intervention package; then determine farmers satisfaction with the ...
Carlos Álvarez Amador
Full Text Available Esta investigación se encaminó a la caracterización del manejo de las pasturas que hacen los ganaderos de Nueva Guinea, Nicaragua. El enfoque de la investigación fue cuantitativo, tipo descriptiva, se tomó una muestra de 100 ganaderos. La información fue recolectada a través de encuestas, y por las características de algunas variables también se hizo uso de formatos de recolección y medición de datos. El procesamiento de la información se realizó con el paquete estadístico SPSS versión 15,0. Se encontró una diversidad representativa de especies de pastos, tanto de pastoreo continuo como de corte, con una predominancia de retana (Ischaemum ciliare y Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandú, estos en su mayoría con un manejo poco tecnificado, pues los productores (mujeres y hombres aún no son conscientes que las áreas de pasturas son un cultivo y deben manejarse como tal, el período de ocupación de las pasturas promedia 7 días, con una carga animal de 2,5 cabezas de ganado/manzana y un periodo de descanso de 23 días, con niveles de degradación que van desde leve hasta severo. Abstract This research was aimed at the characterization of pasture management made by cattle farmers in Nueva Guinea, Nicaragua. The research approach was quantitative, descriptive type, a sample of 100 farmers was taken. The information was collected through surveys, and the characteristics of some variables. Data collection and measurement formats were also used. The information processing was performed with the statistical package SPSS version 15.0. A representative diversity of pasture species was found, both continuous pasture and cut, with a predominance of retana (Ischaemum ciliare and Brachiaria brizantha cv. (Women and men are still not aware that pasture areas are crop and should be managed as such, the period of occupation of the pastures averages 7 days, with an animal load of 2.5 livestock per block and a rest period of 23 days, with levels of
MEDICAL CENTER WILFORD HALL AIR FORCE MEDICAL CENTER Title of Thesis: "Heterogeneity of Opioid Binding Sites in Guinea Pig Spinal Cord" Name of...that the use of any copyrighted material in the dissertation manuscript entitled: "Heterogeneity of Opioid Binding Sites in Guinea Pig Spinal Cord...University of the Health Sciences 11 Abstract Title of Thesis: Heterogenity of Opioid Binding Sites In Guinea Pig Spinal Cord Gary Dean Zarr MAJ/ANC
Suárez Ramos, Claudia Andrea
Tesis (Maestría en Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Contables Económicas y Administrativas, 2016 En Colombia, el pasto elefante (Pennisetum purpureum) se ha introducido como una alternativa de alimentación animal que pueda satisfacer las necesidades nutricionales y por ser una especie de crecimiento resistente a condiciones extremas de temperatura. El presente documento reporta los resultados del trabajo de investigación titulado “Eva...
Full Text Available Se determinó el valor nutricional del pasto ryegrass perenne tetraploide (Lolium perenne en 4 fincas comerciales de ganado lechero ubicadas en Chicuá de Oreamuno (latitud 09°59', longitud 83°52', altitud 3090 msnm, provincia de Cartago. Las muestras se tomaron cada 2 meses a una altura de cosecha de 10 cm sobre el suelo, simulando el pastoreo que realizan los animales durante un período de un año. La composición nutricional promedio anual fue de 25,21% PC, 46,26% FDN, 25,57% FDA, 3,29% lignina, 15,40% CNF y 77,95% DIVMS y su contenido energético, expresado como TND, ED, EM, ENL (3X y ENG, fue 61,95%, 2,92, 2,45, 1,53 y 0,92 Mcal.kg-1 de MS, respectivamente. El valor nutricional del pasto ryegrass perenne varió (p¿0,05 según la época del año y el manejo en finca, especialmente en lo referente al período de recuperación de las pasturas. Este pasto tiene un contenido alto de PC y CNF, que permite a nivel ruminal la producción de proteína microbial, la cual es la mejor proteína que puede consumir un rumiante. En general, el valor nutricional del pasto Ryegrass perenne producido a altitudes superiores a los 2500 msnm en Costa Rica es similar, al producido en zonas de clima templado de donde es originario.
Full Text Available Se evaluó la producción de biomasa, los costos de producción y el costo del kilogramo de materia seca en los pastos kikuyo (Kikuyuocloa clandestina, ryegrass perenne (Lolium perenne y estrella africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis, a lo largo de un año, en 8 fincas comerciales ubicadas en las provincias de Cartago (2, San José (2 y Alajuela (4. La producción de biomasa promedio por ciclo para los 3 pastos fue de 3395 kg.ha-1 MS; la producción anual se ve influenciada por los días de recuperación de cada especie, mostrando valores de 40 170, 38 731 y 28 995 kg.ha-1 de MS para los pastos estrella africana, kikuyo y ryegrass perenne, respectivamente. La producción de biomasa varía durante el año y en las épocas de mayor producción de esa biomasa, los animales tienen un menor aprovechamiento de la pastura en términos porcentuales, debido a que la carga animal, los períodos de permanencia y las áreas de pastoreo no se ajustan a la disponibilidad de forraje. Los costos anuales de mano de obra, insumos y tierra promedio fueron de 72.433, 505.515 y 18.760 colones.ha-1, respectiva- mente; siendo los insumos el rubro con un peso relativo mayor en la estructura de costos de las fincas en pastoreo. Los costos del kg de MS producido y consumido, para los 3 pastos evaluados, fueron de 16,6 y 44,4 colones respectivamente, siendo el aprovechamiento que los animales hacen de las pasturas el determinante del costo del material consumido. Las fincas con mayor inversión anual en pasturas, mostraron un mayor retorno en kg.ha-1 leche.
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el comportamiento de 19 accesiones de Panicum maximum en suelos de mediana fertilidad. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones y parcelas de 20 m². Las rotaciones (pastoreo racional simulado se efectuaron entre 60 y 70 días (época de seca y entre 32 y 40 días (época de lluvia. Se detectó una aceptable variabilidad entre tratamientos (70,7 %. Los indicadores más variables fueron: la disponibilidad, el porcentaje de utilización, el porcentaje de hojas y la altura de las plantas. Se aplicó un análisis de conglomerados y se formaron dos grupos: tipos gigantes (grupo 1 y tipos medianos (grupo 2. Los tratamientos del grupo 1 alcanzaron una disponibilidad media de 5,0 t MS/ha/rotación y superaron en 0,7 t MS/ha/rotación a los del grupo 2. Sin embargo, estos últimos mostraron menores síntomas de clorosis (34,0 %, fueron más tolerantes a los microorganismos patógenos (25,0 % y menos afectados por la sequía (42,0 %, y presentaron mayor vigor (3,8 como media de los tres años. Se concluye que en la variabilidad tuvieron un papel fundamental la disponibilidad, la altura, el porcentaje de hojas y el porcentaje de utilización. El resto de los indicadores fue relativamente poco variable, pero también permitió enjuiciar el comportamiento de estos materiales. Se recomiendan los tipos medianos CIH-6, SIH-810 y CIH-22 como variedades precomerciales para condiciones similares a las aquí utilizadas, e incluir el tipo gigante SIH-759 en ensayos en los que se emplee el corte o el pastoreo con mayor intensidad
This research aimed at the production of biomass char under pyrolytic conditions, targeting biochar as soil amendment, while also considering its application as biocoal, either for bioenergy or subsequent upgrading. The production of biomass char was performed using two bench-scale, batch-type, fixed-bed reactors, each with an operating capacity of 1 and 25 gw.b. /batch, respectively. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has been used for the tests. Production conditions studied implied temperatures of 300, 400 and 500 °C with short residence times (2.5 and 5 min). As well, the effect of using CO2 as vector gas has been compared to a common inert environment of N2. The effects of the previously mentioned parameters were correlated with some important physicochemical characteristics of biomass char. Analyses were also performed on complementary pyrolytic products (bio-oil and gas). The biomass char extraction was performed using a Soxhlet and dichloromethane was used as extracting solvent. The extracts were then characterized by GC-MS thus allowing the identification of several compounds. Specific pyrolysis conditions used at 300 °C - N2 with the 1 g/batch reactor, such as high heating rates as well as high convection conditions, presented advantegeous biomass char yields and properties, and, possible torrefaction process productivity improvement (in comparison to reported literature, such as Gilbert et al. ). The char extracts as well as the bio-oils analysis (also performed using GC-MS), all generated from the 25 g/batch reactor, showed major differences among the compounds obtained from the CO2 and N2 environments, respectively. Several compounds observed in the char extracts appeared less concentrated in the CO2 environment vs N2, for the same reaction temperatures. As an example, at 400 °C, furfural was found only in char extracts from N2 environment as compared to the CO2 environment. Among all studied conditions (for both reactors), only naphthalene and
Full Text Available Se evaluó la disponibilidad de biomasa y la fenología del pasto estrella africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis a lo largo de 2 años en muestreos bimensuales, en 4 fincas comerciales de ganado lechero ubicadas en los cantones de Tilarán y Central (latitud 10°20’ N, longitud 84°50’ O,altitud 800 a 1200 msnm de las provincias de Guanacaste y Puntarenas, respectivamente. La disponibilidad de materia seca pre-pastoreo y laedad fenológica promedio fueron 4484 kg.ha-1. corte-1 y 7,36 hojas verdes por rebrote, respec- tivamente. La composición botánica promediode las pasturas fue 86,81% estrella, 2,52% otrasgramíneas, 1,39% leguminosas, 1,53% malezas y 7,75% material senescente. La disponibilidad de biomasa fue mayor en las fincas con influencia climática del Oceano Pacífico y su producción disminuyó en los meses de mayor precipitación. La edad fenológica del pasto estrella africana se ubica entre 6 y 8 hojas verdes por rebrote, lo cual permite una adecuada recuperación del pasto, y disminuyó en los meses con excesos deprecipitación.
Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos
Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of nitrogen levels (N and plant density (D on the tillering dynamics of Tanzania guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq.. Treatments were arranged in a completely randomized block design with 12 treatments and two replicates in a factorial scheme (4 × 3 with four levels of N (0, 80, 160 or 320 kg ha-1 N and three plant densities (9, 25, and 49 plant m-². Higher number of tillers was observed in the treatment with 9 plants m-² and under higher levels of N, especially in the second and third generations. Still, the N influenced quadratically the appearance rate of basal and total tillers, which were also affected by plant density and interaction N × D. However, the appearance rate of aerial tiller was not influenced by factors evaluated. The mortality rate of total tiller was influenced quadratically by the nitrogen levels and plant densities. The mortality rate of basal tiller responded quadratically to plant density, whereas the mortality rate of aerial tiller increased linearly with fertilization. Pastures with low or intermediate densities fertilized with nitrogen, presented a more intense pattern of tiller renewal.
Veiga-Parga, Tamara; La Perle, Krista M D; Newman, Shelley J
Reproductive pathology of domestic guinea pigs is underreported to date. To provide a comprehensive review of uterine disease in guinea pigs, we performed a retrospective study of the pathology archives of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine. By histology, 13 of 37 uterine lesions in 23 animals were neoplastic; the other 24 nonneoplastic lesions included cystic endometrial hyperplasia (16 of 24), endometrial hemorrhage (3 of 24), pyometra (2 of 24), polyp (2 of 24), and mucometra (1 of 24). The most common guinea pig uterine neoplasms were uterine leiomyomas (6 of 13), followed by adenomas (3 of 13) and leiomyosarcomas (1 of 13). Other neoplasms included anaplastic tumors of unknown origin (2 of 13) and choriocarcinoma (1 of 13). Both anaplastic tumors and the choriocarcinoma were positive for vimentin. The choriocarcinoma was positive for HSD83B1, indicating a trophoblastic origin and its final diagnosis. All were negative for cytokeratin and smooth muscle. In multiple animals, more than 1 tumor or lesion was reported. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression was nearly 100% in uterine neoplasms. Nearly all animals for which data were available had cystic rete ovarii (18 of 19); the animal with no cystic rete ovarii had paraovarian cysts. In our study, female pet guinea pigs had a tendency to develop cystic endometrial hyperplasia and uterine neoplasia. Factors for the development of these lesions could be cystic rete ovarii, hormone dysregulation, and/or age. Other factors could contribute to the development of uterine lesions. As in other species, early ovariohysterectomy could decrease the prevalence of uterine lesions. © 2016 The Author(s).
Owen, A.D.; Lattimore, J.C.
This paper documents the current status of oil and gas reserves and production in Papua New Guinea. It then provides an assessment of future prospects for the industry in the context of both the international market for oil and gas and local constraints on the industry's growth. Finally, an estimate of the impact of the industry's development on the economy of PNG is presented. (author)
von Zychlinski, J
Special cage units described in 1982 for guinea pigs have been used either as cages for small groups of breeding animals or for caging of growing animals. By using these cages the following advantages have been noted; the cage size can be adapted to number, age and body weight of the animals; aggression and panic are avoided by corners, walls and tunnels; economic use of breeding males by mating with more females.
Pulmonary function changes measured in guinea pigs 4 to 5 wk following intratracheal instillation of crystalline porcine pancreatic elastase resembled comparable changes in humans with moderately severe pulmonary emphysema. Compared with saline-treated controls, elastase-treated animals had increased values for all divisions of lung volume, increased static compliance and prolonged time constants. Since humans with emphysema are especially sensitive to air pollutants, elastase-treated animals may be useful as sensitive animal models in inhalatio toxicology
Amanda Lucia Chaparro
Full Text Available Los metales pesados son peligrosos para los seres vivos y el medio ambiente, pues no pueden ser degradados y pueden llegar a los seres humanos a través la cadena trófica, por lo tanto, su determinación en diferentes matrices para consumo humano y animal, es de vital importancia. La metodología más utilizada para su extracción, es cenizas, la cual conlleva a tiempos largos de análisis y elevado consumo de energía, por esta razón, en el presente trabajo se desarrolló y validó un método ambientalmente amigable para la digestión y extracción de Cd+2 y Pb+2 en pastos, utilizando ultrasonido y espectroscopia de absorción atómica. Se evaluaron diferentes variables que afectan la digestión, como posición en el ultrasonido, peso de muestra, solvente, volumen del solvente, tiempo de sonicación y tipo de recipiente, en muestras de pastos dopadas con los metales, teniéndose como variable de respuesta, el porcentaje de recuperación. Las condiciones para extraer Cd+2 y Pb+2 en estas pasturas, fueron: 0,50g de tejido vegetal; 3,00mL de HCl:HNO3-3:1 expuestos 60min al ultrasonido, en tubos de vidrio cónicos. Este procedimiento mostró un comportamiento lineal en el rango de 0,50 - 8,00mg/Kg con R2 de 0,99 tanto para Cd como para Pb. Los límites de detección y cuantificación, fueron 0,25 y 0,43mg/Kg para Cd; 0,22 y 0,37mg/Kg para Pb. La metodología propuesta, se comparó con la técnica clásica y permitió determinar niveles trazas de estos metales tóxicos, en forraje proveniente del Magdalena medio, con porcentajes de recuperación de 97,54 y 98,62%, respectivamente.
Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos
Full Text Available Avaliou-se a variabilidade espacial e temporal de características descritoras da condição de pastos diferidos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk (capim-braquiária. Os tratamentos consistiram de combinações dos períodos de diferimento da pastagem (73, 103, 131 e 163 dias com os períodos de pastejo (29, 57 e 85 dias. Utilizou-se esquema de parcelas subdivididas e delineamento em blocos casualizados com duas repetições. Foi determinada a dispersão dos valores de altura do pasto, altura da planta estendida e do índice de tombamento do pasto. A variabilidade espacial da altura do pasto aumentou de forma linear com o período de diferimento, porém não foi influenciada pelo período de pastejo. O coeficiente de variação da altura da planta estendida diminuiu linearmente em pastos submetidos aos maiores períodos de diferimento e não foi afetado pelo período de pastejo. A variabilidade do índice de tombamento, no entanto, apresentou resposta quadrática ao período de diferimento, com ponto de máximo correspondente ao coeficiente de variação de 38,25% aos 130 dias. Em pastagens diferidas por curto período (73 dias, ocorreu variação negativa do coeficiente de variação durante o período de pastejo. Pastos de capimbraquiária sob diferimento por longos períodos possuem maior variabilidade da altura do pasto e menor heterogeneidade da altura da planta estendida. Além do efeito temporal, ocorre grande variabilidade espacial nas pastagens de capim-braquiária diferidas.It was evaluated spatial and temporal variability of status descriptive characters of Brachiaria decumbens (signalgrass cv. Basilisk deferred pastures. Treatments consisted of combinations of pasture deferring periods (73, 103, 131 and 163 days with grazing periods (29, 57 and 85 days. Randomized block design with two repetitions and subdivided plots was used. It was determined the dispersion of pasture height (PH, stretched plant height (SPH and falling index
Guinea-Bissau, a former Portuguese colony, is a small country (36,125 km²) in West Africa bordered by Senegal in the north and Guinea (Conakry) in the east and south. Little is known about the country’s ornithology and comparatively few papers on its birds have been published. The following is an
DOODS, HN; WILLIM, KD; BODDEKE, HWGM; ENTZEROTH, M
To characterize the muscarinic receptor present in guinea-pig uterus smooth muscle the affinities of a series of 27 muscarinic receptor antagonists for M1 (rat cortex), M2 (rat heart), M3 (rat submandibular gland), m4 (transfected in CHO cells) and muscarinic binding sites in guinea-pig uterus
Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z
Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium that infects livestock and humans. We report the first outbreak of invasive listeriosis caused by L. monocytogenes in a guinea pig breeding colony. Eighty to 100% mortality rate was recorded in the colony of 80 guinea pigs within four weeks outbreak. On epidemiologic investigation ...
Ka, Daye; Fall, Gamou; Diallo, Viviane Cissé; Faye, Ousmane; Fortes, Louise Deguenonvo; Faye, Oumar; Bah, Elhadji Ibrahim; Diallo, Kadia Mbaye; Balique, Fanny; Ndour, Cheikh Tidiane; Seydi, Moussa; Sall, Amadou Alpha
In March 2014, the World Health Organization declared an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea. In August 2014, a case caused by virus imported from Guinea occurred in Senegal, most likely resulting from nonsecure funerals and travel. Preparedness and surveillance in Senegal probably prevented secondary cases.
As the duration of storage of the guinea fowl meats increased percentage of weight loss, cooking loss, pH, and tenderness scores increased (P < 0.05). Prepackaging or salting of guinea fowl meats reduced (P< 0.05) percentages of weight loss, cooking loss and increased (P < 0.05) pH, water holding Capacity and sensory ...
Sixteen climbing Piper species are accepted for New Guinea. The three endemics, P. arfakianum, P. subcanirameum and P. versteegii, are fully described. Eight taxa of unclear circumscription are noted. A new variety of P. macropiper, endemic to Morobe Province of Papua New Guinea, is described. The
Pregnant rats and guinea pigs were injected intravenously with 238 Pu citrate to determine if the potential for in utero accumulation of 238 Pu by these two species is related to the stage of development at which immunity is gained. Although guinea pigs retained more 238 Pu after birth than rats, the difference was not significant
da Silva, Rui; dos Santos, Júlio Gonçalves; Pacheco, José Augusto
This article focuses on education in Guinea-Bissau in the context of globalisations, examining the concept of globalisation and its relation to education and the curriculum. It focuses on the relatively neglected area of national education policies in Guinea-Bissau, comparing differences and common points of interference/influence of multilateral…
Ekvatoriaal-Guineas ja Zimbabwes on vahistatud kümneid inimesi, keda süüdistatakse riigipöördekatses Ekvatoriaal-Guineas. Suurbritannia endise peaministri Margaret Thatcher'i poega Mark Thatcher'it süüdistatakse riigipöördekatse rahastamisele kaasaaitamises
Guinea pigs represent an important model for a number of infectious and non-infectious pulmonary diseases. The guinea pig genome has recently been sequenced to full coverage, opening up new research avenues using genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics techniques in this species. In order to furth...
The study was conducted to correlate the preferred thermal environment of the unrestrained guinea pig with the activity of its thermoregulatory effectors when maintained under a wide range of ambient temperatures (Ta). Eight male guinea pigs were used in a series of experiments o...
Reddy, Sarasvathie; McKenna, Sioux
Participants in a study on learning the clinical aspects of medicine in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum repeatedly referred to themselves as "Guinea pigs" at the mercy of a curriculum experiment. This article interrogates and problematises the "Guinea pig" identity ascribed to and assumed by the first cohort of…
Guinea worm infection has been reported to be one of the external diseconomies factors that limit agricultural productivity of the rural farm households. The study examined the determinants of farmers' vulnerability to guineaworm infection and the effect of guinea worm infection on yam yield in the study area. A stratified ...
... common game bird in Africa and there have been efforts to domesticate it for use as a source of human food. An important obstacle in successful domestication of guinea fowl is their low fertility rate.We studied the effects of semi-confinement on the fertility rates of helmeted guinea fowl by comparing egg fertility, hatch rate ...
This research work is aimed at assessing the dyeing and colouring potentials of ethanol extracts from the leaves of guinea corn and the skin of onion. It is intended to apply the purified dye extracts on textile, drink and food. The leaves of guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor) and the skin of onion (Allium cepa) were collected, ...
There are no confirmed records of the Adamawa Turtle Dove Streptopelia hypopyrrha in north-eastern Guinea Bissau and there is very little information available on the biology of the species. Eight individuals of the Adamawa Turtle Dove were identified from the game bags of sport hunters in north-eastern Guinea Bissau, ...
Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo de investigación consistió en analizar el contenido nutricional, digestibilidad in vitro y el rendimiento de biomasa de las especies y según los ganaderos son las especies de pastos nativos más importantes que predominan en las tres principales cuencas ganaderas del departamento de Amazonas: Molinopampa, Pomacochas y Leymebamba. Se muestrearon al azar, seis áreas de 0,25 m2 por tratamiento cada 60 días durante tres brotes. Las muestras obtenidas fueron mezcladas y pesadas por separado, para luego extraer una alícuota homogénea y representativa de 1 kg por especie, para ser deshidrato en una estufa a 60 °C por 48 horas, las mismas fueron sometidas a un análisis proximal. Con los valores obtenidos de cada uno de los parámetros de evaluación y luego de ser multiplicados con sus respectivos valores ponderados se calculó el valor acumulativo final siendo los resultados las siguientes Trifolium repens L (35,9, Philoglossa mimuloides-Siso menudo (35,3, Cenchrus clandestinus (32,8, Trifolium dubium (32,5 y Philoglossa mimuloides-Siso lapacho (31,3. Los valores significan la importancia acumulativa de cada especie.
Elizabeth Valoyes Bejarano
Objetivo. Determinar las estrategias utilizadas en las mujeres indígenas pertenecientes a la comunidad de los pastos y residente en Bogotá, para garantizar la seguridad alimentaria de sus familias. Materiales y métodos. Estudio de casos realizado con entrevistas semiestructuradas a 8 familias indígenas residentes en Bogotá. Resultados. Las estrategias utilizadas por las mujeres fueron: ayuda del estado por medio de comedores comunitarios y jardines infantiles, redes de apoyo que conforman las mujeres con el fin de obtener apoyo económico, moral y social, empleo, consumo insuficiente de alimentos por parte de la mujer para satisfacer las necesidades de su familia, reducción de tiempos de comida, obtener alimentos en promoción o en cosecha. Conclusiones. Este estudio confirmó que la mujer es la base de la SAN en sus familias, sin embargo algunas de las estrategias utilizadas limitan su derecho a la alimentación. Por otra parte el estudio se acercó a definir la relación entre SAN, etnia y género, la cual se ha investigado poco y posee en cada una de estas categorías un número importante de variables que dejan posibilidades para seguir investigando en la comprensión de sus relaciones.
Sánchez G. Hugo
Full Text Available Se compararon dos inhibidores de la nitrificación (Sulfatiazol, N- Serve y las tendencias de la conversión de amonio a nitrato en el suelo y la concentración de este ión en el pasto según la fuente (Urea, Nitrón 26 y las dosis de nitrógeno (100, 200 kg/ha. Las concentraciones de nitratos en los suelos y en el tejido vegetal tendieron a incrementarse a medida que aumentaban los niveles de fertilización. La efectividad de los inhibidores se encuentra determinada por los niveles de fertilización y, en algunos casos, por las condiciones medio ambientales presentes.It was compared the grade of inhibition of two inhibitors products of the nitrification (Sulfatiazol, N - Serve and the tendencies on the conversion of ammonium into nitrate in the ground and the concentration of this ion on Pennisetum purpureum Schum. Depending on the source (urea, Nitrón 26 and the quantity of nitrogen (100, 200 kq/ha. The concentrations of nitrates on the grounds and the vegetal tissue stretched to intensity at the same time as were increase the levels of nitrogenous. The effectiveness of the inhibitors is determined for the employed levels and in some cases for the present environment conditions.
Bayron Alberto Paz Noguera
Full Text Available El artículo pretende aportar a la validación de teorías sobre la estimación integral de deficiencias habitacionales que el déficit convencional de vivienda no logra capturar. La hipótesis fundamental es que las condiciones habitacionales evaluadas según el impacto en la calidad de vida, no se pueden considerar en ausencia de factores que afectan externamente al hogar, pues el hombre es un ser que encuentra su bienestar en la interacción con sus pares y el entorno. Se propone la estimación del Déficit Urbano-Habitacional que incluye la valoración del déficit de vivienda, pero también de la infraestructura, los servicios y el espacio público. Para validar lo anterior, se realizó una aplicación a la Comuna Tres del Municipio de Pasto. Los resultados indican que de los cuatro componentes que integran el Déficit Urbano-Habitacional, el déficit de servicios y el de espacios públicos resultan ser los más preocupantes.
Nicolás Madroñero Madroñero
Full Text Available Este artículo presenta la participación del sector microempresarial total del sector empresarial formal y su aporte a la generación de empleo en San Juan de Pasto, importancia que se consagra en la ley Mipyme 590. Se hace referencia sobre los principales oferentes del microcrédito, utilizados por los microempresarios formales para financiar su actividad empresarial en la ciudad, argumentando su afinidad con base a las tasas de interés ofrecidas por cada uno de los prestamistas y, se hace un análisis de la composición de la cartera bruta en relación al crédito de consumo, hipotecario, comercial y microcrédito. De igual manera se determina la incidencia del microcrédito sobre el sector microempresarial, visto desde el punto de vista del crecimiento en el valor de activos y número de empleados; además se corrobora la fuerte relación o asociación entre este tipo de cartera y el PIB municipal. El estudio también asumió la elaboración de un punto de inflexión para determinar la trascendencia del fenómeno inflacionario en el crecimiento de la cartera microcrediticia.
Julio Cesar Riascos
Full Text Available En el artículo se examina la situación laboral de la mujer profesional y su relación con la educación superior en San Juan de Pasto durante el año 2010. Para tal efecto, se describen las características generales de una profesional y se miden los principales indicadores asociados al mercado de trabajo bajo los parámetros proferidos por la metodología de la Gran Encuesta Integrada de Hogares del DANE versión 2009. En el documento también se cuantifican los retornos en educación por área de conocimiento y se identifican las principales variables que explican los niveles de ingreso y la probabilidad de empleo formal y estable de la mujer profesional, lo anterior después de inspeccionar 412 factores educativos y laborales y cerca de 172.000 correlaciones estadísticas. La investigación sugiere que los tres principales problemas que enfrenta la mujer profesional en el mercado laboral de la Ciudad son el elevado subempleo, en especial por insuficiencia de horas, el desempleo, y la discriminación salarial, factores que, a su turno, pueden reducirse con el acceso a niveles de postgrado permitiendo mejorar el nivel de ingresos y estabilidad ocupacional.
Carlos Eduardo Contreras Grijalba
Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo describir el impacto de la réplica del programa FAST (Familia y escuelas juntas desarrollado con estudiantes, docentes y padres de familia del Jardín Infantil Piloto de la ciudad de Pasto (Colombia. Método: La reconstrucción de la experiencia vivida se realizó desde el enfoque cualitativo constructivista, utilizando un método histórico hermenéutico a través de entrevistas en profundidad. Resultados: Mejoró el funcionamiento familiar, se fortaleció la resiliencia infantil y se mitigaron los factores de riesgo desde los aportes de las teorías ecológica, sistémica y del desarrollo emocional de los niños y niñas. Conclusión: Se evidencia la gestación de una nueva convivencia desde la escuela para la familia.
Taciane M. Souza
Full Text Available RESUMO: Timpanismo intestinal agudo em cavalos e mulas introduzidos em pastagens de Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, cv. Massai e cv. Mombaça são relatados na região norte do Brasil, durante o período das chuvas. As causas são desconhecidas, porém, tem sido sugerido que estão associados a um maior armazenamento de carboidratos não fibrosos na gramínea. Este trabalho teve por objetivos realizar um levantamento epidemiológico dos surtos de cólicas ocorridos no Estado de Rondônia, assim como contribuir com o estudo da ação dos carboidratos de P. maximum na ocorrência da doença. Para isso foram realizadas visitas em 10 propriedades que apresentaram casos da enfermidade. Em duas propriedades foram introduzidos equinos no mês de março e foram coletadas amostras de pastagens para a determinação de energia digestiva, lisina, matéria seca, carboidratos solúveis em água, carboidratos solúveis em éter, carboidratos não fibrosos, fibra de detergente neutra, fibra de detergente ácido, lignina, amido, gordura e proteína bruta. Essas determinações foram realizadas, também, em amostras de pastagens de P. maximum de outras propriedades onde não estavam ocorrendo cólicas e das pastagens de Cynodon dactylon de onde provinham os equinos. Os resultados mostraram que os surtos de cólica ocorrem na época de chuva, quando as pastagens estão rebrotando com uma morbidade de 31,6%, e letalidade de 86,1%. As análises bromatológicas mostraram uma diferença significativa nas concentrações de amido (P=0,0072 do P. maximum que causou cólica (8,3 % e 9,2%, quando comparado com o P. maximum das outras propriedades (0,9% e 4,3% e com o Tifton, utilizado previamente na alimentação dos mesmos equinos (0,2% e 0,8%. Em outra fazenda a doença foi reproduzida experimentalmente em um equino, no mês de março administrando P. maximum cortado contendo 6,5% de amido. A mesma pastagem não causou cólica quando foi administrada a equinos entre os
Producción y calidad del forraje diferido de Panicum coloratum L. en dos periodos de diferimiento y tres momentos de defoliación Production and quality of Panicum coloratum L. deferred forage with two deferred period and three times of defolation
Full Text Available Los sistemas pecuarios de las áreas subtropicales de la Argentina utilizan en invierno forrajes diferidos, provenientes del crecimiento acumulado en verano de gramíneas megatérmicas o pasturas naturales. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la producción de materia seca, porcentajes de hojas, tallos, proteína bruta, fibra detergente neutra, fibra detergente ácida, cenizas y digestibilidad del diferido de Panicum coloratum cv Verde. Se evaluaron dos periodos de diferimiento: diferido total (DT, forraje acumulado desde el rebrote en primavera y diferido parcial (DP, forraje acumulado desde un corte a fines de diciembre y ambos con tres oportunidades de defoliación: temprano (mayo; intermedio (julio y tardío (agosto. DT produjo más materia seca, pero con alta proporción de tallos, mayor cantidad de fibra y menor porcentaje de proteínas y cenizas; mientras que DP presentó menos tallos y más hojas y como consecuencia mayor porcentaje de proteínas y cenizas. Se concluye que P. coloratum es un recurso adecuado para diferir, sólo si se lo utiliza con un período corto de diferido y momentos tempranos de uso, ya que presenta un nivel mínimo de proteína suficiente para satisfacer los requerimientos de los animales sin la necesidad de realizar suplementación nitrogenada y valores superiores al 55% de digestibilidad.During winter the livestock production systems in subtropical areas of Argentina use deferred forage of native pasture or warm season grasses from the cumulative growth of the summer. The aim of this study was to determine dry matter production and percentage of leaves, stems, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, ash and digestibility of deferred forage of Panicum coloratum cv Verde. Two deferred periods were evaluated: total deferred (TD, forage accumulated since the spring regrowth and partial deferred (PD, forage accumulated from a cut in late December, and both with three cut dates: early (May
Dudley, Emily S; Boivin, Gregory P
Gastric volvulus has been documented in several species of animals and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report 2 cases of gastric volvulus in guinea pigs that died without detection of prior clinical signs. Both guinea pigs were adult female guinea pigs in a breeding colony and had given birth to multiple litters; one was pregnant at the time of death. Gastric rotations of 540° and 360° were identified at necropsy examination. These cases include the first known report of gastric rotation greater than 360° in any species. Although gastric volvulus has been reported to occur in guinea pigs, little is known about its risk factors, etiology, and pathogenesis. We conducted a literature review to compare gastric volvulus between guinea pigs and other species. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
Rozanska, D; Rozanski, P; Orzelski, M; Chlebicka, N; Putowska, K
To describe a simple, minimally invasive method of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank approach in guinea pigs, for use in routine desexing of healthy female guinea pigs or treatment of ovarian cysts. The subjects of this retrospective study were 41 client-owned guinea pigs submitted for routine desexing or treatment of ovarian cysts. They included 16 healthy female guinea pigs aged 8-12 months (Group 1), and 15 females aged from 9 months to 3 years (Group 2), and 10 females aged from 3 to 7 years (Group 3) with different-sized ovarian cysts. Prior to surgery, the animals received clinical examination, blood testing (complete blood count and serum biochemistry profile) and examination of the abdomen using ultrasonography, to assess the condition of the reproductive tract and ensure the guinea pigs were fit for surgery. Ovariohysterectomy was performed via a unilateral flank incision made close to the erector spinae muscle starting approximately 1 cm caudal to the last rib. Both ovaries, uterine horns, and the uterine cervix were localised, ligated, and dissected through this unilateral retroperitoneal incision. Ovariohysterectomy was successfully completed via a single flank incision in 38/41 (93%) guinea pigs. Three guinea pigs with ovarian cysts from Group 3, which were >6 years old died during surgery due to circulatory and respiratory failure under anaesthesia. In the remaining 38 cases, surgery proceeded without complications. A further two guinea pigs from Group 3 were reluctant to move or eat for the first 3 days after surgery but recovered after provision of supportive care. All 38 animals fully recovered and wound healing was normal. This is the first report of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank incision in guinea pigs. This approach is a simple, minimally invasive and safe alternative to the midline or bilateral flank approaches currently used for surgery of the reproductive tract in guinea pigs.
Rajoka, M.I.; Malik, K.A.
Saline sodic soils have been used for production of biomass using salt tolerant grass, kallar grass followed by lesser tolerant plants, namely, sasbania aculeata or Panicum maximum or to provide biomass throughout the year for it utilization for microbial conversion. These substrates have been utilized to produce single cell protein and cellases or hemicellulases. The enzyme titer obtained after growth of cellulomonas biazotea on kallar grass could saccharify wheat straw ad bagasse for subsequent conversion to ethanol but kallar grass itself was saccharified to lesser extent, however, enzyme titres from different fungi could saccherify the biomass produced on saline lands to monomeric sugars. In these studies, the enzyme titre from Trichoderma spp. were used for saccharification purpose. (author)
Full Text Available Guinea baboon Papio papio Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Papio_papio_L.png Papio_papi...o_NL.png Papio_papio_S.png Papio_papio_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papi...o&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NS ...
of appropriate animal model systems. For OP poisoning, the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is a commonly used animal model because guinea pigs more...endogenous bioscavenger in vivo. Although guinea pigs historically have been used to test OP poisoning therapies, it has been found recently that guinea pig AChE...transcribed mRNA encoding guinea pig AChE, amplified the resulting cDNA, and sequenced this product. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of
Williams, Wendy R; Johnston, Matthew S; Higgins, Sarah; Izzo, Angelo A; Kendall, Lon V
The guinea pig is a common animal model that is used in biomedical research to study a variety of systems, including hormonal and immunological responses, pulmonary physiology, corticosteroid response and others. However, because guinea pigs are evolutionarily a prey species, they do not readily show behavioral signs of disease, which can make it difficult to detect illness in a laboratory setting. Minimally invasive blood tests, such as complete blood counts and plasma biochemistry assays, are useful in both human and veterinary medicine as an initial diagnostic technique to rule in or rule out systemic illness. In guinea pigs, phlebotomy for such tests often requires that the animals be anesthetized first. The authors evaluated hematological and plasma biochemical effects of two anesthetic agents that are commonly used with guinea pigs in a research setting: isoflurane and a combination of ketamine and xylazine. Hematological and plasma biochemical parameters were significantly different when guinea pigs were under either anesthetic, compared to when they were unanesthetized. Plasma proteins, liver enzymes, white blood cells and red blood cells appeared to be significantly altered by both anesthetics, and hematological and plasma biochemical differences were greater when guinea pigs were anesthetized with the combination of ketamine and xylazine than when they were anesthetized with isoflurane. Overall these results indicate that both anesthetics can significantly influence hematological and plasma biochemical parameters in guinea pigs.
Tanaka, Yoshio; Takahashi, Hiromi; Shibata, Sayuri; Namiki, Kana; Kimura, Sadao; Koike, Katsuo; Kasuya, Yoshitoshi
Although similarity of pharmacological responses to certain stimuli between guinea pigs and humans has been reported, this has been poorly defined by a molecular biological approach. In this study, we cloned the gene of guinea pig ?1-adrenoceptor (ADRB1). The deduced amino acid sequence of guinea pig ADRB1 (467-aa) showed 91% and 92% identity with the human and rat ADRB1 sequences, respectively. Using HEK293T cells expressing guinea pig, human and rat ADRB1s independently, we elucidated the functional characteristics of each ADRB1. The ligand-binding profiles and the concentration-response relationships for isoprenaline-induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production were similar among the three ADRB1s. Isoprenaline also induced phosphorylation of extracellular-signal related kinases (ERK) through ADRB1s in a concentration-dependent manner. The minimum effective concentration of isoprenaline for phosphorylation of ERK, through guinea pig ADRB1 was the same as through human ADRB1, but markedly lower than that of through rat ADRB1. ERK phosphorylation through guinea pig ADRB1 was sensitive to pertussis toxin, a dominant-negative ras and PD98059, indicating that a G(i)-mediated pathway is involved in the ADRB1/ERK signaling loop. These results suggest that the G(i)-coupling efficacy of guinea pig and human ADRB1s may be higher than that of rat ADRB1.
Wientzek, M.; Choy, P.C.
In some mammalian hearts, up to 40% of the choline phosphoglyceride (CPG) exists as plasmenylcholine (1-alkenyl-2-acyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine). Although the majority of diacylphosphatidylcholine (PC) in mammalian hearts is synthesized from choline via the CDP-choline pathway, the formation of plasmenylcholine from choline was not known. In this study, they investigated the biosynthesis of plasmenyl-choline in the isolated guinea pig heart by perfusion with [ 3 H]choline. Labelled choline containing metabolites and labelled plasmenylcholine were isolated and determined at different perfusion time points. Significant amounts of labelling were found only in choline, phosphocholine, CDP-choline, plasmenyl-choline and PC. In addition, a precursor-product relationship was observed between the labelling of CDP-choline and plasmenylcholine. Such a relationship was not observed between choline and plasmenylcholine. Hence, they postulate that the incorporation of choline into plasmenylcholine is via the CDP-choline pathway and not via base exchange. The ability to condense 1-alkenyl-2-acyl-glycerol with CDP-choline was also demonstrated in vitro with guinea pig heart microsomes
Sasser, L.B.; Jarboe, G.E.
The accepted premise that absorption is enhanced in the newborn animal is based primarily on studies using the rat, which has a relatively immature gastrointestinal system at birth. This study was conducted to determine if enhanced absorption of cadmium also occurs in the guinea pig, a species that is more precocious at birth than the rat. Newborn guinea pigs were administered a single oral dose of 5 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd (0.25 mCi of /sup 115m/Cd per milligram of cadmium) between 8 and 24 hr of age and killed at intervals between 1 and 14 days after the dosing. Juvenile guinea pigs were similarly dosed with 20 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd and killed 1 to 5 days later. Guinea pigs dosed on the day of birth absorbed approximately 6% of the dose by 1 day after the dosing and nearly 25% of the dose by 11 days. This is a cumulative absorption five times that found in rats dosed at 24 hr and two times that of rats dosed at 2 hr. The residence time of cadmium in the gastrointestinal tract was longer in newborn guinea pigs than in juvenile guinea pigs but was still significantly less than that in the newborn rat. We concluded that the absorption of cadmium from the gastrointestinal tract was greater in newborn guinea pigs than in rats, even though the residence time of cadmium in the intestinal tract was less in guinea pigs than in rats and the maturity at birth of the guinea pig is greater than that of the rat. The bases of these differences were not readily apparent
Dudley, Emily S; Boivin, Gregory P
Gastric volvulus has been documented in several species of animals and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report 2 cases of gastric volvulus in guinea pigs that died without detection of prior clinical signs. Both guinea pigs were adult female guinea pigs in a breeding colony and had given birth to multiple litters; one was pregnant at the time of death. Gastric rotations of 540° and 360° were identified at necropsy examination. These cases include the first known report of g...
GÜREL, Aydın; AYYILDIZ, Gülbin
Salmonella arizonae infection was detected in guinea pigs kept for breeding. Two months old 50 quinea pigs were died in the breedig unit. Three death and 2 live guinea pigs were brought to Veterinary Faculty of İstanbul. The live 2 were euthanasied and necropcy was performed on all guinea pigs. The fluid about 50 cc. in the abdomen, the necrosis and pseudomembranes in the liver and spleen were observed. On histopathology, the foci of various coagulative necrosis were seen in the liver. The...
Carlos Stuart Coronel Palma
Full Text Available A base de sustentação da pecuária de corte no Brasil são as pastagens, implantadas em aproximadamente 171milhões de hectares. Das 35,7 milhões de cabeças abatidas anualmente no Brasil, apenas 1,5 milhões são terminadas em regime de confinamento, o restante, cerca de 34,2 milhões de cabeças, é mantido em regime de pasto. Na última década, os criadores brasileiros de gado de corte, utilizando-se de técnicas de manejo e alimentação, têm procurado produzir bovinos jovens para o abate, alcançando não só maior produtividade e qualidade de carcaça, como também retorno mais rápido dos investimentos e melhor remuneração. Considerando a necessidade do aumento da eficiência produtiva para viabilização comercial da atividade e a importância da nutrição nesse processo, uma avaliação de alternativas de suplementação torna-se necessária. Assim, com este experimento avaliaram-se os efeitos da suplementação mineral e suplementação completa (mineral, protéica, energética e vitamínica sobre as características de carcaça de novilhos Nelore, terminados a pasto, na estaçãochuvosa. Durante 156 dias, divididos em cinco períodos, foram avaliados 60 novilhos, divididos em três lotes de 20animais, com média de 292,3kg (±19,2 e 27 meses (±2,6 deidade no início do experimento e peso final dos animais de411,5kg (±24,9 de peso vivo aos 32 meses (±2,6, em pastagem de Brachiaria bryzantha cv. Marandu. Foram utilizados três tratamentos: suplemento mineral, suplemento com-pleto e suplemento completo servido em duas porções, uma com os sais minerais e outra com os demais nutrientes. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos (P>0,05 sobre o rendimento de carcaça, área do lombo, espessura de gordura, redução do peso da carcaça no resfriamento e composição da carcaça em traseiro, dianteiro e ponta-de-agulha. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Bovinos de corte, carcaça, nutrição, pastagem, suplementação.
Alcira Dueñas Martínez
Full Text Available El propósito de este ensayo es la exploración de algunos testamentos de mujeres de variada procedencia social, en un área que fue frontera geopolítica tanto durante el imperio incaico como bajo el dominio colonial español: Pasto en el siglo XVIII (en el presente es la frontera entre las naciones modernas de Colombia y Ecuador. Enfocaré el testamento como un texto literario, no como una evidencia empírica para el estudio histórico. En tal condición, espero identificar huellas que me permitan reconstruir las mujeres que los inspiraron como sujetos de enunciación en sus diferentes posiciones dentro de la economía, la cultura y la sociedad de la época. Este ensayo explora además la auto-percepción de las mujeres testantes y su forma peculiar de asumir los roles que la sociedad colonial les asignaba. A pesar de que en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII las sociedades indígenas se habían involucrado ya en un avanzado proceso de transculturación, los testamentos estudiados permiten apreciar cómo en dicho proceso persiste una latencia de andinidad. Si bien las convenciones hispánicas de propiedad privada, herencia y prestigio, son dimensiones prominentes del testamento, no lo son menos, por aparecer en forma velada y a veces en franca evidencia, los conceptos andinos de herencia matrilineal y la connotación de poder asociada a las prendas de vestir, y la solidaridad entre mujeres, por ejemplo.
Ángela Lucía León
Full Text Available Las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación (TIC, son herramientas que han permitido evolucionar en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje, innovación, difusión de información, adquisición y generación de conocimiento. El objetivo de la investigación fue desarrollar un “Software Educativo Agroforestal - SEAf”, dirigido a jóvenes de instituciones educativas rurales, como estrategia pedagógica para la enseñanza agroforestal. Mediante Investigación Acción Participativa (IAP, se diagnosticó el conocimiento agroforestal de estudiantes de dos instituciones educativas municipales de la subcuenca alta del río Pasto, implementando talleres participativos, encuestas semi-estructuradas y mapas parlantes; se realizó un análisis de correspondencias múltiples (ACM, que permitió diseñar y estructurar el SEAf con el programa Flash Cs4, el cual fue evaluado con pruebas Alfa y Beta. Como resultado se logró diseñar un software educativo agroforestal denominado “Mundo Agroforestal” que incluyó los gustos y preferencias de los jóvenes; de acuerdo al color, actividades lúdicas, paisajes y personajes animados que fueron plasmados en las interfaces. El software fue altamente aceptado (94% respecto a las variables diseño, facilidad de navegación, pertinencia de color, temáticas abordadas e ilustraciones; lo que permitió la validación de éste.
Cauduro Guilherme Fernandes
Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado de maio a outubro de 2003, na Estação Experimental da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (EEA-UFRGS, tendo como objetivo avaliar e comparar a precisão do disco medidor de forragem, do bastão graduado e do medidor de capacitância em predizer a massa de forragem de pastagens de azevém anual. O trabalho constou de dois experimentos: o experimento 1 no qual foram avaliados os três métodos numa situação em que o azevém apresentava-se em fase de estabelecimento num delineamento completamente casualizado, com 32 repetições e três tratamentos; e o experimento 2, no qual foi avaliada a massa de forragem pré e pós-pastejo pelo bastão graduado e pelo disco medidor em potreiros sob lotação rotacionada. O delineamento experimental do experimento 2 foi o de blocos completamente casualizados, com quatro repetições; os tratamentos constaram de duas intensidades de pastejo (baixa e moderada definidas por ofertas de forragem de 2,5 ou 5,0 vezes o potencial de consumo dos cordeiros que foram utilizados. No experimento 1, o bastão graduado apresentou o melhor coeficiente de determinação com a massa de forragem (r²=0,65. No experimento 2, os melhores coeficientes de determinação foram obtidos quando o pasto, sob lotação rotacionada, foi avaliado com o bastão graduado.
Amanda Silva Parra
Full Text Available En un Andisol Typic dystrandept del Altiplano de Pasto (2800 m.s.n.m., 12.6°C, 820 mm/año y 900 h de luz solar, Colombia, se evaluaron algunas variables de crecimiento, contenido de nutrientes y producción de uvilla (Physalis peruviana como respuesta a la fertilización con N, P y K. Los tratamientos consistieron en la aplicación de urea (46% N como fuente de N, superfosfato triple-SPT (46% de P2O5 como fuente de P y cloruro de potasio-KCl (60% K2O como fuente de K, en dosis iguales para cada fuente, de 80, 150 y 300 kg/ha/año aplicados en dos épocas al momento del trasplante y 30 días después, antes de la floración. Los resultados mostraron diferencias en fuentes y dosis (P ≤ 0.01 en todas las variables analizadas. Las dosis de 300 kg/ha de urea, 150 kg/ha de SPT y 300 kg/ha de KCl favorecieron la mayor altura de planta, la materia seca y la absorción de NPK (P ≤ 0.05. La absorción de N fue mayor que la de K y éste a su vez que la de P en todas las interacciones evaluadas (P ≤ 0.05. La aplicación de 300 kg/ha de cada uno de los fertilizantes ocasiono incremento del rendimiento de P. peruviana. Por otra parte, fueron encontrados efectos positivos en la absorción NPK en relación con los rendimientos de Physalis peruviana con 300 kg/ha de urea, 150 kg/ha de SPT y 300 kg/ha de KCl (P ≤ 0.05, por tanto se recomiendan estas dosis de fertilizantes.
Pérez-Marín, Manuel Francisco
Proyecto de Graduación (Maestría en Gestión de Recursos Naturales y Tecnologías de Producción) Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Agroforestal, 2014. La necesidad de buscar alternativas para el aprovechamiento de fertilizantes en pastos de alta calidad como Maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp), lleva a investigar a la zeolita a modo de tecnología complementaria al programa de fertilización. Países como México, Colombia, Ecuador y Bolivia han utilizado la zeolita de tal forma ...
Pérez Camargo, Gladys M.; Schrauf, Gustavo Enrique; Ostrowski, Bernardo
p.111-120 Se estudió la posibilidad de éxito de nuevos cultivares de Pasto miel (Paspalum dilatatum) y Agropyro criollo (Elymus scabrifolius) en la Argentina. Se realizó un análisis de demanda potencial, considerando la superficie de pasturas naturales que poseen las provincias agroecológicamente más aptas para ambas especies, estimándose la magnitud y tasa de renovación de praderas artificiales. Con esta información se plantearon cuatro escenarios con distintos porcentajes de implantación...
Full Text Available ResumenLa dinámica de la descomposición y la liberación de nutrientes a partir de los restos vegetales son procesos clave para la fertilidad edáfica, por lo que resultan adecuados para estimar el grado de sustentabilidad de los sistemas productivos. En este trabajo se evaluó el efecto del tipo de desmonte (total y selectivo sobre la tasa de descomposición, la liberación de N y la fertilidad del suelo de pastizales (nativos e introducidos para uso ganadero en el Chaco Árido de la Provincia de Córdoba, con la finalidad de predecir el grado de sustentabilidad de ambos sistemas productivos bajo las condiciones climáticas de la región. Se utilizó un diseño experimental de parcela dividida: desmonte (total vs selectivo/pastura (nativa vs introducida, con 4 réplicas por tratamiento.En las parcelas se colocaron jaulas de descomposición con 20 g de residuos (colectados en cada tratamiento que fueron retiradas al final de cada estación climática durante dos años. Muestras de suelo (0-20 cm de profundidad fueron tomadas anualmente en ambos tipos de desmonte y en un bosque colindante como testigo.En cada fecha de muestreo se evaluó el peso y las características químicas y biológicas de los residuos. En las muestras de suelo se determinó el contenido de nitratos, las fracciones de la materia orgánica y la respiración edáfica. Durante el primer año de estudio, la tasa de descomposición y la mayoría de los parámetros analizadosfueron muy semejantes entre tratamientos. Contrariamente, en el segundo año todos los valores fueron muy erráticos debido a que germinaron pastos dentro de las jaulas. Los parámetros de fertilidad analizados no mostraron diferencias entre sistemas de desmonte y se correlacionaron con el contenido de humedad. Nuestros resultados indican que: a las condiciones climáticas del Chaco Árido afectan la descomposición en mayor medida que la composición química de los residuos y el tipo de desmonte; b, los
Johnson, Erik A; Daugherty, Kelly S
... behavioral and protein changes due to the absence of guinea pig-specific antibodies. We have developed a procedure to determine the specificity of commercially available, non-guinea pig-specific antibodies in guinea pig lysates...
Zhang Wenwen; Chen Qiang; Li Peng; Ling Ling; Lin Xiaochen; Ren Shuping; Liu Yajuan; Li Yun
Objective: To explore the adverse effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B) on the skin of guinea pig. Methods: Guinea pig skin was irradiated with UV-B, the skin changes in external appearance, pathology, and the contents of OH and O 2 - produced in the skin were determined to study the adverse effects of UV-B on the guinea pig skin. Results: UV-B caused red swelling and desquamation of skin, with the increasing of the UV-B irradiation, the cells in stratum spinosum began to proliferate vigorously, the MDA and ROS contents in UVB radiation group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: UV-B can cause injury to guinea pig skin and has the potential to produce skin cancer. (authors)
Oct 5, 2009 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (19), pp. ... the development of superior maize varieties for the southern guinea savanna ecology. Key words: Zea ... tional agricultural research systems have succeeded in converting ...
Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie
Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features...... of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require...... repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e...
Nathan, N; Barry, M; Van Herp, M; Zeller, H
A yellow fever epidemic erupted in Guinea in September, 2000. From Sept 4, 2000, to Jan 7, 2001, 688 instances of the disease and 225 deaths were reported. The diagnosis was laboratory confirmed by IgM detection in more than 40 patients. A mass vaccination campaign was limited by insufficient international stocks. After the epidemic in Guinea, the International Coordinating Group on Vaccine Provision for Epidemic Meningitis Control decided that 2 million doses of 17D yellow fever vaccine, bei...
The author describes the results obtained in recent malaria surveys in West New Guinea, where what is essentially holoendemic malaria prevails. However, the spleen-rate in adults differs markedly from what is regarded as normal under holoendemic conditions according to the definition put forward at the Malaria Conference in Equatorial Africa in 1950. The author therefore concludes that that definition is not properly applicable to New Guinea.
Full Text Available Peatlands are common in montane areas above 1,000 m in New Guinea and become extensive above 3,000 m in the subalpine zone. In the montane mires, swamp forests and grass or sedge fens predominate on swampy valley bottoms. These mires may be 4–8 m in depth and up to 30,000 years in age. In Papua New Guinea (PNG there is about 2,250 km2 of montane peatland, and Papua Province (the Indonesian western half of the island probably contains much more. Above 3,000 m, peat soils form under blanket bog on slopes as well as on valley floors. Vegetation types include cushion bog, grass bog and sedge fen. Typical peat depths are 0.5‒1 m on slopes, but valley floors and hollows contain up to 10 m of peat. The estimated total extent of mountain peatland is 14,800 km2 with 5,965 km2 in PNG and about 8,800 km2 in Papua Province. The stratigraphy, age structure and vegetation histories of 45 peatland or organic limnic sites above 750 m have been investigated since 1965. These record major vegetation shifts at 28,000, 17,000‒14,000 and 9,000 years ago and a variable history of human disturbance from 14,000 years ago with extensive clearance by the mid-Holocene at some sites. While montane peatlands were important agricultural centres in the Holocene, the introduction of new dryland crops has resulted in the abandonment of some peatlands in the last few centuries. Despite several decades of research, detailed knowledge of the mountain peatlands is poor and this is an obstacle to scientific management.
Butenko, A M
In 1978-1991 the USSR-Guinea Virological and Microbiological Laboratory functioned in Kindia, the Republic of Guinea. Arbovirus activity in this country was studied by a number of virologists and other specialists. Their personal contribution and achievements in this collaboration are reflected in the present paper. About 74,000 mosquitoes, 100,000 Ixodidae ticks, 1,500 wild birds, 2,700 bats, 106 monkeys, and 308 other mammals, 927 blood samples collected from febrile patients were examined in 1978-1989, using inoculation of new-born white mice. As a result of this work 127 strains of the following arboviruses were isolated: Chikungunia (1 strain), Dengue 2 (4), Saboya (7), Wesselsbron (1), Bunyamwera (4), M'Poko (5), Rift Valley Fever (6), CHF-Congo (9), Dugbe (22), Bhanja (6), Forecariah (2), Jos (26), Abadina (15), Kindia (2), Ark 6956 (1), Fomede (2), Bluetongue (9), Mossuril (2), AnK 6009 (1), and Kolente (2). Dengue 2, Wesselsbron, Bunyamwera, M'Poko, Kindia, Mossuril viruses were isolated from mosquitoes. Ixodidae ticks were sources for isolation of Chikungunia, Saboya, CCHF, Dugbe, Bhanja, Forecaciah, Jos, Abadina, Kindia, Ark 6956, Fomede, Bluetongue, and Kolente viruses. Saboya, RVF, Fomede, Kolente, AnK 6909 were isolated from bats (Chiroptera); Saboya, Abadina, and Bluetongue viruses from birds. One strain of Dugbe virus was originated from the brain of Cercopithecus patas. Bunyamwera and Abadina viruses were isolated from the blood of two febrile patients. Serological identification of many strains was kindly conducted at the Pasteur Institute, Dakar (J. P.Digoutte) and some at the YARU, USA (R. Shope). Kindia and Ark 6956 (Reovirus, gr. Palyam), Fomede (gr. Chobar Gorge), Forecariah (Bunyavirus, gr. Bhanja), Kolente (Rhabdovirus) were identified as an original type of Lagos bat virus. The results of seroepidemiological surveys are also presented.
Análise de repetibilidade de caracteres forrageiros de genótipos de Panicum maximum, avaliados com e sem restrição solar Repeatability analysis of forage traits of Panicum maximum genotypes evaluated under natural and attenuated solar radiation
Alberto Cargnelutti Filho
Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o número de medições necessárias à predição do desempenho de cinco genótipos de Panicum maximum Jacq. Os genótipos (Gatton, Vencedor, Mombaça, Tanzânia e Tobiatã foram avaliados sob os sistemas de cultivo com e sem restrição solar, na Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária, situada em Tupanciretã - Rio Grande do Sul. No sistema de cultivo com restrição solar, os genótipos foram avaliados sob um bosque de eucalipto. Em cada uma das oito medições (cortes, foram avaliadas a matéria seca total, matéria seca de folhas, matéria seca de colmo, matéria seca folha + colmo, altura de planta e relação matéria seca folha/colmo. As estimativas dos coeficientes de repetibilidade foram obtidas por três métodos - análise da variância, componentes principais e análise estrutural. Concluiu-se que os oito cortes possibilitaram selecionar genótipos superiores em relação a todas as características, com 80% de exatidão no prognóstico de seu valor real.The objective of this study was to determine how many evaluations were necessary to predict the performance of Panicum maximum Jacq. genotypes. The genotypes Gatton, Vencedor, Mombaça, Tanzânia, and Tobiatã were evaluated under natural and attenuated solar radiation at the Fundação Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Tupanciretã, RS. Attenuated solar radiation was obtained when plants were grown in Eucalyptus woods. Genotypes in both crop systems were evaluated eight times. Total dry matter production, leaf, stem, and leaf plus stem dry matter, plant height and index of leaf and stem dry matter were recorded each evaluation time. Repeatability estimations were obtained through variance, structural, and principal component analysis. In conclusion, eight evaluations permit to select superior Panicum maximum genotypes, considering all characteristics, with 80% accuracy of the real value.
Fábio Rodrigues de Miranda
Full Text Available Resumo O trabalho objetivou avaliar as alterações químicas do solo e a produção de duas cultivares de capim Panicum maximum Jacq. (Tanzânia e Mombaça, em resposta à irrigação com o efluente da carcinicultura em águas interiores e comparar os resultados com os obtidos com a irrigação convencional, utilizando água de rio. O experimento foi realizado em uma fazenda de criação de camarão, em Russas-CE. Utilizou-se um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em um esquema fatorial 2 (cultivares de capim x 2 (tipos de água utilizada na irrigação. Em quatro cortes do capim foram avaliadas as variáveis de produção: altura, produtividade de matéria seca e porcentagem de matéria seca. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e ao teste de Tukey. Foram analisados, antes e após a aplicação dos tratamentos, os seguintes atributos químicos do solo: pH, condutividade elétrica do extrato saturado (CEes, porcentagem de sódio trocável (PST, matéria orgânica, P, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ e Na+. Os dados foram submetidos ao teste de t , com nível de significância de 5%. A irrigação com o efluente da carcinicultura não aumentou nem reduziu, significativamente, a produção de matéria seca das duas cultivares de Panicum maximum, em comparação com a irrigação com a água do rio Jaguaribe. Após 14 meses de cultivo, o solo irrigado com o efluente apresentou níveis significativamente maiores (p < 0,05 de Na+, CEes e PST em relação ao solo irrigado com a água do rio Jaguaribe.
José A. Imaz
Full Text Available En La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina, en un experimento en macetas a aire libre (condiciones de luz y temperatura naturales se evaluó el efecto del forraje diferido como cobertura invernal en 2 gramíneas tropicales C4 (Chloris gayana y Panicum coloratum. Plantas adultas fueron extraídas de un establecimiento ganadero, trasplantadas a macetas en un jardín experimental y después de crecer durante 111 días (2 de Febrero al 23 de Mayo sometidas a los tratamientos: (1 control [sin remoción del forraje diferido de otoño (DF]; y (2 remoción del forraje diferido de otoño (DFR a 15 cm del suelo. Se utilizaron 10 repeticiones por tratamiento y una planta por maceta (unidad experimental. Las plantas fueron cosechadas el 27 de Septiembre (después del invierno y nuevamente en Noviembre para medir la biomasa del rebrote primaveral en los estratos superior (>15 cm e inferior (<15 cm sobre el suelo, láminas, vainas y estolones. Se realizó un análisis alométrico para dilucidar la incidencia del estrés por frio y se registraron la temperatura del aire, la humedad relativa y la ocurrencia de heladas. Las plantas con forraje diferido alcanzaron una mayor biomasa (55‒80% que aquellas con remoción del forraje. Panicum coloratum mostró un ajuste significativo entre la biomasa total y la biomasa de los diferentes estratos para ambos tratamientos, mostrando buena tolerancia al estrés por frio. Por otro lado, C. gayana mostró falta de ajuste de la biomasa y un mayor estrés por la remoción del forraje, mientras que las plantas sin remoción presentaron menor daño por frío y un mayor ajuste. La cobertura invernal del forraje diferido podría mejorar la productividad y supervivencia de estas especies forrajeras cuando son utilizadas en sistemas pastoriles templados. Estos resultados preliminares deben ser evaluados en condiciones de campo durante un mayor número de años, considerando diferentes estrategias de pastoreo. Palabras clave: Cobertura
Full Text Available Este artículo es resultado del proyecto de Restauración y Protección de Agroecosistemas Estratégicos en la Captura de Carbono, Municipio de Pasto, Nariño. Explora la posibilidad que tienen las comunidades y propietarios de pequeños predios de la Cuenca Alta del Río Pasto de contribuir a la mitigación del Cambio Climático a la vez que obtienen ingresos monetarios y otros benefi cios por la participación en proyectos del Mecanismo de Desarrollo Limpio forestales. El documento presenta una metodología novedosa de participación de comunidades de bajos ingresos en proyec tos MDL forestales que se diferencia de las existentes por el alto contenido de participación y confi anza generada entre los pequeños productores y las instituciones desarrolladoras. Se concluye con la evidencia de viabilidad del proyecto MDL forestal planteado y los benefi cios que generó el proyecto en términos académicos, de desarrollo comunitario y de generación de potenciales proyectos que pueden ser desarrollados con posterioridad.
INVESTIGACIÓN DE MERCADO SOBRE EL GRADO DE ACEPTACIÓN DE LA CARNE DE CUY (CAVIA PORCELLUS EN PRESENTACIONES DE AHUMADO, CROQUETAS Y APANADO EN LA CIUDAD DE PASTO MARKET RESEARCH ON THE DEGREE OF ACCEPTANCE OF MEAT FROM CUY (CAVIA PORCELLUS PRESENTATIONS SMOKED, AND BROSTER CROQUETTES IN THE CITY OF PASTO
FRANCISCO E ARGOTE
Full Text Available Los cambios de hábitos en el consumo de alimentos, insinúan productos de fácil preparación y oportuna adquisición en supermercados, motivo por el cual se hizo necesario indagar a los consumidores de la ciudad de Pasto, su interés y disponibilidad por adquirir Cuy, en presentaciones diferentes a la tradicional. Los objetivos desarrollados fueron valoración de la demanda potencial, realización de test de mercado, determinación de la participación de la carne de Cuy con sustitutos y diseño de estrategias de mercadeo. El modelo de investigación empleado fue el cuantitativo y obedeció a muestreo probabilístico aleatorio con estratificación proporcional. La recolección de la información se realizó mediante encuesta. La población objeto de estudio de la ciudad de Pasto correspondió a 27.428 hogares distribuidos en los estratos, tres, cuatro, cinco y seis. La muestra calculada fue de 383 observaciones, con un nivel de confianza del 95% y un margen de error del 5%. Las estrategias se formularon con base en la mezcla de mercadeo (precio, producto, plaza, promoción y publicidad. Como resultados y conclusiones se logró determinar que el consumo de la carne de Cuy es ocasional con cantidades entre una y cuatro canales. El Cuy en el momento no se vende en famas ni en supermercados, los precios se analizaron en asaderos comerciales (700 gramos de Cuy asado $24.000 y plazas de mercados (Kilo de Cuy vivo alrededor de $12.000. El porcentaje de participación de la carne de Cuy fue de 3,3% del consumo total de carnes. El estimativo de la demanda potencial para las nuevas presentaciones fue de: 92.158 unidades/año para el Cuy ahumado, 69.119 unidades/año para el apanado, y croquetas con 65.827 unidades/año, con pesos de 750 g y 500 g. Los encuestados prefirieron la carne de Cuy ahumada.The changes of habits in the consumption of foods, insinuate products of easy preparation and opportune acquisition in supermarkets, reason for which became
d'Ovidio, Dario; Santoro, Domenico
Chirodiscoides caviae is the most common fur mite affecting guinea pigs; infestation is generally asymptomatic. No studies have been published on the prevalence of such mites in guinea pigs in southern Italy. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical signs of C. caviae infestation in guinea pigs in southern Italy. Clinical records of guinea pigs evaluated from August 2012 to July 2013 were retrospectively searched. In this retrospective matched case-control study, records of guinea pigs with evidence of C. caviae infestation were selected. The prevalence of C. caviae infestation was evaluated and exposure variables were assessed among guinea pigs with and without infestation using stepwise conditional logistic regression. Guinea pigs seen during the same time period, but without a diagnosis of C. caviae, were included as control animals. The prevalence of C. caviae was 32% (42 of 131); 66.6% of affected guinea pigs (28 of 42) originated from pet shops, whereas 28% (14 of 42) were privately owned. Thirty-one guinea pigs (73.8%) were asymptomatic, whereas 11 (26.1%) showed clinical signs (pruritus, alopecia, erythema and scaling). The most frequently affected area was the lumbosacral region (38 of 42). Guinea pigs in pet shops were more likely to be affected by C. caviae than owned guinea pigs (odds ratio, 5.12; 95% confidence interval, 2.32-11.29; P guinea pigs in southern Italy. Chirodiscoides mites should be sought in guinea pigs, particularly in animals coming from pet shops. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.
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En un oxisol del Centro de Investigaciones La Libertad de Corpoica, a 17 km de Villavicencio, se estableció la asociación de maíz con los pastos B. decumbens, Mulato 1 y Toledo, como medio para recobrar la productividad de una pradera degradada. Los minerales aplicados 45 días antes de la siembra fueron: Ca, 555 kg ha-1; Mg, 88 kg ha-1; P, 35 kg ha-1 y S, 45 kg ha- 1, utilizando como fuente cal dolomítica, roca fosfórica y yeso agrícola; al momento de la siembra se aplicaron: 31 kg ha-1 de P, 27 de N (fuente fosfato diamónico; 37,5 de K (fuente cloruro de potasio; 3 de Zn; 0,1 de Cu; 0,5 de B y 1,2 de S (fuente borozinco. A los 15 después de la siembra (dds se aplicaron 37,5 kg ha-1 de K. La aplicación de N se fraccionó en dosis de 100 y 200 kg ha-1 a los 15 y 35 dds, respectivamente. Los análisis de suelos realizados después de la cosecha del maíz demostraron un mejoramiento de la fertilidad, ya que la saturación de bases aumentó de 24% inicial a 47%, el P disponible pasó de 2 ppm a 11,8 ppm, el S aumentó de 3 ppm a 6 ppm. En el momento de la cosecha, la mayor extracción de N fue la hicieron el grano de maíz y los pastos (43 y 45 kg ha-1, respectivamente, mientras que el P se presentó en mayor concentración en el grano de maíz (12,7 kg ha-1. Los pastos y la soca de maíz (tallos y hojas después de la cosecha se caracterizaron por un mayor contenido de K (40 y 27 kg ha-1, respectivamente. El Ca, Mg y S fueron más extraídos por los pastos (9; 8 y 6 kg ha-1, respectivamente; los minerales extraídos en mayor cantidad por el maíz y los pastos fueron N (91%, P (57% y K (58%, mientras que los de menor extracción fueron Ca (2,2% y Mg (16%.
Influência do oeríodo de cultivo de Panicum maximum (cultivar Tanzânia na fitorremediação de solo contaminado com picloram Influence of Panicum maximum cultivation period on phytoremediation of soil contaminated with picloram
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do tempo de cultivo de Panicum maximum (cultivar Tanzânia sobre a fitorremediação de solo contaminado com picloram. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação no período de setembro de 2006 a fevereiro de 2007. Os fatores foram compostos pela combinação entre quatro períodos de cultivo da espécie vegetal Panicum maximum (cultivar Tanzânia (0, 60, 80 e 100 dias e três doses do picloram (0, 80 e 160 g ha-1, totalizando 12 tratamentos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 3, com quatro repetições. Como substrato utilizaram-se amostras de solo classificado como Latossolo Vermelho eutroférrico. Após o tempo estabelecido de atuação da espécie fitorremediadora, efetuou-se a semeadura das espécies bioindicadoras da presença do picloram: tomate e soja. As espécies bioindicadoras demonstraram alta sensibilidade à presença do picloram no solo, sendo inviável o cultivo dessas culturas em áreas contaminadas com esse herbicida sem a execução de algum procedimento remediador. O cultivo prévio de Tanzânia por 60 dias garantiu crescimento inicial satisfatório das plantas de soja e tomate quando a contaminação inicial não foi maior que 80 g ha-1 de picloram. Acima desse valor, a fitorremediação ocorrida proporcionou menor crescimento das plantas de soja e tomate, sendo necessário maior tempo de descontaminação.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of cultivation time of Panicum maximum (cv. Tanzania on phyto-remediation of soil contaminated with picloram. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions from September 2006 to February 2007, using euthroferric Red Latosol samples as substrate for plant growth. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with four replicates, with treatments in a 4 x 3 factorial scheme. The treatments comprised twelve combinations of
Sandy Katheryne Higuera Infante
Full Text Available En la investigación se evaluó un biofiltro a escala laboratorio para el tratamiento del efluente de la PTAR del Inpec de Yopal, Casanare, cuya finalidad era lograr un efluente de calidad óptima para reúso del agua en riego agrícola. Se contemplaron tres fases, la primera caracterización y análisis de los parámetros microbiológicos como fisicoquímicos del efluente. La segunda fase diseño y construcción del sistema a escala laboratorio del humedal artificial, se construyó en vidrio, usando cascarilla de arroz, intercalada con grava, se sembró pasto vetiver (C. Zizanioides y se inundó el sistema para que funcionará con flujo subsuperficial, el tiempo de retención hidráulico TRH fue de 3.4 días. La desinfección con cloro se diseñó a partir de una prueba de demanda de cloro. La tercera fase consistió en la operación del sistema a flujo continuo, el seguimiento se realizó a través de 4 muestreos con frecuencia semanal, en dos de estos muestreos se incluyó medición de DBO5, coliformes totales y fecales y conductividad. Los resultados mostraron que la cascarilla de arroz como sustrato funciona bien, las plantas crecieron permanentemente, ayudando a disminuir la carga orgánica. Como conclusión la cascarilla puede ser un sustituto total o parcial de otros sustratos de biofiltros o humedales de flujo subsuperficial, al ser menos costosa y estar disponible especialmente en la región de la Orinoquía. Sin embargo, su uso debe complementarse con un proceso de reoxigenación del agua, ya que su condición anaerobia es un aspecto negativo para los cuerpos de agua receptores de vertimientos.
Vieira Ricardo Augusto Mendonça
Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram a caracterização e a determinação das estimativas dos parâmetros relativos à cinética de degradação ruminal dos carboidratos, em amostras de extrusa de animais mantidos em pastagem natural da Zona da Mata (MG, nas estações chuvosa e seca do ano. Para obtenção de amostras representativas, foram usados quatro animais fistulados no esôfago durante dois períodos experimentais na estação chuvosa, e três destes animais por dois períodos experimentais na estação seca, do ano de 1996. Foi efetuado o fracionamento dos carboidratos de acordo com o sistema Cornell e determinadas as taxas de degradação da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, a partir dos perfis de degradação in vitro deste componente. Foram determinadas as frações potencialmente degradável (B2 e indegradável (C da FDN, corrigida para proteína e cinzas, e as taxas de latência dinâmica, degradação e crescimento específico dos microrganismos, a partir da fração B2, além dos coeficientes de degradabilidade e do efeito de repleção ruminal da FDN. Observou-se que os carboidratos não-estruturais compreenderam pequena fração dos carboidratos totais nas amostras do pasto, em ambas as estações. Os carboidratos estruturais foram responsáveis pelo aumento no teor de carboidratos totais da extrusa, com a mudança da estação chuvosa para a estação seca; contudo, por causa do aumento da fração C e da menor taxa de crescimento específico dos microrganismos durante a estação seca, foi possível notar redução da degradabilidade e aumento do efeito de repleção ruminal da FDN da extrusa.
Jailson Lara Fagundes
Full Text Available A dinâmica de crescimento de plantas forrageiras tem sido foco de estudo nos últimos anos, visando aprimorar o conhecimento do processo de produção de forragem em pastagens. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o acúmulo de forragem em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. adubados com nitrogênio e submetidos a uma mesma intensidade de pastejo. Os tratamentos consistiram de 75, 150, 225 e 300 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, aplicados antes do início das avaliações experimentais, as quais foram realizadas durante as estações de verão, outono, inverno e primavera de 2002. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados com duas repetições. O capim-braquiária apresentou incremento de produção de matéria seca proporcional às doses de nitrogênio. Observaram-se maiores valores de taxa de acúmulo de folha, colmo e forragem nas estações primavera-verão e valores menores no inverno. As variações nas condições climáticas com as estações do ano alteraram as taxas de acúmulo de folha e colmo, senescência e de produção de forragem em Brachiaria decumbens.In the last years, the growth dynamics of forage plants has been focused, in order to improve the knowledge of forage yield and distribution process in pasture. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilization on accumulation of the forage in Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. pastures submitted to the same stocking rate. Treatments consisted of 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg ha-1 yr-1 N applied before the beginning of experimental evaluations, which were performed during summer, autumn, winter and spring of 2002. A randomized block experimental design was used with two replicates. Brachiaria grass showed an increase in the dry matter yield proportionally to nitrogen doses, with higher rates for daily accumulation of leaves, stems and forage yield in summer-spring seasons, while lower rates were shown in the winter. The variation of
Lino Torregroza S
Full Text Available comercial bajo condiciones de manejo eficiente de pasturas y de suplementación estratégica durantela época seca. Materiales y métodos: Se evaluó la producción de carne de novillos F1 romo x cebúy cebú en pastoreo rotacional de pasto angleton bajo condiciones del Valle del Sinú, departamentode Córdoba. El experimento tuvo una duración de 289 días que incluyó un período completo desequía. Durante la época de lluvia, los animales se suplementaron con un kilo de semilla de algodónpor día, y en la época seca, además del pastoreo, se suministró, en promedio, 10 kilos de ensilajede maíz balanceado con .02% de urea-sulfato de amonio y suplementado con un kilo de semilla dealgodón más medio kilo de salvado de arroz. Resultados. En la pastura se estimó la producción demateria seca, la composición química y la digestibilidad In Situ de la materia seca. La carga fue de4 animales por hectárea los cuales se pesaron cada 24 días. La ganancia promedia diaria fue de0.660 y 0.728 kilos/animal/día, respectivamente para los F1 y cebú, sin diferencia estadística(p>0.05. Conclusión. La producción de carne por hectárea año fue de 963.6 y 1062.8 kilogramos,para F1 y cebú respectivamente. El valor de producción de un kilo de carne fue de US$ 0.38 paralos F1 y US$ 0.34 para los cebú, lo que demustra una buena rentabilidad
Buritica Martínez Hernando
Full Text Available Se realizó un esayo de fertilización con NPK empleando urea, superfosfato tripley cloruro de potasio como fuentes en pasto puntero (Hyparrhenia rufa en la vereda Espíritu Santo, municipio de Chaparral, Tolima en suelos francos arenosos de laderade baja a mediana fertilidad natural, altura de 1.000 m.s.n.m., temperatura diaria de 25 grados, precipitación promedia anual de 2.500 mms. y una estación seca bien definida entre los meses de junio a septiembre, utilizando el modelo de superficies de respuesta desarrollado por Box y Hunter, ex·puesto por Cochran y Cox y recomendado por Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario. Los modelos de regresión obtenidos, muestran incrementos crecientes en la producción de forraje verde y contenido proteínico para las aplicaciones crecientes de nitrógeno y fósforo, con máximos equivalentes a 41 toneladas/Ha y 3.5% con aplicaciones de 400 y 200 kgs/Ha de úrea y superfosfato triple. En las condiciones de ensayo, se demuestra la conveniencia de la aplicaciónde nitrógeno y fósforo en cantidades comprendidas entre 150 a 200 y 75 a too kilos de úrea y superfosfato triple por hectárea respectivamente.
A field experiment were conducted in order to know the response of "Puntero" grass (Hyparrhenia rufa to the application of diferent amount of Urea, concentrated superphosphate and muriate of potash, in a sand 108m soil of farm located in Chaparral (Tolima at 1000 above sea level, 250C annual mean temperature, and 2.500mm annual mean precipitation. Box and Hunter's surface response model was usedas advised by the Instituto Agropecuario Colombiano.The regresion analysis shows that increasing applications levels of Nitrogen (urea and Phosphorus (superphosphate increase the amount of green forage and protein conten; highest level of forage 41 ton and protein 3.5% content were obtained using 400 and 200 kg.ha-1 of urea and superphosphate. From this information, the author recomend the use of amounts between 150
DESEMPENHOS TÉCNICOS E ECONÔMICOS DA CONSORCIAÇÃO DE MILHO COM FORRAGEIRAS DOS GÊNEROS Panicum E Brachiaria EM SISTEMA DE INTEGRAÇÃO LAVOURA-PECUÁRIA TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF CORN INTERCROPPED WITH Panicum AND Brachiaria FORAGE IN CROP-LIVESTOCK INTEGRATION SYSTEM
Carlos Alessandro Chioderoli
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O trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a produtividade de grãos e os resultados econômicos de modalidades do cultivo de milho com forrageiras dos gêneros Panicum e Brachiaria, na integração lavoura-pecuária (ILP, sob sistema plantio direto (SPD. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola de 2007/2008, no município de Selvíria, MS, em Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos constituídos por oito modalidades de cultivo do milho consorciado, simultaneamente e por ocasião da adubação nitrogenada de cobertura com os capins Tanzânia, Mombaça, Marandu e Ruziziensis, além do seu cultivo sem consórcio. A análise dos custos operacionais foi baseada nos preços de insumos e operações e a receita bruta no preço médio de venda do milho, no Estado de São Paulo. O decréscimo dos valores da relação custo/benefício e os melhores retornos econômicos, obtidos em função dos maiores índices de margem de contribuição, determinaram as modalidades de cultivo mais viáveis. Os capins Mombaça e Marandu, consorciados, simultaneamente, ao milho, reduziram a produtividade de grãos, em relação ao milho cultivado sem o consórcio. Com relação aos benefícios técnico-econômicos, visando à utilização em sistemas de ILP, o consórcio mais recomendado é o de milho com capim Tânzania, principalmente no cultivo simultâneo. No entanto, resultados técnico-econômicos a longo prazo, com diferentes preços e produtividades, devem ser avaliados
Michael J. Bowman
Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L., SG is a perennial grass presently used for forage and being developed as a bioenergy crop for conversion of cell wall carbohydrates to biofuels. Up to 50% of the cell wall associated carbohydrates are xylan. SG was analyzed for xylan structural features at variable harvest maturities. Xylan from each of three maturities was isolated using classical alkaline extraction to yield fractions (Xyl A and B with varying compositional ratios. The Xyl B fraction was observed to decrease with plant age. Xylan samples were subsequently prepared for structure analysis by digesting with pure endo-xylanase, which preserved side-groups, or a commercial carbohydrase preparation favored for biomass conversion work. Enzymatic digestion products were successfully permethylated and analyzed by reverse-phase liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (RP-HPLC-MSn. This method is advantageous compared to prior work on plant biomass because it avoids isolation of individual arabinoxylan oligomers. The use of RP-HPLC- MSn differentiated 14 structural oligosaccharides (d.p. 3–9 from the monocomponent enzyme digestion and nine oligosaccharide structures (d.p. 3–9 from hydrolysis with a cellulase enzyme cocktail. The distribution of arabinoxylan oligomers varied depending upon the enzyme(s applied but did not vary with harvest maturity.
T Nezhad hoseini
Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of two organic fertilizers along with zinc and boron elements on some growth parameters, concentration and uptake of nutrients in millet (Panicum miliaceum L. by using factorial based on randomized completely block design with three replications in Qaen region, Iran. The main treatments were municipal solid waste compost and cow manure (each at 0 and 25 t.ha-1 and sub treatments were elements of Zn (0, 50 kg.ha-1 and B (0, 10 kg.ha-1 using their respective ZnSO4 and H3BO3 salts. Results showed that treatments interaction had significant effects on total dry matter yield, number of tillers per plant and plant height of Millet. The highest total dry matter production was achieved by interaction of cow manure along with Zn and B elements. Concentrations of N, Fe, Zn, B and Cu in plant were increased significantly by treatments interaction effects compared to control. Interaction effect of organic fertilizers with B (in the absence of Zn enhanced plant B concentration significantly, whereas, interaction of organic fertilizers with Zn (in the absence of B decreased B concentration in plant. The highest plant uptake of N, P, K, Zn, and B was observed in plots with cow manure and Zn and B elements.
Jeke, Nicholson N; Hassan, Adenike O; Zvomuya, Francis
Land spreading of biosolids as a disposal option is expensive and can disperse pathogens and contaminants in the environment. This growth room study examined phytoremediation using switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and cattail (Typha latifolia L.) as an alternative to land spreading of biosolids. Seedlings were transplanted into pots containing 3.9 kg of biosolids (dry wt.). Aboveground biomass (AGB) was harvested either once or twice during each 90-day growth period. Switchgrass AGB yield was greater with two harvests than with one harvest during the first 90-day growth period, whereas cattail yield was not affected by harvest frequency. In the second growth period, harvesting frequency did not affect the yield of either plant species. However, repeated harvesting significantly improved nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake by both plants in the first period. Phytoextraction of P was significantly greater for switchgrass (3.9% of initial biosolids P content) than for cattail (2.8%), while plant species did not have a significant effect on N phytoextraction. The trace element accumulation in the AGB of both plant species was negligible. Phytoextraction rates attained in this study suggest that phytoremediation can effectively remove P from biosolids and offers a potentially viable alternative to the disposal of biosolids on agricultural land.
Matthew M. Marshall
Full Text Available Plant-based feedstocks have long been considered viable, potential sources for biofuels. However, concerns regarding production effects may outweigh gains like carbon savings. Additional information is needed to understand environmental effects of growing feedstocks, including effects on wildlife communities and populations. We used a randomized and replicated experimental design to examine initial effects of biofuel feedstock treatment options, including removal of woody biomass after clearcutting and intercropping switchgrass (Panicum virgatum, on rodents to 2 years post-treatment in regenerating pine plantations in North Carolina, USA. Rodent community composition did not change with switchgrass production or residual biomass removal treatments. Further, residual biomass removal had no influence on rodent population abundances. However, Peromyscus leucopus was found in the greatest abundance and had the greatest survival in treatments without switchgrass. In contrast, abundance of invasive Mus musculus was greatest in switchgrass treatments. Other native species, such as Sigmodon hispidus, were not influenced by the presence of switchgrass. Our results suggest that planting of switchgrass, but not biomass removal, had species-specific effects on rodents at least 2 years post-planting in an intensively managed southern pine system. Determining ecological mechanisms underlying our observed species associations with switchgrass will be integral for understanding long-term sustainability of biofuels production in southern pine forest.
... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal Welfare...
Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Veselenak, Ronald L; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Cap, Andrew P; Guentzel, M Neal; Chambers, James P; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G; Pyles, Richard B; Arulanandam, Bernard P
Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis.
Jensen, JanLee A; Brice, Angela K; Bagel, Jessica H; Mexas, Angela M; Yoon, Sea Young; Wolfe, John H
A colony of guinea pigs (n = 9) with α-mannosidosis was fed a pelleted commercial laboratory guinea pig diet. Over 2 mo, all 9 guinea pigs unexpectedly showed anorexia and weight loss (11.7% to 30.0% of baseline weight), and 3 animals demonstrated transient polyuria and polydipsia. Blood chemistry panels in these 3 guinea pigs revealed high-normal total calcium, high-normal phosphate, and high ALP. Urine specific gravity was dilute (1.003, 1.009, 1.013) in the 3 animals tested. Postmortem examination of 7 animals that were euthanized after failing to respond to supportive care revealed renal interstitial fibrosis with tubular mineralization, soft tissue mineralization in multiple organs, hepatic lipidosis, and pneumonia. Analysis of the pelleted diet revealed that it had been formulated with a vitamin D3 content of more than 150 times the normal concentration. Ionized calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D values were both high in serum saved from 2 euthanized animals, confirming the diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D. This report discusses the clinical signs, blood chemistry results, and gross and histologic findings of hypervitaminosis D in a colony of guinea pigs. When unexpected signs occur colony-wide, dietary differentials should be investigated at an early time point. PMID:23582422
Ebola virus (EBOV) pathology in humans remains incompletely understood; therefore, a number of rodent and nonhuman primate (NHP) models have been established to study the disease caused by this virus. While the macaque model most accurately recapitulates human disease, rodent models, which display only certain aspects of human disease but are more cost-effective, are widely used for initial screens during EBOV countermeasure development. In particular, mice and guinea pigs were among the first species used for the efficacy testing of EBOV vaccines and therapeutics. While mice have low predictive value, guinea pigs have proven to be a more reliable predictor for the evaluation of countermeasures in NHPs. In addition, guinea pigs are larger in size compared to mice, allowing for more frequent collection of blood samples at larger volumes. However, guinea pigs have the disadvantage that there is only a limited pool of immunological tools available to characterize host responses to vaccination, treatment and infection. In this chapter, the efficacy testing of an EBOV vaccine and a therapeutic in the guinea pig model are described.
Birck, Malene M; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken M; Lykkesfeldt, Jens
Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages(4,5). Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do not exceed guidelines for blood collection in laboratory animals(6). All the described methods have been thoroughly tested and applied for repeated in vivo blood sampling in studies within our research facility.
Kumar, Mukesh; Krause, Keeton K; Azouz, Francine; Nakano, Eileen; Nerurkar, Vivek R
Animal models are critical to understand disease and to develop countermeasures for the ongoing epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV). Here we report that immunocompetent guinea pigs are susceptible to infection by a contemporary American strain of ZIKV. Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were inoculated with 10 6 plaque-forming units of ZIKV via subcutaneous route and clinical signs were observed. Viremia, viral load in the tissues, anti-ZIKV neutralizing antibody titer, and protein levels of multiple cytokine and chemokines were analyzed using qRT-PCR, plaque assay, plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and multiplex immunoassay. Upon subcutaneous inoculation with PRVABC59 strain of ZIKV, guinea pigs demonstrated clinical signs of infection characterized by fever, lethargy, hunched back, ruffled fur, and decrease in mobility. ZIKV was detected in the whole blood and serum using qRT-PCR and plaque assay. Anti-ZIKV neutralizing antibody was detected in the infected animals using PRNT. ZIKV infection resulted in a dramatic increase in protein levels of multiple cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in the serum. ZIKV replication was observed in spleen and brain, with the highest viral load in the brain. This data demonstrate that after subcutaneous inoculation, the contemporary ZIKV strain is neurotropic in guinea pigs. The guinea pig model described here recapitulates various clinical features and viral kinetics observed in ZIKV-infected patients, and therefore may serve as a model to study ZIKV pathogenesis, including pregnancy outcomes and for evaluation of vaccines and therapeutics.
This study reviewed the development of the inner ear test battery comprising auditory brainstem response (ABR), and caloric, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) tests in guinea pig models at our laboratory over the last 20 years. Detailed description of the methodology for testing the small animals is also included. Inner ear disorders, i.e. ototoxicity, noise exposure, or perilymph fistula were established in guinea pig models first. One to four weeks after operation, each animal underwent ABR, oVEMP, cVEMP, and caloric tests. Then, animals were sacrificed for morphological study in the temporal bones. Inner ear endorgans can be comprehensively evaluated in guinea pig models via an inner ear test battery, which provides thorough information on the cochlea, saccule, utricle, and semicircular canal function of guinea pigs. Coupled with morphological study in the temporal bones of the animals may help elucidate the mechanism of inner ear disorders in humans. The inner ear test battery in guinea pig models may encourage young researchers to perform basic study in animals and stimulate the progress of experimental otology which is in evolution.
Depreux, Frédéric F; Czech, Lyubov; Whitlon, Donna S
For decades, outbred guinea pigs (GP) have been used as research models. Various past research studies using guinea pigs used measures that, unknown at the time, may be sex-dependent, but from which today, archival tissues may be all that remain. We aimed to provide a protocol for sex-typing archival guinea pig tissue, whereby past experiments could be re-evaluated for sex effects. No PCR sex-genotyping protocols existed for GP. We found that published sequence of the GP Sry gene differed from that in two separate GP stocks. We used sequences from other species to deduce PCR primers for Sry. After developing a genomic DNA extraction for archival, fixed, decalcified, immunolabeled, guinea pig cochlear half-turns, we used a multiplex assay (Y-specific Sry; X-specific Dystrophin) to assign sex to tissue as old as 3 years. This procedure should allow reevaluation of prior guinea pig studies in various research areas for the effects of sex on experimental outcomes.
Wagner, L.K.; Johnston, D.A.; Felleman, D.J.
A brain weight deficit of about 70 mg was induced at doses of approximately 75-mGy and a deficit of 60 mg was induced at 100 mGy. This confirms the effects projected and observed by Wanner and Edwards. Although the data do not demonstrate a clear dose-response relationship between the 75-mGy and 100-mGy groups, the data are statistically consistent with a dose-response effect because of the overlapping confidence intervals. The lack of a statistically significant observation is most likely related to the small difference in doses and the limited numbers of animals examined. There are several factors that can influence the brain weight of guinea pig pups, such as caging and housing conditions, the sex of the animal, and litter size. These should be taken into account for accurate analysis. Dam weight did not appear to have a significant effect. The confirmation of a micrencephalic effect induced x rays at doses of 75-mGy during this late embryonic stage of development is consistent with the findings of small head size induced in those exposed prior to the eight week of conception at Hiroshima. This implies a mechanism for micrencephaly different from those previously suggested and lends credence to a causal relation between radiation and small head size in humans at low doses as reported by Miller and Mulvihill. 16 refs., 13 tabs
Rabat Macambo, P.
With a population of four hundred thousand (400.000) inhabitants and distributed in a territory of 28 thousand (28.000) km 2 , the use of ionizing radiations for medical practice in Equatorial Guinea is few and decreasing. It is used for diagnostic practices in the main hospitals of the country, where the work burden is not over 20 patients per day. The political, social and economical embryonic development of the country until recently had a negative influence on indicators and health organisations, so that even now the country does not have any radiological protection law, this shortness, in addition with the old architectural structure that x ray tools is lodging, as well as dosimetrical lack of employed staff, put this staff under risk of electromagnetic energy. This is to show the present survey of medical activities with ionizing radiation and to request technical support for implementing suitably the basic standards of radiation protection which will help us as basis for the elaboration outline law, on radiological protection in accordance with the new guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency. (author)
guinea pig model does present a significant problem...trying to correlate behavioral and protein changes due to the absence of guinea pig -specific antibodies. We...have developed a procedure to determine the specificity of commercially available, non- guinea pig -specific antibodies in guinea pig lysates.
Albuquerque Samuel Salgado Cavalcanti de
Full Text Available O fornecimento da palma forrageira como único alimento não atende as necessidades nutricionais do rebanho, notadamente em proteína e fibra. Nesta pesquisa avaliaram-se fontes de suplementação protéica sobre o desempenho de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com palma e pasto diferido, durante a estação seca, bem como a composição botânica da pastagem. Testaram-se três tratamentos: T1 = pasto diferido (PD + palma + cama de aviário; T2 = PD + palma + farelo de soja e T3 = PD + palma + uréia/sulfato de amônio, em um delineamento de blocos casualizados. Utilizaram-se 12 vacas mestiças 5/8 Holando-Zebu, com produção média de leite de 5,6 kg/dia/vaca e peso vivo (PV médio de 452 kg. O experimento teve duração de 121 dias, sendo 21 dias de período de adaptação. Os resultados para produção de leite in natura (3,38, 5,33 e 3,38 kg/vaca/dia, produção de leite corrigido para 4% de gordura (3,15, 4,98 e 3,11 kg/vaca/dia, variação de peso vivo (-351, 77 e -401 g/vaca/dia e consumo in natura de palma (26,3, 37,8 e 26,3 kg/vaca/dia, para T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente, demonstraram a superioridade do farelo de soja como fonte protéica, em relação aos demais tratamentos. No pasto diferido foram identificados 18 famílias, 32 gêneros e 36 espécies. O capim-milhã (Brachiaria plantaginea (Link Hitch foi o componente de maior participação na composição botânica da pastagem (28,72%.
Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi
From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.
Roberto Magalhães Pinto
Full Text Available Worm burdens were evaluated and compared in two groups of the guinea pig, Cavia poreellus (Linnaeus, 1758: animals of the first group were conventionally maintained in an institutional animal house and those of the second group were openly kept in pet shops in Brazil. Animals from both sources were infected only with the nematode Paraspidodera uncinata (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1914 (10% of prevalence in guinea pigs from lhe institutional facility and 40% in those animals from the pet shop. Other helminth samples recovered from Brazilian guinea pigs during 52 years and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CHIOC were also analyzed. Paraspidodera uncinata and the cestode Monoecocestus parcitesticulatus Rêgo, 1960 were identified in these samples.
Hatakeyama, Jun; Sato, Haruka; Shimamura, Kenji
The cerebral cortex in mammals, the neocortex specifically, is highly diverse among species with respect to its size and morphology, likely reflecting the immense adaptiveness of this lineage. In particular, the pattern and number of convoluted ridges and fissures, called gyri and sulci, respectively, on the surface of the cortex are variable among species and even individuals. However, little is known about the mechanism of cortical folding, although there have been several hypotheses proposed. Recent studies on embryonic neurogenesis revealed the differences in cortical progenitors as a critical factor of the process of gyrification. Here, we investigated the gyrification processes using developing guinea pig brains that form a simple but fundamental pattern of gyri. In addition, we established an electroporation-mediated gene transfer method for guinea pig embryos. We introduce the guinea pig brain as a useful model system to understand the mechanisms and basic principle of cortical folding. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.
A remarkably high proportion of guinea-pigs given localized irradiations of 20 Gy x-rays developed bone tumours, 46% of all irradiated with 20 Gy and 86% of those that survived at least a year. Untreated controls were not included in the present experiment, but the authors refer to an earlier experiment using guinea-pigs from the same colony where no bone tumour occurred in 69 unirradiated animals followed for their natural life span i.e. up to 87 months. It is concluded that the author's strain of guinea-pig (details given in a previous paper, Int. J. Radiol. Biol., 40, 265) is particularly prone to radiation-induced bone tumours. Their possible value for investigating processes associated with radiation induction of bone tumours is further enhanced by their relatively large size and long life span (up to 7 years). (U.K.)
Tara J. Fetzer
Full Text Available An approximately four-year-old male castrated guinea pig (Cavia porcellus was presented for painful defecation with a 24-hour history of hyporexia and intermittent episodes of rolling behavior. Upon presentation the patient was quiet, alert, and responsive, and mildly hypothermic. Abdominal palpation revealed an approximately 2-cm long oblong mass within the caudal abdomen. Abdominal radiographs revealed gastric dilation without volvulus and a peritoneal mass effect. The patient was euthanized following gastric reflux of brown malodorous fluid from his nares and oral cavity. A necropsy was performed and revealed a jejuno-jejunal intussusception causing mechanical gastrointestinal ileus, and gastric dilatation without volvulus. While non-obstructive gastrointestinal stasis is common and obstructive ileus is uncommon in guinea pigs, this report shows that intestinal intussusception is a differential in guinea pigs with ileus and gastric dilatation.
Kass, David H; Schaetz, Brian A; Beitler, Lindsey; Bonney, Kevin M; Jamison, Nicole; Wiesner, Cathy
Previous studies have indicated a paucity of SINEs within the genomes of the guinea pig and nutria, representatives of the Hystricognathi suborder of rodents. More recent work has shown that the guinea pig genome contains a large number of B1 elements, expanding to various levels among different rodents. In this work we utilized A-B PCR and screened GenBank with sequences from isolated clones to identify potentially uncharacterized SINEs within the guinea pig genome, and identified numerous sequences with a high degree of similarity (>92%) specific to the guinea pig. The presence of A-tails and flanking direct repeats associated with these sequences supported the identification of a full-length SINE, with a consensus sequence notably distinct from other rodent SINEs. Although most similar to the ID SINE, it clearly was not derived from the known ID master gene (BC1), hence we refer to this element as guinea pig ID-like (GPIDL). Using the consensus to screen the guinea pig genomic database (Assembly CavPor2) with Ensembl BlastView, we estimated at least 100,000 copies, which contrasts markedly to just over 100 copies of ID elements. Additionally we provided evidence of recent integrations of GPIDL as two of seven analyzed conserved GPIDL-containing loci demonstrated presence/absence variants in Cavia porcellus and C. aperea. Using intra-IDL PCR and sequence analyses we also provide evidence that GPIDL is derived from a hystricognath-specific SINE family. These results demonstrate that this SINE family continues to contribute to the dynamics of genomes of hystricognath rodents.
Gonzalez-Obeso, Elvira; Docio, Inmaculada; Olea, Elena; Cogolludo, Angel; Obeso, Ana; Rocher, Asuncion; Gomez-Niño, Angela
Mammals have developed different mechanisms to maintain oxygen supply to cells in response to hypoxia. One of those mechanisms, the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors, is able to detect physiological hypoxia and generate homeostatic reflex responses, mainly ventilatory and cardiovascular. It has been reported that guinea pigs, originally from the Andes, have a reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia compared to other mammals, implying that CB are not completely functional, which has been related to genetically/epigenetically determined poor hypoxia-driven CB reflex. This study was performed to check the guinea pig CB response to hypoxia compared to the well-known rat hypoxic response. These experiments have explored ventilatory parameters breathing different gases mixtures, cardiovascular responses to acute hypoxia, in vitro CB response to hypoxia and other stimuli and isolated guinea pig chemoreceptor cells properties. Our findings show that guinea pigs are hypotensive and have lower arterial pO2 than rats, probably related to a low sympathetic tone and high hemoglobin affinity. Those characteristics could represent a higher tolerance to hypoxic environment than other rodents. We also find that although CB are hypo-functional not showing chronic hypoxia sensitization, a small percentage of isolated carotid body chemoreceptor cells contain tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme and voltage-dependent K+ currents and therefore can be depolarized. However hypoxia does not modify intracellular Ca2+ levels or catecholamine secretion. Guinea pigs are able to hyperventilate only in response to intense acute hypoxic stimulus, but hypercapnic response is similar to rats. Whether other brain areas are also activated by hypoxia in guinea pigs remains to be studied. PMID:28533756
Gonzalez-Obeso, Elvira; Docio, Inmaculada; Olea, Elena; Cogolludo, Angel; Obeso, Ana; Rocher, Asuncion; Gomez-Niño, Angela
Mammals have developed different mechanisms to maintain oxygen supply to cells in response to hypoxia. One of those mechanisms, the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors, is able to detect physiological hypoxia and generate homeostatic reflex responses, mainly ventilatory and cardiovascular. It has been reported that guinea pigs, originally from the Andes, have a reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia compared to other mammals, implying that CB are not completely functional, which has been related to genetically/epigenetically determined poor hypoxia-driven CB reflex. This study was performed to check the guinea pig CB response to hypoxia compared to the well-known rat hypoxic response. These experiments have explored ventilatory parameters breathing different gases mixtures, cardiovascular responses to acute hypoxia, in vitro CB response to hypoxia and other stimuli and isolated guinea pig chemoreceptor cells properties. Our findings show that guinea pigs are hypotensive and have lower arterial pO 2 than rats, probably related to a low sympathetic tone and high hemoglobin affinity. Those characteristics could represent a higher tolerance to hypoxic environment than other rodents. We also find that although CB are hypo-functional not showing chronic hypoxia sensitization, a small percentage of isolated carotid body chemoreceptor cells contain tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme and voltage-dependent K + currents and therefore can be depolarized. However hypoxia does not modify intracellular Ca 2+ levels or catecholamine secretion. Guinea pigs are able to hyperventilate only in response to intense acute hypoxic stimulus, but hypercapnic response is similar to rats. Whether other brain areas are also activated by hypoxia in guinea pigs remains to be studied.
Guo, Yongchen; Bao, Yonghua; Meng, Qingwen; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Meng, Qingyong; Ren, Liming; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng
In science, the guinea pig is known as one of the gold standards for modeling human disease. It is especially important as a molecular and cellular biology model for studying the human immune system, as its immunological genes are more similar to human genes than are those of mice. The utility of the guinea pig as a model organism can be further enhanced by further characterization of the genes encoding components of the immune system. Here, we report the genomic organization of the guinea pig immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy and light chain genes. The guinea pig IgH locus is located in genomic scaffolds 54 and 75, and spans approximately 6,480 kb. 507 VH segments (94 potentially functional genes and 413 pseudogenes), 41 DH segments, six JH segments, four constant region genes (μ, γ, ε, and α), and one reverse δ remnant fragment were identified within the two scaffolds. Many VH pseudogenes were found within the guinea pig, and likely constituted a potential donor pool for gene conversion during evolution. The Igκ locus mapped to a 4,029 kb region of scaffold 37 and 24 is composed of 349 Vκ (111 potentially functional genes and 238 pseudogenes), three Jκ and one Cκ genes. The Igλ locus spans 1,642 kb in scaffold 4 and consists of 142 Vλ (58 potentially functional genes and 84 pseudogenes) and 11 Jλ -Cλ clusters. Phylogenetic analysis suggested the guinea pig’s large germline VH gene segments appear to form limited gene families. Therefore, this species may generate antibody diversity via a gene conversion-like mechanism associated with its pseudogene reserves. PMID:22761756
Blanco, María Alejandra; Iborra, Asunción; Vargas, Antonio; Nsie, Eugenia; Mbá, Luciano; Fuentes, Isabel
The aim of the study was to perform a molecular characterization of clinical isolates of Cryptosporidium species from Equatorial Guinea. Standard laboratory methods were used to identify 35 cryptosporidiosis cases among 185 patients. PCR-RFLP successfully identified 34 Cryptosporidium species from these 35 cases, comprising C. parvum (52.9%), C. hominis (44.1%) and C. meleagridis (2.9%); over 90% of the species were isolated from HIV-positive patients. This is the first report of the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species isolated from humans in Equatorial Guinea and shows that zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission is present in this country.
Nordby, Johannes Riber; Lindskov Jacobsen, Katja
In this chapter, we first outline the maritime security situation in the Gulf of Guinea region at present. It is examined in the context of Good Order at Sea. Second, we describe the most recent maritime security initiative launched during the Yaoundé Summit in 2013. During the summit, West...... and Central African states decided to establish six maritime zones along their coastline in order to improve the maritime security in the Gulf of Guinea. A process heavily supported by UN’s International Maritime Organisation (IMO). Finally, the chapter suggests that maritime security issues in the Gulf...
Aderholt, Matthew; Vogelien, Dale L; Koether, Marina; Greipsson, Sigurdur
Lead (Pb) contamination in soil represents a threat to human health. Phytoextraction has gained attention as a potential alternative to traditional remediation methods because of lower cost and minimal soil disruption. The North American native switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) was targeted due to its ability to produce high biomass and grow across a variety of ecozones. In this study switchgrass was chemically enhanced with applications of the soil-fungicide benomyl, chelates (EDTA and citric acid), and PGR to optimize phytoextraction of Pb and zinc (Zn) from contaminated urban soils in Atlanta, GA. Exogenous application of two plant hormones was compared in multiple concentrations to determine effects on switchgrass growth: indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and Gibberellic Acid (GA 3 ), and one PGR benzylaminopurine (BAP), The PGR BAP (1.0 μM) was found to generate a 48% increase in biomass compared to Control plants. Chemical application of citric acid, EDTA, benomyl, and BAP were tested separately and in combination in a pot experiment in an environmentally controlled greenhouse to determine the efficacy of phtyoextraction by switchgrass. Soil acidification by citric acid application resulted in highest level of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) in plants foliage resulting in severe phytotoxic effects. Total Pb phytoextraction was significantly highest in plants treated with combined chemical application of B + C and B + C + H. Suppression of AMF activities by benomyl application significantly increased concentrations of Al and Fe in roots. Application of benomyl reduced AMF colonization but was also shown to dramatically increase levels of septa fungi infection as compared to Control plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum has received a lot of attention as a forage and bioenergy crop during the past few years. Gene expression studies are in progress to improve new traits and develop new cultivars. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR has emerged as an important technique to study gene expression analysis. For accurate and reliable results, normalization of data with reference genes is essential. In this work, we evaluate the stability of expression of genes to use as reference for qRT-PCR in the grass P. virgatum. Eleven candidate reference genes, including eEF-1α, UBQ6, ACT12, TUB6, eIF-4a, GAPDH, SAMDC, TUA6, CYP5, U2AF, and FTSH4, were validated for qRT-PCR normalization in different plant tissues and under different stress conditions. The expression stability of these genes was verified by the use of two distinct algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder. Differences were observed after comparison of the ranking of the candidate reference genes identified by both programs but eEF-1α, eIF-4a, CYP5 and U2AF are ranked as the most stable genes in the samples sets under study. Both programs discard the use of SAMDC and TUA6 for normalization. Validation of the reference genes proposed by geNorm and NormFinder were performed by normalization of transcript abundance of a group of target genes in different samples. Results show similar expression patterns when the best reference genes selected by both programs were used but differences were detected in the transcript abundance of the target genes. Based on the above research, we recommend the use of different statistical algorithms to identify the best reference genes for expression data normalization. The best genes selected in this study will help to improve the quality of gene expression data in a wide variety of samples in switchgrass.
Valent\\u00EDn Alberto Esqueda-Esquivel
Full Text Available Efectividad de métodos de con trol de ma le zas en la producción de forraje del pasto Pangola (Digitaria decumbens Stent. En el periodo de agosto de 1998 a agosto de 1999 se condujo un experimento en Emilio Carranza, municipio de Ve ga de Alatorre, Ve racruz, México, con el objeto de determinar el efec to de tra ta mien tos de con trol quí mi co y ma nual de ma le zas en la pro duc ción de fo rraje de zacate Pangola y en la den si dad de po bla ción de ma le zas presentes al inicio del siguiente ciclo de lluvias. Se utilizó el diseño experimental de blo ques completos al azar con cua tro re pe ti cio nes. Los tra tamien tos evaluados fueron: 1. Mezcla for mulada de picloram + 2,4-D (64 + 240 g/100 l agua 2. Mez cla for mu la da de pi cloram + flu ro xi pir (40 + 40 g/100 l agua 3. Con trol ma nual mediante chapeo con machete y 4. Testigo enhierbado. Las parcelas experimentales tuvieron 30 m de longitud y 10 m de anchura. Los tra ta mien tos 1, 2 y 3 se apli ca ron el 17 de agos to de 1998, cuan do la zar za de lo ma (Mimosa albida, que fue la es pe cie de ma le za do mi nan te te nía en tre 40 y 60 cm de al tu ra y la cobertura promedio de malezas del lote experimental, era de 57,9%. Se eva luó la co ber tu ra de ma le zas y pas to y el control de ma le zas a los 29, 60, 80, 114 y 154 días des pués de la aplicación de los tratamientos (DDA. También se determinó la producción de forraje de za ca te Pan go la a los 45, 80, 143 y 178 DDA. Con pi clo ram + flu ro xi pir y pi clo ram + 2,4-D, se controló más eficientemente a M. albida y el com ple jo de ma le zas her bá ceas que con el cha peo y se ob tu vo una produc ción significativamente mayor de ma teria seca de pas to. Ambos tratamientos herbicidas presentaron menor densidad de po bla ción de ma le zas en el si guien te ci clo de llu vias que el tratamiento con chapeo.
Maykel Franklin Lima Sales
/animal/dia. A meia-carcaça direita de oito animais, dois por grupo, foi dissecada em músculo, gordura e ossos e todos os constituintes do corpo foram pesados para determinação do peso de corpo vazio e da composição corporal. As exigências líquidas de cálcio e fósforo para um animal de 400 kg de peso corporal foram, respectivamente, 11,13 g e 5,40 g. Para estimar as exigências dietéticas de mantença e, posteriormente, somá-las às exigências dietéticas para ganho, no intuito de se obter as exigências dietéticas totais, foram adotadas as perdas endógenas e a biodisponibilidade presentes na literatura para cada macroelemento mineral. As exigências dietéticas totais de cálcio, fósforo, magnesium, sódio e potássio para um animal de 400 kg de PC com ganho diário de 1,0 kg foram, respectivamente, 34,59; 17,36; 7,82; 5,19 e 41,11 g/dia. As exigências em macrominerais de bovinos de corte sob suplementação a pasto são semelhantes às recomendadas pelo BR-Corte para bovinos de corte em confinamento.
Wilker Dias Lima
Full Text Available A procura por alimentos e derivados que não sejam utilizados na dieta humana ou na alimentação de animais monogástricos, juntamente com formas de suplementação, são aspectos importantes na busca de fontes alternativas para alimentação de ruminantes e redução no tempo de abate. Com este trabalho teve-se como objetivo avaliar o efeito de níveis crescentes de concentrado na engorda de novilhos nelore suplementados em pasto durante o período das águas. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda Vitorinha, de propriedade da Fundação de Apoio ao Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão/FAEPE, ligada à Universidade Federal de Lavras/UFLA, em Lavras, região sul do Estado de Minas Gerais, entre os meses de janeiro a maio de 2001. Foram utilizados 24 animais mestiços nelores, machos, inteiros, com idade média de 17 meses e peso vivo médio de 308,0 kg. Durante o período experimental, os animais foram alojados em uma pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens, com área de 11,2 ha, com disponibilidade média de 5400 kg MS/ha no início do período. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de níveis crescentes de concentrado, calculados como percentual do peso vivo: T1- 0%; T2- 0,15%; T3- 0,30%; T4- 0,45%. O experimento foi delineado em blocos casualizados, com peso vivo inicial como fator de blocagem, sendo 6 blocos e 4 tratamentos, totalizando 24 parcelas experimentais. Para análise dos dados, utilizou-se o software estatístico SISVAR (Sistema de Análise de Variância de Dados Balanceados. Não houve diferença significativa para ganho de peso diário (PThe demand for foods and its derivates that would not be used in the human diet or in the monogastric animals diet in addition with supplement forms are important aspects in the search for alternative sources for ruminant nutrition and reduction in the slaughtered time. This work had as objective to evaluate growing levels of concentrate in the fattening of nelore bullock gazing supplemented during the raining
Full Text Available Debido a los efectos negativos que han causado los fertilizantes químicos en el deterioro del medio ambiente, se trabaja, desde hace algunas décadas, en la introducción de alternativas de fertilización en el manejo de los cultivos. La micorrización es una de las técnicas biológicas empleadas en muchos de ellos; sin embargo, en los pastos aún no se ha logrado extenderla ampliamente en la producción y los estudios han estado dirigidos a algunas leguminosas y muy pocas gramíneas. Las micorrizas permiten una aplicación exitosa mediante el recubrimiento de las semillas. Por otra parte, las relaciones micorrízicas pueden ser la clave para disminuir la cantidad de fertilizantes (especialmente fosfatos que debe aplicarse para obtener buenos rendimientos; en los suelos con altos contenidos de P la inoculación con micorriza incrementa el crecimiento y el establecimiento temprano de los cultivos. Las plantas desarrollan una calidad biológica superior, en cuanto a mayor altura, vigor y área foliar, y se incrementan los rendimientos (entre 15 y 50%. Protege las raíces contra ciertos hongos patógenos. Además, el biofertilizante permite ahorrar hasta un 50% del volumen de los productos químicos necesarios, lo que favorece la reducción de los insumos y de los costos, e influye en el ejercicio de una agricultura sostenible y ecológicamente más sana.Because of the negative effects caused by chemical fertilizers on the deterioration of the environment, work has been done, for some decades, in the introduction of fertilization alternatives in crop management. Mycorrhization is one of the biological techniques used in many of them; however, in pastures it has not been widely extended in production and the studies have aimed at legumes and very few grasses. Mycorrhizae allow successful application by means of seed covering. On the other hand, mycorrhizal relationships can be the key to decrease the amount of fertilizers (especially phosphates
Clair Jorge Olivo
Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a produtividade e o valor nutritivo de dois sistemas forrageiros (SF constituídos por capim elefante (CE, azevém (AZ, trevo branco (TB e espécies de crescimento espontâneo (ECE, como SF1; e CE + AZ + amendoim forrageiro (AF + ECE, como SF2. O CE foi estabelecido em linhas espaçadas a cada quatro metros. Entre elas, foi estabelecido azevém, durante o período hibernal, permitindo-se o desenvolvimento de ECE no período estival. Para avaliação, foram utilizadas vacas da raça Holandesa e o método de pastejo foi o rotacionado. Avaliaram-se a massa de forragem inicial (MFI e a composição botânica e estrutural dos pastos. Para as estimativas de valor nutritivo, foram feitas amostragens simulando o pastejo e analisados a fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, proteína bruta (PB, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica (DIVMO. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos e duas repetições, em parcelas subdivididas no tempo. Os valores médios de massa de forragem inicial e da carga animal foram similares entre os SF. Observou-se resultado superior para o teor médio de PB da forragem do SF2. O uso do azevém, das leguminosas e das espécies de crescimento espontâneo em consórcio com o CE permite manter massa de forragem uniforme no decorrer dos pastejos.The objective of this research was to evaluate the productivity and nutritive value of two pasture-based systems (PS with elephant grass (EG + ryegrass (RG + white clover (WC + spontaneous growing species (SGS, for PS1; and EG + RG + forage peanut (FP + SGS, for PS2. EG was established in rows spaced by four meters. Ryegrass was seeding in the space between rows during cool-season and development of SGS was permitted in the warm-season. Holstein cows under rotational grazing were used in the evaluation. The initial forage mass (IFM
Sun, Yubo; Scannell, Brian P; Honeycutt, Patrick R; Mauerhan, David R; H, James Norton; Hanley Jr, Edward N
Osteoarthritis is a joint disease involved in articular cartilage, subchondral bone, meniscus and synovial membrane. This study sought to examine cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) and meniscal mineral density (MD) in male Hartley, female Hartley and female strain 13 guinea pigs to determine the association of cartilage degeneration with subchondral BMD and meniscal MD. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD in 12 months old guinea pigs were examined with histochemistry, X-ray densitometry and calcium analysis. We found that male Hartley guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD than female Hartley guinea pigs, but not female strain 13 guinea pigs. Female strain 13 guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration and higher subchondral BMD, but not meniscal MD, than female Hartley guinea pigs. These findings indicate that higher subchondral BMD, not meniscal MD, is associated with more severe cartilage degeneration in the guinea pigs and suggest that abnormal subchondral BMD may be a therapeutic target for OA treatment. These findings also indicate that the pathogenesis of OA in the male guinea pigs and female guinea pigs are different. Female strain 13 guinea pig may be used to study female gender-specific pathogenesis of OA. PMID:26401159
Kim, Kyoung Whun; Jeong, Soyoung; Ahn, Ki Bum; Yang, Jae Seung; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun
The vibriocidal assay using guinea pig complement is widely used for the evaluation of immune responses to cholera vaccines in human clinical trials. However, it is unclear why guinea pig complement has been used over human complement in the measurement of vibriocidal activity of human sera and there have not been comparison studies for the use of guinea pig complement over those from other species. Therefore, we comparatively investigated the effects of complements derived from human, guinea pig, rabbit, and sheep on vibriocidal activity. Complements from guinea pig, rabbit, and human showed concentration-dependent vibriocidal activity in the presence of quality control serum antibodies. Of these complements, guinea pig complement was the most sensitive and effective over a wide concentration range. When the vibriocidal activity of complements was measured in the absence of serum antibodies, human, sheep, and guinea pig complements showed vibriocidal activity up to 40-fold, 20-fold, and 1-fold dilution, respectively. For human pre- and post-vaccination sera, the most potent vibriocidal activity was observed when guinea pig complement was used. In addition, the highest fold-increases between pre- and post- vaccinated sera were obtained with guinea pig complement. Furthermore, human complement contained a higher amount of V. cholerae- and its lipopolysaccharide-specific antibodies than guinea pig complement. Collectively, these results suggest that guinea pig complements are suitable for vibriocidal assays due to their high sensitivity and effectiveness to human sera.
Gliga, A.E.; Escribano Rodríguez, J.A.; Hernández Díaz-Ambrona, C.G.
Ponencia presentada a la 51 Reunión Científica de la SEEP celebrada en la Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos de la Universidad Pública de Navarra entre el 14 y el 18 de mayo de 2012. El Sistema de Seguros Agrarios con el Seguro de cobertura de los daños por sequía en los pastos aprovechados por el ganado en régimen extensivo (línea de seguro 133) aplica la teledetección mediante un índice de vegetación (NDVI), con el fin de solucionar los problemas de peritación que surgen cuando se ...
Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos
Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da localização das fezes de bovinos sobre as características de perfilhos vegetativos e reprodutivos, a massa dos componentes da planta, a densidade volumétrica da forragem e a altura do pasto de Brachiaria decumbens, cv. Basilisk, manejado sob lotação contínua. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em esquema de parcela subdivida, considerando parcelas os locais próximos e distantes das fezes e subparcelas as categorias de perfilhos vegetativos e reprodutivos. A massa de lâmina foliar viva (LFV por perfilho em locais próximos às fezes (0,14 g foi maior que nos locais distantes das fezes (0,08 g, contrariamente ao verificado para a composição de massa de lâmina foliar morta por perfilho. A massa de LFV nos perfilhos vegetativos (0,15 g foi maior que nos perfilhos reprodutivos (0,06 g. Por outro lado, a massa de colmo (0,38 g e de lâmina foliar morta (0,20 g foi maior nos perfilhos reprodutivos. O peso dos perfilhos das plantas próximas às fezes foi maior (0,58 g que daqueles distantes das fezes (0,17 g. Em locais próximos das fezes, o número de perfilhos vegetativos foi menor, enquanto o de perfilhos reprodutivos foi maior. Maiores massas de colmo verde, forragem verde e forragem total do pasto foram observados nos locais próximos das fezes, quando comparadas aos distantes. Mesmo resultado foi obtido para a altura do pasto. A estrutura do pasto de Brachiaria decumbens é modificada pela localização das fezes dos bovinos em pastejo. A deposição de fezes por bovinos constitui fator de heterogeneidade espacial da vegetação em pastagem.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the cattle feces location on the characteristics of vegetative and reproductive tillers, dry mass content in plant components, forage volumetric density and Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture height managed under continuous stocking. It was used a randomized block design
Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos
Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar a relação entre o número e o peso de categorias de perfilhos em pasto de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk sob lotação contínua com bovinos. O pasto foi manejado com altura média de aproximadamente 25 cm. Foram avaliadas quatro alturas de plantas no mesmo pasto (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com duas repetições. Os números de perfilhos vegetativos, vivos e totais reduziram linearmente com a altura da planta. O número de perfilho reprodutivo aumentou de forma linear com a altura da planta (de 8 para 84 perfilhos m-2 quando se comparam plantas de 10 a 40 cm. Os pesos dos perfilhos vegetativos e reprodutivos incrementaram linearmente com a altura da planta. O peso do perfilho vegetativo (0,316 g, em média foi menor do que o peso do perfilho reprodutivo (0,401 g, em média. A relação entre o número e o peso do perfilho vegetativo foi linear e negativa, enquanto que essa relação, para o perfilho reprodutivo, foi linear e positiva. Em locais com plantas altas há menor número de perfilhos vegetativos, bem como maior número de perfilhos reprodutivos e mortos. Nos locais mais altos do pasto de B. decumbens os perfilhos são mais pesados.The experiment was conducted to study the relationship between the number and weight of tiller categories in Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture managed under continuous stocking with cattle. The pasture was managed with an average height of about 25 cm. Plants offour different heights (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm were evaluated by means of the randomized block design with two replications. The number of vegetative tillers, both live and total, reduced linearly according to the plant height. The number of reproductive tillers increased linearly according to pasture plant height (from 8 to 84 tillers m-2 when comparing plants 10 to 40 cm high. Vegetative and reproductive tiller weight increased linearly according to pasture plant height. Vegetative tiller
Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos
Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o perfilhamento e as características estruturais de perfilhos em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk sob três períodos de diferimento da pastagem (73, 95 e 116 dias e quatro doses de nitrogênio (N (0, 40, 80 e 120 kg/ha. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com três repetições, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. O número de perfilhos vegetativos (PV reduziu com o aumento do período de diferimento. Houve interação entre período de diferimento e dose de N para a densidade populacional de PV. O maior período de diferimento elevou o número de perfilhos reprodutivos (PR nos pastos de capim-braquiária, mas não houve efeito da dose de N sobre o número de perfilhos reprodutivos. O número de perfilhos mortos não foi influenciado pelos fatores estudados. Tanto o período de diferimento quanto a adubação nitrogenada aumentaram o peso de todas as categorias de perfilhos de capim-braquiária. As características estruturais dos perfilhos presentes nos pastos diferidos foram alteradas pelo período de diferimento e pela dose de nitrogênio. A redução do período de diferimento e a adubação nitrogenada são estratégias de manejo adequadas para aumentar o número de perfilhos vegetativos em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk.This work aimed to evaluate the tilling and tiller structural characteristics on Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture fertilized with nitrogen (N under different deferring periods. The treatments had 73, 95 and 116-day deferring periods, and 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg/ha N doses. A randomized block design with three replicates and subdivided plots was used. The number of vegetative tillers (VT reduced as the deferring period increased. Interaction between the deferring period and N doses on the VT population density was verified. The longest deferring period increased the number of reproductive tillers (RT on the B. decumbens
Sy, T; Diallo, Y; Toure, A; Diallo, F B; Balde, A A; Hyjazi, Y; Diallo, M S
Ectopic pregnancy is one of the most frequent hemorrhagic emergencies encountered in gynecology and obstetrics. The purpose of this 16-month descriptive prospective study at the Ignace Deen Gynecology-Obstetric clinic at Conakry University Hospital in Guinea was to assess diagnostic techniques and therapeutic attitudes regarding ectopic pregnancy in a low-resource setting. The frequency of ectopic pregnancy was 1.4%. Mean patient age was 28.9 years. Ectopic pregnancy was often observed at the second or third pregnancy (47.1%) in women who were giving birth for the second or third time (36.0%) and had a history of sexually transmitted infections (88.2%) or abortions (43.1%). Most women had no schooling (60.8 %), were poor and lived in a marital home (86.3%). Presenting symptoms included the classic triad of amenorrhea (98.0%), abdominopelvic pain (92.2%), and vaginal bleeding (62.7%). Definitive diagnosis was achieved by ultrasound examination in 76.6% of cases and by puncture of the Douglas pouch in 84%. The most frequent site of ectopic pregnancy was the ampulla of the uterine tube (66.9%). Abdominal and ovarian pregnancy was observed in 3 and 4 of the 51 cases respectively. Surgical management was performed in all cases. The most frequent procedure was salpingectomy (80.3%). Proper treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STI), start-up of post-abortion care facilities, and provision of information during early consultation at the first signs of pregnancy would help reduce the frequency and improve the prognosis of ectopic pregnancy.
McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara
Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).
Rechkemmer, G.; Halm, D.R.; Frizzell, R.A.
Active absorption and secretion of K was studied by measuring bidirectional 42 K fluxes across short-circuited guinea pig distal colon. Tissues were pretreated with mucosal (m) and serosal (s) indomethacin (1 μM) and amiloride (0.1 mM, m) to suppress spontaneous, electrogenic Cl secretion and Na absorption. Under these conditions, the short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) was 0.4 μeq/cm 2 h while electroneutral K absorption was 2.8 μeq/cm 2 h. Epinephrine (5 μM, s) stimulated electrogenic K secretion, reducing net K absorption to 1.3 μeq/cm 2 h. Bumetanide (0.1 mM, s) abolished this K secretion and restored K absorption to control values, suggesting mechanistic similarities between K and Cl secretion. K absorption was inhibited 40% by the gastric H/K ATPase inhibitor, omeprazole (0.1 mM, m), and was abolished by ouabain (0.1 mM, m). Neutral K absorption does not appear to be mediated by an apical membrane Na/K pump since: the effect of mucosal ouabain on K absorption does not require the presence of mucosal or serosal Na, unidirectional Na fluxes are not influenced by mucosal ouabain, and K absorption is not affected when Na absorption is abolished by amiloride. Net K transport is determined by the balance between electroneutral K absorption and electrogenic K secretion. The ouabain sensitivity of K absorption suggests that colonic H/K ATPase differs from its gastric counterpart
Pérez De León, Adalberto A; O'Toole, Donal; Tabachnick, Walter J
Intrathoracically inoculated Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones were capable of transmitting vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) during blood feeding on the abdomen of six guinea pigs. None of the guinea pigs infected in this manner developed clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis despite seroconversion for VSNJV. Guinea pigs infected by intradermal inoculations of VSNJV in the abdomen also failed to develop clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis. Three guinea pigs given intradermal inoculations of VSNJV in the foot pad developed lesions typical of vesicular stomatitis. Transmission by the bite of C. sonorensis may have facilitated guinea pig infection with VSNJV because a single infected C. sonorensis caused seroconversion and all guinea pigs infected by insect bite seroconverted compared with 50% of the guinea pigs infected by intradermal inoculation with a higher titer VSNJV inoculum. The role of C. sonorensis in the transmission of VSNJV is discussed.
Galindo Julio Ricardo
Full Text Available La chinche de los pastos (Collaria scenica Stal es una plaga
del pasto kikuyo (Pennisetum clandestinum que causa alrededor de un 25% de pérdidas en el ingreso de los ganaderos en la Sabana de Bogotá. La evaluación de las poblaciones del insecto y su dinámica es esencial para el desarrollo de investigación en métodos de manejo del problema. En este trabajo se seleccionaron dos lotes de kikuyo de aproximadamente 1 ha, para determinar
una metodología eficiente, económica y precisa de estimación
de la población de estados inmaduros y adultos del insecto,
utilizando la técnica deljameo. Se tomaron 39 muestras aproximadamente por lote y se hicieron visitas cada dos semanas, para un total de cinco. Con esta información se determinó el patrón de disposición espacial de la plaga y se definieron tamaños de muestra para niveles de precisión determinados. Además se propuso un tamaño del lote con fines de realización de pruebas experimentales, de 1/3 de ha. Finalmente se determinó la conveniencia de hacer paso y repaso sobre el recorrido de la unidad de muestreo, con el fin de lograr una mejor aproximación a la población total del insecto en el lote.
Full Text Available Título en ingles: Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of goliath grass (Pennisetum glaucum x Pennisetum purpureum for ethanol cellulosic Resumen : Evaluar la producción de etanol a partir de cultivos lignocelulósicos, específicamente pastos de rápido crecimiento en la región, constituye una alternativa a la demanda de biocombustibles. En la presente investigación se seleccionó el pasto Maralfalfa (Pennisetum glaucum x Pennisetum purpureum utilizando el pretratamiento con ácido sulfúrico diluido a diferentes temperaturas (110, 130, 150, 170 y 190 °C y concentraciones de ácido (0.8, 1.2 y 2.0% (p/p, seguido de un proceso de hidrólisis enzimática utilizando celulasas y celobiosas comerciales y un proceso de hidrólisis y fermentación simultanea. La máxima producción de etanol obtenido fue 117 mg etanol/ g biomasa pretratada a 190 °C y 1,2 %(p/p de ácido sulfúrico. El líquido hidrolizado fue caracterizado calculando el porcentaje de glucosa, xilosa y lignina solubilizadas y degradadas durante el pretratamiento. Palabras clave: etanol lignocelulósico; celulosa; hemicelulosa. Abstract: The goliath grass (Pennisetum glaucum x Pennisetum purpureum was pretreated with different sulfuric acid concentrations (0.8, 1.2 y 2.0% (w/w from low to high temperatures (110, 130, 150, 170 y 190 °C followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and SSF of remaining solids. The maximum yield was 117 mg of ethanol/g biomass to 190 °C and 1.2 % (w/w of sulfuric acid. Key words: lignocellulosic ethanol; hemicelluloses; cellulose.
Grazing management strategies for massaigrass-forage peanut pastures: 1. dynamics of sward condition and botanical composition Estratégias de manejo do pastejo para pastos consorciados de capim-massai e amendoim forrageiro: 1. dinâmica da condição do pasto e da composição botânica
Carlos Mauricio Soares de Andrade
Full Text Available This study was carried out from October 2002 to December 2003 to evaluate the dynamics of sward condition and botanical composition of a mixed massaigrass (Panicum maximum x P. infestum, cv. Massai and forage peanut (Arachis pintoi Ac 01 pasture, intermittently stocked at three daily herbage allowance levels (9.0, 14.5 and 18.4% live weight. Sward condition was characterized in each grazing cycle in terms of the pre and post-grazing sward height, forage mass and percentage of bare ground. Botanical composition (grass, legume and weeds was evaluated before each grazing period. Sward height and forage mass increased linearly with increasing herbage allowance (HA levels, and higher values were observed during the rainy season. Percentage of bare ground increased primarily at the lowest HA level. Percentage of forage peanut increased throughout the experimental period, primarily in the barest and shortest swards, under the lowest HA level. In the last quarter of 2003 the legume constituted 23.5, 10.6 and 6.4% of the pasture forage mass, respectively, from the lowest to the highest HA level. These results suggest that forage peanut can be successfully associated with massaigrass, as long as the pre-grazing sward height is maintained shorter than 65-70 cm, which will prevent excessive shading to the legume.Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica e a composição botânica de uma pastagem consorciada de capim-massai (Panicum maximum x P. infestum, cv. Massai e amendoim forrageiro (Arachis pintoi Ac 01, manejada sob lotação rotacionada em três níveis de oferta diária de forragem (9,0; 14,5 e 18,4% do peso vivo. A condição da pastagem foi caracterizada em cada ciclo de pastejo, em termos de altura, massa de forragem e porcentagem de solo descoberto (pré e pós-pastejo. A composição botânica da pastagem (gramínea, leguminosa e invasoras foi monitorada antes de cada período de ocupação. Houve aumento linear da altura
Production and bromatologic composition of grass-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq., submitted to different sources and doses of acidity corrective / Produção e composição bromatológica da forragem do capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq., submetidos a diferentes fontes e doses de corretivo de acidez
Francisco Maximino Fernandes
Full Text Available The experiment was carried in protected (greenhouse atmosphere, in University of Engineering, UNESP of Ilha Solteira-SP, with the objective of evaluating sources (limestone and calcium silicate slag and doses (0,0 – 0,5 – 1,0 – 1,5 – 2,0 times the recommended dose of corrective in the bromatologic composition, tillering and production of dry matter of the grass mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq.. The lineation was completely randomized design, with four repetitions. It was evaluated the tiller number, the production of dry matter, the gross protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF. The corrective influenced the tillering in almost all of the countings. The limestone provided larger production of dry matter in the doses of 1,5 and 2,0 times the recommended dose. The bromatologic composition of the forage was not influenced by the corrective and doses.O experimento foi conduzido em ambiente protegido (estufa, na Faculdade de Engenharia, UNESP de Ilha Solteira, com o objetivo de avaliar fontes (calcário e escória silicatada e doses (0,0 – 0,5 – 1,0 – 1,5 – 2,0 vezes a dose recomendada de corretivos na composição bromatológica, perfilhamento e produção de matéria seca do capim-mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq.. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Avaliou-se o número de perfilhos, a produção de matéria seca e os teores de proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA. Os corretivos influenciaram o perfilhamento em quase todas as contagens. O calcário proporcionou maior produção de matéria seca nas doses de 1,5 e 2,0 vezes a dose recomendada. A composição bromatológica da forragem não foi influenciada pelos corretivos e doses utilizadas.
Højbjerg, Christian Kordt
-term suppression, including the exposure of secrecy, by the postcolonial authorities. In recent years the famous male ritual association known as Poro has even taken on new significance in the context of political upheaval in the war-torn border area between Guinea and Liberia. Drawing on extensive fieldwork...
A cytologic study was carried out to determine the Estrus cycle in 5 female guinea pigs of reproductive age, for a period of 28 days in the Animal House of the College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu. Vaginal smears were collected from the animals and made on clean grease-free slides, fixed in ...
d'Ovidio, Dario; Noviello, Emilio; Ianniello, Davide; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura
Little information is available on the occurrence of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in cavies kept as pets in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were randomly collected from 60 guinea pigs housed in pet shops or privately owned. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminthic eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, the specimens were analyzed also by the Remel Xpect® Giardia/Cryptosporidium immunoassay. Intestinal parasites were detected in 19 out of 60 guinea pigs (31.7 %). Paraspidodera uncinata eggs were found in 13.3 % (8/60) of the rodents examined, Nippostrongylus-like eggs in 10 % (6/60), and finally Eimeria caviae oocysts were found in 10 % (6/60) of the animals. In one case, both E. caviae oocysts and P. uncinata eggs were found. None of the samples was positive for Cryptosporidium or Giardia. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.
Hawkins, Michelle G; Ruby, Annette L; Drazenovich, Tracy L; Westropp, Jodi L
To determine the mineral composition of calculi, anatomic locations of the calculi, and findings of urinalysis and bacteriologic culture of urine and calculi in guinea pigs with urolithiasis. Cross-sectional study. 127 guinea pigs. Records of urinary calculi that had been submitted to the University of California Stone Laboratory from 1985 through 2003 were reviewed. In addition, submissions of urinary calculi for evaluation by the laboratory were prospectively solicited from 2004 through 2007. Prospectively obtained calculi were accompanied by a urine sample for urinalysis and bacteriologic culture and a completed questionnaire. All calculi were analyzed by use of polarized light microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. A subset of calculi was examined by means of x-ray diffractometry (XRD). 83% (43/52) of calculi from the laboratory database and 93% (70/75) of calculi that were prospectively solicited were composed of 100% calcium carbonate. Analysis via XRD confirmed that 5 of 6 calculi from a subset that had the greatest gross morphologic variation were composed of 100% calcite. Although many guinea pigs had received anti-microbials before bacteriologic cultures of urine were performed, Corynebacterium renale was isolated from 5 urine samples. Contrary to findings of other studies, urinary calculi analyzed for the present study were most commonly composed of 100% calcium carbonate, and infrared spectroscopy or XRD was necessary to differentiate this mineral from others. Treatments, including diet and husbandry practices, should be developed to help prevent development of calcium carbonate calculi in guinea pigs.
The ichthyological collections brought together in various parts of New Guinea by staff members of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in 1954 and 1955 (cf. Boeseman, 1963), contain a series of scorpion-fishes which are here described as a new species, representing a new genus. Cheroscorpaena
Quenee, Lauriane E.; Ciletti, Nancy; Berube, Bryan; Krausz, Thomas; Elli, Derek; Hermanas, Timothy; Schneewind, Olaf
Human pneumonic plague is a devastating and transmissible disease for which a Food and Drug Administration–approved vaccine is not available. Suitable animal models may be adopted as a surrogate for human plague to fulfill regulatory requirements for vaccine efficacy testing. To develop an alternative to pneumonic plague in nonhuman primates, we explored guinea pigs as a model system. On intranasal instillation of a fully virulent strain, Yersinia pestis CO92, guinea pigs developed lethal lung infections with hemorrhagic necrosis, massive bacterial replication in the respiratory system, and blood-borne dissemination to other organ systems. Expression of the Y. pestis F1 capsule was not required for the development of pulmonary infection; however, the capsule seemed to be important for the establishment of bubonic plague. The mean lethal dose (MLD) for pneumonic plague in guinea pigs was estimated to be 1000 colony-forming units. Immunization of guinea pigs with the recombinant forms of LcrV, a protein that resides at the tip of Yersinia type III secretion needles, or F1 capsule generated robust humoral immune responses. Whereas LcrV immunization resulted in partial protection against pneumonic plague challenge with 250 MLD Y. pestis CO92, immunization with recombinant F1 did not. rV10, a vaccine variant lacking LcrV residues 271-300, elicited protection against pneumonic plague, which seemed to be based on conformational antibodies directed against LcrV. PMID:21406168
Byberg, S.; Thysen, S. M.; Rodrigues, A.
Background Measles vaccination campaigns targeting children aged 9–59 months are conducted every three years in Guinea-Bissau. Studies have demonstrated beneficial non-specific effects of measles vaccine. We compared mortality one year after the December 2012 measles vaccination campaign in Bissa...
A member of the original faculty of the experimental Ohio State University Laboratory High School reflects at a fiftieth reunion of the first graduating class. Students were used as guinea pigs to determine the effects of providing teenagers with liberating, interesting, and customized education from university faculty. (SM)
Hart, D.G.; Hart, C.W.
In 1967 we examined the crayfish collections in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, to determine if the crayfishes collected in New Guinea in 1954 by Dr. L. B. Holthuis, Dr. L. D. Brongersma, and Dr. M. Boeseman (Boeseman, 1963) were hosts to commensal ostracods. Of the collections
Operators, paced by a feisty independent based in Port Moresby, have drilled a string of discoveries near the infrastructure of the Kutubu development project that supports Papua New Guinea crude exports. All signs point to the increasing likelihood of good sized -- maybe world class -- oil discoveries that promise to sustain exploration and development interest beyond 2000. Also in the offing are world class gas strikes that eventually could support a liquefied natural gas export project. And integration is the newest concept in Papua New Guinea petroleum. Efforts are under way to build the country's first refineries. Most operators in Papua New Guinea believe thy have merely scratched the surface of the country's oil and gas potential. Thy agree there still will be frustrations and setbacks -- political as well as technical -- but the prevailing opinion is that these problems are no greater than they are in a number of other countries with similar exploration/development potential. The paper discusses the development of Papua New Guinea's oil and gas industry, and exploratory drilling in areas other than Kutubu
Indigenous students may find mathematics in schools difficult because there is discontinuity between cultural mathematics and school mathematics. One of the reasons for this is that their teacher's identity as a mathematical thinker may not link to their cultural ways of thinking. In Papua New Guinea, there is a subject to assist student teachers…
Jebb, M.; Prance, G.T.
Five new species of Barringtonia from Papua New Guinea are described and discussed: B. lumina, B. monticola, B. pinnifolia, B. serenae and B. tagala. All five species belong to section Barringtonia with closed flower buds. Notes are also provided for the seven monocaulous pachycaul species of
Haseman, B.; Baldwin, A.; Linthwaite, H.
The Life Drama project is a drama-based sexual health promotion project, developed by a cross-cultural research team in Papua New Guinea (PNG) over the past four years. Recognising the limitations of established theatre-in-education and theatre-for-development approaches when working across cultures, the research team explored ways of tapping into…
Malone, Susan; Paraide, Patricia
Papua New Guinea (PNG), an independent state in the southwest Pacific, is the most linguistically diverse country in the world. Its roughly six million people speak over 800 distinct languages. In spite of this diversity, in 1995 the Papua New Guinean government established a mother tongue-based bilingual education programme in which community…
Tangled whorly calcifications were seen in the abdominal subcutaneous tissues of a negro patient from Africa. The differential diagnosis of such calcifications - rarely observed in Europe - includes a variety of parasites. In this patient, Dracunculus medinensis (guinea worm disease) was the cause.
Marai, Leo; Kewibu, Vincent; Kinkin, Elly; Peter Peniop, John; Salini, Christian; Kofana, Genesis
This paper explores the impact of remuneration differences on workers in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. In these countries remunerative differences are linked to government policy (in Papua New Guinea) and job contracts (in the Solomon Islands), and have impacted on industrial relations in both settings (strike action). A total of N = 350 professionals (n = 60 expatriates) from 54 organizations in aid, government, higher education and industry (mean response rate = 36%) responded to an organizational survey form. Remuneration ratios between international and local respondents based on the World Bank's index of purchasing power parity approached 9:1. In both sites staff compared pay and benefits (remuneration) packages: Internationally remunerated staff rated their ability higher than their local counterparts did; locally remunerated groups reported more injustice in remuneration, were more demotivated by the gaps, and were more likely to be thinking about leaving the organization. In-country workshops of N = 40 largely local stakeholders from aid and community organizations plus government ministries considered the survey's findings and recommended: in Solomon Islands, (a) introducing a policy of localization, (b) establishing a remuneration commission (already existent in Papua New Guinea), and (c) reducing the remunerative gap; in Papua New Guinea, (d) reversing the post-Independence "dual pay system" (currently official policy), (e) instituting pay-for-performance, and (f) ensuring the existent localization policy is applied to recruitment, selection, and staff career planning and management.
Aug 3, 2012 ... deleted at the Data Manager Level in Loki. Conclusion. Community-based surveillance for guinea worm is a good example of a surveillance system on which an integrated disease surveillance system can be based in countries with poor surveillance like South Sudan. This makes its potential value to ...
Ridsdale, C.E.; Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C.; Koek-Noorman, J.
Within the rain forests of New Guinea there are many small pachycaul treelets belonging to the Rubiaceae. Generally these are rare in occurrence and poorly represented in the herbarium, due in part to the problem of protecting rami- or cauliflorous flowers and fruits during routine processing and
Saunders, Murray; Vulliamy, Graham
Discusses the origins and policy characteristics of the Education for Self Reliance project in Tanzania and the Secondary Schools Community Extension Project in Papua New Guinea. Compares the sociopolitical climate, the policy characteristics, the role of academic assessment, policy change, and examples of the existing policy in the two countries.…
INTRODUCTION Over the past few years the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie has received, from different sources, several small collections of birds from various parts of New Guinea. This is a report on two of these. No ornithologist accompanied the expedition to the Sterren-gebergte (Star
A taxonomic account is given of six Piper species of New Guinea: P. bolanicum spec. nov., P. gibbilimbum, P. recessum spec. nov., P. subbullatum, P. triangulare and P. wabagense. These small shrubby trees are best represented in secondary growth and forest at 1300–2500 m altitude, with P.
guinea pigs showed increased sensitivity to 5-hydroxytryptamine, bradykinin, isoprenaline and a thromboxane A2 analogue, but not to carbachol, histamine, prostaglandin D2, adenosine or potassium. These changes were not detected in the TS. If PFIB-induced changes in lung pharmacology contribute to oedema, antagonists of identified mediators may be useful as pretreatments/therapies to pulmonary
Nielsen, Bibi Uhre; Byberg, Stine; Aaby, Peter
Objectives: In many African countries, child mortality is higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. We investigated the effect of season on child mortality by time periods, sex and age in rural Guinea-Bissau. Methods: Bandim health project follows children under-five in a health...
Brenninkmeijer, A; Stienen, EWM; Klaassen, M; Kersten, M.
We studied the feeding ecology of Little Terns Sterna albifrons , Sandwich Terns S. sandvicensis and Royal Terns S. maxima in the Archipelago dos Bijagos (11degrees40'N, 15degrees45'W) in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa) during the winter of 1992/1993. More than 95% of all prey taken by these terns were
Fay, F. S.; Cooke, P. H.
To investigate the mechanism underlying irreversibility of ductal closure after birth, studies were undertaken to determine the exact time course for the onset of irreversible closure of the guinea pig ductus arteriosus. Parallel studies of the reactivity of ductal smooth muscle to oxygen and studies of the postpartum cellular changes within the vessel were also carried out.
Warmerdam, TJ; Schroder, FHH; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ
Perilymphatic and endolymphatic pressures were measured consecutively in the normal guinea pig using a WPI 900A micropressure system. The mean (n = 10) perilymphatic and endolymphatic pressures were 2.26 and 2.31 cm H2O, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the
The study focuses on the cost and return analysis of ginger production in the guinea savannah agro ecology of Nigeria. The study is aimed at highlighting the profitability of ginger production with a view to informing and influencing farmers and relevant stakeholders. The study was conducted at Kajuru, Kaduna state in the ...
The objective of this study is to update the status of Guinea worm and Eradication Program in Borno State and to demonstrate the effectiveness of adopting appropriate intervention strategies. The assessment of the prevalence of Dracunculus medinensis was carried out by active case search. Three hundred and ten ...
A survey was carried out in 2001 to ascertain the status of Guinea worm disease infection among farm households in Ebonyi Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State. A total of 3,777 respondents were randomly sampled from 15 communities that comprised the LGA. The sample respondents were clinically examined ...
Absorption of 238 Pu and 241 Am from the gstrointestinal tract was found to be quite similar for rats, guinea pigs, and dogs. Different oxidation state mixtures of 238 Pu nitrate (95% versus 65% Pu IV) were absorbed to about the same extent
The flora of the higher mountains of New Guinea has been the object of several extensive collecting trips in the past forty years. Until quite recently, however, a serious gap in our knowledge was the very scanty information available from the area between Mount Wilhelmina in the West and Mount
Ken-Worgu, Kenneth Chukwumeka
The goal of this record of study is to examine the major facets involved in managing several petroleum service projects located in three different countries in the Gulf of Guinea simultaneously, while effectively engaging in business development activities for the Oil and Industrial Services Group (OIS). This work also furnishes adequate background on related subject matters to enable understanding of the projects presented. The petroleum services sector is the back bone of the oil and gas industry. Services companies are vital to the success of all petroleum and energy producers in the USA, the Gulf of Guinea and the world. There is a need and demand for these service companies because they play various roles such as logistics, drilling, construction, dredging, pipe laying, procurement, food supply, human resource supply, etc. The Gulf of Guinea comprises of countries from west and central Africa. This project was limited to Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon. This area holds the largest petroleum reserves in Africa and plays a vital role in the global supply of petroleum. The Oil and Industrial Services Group (OIS), plans to establish herself as one of the leading petroleum service companies in this gulf. To manage this expansion, I have taken the role of Gulf of Guinea manager to apply my background as a petroleum engineer as well as my business skills to build a successful division of the company. This work provides a record of study of the management of services, projects and contracts carried out by the OIS group in the gulf of Guinea. The following are the specific projects in the Gulf of Guinea that I participated in: Managing delivering, maintenance and marketing of offshore vessels, Offshore pipe laying project, Integrated pipeline maintenance project, Development a petroleum technical training facilities, Agbami pipe insulation project, Engineering lift project and Capital budgeting analysis for potential investments. The details of the specific
Waniusiow, Delphine; Campo, Pierre; Venet, Thomas; Cossec, Benoît; Cosnier, Frédéric; Beydon, Dominique; Rieger, Benoît; Burgart, Manuella; Ferrari, Luc; Parietti-Winkler, Cécile
Toluene is a high-production industrial solvent, which can disrupt the auditory system in rats. However, toluene-induced hearing loss is species dependent. For instance, despite long-lasting exposures to high concentrations of aromatic solvent, no study has yet succeeded in causing convincing hearing loss in the guinea pig. This latter species can be characterized by two metabolic particularities: a high amount of hepatic cytochrome P-450s (P-450s) and a high concentration of glutathione in the cochlea. It is therefore likely that the efficiency of both the hepatic and cochlear metabolisms plays a key role in the innocuousness of the hearing of guinea pigs to exposure to solvent. The present study was carried out to test the auditory resistance to toluene in glutathione-depleted guinea pigs whose the P-450 activity was partly inhibited. To this end, animals on a low-protein diet received a general P-450 inhibitor, namely SKF525-A. Meanwhile, they were exposed to 1750 ppm toluene for 4 weeks, 5 days/week, 6 h/day. Auditory function was tested by electrocochleography and completed by histological analyses. For the first time, a significant toluene-induced hearing loss was provoked in the P-450-inhibited guinea pigs. However, the ototoxic process caused by the solvent exposure was different from that observed in the rat. Only the stria vascularis and the spiral fibers were disrupted in the apical coil of the cochlea. The protective mechanisms developed by guinea pigs are discussed in the present publication.
Obi, Margaret J.
"Libraries for life" in Papua New Guinea today is not an impossible goal to strive for to achieve with today's new and old information and communication technologies. However, in order for this to happen, a number of questions will need to be asked. There are three that need immediate attention: (1) What is an "information…
Morel, Nicolás; Signorini, Marcelo L; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago
The aim of this work was to test the efficacy of strategic control methods of Rhipicephalus microplus infestation on beef cattle grazed in Panicum maximum grasses in northwestern Argentina. Also, an analysis to discern how the R. microplus population was distributed amongst cattle was also performed to determine if partial selective treatment or cull the small proportion of more heavily infested animals are feasible options to control this tick. The strategic scheme of treatments was designed to act on the small 1st generation of R. microplus in early spring and prevent in that way the appearance of the annual peak of abundance of R. microplus in summer and autumn. Animals of the group 1 were treated with ivermectin 3.15% on day 0 (25th September 2015), with fluazuron on day 32 (27th October 2015) and with fipronil on day 75 (9th December 2015). Animals of group 2 formed the control group. The overall effect of the treatments was positively significant. The number of ticks observed on the control group was significantly higher than the number of ticks observed on the treated group in all post-treatment counts (Pcattle in all counts was adjusted to the negative binomial distribution, but a temporal variation in the tick aggregation levels associated to changes in tick abundance was found. The higher the abundance of R. microplus, the lower the aggregation. It was found that the steers (15.8% of the total number of animals evaluated) belonging to the high infestation group accounted for 23.0% of the total ticks. The strategic control method evaluated during this study provides a remarkable overall effect against R. microplus because it significantly reduces the tick infestation on cattle with only three applications of acaricides in one-year period. The analyses of tick distribution amongst cattle suggest that partial selective treatment and culling do not represent feasible methods to control R. microplus infestation on cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All
Jonathan Duran Willis
Full Text Available Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L. is a C4 perennial prairie grass and a lignocellulosic biofuels feedstock. Saccharification and biofuel yields are inhibited by the plant cell wall’s natural recalcitrance against enzymatic degradation. Plant hemicellulose polysaccharides such as arabinoxylans structurally support and crosslink other cell wall polymers. Grasses have predominately Type II cell walls that are abundant in arabinoxylan, which comprise nearly 25% of aboveground biomass. A primary component of arabinoxylan synthesis is uridine diphosphate (UDP linked to arabinofuranose (Araf. A family of UDP-arabinopyranose mutase/reversible glycosylated polypeptides (UAM/RGPs catalyze the interconversion between UDP-arabinopyranose (UDP-Arap and UDP-Araf. In switchgrass we knocked down expression of the endogenous PvUAM1 gene via RNAi to investigate its role in cell wall recalcitrance in the feedstock. PvUAM1 encodes a switchgrass homolog of UDP-arabinose mutase, which converts UDP-Arap to UDP-Araf. Each transgenic line contained between one to at least seven T-DNA insertions, resulting in some cases, a 95% reduction of native PvUAM1 transcript in stem internodes. Transgenic plants had increased pigmentation in vascular tissues at nodes, but were otherwise morphologically similar to non-transgenics. There was decreased cell wall-associated arabinose in leaves and stems by over 50%, but there was an increase in cellulose in these organs. In addition, there was a commensurate change in arabinose side chain extension. Cell wall lignin composition was altered with a concurrent increase in lignin content and transcript abundance of lignin biosynthetic genes in mature tillers. Enzymatic saccharification efficiency was unchanged in the transgenic plants relative to the control, but had increased glucose in cell walls. The increased glucose detected in stems and leaves indicates that attenuation of PvUAM1 expression might have downstream effects on starch
1 SUBACUTE LOW DOSE NERVE AGENT EXPOSURE CAUSES DNA FRAGMENTATION IN GUINEA PIG LEUKOCYTES. Jitendra R. Dave1, John R. Moffett1, Sally M...DNA fragmentation in blood leukocytes from guinea pigs by ‘Comet’ assay after exposure to soman at doses ranging from 0.1LD50 to 0.4 LD50, once per...computer. Data obtained for exposure to soman demonstrated significant increases in DNA fragmentation in circulating leukocytes in CWNA treated guinea pigs as
U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense USAMRICD-TR-05-09 Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following Chronic Low...2005 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2003 to April 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Guinea pigs exposed repeatedly to low levels of chemical warfare nerve agents
Sarin 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Intoxication in the Guinea Pig 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Koplovitz, I and...efficacy of MINA as a treatment for lethal sarin (GB) intoxication in guinea pigs . Male animals were challenged subcutaneously (s.c.) with 2 LD50s...oximes that are readily able to enter the brain. 15. SUBJECT TERMS oximes, brain, sarin, reactivation, nerve agents, guinea pigs 16. SECURITY
1 THE POTENTIAL NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS OF LOW-DOSE SARIN EXPOSURE IN A GUINEA PIG MODEL Melinda R. Roberson, PhD, Michelle B. Schmidt...Proving Ground, MD 21010 USA ABSTRACT This study is assessing the effects in guinea pigs of repeated low-dose exposure to the nerve...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Potential Neurotoxic Effects Of Low-Dose Sarin Exposure In A Guinea Pig Model 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b
In Vitro Responlse of Guinea Pig Peritoneal Macrophages to Legionella pneumophila It. A. KISIIIMi~O~’ .1. Ii.,W11ITE, F. G. SIREY, V. (U.1 Mc(GANN, R...Tlhe inter- act ion between L. lincumnophila andl( peritoneal macrophages front normial guinea pigs or front animials that had survived infection was...roagglujtiniat titer) guinea pig serum to The purp~ose of this study "as to investigate contain approximately 108 organisms per ml. the phagocytic and
Clement, L T; Thomas, D W; Kask, A M; Shevach, E M [National Inst. of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA)
In an effort to clarify the nature of the trinitrophenyl (TNP) specific immunogen recognised by hapten-reactive guinea pig T lymphocytes, the membrane proteins of TNP-modified guinea pig macrophages have been analysed by chemical methods using nitrobenzene sulphonic acid surface labelled with /sup 125/I. The experiments provided strong evidence that the TNP specific immunogen which T lymphocytes recognise on guinea pig macrophages does not consist of directly haptenated Ia antigens.
Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Wagner, Niels; Lidegaard Frederiksen, Birgitte
, this study determines expression of EPO and EPOR in the inner ear of the guinea pig. Normal guinea pig inner ears were processed for immunohistochemistry, using poly-clonal antibodies against EPO and the EPO receptor. EPO expression was exclusively found in most, but not all spiral ganglion neurons...... expressed by several cell types within the guinea pig cochlea. We hypothesize on the existence of a local paracrine system and that EPO treatment may be feasible following inner ear damage....
Cecilia Lara Mantilla
Full Text Available Título corto: Bacterias celulolíticas aisladas del intestino de termitas (Nasutitermes nigriceps Título en ingles: Cellulolytic bacteria isolated from termites’ gut (Nasutitermes nigriceps with probiotic characteristics and potential pasture degradationResumen: El objetivo de la presente investigación fue aislar bacterias celulolíticas del intestino de termitas (Nasutitermes nigriceps para determinar sus propiedades probióticas in vitro y su potencial en la degradación de pasto. Las termitas fueron tratadas con detergente antibacterial, separando y macerando luego, el intestino de las mismas en agua peptonada estéril. Diluciones de esta mezcla fueron inoculadas en cajas Petri con medio Luria Bertani (LB y Carboximetilcelulosa (CMC al 2%, incubando a 37º C por 24 horas, para luego revelar con Rojo Congo al 1%. Las bacterias que presentaron mayores halos de degradación fueron sometidas a tinción de Gram y a pruebas probióticas de temperatura, pH, salinidad y presencia de sales biliares, así como también a pruebas de antagonismo y degradación de pasto. Los resultados revelaron la presencia de 9 bacilos celulolíticos Gram (- de los cuales, los bacilos BTN7 y BTN8, presentaron los mejores halos de degradación, 12 y 14 mm de diámetro respectivamente, creciendo adecuadamente en las diferentes pruebas probióticas con densidades entre 106 y 108 UFC/ml; el porcentaje de degradación de materia seca fue de 39.73% y 36.10% en 48 y 72 horas respectivamente. Las pruebas bioquímicas API E (bioMérieux SA revelaron que los bacilos BTN7 y BTN8 pertenecen al género Enterobacter sp. Los anteriores resultados abren la posibilidad de emplear, estos microorganismos como aditivos en la alimentación de rumiantes, a fin de contribuir con un mayor aprovechamiento de pastos, y otros sustratos vegetales lignocelulósicos.Palabras claves: Probióticos, Maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp., microorganismos ruminales, lignocelulosa, Enterobacter
Wang Junfu; Zhang Jie; Zhang Jianhua; Feng Jinbo; Xu Jie; Wang Baohong
Objective: To purify recombinant human interleukin-6 from gene-engineered E. coli and study the effects of IL-6 on survival period and platelet count of irradiated guinea-pigs. Methods: Recombinant human IL-6 was expressed in gene-engineered E. coli and purified with reversed phase chromatography. Purified IL-6 was then administered to irradiated guinea-pig. Results: IL-6 could significantly prolong the survival period and increase the platelet count of irradiated guinea-pigs. Conclusion: IL-6 showed its effective protection for irradiated guinea-pigs
Baldé, Mamadou Diouldé; Diallo, Boubacar Alpha; Compaoré, Rachidatou; Bah, Abdoul Karim; Ali, Moazzam; Kabra, Rita; Kouanda, Seni
To analyze the sociocultural determinants that influence the attitude and practices of men toward contraceptive use in Guinea. A sequential, mixed methods, qualitative and quantitative study was carried out in two regions of Guinea with a low rate of contraceptive prevalence, and in the capital city of Conakry. A total of 1170 people (men and women) were interviewed. Findings showed a positive perception of family planning overall, but reluctance to use modern contraception. The reasons for non-use of contraceptive methods were primarily the hope of having many children and religious prohibition associated with customs. Making decisions on contraceptive use within a couple represents a major cause of misunderstanding between spouses. Communication within a couple on the use of contraception is quickly declined by men. The findings demonstrate the need to develop communication strategies within a couple to improve the use of contraceptives. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
White, William T; Ko'ou, Alfred
An annotated checklist of the chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, rays, and chimaeras) of Papua New Guinean waters is herein presented. The checklist is the result of a large biodiversity study on the chondrichthyan fauna of Papua New Guinea between 2013 and 2017. The chondrichthyan fauna of Papua New Guinea has historically been very poorly known due to a lack of baseline information and limited deepwater exploration. A total of 131 species, comprising 36 families and 68 genera, were recorded. The most speciose families are the Carcharhinidae with 29 species and the Dasyatidae with 23 species. Verified voucher material from various biological collections around the world are provided, with a total of 687 lots recorded comprising 574 whole specimens, 128 sets of jaws and 21 sawfish rostra. This represents the first detailed, verified checklist of chondrichthyans from Papua New Guinean waters.
Hard, G C; Atkinson, F F.V.
A natural outbreak of ''slobbers'' with high morbidity and high mortality in guinea-pig breeding units in New South Wales and Canberra has been shown to be due to chronic fluoride poisoning. A survey of the dietary regiment employed in laboratories and units demonstrated the association of disease incidence with the feeding of proprietary pellets and usually low levels of green-food supplementation. Fluorine concentration in the pellets used in affected colonies ranged from 130 to 400 ppm. Inquiry produced some evidence that Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) rock-phosphate of high fluoride content had been incorporated in the pellets in place of bone flour. Experimental reproduction of the spontaneous disease was accomplished in exact detail by the extended administration of calcium fluoride in a concentration ranging from 300 to 450 ppm. The fluorine content of skull and teeth samples of experimentally poisoned guinea-pigs was comparable to that in natural cases of slobbers.
Hewitt, Matthew M.; Adams, Gregory; Mazzone, Stuart B.; Mori, Nanako; Yu, Li; Canning, Brendan J.
Bradykinin has been implicated as a mediator of the acute pathophysiological and inflammatory consequences of respiratory tract infections and in exacerbations of chronic diseases such as asthma. Bradykinin may also be a trigger for the coughing associated with these and other conditions. We have thus set out to evaluate the pharmacology of bradykinin-evoked coughing in guinea pigs. When inhaled, bradykinin induced paroxysmal coughing that was abolished by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonis...
Woodard G, Calvery HO. Methods for the study of irritation and toxicity of substances applied topically to the skin and mucous membxanes. J Pharmacol...the attached data sheet, ARFPOM Forn 213R. The compound chromatographed as a single peak ( retention time 5.4 r!’n) by HPLC analysis under the...commonly encountered in guinea pigs. 3. The right eye of animal 85E0132 had a congenital dermoid cyst in the conjunctiva. The liver of animal 85E0112
Papua New Guinea, with an area of about 46.7 million ha and population of 3.7 million, is blessed with a large natural forest resource. Over 80 percent of the land is covered with forests of various types, ranging from swamp and lowland rain forests in coastal plains to alpine vegetation and moss forests in the highlands, most of which are owned by the people. About 15...
Ursing, Johan; Rombo, Lars; Kofoed, Poul-Erik
Recent studies suggest that chloroquine resistance is mediated by an energy-dependent saturable chloroquine efflux carrier. An alternative explanation is that resistance is mediated by a channel. In Guinea-Bissau high doses of chloroquine are effective, well-tolerated and commonly used....... This suggests that chloroquine resistance can be overcome by higher doses. Research on the mechanism of chloroquine resistance is of utmost importance and should include the effect of higher doses....
A small animal study was carried out in guinea-pigs to measure uptake of radiobismuth ( 207 BiCl 3 ) in fetal organs after intravenous administration to the mother. In this study, little activity was found to cross the placental barrier with 214 Bi across the placenta, is considered to result in a negligible dose from radon short-lived daughters to fetal organs. (author)
While the bunches in a linear collider cross only once, due to their small size they experience a strong beam-beam effect. GUINEA-PIG is a code to simulate the impact of this effect on luminosity and back ground. A short overview of the program is given with examples of its application to the back ground strudies for TESLA, the top quark threshold scan and a possible luminosity monitor, as well as some results for CLIC.
Full Text Available This paper attempts to demonstrate that the role of traditional authorities in today’s Guinea Bissau is embedded in a long-term history that goes back to their pre-colonial and colonial history. Looking back to the situation of traditional authorities by the end of the colonial period (the early ‘70s, the paper discusses the different configurations of legitimacy of present-day authorities in relation to both local population and State authorities.
multinational aluminum firm Alcoa, for instance, is a major shareholder in the Compagnie des Bauxites de Guinee, a bauxite mining and export partnership...world’s largest bauxite reserves, and joint-venture bauxite mining and alumina operations have historically provided about 80% of Guinea’s foreign...announced the approval of a $200 million loan to partly finance a $6.3 billion bauxite mining and alumina refinery project in Guinea. The project was
Fischer, Julia; Kopp, Gisela H; Dal Pesco, Federica; Goffe, Adeelia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Kalbitzer, Urs; Klapproth, Matthias; Maciej, Peter; Ndao, Ibrahima; Patzelt, Annika; Zinner, Dietmar
Primate social systems are remarkably diverse, and thus play a central role in understanding social evolution, including the biological origin of human societies. Although baboons have been prominently featured in this context, historically little was known about the westernmost member of the genus, the Guinea baboon (Papio papio). Here, we summarize the findings from the first years of observations at the field site CRP Simenti in the Niokolo Koba National Park in Senegal. Guinea baboons reveal a nested multi-level social organization, with reproductive units comprising one "primary" male, one to several females, young, and occasionally "secondary" males at the base of the society. Three to five units form "parties," which team up with other parties to form a "gang." Different gangs have largely overlapping home ranges and agonistic interactions between different parties or gangs are rare. Some but not all strongly socially bonded males are highly related, and population genetic and behavioral evidence indicate female-biased dispersal. Females play an important role in intersexual bond formation and maintenance, and female tenure length varies between a few weeks to several years. While the social organization resembles that of hamadryas baboons (P. hamadryas), the social structure differs considerably, specifically in terms of low male aggressiveness and female freedom. Despite substantial differences in social organization and social structure, the acoustic structure of Guinea baboon vocalizations does not differ substantially from that of other baboon taxa. With its multi-level organization, stable bonds between males and females, as well as a high-degree of male-male cooperation and tolerance, Guinea baboons constitute an intriguing model for reconstructing human social evolution. © 2017 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.
Kovsted, Jens Anders; Pörtner, Claus Christian; Tarp, Finn
This paper studies factors that influence child health in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau. This environment is characterised by high infant mortality, but not by malnutrition. We show that although maternal education is important in determining child health and mortality this effect diminishes...... or disappears when health knowledge is introduced as an explanatory variable. It emerges that health knowledge has large and positive effects on both child mortality and health when instrumented for to capture endogeneity...
Giovanni Andrés Polo
Full Text Available Introducción. Actualmente las verduras, como la lechuga, se recomiendan ampliamente como parte de la dieta diaria por su gran aporte nutricional, sin embargo, los consumidores al sentirse atraídos por los beneficios proporcionados por la hortaliza, están expuestos a infecciones con parásitos intestinales. Objetivo. Determinar la presencia o ausencia de enteroparásitos en la lechuga (Lactuca sativa cultivada en la zona rural de municipio de Pasto y analizar factores asociados previa caracterización de los predios. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal doble ciego de tipo descriptivo. Se tomaron 105 muestras de 21 predios en el periodo de junio a diciembre de 2013 y se procesaron mediante pruebas de flotación y sedimentación. Adicionalmente, se encuestó a los propietarios para obtener información sobre las posibles variables que influyen en la aparición de enteroparásitos. Resultados. Se encontró contaminación del 100% de las muestras, las cuales presentaban estructuras parasitarias representadas en huevos y larvas correspondientes al 95,25% con quistes de Entamoeba spp., 71,43% con ooquistes de Isospora spp., 61,90% con larvas (L3 de Strongyloides stercoralis, 28,57% con huevos de Toxocara spp. y 4,76% con ooquistes de Eimeria spp. En los factores asociados mediante la prueba de Ji cuadrado, se encontró relación entre Entamoeba spp. con acequia (p= 0,008, perros (p= 0,008 y pozo séptico (p= 0,029 Isospora spp. con compostaje (p= 0,0001, perros (p= 0,0001 y babosas (p=0,002; Strongyloides stercoralis con manipulación (p= 0,003 y Toxocara spp. con el no uso de biodigestores (p= 0,002. Conclusiones. Existe contaminación de la lechuga por enteroparásitos en las áreas de cultivo del municipio de Pasto, los cuales provienen de fuentes animales y humanas como sus principales reservorios, y otros están presentes en el medio ambiente.
Composição química do capim-Mombaça (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça adubado com diferentes fontes de fósforo sob pastejo = Chemical composition of Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça fertilized with different phosphorus on grazing
Fábio Jacobs Dias
Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a composição química do Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça, adubado com 140 kg ha-1 de P2O5 com diferentes fontes de fósforo, sob pastejo, no período de dezembro de 2002 a abril de 2003, com intervalo de coleta a cada 28 dias. Tratamentos: 1- termofosfato magnesiano YoorinÒ; 2-fosfato natural GafsaÒ; 3-superfosfato simples + superfosfato triplo (SS + ST; e 4-testemunha. Os teores de proteína bruta na lâmina foliar (PBf e colmo (PBc, nitrogênio insolúvel em detergente ácido (NIDA, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, celulose (CEL, hemicelulose (HCEL, lignina (LIG, extrato etéreo (EE, cálcio (Ca, fósforo (P, cinzas e carboidratos não-estruturais (CNE, não foram influenciados pela adubação fosfatada. As variáveis PBc, FDNf, FDNc, LIGf, LIGc, CELf, CELc, NIDAf, EEf, EEc, Caf, Cac, Pf, Pc, CINZAc, CNEc, apresentaram efeito do período de coleta. Não ocorreu diferença nacomposição química da forragem do capim-Mombaça em função das fontes de fósforo utilizadas na adubação da pastagem. As variações qualitativas foram de baixa magnitude.This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Mombaça. Grassland was fertilized with 140 kg ha-1 of P2O5 from different phosphorus sources on grazing, in December, 2002, until April, 2003, with a collection interval of every 28 days. Treatments: 1-YoorinÒ magnesium thermophosphate; 2-GafsaÒ natural phosphate; 3-simple superphosphate + triple superphosphate (SS + TS and 4-control. Leaf (lCP and stem (sCP crude protein, acid detergent fiber nitrogen (ADFN, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, cellulose (CEL, hemicellulose (HEM, lignin (LIG, ether extract (EE, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, ash (A and non-structural carbohydrates (NSC were not influenced by phosphated fertilization. The variables sCP, lNDF, sNDF, sLIG, lLIG, sCEL, lCEL, lADFN, sEE, lEE, lCa, sCa, lP, sP, sA and s
Cambios en la estructura, la población y la composición de 19 accesiones de Panicum maximum sometidas a pastoreo CIAT-184 Changes in the structure, population and composition of 19 Panicum maximum accessions under grazing conditions
Full Text Available Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar los cambios y la tendencia de indicadores relacionados con la estructura, la población y la composición en 19 accesiones de Panicum maximum cuando fueron sometidas a condiciones de pastoreo simulado. Las rotaciones se hicieron cada 32-40 días en el periodo lluvioso y 60-70 días en el poco lluvioso, con intensidad de pastoreo de 80-135 UGM/ha/día (los dos primeros años y 120-160 UGM/ha/día (tercer año. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con tres repeticiones. Aunque en todos los tratamientos disminuyó la relación vástagos vivos/vástagos muertos, este cociente fue superior a uno, por lo que el ritmo de sustitución de vástagos fue favorable. En el 84,2% de los tratamientos se incrementó el número de macollas con relación a el estatus inicial. El porcentaje de arvenses aumentó con las rotaciones, pero ninguno de los tratamientos alcanzó un estado de deterioro avanzado. En este indicador se destacaron los tipos gigantes CIH-13, SIH-697, CIH-3, CC-1146 y SIH-10, con valores que variaron entre 4,6 y 14,1%, así como los tipos medianos CIH-15 y Tardío pequeño, con 10 y 12,3%, respectivamente. Se concluye que el germoplasma evaluado mostró valores adecuados, en función de los indicadores relacionados con la estructura de la macolla, la población y el porcentaje de invasión de las especies arvenses, aunque se identificó un alto contraste entre los tipos gigantes y medianos y dentro de estos grupos. Se sugiere analizar el resto de los indicadores productivos y con ello determinar los tipos más sobresalientes, sobre la base de los resultados en todos los indicadores incluidos.The objective of this work was to characterize the changes and trend of indicators related to the structure, population and composition in 19 Panicum maximum accessions under simulated grazing conditions. The rotations took place every 32-40 days in the rainy season and 60-70 days in the dry season, with
Descomposición de la hojarasca en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: III. Influencia de la densidad y diversidad de la macrofauna asociada Litter decomposition in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam de Wit cv. Cunningham: III. Influence of density and diversity of the associated macrofauna
Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la descomposición de la hojarasca en un sistema silvopastoril de Panicum maximum y Leucaena leucocephala y su relación con la densidad y la diversidad de la macrofauna asociada, se realizó este experimento en la EEPF «Indio Hatuey». Esta se determinó como la pérdida de biomasa a través del tiempo, con relación al peso inicial. Para el estudio de la dinámica de la descomposición se utilizó el método de bolsas de hojarasca (litter bags. Se escogieron al azar cuatro bolsas a los 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 y 210 días de situadas en el pastizal. En cada fecha de recolección, a la hojarasca remanente de cada bolsa se le determinó la población de macrofauna (organismos con diámetro mayor que 2 mm mediante la separación manual, y se calculó el valor promedio de la densidad (individuos/m², así como la abundancia proporcional (% para cada taxón. Se utilizó el análisis de correlación y regresión para conocer la interrelación entre las variables y los modelos de mejor ajuste. De acuerdo con los resultados se concluye que las condiciones de humedad y temperatura que genera el árbol en este sistema, así como la calidad de su hojarasca, posibilitan la presencia de una diversa y estable fauna asociada a las bolsas, la cual influyó en el proceso de descomposición.The trial was conducted at the EEPF «Indio Hatuey» in order to determine the litter decomposition in a silvopastoral system of Panicum maximum and Leucaena leucocephala and its relation to the density and diversity of the associated macrofauna. It was determined as biomass loss through time, with regards to initial weight. For the study of the decomposition dynamics the litter bag method was used. Four bags were randomly chosen 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 days after being placed in the pastureland. In each collection date, to the remnant litter of each bag, the macrofauna (organisms with diameter higher than 2 mm population was
Immunization of Guinea pigs with diphtheria toxoid generated antibodies of the IgG class that were capable of neutralizing native toxin in vivo. Sera from these animals were used to affinity purify idiotypic antibodies (AB1). AB1 vaccines derived from the IgG1 class and from F(ab') 2 of IgG1 + IgG2 (IgG1/2) classes were effective in inducing a syngeneic anti-idiotype (AB2) response. Animals immunized with AB1 consisting of both IgG1/2 did not elicit a detectable AB2 response. Binding of homologous 125 I-F(ab') 2 (AB1) to the antiidiotype was inhibited 90% in the presence of DT.F(ab') 2 derived from preimmune serum or had no inhibitory effects on the idiotype-antiidiotype interactions. Two groups of outbred guinea pigs were vaccinated with alum absorbed F(ab') 2 of anti-idiotype IgG1/2 (AB2). Of the ten animals inoculated with AB2, three tested positive by RIA against 125 I-DT. Two of the RIA positive sera contained antibodies that neutralized diphtheria toxin in a rabbit intracutaneous assay. Purification of guinea pig IgG by protein A-Sepharose affinity chromatography resulted in the separation of three distinct IgG populations
Malik Abu Rafee
Full Text Available The overwhelming use of rat models in nerve regeneration studies is likely to induce skewness in treatment outcomes. To address the problem, this study was conducted in 8 adult guinea pigs of either sex to investigate the suitability of guinea pig as an alternative model for nerve regeneration studies. A crush injury was inflicted to the sciatic nerve of the left limb, which led to significant decrease in the pain perception and neurorecovery up to the 4th weak. Lengthening of foot print and shortening of toe spread were observed in the paw after nerve injury. A 3.49 ± 0.35 fold increase in expression of neuropilin 1 (NRP1 gene and 2.09 ± 0.51 fold increase in neuropilin 2 (NRP2 gene were recorded 1 week after nerve injury as compared to the normal nerve. Ratios of gastrocnemius muscle weight and volume of the experimental limb to control limb showed more than 50% decrease on the 30th day. Histopathologically, vacuolated appearance of the nerve was observed with presence of degenerated myelin debris in digestion chambers. Gastrocnemius muscle also showed degenerative changes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed loose and rough arrangement of connective tissue fibrils and presence of large spherical globules in crushed sciatic nerve. The findings suggest that guinea pigs could be used as an alternative animal model for nerve regeneration studies and might be preferred over rats due to their cooperative nature while recording different parameters.
Kawaguchi, Sachie; Hultcrantz, Malou; Jin, Zhe; Ulfendahl, Mats; Suzuki, Mamoru
The German waltzing guinea pig is a special strain of animal with a recessively inherited inner ear defect, resulting in deafness and a severe vestibular dysfunction. The hearing loss in the cochlea of the German strain is a result of a collapse of the Reissner membrane and the absence of scala media. The vestibular organ has not yet been described. German waltzing guinea pigs (homozygote and heterozygote) of different ages ranging from embryologic age 25 days to adulthood were investigated. The living animals were tested with four different vestibular tests, and the fetuses were controlled according to breeding. The morphology of the vestibular parts (ampulla, saccule, and utricle) was observed by using the light and transmission electron microscopy. Collapse of the membranous labyrinth was found already at embryologic age 50 days and progressed over time. Vestibular dysfunction was noted already from birth. Vestibular atelectasis has been shown to have the same morphology as the reported vestibular dysfunction in the German waltzing guinea pig. Owing to this similarity, this animal can be a good model for vestibular research.
Subbotina, Ekaterina; Dadaeva, Alexandra; Kachko, Alla; Chepurnov, Alexander
Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) causes severe hemorrhagic fever in primates, whereas in guinea pigs it induces a nonlethal infection with a mild fever and subsequent recovery. We performed 7 selective passages in guinea pigs resulted in obtaining of guinea pig-adapted strain (GPA-P7) strain. By the 7th passage, the infection with EBOV induced a lethal disease in animals accompanied by the characteristic hematological changes: leukocytosis (primarily due to neutrophilia) as well as pronounced deficiencies in platelets, lymphocytes, monocytes and significant decrease of blood neutrophils phagocytic capacity. Increasing of virulence correlated with appearance of several nucleotide substitutions: in the genes NP, A2166G (N566S), VP24, U10784C (L147P), G10557A (M71I), G10805U (R154L), and L, G12286A (V236I). It has been theoretically calculated that the mutations associated with an increase in EBOV virulence can confer characteristic secondary structure on the proteins NP (C-terminal region) and full-sized VP24. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jessen, Harry; Thuneberg, Lars
Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy...
fixed, paraffin-embedded guinea pig brain sections using a variety of commercially available GFAP antibody clones. Of the 7 clones tested for cross...determining neuropathological consequences in the guinea pig following exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent.
Características morfogênicas e estruturais de perfilhos de capim-braquiária em locais do pasto com alturas variáveis Morphogenic and structural characteristics of tillers on areas with signalgrass pasture varying on height
Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos
Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a influência das variações naturais da altura da planta no mesmo pasto sobre as características morfogênicas e estruturais da Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk manejada sob lotação contínua com bovinos. Foram avaliadas quatro alturas de plantas (10, 20, 30 e 40 cm no mesmo pasto manejado com altura média de 25 cm. Adotou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com duas repetições. A taxa de aparecimento foliar do capim-braquiária foi influenciada linear e negativamente pelas alturas das plantas no mesmo pasto. Os perfilhos presentes nos locais com maior altura apresentaram maior filocrono (9,3 dias. A maior altura das plantas no mesmo pasto promoveu maiores taxas de senescência foliar e de alongamento de pseudocolmo no perfilho. A duração de vida da folha (37,8 dias e a taxa de alongamento foliar (1,3 cm/perfilho.dia não foram influenciadas pela altura da planta. Os números de folhas vivas (4,36 e mortas (2,15 também não foram modificados pela altura da planta. Já a maior altura das plantas resultou em aumento linear de 69% no número de folhas com desfolhação. Os comprimentos do pseudocolmo e da lâmina foliar responderam linear e positivamente ao aumento na altura da planta no mesmo pasto. A variação natural na altura da planta no mesmo pasto altera as características morfogênicas e estruturais do capim-braquiária. Existe variabilidade espacial da vegetação em pastos de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk manejados sob lotação contínua com bovinos.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the influence of natural variation of heights of plants on the same pasture on the morphogenic and structural characteristics of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk managed under continuous stocking with cattle. Four plant heights (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm were evaluated on the same pasture managed at an average height of 25 cm. It was used a randomized block design with two
A complement consumption assay was used to show that the anticomplementary activity of a cell wall preparation from F. polymorphum in guinea pig complement...tests with C-deficient guinea pig sera confirmed that F. polymorphum cell walls were capable of generating alternate complement pathway activity in guinea pig sera.
Bernarda Elisa Pupiales Rueda
Full Text Available El artículo es el resultado de la investigación realizada en el año 2010, cuyo objetivo se orientó a identificar si el Currículo del Programa de Licenciatura en Artes Visuales de la Universidad de Nariño, San Juan de Pasto, Colombia, tiene en cuenta los aspectos que determinan la pertenencia social y la pertinencia académica, para lo cual se realizó una investigación etnográfica a partir entrevistas a docentes y encuestas a estudiantes, además se realizó un análisis del currículo teórico y del Plan de Desarrollo de la Universidad de Nariño 2008-2020 pensar la Universidad y la Región. La muestra estuvo conformada por treinta y seis (36 estudiantes, de un total de ciento treinta y cuatro (134 matriculados en el programa y por veintidós (22 docentes, de los veinticuatro (24 del total, además de siete (7 miembros del Comité Curricular del Programa.
Alejo M. Doris
Full Text Available Panicum maximum L. se sembró, en condiciones de invernadero, en un Oxisol de los Llanos Orientales de Colombia, 18 meses después de la aplicación de las fuentes (rocas fosfóricas de Pesca - Colombia y Sechura - Perú crudas y aciduladas al 20 % con H3 P04, en dosis de 25, 50 Y 100 ppm de P. La roca fosfórica Sechura cruda y parcialmente acidulada junto con SFT, tuvieron el mejor efecto residual sobre el rendimiento y captación de P y mantuvieron los más altos niveles de P asimilable en el suelo al final del ensayo. Con las dosis superiores se obtuvo un nivel más alto de P asimilable en el suelo y mayor absorción de P por la planta.In order to study the residual effect of the Pesca (Colombia and Sechura (Perú phosphate rocks, both crude and acidulated in 20 % by H3P04, comparatively with SFT, Panicum rnaximum L. was planted under glasshouse conditions, in an Oxisol from the Eastern plains of Colombia, 18 months after sources application, with rates of 25. 50 and 100 ppm of P. Crude and partially acidulated Sechura phosphate rock, together with TSP, had the best residual effect on yield and P absorption and had the highest available P levels in the soil at the end of the trial. The highest available P level in the soil and P uptake by the plant was obtained with higher P rates.
Oort, van E.D.
Among the collection of birdskins brought home by the third expedition to Mount Wilhelmina in the Snow Mountains of New Guinea there are some specimens, males and females, of a bird of paradise, much resembling Falcinellus meyeri (Finsch) from South-east New Guinea, but differing in some points.
Ineke van Kessel; Afrika-Studiecentrum Leiden
Review of the Monograph:Joschka Philipps, Ambivalent Rage: Youth Gangs and Urban Protest in Conakry, Guinea, Paris: L’Harmattan, 2013, ISBN 978-2-343-01577-4, 238 pp. Besprechung der Monographie:Joschka Philipps, Ambivalent Rage: Youth Gangs and Urban Protest in Conakry, Guinea, Paris: L’Harmattan, 2013, ISBN 978-2-343-01577-4, 238 Seiten
Zhang, Kun; Xu, Wei Wei; Zhang, Zhaowei; Liu, Jing; Li, Jing; Sun, Lijuan; Sun, Weiyang; Jiao, Peirong; Sang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Zhiguang; Yu, Zhijun; Li, Yuanguo; Feng, Na; Wang, Tiecheng; Wang, Hualei; Yang, Songtao; Zhao, Yongkun; Zhang, Xuemei; Wilker, Peter R; Liu, WenJun; Liao, Ming; Chen, Hualan; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu
H5N1 avian influenza viruses are a major pandemic concern. In contrast to the highly virulent phenotype of H5N1 in humans and many animal models, guinea pigs do not typically display signs of severe disease in response to H5N1 virus infection. Here, proteomic and transcriptional profiling were applied to identify host factors that account for the observed attenuation of A/Tiger/Harbin/01/2002 (H5N1) virulence in guinea pigs. RIG-I and numerous interferon stimulated genes were among host proteins with altered expression in guinea pig lungs during H5N1 infection. Overexpression of RIG-I or the RIG-I adaptor protein MAVS in guinea pig cell lines inhibited H5N1 replication. Endogenous GBP-1 expression was required for RIG-I mediated inhibition of viral replication upstream of the activity of MAVS. Furthermore, we show that guinea pig complement is involved in viral clearance, the regulation of inflammation, and cellular apoptosis during influenza virus infection of guinea pigs. This work uncovers features of the guinea pig innate immune response to influenza that may render guinea pigs resistant to highly pathogenic influenza viruses.
Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Vølund, A; Frankild, S
The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) is usually performed with one moderately irritant induction dose of the allergen and gives a qualitative assessment-hazard identification-of the allergenicity of the chemical. We refined the GPMT by applying a multiple dose design and used 30 guinea pigs in...
Kuipers, R; Izhar, Z; Gerrits, PO; Miner, W; Holstege, G; Gerrits, Peter O.
Although the guinea pig is used widely in experimental medical research, including in studies on micturition control, the spinal origin of preganglionic parasympathetic bladder and somatic external urethral sphincter motoneurons is not known. In the male, guinea pig using wheat germ
Carole Ammann; University of Basel
Review of the monograph:Mohamed Saliou Camara, Political History of Guinea since World War Two, New York: Peter Lang, 2014, ISBN 9781433122439, 531 pp. Besprechung der Monographie:Mohamed Saliou Camara, Political History of Guinea since World War Two, New York: Peter Lang, 2014, ISBN 9781433122439, 531 Seiten
Grave, de Sammy
Five species of caridean shrimps collected from seagrass habitats at Hansa Bay, on the northern coastline of Papua New Guinea are reported. Four species are new to the fauna of Papua New Guinea. Morphological details of Nikoides danae, Latreutes pymoeus and L. porcinus are discussed and compared to
Trape, S; Durand, J-D
Leaping African mullet Mugil capurrii was caught along the Togolese coast in the Gulf of Guinea. This is the first record of this species which usually occurs from Morocco to Guinea Bissau and the southernmost point of its known distribution. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Until now only three species of the genus Baeturia have been recorded from New Guinea, viz., B. bicolorata Distant, B. viridicata Distant, and B. nana Jacobi. As I had the opportunity to study a fairly large collection of this group from different sources, collected in New Guinea, it appeared to me
Clemons, Andrea; Yerende, Eva
Guinea and Senegal are multilingual countries that use French as a language of instruction in the formal educational sector with some significant exceptions. As in many other African countries, such exceptions in Guinea and Senegal, use local African languages primarily in the non-formal sector for a variety of purposes, such as adult literacy and…
Bartram, Edwin B.
The moss collections made by L. J. Brass in connection with the 5th, Archbold Expedition to New Guinea to New Guinea in 1956 to the islands off the eastern tip of Papua comprise 166 numbers representing 87 species as outlined in the following list. Three species are described as new and 22 preceeded
Connelly, B L; Keller, G L; Myers, M G
A breeding colony of strain-2 guinea pigs which had been relatively free of indigenous caviid herpesviruses experienced an explosive outbreak of guinea pig herpes-like virus apparently as a consequence of intermixing groups and contamination of the water supply. A new breeding colony has been established and has been maintained apparently free of recognized caviid herpesviruses.
Agterberg, M.J.H.; Versnel, H.
In auditory research the guinea pig is often preferred above rats and mice because of the easily accessible cochlea and because the frequency range of its hearing is more comparable to that of humans. Studies of the guinea-pig auditory system primarily apply histological and electrophysiological
Wei, Xue-mei; Yang, Yuan; Liang, Chuang-yu; Zheng, Zhong
To determine weather or not the mtDNA(4568) deletions in guinea-pig contribute to the development of presbycusis. Forty-four guinea-pigs were divided into 2 groups: group A (young control group, normal hearing, 22 guineas) and group B (aged group). The group B was subdivided into group B(1) (old normal hearing, 6 guineas) and group B(2) (old hearing loss, 16 guineas). First the guineas were tested by auditory brainstem response (ABR), and then the Cortis's tissues, auditory nerve tissues, brain and blood were harvested and the total DNA was extracted. The mtDNA(4568) deletion was analyzed by PCR. Hearing loss was occurred with age. The mtDNA(4568) deletion incidence of aged group in all tissues was significant higher than that of young control group (Ppresbycusis (B(2) group) were significant higher than that of aged normal hearing group (B(1) group) (Ppresbycusis and aged normal hearing group (P> 0.05). mtDNA(4568) deletion of guinea-pig possibly contributes to aging and mtDNA(4568) deletion in Cortis's and auditory nerve tissues of guinea-pig may be associated with presbycusis. There is no enough evidence to prove that the mtDNA(4568) deletions in brain and blood are related with presbycusis.
investigation we compared the anticonvulsant properties of Mem to those of MK-801 in guinea pig hippocampal slices. Extracellular recordings were...obtained from area CA1 of guinea pig hippocampal slices in a total submersion chamber at 32 deg C in normal oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF
treating neuropathic pain. This study evaluated whether gabapentin could terminate or moderate nerve agent-induced seizures using a validated guinea ... pig model. Male Hartley guinea pigs were surgically prepared to record electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. After a week recovery, animals were
Rohold, A E; Nielsen, G D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner
Nickel sulphate is a sensitizer in guinea pigs, but the frequency of sensitization varies from study to study. The dose-response relationship for NiSO4.6H2O was evaluated in the guinea pig maximization test in this study. 6 intradermal (0.01%-3.0% aq.) and 6 topical (0.25%-10.0% pet.) concentrati...
Dirisala, Vijaya R; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Ramasamy, Suresh K; McMurray, David N
Interleukin-17A (IL-17A) is a potent proinflammatory cytokine and the signature cytokine of Th17 cells, a subset which is involved in cytokine and chemokine production, neutrophil recruitment, promotion of T cell priming, and antibody production. IL-17 may play an important role in tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. In preparation for investigating its role in the highly relevant guinea pig model of pulmonary tuberculosis, we cloned guinea pig IL-17A for the first time. The complete coding sequence of the guinea pig IL-17A gene (477 nucleotides; 159 amino acids) was subcloned into a prokaryotic expression vector (pET-30a) resulting in the expression of a 17 kDa recombinant guinea pig IL-17A protein which was confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. Homology modeling of guinea pig IL-17A revealed that the three-dimensional structure resembles that of human IL-17A. The secondary structure predicted for this protein showed the presence of one extra helix in the N-terminal region. The expression profile of IL-17A was analyzed quantitatively in spleen, lymph node, and lung cells from BCG-vaccinated guinea pigs by real-time PCR. The guinea pig IL-17A cDNA and its recombinant protein will serve as valuable tools for molecular and immunological studies in the guinea pig model of pulmonary TB and other human diseases.
Feng, Rui; Liu, Yan; Sun, Xuefei; Wang, Yan; Hu, Huiyuan; Guo, Feng; Zhao, Jinsheng; Hao, Liying
The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone encoding the calmodulin (CaM; GenBank accession no. FJ012165) gene from guinea pig hearts. The CaM gene was amplified from cDNA collected from guinea pig hearts and inserted into a pGEM®-T Easy vector. Subsequently, CaM nucleotide and protein sequence similarity analysis was conducted between guinea pigs and other species. In addition, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to investigate the CaM 3 expression patterns in different guinea pig tissues. Sequence analysis revealed that the CaM gene isolated from the guinea pig heart had ∼90% sequence identity with the CaM 3 genes in humans, mice and rats. Furthermore, the deduced peptide sequences of CaM 3 in the guinea pig showed 100% homology to the CaM proteins from other species. In addition, the RT-PCR results indicated that CaM 3 was widely and differentially expressed in guinea pigs. In conclusion, the current study provided valuable information with regard to the cloning and expression of CaM 3 in guinea pig hearts. These findings may be helpful for understanding the function of CaM3 and the possible role of CaM3 in cardiovascular diseases.
Park, Albert H; Mann, David; Error, Marc E; Miller, Matthew; Firpo, Matthew A; Wang, Yong; Alder, Stephen C; Schleiss, Mark R
To assess the validity of the guinea pig as a model for congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection by comparing the effectiveness of detecting the virus by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in blood, urine, and saliva. Case-control study. Academic research. Eleven pregnant Hartley guinea pigs. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected from guinea pig pups delivered from pregnant dams inoculated with guinea pig CMV. These samples were then evaluated for the presence of guinea pig CMV by real-time PCR assuming 100% transmission. Thirty-one pups delivered from 9 inoculated pregnant dams and 8 uninfected control pups underwent testing for guinea pig CMV and for auditory brainstem response hearing loss. Repeated-measures analysis of variance demonstrated no statistically significantly lower weight for the infected pups compared with the noninfected control pups. Six infected pups demonstrated auditory brainstem response hearing loss. The sensitivity and specificity of the real-time PCR assay on saliva samples were 74.2% and 100.0%, respectively. The sensitivity of the real-time PCR on blood and urine samples was significantly lower than that on saliva samples. Real-time PCR assays of blood, urine, and saliva revealed that saliva samples show high sensitivity and specificity for detecting congenital CMV infection in guinea pigs. This finding is consistent with recent screening studies in human newborns. The guinea pig may be a good animal model in which to compare different diagnostic assays for congenital CMV infection.
Tanaka, Kento; Yoshimura, Chigusa; Shiina, Tetsuo; Terauchi, Tomoko; Yoshitomi, Tomomi; Hirahara, Kazuki
CXCR1 and CXCR2 are chemokine receptors that have different selectivity of chemokine ligands, but the distinct role of each receptor is not clearly understood. This is due to the absence of specific inhibitors in guinea pigs, which are the appropriate species for investigation of CXCR1 and CXCR2 because of their functional similarity to humans. In this study, we generated and evaluated monoclonal antibodies that specifically bound to guinea pig CXCR1 (gpCXCR1) and guinea pig CXCR2 (gpCXCR2) for acquisition of specific inhibitors. To assess the activity of antibodies, we established CHO-K1 cells stably expressing either gpCXCR1 or gpCXCR2 (CHO/gpCXCR1 or CHO/gpCXCR2). CHO/gpCXCR1 showed migration in response to guinea pig interleukin (IL)-8, and CHO/gpCXCR2 showed migration in response to both guinea pig IL-8 and guinea pig growth-regulated oncogene α. The receptor selectivities of the chemokines of guinea pigs were the same as the human orthologs. The inhibitory activities of the anti-gpCXCR1 and anti-gpCXCR2 monoclonal antibodies on cell migration were observed in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, we successfully obtained inhibitory antibodies specific to gpCXCR1 and gpCXCR2. These inhibitory antibodies will be useful to clarify the physiological roles of CXCR1 and CXCR2 in guinea pigs.
Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Vølund, A; Frankild, S
The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) is usually performed with one moderately irritant induction dose of the allergen and gives a qualitative assessment-hazard identification-of the allergenicity of the chemical. We refined the GPMT by applying a multiple dose design and used 30 guinea pigs...
Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I
A 4-week open cumulative irritancy test in guinea pigs discriminated between two low grade irritant vehicles, nonionic base (anhydrous) and hydrophilic ointment. The procedure might be useful as a predictive test for low grade irritants. The angry skin syndrome was established in the guinea pigs...
Basso, B; Moretti, E; Fretes, R
Chagas' disease, endemic in Latin America, is spread in natural environments through animal reservoirs, including marsupials, mice and guinea pigs. Farms breeding guinea pigs for food are located in some Latin-American countries with consequent risk of digestive infection. The aim of this work was to study the effect of vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli in guinea pigs challenged with Trypanosoma cruzi. Animals were vaccinated with fixated epimastigotes of T. rangeli, emulsified with saponin. Controls received only PBS. Before being challenged with T. cruzi, parasitemia, survival rates and histological studies were performed. The vaccinated guinea pigs revealed significantly lower parasitemia than controls (pguinea pigs and dogs. The development of vaccines for use in animals, like domestic dogs and guinea pigs in captivity, opens up new opportunities for preventive tools, and could reduce the risk of infection with T. cruzi in the community. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lu, Ling; Tan, Chang-Qiang; Cui, Yu-Gui; Ding, Gui-Peng; Ju, Xiao-Bin; Li, Yu-Jin; Cai, Wen-Jun
To investigate the main components of inner ear antigens inducing autoimmune Meniere's disease (AIMD) in guinea pigs. The guinea pigs were immunized with isologous crude inner ear antigens (ICIEAg). Then, the hearing function was measured with auditory brainstem response (ABR), the vestibular function was measured with electronystagmography (including spontaneous nystagmus and caloric test), and inner ear histopathological changes were observed by inner ear celloidin section with haematoxylin-eosin staining and observed under light microscope. According to these results, the AIMD-model animals from non-AIMD-model ones were distinguished. The special antibodies against ICIEAg in sera were measured with ELISA. The antigen-antibody reactions against different components of ICIEAg were detected by Western blotting with sera of AIMD and non-AIMD guinea pigs respectively. Then, we analysed the contrast between them and found the main components of the ICIEAg that were positive reaction in AIMD guinea pigs and negative reaction in non-AIMD guinea pigs. The result of ELISA demonstrated that the sera of both the AIMD and non-AIMD guniea pigs contained the special antibodies against ICIEAg after immunized with ICIEAg. The difference of the amount of antibody against ICIEAg between AIMD guinea pig group and non-AIMD guinea pig group was not significant. Western blotting assay showed only the sera of AIMD guinea pig contained the antibodies against the specific antigens with the molecular of 68 000, 58 000, 42 000 and 28 000. ICIEAg contain many different components, the AIMD might only happen in the guinea pigs in which the special immunization against the main components that could induce this kind of disorder appeared. The inner ear antigens with molecular of 68 000, 58 000, 42 000 and 28 000 might be the main components inducing AIMD in guinea pigs.
Romanenko, Svetlana A; Perelman, Polina L; Trifonov, Vladimir A; Serdyukova, Natalia A; Li, Tangliang; Fu, Beiyuan; O'Brien, Patricia C M; Ng, Bee L; Nie, Wenhui; Liehr, Thomas; Stanyon, Roscoe; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Yang, Fengtang
The domesticated guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Hystricomorpha, Rodentia), is an important laboratory species and a model for a number of human diseases. Nevertheless, genomic tools for this species are lacking; even its karyotype is poorly characterized. The guinea pig belongs to Hystricomorpha, a widespread and important group of rodents; so far the chromosomes of guinea pigs have not been compared with that of other hystricomorph species or with any other mammals. We generated full sets of chromosome-specific painting probes for the guinea pig by flow sorting and microdissection, and for the first time, mapped the chromosomal homologies between guinea pig and human by reciprocal chromosome painting. Our data demonstrate that the guinea pig karyotype has undergone extensive rearrangements: 78 synteny-conserved human autosomal segments were delimited in the guinea pig genome. The high rate of genome evolution in the guinea pig may explain why the HSA7/16 and HSA16/19 associations presumed ancestral for eutherians and the three syntenic associations (HSA1/10, 3/19, and 9/11) considered ancestral for rodents were not found in C. porcellus. The comparative chromosome map presented here is a starting point for further development of physical and genetic maps of the guinea pig as well as an aid for genome assembly assignment to specific chromosomes. Furthermore, the comparative mapping will allow a transfer of gene map data from other species. The probes developed here provide a genomic toolkit, which will make the guinea pig a key species to unravel the evolutionary biology of the Hystricomorph rodents.
Clay, Emlyn; Patacchini, Riccardo; Trevisani, Marcello; Preti, Delia; Branà, Maria Pia; Spina, Domenico
Cough remains a major unmet clinical need, and preclinical animal models are not predictive for new antitussive agents. We have investigated the mechanisms and pharmacological sensitivity of ozone-induced hypertussive responses in rabbits and guinea pigs. Ozone induced a significant increase in cough frequency and a decrease in time to first cough to inhaled citric acid in both conscious guinea pigs and rabbits. This response was inhibited by the established antitussive drugs codeine and levodropropizine. In contrast to the guinea pig, hypertussive responses in the rabbit were not inhibited by bronchodilator drugs (β2 agonists or muscarinic receptor antagonists), suggesting that the observed hypertussive state was not secondary to bronchoconstriction in this species. The ozone-induced hypertussive response in the rabbit was inhibited by chronic pretreatment with capsaicin, suggestive of a sensitization of airway sensory nerve fibers. However, we could find no evidence for a role of TRPA1 in this response, suggesting that ozone was not sensitizing airway sensory nerves via activation of this receptor. Whereas the ozone-induced hypertussive response was accompanied by a significant influx of neutrophils into the airway, the hypertussive response was not inhibited by the anti-inflammatory phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor roflumilast at a dose that clearly exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. In summary, our results suggest that ozone-induced hypertussive responses to citric acid may provide a useful model for the investigation of novel drugs for the treatment of cough, but some important differences were noted between the two species with respect to sensitivity to bronchodilator drugs. PMID:26837703
Atributos químicos e físicos de um argissolo cultivado com Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. IPR-86 Milênio, sob lotação rotacionada e adubado com nitrogênio Chemical and physical attributes in an anfisol cultivated with Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. IPR-86 Milênio, under rotational stocking and fertilized with nitrogen
Full Text Available A avaliação dos atributos químicos e físicos do solo é necessária em estudos que exploram intensivamente os sistemas de pastejo. No presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar as variações nos atributos físicos e químicos de um Argissolo cultivado com capim-milênio, sob pastejo, no intervalo compreendido entre outubro/2001 e maio/2002, no quinto ano de aplicação sucessiva das seguintes doses de N: 0, 150, 300 e 450 kg ha-1. Após os cinco anos de aplicação de 450 kg ha-1 de N, o teor de MO aumentou em 5 g dm-3, o que resultou em aumento da CTC. No período de outubro/2001 a maio/2002 houve diminuição nos valores de pH e de V com a aplicação de N. A densidade do solo variou pouco com a adubação nitrogenada; a percentagem de microporos aumentou e a de macroporos diminuiu na camada de 0-5 cm com o aumento das doses de N, mas a porosidade total permaneceu constante; e a resistência à penetração, quando o solo apresentava 90 g kg-1 de água, não foi afetada pelas doses de N e não foi restritiva ao crescimento das plantas.It is necessary to evaluate the soil physical and chemical attributes in studies that explore grazing systems intensively. In this work the variation in physical and chemical attributes of an Alfissol cultivated with Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. IPR-86 Milênio under grazing were evaluated from October 2001 to May 2002, in the fifth year of consecutive N application at rates of 0, 150, 300, and 450 kg ha-1. After five successive applications of 450 kg ha-1 N, the OM content increased 5 g dm-3, which resulted in CEC increase. From October 2001 to May 2002 the pH and basis saturation degree decreased with the increasing N rates. The range in soil density with N fertilization was small; the micropore percentage increased and the macropore percentage decreased in the 0-5 cm layer with increasing N rates, but the total porosity remained constant; and the soil penetration resistance at 90 g ha-1 of water was not
Minarikova, A; Hauptman, K; Knotek, Z; Jekl, V
Abscesses of odontogenic origin in guinea pigs pose a serious health problem and need to be treated with a combination of surgical and medical therapy. The aim of this prospective study was to describe the microbial flora of odontogenic abscesses associated with osteomyelitis in 24 pet guinea pigs, to perform antibiotic sensitivity testing, and to make recommendations for practitioners on the antibiotics of first choice. Inclusion criteria for the study included the animal being diagnosed with an odontogenic abscess which underwent surgery and was not pre-treated with an antibiotic. Inclusion criteria matched for 24 guinea pigs. Samples (pus, capsule and affected tooth/bone) for bacteriological examination were collected under sterile conditions during the surgical procedure. The most commonly isolated bacteria from abscesses of odontogenic origin were Bacteroides fragilis in 12.8 per cent (6/47) of cases, Pasteurella multocida in 10.6 per cent (5/47) and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius in 8.5 per cent (4/47). Aerobic bacterial species only were isolated in 29.2 per cent (7/24) of cases, anaerobic bacteria only were isolated in 33.3 per cent (8/24), and mixed infection with anaerobic and aerobic bacterial species was seen in 37.5 per cent (9/24). Aerobes (n=20) were sensitive to enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin in 100 per cent of samples, benzylpenicillin potassium (penicillin G, PNCG) in 90 per cent, cephalotin in 85 per cent, amoxicillin-clavulanate in 75 per cent, doxycycline in 70 per cent, gentamicin in 65 per cent and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in 55 per cent. Anaerobes (n=27) were sensitive to amoxicillin-clavulanate in 100 per cent of cases, clindamycin in 96.3 per cent, metronidazole in 92.6 per cent, PNCG in 92.6 per cent and cephalotin in 74.1 per cent. As guinea pigs are strictly herbivorous animals, based on the results of this study the recommended antibiotic treatment for odontogenic abscesses is a combination of fluoroquinolones and metronidazole
Dinon, Mike; Mendez, Alfredo; Ward, Jason
This paper gives examples of the qualification of welding procedures intended for use in the highlands of Papua New Guinea. Two examples are given of welding procedures which required the development of a unique approach in each case after an early attempt using inherited standard procedures failed. The main conclusions are the requirement for caution when converting ASMEIX welding procedures for use with AS 2885.2, the requirement under the Australian Code to 'design out' the risk of hydrogen assisted cold cracking, and the importance of choosing an upper-end carbon equivalent when welding high carbon equivalent fittings
Laude, E A; Bee, D; Crambes, O; Howard, P
Fenspiride is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent, which we have previously shown to have an in vivo antibronchoconstrictor action in guinea pigs. We have currently studied this action using the constrictors Substance P, neurokinin A, citric acid and capsaicin in anaesthetized guinea-pigs. Fenspiride has also been reported to produce a subjective improvement in cough in patients. We have used a conscious guinea-pig model of cough as a more definitive method to study the effect of fenspiride on capsaicin- and citric acid-induced cough. Aerosolized fenspiride (1 mg.mL-1) caused a 58% reversal of capsaicin-induced bronchoconstriction; and i.v. fenspiride (1mg.kg-1) a 45% reversal of citric acid induced bronchoconstriction. Substance P- and neurokinin A-induced bronchoconstriction were unaffected by 1 mg.kg-1 i.v. fenspiride. Aerosolized fenspiride (1, 3 and 10 mg.mL-1) administered for 4 min reduced citric acid (300 mM) induced cough, but 0.1 mg.mL-1 was without effect. Pretreatment with aerosolized fenspiride (10 mg.mL-1) caused a shift in the citric acid dose response curve to the right. For citric acid-induced cough, the duration of action of aerosolized fenspiride (10 mg.mL-1) was found to be 5 and 15 min post-treatment. Aerosolized capsaicin (30 microM) induced cough was also reduced by 3 and 10 mg.mL-1 aerosolized fenspiride, but no significant effect was found with 1 mg.mL-1. We conclude that aerosolized fenspiride reduces capsaicin- and citric acid-induced bronchoconstriction as well as induced cough in guinea-pigs in vivo. Whether a pathway common to both cough and bronchoconstriction is the site of action of fenspiride remains to be established. We postulate that fenspiride, acting as an antitussive and antibronchoconstrictor agent, would be beneficial in the clinical situation for those patients with hyperresponsive airways.
Booker, M L; LaMorte, W W
In order to study prostaglandin release from guinea pig gallbladder, full thickness tissue sections were incubated for one hour in Krebs solution. Extraction and two dimensional chromatography of incubation media obtained in the presence of radio-labelled arachidonic acid demonstrated the presence of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and thromboxane B2. These results were supported by radioimmunoassay of incubations conducted in the absence of exogenous arachidonate and in the presence of varying concentrations of unlabelled exogenous arachidonate. The previously reported predominance of PGE2 was only seen at high concentrations of exogenous arachidonate.
Wagner, E.R.; Juneau, M.S.
This paper reports on drilling cost per foot of Chevron's helilift drilling operation in the remote Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea, reduced from 1360 to 267 S/ft (4462 to 876$/m) during the period from 1985 to 1989. The operation provides many challenges, as it is thousands of miles from major oil-field supply centers. This requires advanced will-planning and logistical management of drilling materials so that they arrive at the drilling rig in a timely manner. The wells are also drilled into structurally complex geology without the aid of seismic data which can lead to unexpected results
Künzel, F; Hierlmeier, B; Christian, M; Reifinger, M
Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed in four guinea pigs by demonstration of an increased serum total thyroxine concentration. The main clinical signs were comparable with those observed in feline hyperthyroidism and included weight loss despite maintenance of appetite and a palpable mass in the ventral cervical region. Three animals were treated successfully with methimazole for between 13 and 28 months. Clinical signs and regular measurement of circulating total thyroxine concentrations appear to be convenient parameters for monitoring response to medical therapy. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Shuttleworth, C.A.; Forrest, L.
Guinea-pig dermis was digested with pepsin and the solubilized collagen molecules separated by differential salt precipitation at pH 7.5. Differences in subunit composition and amino acid analysis were noted between type I and type III collagen. Incorporation of radioactive proline into the developing foetus enabled isolation of labelled type I and type III collagens. Comparison of the specific activity of the isolated collagen molecules showed that type III collagen had a high specific activity in the early stages of foetal development, which decreased dramatically during foetal development. The specific activity of pepsin-solubilized type I collagen remained fairly constant during foetal development. (orig.) [de
Dirisala, Vijaya R; Jeevan, Amminikutty; Bix, Gregory; Yoshimura, Teizo; McMurray, David N
The Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is one of the most relevant small animals for modeling human tuberculosis (TB) in terms of susceptibility to low dose aerosol infection, the organization of granulomas, extrapulmonary dissemination and vaccine-induced protection. It is also considered to be a gold standard for a number of other infectious and non-infectious diseases; however, this animal model has a major disadvantage due to the lack of readily available immunological reagents. In the present study, we successfully cloned a cDNA for the critical Th2 cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL-10), from inbred Strain 2 guinea pigs using the DNA sequence information provided by the genome project. The complete open reading frame (ORF) consists of 537 base pairs which encodes a protein of 179 amino acids. This cDNA sequence exhibited 87% homology with human IL-10. Surprisingly, it showed only 84% homology with the previously published IL-10 sequence from the C4-deficient (C4D) guinea pig, leading us to clone IL-10 cDNA from the Hartley strain of guinea pig. The IL-10 gene from the Hartley strain showed 100% homology with the IL-10 sequence of Strain 2 guinea pigs. In order to validate the only published IL-10 sequence existing in Genbank reported from C4D guinea pigs, genomic DNA was isolated from tissues of C4D guinea pigs. Amplification with various sets of primers showed that the IL-10 sequence reported from C4D guinea pigs contained numerous errors. Hence the IL-10 sequence that is being reported by us replaces the earlier sequence making our IL-10 sequence to be the first one accurate from guinea pig. Recombinant guinea pig IL-10 proteins were subsequently expressed in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, purified and were confirmed by N-terminal sequencing. Polyclonal anti-IL-10 antibodies were generated in rabbits using the recombinant IL-10 protein expressed in this study. Taken together, our results indicate that the DNA sequence information provided by the genome project
Efectos del antecedente cultural en las micorrizas nativas y la productividad del pasto brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Señal Effects of the cultural antecedent on native mycorhizae and the productivity of the brachiaria pasture (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Señal
Full Text Available Se evaluó la influencia del antecedente cultural en la micorrización nativa y en el rendimiento del pasto brachiaria (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Señal; para ello se seleccionaron dos lotes de 0,5 ha, los cuales durante cinco años previos a la siembra del pasto estuvieron ocupados, en un caso por cultivos de ciclo corto (granos, viandas y hortalizas y en otro por pastos naturales permanentes (principalmente especies del complejo Bothriochloa-Dichanthium y Teramnus labialis. En cada lote se delimitaron diez parcelas de 200 m² cada una, y en mayo de 2004 se sembró la brachiaria en surcos separados a 70 cm y a chorrillo, con una dosis de 8 kg de semilla total ha-1. Después del establecimiento el pasto se cortó cada seis y ocho semanas en los períodos lluvioso y poco lluvioso, respectivamente, y en ningún momento se aplicaron fertilizantes químicos u orgánicos. En cada parcela se tomaron muestras de raíces y de suelo de la rizosfera, para determinar las estructuras micorrízicas del pasto (porcentaje de colonización, porcentaje de densidad visual y número de esporas por 100 g, así como muestras de la biomasa aérea para determinar el contenido y la extracción de macronutrientes, y el rendimiento de MS. Las parcelas que tuvieron los pastos naturales como cultivo precedente mostraron valores significativamente mayores (PThe influence of the cultural antecedent on native mycorhization and the yield of the brachiaria pasture (Brachiaria decumbens cv. Señal was evaluated; for that two 0,5 ha lots were selected, which were occupied for five years before sowing the pasture, in one case by short cycle crops (grains, tubers and vegetables and in the other by permanent natural pastures (mainly species of the Bothriochloa-Dichanthium complex and Teramnus labialis. In each lot ten plots of 200 m² each were delimited, and in May, 2004, the brachiaria was sown in rows separated by 70 cm and with drilling, with a dose of 8 kg total seed ha-1. After
Bah, Alpha Oumar; Lamine, Cisse; Balde, Mamadou Cellou; Bah, Mamadou Lamine Yaya; Rostaing, Lionel
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide and can lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Because few patients with ESRD in the Republic of Guinea have access to haemodialysis, we retrospectively evaluated the prevalence of CKD, ESRD and access to supportive therapies. 579 CKD patients (304 males; mean age: 44 ± 16 years) were admitted into Conakry nephrology department, the only centre in the Republic of Guinea, between 2009 and 2013. Most patients (63%) resided within Conakry (the capital), 12.5% came from lower Guinea, 11.7% from middle Guinea, 7.9% from upper Guinea and 4.8% from forest Guinea. Reasons for referral were increased serum creatinine (49.5%), hypertension (27%) and diffuse edema (17%). Also, 11% were diabetic, 12.5% were smokers, 17% were HIV-positive, 8.3% were HBV-positive and 15% were HCV-positive. The most frequent symptom at admission was nausea/vomiting (56%). Upon admission, 70.5% of patients already had ESRD. Although no kidney biopsies were performed it was assumed that 34% and 27% of patients had vascular nephropathy and chronic glomerulonephritis, respectively. Of the 385 ESRD patients, only 140 (36.3%) had access to haemodialysis (two sessions/week, 4 hours each). Most patients that received haemodialysis resided within the Conakry region (P Conakry, plus four new nephrology/haemodialysis centres within the Republic of Guinea, each holding ≥30 haemodialysis machines.
Kraemer, A; Hein, J; Heusinger, A; Mueller, R S
Systematic studies about pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis are rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical signs, therapy and zoonotic risk of pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis. Questionnaires from both owners (n = 74) of pet guinea pigs with dermatophytosis and their veterinarians (n = 101) were analysed regarding clinical signs, therapy and data pertinent to zoonotic potential. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was found in 97% of cases. In the weeks preceding the onset of the clinical signs, a new guinea pig joined the household in 43% of cases. One third of the affected guinea pigs had lived in the household for less than 3 months. Predominant clinical signs were alopecia (83%), scaling (73%) and crusting (70%). The most commonly affected body site was the head (75%). In approximately one quarter of the cases humans showed clinical signs of dermatophytosis, in half the households, only children were affected. Skin lesions were seen most often on the face, the neck and the arms. Pet guinea pigs carrying dermatophytes must be considered a serious zoonotic risk for their owners, especially for children. A major risk factor for dermatophytosis seems to be a recent acquisition of a new guinea pig. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
d'Ovidio, D; Grable, S L; Ferrara, M; Santoro, D
Guinea pigs have been indicated as a potential source of zoophilic dermatophytes that cause human dermatomycosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dermatophytes as well as saprophytic fungi in asymptomatic pet guinea pigs in Southern Italy. Two-hundred pet guinea pigs were enrolled from both private veterinary clinics and pet shops in the Campania region, Italy, from August 2012 to September 2013. Samples were collected using the MacKenzie's toothbrush technique. The plates were incubated for four weeks at 25°C and identification of the fungal colonies was based on both macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. Two pathogenic dermatophytes were isolated in 9 (4·5%) of 200 guinea pigs; Epidermophyton species in 2 (1%) and Scopulariopsis species in 7 (3·5%). Saprophytic dermatophytes were isolated from 151 (75·5%) animals enrolled. No fungal growth was observed in 40 (20%) guinea pigs. The results of this study indicate a low prevalence of pathogenic dermatophytes in pet guinea pigs in Southern Italy but the presence of Epidermophyton and Scopulariopsis species in asymptomatic pet guinea pigs. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Kleven, Gale A; Joshi, Prianca
The Hairless strain of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) is the result of a spontaneous recessive mutation first identified at the Institute Armand Frappier (IAF) in 1978. Despite the longstanding availability of this strain, little is known about its thermoregulatory behavior. The aim of this study was to determine temperature preference in Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs by observing each strain in a ring-shaped apparatus containing a nonlinear temperature gradient. Temperatures were maintained by separately controlled heating mats lining the apparatus. Set point temperatures ranged from 24 to 38 °C. Guinea pigs (Hartley female, Hairless female, and Hairless male guinea pigs; n = 8 each group) were placed either singly or in pairs at 1 of the 8 randomized starting points within the apparatus. Subjects were observed for 30 min and coded for location within the temperature gradient by both frequency and duration. When placed singly in the apparatus, all 3 groups spent more time in the 30 °C zones. However, when placed as pairs with a cagemate, Hartley female guinea pigs spent more time in the cooler range of temperatures from 24 to 30 °C, whereas Hairless guinea pigs preferred a range of 30 to 38 °C. These results confirm a temperature preference of 30 ± 2 °C for both Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs when singly housed. However, data from the paired housing condition suggest that context plays an important role in thermoregulatory behavior.
Limon, Georgina; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy A; Gibson, Troy J
Guinea pigs (Cavia porcelus) are an important source of nonhuman animal protein in the Andean region of South America. Specific guidelines regarding the welfare of guinea pigs before and during slaughter have yet to be developed. This study critically assessed the humaneness of 4 different stunning/slaughter methods for guinea pigs: cervical neck dislocation (n = 60), electrical head-only stunning (n = 83), carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning (n = 21), and penetrating captive bolt (n = 10). Following cervical neck dislocation, 97% of guinea pigs had at least 1 behavioral or cranial/spinal response. Six percent of guinea pigs were classified as mis-stunned after electrical stunning, and 1% were classified as mis-stunned after captive bolt. Increased respiratory effort was observed during CO2 stunning. Apart from this finding, there were no other obvious behavioral responses that could be associated with suffering. Of the methods assessed, captive bolt was deemed the most humane, effective, and practical method of stunning guinea pigs. Cervical neck dislocation should not be recommended as a slaughter method for guinea pigs.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influenza viruses circulating in animals sporadically transmit to humans and pose pandemic threats. Animal models to evaluate the potential public health risk potential of these viruses are needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the guinea pig as a mammalian model for the study of the replication and transmission characteristics of selected swine H1N1, H1N2, H3N2 and avian H9N2 influenza viruses, compared to those of pandemic (H1N1 2009 and seasonal human H1N1, H3N2 influenza viruses. The swine and avian influenza viruses investigated were restricted to the respiratory system of guinea pigs and shed at high titers in nasal tracts without prior adaptation, similar to human strains. None of the swine and avian influenza viruses showed transmissibility among guinea pigs; in contrast, pandemic (H1N1 2009 virus transmitted from infected guinea pigs to all animals and seasonal human influenza viruses could also horizontally transmit in guinea pigs. The analysis of the receptor distribution in the guinea pig respiratory tissues by lectin histochemistry indicated that both SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors widely presented in the nasal tract and the trachea, while SAα2,3-Gal receptor was the main receptor in the lung. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that the guinea pig could serve as a useful mammalian model to evaluate the potential public health threat of swine and avian influenza viruses.
Häger, C; Glage, S; Held, N; Bleich, E M; Burghard, A; Mähler, M; Bleich, André
A disease affecting guinea pigs called 'guinea pig lameness' characterized by clinical signs of depression, lameness of limbs, flaccid paralysis, weight loss and death within a few weeks was first described by Römer in 1911. After a research group in our facility kept laboratory guinea pigs from two different origins together in one room, lameness was observed in two animals. Further investigations revealed a serological immune response against Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV; GDVII strain) in these animals. Histopathology of the lumbar spinal cord of these animals showed mononuclear cell infiltration and necrotic neurons in the anterior horn. Therefore, all guinea pigs from this contaminated animal unit, from other units in our facility, as well as from different European institutions and breeding centres were screened for antibodies directed against GDVII. Our investigations showed that approximately 80% of all guinea pigs from the contaminated animal unit were seropositive for GDVII, whereas animals from other separate units were completely negative. In addition, 43% of tested sera from the different European institutions and breeding centres contained antibodies against GDVII. The present data confirm that an unknown viral infection causes an immune response in experimental guinea pigs leading to seroconversion against GDVII and that guinea pigs from a commercial breeder are the source of the infection. © The Author(s) 2015.
Bolognia, J L; Murray, M S; Pawelek, J M
A stock of hairless pigmented guinea pigs was developed to facilitate studies of mammalian pigmentation. This stock combines the convenience of a hairless animal with a pigmentary system that is similar to human skin. In both human and guinea pig skin, active melanocytes are located in the basal layer of the interfollicular epidermis. Hairless albino guinea pigs on an outbred Hartley background (CrI:IAF/HA(hr/hr)BR; designated hr/hr) were mated with red-haired guinea pigs (designated Hr/Hr). Red-haired heterozygotes from the F1 generation (Hr/hr) were then mated with each other or with hairless albino guinea pigs. The F2 generation included hairless pigmented guinea pigs that retained their interfollicular epidermal melanocytes and whose skin was red-brown in color. Following UV irradiation, there was an increase in cutaneous pigmentation as well as an increase in the number of active epidermal melanocytes. An additional strain of black hairless guinea pigs was developed using black Hr/Hr animals and a similar breeding scheme. These two strains should serve as useful models for studies of the mammalian pigment system.
Sun, Yipeng; Bi, Yuhai; Pu, Juan; Hu, Yanxin; Wang, Jingjing; Gao, Huijie; Liu, Linqing; Xu, Qi; Tan, Yuanyuan; Liu, Mengda; Guo, Xin; Yang, Hanchun; Liu, Jinhua
The influenza viruses circulating in animals sporadically transmit to humans and pose pandemic threats. Animal models to evaluate the potential public health risk potential of these viruses are needed. We investigated the guinea pig as a mammalian model for the study of the replication and transmission characteristics of selected swine H1N1, H1N2, H3N2 and avian H9N2 influenza viruses, compared to those of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 and seasonal human H1N1, H3N2 influenza viruses. The swine and avian influenza viruses investigated were restricted to the respiratory system of guinea pigs and shed at high titers in nasal tracts without prior adaptation, similar to human strains. None of the swine and avian influenza viruses showed transmissibility among guinea pigs; in contrast, pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus transmitted from infected guinea pigs to all animals and seasonal human influenza viruses could also horizontally transmit in guinea pigs. The analysis of the receptor distribution in the guinea pig respiratory tissues by lectin histochemistry indicated that both SAα2,3-Gal and SAα2,6-Gal receptors widely presented in the nasal tract and the trachea, while SAα2,3-Gal receptor was the main receptor in the lung. We propose that the guinea pig could serve as a useful mammalian model to evaluate the potential public health threat of swine and avian influenza viruses.
Chakrabarty, Basu; Dey, Anupa; Lam, Michelle; Ventura, Sabatino; Exintaris, Betty
To examine the effects of the α1A -adrenoceptor antagonist, tamsulosin, on spontaneous contractile and electrical activity in the guinea-pig prostate gland. The effects of tamsulosin (0.1 and 0.3 nM) were investigated in adult and ageing male guinea pig prostate glands using conventional tension recording and electrophysiological intracellular microelectrode recording techniques. Tamsulosin reduced spontaneous activity, and had different age-dependent effects on adult and ageing guinea pigs at different concentrations. 0.1 nM tamsulosin caused a significantly greater reduction of spontaneous contractile and electrical activity in ageing guinea pigs in comparison to adult guinea pigs. In contrast, 0.3 nM tamsulosin had a significantly greater reduction of spontaneous contractile and electrical activity in adult guinea pigs in comparison to ageing guinea pigs. This study demonstrates that tamsulosin can modulate spontaneous myogenic stromal contractility and the underlying spontaneous electrical activity; tamsulosin does not block spontaneous activity. This reduction in spontaneous activity suggests that downstream cellular mechanisms underlying smooth muscle tone are being targeted, and these may represent novel therapeutic targets to better treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ede, Alison Okorie; Nwaokoro, Joakin Chidozie; Iwuala, C C; Amadi, A N; Akpelu, Ugochinyere Alvana
Guinea worm is a parasite found in unprotected drinking water sources, causes considerable morbidity and loss of agricultural production among rural people. The study was to determine the current status of Guinea worm infection in Ezza North and to evaluate the impact of control measures on guinea worm infection. A total of 200 individuals in Ezza North Southeastern, Nigeria were examined for guinea worm infection. A standardized questionnaire was used to determine the effect of potable water on guinea worm eradication/control, the source of drinking water, information on the knowledge, attitude, symptom management practices, availability of health facilities and boreholes installation status. The instrument for data collection was well constructed, validated and reliable tested questionnaire by an expert. Data obtained was analyzed using Epi-Info model 3.4 versions. Results of a study indicated majority of the respondents 195 (97.5 %) have access to safe drinking water supply which indicated no case of Guinea worm infection. The active use of potable water supply was found among the age group of 20-30 years 71 (35.5 %) and higher in male (57.5 %) than females (42.5 %). The drastic reduction of Guinea worm infection to zero (0) level in Ezza North were due to multiple factors as health education, availability of functional boreholes, presence of health centers for immediate treatment if any case discovered.
Wassom, D.L.; Loegering, D.A.; Gleich, G.J.
Guinea pig eosinophil major basic protein (MBP) was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 131 I-MBP. Two critical features of the assay were: (1) alkylation of the MBP with iodoacetamide prior to radioiodination and (2) inclusion of another basic protein, either protamine or histone, in the phosphate buffer. Freshly isolated non-alkylated MBP was immunologically deficient when compared to alkylated or reduced MBP, but its reactivity could be redtores by reduction with dithiothreitol and alkylation. Reduction and alkylation also restored the immunoreactivity of polymerized MBP. MBP levels were not elevated in sera from guinea pigs parasitized with Trichinella spiralis and having peripheral blood eosinophilia. Muscle extracts from Trichinella infected animals showed significantly higher levels of MBP activity than normal controls. MBP was measurable in extracts of untreated eosinophils, but reduction and alkylation of these extracts increased MBP activity several fold. The RIA permits detection of MBP in body fluids and tissues at levels as low as 2 ng./ml. The RIA is useful in assessing increased or decreased levels of MBP activity in samples from experimental animals when compared to samples from controls. (author)
Baseman, Joel B.; Pappenheimer, A. M.; Gill, D. M.; Harper, Annabel A.
The blood clearance and distribution in the tissues of 125I after intravenous injection of small doses (1.5–5 MLD or 0.08–0.25 µg) of 125I-labeled diphtheria toxin has been followed in guinea pigs and rabbits and compared with the fate of equivalent amounts of injected 125I-labeled toxoid and bovine serum albumin. Toxoid disappeared most rapidly from the blood stream and label accumulated and was retained in liver, spleen, and especially in kidney. Both toxin and BSA behaved differently. Label was found widely distributed among all the organs except the nervous system and its rate of disappearance from the tissues paralleled its disappearance from the circulation. There was no evidence for any particular affinity of toxin for muscle tissue or for a "target" organ. Previous reports by others that toxin causes specific and selective impairment of protein synthesis in muscle tissue were not confirmed. On the contrary, both in guinea pigs and rabbits, a reduced rate of protein synthesis was observed in all tissues that had taken up the toxin label. In tissues removed from intoxicated animals of both species there was an associated reduction in aminoacyl transferase 2 content. It is concluded that the primary action of diphtheria toxin in the living animal is to effect the inactivation of aminoacyl transferase 2. The resulting inhibition in rate of protein synthesis leads to morphologic damage in all tissues reached by the toxin and ultimately to death of the animal. PMID:5511567
Ryrfeldt, A.; Nilsson, E.; Tunek, A.; Svensson, L.A.
The lung uptake and biotransformation of 3 H-bambuterol, a prodrug to terbutaline, were studied using isolated perfused and ventilated guinea pig lungs. 14 C-Sucrose was used as an extracellular marker. The lung uptake of bambuterol was significantly (0.05 greater than or equal to P greater than or equal to 0.001) higher than that found for sucrose in single-pass perfusion experiments. High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis showed that 95.6 +/- 3.6% of the effluent 3 H radioactivity was attributable to bambuterol. In recirculating experiments (120 min) the lung biotransformation of 3 H-bambuterol (8.5 pmol/ml) was studied. Both oxidative and hydrolytic metabolism took place. The dominating metabolites were hydroxylated bambuterol and the monocarbamate derivative which is a product of hydrolysis of bambuterol. Traces of terbutaline were also formed. The results show that bambuterol has a certain affinity to lung tissue and that the drug is, to some extent, biotransformed in the guinea pig lung
Weaver, L.T.; Roberts, S.B.
Study of the effects of enteral nutrition on neonatal growth and development has been hindered by lack of a suitable model. An isotope dilution method for the measurement of milk intake in suckling rodents was evaluated in 13 hand-fed neonatal guinea pigs, by comparing milk intakes determined using 3H20 with intakes determined by difference in weight before and after feeding. The effects of two experimental durations (1 or 2-3 days) on the accuracy and precision of the method was assessed. Weighted milk intakes were 18 -26 g/day, and body weight changes were -7% - +12% of initial weight. There was no significant difference between milk intakes determined using the two methods for both 1 and 2-3 day comparisons. However, the coefficients of variation for 1 and 2-3 day measurements were 24.4% and 5.5%, respectively. These values are equivalent to precisions of approximately 10% and 2% for estimates of total milk output in a rodent suckling 8 pups. It is concluded that the 3H20 method is no less accurate or precise than the weighing method for 2-3 day measurements of milk intake in individual pups and milk production of dams. These findings strengthen the use of the precocial guinea pig as a model for the study of the effects of early feeding on growth, development and aging
Harada, Hirofumi; Nishizawa, Shinji; Hiraide, Fumihisa; Inoue, Tetsuzo
It is known that radiation therapy of the head and neck causes otitis media with effusion. Otitis media with effusion was induced in guinea pigs by cobalt-60 irradiation. Twenty guinea pigs with intact drum and normal Preyer reflex were used. We conducted, two experiments as follows: 1) The animals were irradiated with doses of 2,000 rad, 4,000 rad, and 6,000 rad. They were sacrificed seven days after the irradiation. 2) The animals were irradiated with doses of 4,000 rad and sacrificed one day, three days, seven days, and fourteen days after the irradiation. Vascular permeability of the middle ear mucosa was observed by Majno's vascular labelling technique. Pathological change of the middle ear was examined under the light microscope. Vascular permeability increased in three days after 4,000 rad irradiation and small vessels were labelled with carbon particles. Seven days after irradiation, carbon labelling of small vessels was more extensive and extravascular blackening was present in the adjacent tissues. Edematous change of the middle ear mucosa and metaplasia of the epithelial cells were also observed. New bone formation of the tympanic bulla was increased by repeated irradiations. (author)
Full Text Available Background: The herbal formulation consisting of Andrographis paniculata Nees., Cassia fistula L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Cuminum cyminum L. is widely used by the local traditional practitioners in rural Northern Karnataka for spasmodic abdominal pain. Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate safety and spasmolytic effect of poly-herbal formulation. Materials and Methods: Acute toxicity studies were carried out in Swiss mice, as per the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD guidelines. The spasmolytic activity of the formulation was studied in isolated guinea pig ileum model using histamine and acetylcholine as agonists. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA, followed by Dunnetts post-hoc test and P ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The formulation did not show any adverse toxic effects and found to be safe. It also showed significant (P < 0.05 relaxation in different agonist like histamine and acetylcholine-induced contractions in guinea pig ileum. Conclusions: Antispasmodic activity of the herbal formulation can be attributed to its atropine-like activity. The present findings, therefore, support its utility in spasmodic abdominal pain.
Levack, V.M.; Pottinger, H.; Harrison, J.D.
Ruthenium-106 in citrate solution was administered intravenously to rat at different stages of pregnancy and to guinea-pig either before conception or in late pregnancy. The results for rat showed that retention in the embryo/foetus measured at 3-5 days after administration increased from about 0.0002% of injected activity per embryo/foetus on day 12 of gestation to about 0.05% at birth. The relative concentrations of 106 Ru in embryo/foetus and mother (C f /C m ratio) were about 0.1 in each case. Concentrations in the yolk sac on day 12 were about 1% g -1 compared with 0.01% g -1 kin the foetus/ Retention in the guinea-pig foetus in late gestation at 7 days after administration (days 50-57) was about 0.2% injected activity per foetus, corresponding to a C f /C m = 0.2. Retention in each foetoplacental unit was 2% of injected 106 Ru with 50% in the yolk sac, 35% in the placenta and 10% in the foetus. For administration 4 weeks prior to conception, the level of 106 Ru retained in the foetus on day 57 of gestation was two orders of magnitude lower than after short-term administration, with a C f /C m about 0.004. (author)
Xiao Mang; Hu Sunhong; Liu Yuehui
Objective: To study histopathological changes in nasal mucosa of guinea pigs following a series of irradiation. Methods: A total of 60 healthy guinea pigs were divided into two groups randomly: the irradiation group (n=30) and the control group (n=30). The animals of the irradiation group were exposed nasally to linear accelerator X-rays at 5.0 Gy once a week for three weeks. At 1 d, 1 w, 2 w, 4 w, 10 w and half year after X-irradiation five animals per one group were sacrificed randomly, at each time point. Their middle nasal turbinate mucosa was observed under optical microscope and electron microscope, and were analysed by image analysis for histopathological transformation. Results: In the irradiation group, the early histopathological transformation was acute inflammatory reaction, at the fourth week the mucosa began to repair, which ended at the sixth month. But after repaired, some parts of the repaired mucosa were lined with squamous epithelium instead of the normal nasal mucosa. The rate of the cilia-covered area was only 52.9% at the sixth month. Conclusion: The nasal mucosa injury and the squamous metaplasia could form a pathological basis of dysfunction after irradiation
Nógrádi, Anna Linda; Cope, Iain; Balogh, Márton; Gál, János
The authors present eight cases of gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) in guinea pigs from the Department and Clinic of Exotic Animal and Wildlife Medicine, University of Veterinary Medicine, Budapest, Hungary between 2012 and 2016. Seven animals were operated on and two survived. Gastric torsion has been noted in many mammalian species. Gastric volvulus has a high morbidity and high mortality rate with a guarded to poor prognosis in all of these species. How GDV develops is still not widely understood. Postmortem examinations, in both our cases and previously reported cases, have failed to reveal the exact causes of the gastric torsions. The aetiology of gastric torsion in guinea pigs is probably multifactorial. Feeding fewer meals per day, eating rapidly, decreased food particle size, exercise, stress after a meal, competition, age, and an aggressive or fearful temperament, are all likely and potential risk factors for GDV development in a similar fashion to dogs. Sex, breeding, dental diseases, anatomical abnormalities, pain and pregnancy may also be contributing factors.
Denise Baptaglin Montagner
Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombasa under three post-grazing heights (intense - 30 cm, lenient - 50 cm and variable - 50 in spring-summer and 30 cm in autumn-winter when sward light interception reached 95% during regrowth. Post-grazing heights were allocated to experimental units (0.25 ha in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Post-grazing heights affected only leaf elongation rate and the number of live leaves. Pastures managed with variable post-grazing height showed higher leaf elongation rate in the summer of 2007. This management strategy also resulted in a higher number of live leaves. During the spring of 2006, plants showed lower leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves, and greater phyllochron and leaf lifespan. In contrast, during the summer of 2007, the leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves, and final leaf length were greater while phyllochron, stem elongation rate, and leaf senescence rate were lower. The management of the guinea grass cv. Mombasa with intense or variable post-grazing height throughout the year seems to represent an interesting management target, in terms of leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves.
Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Yan, Hao; Ma, Lei; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei
Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) is considered one of the most important respiratory tract agents of cattle and is widespread among cattle around the world. A BAV-3 strain was isolated from a bovine nasal swab for the first time in China in 2009 and named HLJ0955. Subsequently, BAV-3 has frequently been isolated from calves with respiratory diseases in China. To date, only limited study on the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in cotton rats has been conducted, and the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in guinea pigs has not been reported. Therefore, sixteen albino guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with HLJ0955. All of the infected guinea pigs had apparently elevated rectal temperatures (39.2 °C-39.9 °C) at 2-7 days post-inoculation (PI). Consolidation and petechial hemorrhage were also observed in guinea pigs experimentally infected with HLJ0955. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration and by immunohistochemistry in the lungs of guinea pigs as early as 24 h PI. Viral DNA was detectable in the lungs of infected guinea pigs during 11 days of observation by real-time PCR. Virus-neutralizing antibodies against BAV-3 were detectable from 11 days PI and reached a peak titer at 15 days PI. Histopathological changes mainly occurred in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and were characterized by thickening of alveolar septa, mononuclear cell infiltration, hemorrhage and alveolar epithelial necrosis. These results indicate that HLJ0955 can replicate in the lungs of guinea pigs and cause fever and gross and histological lesions. The guinea pig infection model of BAV-3 would serve as a useful system for monitoring the infection process and pathogenesis of the Chinese BAV-3 strain HLJ0955, as well as immune responses to BAV-3 vaccines.
Dharmadhikari, Ashwin S.; Basaraba, Randall J.; Van Der Walt, Martie L.; Weyer, Karin; Mphahlele, Matsie; Venter, Kobus; Jensen, Paul A.; First, Melvin W.; Parsons, Sydney; McMurray, David N.; Orme, Ian M.; Nardell, Edward A.
A natural TB infection model using guinea pigs may provide useful information for investigating differences in transmission efficiency and establishment of active disease by clinical TB strains in a highly susceptible host under controlled environmental conditions. We sought to examine the capacity of naturally transmitted multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis to establish infection and produce active disease in guinea pigs. Guinea pigs were continuously exposed for 4 months to the exhaust air of a 6-bed multidrug-resistant tuberculosis inpatient hospital ward in South Africa. Serial tuberculin skin test reactions were measured to determine infection. All animals were subsequently evaluated for histologic disease progression at necropsy. Although 75% of the 362 exposed guinea pigs had positive skin test reactions [≥6mm], only 12% had histopathologic evidence of active disease. Reversions (≥ 6 mm change) in skin test reactivity were seen in 22% of animals, exclusively among those with reactions of 6 to 13 mm. Only two of 86 guinea pigs with reversion had histological evidence of disease compared to 47% (31/66) of guinea pigs with large, non-reverting reactions. Immunosuppression of half the guinea pigs across all skin test categories did not significantly accelerate disease progression. In guinea pigs that reverted a skin test, a second positive reaction in 27 (33%) of them strongly suggested re-infection due to ongoing exposure. These results show that a large majority of guinea pigs naturally exposed to human-source strains of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis became infected, but that many resolved their infection and a large majority failed to progress to detectable disease. PMID:21478054
For centuries, the Guinea worm parasite (Dracunculus medinensis) has caused disabling misery, infecting people who drink stagnant water contaminated with the worm's larvae. In 2012, there were 542 cases of Guinea worm reported globally, of which 521 (96.1%) were reported in South Sudan. Protracted civil wars, an inadequate workforce, neglect of potable water provision programs, suboptimal Guinea worm surveillance and case containment, and fragmented health systems account for many of the structural and operational factors encumbering South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication efforts. This article reviews the impacts of six established Guinea worm control strategies in South Sudan: (1) surveillance to determine actual caseload distribution and trends in response to control measures; (2) educating community members from whom worms are emerging to avoid immersing affected parts in sources of drinking water; (3) filtering potentially contaminated drinking water using cloth filters or filtered drinking straws; (4) treating potentially contaminated surface water with the copepod larvicide temephos (Abate); (5) providing safe drinking water from boreholes or hand-dug wells; and (6) containment of transmission through voluntary isolation of each patient to prevent contamination of drinking water sources, provision of first aid, and manual extraction of the worm. Surveillance, community education, potable water provision, and case containment remain weak facets of the program. Abate pesticide is not a viable option for Guinea worm control in South Sudan. In light of current case detection and containment trends, as well as capacity building efforts for Guinea worm eradication, South Sudan is more likely to eradicate Guinea worm by 2020, rather than by 2015. The author highlights areas in which substantial improvements are required in South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication program, and suggests improvement strategies. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious
Efecto de un bioinoculante a partir de consorcios microbianos nativos fosfato solubilizadores, en el desarrollo de pastos Angleton (Dichantium aristatum Titulo en ingles: Effect of bio-inoculant from microbial consortia phosphate solu
Cecilia Lara Mantilla
Full Text Available El objetivo fue evaluar la capacidad solubilizadora de fosfatos de consorcios formados por bacterias nativas de los géneros Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas sp, Pseudomonas luteola y Pantoea sp, con el fin de encontrar el más eficiente. Se realizaron pruebas de antagonismo entre las cepas y se formaron consorcios probando todas las combinaciones posibles en las concentraciones de 106, 107, 108 UFC/mL. Se realizaron evaluaciones cualitativas y cuantitativas de la solubilización de fosfatos y teniendo en cuenta éstos resultados, se preparó un bioinoculante el cual fue evaluado en semillas de plantas de pasto angleton (Dichantium aristatum a escala de laboratorio, utilizando un diseño estadístico completamente al azar (DCA con 3 tratamientos y 5 repeticiones: Tratamiento 1 semillas (control, Tratamiento 2, semillas tratadas con el consorcio de microorganismos seleccionado y Tratamiento 3, semillas tratadas con fertilizantes comerciales DAP y Urea. Se evaluaron las variables número de hojas, área foliar, longitud de la planta, longitud de la raíz y peso seco de todas las plantas. Los resultados de la prueba de antagonismo indicaron que no existe inhibición en el crecimiento de las cepas evaluadas, por lo tanto se formaron consorcios los cuales mostraron mayor eficiencia en la solubilización del fósforo, destacándose el consorcio formado por Pantoea sp + Pseudomonas sp a una concentración de 108 UFC/mL y con índices de solubilización de 5,3 y 842 ppm. En las plantas se evidenció un incremento significativo en los parámetros peso seco y área foliar usando el consorcio microbiano, indicando mayor beneficio en comparación con el control.
Ruas José Reinaldo Mendes
Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar o efeito da utilização de concentrado protéico, durante a época de verão, sobre consumo de forragem e variação no ganho de peso e no escore da condição corporal após o parto. Foram utilizadas 51 vacas paridas da raça Nelore, distribuídas ao acaso nos seguintes tratamentos: T0 = sem suplementação; T1 = suplementação com 1 kg; e T2 = suplementação com 2 kg de concentrado contendo 40,8% de PB, durante 105 dias. Neste período, foram determinados o escore corporal e o peso. Para determinar o consumo, utilizaram-se o marcador externo óxido de cromo, em dose única diária de 20 g, e o marcador interno FDA indigestível das extrusas, coletadas por meio de fístulas esofágicas. A suplementação não influenciou o consumo de MS de pasto, que ficou em torno de 9,87 kg MS/dia, correspondente a 2,13% do peso vivo, mas o consumo total de MS foi superior nos tratamentos T1 e T2. Escore da condição corporal, ganho de peso diário e peso final das vacas mostraram-se superiores nos animais suplementados em relação aos não-suplementados. Não foi observada diferença entre os pesos das crias ao final do período experimental.
Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar financieramente una alternativa para el establecimiento de un sistema silvopastoril de sombra (SSP-S con leguminosas arbóreas nativas, conjuntamente con la producción de ensilaje de maíz y la renovación de praderas degradadas. Para ello se plantaron árboles en surcos y entre estos se sembró maíz, que fue cosechado para ensilar. Se seleccionaron tres especies nativas adaptadas a las condiciones de acidez del suelo (4,6, y se utilizó un arreglo factorial en bloques al azar con cuatro tratamientos, constituidos por las tres especies arbóreas a evaluar y el testigo: T O: testigo, T1: Piptadenia flava (acacia flava, T2: Cassia moschata (cañafistol y T3: Mimosa trianae (yopo, con cinco repeticiones por tratamiento, para un total de 20 unidades experimentales. Posteriormente se volvió a sembrar maíz, pero asociado con pasto, y se cosechó el maíz para ensilar, con lo que se renovó la pradera y se obtuvieron ingresos por concepto de ensilaje. Estos ingresos por la venta del ensilaje amortizaron los costos de la fase de establecimiento y generaron ganancias que hicieron viable económicamente el proyecto durante dicha fase, al lograr una utilidad neta por hectárea de USD 714, un valor presente neto (VPN de USD 407 y una tasa interna de retorno (TIR de 31,63 %. En otro tipo de SSP el costo de establecimiento puede llegar a más de USD 2 500 por hectárea y el retorno de la inversión puede tardar más de cuatro años.
WingChing-Jones, Rodolfo; Salazar Figueroa, Luís
Se caracterizó la población de nematodos fitoparásitos presente en los pastos Sorgo negro (Sorghum almus), Camerún (Pennisetum purpureum var Camerun), King grass (Pennisetum purpureum var King grass), Tanzania (Panicum maximum var Tanzania), Brizantha (Brachiaria brizantha), Toledo (Brachiaria brizantha var Toledo), Estrella africana (Cynodon nlemfuensis), Mombaza (Panicum maximum var Mombaza), Ratana (Ischaemum ciliare) y la leguminosa maní forrajero (Arachis pintoi) en la localidad de San C...
M.J. Ferreira da Silva
Full Text Available Like many primate species in West Africa, habitat loss and intensive hunting are threatening the poorly studied Guinea Baboon (Papio papio. These factors contributed to a significant population contraction during the last 30 years. Our study presents genetic diversity estimates for the Guinea Baboon based on a 391 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop hypervariable region I. We used non-invasively collected genetic samples from two locations in Guinea-Bissau: Cufada Lagoons Natural Park and Cantanhez Forest National Park. Although most sampling was opportunistic, we observed and collected samples from two dames (social units. Among the 25 sequences obtained, we found seven closely related mtDNA haplotypes and one highly different haplotype. The presence of this divergent haplotype suggests a contact area between genetically differentiated populations in Cufada Lagoons Natural Park, or dispersal of individuals. The samples gathered from both regions share two of the most common haplotypes in different frequencies, but also exhibit unique haplotypes. No significant genetic differentiation was found between social units from both regions, possibly due to common ancestral origin or frequent dispersal between sampling locations. The presence of different maternal lineages in the same social unit and a higher percentage of variation within social units suggest historical female-biased dispersal for Guinea-Bissau Baboons. We further compared mitochondrial genetic diversity of Guinea and Hamadryas Baboons. We found lower haplotype, nucleotide and theta diversity for Guinea Baboons, which points to different demographic histories of these species. This work supports the need for additional genetic studies within the full Guinea Baboon range.
Detección De Patrones De Deserción En Los Programas De Pregrado De La Universidad Mariana De San Juan De Pasto, Aplicando El Proceso De Descubrimiento De Conocimiento Sobre Base De Datos (Kdd) Y Su Implementación En Modelos MatemáTicos De Predicción
Argote, Ivan; Jimenez, Robinson
La investigación titulada: “Detección de Patrones de Deserción en los Programas de Pregrado de la Universidad Mariana de San Juan de Pasto, aplicando el proceso de descubrimiento de conocimiento sobre base de datos (KDD) y su implementación en modelos matemáticos de predicción”. Es un proyecto que tiene como objetivo primordial Aportar al Proceso de Toma de Decisiones para disminuir los niveles Deserción Estudiantil en los programas de pregrado de la Universidad Mariana, mediante el descubrim...
Nath, Anjan Jyoti
A case of sarcoptic mange caused by Trixacarus caviae in a conventional guinea pig breeding colony is reported. The infestation was reported in a large colony of guinea pigs during the month of July, 2013 affecting 30 breeder guinea pigs. Severely infested animals were treated individually with subcutaneous injection of ivermectin 1 % w/v (Neomec®) at the rate of 400 µg/kg body weight 10 days apart. Three doses of ivermectin were sufficient to eliminate the parasite which tested negative afte...
Blomqvist, Gunilla A M; Martin, Krister; Morein, Bror
In searching for the cause of experimental variations in respiratory research data, serology revealed the prevalence of antibodies against parainfluenza virus type 3 (PIV 3) in guinea pigs. The aim of the present study was to explore the transmission rate, course, and kinetics of enzootic PIV 3 infection in guinea pig breeding units. In the first part of the study, blood samples to be analyzed for PIV 3 antibodies were collected from guinea pigs of a PIV 3-positive breeding colony at different times after birth. In the same breeding unit, 6 of 12 2-week-old guinea pigs were relocated and separately housed. The PIV 3 serum antibody titers of the two groups were compared at various times from birth to 13 weeks after birth. In the second part of the study, the spread of infectious virus and virus persistence were explored by housing seronegative sentinel animals together with 2- to 3-week-old guinea pigs from three different PIV 3-positive breeding units. The guinea pigs remaining in the breeding colony as well as those removed and housed separately showed declining serum antibody titers for about 1 month after birth, thereafter the titers were stable until about 8 weeks after birth. Five weeks later, the mean antibody titer of the guinea pigs remaining in the breeding colony had increased to a markedly higher level than that of the relocated, separately housed guinea pigs. Seroconversion was demonstrated in 7 of the 14 sentinels housed with the 2- to 3-week-old guinea pigs from PIV 3-positive breeding units. Sentinels housed together with PIV 3-positive guinea pigs 24 weeks after the start of the experiment did not seroconvert. We conclude that young guinea pigs born to PIV 3-positive mothers were protected by maternal immunity against infection with PIV 3 during their first 14 days of life. The guinea pig offspring became infected during the period from about 2 weeks until 8 weeks after birth, as demonstrated by seroconversion of sentinel animals and an increasing
Frost, B.R.; Griffith, R.C.
Current petroleum system models for the Gulf of Guinea propose Tertiary-age deltaic organic material as the principal source for the hydrocarbons found there. Although previous workers recognized numerous difficulties and inconsistencies, no alternative model has been resented to adequately explain the complete petroleum system. We propose that the principal source rock for the Gulf of Guinea system occurs in upper lower Cretaceous-age shales at the rift-drift transition. Tertiary loading and the consequent maturation of this lower Cretaceous source rock can explain the controls on tap formation, reservoir distribution and hydrocarbon types found in the Gulf of Guinea
2/kg body weight for the guinea pig . These data show that inhaled T-2 toxin is approximately 20 times more toxic to the rat (0.05 mg T-2/kg body wt...inhaled vs 1.0 mg T-2/kg body wt ip) and at least twice as toxic to the guinea pig (0.4 mg T-2/kg body wt inhaled vs 1-2 mg T-2/kg body wt ip) than ip...administered T-2 toxin. Histopathologic examination of major organs in both the rat and guinea pig after respiratory exposure to T-2 toxin indicated
MUSTARD IN THE HAIRLESS GUINEA PIG Ernest H. Braue, Jr., Catherine R. Bangledorf, and Robert G. Rieder "U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical...evaluating the skin hydration state. The skin of anesthetized hairless guinea pigs was exposed to saturated HD vapor (1.4mg/ml) at 4 sites for 3, 5, 7, or 9...assessment of skin damage following cutaneous exposure to HD vapor. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS Each hairless guinea pig (HGP) was exposed to saturated HD vapor
Radiation (5-10 Gy) Impairs Neuronal Function in the Guinea Pig Hippocampus TERRY C. PELLMAR AND DENNIS L. LEPINSKI Ph.vsiology Department..Irmned Forces...L. Gamma Radiation ioral effects. Within hours of irradiation with 10 Gy and (5- 10 Gy) Impairs Neuronal Function in the Guinea Pig Hippo- less...acti v- Guinea pigs were exposed to 5 and 10 Gy ’y radiation. Hippo- ity (9) are evident. campal brain slices were isolated 30 min, I day, 3 days and 5
PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS by Yin Jiacai, Sun Fang ren, et al. DTIC MLECTE •<• EP 2 9 1992 Approved for public release, Distribution unlimited...PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS By: Yin Jiacai, Sun Fang ren, et al. English pages: 9 Source: Chung-Hua I Shueh Tsa Chih, Vol. 65, Nr. 11, Nov.eember...Distributionf._DL~~~t .•b • / or __ Dlist szeccat .lef ’ ~1 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH INTO HIGH BAROMETRIC OXYGEN PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS BY: Yin
Terata, N.; Tanio, Y.; Zbar, B.
The authors developed a reliable method for reconstituting thymectomized, lethally irradiated guinea pigs. Injection of 2.5-10 x 10 7 syngeneic bone marrow cells into adult thymectomized, lethally irradiated guinea pigs produced survival of 46-100% of treated animals. Gentamycin sulfate (5 mg/kg of body weight) for 10 days was required for optimal results. Acidified drinking water (pH 2.5) appeared to be required for optimal results. Thymectomized, lethally irradiated, bone marrow reconstituted ('B') guinea pigs had impaired ability to develop delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity to mycobacterial antigens and cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity to keyhole limpet hemocyanin; proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin were impaired. (Auth.)
Boeha, Beno B.
National High School students from Papua New Guinea were interviewed about two situations; the results of their Aristotle-like views regarding `forced' and `natural' motion are presented and discussed. Twenty-one National High School Students were interviewed about two situations similarly used elsewhere (Osborne and Gibert 1979, 1980, Osborne 1980a) and the results of these Aristotle-like views possessed by students have been presented and discussed above. With each of the six summary statements some extracts have been provided from interviews conducted by the author with students who had come from various parts of Pupua New Guinea. Students' views have been compiled to give a composite picture of the Aristotle-like ideas. Some impression of the commonality of the ideas/beliefs has been provided by reference to the work of others who have reported similar tendencies in testing and interviewing physics students. Throughout the study, students' Aristotlean-like views have been given a respected status that reflects their widespread use, their internal coherence and their tenacity in the face of classroom teaching in a Pupua New Guinea National High School. In analysing individual interview transcripits, attempts were made to construct ideas/beliefs that can account for statements by each student in a manner that statements are consistent with each other. The assumption that all of a student's statements are logically compatible to a listener or reader is difficult to maintain. However, it is one that has to be made as a hypothesis to work with, otherwise it is too easy to discount sections of a student's discourse that seem inconsistent with understandable parts. The aims of this part of the study have been to provide science educationalists with a repertoire of common Aristolean-like beliefs which have persisted in students. These views differ in some ways from the orthodox physics views. By better understanding of the students' beliefs and commitments about
Maghni, K.; de Brum-Fernandes, A.J.; Foeldes-Filep, E.G.; Gaudry, M.; Borgeat, P.; Sirois, P.
The existence of receptors for LTB4 on highly purified guinea pig alveolar eosinophils was investigated. Massive infiltration of eosinophils in alveolar spaces was induced in guinea pigs by i.v. injections of Sephadex beads G50 (16 mg/kg). Alveolar eosinophils (50 x 10(6) cells) were purified to approximately 98% by Percoll continuous density gradient centrifugation. The binding studies indicated that alveolar eosinophils bind LTB4 in a saturable, reversible and specific manner. Scatchard analysis indicated the existence of high-affinity binding sites (Kd1 = 1.00 ± 0.22 nM; Bmax1 = 966 ± 266 sites/cell) and low-affinity binding sites (Kd2 = 62.5 ± 8.9 nM; Bmax2 = 5557 ± 757 sites/cell). The metabolism of LTB4 by alveolar eosinophils in binding conditions was assessed by RP-HPLC and no significant degradation of [3H]LTB4 was observed. LTB4 dose-dependently stimulated eosinophil migration in both chemokinesis and chemotaxis assays with an EC50 value of 1.30 ± 0.14 and 18.14 ± 1.57 nM, respectively. LTB4 caused a dose-dependent increase in the production of superoxide anion with an apparent EC50 value of 50 x 10(-9) M in the authors experimental conditions. LTB4 also induced a dose-dependent increase in the generation of TxA2 with an EC50 value of 46.2 x 10(-9) M. Taken together, their results demonstrated that guinea pig alveolar eosinophils express two classes of specific receptors for LTB4. The high-affinity binding sites seem associated to chemokinesis and chemotaxis whereas the low-affinity binding sites seem associated to superoxide anion production and generation of TxA2. The existence of LTB4 receptors in eosinophils could explain the presence of these cells in hypersensitivity reactions
Rico, Adriana; Brody, Debra; Coronado, Fátima; Rondy, Marc; Fiebig, Lena; Carcelen, Andrea; Deyde, Varough M; Mesfin, Samuel; Retzer, Kyla D; Bilivogui, Pepe; Keita, Sakoba; Dahl, Benjamin A
In 2014, Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was first reported during March in 3 southeastern prefectures in Guinea; from there, the disease rapidly spread across West Africa. We describe the epidemiology of EVD cases reported in Guinea's capital, Conakry, and 4 surrounding prefectures (Coyah, Dubreka, Forecariah, and Kindia), encompassing a full year of the epidemic. A total of 1,355 EVD cases, representing ≈40% of cases reported in Guinea, originated from these areas. Overall, Forecariah had the highest cumulative incidence (4× higher than that in Conakry). Case-fatality percentage ranged from 40% in Conakry to 60% in Kindia. Cumulative incidence was slightly higher among male than female residents, although incidences by prefecture and commune differed by sex. Over the course of the year, Conakry and neighboring prefectures became the EVD epicenter in Guinea.
The emotional effect of different applications of electrodes and the fixation for cariographic examination was investigated using guinea pigs. The effect of the stress is discussed in terms of heart rhythm and behavior.
Sources of ionizing radiations employed in medical centres in Papua New Guinea are outlined and the present practice in radiation protection is discussed. Steps being taken or proposed to improve the standard of radiological protection are also considered
Full Text Available This dataset presents an annotated list of medicinal plants used by local communities in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa, in a total of 218 species. Data was gathered by means of herbarium and bibliographic research, as well as fieldwork. Biological and ecological information is provided for each species, including in-country distribution, geographical range, growth form and main vegetation types. The dataset was used to prepare a paper on the medicinal plants of Guinea-Bissau “Medicinal plants of Guinea-Bissau: therapeutic applications, ethnic diversity and knowledge transfer” (Catarino et al., 2016 . The table and figures provide a unique database for Guinea-Bissau in support of ethno-medical and ethno-pharmacological research, and their ecological dimensions.
Meurs, Herman; Santing, Ruud E.; Remie, Rene; van der Mark, Thomas W.; Westerhof, Fiona J.; Zuidhof, Annet B.; Bos, I. Sophie T.; Zaagsma, Johan
To investigate mechanisms underlying allergen-induced asthmatic reactions, airway hyperresponsiveness and remodeling, we have developed a guinea pig model of acute and chronic asthma using unanesthetized, unrestrained animals. To measure airway function, ovalbumin (IgE)-sensitized animals are
John B. Fournier
Full Text Available Salmonella outbreaks have been linked to a wide variety of foods, including recent nationwide outbreaks. Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus, also known as cuy or cobayo, has long been a popular delicacy and ceremonial food in the Andean region in South America. This case report describes three family outbreaks of nontyphoidal salmonellosis, each occurring after a meal of guinea pigs. We believe this case report is the first to describe a probable association between the consumption of guinea pig meat and human salmonellosis. Physicians should be aware of the association of Salmonella and the consumption of guinea pigs, given the increasing immigration of people from the Andean region of South America and the increasing travel to this region.
Fournier, John B; Knox, Kimberly; Harris, Maureen; Newstein, Michael
Salmonella outbreaks have been linked to a wide variety of foods, including recent nationwide outbreaks. Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also known as cuy or cobayo, has long been a popular delicacy and ceremonial food in the Andean region in South America. This case report describes three family outbreaks of nontyphoidal salmonellosis, each occurring after a meal of guinea pigs. We believe this case report is the first to describe a probable association between the consumption of guinea pig meat and human salmonellosis. Physicians should be aware of the association of Salmonella and the consumption of guinea pigs, given the increasing immigration of people from the Andean region of South America and the increasing travel to this region.
Legionnaires' disease is a bacterial pneumonia caused by Legionella pneumophila. Many antibiotics inhibit the growth of L. pneumophila in vitro, but only erythromycin and rifampin have been clinically effective. Parallel results have been observed in guinea pigs infected ip with ...
Comparative genotoxic responses to arsenite in guinea pig, mouse, rat and human lymphocytes.Inorganic arsenic is a known human carcinogen causing skin, lung, and bladder cancer following chronic exposures. Yet, long-term laboratory animal carcinogenicity studies have ...
Capacio, Benedict R; Byers, C. E; Merk, K. A; Smith, J. R; McDonough, J. H
...) activity following intramuscular (im) injection to soman-exposed guinea pigs (Crl:(HA)BR). Prior to experiments, the animals were surgically implanted with EEG leads to monitor seizure activity...
Hansen, Rie Schultz; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Rønn, Lars Christian B
to examining the in vivo effects of NS3623. Injection of 30 mg/kg NS3623 shortened the corrected QT interval by 25 +/- 4% in anaesthetized guinea pigs. Accordingly, 50 mg/kg of NS3623 shortened the QT interval by 30 +/- 6% in conscious guinea pigs. Finally, pharmacologically induced QT prolongation by a h......ERG channel antagonist (0.15 mg/kg E-4031) could be reverted by injection of NS3623 (50 mg/kg) in conscious guinea pigs. In conclusion, the present in vivo study demonstrates that injection of the hERG channel agonist NS3623 results in shortening of the QTc interval as well as reversal of a pharmacologically...... induced QT prolongation in both anaesthetized and conscious guinea pigs....
Severinsen, Stig A; Raarup, Merete Krog; Ulfendahl, Mats
Waltzing guinea pigs are an inbred guinea pig strain with a congenital and progressive balance and hearing disorder. A unique rod-shaped structure is found in the type I vestibular hair cells, that traverses the cell in an axial direction, extending towards the basement membrane. The present study...... estimates the total number of utricular hair cells and supporting cells in waltzing guinea pigs and age-matched control animals using the optical fractionator method. Animals were divided into four age groups (1, 7, 49 and 343 day-old). The number of type I hair cells decreased by 20% in the 343 day......-old waltzing guinea pigs compared to age-matched controls and younger animals. Two-photon confocal laser scanning microscopy using antibodies against fimbrin and betaIII-tubulin showed that the rods were exclusive to type I hair cells. There was no significant change in the length of the filament rods with age...
Sachser Norbert; Pickel Thorsten; Lewejohann Lars; Kaiser Sylvia
Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less i...
Motamedi, G.,; Moharami, M.,; Paykari, H.,; Eslampanah, M.,; Omraninava, A.
There is documented evidence that infection in laboratory animals can often influence the outcome of experiments. All infections, apparent or inapparent, are likely to increase biological variability. As a research project concerning the diversity and distribution of parasites of rabbit and guinea pig in a conventional laboratory animal house, about 87 rabbits (from 700 ) and 105 guinea pigs (from 1500 ) were selected randomly from a Research, Production & Breeding of Laboratory Animals Depar...